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Sample records for cim centrum delft

  1. Distributed job scheduling in MetaCentrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Šimon; Ruda, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    MetaCentrum - The Czech National Grid provides access to various resources across the Czech Republic. The utilized resource management and scheduling system is based on a heavily modified version of the Torque Batch System. This open source resource manager is maintained in a local fork and was extended to facilitate the requirements of such a large installation. This paper provides an overview of unique features deployed in MetaCentrum. Notably, we describe our distributed setup that encompasses several standalone independent servers while still maintaining full cooperative scheduling across the grid. We also present the benefits of our virtualized infrastructure that enables our schedulers to dynamically request ondemand virtual machines, that are then used to facilitate the varied requirements of users in our system, as well as enabling support for user requested virtual clusters that can be further interconnected using a private VLAN.

  2. Use of the CIM Ontology

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, Scott; Britton, Jay; Devos, Arnold N.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2006-02-08

    There are many uses for the Common Information Model (CIM), an ontology that is being standardized through Technical Committee 57 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC TC57). The most common uses to date have included application modeling, information exchanges, information management and systems integration. As one should expect, there are many issues that become apparent when the CIM ontology is applied to any one use. Some of these issues are shortcomings within the current draft of the CIM, and others are a consequence of the different ways in which the CIM can be applied using different technologies. As the CIM ontology will and should evolve, there are several dangers that need to be recognized. One is overall consistency and impact upon applications when extending the CIM for a specific need. Another is that a tight coupling of the CIM to specific technologies could limit the value of the CIM in the longer term as an ontology, which becomes a larger issue over time as new technologies emerge. The integration of systems is one specific area of interest for application of the CIM ontology. This is an area dominated by the use of XML for the definition of messages. While this is certainly true when using Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) products, it is even more true with the movement towards the use of Web Services (WS), Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) and Enterprise Service Buses (ESB) for integration. This general IT industry trend is consistent with trends seen within the IEC TC57 scope of power system management and associated information exchange. The challenge for TC57 is how to best leverage the CIM ontology using the various XML technologies and standards for integration. This paper will provide examples of how the CIM ontology is used and describe some specific issues that should be addressed within the CIM in order to increase its usefulness as an ontology. It will also describe some of the issues and challenges that will

  3. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  4. Delft Mass Transport model DMT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditmar, Pavel; Hashemi Farahani, Hassan; Inacio, Pedro; Klees, Roland; Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xianglin; Sun, Yu; Riva, Ricardo; Ran, Jiangjun

    2013-04-01

    Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has enormously extended our knowledge of the Earth's system by allowing natural mass transport of various origin to be quantified. This concerns, in particular, the depletion and replenishment of continental water stocks; shrinking of polar ice sheets; deformation of the Earth's crust triggered by large earthquakes, and isostatic adjustment processes. A number of research centers compute models of temporal gravity field variations and mass transport, using GRACE data as input. One of such models - Delft Mass Transport model - is being produced at the Delft University of Technology in collaboration with the GNSS Research Center of Wuhan University. A new release of this model, DMT-2, has been produced on the basis of a new (second) release of GRACE level-1b data. This model consists of a time-series of monthly solutions spanning a time interval of more than 8 years, starting from Feb. 2003. Each solution consists of spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 120. Both unconstrained and optimally filtered solutions are obtained. The most essential improvements of the DMT-2 model, as compared to its predecessors (DMT-1 and DMT-1b), are as follows: (i) improved estimation and elimination of low-frequency noise in GRACE data, so that strong mass transport signals are not damped; (ii) computation of accurate stochastic models of data noise for each month individually with a subsequent application of frequency-dependent data weighting, which allows statistically optimal solutions to be compiled even if data noise is colored and gradually changes in time; (iii) optimized estimation of accelerometer calibration parameters; (iv) incorporation of degree 1 coefficients estimated with independent techniques; (v) usage of state-of-the-art background models to de-alias GRACE data from rapid mass transport signals (this includes the EOT11a model of ocean tides and the latest release of the AOD1B product describing

  5. CIMS: The Cartographic Information Management System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    use. Large-scale information systems may cover large amounts of information such as the Land Identification and Information Management System (LIMS...small computer in managing the information holdings of a mapping institute. The result is the Cartographic Information Management System (CIMS), a...American countrie.s. 1 .- - _ _ _ _. = _ m m m THE CARTOGRAPHIC INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM System Rationale Interactive computer-assisted cartography

  6. Confidence Interval Methodology for Ratio Means (CIM4RM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    RDECOIW 40 Years of SAA Excellence in Analysis AMSAA TECHNICAL REPORT NO. TR-2010-35 CONFIDENCE INTERVAL METHODOLOGY FOR RATIO MEANS (CIM4RM...COVERED Technical Report 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE Confidence Interval Methodology for Ratio Means (CIM4RM) 5 FUNDING NUMBERS 6 AUTHOR!SI John Nierwinski...LIST OF ACRONYMS CIM4RM - Confidence Interval Methodology for Ratio Means MH - Man-Hours MR - Maintenance Ratio PCM - Parts Cost per Mile CI

  7. McStas-model of the delft SESANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, E.; Udby, L.; Willendrup, P. K.; Lefmann, K.; Bouwman, W. G.

    2011-06-01

    We present simulation results taking first virtual data from a model of the Spin-Echo Small Angle Scattering (SESANS) instrument situated in Delft, in the framework of the McStas Monte Carlo software package. The main focus has been on making a model of the Delft SESANS instrument, and we can now present the first virtual data from it, using a refracting prism-like sample model. In consequence, polarisation instrumentation is now included natively in the McStas kernel, including options for magnetic fields and a number of utility components. This development has brought us to a point where realistic models of polarisation-enabled instrumentation can be built.

  8. Calculated CIM Power Distributions for Coil Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B.J.

    1999-02-17

    Excessive bed expansion and material expulsion have occurred during experiments with the 3-inch diameter Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM). Both events were attributed in part to the high power density in the bottom of the melter and the correspondingly high temperatures there. It is believed that the high temperatures resulted in the generation of gasses at the bottom of the bed which could not escape. The gasses released during heating and the response of the bed to gas evolution depend upon the composition of the bed.

  9. CIM5 Phase III base process development results

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, D.C.

    2000-01-06

    Integrated Demonstration Runs for the Am/Cm vitrification process were initiated in the Coupled 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5) on 11/30/98 and completed on 12/9/98. Four successful runs at 60 wt% lanthanide loading were completed which met or exceeded all established criteria. The operating parameters used in these runs established the base conditions for the 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5) process and were summarized in the 5-inch CIM design basis, SRT-AMC-99-OO01. (1) In subsequent tests, a total of fourteen CIM5 runs were performed using various power inputs, ramp rates and target temperatures to define the preferred processing conditions (2) Process stability and process flexibility were the key criteria used in assessing the results for each run. A preferred set of operating parameters was defined for the CIM5 batch process and these conditions were used to generate a pre-programmed, automatic processing cycle that was used for the last six CIM.5 runs (3) These operational tests were successfully completed in the January-February time frame and were summarized in SRT-AMC-99-00584. The recommended set of operating conditions defined in Runs No.1 through No.14 was used as the starting point for further pilot system runs to determine the robustness of the process, evaluate a bubbler, and investigate off-normal conditions. CIM5 Phase III Runs No.15 through No.60 were conducted utilizing the pre-programmed, automatic processing cycle to investigate system performance. This report summarizes the results of these tests and provides a recommendation for the base process as well as a processing modification for minimizing volume expansions if americium and/or curium are subject to a thermal reduction reaction like cerium. This document summarizes the results of the base process development tests conducted in the Am/Cm Pilot Facility located in Building 672-T.

  10. Evaluation of the Sustainable Development Graduation Track at Delft University of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Werk, G.; Kamp, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the sustainable development graduation track at TU Delft. This track can be followed by all students of TU Delft. It consists of an interdisciplinary colloquium "Technology in Sustainable Development", 300 h of self-chosen courses on sustainable development and a graduation project in which sustainable development is…

  11. Delft FEWS: An open shell flood forecasting platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, P.; Kwadijk, J. C. J.; Werner, M. G. F.; van Dijk, M. J.; Schellekens, J.; van Kappel, R. R.; Sprokkereef, E.

    2003-04-01

    DELFT FEWS is a flood forecasting system developed over several years at Delft Hydraulics. The main philosophy underlying the system is to provide an open shell tool, that allows integration of arbitrary hydrological and river routing models with meteorological data and numerical weather forecasts. In its actual form DELFT-FEWS constitutes a collection of platform-independent software modules, linked to a central database. The database is used to store historical runoff data from gauging stations, and meteorological data from local and synoptic meteorological stations. These can be updated on-line through direct access to national weather services, weather forecast centres and hydro-meteorological services. In addition, the platform is designed to import and convert numerical weather forecasts produced by weather agencies, and interface them with the database. The system incorporates a wide range of algorithms for data verification, interpolation, model updating and data assimilation. These can be employed for data verification and reconstruction of missing values, as well as for pre processing of meteorological data, such that are made ready for use in hydrological models. The various hydrological and routing models are included into the system via appropriate model adapters, that convert data in the database to specific model data formats and vice versa. In this manner a concatenation of various operational and already tested models into model cascades is facilitated within a single and consistent computational framework. To date the system has been successfully tested with various numerical weather forecasts, including deterministic and ensemble forecasts provided by national weather forecast centres and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast. The hydrodynamic river routing module SOBEK, the LISFLOOD suite of raster-based hydrology and hydraulic codes and the well-known HBV hydrological model were included for the computation of the hydrologic

  12. 'Most rare workmen': optical practitioners in early seventeenth-century Delft.

    PubMed

    Zuidervaart, Huib J; Rijks, Marlise

    2015-03-01

    A special interest in optics among various seventeenth-century painters living in the Dutch city of Delft has intrigued historians, including art historians, for a long time. Equally, the impressive career of the Delft microscopist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek has been studied by many historians of science. However, it has never been investigated who, at that time, had access to the mathematical and optical knowledge necessary for the impressive achievements of these Delft practitioners. We have tried to gain insight into Delft as a 'node' of optical knowledge by following the careers of three minor local figures in early seventeenth-century Delft. We argue that through their work, products, discussions in the vernacular and exchange of skills, rather than via learned publications, these practitioners constituted a foundation on which the later scientific and artistic achievements of other Delft citizens were built. Our Delft case demonstrates that these practitioners were not simple and isolated craftsmen; rather they were crucial components in a network of scholars, savants, painters and rich virtuosi. Decades before Vermeer made his masterworks, or Van Leeuwenhoek started his famous microscopic investigations, the intellectual atmosphere and artisanal knowledge in this city centred on optical topics.

  13. Anatomical location of the corticospinal tract according to somatotopies in the centrum semiovale.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong Pyo; Chang, Pyung-Hun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-08-15

    Little is known about the somatotopic location of the corticospinal tract (CST) in the centrum semiovale (CS). We investigated the somatotopic location of the CST in the CS in the human brain using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Fifty-two healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Diffusion tensor images (DTIs) were obtained at 1.5T, and CSTs for the hand and leg were obtained using FMRIB software. Normalized DTT images were reconstructed using the Montreal Neurological Institute echo-planar imaging template supplied with the SPM. Individual DTI data were calculated as number of pixels in the CS. In the mediolateral direction, average distances of the highest probabilistic locations for hand and leg somatotopies were 25.57 mm and 21.72 mm from the midline between the right and left hemispheres, respectively. For the anteroposterior direction, the average distance of the highest probabilistic locations for hand and leg somatotopies were 0.4 mm and 5.2 mm behind the horizontal line between the medial end of the central sulcus and midline, respectively. In conclusion, hand somatotopy of the CST was found to be located at about 26 mm lateral to the midline almost along the horizon line between the medial end of central sulcus and midline, and leg somatotopy of the CST was found to be located medioposteriorly to the hand somatotopy of the CST.

  14. Using Delft3D to Simulate Current Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, S. C.; Chartrand, C.; Roberts, J.

    2015-12-01

    As public concern with renewable energy increases, current energy conversion (CEC) technology is being developed to optimize energy output and minimize environmental impact. CEC turbines generate energy from tidal and current systems and create wakes that interact with turbines located downstream of a device. The placement of devices can greatly influence power generation and structural reliability. CECs can also alter the ecosystem process surrounding the turbines, such as flow regimes, sediment dynamics, and water quality. Software is needed to investigate specific CEC sites to simulate power generation and hydrodynamic responses of a flow through a CEC turbine array. This work validates Delft3D against several flume experiments by simulating the power generation and hydrodynamic response of flow through a turbine or actuator disc(s). Model parameters are then calibrated against these data sets to reproduce momentum removal and wake recovery data with 3-D flow simulations. Simulated wake profiles and turbulence intensities compare favorably to the experimental data and demonstrate the utility and accuracy of a fast-running tool for future siting and analysis of CEC arrays in complex domains.

  15. Updated Delft Mass Transport model DMT-2: computation and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi Farahani, Hassan; Ditmar, Pavel; Inacio, Pedro; Klees, Roland; Guo, Jing; Guo, Xiang; Liu, Xianglin; Zhao, Qile; Didova, Olga; Ran, Jiangjun; Sun, Yu; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Gunter, Brian; Riva, Ricardo; Steele-Dunne, Susan

    2014-05-01

    A number of research centers compute models of mass transport in the Earth's system using primarily K-Band Ranging (KBR) data from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. These models typically consist of a time series of monthly solutions, each of which is defined in terms of a set of spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 60-120. One of such models, the Delft Mass Transport, release 2 (DMT-2), is computed at the Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands) in collaboration with Wuhan University. An updated variant of this model has been produced recently. A unique feature of the computational scheme designed to compute DMT-2 is the preparation of an accurate stochastic description of data noise in the frequency domain using an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) model, which is derived for each particular month. The benefits of such an approach are a proper frequency-dependent data weighting in the data inversion and an accurate variance-covariance matrix of noise in the estimated spherical harmonic coefficients. Furthermore, the data prior to the inversion are subject to an advanced high-pass filtering, which makes use of a spatially-dependent weighting scheme, so that noise is primarily estimated on the basis of data collected over areas with minor mass transport signals (e.g., oceans). On the one hand, this procedure efficiently suppresses noise, which are caused by inaccuracies in satellite orbits and, on the other hand, preserves mass transport signals in the data. Finally, the unconstrained monthly solutions are filtered using a Wiener filter, which is based on estimates of the signal and noise variance-covariance matrices. In combination with a proper data weighting, this noticeably improves the spatial resolution of the monthly gravity models and the associated mass transport models.. For instance, the computed solutions allow long-term negative trends to be clearly seen in sufficiently small regions notorious

  16. Reactions and mass spectra of complex particles using Aerosol CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, John D.; Smith, Geoffrey D.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is used both on- and off-line for the analysis of complex laboratory-generated and ambient particles. One of the primary advantages of Aerosol CIMS is the low degree of ion fragmentation, making this technique well suited for investigating the reactivity of complex particles. To demonstrate the usefulness of this "soft" ionization, particles generated from meat cooking were reacted with ozone and the composition was monitored as a function of reaction time. Two distinct kinetic regimes were observed with most of the oleic acid in these particles reacting quickly but with 30% appearing to be trapped in the complex mixture. Additionally, detection limits are measured to be sufficiently low (100-200 ng/m3) to detect some of the more abundant constituents in ambient particles, including sulfate, which is measured in real-time at 1.2 [mu]g/m3. To better characterize complex aerosols from a variety of sources, a novel off-line collection method was also developed in which non-volatile and semi-volatile organics are desorbed from particles and concentrated in a cold U-tube. Desorption from the U-tube followed by analysis with Aerosol CIMS revealed significant amounts of nicotine in cigarette smoke and levoglucosan in oak and pine smoke, suggesting that this may be a useful technique for monitoring particle tracer species. Additionally, secondary organic aerosol formed from the reaction of ozone with R-limonene and volatile organics from orange peel were analyzed off-line showing large molecular weight products (m/z > 300 amu) that may indicate the formation of oligomers. Finally, mass spectra of ambient aerosol collected offline reveal a complex mixture of what appears to be highly processed organics, some of which may contain nitrogen.

  17. CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) in Higher Education: A Partnership with IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Hans A.; Allen, John

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Illinois Valley Community College's selection as 1 of 48 community colleges operating technology transfer and demonstration centers for computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) in the IBM-CIM in Higher Education Alliance. Reviews local industry involvement, curriculum development, faculty training, deliverables, and the prognosis for the…

  18. Comprehensive Instructional Management System (CIMS) Communication Arts 1985-86. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, the Office of Educational Assessment/Instructional Support Unit evaluated the 1985-1986 New York City Board of Education's Comprehensive Instructional Management Systems-Communication Arts (CIMS-CA) Project. The 1985-1986 CIMS-CA aimed to (1) implement an integrated communication arts program for…

  19. Validation of Delft3D as a Coastal Surge and Inundation Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-07

    predictions. 1.2 Delft3d modeling suite The Delft3D suite of models is a fully integrated software suite for 2-dimensional (2D) and 3- dimensional (3D...predict the water level at the NOS stations free of the interactions with land. This is a somewhat simpler task and can be commonly done at rather... free of land interactions and the simulated results in each of the three layers of domains (left panel), and also comparisons to a sample of the USGS

  20. Engineering Curricula in Sustainable Development. An Evaluation of Changes at Delft University of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Karel F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will first sketch some basic features of the engineering profession, and the need for change. It will analyse the political process that resulted in the decision at Delft University of Technology (DUT) to emphasise Sustainable Development (SD) in its curricula. The main goal of this education is to show that SD is not a burden, but a…

  1. Teaching Sustainable Entrepreneurship to Engineering Students: The Case of Delft University of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Hans; Quist, Jaco; Hoogwater, Daan; Spaans, Johan; Wehrmann, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability, enhancement of personal skills, social aspects of technology, management and entrepreneurship are of increasing concern for engineers and therefore for engineering education. In 1996 at Delft University of Technology this led to the introduction of a subject on sustainable entrepreneurship and technology in the course programmes of…

  2. Study on the integration approaches to CAD/CAPP/FMS in garment CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiankui; Tian, Wensheng; Liu, Chengying; Li, Zhizhong

    1995-08-01

    Computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS), as an advanced methodology, has been applied in many industry fields. There is, however, little research on the application of CIMS in the garment industry, especially on the integrated approach to CAD, CAPP, and FMS in garment CIMS. In this paper, the current situations of CAD, CAPP, and FMS in the garment industry are discussed, and information requirements between them as well as the integrated approaches are also investigated. The representation of the garments' product data by the group technology coding is proposed. Based on the group technology, a shared data base as an integration element can be constructed, which leads to the integration of CAD/CAPP/FMS in garment CIMS.

  3. Purification of ß-glucosidases from Pichia etchellsii using CIM monolith columns.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Roopa K; Mishra, Saroj; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2011-05-01

    β-Glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) are industrially important glycosyl hydrolases used for cellulose saccharification as well as for synthesis of glyco-conjugates. Crystal structure of only one β-glucosidase of family 3 of the glycosyl hydrolase families is available due to difficulty in purification of these closely related enzymes from a given source. Multiple steps used during purification result in low yield, making it difficult to study their properties. Conditions for purification of two closely related β-glucosidases (BGL I and BGL II) of family 3 from Pichia etchellsii were investigated in this study. Two weak anion exchange columns convective interaction media-diethyl amino ethyl (CIM-DEAE) and CIM-ethylenediamine (CIM-EDA) were used for this purpose. The results obtained at 0.34 ml disk (CIM-DEAE) level were scaled up to 8 ml CIM-DEAE tube column wherein BGL I and BGL II were separated from the major contaminants in the cell-free extract. The recovered enzymes were completely resolved in the second step using CIM-EDA. A final specific activity of 9,180 IU/mg and 2,345.3 IU/mg was achieved for BGL I and BGL II respectively with an overall yield of 33%. The system should be applicable to resolution of other closely related enzymes from this family.

  4. Delft3D turbine turbulence module v. 1.0.0

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-08-25

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, Delft3D-CEC includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK current energy conversion devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. The Following is a description of Deltares’s open-source code Delft3D from which Delft3D-CEC is built upon. “Delft3D is a world leading 3D modeling suite to investigate hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphology and water quality for fluvial, estuarine and coastal environments. As per 1 January 2011, the Delft3D flow (FLOW), morphology (MOR) and waves (WAVE) modules are available in open source. The software is used and has proven his capabilities on many places around the world, like the Netherlands, USA, Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia, Venice, etc. The software is continuously improved and developed with innovating advanced modelling techniques as consequence of the research work of our institute and to stay world leading. The FLOW module is the heart of Delft3D and is a multi-dimensional (2D or 3D) hydrodynamic (and transport) simulation programme which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena resulting from tidal and meteorological forcing on a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid or sperical coordinates. In 3D simulations, the vertical grid is defined following the so-called sigma coordinate approach or Z-layer approach. The MOR module computes sediment transport (both suspended and bed total load) and morphological changes for an arbitrary number of cohesive and non-cohesive fractions. Both currents

  5. Delft3D-FLOW on PRACE infrastructures for real life hydrodynamic applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donners, John; Genseberger, Menno; Jagers, Bert; de Goede, Erik; Mourits, Adri

    2013-04-01

    PRACE, the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, offers access to the largest high-performance computing systems in Europe. PRACE invites and helps industry to increase their innovative potential through the use of the PRACE infrastructure. This poster describes different efforts to assist Deltares with porting the open-source simulation software Delft3D-FLOW to PRACE infrastructures. Analysis of the performance on these infrastructures has been done for real life flow applications. Delft3D-FLOW is a 2D and 3D shallow water solver which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena resulting from tidal and meteorological forcing on a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. It also includes a module which sediment transport (both suspended and bed total load) and morphological changes for an arbitrary number of cohesive and non-cohesive fractions. As Delft3D-FLOW has been developed over several decades, with a variety of functionality and over 350k lines of source code, porting to PRACE infrastructures needs some effort. At the moment Delft3D-FLOW uses MPI with domain decomposition in one direction as its parallellisation approach. Because it is hard to identify scaling issues if one immediately starts with a complex case with many features enabled, different cases with increasing complexity have been used to investigate scaling of this parallellisation approach on several PRACE platforms. As a base reference case we started with a schematic high-resolution 2D hydrodynamic model of the river Waal that turned out to be surprisingly well-suited to the highly-parallel PRACE machines. Although Delft3D-FLOW employs a sophisticated build system, several modifications were required to port it to most PRACE systems due to the use of specific, highly-tuned compilers and MPI-libraries. After this we moved to a 3D hydrodynamic model of Rotterdam harbour that includes sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and a part of the North

  6. The teleost intervertebral region acts as a growth center of the centrum: in vivo visualization of osteoblasts and their progenitors in transgenic fish.

    PubMed

    Inohaya, Keiji; Takano, Yoshiro; Kudo, Akira

    2007-11-01

    The vertebral column is a defined feature of vertebrates. In birds and mammals, the sclerotome yields cartilaginous material for the vertebral column. In teleosts, however, it remains uncertain whether the sclerotome participates in vertebral column formation. To investigate osteoblast development in the teleost, we established transgenic systems that allow in vivo observation of osteoblasts and their progenitors marked by fluorescence of DsRed and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), respectively. In twist-EGFP transgenic medaka, EGFP-positive cells first appeared in the ventromedial portion of respective somites corresponding to the sclerotome, migrated dorsally around the notochord, and concentrated in the intervertebral regions. Ultrastructural analysis of the intervertebral regions revealed that some of these cells were directly located on the osteoidal surface of the perichordal centrum, and enriched with rough endoplasmic reticulum in their cytoplasm. By using the double transgenic medaka of twist-EGFP and osteocalcin-DsRed, we clarified that the EGFP-positive cells in the intervertebral region differentiated into mature osteoblasts expressing the DsRed. In vivo bone labeling in fact confirmed active matrix formation and mineralization of the perichordal centrum exclusively in the intervertebral region of zebrafish larvae as well as medaka larvae. These findings strongly suggest that the teleost intervertebral region acts as a growth center of the perichordal centrum, where the sclerotome-derived cells differentiate into osteoblasts.

  7. The Effect of Nutritional Status in the Pathogenesis of Critical Illness Myopathy (CIM).

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Hannah; Larsson, Lars

    2014-05-30

    The muscle wasting and loss of specific force associated with Critical Illness Myopathy (CIM) is, at least in part, due to a preferential loss of the molecular motor protein myosin. This acquired myopathy is common in critically ill immobilized and mechanically ventilated intensive care patients (ICU). There is a growing understanding of the mechanisms underlying CIM, but the role of nutritional factors triggering this serious complication of modern intensive care remains unknown. This study aims at establishing the effect of nutritional status in the pathogenesis of CIM. An experimental ICU model was used where animals are mechanically ventilated, pharmacologically paralysed post-synaptically and extensively monitored for up to 14 days. Due to the complexity of the experimental model, the number of animals included is small. After exposure to this ICU condition, animals develop a phenotype similar to patients with CIM. The results from this study show that the preferential myosin loss, decline in specific force and muscle fiber atrophy did not differ between low vs. eucaloric animals. In both experimental groups, passive mechanical loading had a sparing effect of muscle weight independent on nutritional status. Thus, this study confirms the strong impact of the mechanical silencing associated with the ICU condition in triggering CIM, overriding any potential effects of caloric intake in triggering CIM. In addition, the positive effects of passive mechanical loading on muscle fiber size and force generating capacity was not affected by the nutritional status in this study. However, due to the small sample size these pilot results need to be validated in a larger cohort.

  8. Study and application of data mining and data warehouse in CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Chi; Liu, Daxin

    2003-03-01

    The interest in analyzing data has grown tremendously in recent years. To analyze data, a multitude of technologies is need, namely technologies from the fields of Data Warehouse, Data Mining, On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP). This paper gives a new architecture of data warehouse in CIMS according to CRGC-CIMS application engineering. The data source of this architecture comes from database of CRGC-CIMS system. The data is put in global data set by extracting, filtrating and integrating, and then the data is translated to data warehouse according information request. We have addressed two advantages of the new model in CRGC-CIMS application. In addition, a Data Warehouse contains lots of materialized views over the data provided by the distributed heterogeneous databases for the purpose of efficiently implementing decision-support, OLAP queries or data mining. It is important to select the right view to materialize that answer a given set of queries. In this paper, we also have designed algorithms for selecting a set of views to be materialized in a data warehouse in order to answer the most queries under the constraint of given space. First, we give a cost model for selecting materialized views. Then we give the algorithms that adopt gradually recursive method from bottom to top. We give description and realization of algorithms. Finally, we discuss the advantage and shortcoming of our approach and future work.

  9. Three centuries of protozoology: a brief tribute to its founding father, A. van Leeuwenhoek of Delft.

    PubMed

    Corliss, J O

    1975-02-01

    It was exactly 300 years ago this month (August 1974) that the 17th century modest draper from Delft, Holland--Antony van Leeuwenhoek--discovered protozoa. Describing them, often with amazing accuracy considering the optical equipment he was using (simply a home-made "glorified" hand lens), in letters to the Royal Society of London, he established himself, certainly, as the founding father of protozoology. It is particularly appropriate for an assemblage of protozoologists to pay homage to this intrepid "philosopher in little things," a man with an insatiable curiosity about his wee animalcules, on the tricentenary of his discovery of them, since it was an event of such long-lasting significance.

  10. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS), one picomolar (1 pM) of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  11. CIM's bridge from CADD to CAM: Data management requirements for manufacturing engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Manufacturing engineering represents the crossroads of technical data management in a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) environment. Process planning, numerical control programming and tool design are the key functions which translate information from as engineered to as assembled. In order to transition data from engineering to manufacturing, it is necessary to introduce a series of product interpretations which contain an interim introduction of technical parameters. The current automation of the product definition and the production process places manufacturing engineering in the center of CAD/CAM with the responsibility of communicating design data to the factory floor via a manufacturing model of the data. A close look at data management requirements for manufacturing engineering is necessary in order to establish the overall specifications for CADD output, CAM input, and CIM integration. The functions and issues associated with the orderly evolution of computer aided engineering and manufacturing are examined.

  12. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS), one picomolar (1 pM) of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants’ defensive state. PMID:26742102

  13. Evaluation of Shipbuilding CAD/CAM/CIM Systems - Phase II (Requirements for Future Systems)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    INNOVATION MARINE INDUSTRY STANDARDS WELDING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM February 1997 NSRP 0479...an analysis of CAD/CAM/CIM in shipyards, ship-design software firms, and alIied industries in Europe, Japan and the U.S. The purpose of the analysis...possible: Black and Veatch Hitachi Ariake Works Industrial Technology Institute Intergraph Corporation Kockums Computer Systems Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

  14. Graphical interface between the CIRSSE testbed and CimStation software with MCS/CTOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hron, Anna B.

    1992-01-01

    This research is concerned with developing a graphical simulation of the testbed at the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) and the interface which allows for communication between the two. Such an interface is useful in telerobotic operations, and as a functional interaction tool for testbed users. Creating a simulated model of a real world system, generates inevitable calibration discrepancies between them. This thesis gives a brief overview of the work done to date in the area of workcell representation and communication, describes the development of the CIRSSE interface, and gives a direction for future work in the area of system calibration. The CimStation software used for development of this interface, is a highly versatile robotic workcell simulation package which has been programmed for this application with a scale graphical model of the testbed, and supporting interface menu code. A need for this tool has been identified for the reasons of path previewing, as a window on teleoperation and for calibration of simulated vs. real world models. The interface allows information (i.e., joint angles) generated by CimStation to be sent as motion goal positions to the testbed robots. An option of the interface has been established such that joint angle information generated by supporting testbed algorithms (i.e., TG, collision avoidance) can be piped through CimStation as a visual preview of the path.

  15. Contribution of TU Delft to the SWITCH-ON project: Testing FLEX-TOPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijzink, Remko C.; Hrachowitz, Markus; H. G Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The SWITCH-ON project is an EU FP7 project that started in November 2013 and will run till November 2017. SWITCH-ON stands for Sharing Water-related Information to Tackle Changes in the Hydrosphere for Operational Needs and it addresses the potential of open data. Open water data will be tailored with 14 products for end-users, a spatial information platform and the development of new forms of collaborative research. TU Delft will, among five other universities, help developing these new forms of research. The individual goal of TU Delft is to proof the concept of FLEX-TOPO as introduced by Savenije (2010) and tested in a central European meso-scale catchment by Gharari et al.(2011). The FLEX-TOPO modeling concept makes use of landscape classification based on slope and Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND) as defined by Rennó (2008). Gharari et al.(2011) defined for the Wark catchment in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg three landscape classes: wetland, hillslope and plateau. Areas with low slope and low HAND were defined as wetland, areas with high slope as hillslope and areas with low slope and high HAND as plateau. The distinction between the several landscape units was based on threshold values of slope and HAND. After this classification each of the landscape classes was given its own conceptual model structure. The SWITCH-ON project creates the opportunity to test the FLEX-TOPO concept in catchments all over Europe with different hydrological and climatological characteristics. It can be tested if the classification method as used by Gharari et al. (2011) still holds for other catchments or that new landscape units with different model structures should be created. It can also be discussed if the threshold values for HAND and slope in the Wark catchment can be used all over Europe. Next to that, it can be hypothesized that the different landscape units act different over Europe. For example, does a Mediterranean wetland behave similar to a Scandinavian

  16. Filtration characterization method as tool to assess membrane bioreactor sludge filterability-the delft experience.

    PubMed

    Lousada-Ferreira, Maria; Krzeminski, Pawel; Geilvoet, Stefan; Moreau, Adrien; Gil, Jose A; Evenblij, Herman; van Lier, Jules B; van der Graaf, Jaap H J M

    2014-04-30

    Prevention and removal of fouling is often the most energy intensive process in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs), responsible for 40% to 50% of the total specific energy consumed in submerged MBRs. In the past decade, methods were developed to quantify and qualify fouling, aiming to support optimization in MBR operation. Therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the lessons learned and how to proceed. In this article, five different methods for measuring MBR activated sludge filterability and critical flux are described, commented and evaluated. Both parameters characterize the fouling potential in full-scale MBRs. The article focuses on the Delft Filtration Characterization method (DFCm) as a convenient tool to characterize sludge properties, namely on data processing, accuracy, reproducibility, reliability, and applicability, defining the boundaries of the DFCm. Significant progress was made concerning fouling measurements in particular by using straight forward approaches focusing on the applicability of the obtained results. Nevertheless, a fouling measurement method is still to be defined which is capable of being unequivocal, concerning the fouling parameters definitions; practical and simple, in terms of set-up and operation; broad and useful, in terms of obtained results. A step forward would be the standardization of the aforementioned method to assess the sludge filtration quality.

  17. Antony van Leeuwenhoek's microscopes and other scientific instruments: new information from the Delft archives.

    PubMed

    Zuidervaart, Huib J; Anderson, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the scientific instruments made and used by the microscopist Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723). The immediate cause of our study was the discovery of an overlooked document from the Delft archive: an inventory of the possessions that were left in 1745 after the death of Leeuwenhoek's daughter Maria. This list sums up which tools and scientific instruments Leeuwenhoek possessed at the end of his life, including his famous microscopes. This information, combined with the results of earlier historical research, gives us new insights about the way Leeuwenhoek began his lens grinding and how eventually he made his best lenses. It also teaches us more about Leeuwenhoek's work as a surveyor and a wine gauger. A further investigation of the 1747 sale of Leeuwenhoek's 531 single lens microscopes has not only led us to the identification of nearly all buyers, but also has provided us with some explanation about why only a dozen of this large number of microscopes has survived.

  18. Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Delft, Netherlands, August 20-24, 1984, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    The 1984 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 84) was held in Delft, The Netherlands, from August 20-24, 1984. Some changes in the SI are considered along with the accuracy of international time and frequency comparisons via global positioning systems satellites in common-view, a comparison of time and frequency measurements via OTS-2 with results obtained by Navstar/GPS and Loran-C, experimental results on a Mg atomic beam, recent progress in Cs beam frequency standards, and measurement of the frequency-shift due to distributed cavity phase difference in an atomic clock. Attention is also given to microwave Ramsey resonances from a laser diode optically pumped cesium beam resonator, the characterization of frequency stability, electrical units and the 1983 least squares adjustment, the new NBS determination of the proton gyromagnetic ratio, and a multistate reflectometer. Other topics explored are related to a homodyne network analysis by a digital triple phase modulation and baseband sampling technique, and ion traps as frequency standards.

  19. Simulation of water temperature in two reservoirs with Delft3d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. Y.; Zhou, L. Y.

    2016-08-01

    The proposeled Guanjingkou and Fengdou reservoir will be constructed at Chongqing city and Muling city in China respectively. The water temperature in the reservoir, in the downstream, and the aquatic ecosystem would be altered by the construction of the reservoirs. This paper simulates the water temperature in the two reservoirs by using the Delft3d z-layer model, which uses the fixed elevation for layers. According to the simulation results, the temperature profile in the reservoirs can be divided into three layers: the upmost epilimnion layer, the beneathed thermocline layer, and the constant tepmerature layer at bottom. The temperature effects can be reduced by measurements of stoplogs gates and mutiple gates, respectively. Based on the simulation results in the wet, nomal, and dry year, the temperature of water released from the stoplogs gates at Guanjingkou reservior can be respectively increased by 5.7°C, 6.8°C, 9.6°C, and 5.5°C in the irrigation season from May to August. The temperature of water released from the mutiple gates at Fengdou reservior can be respectively increased by 7.7 °C, 1.9 °C, 9.5 °C, and 10.1 °C from May to August. The negative impacts from the water with lower temperature on the related ecosystem can be significently alleviated.

  20. Green micro-resistojet research at Delft University of Technology: new options for Cubesat propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.; Guerrieri, D. C.; De Athayde Costa e Silva, M.; Krusharev, I.; van Zeijl, H.

    2017-03-01

    The aerospace industry is recently expressing a growing interest in green, safe and non-toxic propellants for the propulsion systems of the new generation of space vehicles, which is especially true in the case of Cubesat micro-propulsion systems. Demanding requirements are associated to the future missions and challenges offered by this class of spacecraft, where the availability of a propulsion system might open new possibilities for a wide range of applications including orbital maintenance and transfer, formation flying and attitude control. To accomplish these requirements, Delft University of Technology is currently developing two different concepts of water-propelled micro-thrusters based on MEMS technologies: a free molecular micro-resistojet operating with sublimating solid water (ice) at low plenum gas pressure of less than 600 Pa, and a more conventional micro-resistojet operating with liquid water heated and vaporized by means of a custom designed silicon heating chamber. In this status review paper, the current design and future expected developments of the two micro-propulsion concepts is presented and discussed, together with an initial analysis of the expected performance and potential operational issues. Results of numerical simulations conducted to optimize the design of the heating and expansion slots, as well as a detailed description of the manufacturing steps for the conventional micro-resistojet concept, are presented. Some intended steps for future research activities, including options for thrust intensity and direction control, are briefly introduced.

  1. Green micro-resistojet research at Delft University of Technology: new options for Cubesat propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.; Guerrieri, D. C.; De Athayde Costa e Silva, M.; Krusharev, I.; van Zeijl, H.

    2016-07-01

    The aerospace industry is recently expressing a growing interest in green, safe and non-toxic propellants for the propulsion systems of the new generation of space vehicles, which is especially true in the case of Cubesat micro-propulsion systems. Demanding requirements are associated to the future missions and challenges offered by this class of spacecraft, where the availability of a propulsion system might open new possibilities for a wide range of applications including orbital maintenance and transfer, formation flying and attitude control. To accomplish these requirements, Delft University of Technology is currently developing two different concepts of water-propelled micro-thrusters based on MEMS technologies: a free molecular micro-resistojet operating with sublimating solid water (ice) at low plenum gas pressure of less than 600 Pa, and a more conventional micro-resistojet operating with liquid water heated and vaporized by means of a custom designed silicon heating chamber. In this status review paper, the current design and future expected developments of the two micro-propulsion concepts is presented and discussed, together with an initial analysis of the expected performance and potential operational issues. Results of numerical simulations conducted to optimize the design of the heating and expansion slots, as well as a detailed description of the manufacturing steps for the conventional micro-resistojet concept, are presented. Some intended steps for future research activities, including options for thrust intensity and direction control, are briefly introduced.

  2. Johannes Vermeer of Delft [1632-1675] and vision in neuroendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Waleed A.; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Carrau, Ricardo L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Johannes Vermeer of Delft [1632-1675] was one of the greatest Masters of the Dutch Golden Age who was intensely preoccupied with the behavior of light and other optical effects and was entitled “The Master of Light”. He fastidiously attended to the subtleties of visual expression through geometry, composition, and precise mastery of the rules of perspective. It has been our impression that some visual similarity does exist between neuroendoscopic images and some of Vermeer's paintings. Such a relation could be explained by the fact that optical devices are utilized in producing both types of display. Methods: We reviewed the pertinent medical and art literature, observed some video clips of our endoscopy cases, and inspected digital high resolution images of Vermeer's paintings in order to elaborate on shared optical phenomena between neuroendoscopic views and Vermeer's paintings. Results: Specific optical phenomena are indeed shared by Johannes Vermeer's works and neuroendoscopic vision, namely light and color effects as well as the rules of perspective. Conclusion: From the physical point of view, the possibility that a camera obscura inspired Vermeer's artistic creation makes the existence of a visual link between his paintings and the endoscopic views of the intracranial cavity comprehensible. PMID:25140282

  3. Application of Lithium Attachment Mass Spectrometry for Knudsen Evaporation and Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (KEMS, CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannan, T.; Booth, M.; Benyezzar, M.; Bacak, A.; Alfarra, M. R. R.; Topping, D. O.; Percival, C.

    2015-12-01

    Lithium ion attachment mass spectrometry provides a non-specific, non-fragmenting and sensitive method for detection of volatile species in the gas phase. The design, manufacture, and results from lithium ion attachment ionisation sources for two mass spectrometry systems are presented. Trace gas analysis is investigated using a modified Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) and vapour pressure (VP) measurements using a modified Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) are presented. The Li+ modified CIMS provided limits of detection of 4 ppt for acetone, 0.2 ppt for formic acid, 15 ppt for nitric acid and 120 ppt from ammonia. Despite improvements, the problem of burnout remained persistent. The Li+ CIMS would unlikely be suitable for field or aircraft work, but could be appropriate for certain lab applications. The KEMS currently utilizes an electron impact (EI) ionisation source which provides a highly sensitive source, with the drawback of fragmentation of ionized molecules (Booth et al., 2009). Using Li+ KEMS the VP of samples can be measured without fragmentation and can therefore be used to identify VPs of individual components in mixtures. The validity of using Li+ for determining the VP of mixtures was tested by making single component VP measurements, which showed good agreement with EI measurements of Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) 3 and PEG 4, both when individually measured and when mixed. The Li+ KEMS was then used to investigate a system of atmospheric relevance, α-pinene secondary organic aerosol, generated in a reaction chamber (Alfarra et al., 2012). The VPs of the individual components from this generated sample are within the range we expect for compounds capable of partitioning between the particle and gas phase of an aerosol (0.1-10-5 Pa). Li+ source has a calculated sensitivity approximately 75 times less than that of EI, but the lack of fragmentation using the Li+ source is a significant advantage.

  4. Application of Lithium Attachment Mass Spectrometry for Knudsen Evaporation and Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (KEMS, CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannan, Thomas; Booth, A. Murray; Alfarra, Rami; Bacak, Asan; Pericval, Carl

    2016-04-01

    Lithium ion attachment mass spectrometry provides a non-specific, non-fragmenting and sensitive method for detection of volatile species in the gas phase. The design, manufacture, and results from lithium ion attachment ionisation sources for two mass spectrometry systems are presented. Trace gas analysis is investigated using a modified Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) and vapour pressure (VP) measurements using a modified Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) are presented. The Li+ modified CIMS provided limits of detection of 4 ppt for acetone, 0.2 ppt for formic acid, 15 ppt for nitric acid and 120 ppt from ammonia. Despite improvements, the problem of burnout remained persistent. The Li+ CIMS would unlikely be suitable for field or aircraft work, but could be appropriate for certain lab applications. The KEMS currently utilizes an electron impact (EI) ionisation source which provides a highly sensitive source, with the drawback of fragmentation of ionized molecules (Booth et al., 2009). Using Li+ KEMS the VP of samples can be measured without fragmentation and can therefore be used to identify VPs of individual components in mixtures. The validity of using Li+ for determining the VP of mixtures was tested by making single component VP measurements, which showed good agreement with EI measurements of Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) 3 and PEG 4, both when individually measured and when mixed. The Li+ KEMS was then used to investigate a system of atmospheric relevance, α-pinene secondary organic aerosol, generated in a reaction chamber (Alfarra et al., 2012). The VPs of the individual components from this generated sample are within the range we expect for compounds capable of partitioning between the particle and gas phase of an aerosol (0.1-10-5 Pa). Li+ source has a calculated sensitivity approximately 75 times less than that of EI, but the lack of fragmentation using the Li+ source is a significant advantage.

  5. Safety and Biosimilarity of ior(®)LeukoCIM Compared to Neupogen(®) Based on Toxicity, Pharmacodynamic, and Pharmacokinetic Studies in the Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Licollari, Albert; Riddle, Katherine; Taylor, Simon R; Ledon, Nuris; Bolger, Gordon T

    2017-02-24

    This study examined the safety, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic similarity of the human recombinant filgrastim products ior(®)LeukoCIM and Neupogen(®) following a 28-day repeated subcutaneous dose administration in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats with a 14-day recovery period. Safety profiling was based on clinical observations, clinical pathology, and pathology findings for control rats dosed with vehicle and rats dosed either with 15, 75, and 150 μg/kg of ior(®)LeukoCIM or with 150 μg/kg of Neupogen(®). The major adverse treatment-related clinical finding was mild to severe swelling of the hock-joint (tarsal joint) and hind limb, alone or accompanied with lameness which was more prominent in males and which had a similar frequency of occurrence for both ior(®)LeukoCIM and Neupogen(®). All adverse findings were fully reversible. As expected, ior(®)LeukoCIM and Neupogen(®) both increased white blood cell and neutrophil levels in rats and to a similar extent for high-dose ior(®)LeukoCIM and Neupogen(®). The pharmacokinetics of filgrastim following dosing with ior(®)LeukoCIM were well behaved and comparable for high-dose ior(®)LeukoCIM and Neupogen(®). The results of this study imply that ior(®)LeukoCIM and Neupogen(®) had similar safety profiles, pharmacodynamic responses, and pharmacokinetic profiles that suggest they are biosimilar.

  6. Study of white matter at the centrum semiovale level with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging in cerebral small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, L A; Ling, X Y; Li, C; Zhang, S J; Chi, G B; Xu, A D

    2014-04-08

    White matter lesion (WML) in magnetic resonance imaging is commonly observed in patients with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), but the pathological mechanism of WML in SVD is still unclear. We observed the metabolism and microscopic anatomy of white matter in SVD patients. Twelve subjects clinically diagnosed with SVD and 6 normal control subjects were examined with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The white matter at the centrum semiovale level was selected as the region of interest (ROI). The ROI metabolism parameters, including N-acetyl-l-aspartic acid (NAA), creatine (Cr), and choline (Cho) were measured by MRS. Microscopic parameters such as mean diffusion (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in ROI were obtained by DTI. Compared with the normal control group, bilateral MD values in the SVD group were significantly elevated, whereas bilateral FA values in SVD were decreased, but the difference was not statistically significant. Additionally, NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cr showed no significant statistical differences. Our study suggests that the mechanisms of the SVD cognitive impairment are related to damage of the white matter structures rather than to brain metabolism.

  7. Activation of gene transcription via CIM0216, a synthetic ligand of transient receptor potential melastatin-3 (TRPM3) channels.

    PubMed

    Rubil, Sandra; Thiel, Gerald

    2017-01-02

    Several compounds have been proposed to stimulate TRPM3 Ca(2+) channels. We recently showed that stimulation of TRPM3 channels with pregnenolone sulfate activated the transcription factor AP-1, while other proposed TRPM3 ligands (nifedipine, D-erythro-sphingosine) exhibited either no or TRPM3-independent effects on gene transcription. Here, we have analyzed the transcriptional activity of CIM0216, a synthetic TRPM3 ligand proposed to have a higher potency and affinity for TRPM3 than pregnenolone sulfate. The results show that CIM0216 treatment of HEK293 cells expressing TRPM3 channels activated AP-1 and stimulated the transcriptional activation potential of c-Jun and c-Fos, 2 basic region leucine zipper transcription factors that constitute AP-1. CIM0216-induced gene transcription was attenuated by knock-down of TRPM3 or treatment with mefenamic acid, a TRPM3 inhibitor. CIM0216 was similarly or less capable in activating TRPM3-mediated gene transcription, suggesting that pregnenolone sulfate is still the ligand of choice for changing the gene expression pattern via TRPM3.

  8. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

  9. CIM-EARTH: Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, I.; Elliott, J.; Munson, T.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E. J.; Sanstad, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    We report here on the development of an open source software framework termed CIM-EARTH that is intended to aid decision-making in climate and energy policy. Numerical modeling in support of evaluating policies to address climate change is difficult not only because of inherent uncertainties but because of the differences in scale and modeling approach required for various subcomponents of the system. Economic and climate models are structured quite differently, and while climate forcing can be assumed to be roughly global, climate impacts and the human response to them occur on small spatial scales. Mitigation policies likewise can be applied on scales ranging from the better part of a continent (e.g. a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S.) to a few hundred km (e.g. statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes). Both spatial and time resolution requirements can be challenging for global economic models. CIM-EARTH is a modular framework based around dynamic general equilibrium models. It is designed as a community tool that will enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of both mitigation policies and unchecked climate change. Modularity enables both integration of highly resolved component sub-models for energy and other key systems and also user-directed choice of tradeoffs between e.g. spatial, sectoral, and time resolution. This poster describes the framework architecture, the current realized version, and plans for future releases. As with other open-source models familiar to the climate community (e.g. CCSM), deliverables will be made publicly available on a regular schedule, and community input is solicited for development of new features and modules.

  10. Cl2 Measurements in Polluted Coastal Air Using a Br- Addition CIMS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Molecular chlorine (Cl2) was measured in ambient air using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) with Br- as a reagent ion. Ionization was carried out by adding CHBr3 to ambient air and flowing the gas mixture through a 63Ni ion source maintained at 300 Torr. The resulting Cl2Br- adduct was collisionally dissociated in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected as Cl-. Ambient Cl2 measurements were made at Irvine, CA, from August 1-8, 2008. Air was drawn to the instrument from outside via a ~4m long laminar flow inlet. Inlet and instrument blanks were assessed by passing ambient air through carbonate-coated glass wool, and the instrument was calibrated with a Cl2 permeation tube. During this study, the mean detection limit for Cl2 was estimated at approximately 2 ppt. Cl2 showed a diel cycle on the days it was detectable, with nighttime mixing ratios up to about 15 ppt and daytime values of a few ppt or less. A rapid decrease in Cl2 in surface air was observed overnight in association with stagnation of the nocturnal surface layer.

  11. Variation in the volatile constituents of Artemisia annua var. CIM-Arogya during plant ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2011-02-01

    The essential oils yield and composition of the aerial parts of A. annua var. CIM-Arogya grown in Uttarakhand, India were analyzed and compared by capillary GC and GC-MS at different stages of development. The analysis led to the identification of 81 constituents forming 91.0%-97.1% of the essential oils compositions. The essential oil content of the aerial parts was found to vary from 0.3% to 0.7% at different stages of growth. A. annua crop harvested at full flowering and seed setting stage gave higher yield of essential oil (0.6%, 0.7%) than that harvested at pre flowering (0.5%), late vegetative (0.4%, 0.5%), mid vegetative (0.4%, 0.4%) and early vegetative stages (0.3%, 0.3%). The essential oils at different stages of growth showed monoterpenoids (38.5%-72.0%) and sesquiterpenoids (22.2%-48.2%) as major grouped constituents. The major constituents identified were camphor (22.8%-42.6%), 1,8-cineole (3.7%-8.4%), linalool (<0.1%-11.9%), beta-caryophyllene (2.0%-9.2%), (E)-beta-farnesene (1.3%-8.5%), germacrene D (0.5%-7.3%) and 1-epi-cubenol (0.7%-5.2%) in essential oil samples collected at different crop stages.

  12. Modeling alongshore propagating tides and currents around West Maui, Hawaii and implications for transport using Delft3D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitousek, S.; Fletcher, C. H.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    Nearshore currents are driven by a number of components including tides, waves winds and even internal tides. To adequately simulate transport of sand and other constituents, the realistic behavior of the dominant current-generating phenomena should be resolved. This often requires sufficient observations and calibration/validation efforts to achieve realistic modeling results. The work explores the capabilities of modeling the currents along West Maui. The West Maui coast has a propagating tide where the observed peak tidal currents, which are directed parallel to the coast, occur very closely to the peak tidal water levels. In 2003, the USGS collected an extensive set of current observations along West Maui, Hawaii, with the goal of better understanding transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants and other particles in coral reef settings. The observations included vessel mounted ADCP surveys and an array seafloor instruments at the 10m isobath along the coast. A simple 2DH model of West Maui using Delft3D shows good comparison of the modeled and observed currents. Nearshore currents driven by waves and winds are also considered. During the data collection period a significant erosion event occurred within the study domain at Kaanapali Beach. This event undermined several trees on the shoreline and threatened resort infrastructure. In modeling the nearshore currents of this region we hope to determine the potential for sand transport and shoreline change to hindcast this event.

  13. Atmospheric Amines and Ammonia Measured with a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    You, Y.; Kanawade, V. P.; de Gouw, J. A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Madronich, Sasha; Sierra-Hernandez, M. R.; Lawler, M.; Smith, James N.; Takahama, S.; Ruggeri, G.; Koss, A.; Olson, K.; Baumann, K.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Guo, H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Porcelli, L.; Brune, W. H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Lee, S.-H

    2014-11-19

    We report ambient measurements of amines and ammonia with a fast response chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) in a Southeastern U.S. forest in Alabama and a moderately polluted Midwestern site during the summer. In the Alabama forest, mostly C3-amines (from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 2 ppbv) were detected on a daily basis. C3-amines and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends and temperature and wind direction dependences, and were not associated with transported CO and SO2 plumes. Consistent with temperature dependences, amine and ammonia in the gas and aerosol phases showed opposite diurnal trends, indicating gas-to-particle partitioning of amines and ammonia. Temperature dependences also imply reversible processes of amines and ammonia evaporation from soil surfaces in daytime and deposition of amines and ammonia to soil surfaces at nighttime. Various amines (C1-C6) at the pptv level were observed in the transported biomass burning plumes, showing that biomass burning can be a substantial source of amines in the Southeast U.S. At the moderately polluted Kent site, higher concentrations of amines (C1-C6, from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 6 ppbv) were detected. Diurnal variations of C1- to C3-amines and ammonia were correlated with the ambient temperature. C4- to C6-amines showed abrupt increases during the nighttime, suggesting that they were emitted from local sources. These abundant amines and ammonia may in part explain the frequent new particle formation events reported from Kent. Lower amine concentrations at the rural forested site highlight the importance of constraining anthropogenic sources of amines.

  14. The Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), a Simple and Low-Cost Alternative for the Carba NP Test to Assess Phenotypic Carbapenemase Activity in Gram-Negative Rods

    PubMed Central

    van der Zwaluw, Kim; de Haan, Angela; Pluister, Gerlinde N.; Bootsma, Hester J.; de Neeling, Albert J.; Schouls, Leo M.

    2015-01-01

    A new phenotypic test, called the Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), was developed to detect carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative rods within eight hours. This method showed high concordance with results obtained by PCR to detect genes coding for the carbapenemases KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP and OXA-23. It allows reliable detection of carbapenemase activity encoded by various genes in species of Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae), but also in non-fermenters Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The CIM was shown to be a cost-effective and highly robust phenotypic screening method that can reliably detect carbapenemase activity. PMID:25798828

  15. Development of Inundation Map for Bantayan Island, Cebu Using Delft3D-Flow Storm Surge Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadra, Camille; Suarez, John Kenneth; Biton, Nophi Ian; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Lapidez, John Phillip; Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    On average, 20 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually, making it vulnerable to different storm hazards. Apart from the frequency of tropical cyclones, the archipelagic nature of the country makes it particularly prone to storm surges. On 08 November 2013, Haiyan, a Category 5 Typhoon with maximum one-minute sustained wind speed of 315 kph, hit the central region of the Philippines. In its path, the howler devastated Bantayan Island, a popular tourist destination. The island is located north of Cebu City, the second largest metropolis of the Philippines in terms of populace. Having been directly hit by Typhoon Haiyan, Bantayan Island was severely damaged by strong winds and storm surges, with more than 11,000 houses totally destroyed while 5,000 more suffered minor damage. The adverse impacts of possible future storm surge events in the island can only be mitigated if hazard maps that depict inundation of the coastal areas of Bantayan are generated. To create such maps, Delft3D-Flow, a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate storm surges. These simulations were made over a 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) bathymetry. The results of the coastal inundation model for Typhoon Haiyan's storm surges were validated using data collected from field work and local government reports. The hydrodynamic model of Bantayan was then calibrated using the field data and further simulations were made with varying typhoon tracks. This was done to generate scenarios on the farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. The output of the study is a detailed storm surge inundation map that depicts safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas and for construction of coastal protection structures. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.

  16. Assessment Of Mold-Design Dependent Textures In CIM-Components By Polarized Light Optical Texture Analysis (PLOTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Frank; Rauch, Johannes; Gadow, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    By thermoplastic ceramic injection moulding (CIM) ceramic components of high complexity can be produced in a large number of items at low dimensional tolerances. The cost advantage by the high degree of automation leads to an economical mass-production. The structure of injection-moulded components is determined by the form filling behaviour and viscosity of the feedstock, the machine parameters, the design of the mold and the gate design. With an adapted mold- and gate-design CIM-components without textures are possible. The "Polarized Light Optical Texture analysis" (PLOTA) makes it possible to inspect the components and detect and quantify the textures produced by a new mold. Based on the work of R. Fischer (2004) the PLOTA procedure was improved by including the possibility to measure the inclination angle and thus describe the orientation of the grains in three dimensions. Sampled thin sections of ceramic components are analysed under the polarization microscope and are brought in diagonal position. Pictures are taken with a digital camera. The pictures are converted in the L*a*b*- colour space and the crystals color values a* and b* in the picture are measured. The color values are compared with the values of a quartz wedge, which serves as universal standard. From the received values the inclination angle can be calculated relative to the microscope axis. It is possible to use the received data quantitatively e.g. for the FEM supported simulation of texture-conditioned divergences of mechanical values. Thus the injection molding parameters can be optimized to obtain improved mechanical properties.

  17. Cross-institutional Flood Forecasting in Regional Water Systems;Innovative application of Delft-FEWS in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Douben, Klaas-Jan; van de Wouw, Mark; IJpelaar, Ruben; van Loenen, Arnejan

    2015-04-01

    The regional water system in the North-Brabant province in The Netherlands is (operationally) managed by four different Water Authorities: Rijkswaterstaat Southern-Netherlands, and the three Regional Water Authorities (RWA's) Aa & Maas, De Dommel and Brabantse Delta. The water systems basically consist of mid-sized (navigable) canals, semi-natural brook valleys in mildly sloping sandy soils, and man-made watercourses in clayey polder areas. The management areas of the De Dommel and Brabantse Delta RWA's are bordering Belgium over a total length of approx. 185 km, and are prone to transboundary flood flows. The current project 'Dynamic Water Management' intends to improve the mutual cooperation and communication between the RWA's and Rijkswaterstaat during periods of both high and low water stages. The project deals with governance issues such as water agreements and water systems analyses. A powerful product of the project is a DSS for flood forecasting ('DSS Brabant'). One of the main benefits of cooperation between the RWA's and Rijkswaterstaat is to enable assistance during peak flows and flood events and to try to optimise operational water systems management by deploying drainage and storage facilities by using the connecting (navigable) canals. A set of hydraulic structures like pumps, weirs and sluices facilitate the control and routing of the water flows. Especially during peak flow and flood events, these canals allow to deviate excess flow to neighbours who suffer less from flooding. During regular conditions the water systems are fully independent, but during floods connections are made by using the canal system. The heart of DSS Brabant consists of a Delft-FEWS application, containing several RTC (1st) and hydrodynamic Sobek (2nd order) models FEWS is receiving a variety of data on hourly or six-hourly basis, consisting of measured and forecasted meteorological input (radar-precipitation/HIRLAM, evaporation and wind), water levels and discharges at

  18. Investigations of Acetate Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (NIPT-CIMS): Underlying Chemistry, Calibrations, and Operational Considerations for the Detection of Carboxylic Acids and Other Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, P.; Farmer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The growing use of high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometers (HR-TOF-CIMS) as applied to gas and particle measurements requires a thorough understanding of the underlying chemistry to ensure accurate molecular identification. These systems are deployed using a number of reagent ion chemistries in both the positive and negative mode. Moreover, high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometers make it possible to detect and (potentially) quantify species without the use of authentic standards. Acetate CIMS (or negative-ion proton-transfer CIMS) detects species by abstracting a proton from carboxylic acids, nitrated phenols, and other species with acidic protons. Clustering reactions are also known to occur, complicating analysis. proper interpretation of the mass spectra requires understanding these mechanisms and controlling for unwanted ionization processes. We investigate the ability to control for clustering reactions using authentic standards under various clustering regimes while maintaining ion transmission efficiency in simple and complex matrices. The feasibility of using isotopically labeled acetate to unambiguously identify clusters is also investigated. Bulk metrics for describing the spectra (oxygen:carbon, oxidation state, average carbon number, etc) are also investigated to understand their susceptibility to experimental configuration.

  19. Exploring atmospheric photooxidation with a new Gas Chromatograph Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (GC-ToF-CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Allen, H. M.; Teng, A.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric photooxidation is a fundamental process that effectively removes pollutants and greenhouse gases from the air we breathe. One way to explore these processes is to directly measure the stable intermediate oxidation products. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) has proven to be a powerful tool to sensitively detect with high time resolution photooxidation products in the atmosphere such as hydroperoxides, acids, nitrates, and other oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Despite the potential to elucidate atmospheric photooxidation in detail, field observations of such compounds are sparse. Here we present the development of a new Gas Chromatograph Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (GC-ToF-CIMS) for field deployment. Using low pressure gas chromatography and CF3O- ionization chemistry, the selective operation of a GC is combined with the sensitive, specific, and fast detection of a high-resolution ToF-CIMS. The combination of chromatographic separation and exact mass identification allows detecting isomer resolved photooxidation products. Direct measurements in the atmosphere of such isomer distributions are particularly interesting due to the broad range of their individual atmospheric lifetimes and impacts.

  20. Aqueous-phase photooxidation of levoglucosan - a mechanistic study using Aerosol Time of Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-ToF-CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Mungall, E. L.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Aljawhary, D.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2014-04-01

    Levoglucosan (LG) is a widely employed tracer for biomass burning (BB). Recent studies have shown that LG can react rapidly with hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the aqueous phase, despite many mass balance receptor models assuming it to be inert during atmospheric transport. In the current study, aqueous-phase photooxidation of LG by OH radicals was performed in the laboratory. The reaction kinetics and products were monitored by Aerosol Time of Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-ToF-CIMS). Approximately 50 reaction products were detected by the Aerosol-ToF-CIMS during the photooxidation experiments, representing one of the most detailed product studies yet performed. By following the evolution of mass defects of product peaks, unique trends of adding oxygen (+O) and removing hydrogen (-2H) were observed among the products detected, providing useful information to determine potential reaction mechanisms and sequences. As well, bond scission reactions take place, leading to reaction intermediates with lower carbon numbers. We introduce a data analysis framework where the average oxidation state (OSc) is plotted against a novel molecular property: double bond equivalence to carbon ratio (DBE / #C). The trajectory of LG photooxidation on this plot suggests formation of poly-carbonyl intermediates and their subsequent conversion to carboxylic acids as a general reaction trend. We also determined the rate constant of LG with OH radicals at room temperature to be 1.08 ± 0.16 × 109 M-1 s-1. By coupling an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) to the system, we observed a rapid decay of the mass fraction of organic signals at mass-to-charge ratio 60 (f60), corresponding closely to the LG decay monitored by the Aerosol-ToF-CIMS. The trajectory of LG photooxidation on a f44-f60 correlation plot matched closely to literature field measurement data. This implies that aqueous-phase photooxidation might be partially contributing to aging of BB particles in the ambient

  1. Aqueous-phase photooxidation of levoglucosan - a mechanistic study using aerosol time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (Aerosol ToF-CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Mungall, E. L.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Aljawhary, D.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2014-09-01

    Levoglucosan (LG) is a widely employed tracer for biomass burning (BB). Recent studies have shown that LG can react rapidly with hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the aqueous phase despite many mass balance receptor models assuming it to be inert during atmospheric transport. In the current study, aqueous-phase photooxidation of LG by OH radicals was performed in the laboratory. The reaction kinetics and products were monitored by aerosol time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (Aerosol ToF-CIMS). Approximately 50 reaction products were detected by the Aerosol ToF-CIMS during the photooxidation experiments, representing one of the most detailed product studies yet performed. By following the evolution of mass defects of product peaks, unique trends of adding oxygen (+O) and removing hydrogen (-2H) were observed among the products detected, providing useful information for determining potential reaction mechanisms and sequences. Additionally, bond-scission reactions take place, leading to reaction intermediates with lower carbon numbers. We introduce a data analysis framework where the average oxidation state (OSc) is plotted against a novel molecular property: double-bond-equivalence-to-carbon ratio (DBE/#C). The trajectory of LG photooxidation on this plot suggests formation of polycarbonyl intermediates and their subsequent conversion to carboxylic acids as a general reaction trend. We also determined the rate constant of LG with OH radicals at room temperature to be 1.08 ± 0.16 × 109 M-1 s-1. By coupling an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to the system, we observed a rapid decay of the mass fraction of organic signals at mass-to-charge ratio 60 (f60), corresponding closely to the LG decay monitored by the Aerosol ToF-CIMS. The trajectory of LG photooxidation on a f44-f60 correlation plot matched closely to literature field measurement data. This implies that aqueous-phase photooxidation might be partially contributing to aging of BB particles in the

  2. Mapping Argonaute and conventional RNA-binding protein interactions with RNA at single-nucleotide resolution using HITS-CLIP and CIMS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael; Zhang, Chaolin; Gantman, Emily Conn; Mele, Aldo; Darnell, Jennifer C.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Identifying sites where RNA binding proteins (RNABPs) interact with target RNAs opens the door to understanding the vast complexity of RNA regulation. UV-crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) is a transformative technology in which RNAs purified from in vivo cross-linked RNA-protein complexes are sequenced to reveal footprints of RNABP:RNA contacts. CLIP combined with high throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP) is a generalizable strategy to produce transcriptome-wide RNA binding maps with higher accuracy and resolution than standard RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) profiling or purely computational approaches. Applying CLIP to Argonaute proteins has expanded the utility of this approach to mapping binding sites for microRNAs and other small regulatory RNAs. Finally, recent advances in data analysis take advantage of crosslinked-induced mutation sites (CIMS) to refine RNA-binding maps to single-nucleotide resolution. Once IP conditions are established, HITS-CLIP takes approximately eight days to prepare RNA for sequencing. Established pipelines for data analysis, including for CIMS, take 3-4 days. PMID:24407355

  3. Importance of direct anthropogenic emissions of formic acid measured by a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) during the Winter ClearfLo Campaign in London, January 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannan, Thomas J.; Bacak, Asan; Muller, Jennifer B. A.; Booth, A. Murray; Jones, Benjamin; Le Breton, Michael; Leather, Kimberley E.; Ghalaieny, Mohamed; Xiao, Ping; Shallcross, Dudley E.; Percival, Carl J.

    2014-02-01

    Formic acid, an ubiquitous trace gas in the atmosphere, was measured using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) during the winter ClearfLo campaign in London, 2012. Daily calibrations of formic acid gave sensitivities of 3 ion counts s-1 pptv-1 for the complete campaign and a limit of detection of 2 ppt. No correlation with nitric acid was observed, R2 of 0.137, indicating no significant secondary source of formic acid. However, a strong positive correlation with NOx, CO, and production in line with rush hour periods indicated a direct anthropogenic emission of formic acid from vehicle emissions. Peaks of 6.7 ppb of formic acid were observed with a mean of 610 ppt. Global models indicated that this emission source dominates in the northern hemisphere where global models underestimate formic acid most significantly, thus increasing the accuracy of modelling of global formic acid emissions.

  4. A new technique for the direct detection of HO2 radicals using bromide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (Br-CIMS): initial characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Javier; Tanner, David J.; Chen, Dexian; Huey, L. Gregory; Ng, Nga L.

    2016-08-01

    Hydroperoxy radicals (HO2) play an important part in tropospheric photochemistry, yet photochemical models do not capture ambient HO2 mixing ratios consistently. This is likely due to a combination of uncharacterized chemical pathways and measurement limitations. The indirect nature of current HO2 measurements introduces challenges in accurately measuring HO2; therefore a direct technique would help constrain HOx chemistry in the atmosphere. In this work we evaluate the feasibility of using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and propose a direct HO2 detection scheme using bromide as a reagent ion. Ambient observations were made with a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) in Atlanta over the month of June 2015 to demonstrate the capability of this direct measurement technique. Observations displayed expected diurnal profiles, reaching daytime median values of ˜ 5 ppt between 2 and 3 p.m. local time. The HO2 diurnal profile was found to be influenced by morning-time vehicular NOx emissions and shows a slow decrease into the evening, likely from non-photolytic production, among other factors. Measurement sensitivities of approximately 5.1 ± 1.0 cps ppt-1 for a bromide ion (79Br-) count rate of 106 cps were observed. The relatively low instrument background allowed for a 3σ lower detection limit of 0.7 ppt for a 1 min integration time. Mass spectra of ambient measurements showed the 79BrHO2- peak was the major component of the signal at nominal mass-to-charge 112, suggesting high selectivity for HO2 at this mass-to-charge. More importantly, this demonstrates that these measurements can be achieved using instruments with only unit mass resolution capability.

  5. Teaching Engineering Ethics to PhD Students: A Berkeley-Delft Initiative : Commentary on "Ethics Across the Curriculum: Prospects for Broader (and Deeper) Teaching and Learning in Research and Engineering Ethics".

    PubMed

    Taebi, Behnam; Kastenberg, William E

    2016-07-13

    A joint effort by the University of California at Berkeley and Delft University of Technology to develop a graduate engineering ethics course for PhD students encountered two types of challenges: academic and institutional. Academically, long-term collaborative research efforts between engineering and philosophy faculty members might be needed before successful engineering ethics courses can be initiated; the teaching of ethics to engineering graduate students and collaborative research need to go hand-in-hand. Institutionally, both bottom-up approaches at the level of the faculty and as a joint research and teaching effort, and top-down approaches that include recognition by a University's administration and the top level of education management, are needed for successful and sustainable efforts to teach engineering ethics.

  6. Deployment of a ground-based CIMS apparatus for the detection of organic gases in the boreal forest during the QUEST campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellegri, K.; Umann, B.; Hanke, M.; Arnold, F.

    2005-02-01

    Measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds were performed in the Finnish Boreal forest atmosphere during spring 2003, as part of the project QUEST (Quantification of Aerosol Nucleation in the European Boundary Layer), using a ground-based Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) instrument. Based on the study of their hydrate distribution, methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, dimethyl amine (DMA), ethanol/formic acid, acetone, trimethyl amine (TMA), propanol/acetic acid, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and metacrolein (MaCR), monoterpenes and monoterpene oxidation product (MTOP) are proposed as candidates for masses 32, 41, 44, 45, 46, 58, 59, 60, 68, 70, 136, and 168amu, respectively. It would be, to our knowledge, the first time DMA, TMA and MTOP are measured with this method. Most compounds show a clear diurnal variation with a maximum in the early night, corresponding to the onset of the noctural inversion and in agreement with independant measurements of CO. Biogenic compounds are highly correlated with each other and the ratio monoterpene/oxidation product shows a typical daily pattern of nightime maxima. However, because isoprene mixing ratios are also maximum during the early night, it is likely that it suffers of the interference from another unidentified biogenic compound. Hence mass 68amu is identified as isoprene+compound X.

  7. Deployment of a ground-based CIMS apparatus for the detection of organic gases in the boreal forest during the QUEST campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellegri, K.; Umann, B.; Hanke, M.; Arnold, F.

    2004-07-01

    Measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds were performed in the Finnish Boreal forest atmosphere during spring 2003, as part of the project QUEST (Quantification of Aerosol Nucleation in the European Boundary Layer), using a ground-based Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) instrument. Based on the study of their hydrate distribution, Methanol, Acetonitrile, Acetaldehyde, Dimethyl Amine (DMA), Ethanol/Formic Acid, Acetone, Trimethyl Amine TMA, Propanol/Acetic Acid, Methyl Vinyl Ketone (MVK) and Metacrolein (MaCR), Monoterpenes, Cis-3-hexenyl Acetate and Monoterpene Oxidation Products (MTOP) are proposed as candidates for masses 33, 41, 44, 45, 46, 58, 59, 60, 70, 136, 142 and 168 amu, respectively. It would be, to our knowledge, the first time DMA, TMA, MTOP and Cis-3-hexenyl Acetate are measured with this method. A compound with mass 68 amu, which could be Isoprene has also been identified. Most compounds show a clear diurnal variation with higher concentrations at night, starting at the onset of the nocturnal inversion and in agreement with independent measurements of CO. Biogenic compounds are highly correlated with each other and the ratio monoterpene/oxidation product shows a typical daily pattern of nighttime maxima. Cis-3-hexenyl Acetate has a diurnal variation similar to the ones of Isoprene and Monoterpenes, and especially close to the diurnal variation of their oxidation products.

  8. A high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer utilizing hydronium ions (H3O+ ToF-CIMS) for measurements of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bin; Koss, Abigail; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Stark, Harald; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2016-07-01

    Proton transfer reactions between hydronium ions (H3O+) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) provide a fast and highly sensitive technique for VOC measurements, leading to extensive use of proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in atmospheric research. Based on the same ionization approach, we describe the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) utilizing H3O+ as the reagent ion. The new H3O+ ToF-CIMS has sensitivities of 100-1000 cps ppb-1 (ion counts per second per part-per-billion mixing ratio of VOC) and detection limits of 20-600 ppt at 3σ for a 1 s integration time for simultaneous measurements of many VOC species of atmospheric relevance. The ToF analyzer with mass resolution (m/Δm) of up to 6000 allows the separation of isobaric masses, as shown in previous studies using similar ToF-MS. While radio frequency (RF)-only quadrupole ion guides provide better overall ion transmission than ion lens system, low-mass cutoff of RF-only quadrupole causes H3O+ ions to be transmitted less efficiently than heavier masses, which leads to unusual humidity dependence of reagent ions and difficulty obtaining a humidity-independent parameter for normalization. The humidity dependence of the instrument was characterized for various VOC species and the behaviors for different species can be explained by compound-specific properties that affect the ion chemistry (e.g., proton affinity and dipole moment). The new H3O+ ToF-CIMS was successfully deployed on the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft for the SONGNEX campaign in spring of 2015. The measured mixing ratios of several aromatics from the H3O+ ToF-CIMS agreed within ±10 % with independent gas chromatography measurements from whole air samples. Initial results from the SONGNEX measurements demonstrate that the H3O+ ToF-CIMS data set will be valuable for the identification and characterization of emissions from various sources, investigation of secondary

  9. Measurement of Organic Acids Produced By The Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Simple Olefins Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) as a Function of Temperature And Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, C. J.; Bacak, A.; Leather, K. E.; McGillen, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) form an important trace component of the atmosphere and are of particular environmental interest because of their deleterious effects on air quality, their numerous (and potentially counteractive) effects on Earth’s climate system and their sophisticated semiochemical roles in the world’s ecosystems. NMHCs are also important precursors to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g. Pandis et al., 1991; Kavouras et al., 1999). The ozonolysis reactions of olefins result in complex menageries of products, of which the acids are ubiquitous. Although the gas phase acid concentrations are small, they are thought to be key species in SOA formation as a result of their low volatility (e.g., Ma et al., 2009). Despite this, the factors that control acid formation are not well understood, especially with regards to humidity and temperature. Acid yields will be measured using the newly commissioned EXTreme RAnge (EXTRA) chamber (Leather et al., 2009). EXTRA is a 125 L stainless steel chamber, which can be temperature controlled using a commercial chest freezer unit (for T ≤ -20 °C) or a purpose built oven for T > 25 °C. The EXTRA chamber can be operated at pressures from 10-3800 Torr and at temperatures from 180-473 K. The stainless steel chamber walls have been coated with PFA to minimize wall loss of radicals. Fans, located at both ends of the cylinder, promote rapid mixing of reactants. Six sample ports are located at either end of the chamber for connection to ADS-GC-ECD, CIMS and commercial sensors such as a Thermo Electron Corporation 49i Ozone Analyzer, an Edinburgh Instruments Gascard CO2 sensor and a Trace Analytical inc. RGA3 CO analyzer. Experiments will be performed as a function of atmospherically relevant temperatures (T= 180-300 K). The field CIMS has sub ppt(v) L.O.D.s with a sub 1 Hz time response so will enable products to be quantified at very low concentrations in real time. Acid products will be detected

  10. Semicontinuous measurements of gas-particle partitioning of organic acids in a ponderosa pine forest using a MOVI-HRToF-CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatavelli, R. L. N.; Stark, H.; Thompson, S. L.; Kimmel, J. R.; Cubison, M. J.; Day, D. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Hodzic, A.; Thornton, J. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2014-02-01

    Hundreds of gas- and particle-phase organic acids were measured in a rural ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA, during BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study). A recently developed micro-orifice volatilization impactor high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (MOVI-HRToF-CIMS) using acetate (CH3C(O)O-) as the reagent ion was used to selectively ionize and detect acids semicontinuously from 20 to 30 August 2011, with a measurement time resolution of ~1.5 h. At this site 98% of the organic acid mass is estimated to be in the gas phase, with only ~2% in the particle phase. We investigated gas-particle partitioning, quantified as the fraction in the particle phase (Fp), of C1-C18 alkanoic acids, six known terpenoic acids, and bulk organic acids vs. carbon number. Data were compared to the absorptive partitioning model and suggest that bulk organic acids at this site follow absorptive partitioning to the organic aerosol mass. The rapid response (<1-2 h) of partitioning to temperature changes for bulk acids suggests that kinetic limitations to equilibrium are minor, which is in contrast to conclusions of some recent laboratory and field studies, possibly due to lack of very low ambient relative humidities at this site. Time trends for partitioning of individual and groups of acids were mostly captured by the model, with varying degrees of absolute agreement. Species with predicted substantial fractions in both the gas and particle phases show better absolute agreement, while species with very low predicted fractions in one phase often show poor agreement, potentially due to thermal decomposition, inlet adsorption, or other issues. Partitioning to the aqueous phase is predicted to be smaller than to the organic phase for alkanoic and bulk acids, and has different trends with time and carbon number than observed experimentally. This is due

  11. Semi-continuous measurements of gas/particle partitioning of organic acids in a ponderosa pine forest using a MOVI-HRToF-CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatavelli, R. L. N.; Stark, H.; Thompson, S. L.; Kimmel, J. R.; Cubison, M. J.; Day, D. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Thornton, J. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Hundreds of gas and particle phase organic acids were measured in a rural ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA, during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS). A recently developed Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (MOVI-HRToF-CIMS) using acetate (CH3C(O)O-) as the reagent ion was used to selectively ionize and detect acids semi-continuously from 20-30 August 2011, with a measurement time resolution of ~1.5 h. At this site 98% of the organic acid mass is estimated to be in the gas-phase, with only ~2% in the particle phase. We investigated gas/particle partitioning, quantified as the fraction in the particle phase (Fp), of C1-C18 alkanoic acids, six known terpenoic acids and total bulk organic acids. Data were compared to the absorptive partitioning model and suggest that bulk organic acids at this site follow absorptive partitioning to the organic aerosol mass. The rapid response (<1-2 h) of partitioning to temperature changes for bulk acids suggests that kinetic limitations to equilibrium are minor, which is in contrast to conclusions of some recent laboratory and field studies, possibly due to lack of very low ambient relative humidities at this site. Time trends for partitioning of individual and groups of acids were mostly captured by the model, with varying degrees of absolute agreement. Species with predicted substantial fractions in both the gas and particle phases show better absolute agreement, while species with very low predicted fractions in one phase often show agreement on trends, but poor absolute agreement, potentially due to thermal decomposition, inlet adsorption, or other issues. Based on measurement-model comparison we conclude that species carbon number and oxygen content, together with ambient temperature control the volatility of organic acids and are good

  12. CIM - A Manufacturing Paradigm (Le CIM - Un Nouveau Modele Industriel),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    fait la plupart des entreprises , ont affind le module de "Rgvolution industrielle". Nous vivons A l’poque du spdcialiste. Toutefois, le modale de sp...program will serve as an umbrella under which specific projects are planned, financed , managed, and imple- mented. Well defined corporate goals must be...assets. Through an integration of financing strategies an enterprise can focus on capital investment in shared, value-added assets such as databases

  13. CIM 10-micrometers Array Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-31

    Organization Name and Address 10. ProjectrTask/Work Unit No. Texas Instruments Incorporated 11. Contract (C) or Grant (G) 13588 N. Central Expressway, M/S 105 No...studies weie extended in greater detail under the piesent contract using Texas Instruments recently developed anodic-sulfide surface passivati, -, a...after subsequent insulator deposition (5500 nm ZnS.•. 64 I is one of several advanced surface passivations developed at Texas Instruments and is now a

  14. Methods Of Testing And Assessing The Technical Condition Of Chosen Building Structures Located In The Area Of The Auschwitz-Birkenau National Museum In Oświęcim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kańka, Stanisław; Stryszewska, Teresa; Tracz, Tomasz; Karczmarczyk, Stanisław; Paruch, Roman

    2015-12-01

    The results presented in this article consider the means of assessing the technical condition of two selected buildings, i.e. prisoner barracks number 123 and 124, located at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim. The work was carried out within the framework of a research project involving the development of methods for preserving, securing and strengthening the structure of buildings, along with their substrate and finishes. The aim of the project was to gain a knowledge base reflecting the actual state of the existing facilities and, on that basis, develop preservation methods and ways to protect the existing facilities against further damage, while maintaining the current character.

  15. Career Information in the mathematical sciences (CIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sterrett, A.

    1993-05-01

    In November of 1992, a CBMS Steering Committee for Career Information was appointed by the CBMS Council. An informal meeting of those members in attendance at the Annual Meeting of the MAA and the AMS was held in January, 1993. The first meeting was held on May 1, 2 in Washington, DC in conjunction with CBMS Council meeting. Information on existing career materials was provided to the Council at that time and Council reactions were obtained. These reactions, along with reviews of material by students, faculty members and counselors, were used by the Steering Committee to plan specific activities for the next 6--18 months. Three initiatives were given high priority: To produce and widely disseminate an annotated bibliography of career information relevant to the mathematical sciences; to remedy the lack of messages to junior high school students, parents, teachers and counselors on the importance of mathematics in finding good jobs in a technological society; and to encourage women and minorities to take all the mathematics that they can and to consider careers in which mathematics plays an important role.

  16. DUNBID, the Delft University neutron backscattering imaging detector.

    PubMed

    Bom, V R; van Eijk, C W E; Ali, M A

    2005-01-01

    In the search for low-metallic land mines, the neutron backscattering technique may be applied if the soil is sufficiently dry. An advantage of this method is the speed of detection: the scanning speed may be made comparable to that of a metal detector. A two-dimensional position sensitive detector is tested to obtain an image of the back scattered thermal neutron radiation. Results of experiments using a radionuclide neutron source are presented. The on-mine to no-mine signal ratio can be improved by the application of a window on the neutron time-of-flight. Results using a pulsed neutron generator are also presented.

  17. Virtual Reality in Engineering Education: A CIM Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erenay, Ozan; Hashemipour, Majid

    2003-01-01

    Instructors in technical schools, polytechnics, and universities of technology must continually help students find the links between theory and practice. Students often don't recognize the links among the various subjects they study, or the links among the various tasks they perform as they study. It is well known that students learn best by…

  18. 28 CFR 524.72 - CIM assignment categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cases. Individuals who agree to cooperate with law enforcement, judicial, or correctional authorities... (authorized by the Attorney General under title V of Public Law 91-452, 84 Stat. 933); and Bureau of Prisons... or federal penal (which includes correctional and detention facilities) institutions. This...

  19. 28 CFR 524.72 - CIM assignment categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cases. Individuals who agree to cooperate with law enforcement, judicial, or correctional authorities... (authorized by the Attorney General under title V of Public Law 91-452, 84 Stat. 933); and Bureau of Prisons... or federal penal (which includes correctional and detention facilities) institutions. This...

  20. 28 CFR 524.72 - CIM assignment categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cases. Individuals who agree to cooperate with law enforcement, judicial, or correctional authorities... (authorized by the Attorney General under title V of Public Law 91-452, 84 Stat. 933); and Bureau of Prisons... or federal penal (which includes correctional and detention facilities) institutions. This...

  1. 28 CFR 524.72 - CIM assignment categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cases. Individuals who agree to cooperate with law enforcement, judicial, or correctional authorities... (authorized by the Attorney General under title V of Public Law 91-452, 84 Stat. 933); and Bureau of Prisons... or federal penal (which includes correctional and detention facilities) institutions. This...

  2. CIMS: A FRAMEWORK FOR INFRASTRUCTURE INTERDEPENDENCY MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; May R. Permann; Milos Manic

    2006-12-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, utilities, telecommunication, and even financial networks. While modeling and simulation tools have provided insight into the behavior of individual infrastructure networks, a far less understood area is that of the interrelationships among multiple infrastructure networks including the potential cascading effects that may result due to these interdependencies. This paper first describes infrastructure interdependencies as well as presenting a formalization of interdependency types. Next the paper describes a modeling and simulation framework called CIMS© and the work that is being conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to model and simulate infrastructure interdependencies and the complex behaviors that can result.

  3. Design and Development of a CIM Architecture for Food Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    to support the IDEFIX Model Pro Software of D. Appleton, Inc., which requires a VGA monitor. This task, completed in the quarter ending April, 1990...architecture that covered both civilian and military product manufacture. This architecture, defined in IDEFIX modeling language, became the basis for...its extension, IDEFIX , is a methodology for modeling data entities and their relation- i ships. An entity is represented by a box labeled by a noun

  4. 28 CFR 524.72 - CIM assignment categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... notoriety as public figures. (d) Disruptive group. Inmates who belong to or are closely affiliated with...) through (f) of this section. For example, this assignment may include an inmate with a background in...

  5. Genees & kunst 10: tenth symposium on medical problems of dancers & musicians, universitair medisch centrum, Utrecht, March 27, 2010.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, A B M Boni

    2011-03-01

    On Saturday, March 27th, 2010, the Dutch Performing Arts Medicine Association (NVDMG) organized a scientific and artistic Jubilee symposium "Genees & Kunst 10" for its 5th anniversary and 10th member assembly, at the University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. During his opening speech, dr. Rietveld, president of NVDMG, mentioned the successful first 5 years and the vitality of the NVDMG, and he emphasized the importance of performing arts medicine, given the large proportion of performing artists (at least 14% of all patients) in an average Dutch family physician's practice. Scientific presentations, interspersed with dance and music performances, were given by several medical specialists. Abstracts of these presentations are published here as the symposium proceedings.

  6. DELFT3D-Modelling of Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Processes in San Diego Bight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Terrill (SIO Scripps), Dr. Lyle Hibler ( PNL ) and Mark Moline (CalPoly) who are funded separately. LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this...cooperation with Dr. Eric Terrill (SIO Scripps), Dr. Lyle Hibler ( PNL ) and Mark Moline (CalPoly) who are funded separately.

  7. Delft3D-Modelling of Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Processes in San Diego Bight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    Terrill (SIO Scripps), Dr. Lyle Hibler ( PNL ) and Mark Moline (CalPoly) who are funded separately. LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this effort is...October 3, 2002. RELATED PROJECTS This work is a cooperation with Dr. Eric Terrill (SIO Scripps), Dr. Lyle Hibler ( PNL ) and Mark Moline (CalPoly) who are funded separately. 5

  8. Design in Industrial Design Engineering: Teaching Design at the School of IDE at the TU Delft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schierbeek, Bernd B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an industrial design course in the Netherlands. Includes a discussion of the school history, integration of various courses, implications from the experience, design process as decision-making, basic design cycle derived from the general problem-solving process, design methodology, creativity, and conclusions. (YP)

  9. Research activities, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 1990 - 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the report on research activities, the research work of the Structural Mechanics and Computer Integrated Construction Division is summarized under five main headings: computational mechanics; dynamics; computational concrete mechanics; risk, reliability, and integrity; and computer integrated construction.

  10. Imaging and nanofabrication with the helium ion microscope of the Van Leeuwenhoek Laboratory in Delft.

    PubMed

    Alkemade, Paul F A; Koster, Emma M; van Veldhoven, Emile; Maas, Diederik J

    2012-01-01

    Although helium ion microscopy (HIM) was introduced only a few years ago, many new application fields are emerging. The connecting factor between these novel applications is the unique interaction of the primary helium ion beam with the sample material at and just below its surface. In particular, the HIM secondary electron signal stems from an area that is extremely well localized around the point of incidence of the primary beam. This makes the HIM well suited for both high-resolution imaging and high-resolution nanofabrication. Another advantage in nanofabrication is the low ion backscattering fraction, which leads to a weak proximity effect. The subnanometer probe size and the unique beam-materials interactions have opened new areas of research. This review presents a selection of studies conducted on a single instrument. The selection encompasses applications ranging from imaging to nanofabrication and from fundamental academic research to applied industrial developments.

  11. [Johannes Vermeer and Anthon van Leeuwenhoek: Delft Art and Science together during the golden Dutch century].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo

    2009-04-01

    Johannes Vermeer and Anthon van Leeuwenhoek are among the greatest geniuses in Art and Science respectively. During the seventeenth century, they achieved innovative advances. Vermeer, in painting, created a new intimate view of people specially women, developing the treatment of light and details. Leeuwenhoek, friend of Vermeer, influenced him in the use of the obscure camera in his works. In spite of having no formal academic education, he made extremely relevant discoveries with the use of microscope. He showed for first time human spermatozoids, red blood cells, brain, nerve and muscle structures and described many living animals. These two brilliant contemporary Dutch men made a great contribution to our civilization.

  12. The status of the Delft University Neutron Backscatter Landmine Detector (DUNBLAD).

    PubMed

    Bom, V R; Datema, C P; van Eijk, C W E

    2004-07-01

    The neutron backscattering technique may be applied to search for non-metallic landmines in relatively dry soils. A detector system using this technique has been constructed. Tests showed that anti-tank mines can reliably be found, but that, depending on the circumstances, anti-personnel mines may escape detection. A first test with a pulsed neutron generator shows that further improvements can be achieved by applying a window on the neutron transit time.

  13. DUNBLAD, the Delft University Neutron Backscatter LAnd-mine Detector, a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Bom, Victor R.; Datema, Cor P.; Eijk, Carel W.E. van

    2003-08-26

    The neutron backscattering technique may be applied to search for non-metallic land mines in relatively dry sandy soils. A novel, ergonomic detector system has been constructed. Tests with real land mines in a realistic environment show that anti-tank mines can reliably be found, but that anti-personnel mines may escape detection. The performance could improve when an image of the mine signal could be obtained. One approach is to use an array of position sensitive 3He detectors placed close to the soil. If a pulsed neutron generator is used further improvement could be reached by applying a time window on the neutron transit time. The possibilities of neutron backscattering imaging systems are investigated using Monte Carlo simulations with GEANT-4. A neutron backscattering imaging device with a 2D sensitive detection plane is currently under development.

  14. DUNBLAD, the Delft University Neutron Backscatter LAnd-mine Detector, a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bom, Victor R.; Datema, Cor P.; van Eijk, Carel W. E.

    2003-08-01

    The neutron backscattering technique may be applied to search for non-metallic land mines in relatively dry sandy soils. A novel, ergonomic detector system has been constructed. Tests with real land mines in a realistic environment show that anti-tank mines can reliably be found, but that anti-personnel mines may escape detection. The performance could improve when an image of the mine signal could be obtained. One approach is to use an array of position sensitive 3He detectors placed close to the soil. If a pulsed neutron generator is used further improvement could be reached by applying a time window on the neutron transit time. The possibilities of neutron backscattering imaging systems are investigated using Monte Carlo simulations with GEANT-4. A neutron backscattering imaging device with a 2D sensitive detection plane is currently under development.

  15. Challenging E-Learning: An Evaluation of the STUDIO Project at TU Delft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, L. M.; De Jong, F.; Ravesteijn, W.

    2008-01-01

    Lots of papers are being published about e-learning in engineering education. In these papers, positive experiences and aspects seem to overshadow negative ones. However, there are still some problematic sides worth studying. In order to improve its quality these should receive broad attention too. We present an explicit two-sided evaluation of…

  16. Integrating SD into Engineering Courses at the Delft University of Technology: The Individual Interaction Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, D. -J.; Mulder, K. F.; Bijma, A.

    2004-01-01

    When sustainable development (SD) is only taught in specific courses, it is questionable if engineering students are able to integrate it into their engineering practices and technical designs. For this reason, sustainability should also be integrated into regular engineering courses, e.g. design courses, materials courses or processing…

  17. Riverine Flow Observations and Modeling: Sensitivity of Delft3D River Model to Bathymetric Variability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    performed by a person walking with a GPS-equipped backpack and with an echosounder- equipped electric kayak . The meandering reach (Figure 2) is a deep (~10m...Structures in a Natural Gravel-Bed River submitted to Geophysical Research Letters. Manuscript Abstract Stream-wise, horizontal length scales and...Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV), an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV), and some additional stationary platforms and were deployed in a number of natural

  18. IVERINE FLOW OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING: Sensitivity of Delft3D River Model to Bathymetric Variability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    equipped backpack and with an echosounder-equipped electric kayak . The meandering reach (Figure 2) is a deep (~10m) channel with flows around 0.5m/s...Kootenai River, ID on 12-16 August 2010. The study reach contained a number of natural channel features, such as a pool-riffle sequence and bank...irregularities, which influence transverse mixing. The dye was released at a constant rate for one hour from a kayak fixed in the center of the channel

  19. Explaining Student Success in Engineering Education at Delft University of Technology: A Literature Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bogaard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Student success is among the most widely researched areas in tertiary education. Generalisability of research in this field is problematic due to cultural and structural differences between countries, institutions and programmes where the research is done. Engineering education in the Netherlands has not been studied in depth. In this paper,…

  20. Delft University at the TREC 2009 Entity Track: Ranking Wikipedia Entities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    containing ClueWeb09 collection using Lemur Toolkit 4.10. We used no stemming and stop-word removal on the collection level. However, we applied a very...approach implemented in Lemur with Dirichlet smoothing (µ = 1500). In order to have some flexibility in development and also for the sake of better...consider them as the only entities allowed (actu- ally, using #scoreif directive of the Lemur query language). Since we still could not be sure that all

  1. Career Information in the mathematical sciences (CIMS). Technical progress report, November 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sterrett, A.

    1993-05-01

    In November of 1992, a CBMS Steering Committee for Career Information was appointed by the CBMS Council. An informal meeting of those members in attendance at the Annual Meeting of the MAA and the AMS was held in January, 1993. The first meeting was held on May 1, 2 in Washington, DC in conjunction with CBMS Council meeting. Information on existing career materials was provided to the Council at that time and Council reactions were obtained. These reactions, along with reviews of material by students, faculty members and counselors, were used by the Steering Committee to plan specific activities for the next 6--18 months. Three initiatives were given high priority: To produce and widely disseminate an annotated bibliography of career information relevant to the mathematical sciences; to remedy the lack of messages to junior high school students, parents, teachers and counselors on the importance of mathematics in finding good jobs in a technological society; and to encourage women and minorities to take all the mathematics that they can and to consider careers in which mathematics plays an important role.

  2. Career information in the mathematical sciences (CIMS). Final report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sterrett, A.

    1996-01-29

    This report documents the preparation and distribution of materials designed to aid students is assessing their interests in and prospects for a career in the mathematical sciences. Activities included the preparation of two books, two videos, a world wide web home page, and a workshop meeting on ``Math in Careers`` held at the University of California at Berkeley in January, 1995.

  3. Participation of HNO3 CIMS Instrument in the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisele, F. L.

    2001-01-01

    This project was part of a larger SOLVE project led by Paul Wennberg at California Institute of Technology. The work completed on this project included participating in the installation and preflight testing of a new chemical ionization mass spectrometer for measuring gas and particle phase nitric acid on the ER-2. The investigators subsequently participated in SOLVE where additional instrument improvements were made and a substantial data set was generated. The two Georgia Tech investigators that participated in this work (Fred Eisele and Dave Tanner) had previously been responsible for much of the design and construction of the ion source and mass spectrometer which would be used to measure HNO3 in SOLVE, with Caltech focusing on inlets, calibration, gas supplies/pumping computer control, and overall integration. Thus, a similar focus remained during the SOLVE measurements though all investigators worked on most if not all aspects of the instrument at some point in the mission. Some of the more interesting results from the study included measurements of nitric acid on what are thought to be 5-20 microns diameter individual particles which could supply a local mechanism for HNO3 removal, Nitric acid measurements on SOLVE were completed as a collaborative effort with a great deal of overlap between this project and the larger parent project led by Paul Wennberg. As such, the instrumentation used, its operation, and the resulting measurements are far more fully discussed in the attached report (appendix A) which describes the joint SOLVE nitric acid measurement effort.

  4. Development of L-histidine immobilized CIM(®) monolithic disks for purification of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Rajasekar R; Kamalanathan, Agamudi S; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A

    2015-03-01

    The pseudobiospecific affinity ligand l-histidine was immobilized on epoxy, carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), and ethylenediamine (EDA) convective interaction media (BIA Separations, Slovenia) monolithic disks to obtain the histidyl affinity column for purification of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The kinetics and the mass transfer properties of the affinity columns were studied to determine the optimum buffer condition, flow rate, and concentration of IgG for maximum IgG adsorption. The binding capacities of all the three affinity columns were higher with zwitterionic buffer morpholinopropanesulfonic acid than with charged buffers such as tris-HCl and phosphate buffers, and the optimum pH was 6.5. The interaction of IgG with histidine immobilized CDI and epoxy disks was found to be predominantly driven by ionic interaction, while the interaction with EDA-histidine disk could be partially governed by multiple non-covalent forces of interaction. The maximum binding capacity (Qm ) of l-histidine immobilized on EDA-, CDI-, and epoxy-activated convective interaction media disks were 19.83 ± 0.25, 15.85 ± 0.18 and 12.11 ± 0.17 mg/ml of support, respectively, and the dissociation constant (Kd ) were calculated to be in the micromolar range for all the three histidyl monolithic columns. Purification of IgG from untreated human serum was also attempted, and the results indicate the high potential of this method for purification of total IgG from complex biological sources and also for separation of IgG1 from other subclasses.

  5. Application of Artificial Intelligence to the DoD Corporate Information Management (CIM) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Harvard Business Review . 8 2.4.2. Inferred benefits This area includes...When a 2 4 Thomas Teal, "Service Comes First: An interview with USAA’s Robert F. McDermontt, Harvard Business Review , September-October 1991 20 purchase...distinguishing patterns or learning complex 2 5 Leonard-Barton, Dorothy and John J. Sviokla, "Putting Expert Systems to Work," Harvard Business Review ,

  6. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-23

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  7. Evaluation of the modified carbapenem inactivation method and sodium mercaptoacetate-combination method for the detection of metallo-β-lactamase production by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kageto; Kashiwa, Machiko; Arai, Katsumi; Nagano, Noriyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) and modified CIM (mCIM). Our results indicated that mCIM with 4h incubation improved sensitivity and specificity for detecting carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae compared to CIM. Additionally, we developed a sodium mercaptoacetate-combination method (SMA-mCIM) to detect metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) with high sensitivity and specificity.

  8. An Analysis of Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Technology, Benefits, and Strategies for the U.S. Army Materiel Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    techniques, a feat previously accomplished only by mainframe computers. Other techniques that significantly improve the performance of computer systems...automatically design and fabricate lower extremity prosthetic sockets o Study the use of CAD/CAE/CAM systems in implementing a Computer-Aided Prosthesis

  9. User Education in the Online Age II. IATUL International Seminar Proceedings, (2nd, Delft, The Netherlands, July 30-August 2, 1984). Vol. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Papers presented at an August 1984 international seminar on online user education include "Library Policies and Strategies in The Netherlands" (Chris J. van Wijk, The Netherlands); "Promotion and Marketing of Library Services" (Nancy Fjallbrant, Sweden); "Library Promotion by Computer" (Ian Malley, United Kingdom); "Library User Education and…

  10. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Hydroxyl Radical (OH) Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Saewung

    2016-05-01

    The University of California, Irvine, science team (Dr. Saewung Kim, Dr. Roger Seco, Dr. Alex Guenther, and Dr. Jim Smith) deployed a chemical ionization mass spectrometer system for hydroxyl radical (OH) and sulfuric acid quantifications. As part of the GoAmazon 2014/15 field campaign. Hydroxyl radical determines tropospheric oxidation capacity and had been expected to be very low in the pristine rain forest region such as the Brazilian Amazon because of the presence of significant levels of highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds and very low levels of NO, which is an OH recycling agent. However, several recent in situ OH observations provided by a laser-induced fluorescence system reported unaccountably high OH concentrations. To address this discrepancy, a series of laboratory and theoretical studies has postulated chemical reaction mechanisms of isoprene that may regenerate OH in photo-oxidation processes. Along with these efforts, potential artifacts on the laser induced fluorescence system from isoprene and its oxidation products also have been explored. Therefore, the first chemical ionization mass spectrometer observations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, are expected to provide a critical experimental constraint to address uncertainty in constraining oxidation capacity over pristine rain forest environments. In addition, we deployed a National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer to characterize atmospheric volatile organic compound levels, especially isoprene and its oxidation products, which are critical input parameters for box modeling to simulate OH with different isoprene photo-oxidation schemes. As there has been no report on noticeable new particle formation events, our first in situ sulfuric acid observations in the Amazon rain forest were expected to constrain the reasons behind such observations. The planned field observations during Intensive Observational Periods I and II, post-field campaign calibrations, and preliminary data reports have been completed. We presented preliminary data analysis results at the 2014 American Geophysical Union Fall meeting and the GOAmazon Science Meeting in Boston (May 2015). We are in the process of submitting two more abstracts to the 2015 American Geophysical Union fall meeting while we are preparing two manuscripts to be submitted to (tentatively) the GOAmazon special issue of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.

  11. Effect of prenatal and postnatal exposure to therapeutic doses of chlorimipramine on emotionality in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Echandía, E L; Broitman, S T

    1983-01-01

    Prenatal administration of high doses of tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to produce teratogenic and behavioral effects in rat offspring. In the present work, behavioral abnormalities are described in offspring of rats treated with therapeutic doses of chlorimipramine (CIM) during pregnancy (CIM-P), lactation (CIM-L) and during the whole pregnancy-lactation period (CIM-PL). CIM-P treatment did not produce teratogenic effects, did not affect number or body weight of pups at birth and did not induce neonatal mortality. At 2 months of age, the CIM-P males showed a significant increase in digging and grooming (familiar environment test), a decrease in "exploration" (novel environment test) and a decrease in active social interactions (social behavior test). Females were more resistant than males to the prenatal CIM treatment. The results suggest increased emotionality in CIM-P pups. Some behavioral abnormalities were also observed in the tests performed at 4 months of age. CIM-L treatment had minor effects on litter behavior. CIM-PL treatment potentiated the effects of the CIM-P treatment. In the CIM-PL males, impairment of exploration of a novel environment still remained in the tests performed at 4 months of age. It is speculated that when prenatal brain development is altered by CIM, further postnatal treatment may impair compensatory processes occurring in early postnatal life.

  12. U.S. Manufacturing Competitiveness: Education and Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, James E., Jr.; Tesolowski, Dennis G.

    1992-01-01

    Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is a critical mechanism for manufacturing competitiveness. Education and government must focus on preparing workers for the CIM environment and providing technical assistance for technology transfer, especially in small businesses. (SK)

  13. Software Systems Reengineering Process Model, Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Information Management (CIM) Software Systems Reengineering Process Model provides guidance for applying software reengineering...to support current business needs. The purpose of the CIM Software Systems Reengineering Process Model is to capture the essence of software

  14. Toward the Factory of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazony, Yehonathan

    1983-01-01

    Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) involves use of data processing technology as the vehicle for full integration of the total manufacturing process. A prototype research and educational facility for CIM developed with industrial sponsorship at Princeton University is described. (JN)

  15. 28 CFR 524.73 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assignment or removal from the CIM system requires separate notification to the inmate. (c) Initial review. A..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.73... Prisons, does not require additional review, and overrides any other CIM assignment. (2) State...

  16. 28 CFR 524.73 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assignment or removal from the CIM system requires separate notification to the inmate. (c) Initial review. A..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.73... Prisons, does not require additional review, and overrides any other CIM assignment. (2) State...

  17. 28 CFR 524.73 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assignment or removal from the CIM system requires separate notification to the inmate. (c) Initial review. A..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.73... Prisons, does not require additional review, and overrides any other CIM assignment. (2) State...

  18. Stability of the IMEX Methods, CNLF and BDF2-AB2, for Uncoupling Systems of Evolution Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Implicit-Explicit linear multistep methods, Tech. rep., Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI) (1996). [14] W. Hundsdorfer, J. Verwer, Numerical...component splitting for the Crank-Nicolson Leap- Frog integration method, Tech. rep., Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI) (2009). [23] J. Verwer

  19. Identification of oxidized organic atmospheric species during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) using a novel Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (IMS-ToF-CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechmer, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Kimmel, J.; Junninen, H.; Knochenmuss, R.; Cubison, M.; Massoli, P.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Surratt, J. D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from the field deployment of a novel Ion Mobility Time-of-flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CI-IMS-TOF) during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). IMS-TOF is a 2-dimensional analysis method, which separates gas-phase ions by mobility prior to determination of mass-to-charge ratio by mass spectrometry. Ion mobility is a unique physical property that is determined by the collisional cross section of an ion. Because mobility depends on size and shape, the IMS measurement is able to resolve isomers and isobaric compounds. Additionally, trends in IMS-TOF data space can be used to identify relationships between ions, such as common functionality or polymeric series. During SOAS we interfaced the IMS-TOF to a nitrate ion (NO3-) chemical ionization source that enables the selective ionization of highly oxidized gas phase species (those having a high O:C ratio) through clustering with the reagent ion. Highly oxidized products of terpenes and isoprene are important secondary organic aerosol precursors (SOA) that play an uncertain but important role in particle-phase chemistry. We present several case studies of atmospheric events during SOAS that exhibited elevated concentrations of sulfuric acid and/or organics. These events exhibited a rise in particle number and provide an opportunity to examine the role that organic species may have in local atmospheric new particle formation events. We also present the results from the field deployment and subsequent laboratory studies utilizing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor as the inlet for the CI-IMS-TOF. The reactor draws in ambient air and exposes it to high concentrations of the OH radical, created by photolysis O3 in the presence of water. The highly oxidized products are then sampled directly by the CI-IMS-TOF. We performed several experiments including placing pine and deciduous plants directly in front of the reactor opening and observed large increases in the number and concentration of oxidized gas-phase species. Finally, we present preliminary results of atmospheric filter analysis using an Electrospray Ionization (ESI) source interfaced to the IMS-TOF.

  20. Derivation of hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) levels at an urban site via measurement of pernitric acid (HO2NO2) by iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I(-)-CIMS).

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexian; Huey, L Gregory; Tanner, David J; Li, Jianfeng; Ng, Nga Lee; Wang, Yuhang

    2017-02-17

    Hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) is a key species to atmospheric chemistry. At warm temperatures, the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) and NO2 come to a rapid steady state with pernitric acid (HO2NO2). This paper presents the derivation of HO2 from observations of HO2NO2 and NO2 in metropolitan Atlanta, US in winter 2014 and summer 2015. HO2 was observed to have a diurnal cycle with morning concentrations suppressed by high NO from the traffic. At night, derived HO2 levels were nonzero and exhibited correlations with O3 and NO3, consistent with previous studies that ozonolysis and oxidation by NO3 are sources of nighttime HO2. Measured and model calculated HO2 were in reasonable agreement: Without the constraint of measured HO2NO2 , the model reproduced HO2 with a model-to-observed ratio (M/O) 1.27 (r = 0.54) for winter, 2014, and 0.70 (r = 0.80) for summer, 2015. Adding measured HO2NO2 as a constraint, the model predicted HO2 with M/O = 1.13 ((r = 0.77) for winter 2014, and 0.90 ((r = 0.97) for summer 2015. These results demonstrate the feasibility of deriving HO2 from HO2NO2 measurements in warm regions where HO2NO2 has a short lifetime.

  1. A/E/C Graphics Standard: Release 2.0 (formerly titled CAD Drafting Standard)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Civil Information Modeling (CIM), and Computer- Aided Design (CAD). It is through the collection and documentation of these practices that consistent...acronyms: • A/E/C – Architecture, Engineering, and Construction • BIM – Building Information Modeling • CAD – Computer- Aided Design • CIM – Civil...Building Information Modeling (BIM), Civil Information Modeling (CIM), and Computer- Aided Design (CAD). It is through the collection and documentation

  2. Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect-Transistors (FETs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    This five page presentation is grouped into 11 numbered viewgraphs, most of which contain one or more diagrams. Some of the diagrams are accompanied by captions, including: 2) Nanotube FET by Delft, IBM; 3) Nanotube FET/Standard MOSFET; 5) Saturation with carrier-carrier; 7) Electronic properties of carbon nanotube; 8) Theoretical nanotube FET characteristics; 11) Summary: Delft and IBM nanotube FET analysis.

  3. An exploratory typology of provider responses that encourage and discourage conversation about complementary and integrative medicine during routine oncology visits

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Christopher J.; Ho, Evelyn Y.; Trupin, Laura; Dohan, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize how providers respond to patient mentions of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) during routine oncology visits. METHODS Ethnographic methods were used over a two and a half year period with 82 advanced cancer patients and their providers across four oncology clinics. Participant observation fieldnotes were analyzed using Discourse Analysis. RESULTS CIM was mentioned in 78/229 (34%) of the total observed visits. Patients initiated talk about CIM (76%) more than providers (24%). Patients mentioning CIM may indicate a preference for or interest in non-pharmacological adjunctive treatment options. Providers’ responses inhibited further talk in 44% of observations and promoted talk in 56% of observations. CONCLUSION How providers respond may indicate their willingness to discuss a range of treatment options and to collaboratively engage in treatment decision-making. Provider responses that inhibited CIM conversation passed on the opportunity to discuss patient interests, and responses that promoted further conversation helped counsel patients about appropriate CIM use. Promoting discussion did not require additional time or extensive knowledge about CIM. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Providers can facilitate high quality communication without endorsing CIM to help patients make treatment decisions and to evaluate CIM appropriateness and safety in ways that are responsive to patient preferences and values. An exploratory typology of provider responses that encourage and discourage conversation about complementary and integrative medicine during routine oncology visits PMID:25865412

  4. 76 FR 50315 - Notice of Fiscal Year 2012 Safety Grants and Solicitation for Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Registration Information Systems Management (PRISM) grants; Safety Data Improvement Program (SaDIP) grants; and....gov , 202-366-0133. SaDIP Grants--Cim Weiss, cim.weiss@dot.gov , 202-366-0275. PRISM Grants--Julie... match. SaDIP grant applications must be submitted electronically through grants.gov . PRISM...

  5. 75 FR 40023 - Notice of Fiscal Year 2011 Safety Grants and Solicitation for Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...) Modernization grants; Performance and Registration Information Systems Management (PRISM) grants; Safety Data...-3030 SaDIP Grants--Cim Weiss, cim.weiss@dot.gov , 202-366-0275 PRISM Grants--Tom Lawler, tom.lawler@dot... recipients are required to provide a 20 percent match. PRISM Grants Section 4109 of SAFETEA-LU...

  6. Computer Integrated Manufacturing Programs in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Milford, CT. Academic Information Systems.

    This publication focuses on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) programs at several higher education institutions which teach the use of computing in manufacturing. The document describes programs at the following institutions: University of Alabama (where researchers are investigating CIM techniques with a key focus on transferring their…

  7. The Social Dimension of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing: An Extended Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badham, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) on working conditions depends on the way in which the technologies are designed to fit operator requirements, work organization, and organizational objectives. Recent attempts to promote skill-based human-centered approaches to CIM design are aimed at introducing humane working conditions…

  8. Developing Security Force Assistance: Lessons from Foreign Internal Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-18

    Information Mangement , and the Embassy Country Team. Each of these ideas supports the others and builds towards the comprehensive focus that SFA seeks to...Management. Although CIM technologies are relatively new, the practice of CIM precedes the use of advanced tools. Civil Information provides the

  9. CMS Software: Installation Guide and User Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Straut, Christine

    2016-12-01

    A Chemical Inventory Management System (CIMS) is a system or program that is used to track chemicals at a facility or institution. An effective CIMS begins tracking these chemicals at the point of procurement and continues through use and disposal. The management of chemicals throughout the life cycle (procurement to disposal) is a key concept for the secure management of chemicals at any institution.

  10. Cimetidine down-regulates stability of Foxp3 protein via Stub1 in Treg cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yizhi; Chen, Zhoujia; Luo, Xuerui; Wu, Bin; Li, Bin; Wang, Bin

    2016-10-02

    Foxp3-expressing Treg cells have been well documented to provide immune regulation by promoting immune tolerance and suppressing immune over-reaction. Cimetidine (CIM), used to inhibit stomach acid secretion, has been reported to promote immune responses and suppress Treg cell function in several studies. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. To investigate CIM effects on the suppressive function of Treg and Foxp3, here we used CIM to stimulate human CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and Jurkat T cells and evaluated changes of Foxp3 expression and stability. Our data showed that CIM leads to a reduction of Foxp3 via E3 ligase Stub1-mediated proteosomal degradation, which is dependent on an activated PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. Thus, CIM affects the suppressive function of Treg cells by destabilizing their Foxp3 expression.

  11. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 14: Automated Equipment Technician (CIM), of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  12. CFD Validation for Base Flows with and without Plume Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    configuration has been computed. 2.3.1 Multi-Dimensional Upwind method (MDU) The MDU method is decribed in great detail in Van der Weide’s Ph.D thesis ...Unstructured Grids Using Multi-Dimensional Upwind Schemes, Ph.D thesis , Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 1998. 5. Houtman, E.M., Van der...Nonequilibrium Gas Flows, Ph.D thesis in preparation, Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology. 7. Carette, J.-C, Adaptive Unstructured Mesh

  13. Resolving Complex Flows in a Reef/Island Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    Monismith, 2007). An important research question will be how to effectively incorporate coral reef features as roughness elements using the recent...enhancement to DELFT3D-FLOW with the recognition that the coral reef features will likely be sub-grid scale. WORK COMPLETED The objectives of this first...side and south on the west side (D). The DELFT-3D FLOW model grid has been preliminarily rendered with bathymetry from the local hosts ( Coral Reef Conservation

  14. Synergistic and additive effects of cimetidine and levamisole on cellular immune responses to hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Niu, X; Yang, Y; Wang, J

    2013-02-01

    We and others have previously shown that both cimetidine (CIM) and levamisole (LMS) enhance humoral and cellular responses to DNA vaccines via different mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the synergistic and additive effects of CIM and LMS on the potency of antigen-specific immunities generated by a DNA vaccine encoding the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, pVax-S2). Compared with CIM or LMS alone, the combination of CIM and LMS elicited a robust HBsAg-specific cellular response that was characterized by higher IgG2a, but did not further increase HBsAg-specific antibody IgG and IgG1 production. Consistent with these results, the combination of CIM and LMS produced the highest level of IL-2 and IFN-γ in antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells, whereas the combination of CIM and LMS did not further increase IL-4 production. Significantly, a robust HBsAg-specific cytotoxic response was also observed in the animals immunized with pVax-S2 in the presence of the combination of CIM and LMS. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that the combination of CIM and LMS promoted dendritic cell (DC) activation and blocked anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and TGF-β production in CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. These findings suggest that CIM and LMS have the synergistic and additive ability to enhance cellular response to hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine, which may be mediated by DC activation and inhibition of anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, the combination of cimetidine and levamisole may be useful as an effective adjuvant in DNA vaccinations for chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

  15. Comparison of negative-ion proton-transfer with iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry for quantification of isocyanic acid in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward-Massey, Robert; Taha, Youssef M.; Moussa, Samar G.; Osthoff, Hans D.

    2014-12-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO) is a trace gas pollutant of potential importance to human health whose measurement has recently become possible through the development of negative-ion proton-transfer chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS) with acetate reagent ion. In this manuscript, an alternative ionization and detection scheme, in which HNCO is quantified by iodide CIMS (iCIMS) as a cluster ion at m/z 170, is described. The sensitivity was inversely proportional to water vapor concentration but could be made independent of humidity changes in the sampled air by humidifying the ion-molecule reaction (IMR) region of the CIMS. The performance of the two ionization schemes was compared and contrasted using ambient air measurements of HNCO mixing ratios in Calgary, AB, Canada, by NI-PT-CIMS with acetate reagent ion from Dec 16 to 20, 2013, and by the same CIMS operated in iCIMS mode from Feb 3 to 7, 2014. The iCIMS exhibited a greater signal-to-noise ratio than the NI-PT-CIMS, not because of its sensitivity, which was lower (˜0.083 normalized counts per second (NCPS) per parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv) compared to ˜9.7 NCPS pptv-1), but because of a much lower and more stable background (3 ± 4 compared to a range of ˜2 × 103 to ˜6 × 103 NCPS). For the Feb 2014 data set, the HNCO mixing ratios in Calgary air ranged from <12 to 94 pptv (median 34 pptv), were marginally higher at night than during day, and correlated with nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) mixing ratios and submicron particle volume. The ratios of HNCO to NOx observed are within the range of emission ratios reported for gasoline-powered motor vehicles.

  16. Evaluating the economics of complementary and integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Herman, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare in the United States is expensive and becoming more so every year. Policy and decision makers increasingly need information on costs, as well as effectiveness and safety, in order to formulate health-care strategies that are both clinically effective and financially responsible. Many people believe the benefits of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) exceed its costs. Surveys have shown that a substantial portion of the US population uses CIM and pays directly for that use.(1) (-) (4) The most recent estimates show that total US out-of-pocket expenditures for CIM were $34 billion-11% of all US out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures.(1) However, if CIM is to be considered in broader healthcare strategies, its economic impact must be determined. Theoretically, CIM seems a good candidate for cost-effectiveness, and even cost savings, because it avoids high technology, offers inexpensive and noninvasive remedies, encourages healthy lifestyle change, and focuses on the whole person, all of which may improve health beyond the targeted disease or condition. However, to many in the conventional health-care system, CIM is seen only as an "add on" expense. What must be demonstrated via economic evaluation are the healthcare costs that can be avoided through the use of CIM. CIM offers the potential for several avenues of cost reduction. The first is as a direct replacement for the usual conventional therapy for a condition. The second is in terms of lower future healthcare utilization both in general (through treating the whole person) and for the targeted disease or condition. A third avenue to cost reduction is through reducing productivity loss for employers. A reduction in costs to employers does not directly reduce healthcare costs (unless the employer is itself a health-care facility); however, both are costs to society. Productivity losses can be reduced through improved employee health, and potentially through the improved employee well-being and

  17. Retrospective and prospective evaluation of the Carbapenem inactivation method for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Lauraine; Dortet, Laurent; Naas, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for accurate and rapid diagnostic tests to identify carbapenemase producing enterobacteria (CPE). Here, we have evaluated the Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM) test to detect CPEs from cultured colonies. Methods A total of 256 enterobacterial isolates were used to evaluate the performance of the CIM in comparison to Carba NP test and molecular detection used a reference method. Ninety three well-characterized isolates (including 29 non-CPE and 63 CPEs of worldwide origin) with decreased susceptibility to at least one carbapenem were used to (i) evaluate the efficacy of CIM test and (ii) to compare it to the Carba NP test. We also tested different carbapenems to determine the best substrate for this test. Finally, the CIM test was then evaluated prospectively against 164 isolates referred to the French National Reference Center (NRC) for Antimicrobial Resistance from may 2016 to july 2016. Results Based on the results of this retrospective study, sensitivity and specificity of the CIM and the Carba NP test were 92.1% and 100%, respectively. We demonstrated that the meropenem was the best substrate to perform the CIM test since sensitivity and specificity were 81.1% and 100% using ertapenem disk, and 100% and 65,6% using imipenem disk, and respectively. Taking in account the results of retrospective and prospective studies, CIM and Carba NP tests have similar sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values being 96.3%, 98.9%, 99.0% and 98.4% for the CIM test versus 96.9%, 100%, 100% and 100% for the Carba NP test. Conclusions Our results confirm that the CIM test may be a useful tool for the reliable confirmation of carbapenemase-activity in enterobacterial isolates, especially in clinical microbiological laboratories with limited resources, no trained personnel, and no specialized equipment. PMID:28158310

  18. Negative ion mass spectrometry and the detection of carbonyls and HCN from clover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, Thomas G.; Kato, Shuji; Fall, Ray; Bierbaum, Veronica M.

    2000-12-01

    We have demonstrated that negative ion-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NI-CIMS) can be used to distinguish several isomeric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted from wounded plants. Reaction chemistry with HO-, hydrogen/deuterium exchange patterns, and collision-induced dissociation spectra allow identification of the isomers. Laboratory studies of emissions from wounded clover using NI-CIMS show several previously detected VOCs, but also clearly demonstrate the emission of HCN. This compound is presumably formed by the decomposition of cyanogenic glycosides which also form aldehyde and ketone byproducts. These results suggest that NI-CIMS may be a valuable tool for investigating VOCs and HCN release from vegetation.

  19. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  20. A Comparison of Post-Processed Variables Used by the Tri-Service Version of the Integrated Weather Effects Decision Aid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    ARMY RSRCH LAB ATTN RDRL CIM P TECHL PUB ATTN RDRL CIM L TECHL LIB ATTN IMNE ALC HRR MAIL & RECORDS MGMT 2800 POWDER MILL ROAD...ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 1 HC US ARMY RSRCH LAB ATTN RDRL CIM G TECHL LIB T LANDFRIED APG MD 21005-5066 1 CD NCAR LIBRARY SERIALS NATL CTR FOR...ATMOS RSCH PO BOX 3000 BOULDER CO 80307-3000 1 CD HEADQUARTERS DEPT OF ARMY DAMI- POB WEATHER TEAM 1000 ARMY PENTAGON ROOM 2E383

  1. A pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Lapurr sandstone, West Turkana, Kenya.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick M; Sertich, Joseph J W; Manthi, Fredrick K

    2011-03-01

    An isolated pterosaurian caudal cervical (~ postcervical) vertebra was recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Lapurr sandstone of West Turkana, northwestern Kenya. The vertebral centrum is short, wide, and dorsoventrally compressed. Although the specimen is lightly built similar to most pterosaurs, it is here referred to Pterodactyloidea and tentatively to the Azhdarchidae in that it lacks pneumatic features on both the centrum and neural arch. This represents one of the few pterosaurs recovered from the entirety of Afro-Arabia, the first pterosaur recovered from the Cretaceous of East Africa, and, significantly, a specimen that was recovered from fluvial deposits rather than the near-shore marine setting typical of most pterosaur discoveries.

  2. Multiple Viral Determinants Mediate Myopathogenicity in Coxsackievirus B1-Induced Chronic Inflammatory Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Patricia E.; Weber-Sanders, Melissa L.; Messner, Ronald P.

    2003-01-01

    Mice infected with myopathic coxsackievirus B1 Tucson (CVB1T) develop chronic inflammatory myopathy (CIM) consisting of hind limb weakness and inflammation. Amyopathic virus variants are infectious but attenuated for CIM. In this report, viral clones, chimeras, and sequencing were used to identify viral determinants of CIM. Chimeras identified several regions involved in CIM and localized a weakness determinant to nucleotides 2493 to 3200 of VP1. Sequencing of multiple clones and viruses identified five candidate determinants that were strictly conserved in myopathic viruses with one located in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR), three in the VP1 capsid, and one in the 3C protease. Taken together, these studies implicate Tyr-87 and/or Val-136 as candidate determinants of weakness. They also indicate that there are at least two determinants of inflammation and one additional determinant of weakness encoded by myopathic CVB1T. PMID:14557670

  3. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distributed in commerce. (2) The label must be plastic or metal and be welded, riveted, or otherwise... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  4. Gas Phase Chiral Separations By Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Prabha; Wu, Ching; Hill, Herbert H.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript introduces the concept of Chiral Ion Mobility Spectrometry (CIMS) and presents examples demonstrating the gas phase separation of enantiomers of a wide range of racemates including pharmaceuticals, amino acids and carbohydrates. CIMS is similar to traditional ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), where gas phase ions, when subjected to a potential gradient are separated at atmospheric pressure due to differences in their shapes and sizes. In addition to size and shape, CIMS separates ions based on their stereospecific interaction with a chiral gas. In order to achieve chiral discrimination by CIMS, an asymmetric environment was provided by doping the drift gas with a volatile chiral reagent. In this study S-(+)-2-butanol was used as a chiral modifier to demonstrate enantiomeric separations of atenolol, serine, methionine, threonine, methyl-α-glucopyranoside, glucose, penicillamine, valinol, phenylalanine, and tryptophan from their respective racemic mixtures. PMID:17165808

  5. Review of Critical Illness Myopathy and Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Starane; Batra, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and neuropathy are underdiagnosed conditions within the intensive care setting and contribute to prolonged mechanical ventilation and ventilator wean failure and ultimately lead to significant morbidity and mortality. These conditions are often further subdivided into CIM, critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), or the combination—critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM). In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CIM, CIP, and CIPNM, along with diagnostic considerations such as detailed clinical examination, electrophysiological studies, and histopathological review of muscle biopsy specimens. We also review current available treatments and prognosis. Increased awareness and early recognition of CIM, CIP, and CIPNM in the intensive care unit setting may lead to earlier treatments and rehabilitation, improving patient outcomes. PMID:28042370

  6. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  7. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  8. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  9. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tanzy M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs) for QTL. Support interval (SI) methods based on the shape of the QTL likelihood curve have proven adequate for standard interval mapping, but have not been shown to be appropriate for use with composite interval mapping (CIM), which is one of the most commonly used QTL mapping methods. Results Based on a non-parametric confidence interval (NPCI) method designed for use with the Haley-Knott regression method for mapping QTL, a CIM-specific method (CIM-NPCI) was developed to appropriately account for the selection of background markers during analysis of bootstrap-resampled data sets. Coverage probabilities and interval widths resulting from use of the NPCI, SI, and CIM-NPCI methods were compared in a series of simulations analyzed via CIM, wherein four genetic effects were simulated in chromosomal regions with distinct marker densities while heritability was fixed at 0.6 for a population of 200 isolines. CIM-NPCIs consistently capture the simulated QTL across these conditions while slightly narrower SIs and NPCIs fail at unacceptably high rates, especially in genomic regions where marker density is high, which is increasingly common for real studies. The effects of a known CIM bias toward locating QTL peaks at markers were also investigated for each marker density case. Evaluation of sub-simulations that varied according to the positions of simulated effects relative to the nearest markers showed that the CIM-NPCI method overcomes this bias, offering an explanation for the improved coverage probabilities when marker densities are high. Conclusions Extensive simulation studies herein demonstrate that the QTL confidence interval methods typically used to positionally evaluate CIM results can be dramatically improved

  10. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on colloid-imprinted mesoporous carbon and their application in disposable paper-based potentiometric sensing devices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinbo; Ho, Kieu T; Zou, Xu U; Smyrl, William H; Stein, Andreas; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2015-03-03

    Reference electrodes are used in almost every electroanalytical measurement. Here, all-solid-state reference electrodes are described that employ colloid-imprinted mesoporous (CIM) carbon as solid contact and a poly(vinyl chloride) reference membrane to contact the sample. Such a reference membrane is doped with a moderately hydrophilic ionic liquid and a hydrophobic redox couple, leading to well-defined constant potentials at the interfaces of this membrane to the sample and to the solid contact, respectively. Due to the intrinsic properties of CIM carbon, reference electrodes with a CIM carbon solid contact exhibit excellent resistance to common interfering agents such as light and O2, with outstanding potential stability in continuous potentiometric measurements. The potential drift of CIM carbon-based reference electrodes without redox couple is as low as 1.7 μV/h over 110 h, making them the most stable all-solid-state reference electrodes reported so far. To demonstrate the compatibility of CIM carbon-based reference electrodes with miniaturized potentiometric systems, these reference electrodes were integrated into paper-based potentiometric sensing devices, successfully replacing the conventional reference electrode with its reference electrolyte solution. As a proof of concept, disposable paper-based Cl(-) sensing devices that contain stencil-printed Ag/AgCl-based Cl(-) selective electrodes and CIM carbon-based reference electrodes were constructed. These sensing devices are inexpensive, easy to use, and offer highly reproducible Cl(-) measurements with sample volumes as low as 10 μL.

  11. Heterosis and correlation in interspecific and intraspecific hybrids of cotton.

    PubMed

    Munir, S; Hussain, S B; Manzoor, H; Quereshi, M K; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Shehzad, A N; Rasul, S; Manzoor, S A

    2016-06-24

    Interspecific and intraspecific hybrids show varying degrees of heterosis for yield and yield components. Yield-component traits have complex genetic relationships with each other. To determine the relationship of yield-component traits and fiber traits with seed cotton yield, six lines (Bt. CIM-599, CIM-573, MNH-786, CIM-554, BH-167, and GIZA-7) and three test lines (MNH-886, V4, and CIM-557) were crossed in a line x tester mating design. Heterosis was observed for seed cotton yield, fiber traits, and for other yield-component traits. Heterosis in interspecific hybrids for seed cotton yield was more prominent than in intraspecific hybrids. The interspecific hybrid Giza-7 x MNH-886 had the highest heterosis (114.77), while among intraspecific hybrids, CIM-554 x CIM-557 had the highest heterosis (61.29) for seed cotton yield. A major trait contributing to seed cotton yield was bolls/plant followed by boll weight. Correlation studies revealed that bolls/plant, boll weight, lint weight/boll, lint index, seed index, lint/seed, staple length, and staple strength were significantly and positively associated with seed cotton yield. Selection based on boll weight, boll number, lint weight/boll, and lint index will be helpful for improving cotton seed yield.

  12. Evaluation of COMPASS ionospheric model in GNSS positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Hu, Xiaogong; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Huijuan; Tang, Chengpan

    2013-03-01

    As important products of GNSS navigation message, ionospheric delay model parameters are broadcasted for single-frequency users to improve their positioning accuracy. GPS provides daily Klobuchar ionospheric model parameters based on geomagnetic reference frame, while the regional satellite navigation system of China's COMPASS broadcasts an eight-parameter ionospheric model, COMPASS Ionospheric Model(CIM), which was generated by processing data from continuous monitoring stations, with updating the parameters every 2 h. To evaluate its performance, CIM predictions are compared to ionospheric delay measurements, along with GPS positioning accuracy comparisons. Real observed data analysis indicates that CIM provides higher correction precision in middle-latitude regions, but relatively lower correction precision for low-latitude regions where the ionosphere has much higher variability. CIM errors for some users show a common bias for in-coming COMPASS signals from different satellites, and hence ionospheric model errors are somehow translated into the receivers' clock error estimation. In addition, the CIM from the China regional monitoring network are further evaluated for global ionospheric corrections. Results show that in the Northern Hemisphere areas including Asia, Europe and North America, the three-dimensional positioning accuracy using the CIM for ionospheric delay corrections is improved by 7.8%-35.3% when compared to GPS single-frequency positioning ionospheric delay corrections using the Klobuchar model. However, the positioning accuracy in the Southern Hemisphere is degraded due apparently to the lack of monitoring stations there.

  13. Combined fragment molecular orbital cluster in molecule approach to massively parallel electron correlation calculations for large systems.

    PubMed

    Findlater, Alexander D; Zahariev, Federico; Gordon, Mark S

    2015-04-16

    The local correlation "cluster-in-molecule" (CIM) method is combined with the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method, providing a flexible, massively parallel, and near-linear scaling approach to the calculation of electron correlation energies for large molecular systems. Although the computational scaling of the CIM algorithm is already formally linear, previous knowledge of the Hartree-Fock (HF) reference wave function and subsequent localized orbitals is required; therefore, extending the CIM method to arbitrarily large systems requires the aid of low-scaling/linear-scaling approaches to HF and orbital localization. Through fragmentation, the combined FMO-CIM method linearizes the scaling, with respect to system size, of the HF reference and orbital localization calculations, achieving near-linear scaling at both the reference and electron correlation levels. For the 20-residue alanine α helix, the preliminary implementation of the FMO-CIM method captures 99.6% of the MP2 correlation energy, requiring 21% of the MP2 wall time. The new method is also applied to solvated adamantine to illustrate the multilevel capability of the FMO-CIM method.

  14. Conference on Applications of Artificial Neural Networks and Related Technologies to Manpower, Personnel, and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    34 unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica . Wahba, G. [1984]: "Cross-Validated Spline Methods for...identification purposes. Biochemical systems such as genetic testing are being increasingly used for forensic testing, but are not yet practical as an applied

  15. Immunohistochemical Studies of Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Matrix Components in Dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula L. Notochordal Cells.

    PubMed

    Restović, Ivana; Vukojević, Katarina; Paladin, Antonela; Saraga-Babić, Mirna; Bočina, Ivana

    2015-10-01

    Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques were used to define the distribution of cytoskeletal (cytokeratin 8, vimentin) and extracellular matrix components (collagen type I, collagen type II, hyaluronic acid, and aggrecan) and bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 7 (BMP4 and BMP7) in the notochord of the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula L. Immunolocalization of hyaluronic acid was observed in the notochord, vertebral centrum, and neural and hemal arches, while positive labeling to aggrecan was observed in the ossified centrum, notochord, and the perichondrium of the hyaline cartilage. Type I collagen was observed in the mineralized cartilage of the vertebral bodies, the notochord, the fibrocartilage of intervertebral disc, and the perichondrium. A positive labeling to type II collagen was observed in the inner part of the cartilaginous vertebral centrum and the notochord, as well as in the neural arch and muscle tissue, but there was no appreciable labeling of the hyaline cartilage. The presence of both BMP4 and BMP7 was seen in the mineralized vertebral centrum, notochordal cells, and neural arch. The notochordal cells expressed both cytokeratin 8 and vimentin, but predominantly vimentin. Hyaluronic acid, collagen type I, and collagen type II expression confirmed the presence of a mixture of notochordal and fibrocartilaginous tissue in the intervertebral disc, while BMPs confirmed the presence of an ossification in the cartilaginous skeleton of the spotted dogfish.

  16. Experiential Education, Outdoor Adventure As a Modality in Youth Care and Residential Treatment. A Survey of Programs, Principles, Research and Practice on the European Continent, Especially the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duindam, Ton

    Orthopedagogisch Centrum Michiel is a multifunctional institution in the eastern Netherlands for youth with emotional problems. The staff of the institution's residential treatment center has gradually become involved with outdoor experiential education through training programs, conferences, special projects, and supervised programs. Activities…

  17. Experiential Education, Outdoor Adventure As a Modality in Residential Treatment. A Survey of Programs, Principles, Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duindam, Ton

    Orthopedagogisch Centrum (OC) Michiel is a multifunctional regional institution in the Netherlands that serves troubled families and youth at risk. Outdoor programs are used as a treatment modality for adolescents with behavior disorders, drug addictions, or criminal records. Outward Bound was the first experiential outdoor program in the…

  18. Ontogenetic allometry in the thoracolumbar spine of mammal species with differing gait use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katrina E; German, Rebecca Z

    2014-03-01

    Vertebrae are serially homologous structures with tight integration through their evolution and development. However, in mammals, the thoracic and lumbar regions are morphologically and functionally differentiated. We test the hypothesis that locomotor specialization is associated with altered post-natal growth patterns in vertebrae from different vertebral regions. We use longitudinal data to examine thoracolumbar growth in two specialized half-bounding (Oryctolagus cuniculus and Chinchilla lanigera) and two non-specialized (Cavia porcellus and Monodelphis domestica) species with similar body sizes. Lateral X-rays of 38 individuals were the source of centrum length, centrum height and intervertebral space length measures for 19-20 thoracolumbar vertebrae. The repeated measurements design included the same individuals soon after birth and again at adult size. Data from columns with different vertebral counts were compared by either summing (length) or averaging (height) within regions, and individual vertebrae were directly compared at the first and last five vertebral positions. Specialized half-bounders had longer lumbar regions than generalists, which was attributable to positively allometric growth of the lumbar centra. Lumbar centrum length was more variable both ontogenetically and interspecifically than the other variables, suggesting heterochrony may be generating lumbar variation. Craniocaudal patterns of centrum growth correlate with expression of regionalizing genes (i.e., Hox).

  19. Are complementary therapies and integrative care cost-effective? A systematic review of economic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Patricia M; Poindexter, Beth L; Witt, Claudia M; Eisenberg, David M

    2012-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive systematic review of economic evaluations of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) to establish the value of these therapies to health reform efforts. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, AMED, PsychInfo, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched from inception through 2010. In addition, bibliographies of found articles and reviews were searched, and key researchers were contacted. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies of CIM were identified using criteria based on those of the Cochrane complementary and alternative medicine group. All studies of CIM reporting economic outcomes were included. Study appraisal methods All recent (and likely most cost-relevant) full economic evaluations published 2001–2010 were subjected to several measures of quality. Detailed results of higher-quality studies are reported. Results A total of 338 economic evaluations of CIM were identified, of which 204, covering a wide variety of CIM for different populations, were published 2001–2010. A total of 114 of these were full economic evaluations. And 90% of these articles covered studies of single CIM therapies and only one compared usual care to usual care plus access to multiple licensed CIM practitioners. Of the recent full evaluations, 31 (27%) met five study-quality criteria, and 22 of these also met the minimum criterion for study transferability (‘generalisability’). Of the 56 comparisons made in the higher-quality studies, 16 (29%) show a health improvement with cost savings for the CIM therapy versus usual care. Study quality of the cost-utility analyses (CUAs) of CIM was generally comparable to that seen in CUAs across all medicine according to several measures, and the quality of the cost-saving studies was slightly, but not significantly, lower than those showing cost increases (85% vs 88%, p=0.460). Conclusions This comprehensive review identified many CIM economic evaluations missed by previous reviews and emerging evidence of cost

  20. Development of An Ion-Drift Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Technique for Measurements of Aerosol Precursor Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Ma, Y.; Chen, M.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a new technique, i.e., ion-drift time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ID-ToF-CIMS) for measurements of aerosol precursor gases, including ammonia, amines, organic acids and oxygenated VOCs at pptv level with a response time less than 1 s. The ID-ToF-CIMS was modified from an Aerodyne high resolution ToF-CIMS with a custom-designed ion-drift tube, which can control the ion flight velocity and hence the ion-molecular reaction time. In addition, the tunable electric field generated by the drift tube can break up water clusters to select the major reagent ions. The advantages of the ID-ToF-CIMS over the traditional quadrupole-based ID-CIMS were the high mass-resolving power of the ToF mass analyzer and the capability of simultaneous measurement of the full mass range (typically up to 300 m/z) of product ions. Using hydronium ion based reagent ions, we demonstrated that the ID-ToF-CIMS can unambiguously measure ammonia (NH3) at 18.03 m/z, methyl amine (CH3NH2) at 32.05 m/z, formic acid (HCOOH) at 47.01 m/z and acetone (CH3COCH3) at 59.05 m/z. Calibrations were performed with both compressed commercial standard gases and permeation tubes and the results showed that the instrument detection limit can reach pptv level for 1 s average time or less. The ID-ToF-CIMS was also field tested in a mobile laboratory on the campus of Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST). The preliminary results will be discussed.

  1. Cimetidine synergizes with Praziquantel to enhance the immune response of HBV DNA vaccine via activating cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoping; Geng, Shuang; Liu, Hu; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Yuqin; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that either CIM or PZQ, 2 clinical drugs, could be used to develop as adjuvants on HBV DNA vaccine to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that combinations of CIM and PZQ as adjuvants for a HBV DNA vaccine, could induce much stronger antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses compared either with CIM or PZQ alone. The synergistic effects of CIM plus PZQ to HBV DNA vaccine were observed on a higher IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, an increase of HBsAg-specific CD4(+) T cells capable of producing IFN-γ or IL-17A and a robust IFN-γ-, IL-17A-, or TNF-α-producing CD8(+) T cells to HBsAg. Most importantly, the antigen-specific CTL response was also elevated significantly, which is critical for the eradication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected cells. Using an HBsAg transgenic mouse model, the expression of HBsAg in the hepatic cells was also significantly reduced after immunized with pCD-S 2 in the presence of 0.5% CIM and 0.25% PZQ. Further investigations demonstrated that the synergistic effects of combination of CIM and PZQ were dependent on enhanced cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, which was correlated with impaired activities of regulatory T cells. Therefore, combinations of CIM and PZQ have great potential to be used as effective adjuvants on DNA-based vaccinations for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

  2. NCPP's Use of Standard Metadata to Promote Open and Transparent Climate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treshansky, A.; Barsugli, J. J.; Guentchev, G.; Rood, R. B.; DeLuca, C.

    2012-12-01

    The National Climate Predictions and Projections (NCPP) Platform is developing comprehensive regional and local information about the evolving climate to inform decision making and adaptation planning. This includes both creating and providing tools to create metadata about the models and processes used to create its derived data products. NCPP is using the Common Information Model (CIM), an ontology developed by a broad set of international partners in climate research, as its metadata language. This use of a standard ensures interoperability within the climate community as well as permitting access to the ecosystem of tools and services emerging alongside the CIM. The CIM itself is divided into a general-purpose (UML & XML) schema which structures metadata documents, and a project or community-specific (XML) Controlled Vocabulary (CV) which constraints the content of metadata documents. NCPP has already modified the CIM Schema to accommodate downscaling models, simulations, and experiments. NCPP is currently developing a CV for use by the downscaling community. Incorporating downscaling into the CIM will lead to several benefits: easy access to the existing CIM Documents describing CMIP5 models and simulations that are being downscaled, access to software tools that have been developed in order to search, manipulate, and visualize CIM metadata, and coordination with national and international efforts such as ES-DOC that are working to make climate model descriptions and datasets interoperable. Providing detailed metadata descriptions which include the full provenance of derived data products will contribute to making that data (and, the models and processes which generated that data) more open and transparent to the user community.

  3. A Polynomial Primal-Dual Interior Point Method for Convex Programming with Quadratic Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Delft Un~versity of Technology, Delft, Netherlands. [3H Bazaraa , M. S., J. J. Jarvis, and H. D. Sh’rali. 199a Linar Pgrammning a" N]tdiwk Flow, John... Bazaraa , M. S., J. J. Jarvis, and H. D. Sherali. 1990. IjnW Programming and Network Flw, John Wiley and Sons, New York. [4] Charnes, A., and K. 0. Kortanek...often used in linear programming. For a detailed discussion of that 90 application, see Bazaraa . Jarvis. and Sherali(1990). Given J£, let T denote the

  4. Comparison of four methods for determining nitrate utilization by cryptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, J C; Roberts, G D

    1975-01-01

    This study evaluated the following methods for determining nitrate utilization: Wickerham broth, a special nitrate broth, Delft plate, and nitrate strip. With 236 isolates of cryptococci as test organisms, the special nitrate broth method gave 99% correct results and the Wickerham broth method gave 98%. The nitrate strip and Delft plate methods gave correct results in 94 and 86% of tests, respectively. The special nitrate broth method is judged superior because it provides accurate results within 48 h, compared to 14 days with the Wickerham broth method. PMID:1100649

  5. An Evaluation of Boundary Condition Specification for a Littoral Hydrodynamic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    from NCOM (blue) for 3 locations in the M2D model case. II. APPROACH Several comparisons of Delft3D model results were completed for a number...boundary conditions from OSU Tides (red) and time series boundary conditions from NCOM (blue) for 3 locations in the M2D model case. /; M2D and M3D...The M2D and M3D Delft3D applications cover approximately 33 square kilometers at a resolution of approximately 500 meters. The M2D model case is depth

  6. PSMA-Based [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT Is Superior to Conventional Imaging for Lesion Detection in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Steven P.; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Mena, Esther; Blackford, Amanda L.; Nadal, Rosa; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Eisenberger, Mario; Carducci, Michael; Fan, Hong; Dannals, Robert F.; Chen, Ying; Mease, Ronnie C.; Szabo, Zsolt; Pomper, Martin G.; Cho, Steve Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Current standard of care conventional imaging modalities (CIM) such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) and bone scan can be limited for detection of metastatic prostate cancer and therefore improved imaging methods are an unmet clinical need. We evaluated the utility of a novel second-generation low molecular weight radiofluorinated prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, [18F]DCFPyL, in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Procedures Nine patients with suspected prostate cancer recurrence, eight with CIM evidence of metastatic prostate cancer and one with biochemical recurrence, were imaged with [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT. Eight of the patients had contemporaneous CIM for comparison. A lesion-by-lesion comparison of the detection of suspected sites of metastatic prostate cancer was carried out between PET and CIM. Statistical analysis for estimated proportions of inter-modality agreement for detection of metastatic disease was calculated accounting for intra-patient correlation using general estimating equation (GEE) intercept-only regression models. Results One hundred thirty-nine sites of PET positive [18F]DCFPyL uptake (138 definite, 1 equivocal) for metastatic disease were detected in the eight patients with available comparison CIM. By contrast, only 45 lesions were identified on CIM (30 definite, 15 equivocal). When lesions were negative or equivocal on CIM, it was estimated that a large portion of these lesions or 0.72 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.55–0.84) would be positive on [18F]DCFPyL PET. Conversely, of those lesions negative or equivocal on [18F]DCFPyL PET, it was estimated that only a very small proportion or 0.03 (95 % CI 0.01–0.07) would be positive on CIM. Delayed 2-h-post-injection time point PET yielded higher tumor radiotracer uptake and higher tumor-to-background ratios than an earlier 1-h-post-injection time point. Conclusions A novel PSMA-targeted PET radiotracer, [18F

  7. Activation of TRPM3 by a potent synthetic ligand reveals a role in peptide release.

    PubMed

    Held, Katharina; Kichko, Tatjana; De Clercq, Katrien; Klaassen, Hugo; Van Bree, Rieta; Vanherck, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Arnaud; Reeh, Peter W; Chaltin, Patrick; Voets, Thomas; Vriens, Joris

    2015-03-17

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel subfamily M member 3 (TRPM3), a member of the TRP channel superfamily, was recently identified as a nociceptor channel in the somatosensory system, where it is involved in the detection of noxious heat; however, owing to the lack of potent and selective agonists, little is known about other potential physiological consequences of the opening of TRPM3. Here we identify and characterize a synthetic TRPM3 activator, CIM0216, whose potency and apparent affinity greatly exceeds that of the canonical TRPM3 agonist, pregnenolone sulfate (PS). In particular, a single application of CIM0216 causes opening of both the central calcium-conducting pore and the alternative cation permeation pathway in a membrane-delimited manner. CIM0216 evoked robust calcium influx in TRPM3-expressing somatosensory neurons, and intradermal injection of the compound induced a TRPM3-dependent nocifensive behavior. Moreover, CIM0216 elicited the release of the peptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from sensory nerve terminals and insulin from isolated pancreatic islets in a TRPM3-dependent manner. These experiments identify CIM0216 as a powerful tool for use in investigating the physiological roles of TRPM3, and indicate that TRPM3 activation in sensory nerve endings can contribute to neurogenic inflammation.

  8. Directed evolution of Methanococcus jannaschii citramalate synthase for biosynthesis of 1-propanol and 1-butanol by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Shota; Liao, James C

    2008-12-01

    Biofuels synthesized from renewable resources are of increasing interest because of global energy and environmental problems. We have previously demonstrated production of higher alcohols from Escherichia coli using a 2-keto acid-based pathway. Here, we took advantage of the growth phenotype associated with 2-keto acid deficiency to construct a hyperproducer of 1-propanol and 1-butanol by evolving citramalate synthase (CimA) from Methanococcus jannaschii. This new pathway, which directly converts pyruvate to 2-ketobutyrate, bypasses threonine biosynthesis and represents the shortest keto acid-mediated pathway for producing 1-propanol and 1-butanol from glucose. Directed evolution of CimA enhanced the specific activity over a wide temperature range (30 to 70 degrees C). The best CimA variant was found to be insensitive to feedback inhibition by isoleucine in addition to the improved activity. This CimA variant enabled 9- and 22-fold higher production levels of 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively, compared to the strain expressing the wild-type CimA. This work demonstrates (i) the first production of 1-propanol and 1-butanol using the citramalate pathway and (ii) the benefit of the 2-keto acid pathway that enables a growth-based evolutionary strategy to improve the production of non-growth-related products.

  9. Calibration of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer for the measurement of gaseous sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Kürten, Andreas; Rondo, Linda; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Curtius, Joachim

    2012-06-21

    The accurate measurement of the gaseous sulfuric acid concentration is crucial within many fields of atmospheric science. Instruments utilizing chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) measuring H(2)SO(4), therefore, require a careful calibration. We have set up a calibration source that can provide a stable and adjustable concentration of H(2)SO(4). The calibration system initiates the production of sulfuric acid through the oxidation of SO(2) by OH. The hydroxyl radical is produced by UV photolysis of water vapor. A numerical model calculates the H(2)SO(4) concentration provided at the outlet of the calibration source. From comparison of this concentration and the signals measured by CIMS, a calibration factor is derived. This factor is evaluated to be 1.1 × 10(10) cm(-3), which is in good agreement with values found in the literature for other CIMS instruments measuring H(2)SO(4). The calibration system is described in detail and the results are discussed. Because the setup is external to the CIMS instrument, it offers the possibility for future CIMS intercomparison measurements by providing defined and stable concentrations of sulfuric acid.

  10. Effects of the chronic ingestion of therapeutic doses of chlorimipramine on the behavioral action of agonists and antagonists of serotonin in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Echandía, E L; Broitman, S T; Fóscolo, M R

    1983-08-01

    Locomotor activity and hole-board exploration (frequency and time spent head-dipping) were impaired in male rats by injecting IP the 5-HT agonists, fluoxetine and 5-HTP. This treatment produced also myoclonus and increased the time spent resting during trials. The chronic ingestion of chlorimipramine (CIM) or the injection of the 5-HT receptor blocker, methysergide (15 mg/kg) prevented the action of the 5-HT agonists on locomotion and resting and blocked the appearance of myoclonus. Both CIM and methysergide prevented to a minor degree the fluoxetine-5-HTP-induced decrease of exploration. The chronic ingestion of CIM clearly potentiated the effects of methysergide on hole-board exploration. Results suggest that the chronic treatment with therapeutic doses of CIM reduces the functional activity of some 5-HT systems in the brain of the rat, probably by blockade of post-synaptic 5-HT receptors. This does not preclude, however, that CIM may also alter some NA systems.

  11. Effective communication about the use of complementary and integrative medicine in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) is becoming an increasingly popular and visible component of oncology care. Many patients affected by cancer and their family members are looking for informed advice and desire communication with their physicians about CIM use. Patients affected by cancer come to discuss CIM use with intense emotions and are experiencing an existential crisis that cannot be ignored. Effective communication is crucial in establishing trust with these patients and their families. Communication is now recognized as a core clinical skill in medicine, including cancer care, and is important to the delivery of high-quality care. The quality of communication affects patient satisfaction, decision-making, patient distress and well-being, compliance, and even malpractice litigation. The communication process about CIM use requires a very sensitive approach that depends on effective communication skills, such as experience in listening, encouraging hope, and ability to convey empathy and compassion. This process can be divided into two parts: the "how" and the "what". The "how" relates to the change in clinician attitude, the process of gathering information, addressing patients' unmet needs and emotions, and dealing with uncertainty. The "what" relates to the process of information exchange while assisting patients in decisions about CIM use by using reliable information sources, leading to informed decision-making.

  12. Renormalized coupled cluster approaches in the cluster-in-molecule framework: predicting vertical electron binding energies of the anionic water clusters (H2O)(n)(-).

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Gordon, Mark S

    2014-09-04

    Anionic water clusters are generally considered to be extremely challenging to model using fragmentation approaches due to the diffuse nature of the excess electron distribution. The local correlation coupled cluster (CC) framework cluster-in-molecule (CIM) approach combined with the completely renormalized CR-CC(2,3) method [abbreviated CIM/CR-CC(2,3)] is shown to be a viable alternative for computing the vertical electron binding energies (VEBE). CIM/CR-CC(2,3) with the threshold parameter ζ set to 0.001, as a trade-off between accuracy and computational cost, demonstrates the reliability of predicting the VEBE, with an average percentage error of ∼15% compared to the full ab initio calculation at the same level of theory. The errors are predominantly from the electron correlation energy. The CIM/CR-CC(2,3) approach provides the ease of a black-box type calculation with few threshold parameters to manipulate. The cluster sizes that can be studied by high-level ab initio methods are significantly increased in comparison with full CC calculations. Therefore, the VEBE computed by the CIM/CR-CC(2,3) method can be used as benchmarks for testing model potential approaches in small-to-intermediate-sized water clusters.

  13. Science, Passion & Compassion vs. Cancer: Tania Crombet MD PhD, Director of Clinical Research. Molecular Immunology Center, Havana.

    PubMed

    Gory, Conner

    2016-10-01

    Soon after the Molecular Immunology Center (CIM) was established in 1994 (a founding institution of Havana's biotechnology and pharmaceutical campus known as the scientific pole), Dr Crombet completed her master's thesis there. She joined CIM's team in 1998 and in 2004 was designated Director of Clinical Research. She has participated in the research, development and clinical trials of some of Cuba's most innovative therapies and vaccines, including CIMAvax-EGF for non-small cell lung cancer patients. In 2015, this therapy completed Phase IV clinical trials in Cuba and is now used in primary health care services throughout the country's national health system. CIM and Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, New York) received US Department of Treasury approval in 2015 to test CIMAvax-EGF and other CIM products in the United States, opening the way for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to consider joint ground-breaking Phase I and II clinical trials in the USA. Recent regulatory changes introduced by President Barack Obama may make applying for such licenses a thing of the past-at least that is what researchers hope. In any case, the work of Dr Crombet and the teams at CIM is making headway in cancer immunotherapy, within the broader goals of the institution's mandate…the subject of our interview.

  14. Understanding pattern collapse in photolithography process due to capillary forces.

    PubMed

    Chini, S Farshid; Amirfazli, A

    2010-08-17

    Photolithography is the most widely used mass nanoproduction process. Technology requirements demand smaller nanodevices. However, smaller features risk collapse during the drying of rinse liquid because of capillary forces. In the present study, progress is made on two fronts: (i) The importance of surface tension force (STF) on three-phase line on the pattern collapse is investigated. The STF was ignored in previous pattern collapse studies. It is found that inclusion of STF increases the pattern deformation. The calculated deformation error from neglecting STF increases by increasing contact angle, pattern height to width ratio, and trough to width ratio. The deformation error decreases with an increase in elasticity module of pattern. (ii) A more accurate representation for the interface curvature (and related Laplace pressure), that is, using Surface Evolver (SE) simulation rather than cylindrical interface model (CIM), is presented. Curvature values of two-line parallel and box-shaped patterns are derived from SE and compared with the curvature values from CIM. It was found that CIM for the case of two-line parallel overestimates the curvature value and for the case of box-shaped underestimates it. SE simulations also showed that the error of calculating curvature values using CIM for both shapes is only a function of LAR (ratio of pattern length to trough width). For LAR values less than 20, the curvature values from CIM are not accurate for calculating pattern deformation.

  15. Demonstration of real-time monitoring of a photolithographic exposure process using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, C.D.

    1998-02-01

    Silicon wafers are coated with photoresist and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light in a laboratory to simulate typical conditions expected in an actual semiconductor manufacturing process tool. Air is drawn through the exposure chamber and analyzed using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI/MS). Species that evaporate or outgas from the wafer are thus detected. The purpose of such analyses is to determine the potential of CI/MS as a real-time process monitoring tool. Results demonstrate that CI/MS can remotely detect the products evolved before, during, and after wafer UV exposure; and that the quantity and type of products vary with the photoresist coated on the wafer. Such monitoring could provide semiconductor manufacturers benefits in quality control and process analysis. Tool and photoresist manufacturers could also realize benefits from this measurement technique with respect to new tool, method, or photoresist development. The benefits realized can lead to improved device yields and reduced product and development costs.

  16. Estimated Probabililty of Chest Injury During an International Space Station Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Milo, Eric A.; Brooker, John E.; Weaver, Aaron S.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to spaceflight mission planners and medical system designers when assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM project maintains a database of medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight. The IMM project is in the process of assigning an incidence rate, the associated functional impairment, and a best and a worst case end state for each condition. The purpose of this work was to develop the IMM Chest Injury Module (CIM). The CIM calculates the incidence rate of chest injury per person-year of spaceflight on the International Space Station (ISS). The CIM was built so that the probability of chest injury during one year on ISS could be predicted. These results will be incorporated into the IMM Chest Injury Clinical Finding Form and used within the parent IMM model.

  17. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  18. Ion chemistry for the detection of isoprene and other volatile organic compounds in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibrock, Edeltraud; Huey, L. Gregory

    2000-06-01

    A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) and a flowing afterglow apparatus were used to study reactions of benzene cations (C6H6+ and (C6H6)2+) with a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Both cations react at the collision rate with compounds of lower ionization potential than benzene, such as isoprene (C5H8), other conjugated dienes, and aromatics. These ions are generally unreactive with substances of higher ionization potential such as alkanes, simple alcohols, simple carbonyls, etc. The results demonstrate that C6H6+ and (C6H6)2+ are excellent reagent ions for the sensitive detection of isoprene in air with a CIMS. However, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and C5H8 conjugated dienes were identified as potential interferences to this technique. This indicates that the selectivity of the CIMS isoprene measurement must be tested by intercomparison with well-established methods, e.g. gas chromatography techniques.

  19. Carbapenem inactivation: a very affordable and highly specific method for phenotypic detection of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates compared with other methods.

    PubMed

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Khalili, Younes; Ghotaslou, Reza; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Yousefi, Saber; Nagili, Behroz; Goli, Hamid Reza

    2016-07-22

    This investigation was undertaken to compare phenotypic and molecular methods for detection of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 245 non-duplicated isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from hospitalized patients. Disc diffusion method was used to identify carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Three phenotypic methods, including Modified Hodge Test (MHT), Modified Carba NP (MCNP) test and Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM) were used for investigation of carbapenemase production. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect carbapenemase encoding genes. Of 245 P. aeruginosa isolates investigated, 121 isolates were carbapenem-resistant. Among carbapenem-resistant isolates, 40, 39 and 35 isolates exhibited positive results using MHT, MCNP test and CIM, respectively. PCR indicated the presence of carbapenemase genes in 35 of carbapenem-resistant isolates. MHT showed low sensitivity and specificity for carbapenemase detection among P. aeruginosa isolates in comparison to PCR. CIM was most affordable and highly specific than MCNP test compared with the molecular method.

  20. Clinical consultation, a personal perspective: components of a successful integrative medicine clinical consultation.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    Integrative medicine is becoming an increasingly popular and visible component in oncology care. Thus, the question arises: How can clinicians facilitate, encourage, and integrate the use of complementary and integrative medicines (CIMs) in patients with cancer? The integrative medicine consultation is not easy and involves much more than simply providing reliable information about the proper use of CIM therapies to alleviate symptoms. Some key factors are necessary to allow for a successful consultation for patients and their families and caregivers: physicians must have extensive knowledge of CIM and of cancer care; they must use a sensitive approach in communication with the patient that relies on effective communication skills and experience in listening; and they must have the ability to convey empathy and compassion.

  1. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer "cure".

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-08-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to "cure" cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, "wonder cures" are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a "miracle" where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a "cure" for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented.

  2. Computer integration of engineering design and production: A national opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as a purchaser of a variety of manufactured products, including complex space vehicles and systems, clearly has a stake in the advantages of computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). Two major NASA objectives are to launch a Manned Space Station by 1992 with a budget of $8 billion, and to be a leader in the development and application of productivity-enhancing technology. At the request of NASA, a National Research Council committee visited five companies that have been leaders in using CIM. Based on these case studies, technical, organizational, and financial issues that influence computer integration are described, guidelines for its implementation in industry are offered, and the use of CIM to manage the space station program is recommended.

  3. Technical note: Detection of dimethylamine in the low pptv range using nitrate Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight (CI-APi-TOF) mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M.; Heinritzi, M.; Herzog, S.; Leiminger, M.; Bianchi, F.; Praplan, A.; Dommen, J.; Curtius, J.; Kürten, A.

    2015-12-01

    Amines are potentially important for atmospheric new particle formation and therefore the demand for highly sensitive gas phase amine measurements has emerged in the last several years. Nitrate Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) is routinely used for the measurement of gas phase-sulfuric acid in the sub-pptv range. Furthermore, Extremely Low Volatile Organic Compounds (ELVOCs) can be detected with a nitrate CIMS. In this study we demonstrate that a nitrate CIMS can also be used for the sensitive measurement of dimethylamine ((CH3)2NH, DMA) using the NO3-(HNO3)1-2(DMA) cluster ion signals. This observation was made at the CLOUD aerosol chamber, which was also used for calibration measurements. Good linearity between 0 and ~120 pptv of DMA as well as a sub-pptv detection limit of 0.7 pptv for a 10 min integration time are demonstrated at 278 K and 38 % RH.

  4. Use of isotopic analysis of vertebrae in reconstructing ontogenetic feeding ecology in white sharks.

    PubMed

    Estrada, James A; Rice, Aaron N; Natanson, Lisa J; Skomal, Gregory B

    2006-04-01

    We conducted stable 13C and 15N analysis on white shark vertebrae and demonstrated that incremental analysis of isotopes along the radius of a vertebral centrum produces a chronological record of dietary information, allowing for reconstruction of an individual's trophic history. Isotopic data showed significant enrichments in 15N with increasing sampling distance from the centrum center, indicating a correlation between body size and trophic level. Additionally, isotopic values verified two distinct ontogenetic trophic shifts in the white shark: one following parturition, marking a dietary switch from yolk to fish; and one at a total length of >341 cm, representing a known diet shift from fish to marine mammals. Retrospective trophic-level reconstruction using vertebral tissue will have broad applications in future studies on the ecology of threatened, endangered, or extinct species to determine life-long feeding patterns, which would be impossible through other methods.

  5. Postnatal investigation of prenatally induced effects on the vertebral column of rats reduces the uncertainty of classification of anomalies.

    PubMed

    Chahoud, I; Talsness, C E; Walter, A; Grote, K

    2015-12-01

    Classification of substances as teratogenic is based on the observation of external, visceral and skeletal anomalies. Characterization of anomalies as variation or malformation is contingent upon their postnatal persistence and adversity to health. Lack of information thereof may result in inconsistent or incorrect classification. The aim of this work is the examination of vertebral skeletal anomalies regarding their postnatal fate on PNDs 7 and 21. The anomalies unossified, asymmetric ossification, bipartite ossification, hemicentric, as well as misshapen, did not persist up to PND21 and should be classified as a variation. The finding, cervical vertebra centrum dumbbell-shaped, should be categorized as a malformation due to its continued presence on PND 21. Lumbar centrum supernumerary sinister/dexter/sinister+dexter should also be classified as a malformation. This study demonstrates that postnatal examination is useful and substantially improves the ability to perform a scientifically sound classification of an anomaly compared to investigations terminated on GD 21.

  6. Leis' conundrum: homology of the clavus of the ocean sunfishes. 1. Ontogeny of the median fins and axial skeleton of Monotrete leiurus (Teleostei, Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae).

    PubMed

    Britz, Ralf; Johnson, G David

    2005-10-01

    We describe the ontogeny of the axial skeleton and median fins of the Southeast Asian freshwater puffer Monotrete leiurus, based on a reared developmental series. Most elements of the axial skeleton in M. leiurus arise in membrane bone. Only the base of the anterior three neural arches, the base of the hemal arches of the third preural centrum, the neural and hemal arches and spines of the second preural centrum, the parhypural, the two hypural plates, and the single epural are preformed in cartilage. In contrast to most teleosts, the proximal-middle radials of the dorsal and anal fins are upright and symmetrical and their distal tips coalesce during development to form a deep band of cartilage, from which the spherical distal radials are spatially separated.

  7. Coxsackievirus B1-induced chronic inflammatory myopathy: differences in induction of autoantibodies to muscle and nuclear antigens by cloned myopathic and amyopathic viruses.

    PubMed

    Tam, Patricia E; Fontana, Donna R; Messner, Ronald P

    2003-09-01

    Infection of susceptible strains of mice with the myopathic Tucson strain of coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1(T)) leads to the development of chronic inflammatory myopathy (CIM). The underlying mechanism of CIM appears to be immunopathic, but it is not known whether autoimmunity is involved. The objectives of this study were to determine whether autoantibodies are produced and whether they correlate with the pathology of CIM. Mice were infected with either a myopathic (MP1.23 or MP1.24) or an amyopathic (AMP2.17) CVB1(T) cloned virus. The two myopathic (MP) viruses cause CIM, whereas the amyopathic (AMP) virus, derived from a variant of the same parent, causes the same acute disease but does not cause CIM. Antimuscle IgG was found in 51% of MP1.23-infected and 58% of MP1.24-infected mice but in just 18% of mice infected with AMP2.17 and in 10% of controls (MP vs AMP: chi(2), P < or =.006). Several staining patterns were observed, indicating that autoantibodies of multiple specificities were produced. Antinuclear antibodies were found in 57% of MP1.23-infected and 27% of MP1.24-infected mice but were rare in mice infected with AMP2.17 (0%) or in controls (4%) (MP vs AMP: chi(2), P < or =.01). Antiviral-antibody titers were higher with MP virus than with AMP virus (ANOVA, P <.001). A trend toward an association between antiviral antibody or autoantibodies and the presence or severity of clinical measures of CIM was noted but was not significant. These data suggest that the autoantibodies do not mediate muscle disease but are an independent manifestation of an immunopathic response induced by infection with MP but not AMP CVB1(T).

  8. Modeling the Detection of Organic and Inorganic Compounds Using Iodide-Based Chemical Ionization.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Siddharth; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Lee, Ben H; Thornton, Joel A; Kurtén, Theo

    2016-02-04

    Iodide-based chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) has been used to detect and measure concentrations of several atmospherically relevant organic and inorganic compounds. The significant electronegativity of iodide and the strong acidity of hydroiodic acid makes electron transfer and proton abstraction essentially negligible, and the soft nature of the adduct formation ionization technique reduces the chances of sample fragmentation. In addition, iodide has a large negative mass defect, which, when combined with the high resolving power of a high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS), provides good selectivity. In this work, we use quantum chemical methods to calculate the binding energies, enthalpies and free energies for clusters of an iodide ion with a number of atmospherically relevant organic and inorganic compounds. Systematic configurational sampling of the free molecules and clusters was carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level, followed by subsequent calculations at the PBE/SDD and DLPNO-CCSD(T)/def2-QZVPP//PBE/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP levels. The binding energies, enthalpies, and free energies thus obtained were then compared to the iodide-based University of Washington HR-ToF-CIMS (UW-CIMS) instrument sensitivities for these molecules. We observed a reasonably linear relationship between the cluster binding enthalpies and logarithmic instrument sensitivities already at the PBE/SDD level, which indicates that relatively simple quantum chemical methods can predict the sensitivity of an iodide-based CIMS instrument toward most molecules. However, higher level calculations were needed to treat some outlier molecules, most notably oxalic acid and methylerythritol. Our calculations also corroborated the recent experimental findings that the molecules that the UW-CIMS detects at maximum sensitivity usually have binding enthalpies to iodide which are higher than about 26 kcal/mol, depending slightly on the level of theory.

  9. Activation of p38-MAPK by CXCL4/CXCR3 axis contributes to p53-dependent intestinal apoptosis initiated by 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Gao, Jin; Qian, Lan; Wang, Xia; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Yang; Ye, Hao; Zhu, Shunying; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a major does limiting side-effect of chemoagents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Molecules involved in this disease process are still not fully understood. We proposed that the homeostatically regulated genes during CIM may participate in the disease. A cluster of such genes were previously identified by expression gene-array from the mouse jejunum in 5-FU-induced mucositis model. Here, we report that CXCL4 is such a homeostatically regulated gene and serves as a new target for the antibody treatment of CIM. CXCL4 and its receptor CXCR3 were confirmed at both the gene and protein levels to be homeostatically regulated during 5-FU-induced mucositis. Using of CXCL4 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (CXCL4mab) decreased the incidence, severity, and duration of the chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, the major symptom of CIM, in a 5-FU mouse CIM model. Mechanistically, CXCL4mab reduced the apoptosis of the crypt epithelia by suppression of the 5-FU-induced expression of p53 and Bax through its receptor CXCR3. The downstream signaling pathway of CXCL4 in activation of the epithelial apoptosis was identified in an intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). CXCL4 activated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which mediated the stimulated expression of p53 and Bax, and resulted in the ultimate activation of Caspase-8, -9, and -3. Taken together, activation of CXCL4 expression by 5-FU in mice participates in 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis through upregulation of p53 via activation of p38-MAPK, and CXCL4mab is potentially beneficial in preventing CIM in the intestinal tract.

  10. Enhanced muscle shortening and impaired Ca2+ channel function in an acute septic myopathy model.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Oliver; Hund, Ernst; von Wegner, Frederic

    2010-04-01

    Myopathies in critically ill patients are increasingly documented. Various animal models of chronic sepsis have been employed to investigate reduced membrane excitability or altered isometric contractility of skeletal muscle. In contrast, immediate changes occurring during acute sepsis are significantly under-characterised; L-type Ca(2+) channel function or isotonic shortening are examples. We recorded slowly activating L-type Ca(2+) currents (I (Ca)) in voltage-clamped single intact mouse skeletal muscle fibres and tested the effects of acute challenge with serum fractions from critical illness myopathy patients (CIM). Using a high-speed camera system, we simultaneously recorded unloaded fibre shortening during isotonic contractions with unprecedented temporal resolution (approximately 1,600 frames/s). Time courses of fibre lengths and shortening velocity were determined from automated imaging algorithms. CIM fractions acutely induced depression of I (Ca) amplitudes with no shifts in I (Ca)-V-relations. Voltage-dependent inactivation was unaltered and I (Ca) activation and inactivation kinetics were prolonged compared to controls. Unexpectedly, maximum unloaded speed of shortening was slightly faster following CIM serum applications, suggesting a direct action of CIM serum on weak-binding-state cross-bridges. Our results are compatible with a model where CIM serum might acutely reduce a fraction of functional L-type Ca(2+) channels and could account for reduced SR Ca(2+) release and force production in CIM patients. Acute increase in isotonic shortening velocity might be an early diagnostic feature suitable for testing in clinical studies. The acute challenge model is also robust against atrophy or fibre type changes that ordinarily would have to be considered in chronic sepsis models.

  11. Application of high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry measurements to estimate volatility distributions of α-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products

    DOE PAGES

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; ...

    2015-01-05

    Recent developments in high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made it possible to directly detect atmospheric organic compounds in real time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low-volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, using ions identified by high-resolution spectra from an HR-ToF-CIMS with acetate reagent ion chemistry, we develop an algorithm to estimate the vapor pressures of measured organic acids. The algorithm uses identified ion formulas and calculated double bond equivalencies, information unavailable in quadrupole CIMS technology, as constraints for the number of possible oxygen-containing functionalmore » groups. The algorithm is tested with acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (acetate-CIMS) spectra of O3 and OH oxidation products of α-pinene and naphthalene formed in a flow reactor with integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec s cm−3, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. The predicted condensed-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous chamber and flow reactor measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  12. ESN (European Science Notes) Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/Middle Eastern Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    programs. payload including of three microwave radars - a wind and Laser research is reported by Dr. Paul Roman on wave scatterometer, a synthetic aperture...radiometer and an X-band ranger. Data such as OPTEL (Centrum voor Optoelektronische en Laser- sea-surface temperature, surface wind speed and wave ... electromagnetic energy, although the 3. info source 13. dimensions 34. p.r.f. American National Standards Institute standard is high- 4. location 14

  13. Muddy Seafloors and Tidal Flats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    shown in Figure 3. The seafloor was covered with a 30-cm thick layer of yogurt -like mud (density about 1.6 g/l [G. Kineke and S. Bentley]) that caused...observations to test components of the NOPP nearshore community model, as well as other models (eg, DELFT3D) for nearshore waves, currents, and

  14. [Symposium on Scientific Translations, 4 and 5 November 1970, Luxembourg. Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Translations Center, Delft (Netherlands).

    An open meeting on scientific translation was held to mark the tenth anniversary of the founding of the European Translations Center (ETC) in Delft. The history of ETC and its activities which include collecting, translations and titles, supplying information, publication of "World Index" and "List of Translations", translation…

  15. A versatile PV module simulation model based on PSI/e

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrance, W.B.; Wichert, B. )

    1994-02-01

    A novel approach to the simulation of PV modules is described. The method uses the software package PSI/e developed by the Delft University of Technology. Using PSI/e, the array equations are solved for a variety of operating conditions. The results are verified by comparison with measured data and the manufacturers figures for a BP164 solar panel.

  16. Implementing ICT in Education Faculty-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakels, Jenny; van Daalen, Els; Dik, Wim; Dopper, Sofia; Lohman, Fred; van Peppen, Andre; Peerdeman, Simon; Peet, Dirk Jan; Sjoer, Ellen; van Valkenburg, Willem; van de Ven, Maarten

    2002-01-01

    Explains the implementation of an electronic learning environment at the Delft University Of Technology in The Netherlands. Consists of three line activities: first line of the activities is technology oriented, second line is aimed at creating and using a web site for each course, and third line of activities is geared towards developing new…

  17. Going Dutch: Higher Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, David

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines some of the policy issues currently faced by research-based universities in the Netherlands. The focus is on four leading universities (University of Amsterdam: UvA; Free University of Amsterdam: VU; Leiden University; and Delft University of Technology: TUD). The author visited these institutions as part of a Study Tour…

  18. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    disastrous storm surge of 1953 . facilities reduces the errors fromscale effects. Deift has Recently, the work has expanded to water quality and a large...Hdegaard (Danish Hydraulic Institute), Dano Roelvink these waves is not sufficiently well understood to (Delft Hydraulics), and Howard Southgate

  19. A Joint Venture Model for Teaching Required Courses in "Ethics and Engineering" to Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandvoort, H.; Van Hasselt, G. J.; Bonnet, J. A. B. A. F.

    2008-01-01

    We present our experience, spanning more than 10 years of teaching a course on "ethics and engineering" for a group of MSc programmes in applied sciences at Delft University of Technology. The course is taught by a team of teachers from the faculty of Applied Sciences and from the department of Philosophy of the Faculty of Technology,…

  20. The Use of Video-Taped Lectures and Web-Based Communications in Teaching: A Distance-Teaching and Cross-Atlantic Collaboration Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herder, P. M.; Subrahmanian, E.; Talukdar, S.; Turk, A. L.; Westerberg, A. W.

    2002-01-01

    Explains distance education approach applied to the 'Engineering Design Problem Formulation' course simultaneously at the Delft University of Technology (the Netherlands) and at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU, Pittsburgh, USA). Uses video taped lessons, video conferencing, electronic mails and web-accessible document management system LIRE in the…

  1. Communication and Collaborative Learning in a Cross-Atlantic Design Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herder, P. M.; Turk, A. L.; Subrahmanian, E.; Westerberg, A. W.

    The authors' activities in co-teaching an engineering design course across the Atlantic, at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), USA, and at Delft University of Technology (DUT), the Netherlands, at the same time, required the use of information and communication tools for communication and collaboration purposes between students and between…

  2. Solid Propellant Test Motor Scaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    thickness, mm Greek Symbols k burned gas specific heat ratio M average molecular mass, g/mole 71:K temperature sensitivity of steady chamber pressure...NETHERLANDS DELFT UNIVERSITY F. Dijkstra NORWAY NORDIC AMMUNITION COMPANY St. Haugen SPAIN INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE TECNICA M. Mulero AEROSPACIAL (INTA) UNITED

  3. EuroSTRATAFORM: Three-Dimensional, Moving-Boundary, Integrated-Morphodynamic Models of Sedimentation on Continental Margins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Muto, T., Controls on fluviodeltaic response to falling sea level, submitted to Sedimentology , in review. Swenson, J.B., and Muto, T. (2005), Large...scale fluvial grade as a non-equilibrium state: Theory and experiments, in Proceedings 8th International Conference on Fluvial Sedimentology , Delft

  4. A Modular CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Mast, Charles

    The experimental CAI system which is being tested at Delft University of Technology is structured in a modular manner to account for high changeability. The concept formulated for this project was the outcome of research into technological, organizational, and educational developments in CAI, and the enumeration of the common aspects of the…

  5. The New Library, A Hybrid Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaijers, Leo

    This paper discusses changes in technology in libraries over the last decade, beginning with an overview of the impact of databases, the Internet, and the World Wide Web on libraries. The integration of technology at Delft University of Technology (Netherlands) is described, including use of scanning technology, fax, and e-mail for document…

  6. Curves and Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Morten Dohlen Center for Industrial Rcsearch(SI), Box 124 Blindern, 0314 Oslo 3, Norway. Abstract. The combination of refinement and decomposition...of Technology Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering Section Mechanical Engineering Design Jaffalaan 9 NL-2628 BX Delft The Netherlands louwe...OF A GIVEN SET OF POINTS Leonardo Traversoni Dominguez Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Iztapalapa) ap

  7. Universities' Intermediary Role in the "Design for Sustainability" Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüksayraç, Elif; Wever, Renee; Brezet, Han

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the intermediary role of universities in spreading design for sustainability into industry. Design/methodology/approach: Three case studies were undertaken on Delft University of Technology, Design for Sustainability Program from The Netherlands; a center on sustainable consumption and production; and Prof.…

  8. The SWANSURF Wave Model Implementation and User Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Version 40.11, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Hsu, Y.L., Allard, R.A., Collins, M.J., Smith , J.M., Earle, M, and Miles, K. (1998...List Chief of Land Operations Division Doc Data Sht & Dist List Research Leader Littoral Warfare (Dr Alan Theobald , MOD) 1 Research Leader

  9. Strengthening the Link between Theory and Practice in Teaching Design Engineering: An Empirical Study on a New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempelman, E.; Pilot, A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering of the Delft University of Technology introduced a new bachelor program. Based on theories of learning and instruction three design principles were used to develop an approach that aims to make it easier for students to bridge the gap between theoretical design engineering courses and practical…

  10. What's Your Story?: Dutch Library DOK's New Cutting-Edge Community Tech Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekesteijn, Erik

    2010-01-01

    DOK, the cutting-edge library center in Delft, the Netherlands, has been finding new ways to elaborate on the social networking impulse. A good library unites people from all levels of society, and DOK's unique innovation department focuses specifically on how media can bring people together. It's doing so using technology to inspire and connect…

  11. Metallurgical Evaluation of the Five-Inch Cylindrical Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    2000-08-15

    A metallurgical evaluation of the 5-inch cylindrical induction melter (CIM) vessel was performed by the Materials Technology Section to evaluate the metallurgical condition after operating for approximately 375 hours at 1400 to 1500 Degrees Celsius during a 2 year period. Results indicate that wall thinning and significant grain growth occurred in the lower portion of the conical section and the drain tube. No through-wall penetrations were found in the cylindrical and conical sections of the CIM vessel and only one leak site was identified in the drain tube. Failure of the drain tube was associated with a localized over heating and intercrystalline fracture.

  12. Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecast Model Over Dugway, Utah During 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    INFO CTR DTIC OCP 8725 JOHN J KINGMAN RD STE 0944 FT BELVOIR VA 22060-6218 3 HCs US ARMY RSRCH LAB ATTN RDRL CIM P TECHL PUB ATTN...RDRL CIM L TECHL LIB ATTN IMNE ALC HRR MAIL & RECORDS MGMT 2800 POWDER MILL ROAD ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 1 CD US ARMY RSRCH LAB ATTN...HEADQUARTERS DEPT OF ARMY DAMI- POB WEATHER TEAM 1000 ARMY PENTAGON ROOM 2E383 WASHINGTON DC 20310-1067 1 CD HQ AFWA DNX 106 PEACEKEEPER DR STE

  13. Environmental Assessment: Mackinaw River Dredged Material Placement Site, Lonza. Inc. (Illinois River Mile 147.8)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    INDIClTrO 3 OtSIIUION EXTERNAL CepIrS* NONCRAFPLr GIROON Le. POPPI ILLINIflS iMPRESENTATIVE 525 No. FAST ST., BLOO01INGTON, IL 617,11 DIRECTORP TLLINCIS...I=OC IS&hND IL 61206-2004 ATM3 CINC-DE CZ10- 3D -2 CImCR-CD CENCR-aE cRICK-pD i 0 cwca-uD cinca-iD-z cnc-Im-C (3) CRiC-0-9 CRIC-PD-?p CIM-?A 7

  14. Aerospace firms realizing payoffs from advanced production investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, William B.

    1988-10-01

    The U.S. DOD's Industrial Modernization Incentives Program encourages industrial contractors to develop high-risk computer-aided manufacturing (CIM) technologies at their own expense, while sharing the cost savings realized from the contractor's innovations. A similar DOD-managed effort, the Manufacturing Resource Planning-2 program, focuses on the development of systems that schedule, track, and report on material and factory-floor processes involved in manufacturing operations. Attention is presently given to the application of these CIM techniques to the inspection and analysis processes employed by a major contractor in fighter aircraft radar production.

  15. Morphometric variations of the 7th cervical vertebrae of Zulu, White, and Colored South Africans.

    PubMed

    Kibii, Job M; Pan, Rualing; Tobias, Phillip V

    2010-05-01

    The 7th cervical vertebrae of 240 cadavers of South African Zulu, White, and Colored population groups were examined to determine morphometric variation. White and Colored females had statistically significant narrower cervical anteroposterior diameters than their male counterparts, whereas no statistically significant difference between sexes of the Zulu population group was observed in this variable. In addition, although Zulu and Colored females had statistically significant narrower cervical transverse diameters than their male counterparts, there was no statistically significant variation between South African white males and females in this respect. The findings indicate that sexual dimorphism is more apparent in the vertebral centrum, across the three population groups, where males had significantly larger dimensions in centrum anteroposterior diameter, height, and width than their female counterparts. The study further reveals that sexual dimorphism is more apparent when one compares aspects of the 7th cervical vertebra between sexes within the same population group. Overall, the dimensions of the various variates of the vertebra are substantially smaller in women than in men. The smaller dimensions, particularly of the centrum, may be the result of lower skeletal mass in women and render them more vulnerable to fractures resulting from compression forces.

  16. Raymond de Vieussens and his contribution to the study of white matter anatomy: historical vignette.

    PubMed

    Vergani, Francesco; Morris, Christopher M; Mitchell, Patrick; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the study of white matter anatomy, both with the use of postmortem dissections and diffusion tensor imaging tractography. One of the precursors in the study of white matter anatomy was Raymond de Vieussens (1641-1716), a French anatomist born in Le Vigan. He studied medicine at the University of Montpellier in southern France, one of the most ancient and lively schools of medicine in Europe. In 1684 Vieussens published his masterpiece, the Neurographia Universalis, which is still considered one of the most complete and accurate descriptions of the nervous system provided in the 17th century. He described the white matter of the centrum ovale and was the first to demonstrate the continuity of the white matter fibers from the centrum ovale to the brainstem. He also described the dentate nuclei, the pyramids, and the olivary nuclei. According to the theory of Galen, Vieussens considered that the function of the white matter was to convey the "animal spirit" from the centrum ovale to the spinal cord. Although neglected, Vieussens' contribution to the study of white matter is relevant. His pioneering work showed that the white matter is not a homogeneous substance, but rather a complex structure rich in fibers that are interconnected with different parts of the brain. These initial results paved the way to advancements observed in later centuries that eventually led to modern hodology.

  17. The Effect of Tidal Exchange on Residence Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynne, P.; Reniers, A.; Van De Kreeke, J.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    As the conduit between the ocean and an inland body of water such as a lagoon, estuary or harbor, tidal inlets serve an important role in the hydrodynamics of the nearshore environment. As the global population grows in a world where 13% of the coastline is composed of barrier islands, an understanding of the physical processes that influence the transport of inland waters offshore is increasingly paramount. Water renewal, or the replacement of old lagoon water with new seawater has been well studied and is controlled by the tides through the process of tidal exchange or 'tidal pumping'. The magnitude of tidal exchange is influenced by the inlet hydraulics and geometry of the inlet and various physical processes driven by the tide, wind, and waves. To examine the correlation between tidal exchange and the renewal of lagoon water with seawater, a new method to quantify lagoon residence time is explored. Modeling experiments in Delft3D of idealized inlet systems are used to quantify the effect that tidal exchange has on residence time. Tidal exchange is decomposed into two fractions, an ocean exchange fraction and a lagoon exchange fraction. A simple transport model that utilizes both these fractions is compared to both a tidal prism model that neglects the lagoon exchange fraction and Delft3D. The tidal prism model over predicts the seaward transport of lagoon water as compared to Delft3D for all inlet channel geometries studied. The transport model shows good agreement with Delft3D for narrower inlets that support high ocean exchange fractions, but less agreement for wider inlets that support low ocean exchange fractions. Residence time distributions for each geometry are calculated using a new virtual tracer method in Delft3D. The spatially averaged residence time in the lagoon is found to be inversely proportional to the product of the two exchange fractions of each inlet system. Funded by ONR and NDSEG

  18. CAD/CAM Program Development Study Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Program Management Associates, Springfield, IL.

    Predictions are made based on a study of developments in computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) regarding how they will have an impact on employment, skills needed by Illinois aspirants to manufacturing employment, and the training modes that can be employed most effectively. The report first discusses economic benefits in terms of cost and time…

  19. Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Physical Modelling Systems Design. A Personal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Physical Modeling Systems Design project was undertaken in a time of rapid change in the industrial, business, technological, training, and educational areas in Australia. A specification of a manufacturing physical modeling system was drawn up. Physical modeling provides a flexibility and configurability…

  20. 75 FR 59784 - Notice of Fiscal Year 2011 Safety Grants and Solicitation for Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Management (PRISM) grants; Safety Data Improvement Program grants (SaDIP); and the Commercial Vehicle..., cim.weiss@dot.gov , 202-366-0275. PRISM Grants--Tom Lawler, tom.lawler@dot.gov , 202-366-3866. CVISN... costs and recipients are required to provide a 20 percent match. PRISM Grants: Section 4109 of...

  1. Information Technology Initiative (Videorecording),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Physical description: 1 VHS video; col.; sd.; mono.; standard playback sp.; 35:40 mins.; 1/2 in. In this video, Dr. Kurt Fisher, Deputy Director for Information Technology , introduces the Corporate Information Management (CIM) program and explains the following major technical initiatives: reuse/repositories; I-case; data administration; information technology architecture; software process improvement; standards.

  2. User Leadership in the Design and Implementation of a College Information Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miselis, Karen

    1988-01-01

    The College Information Management System (CIMS), a comprehensive, integrated office automation and student data system in the College Office of the School of Arts and Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania, is described. The system has revitalized the advising process by supporting better tracking of student progress. (Author/MLW)

  3. Skill-Biased Technological Change. Evidence from a Firm-Level Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald S.

    A study addressed the effects of technological change using a new, rich source of firm-level data on technology usage and labor force composition. The empirical investigation is based on a survey of Long Island manufacturers' usage of computer-integrated manufacturing systems (CIMS) or advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). The study also…

  4. Unleashed Potential: The Potential of Civil Military Support Elements in Theater Security Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-16

    Operations CAP Crisis Action Planning CAPT Civil Affairs Planning Team CAT Civil Affairs Team CIM Civil Information Management CF Conventional Forces...and Labor) MSPBS Ministerio de Salud Publico y Bienestar Social (Minister of Public Health and Social Wellbeing) PMESII-PT Political, Military

  5. Electromagnetic Inspection of Wire Ropes Using Sensor Arrays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-05

    gradually become an accepted method for the inspection of wire ropes in the mining industry and for ski lifts in North America, Europe, and South...Wire Ropes in the Mining Industry ," 85th Annual General Meeting of CIM - 1983, Paper No. 66 -60 - a-- a’ 1 FILMED 2-85 DTIC

  6. Building a strategic framework for comparative effectiveness research in complementary and integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Witt, Claudia M; Chesney, Margaret; Gliklich, Richard; Green, Lawrence; Lewith, George; Luce, Bryan; McCaffrey, Anne; Rafferty Withers, Shelly; Sox, Harold C; Tunis, Sean; Berman, Brian M

    2012-01-01

    The increasing burden of chronic diseases presents not only challenges to the knowledge and expertise of the professional medical community, but also highlights the need to improve the quality and relevance of clinical research in this domain. Many patients now turn to complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) to treat their chronic illnesses; however, there is very little evidence to guide their decision-making in usual care. The following research recommendations were derived from a CIM Stakeholder Symposium on Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER): (1) CER studies should be made a priority in this field; (2) stakeholders should be engaged at every stage of the research; (3) CER study designs should highlight effectiveness over efficacy; (4) research questions should be well defined to enable the selection of an appropriate CER study design; (5) the CIM community should cultivate widely shared understandings, discourse, tools, and technologies to support the use and validity of CER methods; (6) Effectiveness Guidance Documents on methodological standards should be developed to shape future CER studies. CER is an emerging field and its development and impact must be reflected in future research strategies within CIM. This stakeholder symposium was a first step in providing systematic guidance for future CER in this field.

  7. 28 CFR 524.71 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibility. 524.71 Section 524.71... TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.71 Responsibility... institutional level, and the Community Corrections Manager shall assume these responsibilities for...

  8. CLIP Tool Kit (CTK): a flexible and robust pipeline to analyze CLIP sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ankeeta; Qian, Yingzhi; Weyn-Vanhentenryck, Sebastien M; Zhang, Chaolin

    2016-10-22

    UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP), followed by high-throughput sequencing, is a powerful biochemical assay that maps in vivo protein-RNA interactions on a genome-wide scale. The CLIP Tool Kit (CTK) aims at providing a set of tools for flexible, streamlined and comprehensive CLIP data analysis. This software package extends the scope of our original CIMS package.

  9. Isobutane Made Practical as a Reagent Gas for Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsome, G. Asher; Steinkamp, F. Lucus; Giordano, Braden C.

    2016-11-01

    As a reagent gas for positive- and negative-mode chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS), isobutane ( i-C4H10) produces superior analyte signal abundance to methane. Isobutane has never been widely adopted for CI-MS because it fouls the ion source more rapidly and produces positive CI spectra that are more strongly dependent on reagent gas pressure compared with methane. Isobutane was diluted to various concentrations in argon for use as a reagent gas with an unmodified commercial gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Analyte spectra were directly compared using methane, isobutane, and isobutane/argon mixtures. A mixture of 10% i-C4H10 in argon produced twice the positive-mode analyte signal of methane, equal to pure isobutane, and reduced spectral dependence on reagent gas pressure. Electron capture negative chemical ionization using 1% i-C4H10 in argon tripled analyte signal compared with methane and was reproducible, unlike pure isobutane. The operative lifetime of the ion source using isobutane/argon mixtures was extended exponentially compared with pure isobutane, producing stable and reproducible CI signal throughout. By diluting the reagent gas in an inert buffer gas, isobutane CI-MS experiments were made as practical to use as methane CI-MS experiments but with superior analytical performance.

  10. Design and evaluation of wide-range and low-power analog front-end enabling body-implanted devices to monitor charge injection properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Keita; Uno, Shoma; Goto, Tatsuya; Takezawa, Yoshiki; Harashima, Takuya; Morikawa, Takumi; Nishino, Satoru; Kino, Hisashi; Kiyoyama, Koji; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2017-04-01

    For safe electrical stimulation with body-implanted devices, the degradation of stimulus electrodes must be considered because it causes the unexpected electrolysis of water and the destruction of tissues. To monitor the charge injection property (CIP) of stimulus electrodes while these devices are implanted, we have proposed a charge injection monitoring system (CIMS). CIMS can safely read out voltages produced by a biphasic current pulse to a stimulus electrode and CIP is calculated from waveforms of the acquired voltages. In this paper, we describe a wide-range and low-power analog front-end (AFE) for CIMS that has variable gain-frequency characteristics and low-power analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to adjust to the degradation of stimulus electrodes. The designed AFE was fabricated with 0.18 µm CMOS technology and achieved a valuable gain of 20–60 dB, an upper cutoff frequency of 0.2–10 kHz, and low-power interleaving A/D conversion. In addition, we successfully measured the CIP of stimulus electrodes for body-implanted devices using CIMS.

  11. Implementing Computer Integrated Manufacturing Technician Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Roger

    A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) technician program was developed to provide training and technical assistance to meet the needs of business and industry in the face of the demands of high technology. The Computer and Automated Systems Association (CASA) of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers provided the incentive and guidelines…

  12. Exploiting the spatial locality of electron correlation within the parametric two-electron reduced-density-matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePrince, A. Eugene; Mazziotti, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The parametric variational two-electron reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) method is applied to computing electronic correlation energies of medium-to-large molecular systems by exploiting the spatial locality of electron correlation within the framework of the cluster-in-molecule (CIM) approximation [S. Li et al., J. Comput. Chem. 23, 238 (2002); J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074109 (2006)]. The 2-RDMs of individual molecular fragments within a molecule are determined, and selected portions of these 2-RDMs are recombined to yield an accurate approximation to the correlation energy of the entire molecule. In addition to extending CIM to the parametric 2-RDM method, we (i) suggest a more systematic selection of atomic-orbital domains than that presented in previous CIM studies and (ii) generalize the CIM method for open-shell quantum systems. The resulting method is tested with a series of polyacetylene molecules, water clusters, and diazobenzene derivatives in minimal and nonminimal basis sets. Calculations show that the computational cost of the method scales linearly with system size. We also compute hydrogen-abstraction energies for a series of hydroxyurea derivatives. Abstraction of hydrogen from hydroxyurea is thought to be a key step in its treatment of sickle cell anemia; the design of hydroxyurea derivatives that oxidize more rapidly is one approach to devising more effective treatments.

  13. Non-verbal development of children with deafness with and without cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, Emilie; Narbona, Juan; Manrique, Manuel

    2004-09-01

    Deprivation of sensory input affects neurological development. Our objective was to explore clinically the role of hearing in development of sensorimotor integration and non-verbal cognition. The study involved 54 children (15 males, 839 females; 5 to 9 years old) with severe or profound bilateral prelocutive deafness but without neurological or cognitive impairment. Of these, 25 had received an early cochlear implant (CIm). Patients were compared with 40 children with normal hearing. All were given a battery of non-verbal neuropsychological tests and a balance test, and were timed for simple and complex movement of limbs. Deafness, whether treated by CIm or not, resulted in a delay in development of complex motor sequences and balance. Lack of auditory input was also associated with lower, but non-pathological, scores in visual gnoso-praxic tasks and sustained attention. Such differences were not observed in children with CIm. Hearing contributes to clinical development of spatial integration, motor control, and attention. An early CIm enables good verbal development and might also improve non-verbal capacities.

  14. A PCA-based chemometrics-assisted ATR-FTIR approach for the classification of polymorphs of cimetidine: application to physical mixtures and tablets.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Natalia L; Kaufman, Teodoro S; Maggio, Rubén M

    2015-03-25

    The identity of the polymorphic form of an active pharmaceutical ingredient is an important parameter that may affect the performance of the drug formulation. This calls for special techniques, able to classify crystal forms or assign the polymorphic identity to a given solid in a mixture. In order to develop a method to determine which of the relevant polymorphs of Cimetidine (CIM) is present in commercial tablet samples, authentic forms A, B, D and M1 of the drug were prepared, structurally characterized and employed as standards. Thus, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was coupled to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and used for the classification of physical mixtures of CIM and excipients, as well as laboratory-made and commercial tablets, according to their polymorphic composition. It was demonstrated that two principal components (PCs) suffice to classify the samples of the four forms of CIM into distinct groups, and that method performance is optimum when the second and third PCs are used for the classification process. The application of the method to commercial tablets of CIM also gave good results, confirming they were prepared employing the correct polymorph (form A).

  15. Chemical constituents of Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Khalafalah, Ali K; Yousef, Afifi H; Esmail, Abeer M; Abdelrazik, Mohamed H; Hegazy, Mohamed E F; Mohamed, Abou-El-Hamd H

    2010-03-01

    In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Tephrosia, reinvestigation of the methylenechloride/methanol (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded an aromatic ester 1, a sesquiterpene 2 and prenylated flavonoid 3. The structures of the compounds were established by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOE, HMQC, HMBC, EIMS and CIMS.

  16. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region. CIMS is an organized, distributed library of information and software tools designed to increase basin-wide public access to Chesapeake Bay information. The information delivered by CIMS includes technical and public information, educational material, environmental indicators, policy documents, and scientific data. Through the use of relational databases, web-based programming, and web-based GIS a large number of Internet resources have been established. These resources include multiple distributed on-line databases, on-demand graphing and mapping of environmental data, and geographic searching tools for environmental information. Baseline monitoring data, summarized data and environmental indicators that document ecosystem status and trends, confirm linkages between water quality, habitat quality and abundance, and the distribution and integrity of biological populations are also available. One of the major features of the CIMS network is the Chesapeake Bay Program's Data Hub, providing users access to a suite of long- term water quality and living resources databases. Chesapeake Bay mainstem and tidal tributary water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, toxics, plankton, and fluorescence data can be obtained for a network of over 800 monitoring stations.

  17. Cylindrical Induction Melter Modicon Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, G.E.

    1998-04-01

    In the last several years an extensive R{ampersand}D program has been underway to develop a vitrification system to stabilize Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm) inventories at SRS. This report documents the Modicon control system designed for the 3 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM).

  18. The New American High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David D., Ed.; Codding, Judy B., Ed.

    This book proposes strategies for improving high schools based on high standards, particularly the idea of the Certificate of Initial Mastery (CIM), and discusses changes necessary to ensure that all students attain mastery. Part 1, "Where We Are and Where We Ought to Be," contains two chapters. In "Just Passing Through: The Life of…

  19. Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlands Technical Coll., Columbia, SC.

    In 1987, Midlands Technical College (MTC), in Columbia, South Carolina, initiated a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) project, the Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD, which integrated various college departments with the goal of manufacturing a high quality, saleable product. The faculty developed a teaching factory model which was designed to…

  20. CIMFUELS: Commercial practice--tools vs. solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1997-03-01

    Continuing the them of CIMFUELS` recent editorials on good management practice, the nature of commercial offerings and practices between CIM providers and their fuel and petrochemical operating company customers and clients also warrants discussion. The commercial practices of the CIMFUELS business in this unstructured, fast changing, high technology global business has suffered unduly from inadequate distinction between tools and solutions.

  1. A Systems Engineering Process for Development of Federated Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    com- mon definition of requirements via the Military Missions and Means framework [4]. It then goes on to call for further pro- cess of information...by the Military Missions and Means Framework (MMF) Computer Independent Model (CIM) Operational Idea, high-level view Platform Independent Model

  2. Isolation and purification of blood group antigens using immuno-affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Mönster, Andrea; Hiller, Oliver; Grüger, Daniela; Blasczyk, Rainer; Kasper, Cornelia

    2011-02-04

    Monolithic columns have gained increasing attention as stationary phases for the separation of biomolecules and biopharmaceuticals. In the present work the performance of monolithic convective interaction media (CIM(®)) chromatography for the purification of blood group antigens was established. The proteins employed in this study are derived from blood group antigens Knops, JMH and Scianna, equipped both with a His-tag and with a V5-tag by which they can be purified. In a first step a monoclonal antibody directed against the V5-tag was immobilized on a CIM(®) Disk with epoxy chemistry. After this, the immobilized CIM(®) Disk was used in immuno-affinity chromatography to purify the three blood group antigens from cell culture supernatant. Up-scaling of the applied technology was carried out using CIM(®) Tubes. In comparison to conventional affinity chromatography, blood group antigens were also purified via His-tag using a HiTrap(®) metal-affinity column. The two purifications have been compared regarding purity, yield and purification speed. Using the monolithic support, it was possible to isolate the blood group antigens with a higher flow rate than using the conventional bed-packed column.

  3. Mapping small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci for complex traits in backcross or DH populations via a multi-locus GWAS methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Wen, Yang-Jun; Ren, Wen-Long; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most widely-used method in linkage analysis. Its main feature is the ability to control genomic background effects via inclusion of co-factors in its genetic model. However, the result often depends on how the co-factors are selected, especially for small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). To address this issue, here we proposed a new method under the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, a single-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model method for GWAS was used to scan each putative QTL on the genome in backcross or doubled haploid populations. Here, controlling background via selecting markers in the CIM was replaced by estimating polygenic variance. Then, all the peaks in the negative logarithm P-value curve were selected as the positions of multiple putative QTL to be included in a multi-locus genetic model, and true QTL were automatically identified by empirical Bayes. This called genome-wide CIM (GCIM). A series of simulated and real datasets was used to validate the new method. As a result, the new method had higher power in QTL detection, greater accuracy in QTL effect estimation, and stronger robustness under various backgrounds as compared with the CIM and empirical Bayes methods. PMID:27435756

  4. Strengths and limitations of various screening methods for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae including new method recommended by clinical and laboratory standards institute, 2017: A tertiary care experience.

    PubMed

    Pragasam, Agila Kumari; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Bakthavatchalam, Yamuna Devi; Gopi, Radha; Aslam, Raziya Fathima

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenemase-mediated carbapenem resistance is a major concern across the world. Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms is of great importance in clinical settings. However, it is essential to have a test with good sensitivity and specificity. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of RAPIDEC® CARBA NP and modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline 2017. A total of ninety carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have been tested. The presence of various carbapenemases was screened by conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RAPIDEC® CARBA NP detected 90%, whereas mCIM detected 99% of the study isolates tested. Although RAPIDEC® CARBA NP is a rapid test, the sensitivity is reduced for blaOxa-48Likedetection; while mCIM could pick up blaOxa-48Likeenzymes with excellent sensitivity. Further, organisms producing low carbapenemase activity enzymes, thickness of the inoculum and the disc potency are likely to influence the test results of mCIM with an overnight delay.

  5. A computational intelligibility model for assessment and compression of American sign language video.

    PubMed

    Ciaramello, Frank M; Hemami, Sheila S

    2011-11-01

    Real-time, two-way transmission of American Sign Language (ASL) video over cellular networks provides natural communication among members of the Deaf community. As a communication tool, compressed ASL video must be evaluated according to the intelligibility of the conversation, not according to conventional definitions of video quality. Guided by linguistic principles and human perception of ASL, this paper proposes a full-reference computational model of intelligibility for ASL (CIM-ASL) that is suitable for evaluating compressed ASL video. The CIM-ASL measures distortions only in regions relevant for ASL communication, using spatial and temporal pooling mechanisms that vary the contribution of distortions according to their relative impact on the intelligibility of the compressed video. The model is trained and evaluating using ground truth experimental data collected in three separate studies. The CIM-ASL provides accurate estimates of subjective intelligibility and demonstrates statistically significant improvements over computational models traditionally used to estimate video quality. The CIM-ASL is incorporated into an H.264 compliant video coding framework, creating a closed-loop encoding system optimized explicitly for ASL intelligibility. The ASL-optimized encoder achieves bitrate reductions between 10% and 42%, without reducing intelligibility, when compared to a general purpose H.264 encoder.

  6. A Phenomenological Study of a Collaborative Inquiry Model for Teaching Educators Using Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lara M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Geographic inquiry increases higher-order thinking skills which can be supported through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The purpose of this research project examines the effect of using a Collaborative Inquiry Model (CIM) model during professional development on the rate of effective GIS implementation in K-12 classrooms. The…

  7. Cassini Information Management System in Distributed Operations Collaboration and Cassini Science Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Equils, Douglas J.

    2008-01-01

    Launched on October 15, 1997, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft began its ambitious journey to the Saturnian system with a complex suite of 12 scientific instruments, and another 6 instruments aboard the European Space Agencies Huygens Probe. Over the next 6 1/2 years, Cassini would continue its relatively simplistic cruise phase operations, flying past Venus, Earth, and Jupiter. However, following Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI), Cassini would become involved in a complex series of tasks that required detailed resource management, distributed operations collaboration, and a data base for capturing science objectives. Collectively, these needs were met through a web-based software tool designed to help with the Cassini uplink process and ultimately used to generate more robust sequences for spacecraft operations. In 2001, in conjunction with the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and later Venustar Software and Engineering Inc., the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) was released which enabled the Cassini spacecraft and science planning teams to perform complex information management and team collaboration between scientists and engineers in 17 countries. Originally tailored to help manage the science planning uplink process, CIMS has been actively evolving since its inception to meet the changing and growing needs of the Cassini uplink team and effectively reduce mission risk through a series of resource management validation algorithms. These algorithms have been implemented in the web-based software tool to identify potential sequence conflicts early in the science planning process. CIMS mitigates these sequence conflicts through identification of timing incongruities, pointing inconsistencies, flight rule violations, data volume issues, and by assisting in Deep Space Network (DSN) coverage analysis. In preparation for extended mission operations, CIMS has also evolved further to assist in the planning and coordination of the dual playback redundancy of

  8. Ion-selective electrodes with colloid-imprinted mesoporous carbon as solid contact.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinbo; Zou, Xu U; Stein, Andreas; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2014-07-15

    A new type of solid-contact ion-selective electrode (SC-ISE) has been developed that uses colloid-imprinted mesoporous (CIM) carbon with 24 nm diameter, interconnected mesopores as the intermediate layer between a gold electrode and an ionophore-doped ISE membrane. For a demonstration, valinomycin was used as K(+) ionophore, and a good Nernstian response with a slope of 59.5 mV/decade in the range from 10(-5.2) to 10(-1.0) M was observed. The high purity, low content of redox-active surface functional groups and intrinsic hydrophobic characteristics of CIM carbon prepared from mesophase pitch lead to outstanding performance of these sensors, with excellent resistance to the formation of a water layer and no interference caused by light, O2, and CO2. When a redox couple is introduced as an internal reference species, calibration-free SC-ISEs can be made with a standard deviation of E° as low as 0.7 mV. Moreover, the interconnected mesopore structure of ISE membrane-infused CIM carbon facilitates both ion and electron conduction and provides a large interfacial area with good ion-to-electron transduction. Because of the large double layer capacitance of CIM carbon, CIM carbon-based SC-ISEs exhibit excellent potential stability, as shown by chronopotentiometry and continuous potentiometric measurements. The capacitance of these electrodes as determined by chronopotentiometry is 1.0 mF, and the emf drift over 70 h is as low as 1.3 μV/h, making these electrodes the most stable SC-ISEs reported so far.

  9. Metabolic consequences of chronic intermittent mild stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Abigail K; Fourman, Sarah; Packard, Amy E B; Egan, Ann E; Ryan, Karen K; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2015-10-15

    Chronic stress in humans has divergent effects on food intake, with some individuals reporting increased vs. decreased food intake during stress. This divergence may depend in part on stress intensity, with higher-intensity stressors preferentially promoting anorexia. Consistent with this idea, rodents given a high-intensity chronic variable stress paradigm have robustly decreased food intake and body weight gain. However, the metabolic effects of a less intense chronic stress paradigm are not clear. Thus in the present study, adult male rats were given chronic intermittent mild stress (CIMS) exposure (3 cycles, in which each cycle consists of once daily mild stress for 5 days/week for 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of no stress) vs. non-stress controls, combined with ongoing access to a palatable diet (PD; choice of chow, high-fat diet, 30% sucrose drink, and water) vs. control diet (chow and water). As expected, access to PD increased caloric intake, body weight gain, and adiposity, and impaired glucose tolerance. CIMS decreased body weight gain only during the first cycle of stress and did not affect body weight gain thereafter, regardless of diet. Moreover, CIMS did not alter total food intake, adiposity or glucose tolerance regardless of diet. Lastly, CIMS transiently increased high-fat diet preference in PD-fed rats during the first stress cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that CIMS has relatively modest metabolic effects that occur primarily during initial stress exposure. These results support the hypothesis that the metabolic consequences of chronic stress vary with stress intensity and/or frequency.

  10. SU-D-BRD-04: A Logical Organizational Approach to Clinical Information Management

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, W; Kupelian, P; Wang, J; Low, D; Ruan, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a clinical information management system (CIMS) that collects, organizes physician inputs logically and supports analysis functionality. Methods: In a conventional electronic medical record system (EMR), the document manager component stores data in a pool of standalone .docx or .pdf files. The lack of a content-based logical organization makes cross-checking, reference or automatic inheritance of information challenging. We have developed an information-oriented clinical record system that addresses this shortcoming. In CIMS, a parent library predefines a set of available questions along with the data types of their expected answers. The creation of a questionnaire template is achieved by selecting questions from this parent library to form a virtual group. Instances of the same data field in different documents are linked by their question identifier. This design allows for flexible data sharing and inheritance among various forms using a longitudinal lineage of data indexed according to the modification time stamps of the documents. CIMS is designed with a web portal to facilitate querying, data entry and modification, aggregate report generation, and data adjudication. The current implementation addresses diagnostic data, medical history, vital signs, and various quantities in consult note and treatment summaries. Results: CIMS is currently storing treatment summary information of over 1,000 patients who have received treatment at UCLA Radiation Oncology between March 1, 2013 and January 31, 2014. We are in the process of incorporating a DICOM-RT dosimetry parser and patient reporting applications into CIMS, as well as continuing to define document templates to support additional forms. Conclusion: We are able to devise an alternative storage paradigm which results in an improvement in the accuracy and organizational structure of clinical information.

  11. Rate of Chiari I malformation in children of mothers with depression with and without prenatal SSRI exposure.

    PubMed

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M; Smith, J Keith; Lury, Kenneth; Gilmore, John H

    2014-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently prescribed to pregnant women. Therefore, research on in utero exposure to SSRIs can be helpful in informing patients and clinicians. The aim of this retrospective two-cohort study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant increase in Chiari I malformations (CIM) in children exposed to SSRIs during pregnancy. A total of 33 children whose mothers received a diagnosis of depression and took SSRIs during pregnancy (SSRI-exposed cohort) were matched to 66 children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure. In addition, 30 children whose mothers received a diagnosis of depression, but did not receive antidepressants during pregnancy (history of maternal depression cohort), were matched to 60 children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure. Main outcome was presence/absence of CIM on MRI scans at 1 and/or 2 years of age. Scans were reviewed by two independent neuroradiologists who were blind to exposure status. The SSRI-exposed children were significantly more likely to be classified as CIM than comparison children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure (18% vs 2%, p=0.003, OR estimate 10.32, 95% Wald confidence limits 2.04-102.46). Duration of SSRI exposure, SSRI exposure at conception, and family history of depression increased the risk. The history of maternal depression cohort did not differ from comparison children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure in occurrence of CIM (7% vs 5%, p=0.75, OR estimate 1.44, 95% Wald confidence limits 0.23-7.85). Replication is needed, as is additional research to clarify whether SSRIs directly impact risk for CIM or whether this relationship is mediated by severity of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. We would discourage clinicians from altering their prescribing practices until such research is available.

  12. Laboratory and Ambient Measurements of Oxidized Organic Compounds in the Gas Phase Using Nitrate Ion Chemical Ionization Coupled with High Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Stark, H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Krechmer, J.; Lambe, A. T.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Kimmel, J.; Kroll, J. H.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) is a widely used technique for molecular level characterization of inorganic and organic gas phase species. Here we present laboratory and ambient measurements of gaseous organic compounds by means of a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) using nitrate ion (NO3-) chemistry, which recently has proven capable of selectively detecting oxidized organic molecules in the gas-phase via clustering with NO3- and its high order clusters. Such low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOC, ELVOC) have an important role in particulate phase chemistry and formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The HR-ToF-CIMS was deployed during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) at the forest site in Centreville, AL (June 1 - July 15, 2013), where emissions were dominated by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), occasionally mixing with anthropogenic emissions. During SOAS, the HR-ToF-CIMS detected oxidation products of both isoprene (typically C5 LVOC) and terpenes (typically C10 ELVOC). The isoprene-related LVOC showed a diurnal cycle with a day time peak, while two groups of terpene ELVOC were identified, one peaking at night and one peaking during the day. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analyses are applied to the dataset to further interpret these observations. The effect of anthropogenic pollution on the biogenic-dominated environment was also investigated during periods of elevated nitrous and sulfur dioxide levels. To further aid in interpretation of the SOAS dataset, oxidized organic molecules were produced via OH and O3 initiated oxidation of biogenic gas-phase precursors in targeted laboratory studies and detected using the HR-ToF-CIMS. Spectra were obtained in these studies over a range of simulated atmospheric conditions.

  13. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rondo, L; Ehrhart, S; Kürten, A; Adamov, A; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Keskinen, H; Kim, J; Jokinen, T; Lehtipalo, K; Leiminger, M; Praplan, A; Riccobono, F; Rissanen, M P; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Smith, J N; Tomé, A; Tröstl, J; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Vaattovaara, P; Winkler, P M; Williamson, C; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Petäjä, T; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J

    2016-03-27

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4-H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  14. Acute liver acetaminophen toxicity in rabbits and the use of antidotes: a metabonomic approach in serum.

    PubMed

    Zira, Athina; Mikros, Emmanuel; Giannioti, Konstantina; Galanopoulou, Panagiota; Papalois, Apostolos; Liapi, Charis; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2009-07-01

    The metabonomic approach has been widely used in toxicology to investigate mechanisms of toxicity. In the present study alterations in the metabolic profiles, monitored by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, on serum samples in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury in rabbits were examined. Furthermore, the effect of the established antidote N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the proposed antidotes silybinin (SIL), cimetidine (CIM) and SIL/CIM was also investigated. A single dose of APAP (2 g kg(-1) b.w., i.g.) was administered to rabbits and APAP combined with the antidotes SIL, CIM and NAC. Animals were sacrificed at 24 h post-APAP treatment. Healthy untreated animals served as controls. (1)H-NMR spectra of serum samples were acquired and underwent principal component analysis (PCA). Acute liver injury was verified by histopathological examination and the alterations of serum biochemical enzymes AST and ALT. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy revealed variations in the serum metabolic profile of APAP-intoxicated rabbits compared with controls. Co-administration of APAP with NAC, CIM and SIL + CIM seems to ameliorate the metabolic profile of animals compared with simply APAP-treated ones. In this study, the model of APAPinduced liver injury was successfully described using the (1)H-NMR based metabonomic approach in serum. Furthermore, the use of antidotes that reduced the toxic insult was also recorded using this technique. The combination of NMR spectroscopy and PCA is a rapid methodology, capable of detecting alterations in the metabolic profile, and produces adequate models that could be used for the characterization of unknown samples, both experimental and clinical, reinforcing its future use in clinical settings.

  15. Chemistry of α-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products generated in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber as measured by acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; ...

    2014-07-01

    Recent developments in high resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made possible the direct detection of atmospheric organic compounds in real-time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, for the first time, we examine gas-phase O3 and OH oxidation products of α-pinene and naphthalene formed in the PAM flow reactor with an HR-ToF-CIMS using acetate reagent ion chemistry. Integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec cm−3 s, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 daysmore » of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. We present a method that estimates vapor pressures of organic molecules using the measured O/C ratio, H/C ratio, and carbon number for each compound detected by the CIMS. The predicted condensed-phase SOA average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous AMS measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  16. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondo, L.; Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-03-01

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4-H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  17. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI‐APi‐TOF (Chemical Ionization‐Atmospheric Pressure interface‐Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI‐APi‐TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4‐H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self‐contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit. PMID:27610289

  18. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Eberhard

    2016-06-01

    This Special Section of Acta Astronautica is a collection of selected peer reviewed papers presented at the eighth International Workshop on Satellite Constellations and Formation Flying (IWSCFF). The event was, as its predecessors, organized by the Astrodynamics Committee of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) with the objective to bring together specialists in the area of astrodynamics and space mission analysis and design and to promote discussions on lessons from past missions, to present recent results, and to address challenges for future space missions. The Workshop was held at the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering of the Delft University of Technology from June 8-10, 2015. The Workshop was coordinated by its Chairs Eberhard Gill (The Netherlands) and Alfred Ng (Canada) with support from the recently established TU Delft Space Institute, an extended International Program Committee, a Local Organizing Committee and a variety of industrial and institutional sponsors.

  19. Still going strong: Leeuwenhoek at eighty.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    At age 80, Antony van Leeuwenhoek was a world-famous scientist who came from a prosperous Delft family with a heritage of public service. He continued that tradition by serving in paid municipal offices. Self-taught, he began his scientific career in his 40s, when he began making hundreds of tiny single-lens microscopes. Pioneering the use of now-common microscopic techniques, he was the first human to see microbes and microscopic structures in animals, plants, and minerals. Over 50 years, he wrote only letters, more than 300 of them, and published half of them himself. More than a hundred were published in translation in the Royal Society's Philosophical Transactions. Today, Leeuwenhoek is considered in the lesser rank of scientists and is not well known outside of his homeland. Recent archival research in Delft has contributed new information about his life that helps to contextualize his science, but much remains to be learned.

  20. Effect of Coupling Wave and Flow Dynamics on Hurricane Surge and Inundation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    module can be run in 3D mode, for modeling the storm surge in this study we choose to run the model in horizontal 2D mode. Wave effects are included in...we validate the DELFT3D modeling suite comprised of FLOW and WAVE modules to model inundation caused by Hurricane Ike (2008) using reanalyzed data... Model results are compared to the data collected by the SURA coastal inundation testbed. Comparing the effects of coupling waves show that there

  1. Coastal mapping and modelling of Tuktoyaktuk Harbour, Western Arctic, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models suggest that sea ice in the Arctic is expected to decrease and that the frequency of storms bringing high waves and storm surges is expected to increase. Reduced sea ice, higher waves, and higher storm surge water levels have implications for coastal infrastructure, nearshore sediment transport, and rates of coastal change. Tuktoyaktuk is an important shipping terminal servicing the petroleum industry and Inuvialuit communities in the western Canadian Arctic. The hydrodynamic model Delft3D is used to model sediment transport in Tuktoyaktuk Harbour and the approaches. For nearshore applications, Delft3D works best with a seamless coastal digital elevation model (DEM). A DEM was constructed from a variety of sources. Terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) uses an infrared laser to construct a detailed elevation model of the terrestrial coastal zone. Multibeam bathymetry uses arrays of acoustic signals to collect detailed of the subaqueous coastal zone. Bathymetry data, and charts from the Canadian Hydrographic Service supplement the offshore bathymetry. The shoreline is derived from CanCoast, a nationally consistent geospatial database of Canada's marine coasts. The Coastal Information System (CIS) supplements CanCoast and describes coastal geomorphology in local areas. With these data, Delft3D delivered wave, current, and sediment transport data in a common reference frame. When compared to measurements, the model successfully simulates waves and currents. Output from Delft3D was mapped into a Geographic Information System, and combined with other data to help an Arctic community and industries adapt to potential climate-related hazards .

  2. National Waterways Study. Waterway Science and Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    high stages that create very flat back- water slopes for an appreciable distance up the tribu - tary, There does not appear to be very much need or...harbor entrances, etc. In each case, there is either a buildup or reduction in water level on one side caused by centrifugal force, flow from tribu ...Design of Navigation Canals, Proceedings, Symposium on Aspecats of Navigability of Constraint Waterways, Including Harbor Entrances, Delft, 1978. Danys

  3. Single pin BWR benchmark problem for coupled Monte Carlo - Thermal hydraulics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.; Sanchez, V.; Hoogenboom, J. E.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the European NURISP research project, a single pin BWR benchmark problem was defined. The aim of this initiative is to test the coupling strategies between Monte Carlo and subchannel codes developed by different project participants. In this paper the results obtained by the Delft Univ. of Technology and Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology will be presented. The benchmark problem was simulated with the following coupled codes: TRIPOLI-SUBCHANFLOW, MCNP-FLICA, MCNP-SUBCHANFLOW, and KENO-SUBCHANFLOW. (authors)

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Comparisons of the Josephson Voltage Standard of the BIPM with those of the OFM and the NMi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymanr, D.; Feller, U.; de la Court, P.; Witt, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Comparisons of the Josephson array voltage standard of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) were made with those of the Swiss Federal Office of Metrology (OFM), Wabern, Switzerland, in November 1992 and of the Nederlands Meetinstituut-Van Swinden Laboratorium (NMi), Delft, the Netherlands, in March 1993. Direct and indirect comparison results indicate agreement between the voltage standards to within 1 nV.

  5. Waves, Turbulence and Boundary Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    streaming effects and compares the present three-dimensional wave- current equations with those by McWilliams and Restrepo (1999) I spent three Spring...Oceanographic Institute, scientists at the Technical University of Delft, Alan Blumberg of Stevens Institute of Tecnology and Tal Ezer and Leo Oey of...206, 265-297. McWilliams , J. C. and J. M. Restrepo, 1999: The wave-driven ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2523-2540. Mellor, G. L

  6. Comparing Two Numerical Models in Simulating Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport at a Dual Inlet System, West-Central Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    models captured key flow patterns including the ebb jet and alongshore flood flow. The models also yielded reasonable longshore current and...although both under-predicted the measured values (Fig. 5). CMS closely predicted the ebb velocity but under-predicted the flood velocity, while...DELFT3D reproduced the flood velocity closer to the measured values but further under-predicted the 135 19/03/2015 14 pp 6 ebb velocity (Fig. 5). The

  7. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Non-Crystalline Solids (3rd) Held in Matalascanas (Costa de la Luz), Spain on November 5-8, 1991. Trends in Non-Crystalline Solids,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Magnetismo Aplicado, Madrid, Spain) G.R. Strobl (Universitat Freiburg, Germany) A. van den Beukel (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands...second in San SebastiAn in 1989 - will continue. The fourth will be held in 1994, organized by the "Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado" of the Complutense...Dpto. Electricidad y Electr6nica, Facultad de Ciencias, UPV/EHU Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao ABSTRACT:We report 57 Fe MOssbauer Spectroscopy measurements

  8. International Workshop on Non-Crystalline Solids (3rd) Held in Matalascanas, Spain on November 5-8, 1991. Programme and Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    Magnetismo Aplicado. Madrid, Spain) G.R. Strobl (Universitit Freiburg, Germany) A. van den Beukel (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands...H.T. SAVAGE Instituto Magnetismo Aplicado. Universidad Complutense and RENFE, Apartado 155, Las Rozas, 28230-MADRID (Spain) Amorphous ferromagnetic...ALLOYS I. Orue, J.M.Barandiardn, M.L Ferndndez-Gubieda, F. Plazaola Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Facultad de Ciencias, UPV/EHU Aptdo 644, 48080

  9. Development of a Computational Assay for the Estrogen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    1980-1985 Teaching Assistant for General Chemistry and Physical Chemistry Laboratories at the Georgia Institute of Technology 22 EXTERNAL GRANT SUPPORT...1993 William L. Dunn Award for Outstanding Teaching and Scholarly Promise, awarded by an elected committee of faculty at LFC 1985 Conoco/Du Pont...Engineering, University of Delft, The Netherlands. Becky Turner, completed a Master of Arts in Teaching program at the University of Maine. Currently

  10. Surface Wave Dynamics in the Coastal Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    heights, rip currents etc), coastal management, and help mitigate pollution hazards for humans (recreation) and coastal ecosystems . TRANSITIONS...1 Surface Wave Dynamics in the Coastal Zone Gerbrant Ph. van Vledder Department of Civil engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of...will be applicable in the coastal zone from deep water up to and including the surf zone. Our efforts will focus on analyzing high quality datasets to

  11. DORIS Satellite Phase Center Determination and Consequences on the Derived Scale of the Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal R.; Haines, Bruce; Kuang, Da

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reports on the analysis of several years of Delft Object-oriented Radar Interferometric Software (Doris) data undertaken to estimate daily determination of satellite antenna phase center corrections. This was done on a satellite by satellite basis. For each DORIS satellite, we considered long-term time series of such individual estimations, looking for possible biases, discontinuities, trends or annual signals. The analysis compared DORIS to GPS estimates for common satellites (Jason and TOPEX/Poseidon).

  12. Comparative study of silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Allier, C.P.; Valk, H.; Huizenga, J.; Bom, V.R.; Hollander, R.W.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    1998-06-01

    The authors studied three different types of silicon sensors: PIN diodes, circular drift detectors, both made at the Delft University of Technology (DUT), and Hamamatsu S5345 avalanche photodiodes. Measurements have been carried out in the same optimized experimental setup, both at room temperature and at low temperatures. Comparison is made for direct X-ray detection and CsI(Tl) scintillation light readout.

  13. West Europe Report, Science and Technology, No. 163

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Gist-Brocades in Delft, Unilever in Vlaardingen and Organon (Akzo Pharma ) in Oss. A few other firms are considering to start with this technique...recombinant DNA product in 1982, a vaccine to prevent infectious diarrhea in pigs and calves. Since that time the Akzo Pharma companies are steadily...moving costs/EPST [possibly Public Scientific and Technological Establishment]) the research tax credit; and financing of the research personnel

  14. Force and Moment Plots from Pacejka 2002 Magic Formula Tire Model Coefficients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Delft) “An Improved Magic Formula/Swift Tyre Model that can Handle Inflation Pressure Changes” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven...LONGVL = 1 $Measurement speed $------------------------------------------------dimensions [DIMENSION] UNLOADED_RADIUS = 0.5000 $Free tyre radius...WIDTH = 0.5000 $Nominal section width of the tyre ASPECT_RATIO = 0.5000 $Nominal aspect ratio RIM_RADIUS = 0.5000 $Nominal rim radius RIM_WIDTH

  15. The 1994 International Transatlantic Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer Experiment: Preliminary Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 International Transatlantic Iho-Way Satellite Time and Frequency lkansfer Experiment: Preliminary Results J. A. DeYoung, W. J...Klepczynski, A. D. McKinley, W. Powell & F! Mai U.S. Naval Observatory, Time Service Department Washington, DC, USA F! Hetzel & A. Bauch, Physikalisch...Corporation Delft, The Netherlands Washington, DC, USA Abstract The international transatlantic time and frequency transfer experiment was designed by

  16. 78 FR 8594 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...) (State/One- Stop). 82342 RG Steel Wheeling Corrugating Fort Payne, AL 01/14/13 01/13/13 Company (Workers... 01/14/13 82346 Whirlpool Corporation (State/ Fort Smith, AR 01/15/13 01/14/13 One-Stop). 82347 Performance Motorsports, Inc. Huntington Beach, CA..... 01/15/13 01/14/13 (State/One-Stop). 82348 Delft...

  17. Simulating Fibre Suspensions: Lagrangian versus Statistical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. H.; Andersson, H. I.; Gillissen, J. J. J.; Boersma, B. J.

    Fibre suspensions exhibit complex dynamical flow phenomena and are at the same time of immense practical importance, notably in the pulp and paper industries. NTNU and TU Delft have in a collaborative research project adopted two alternative strategies in the simulation of dilute fibre suspensions, namely a statistical approach [2] and a Lagrangian particle treatment [4]. The two approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we aim for the first time to compare the performance of the two.

  18. Polarization Utilization in Radar Target Reconstruction: C-Wide (Multi-Frequency) Band Relationship of a Target’s Characteristic Operators with Its Unique Set of Natural Eigenfrequencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-14

    Weapons Center, China Lake , CA, 1983. J.R. Huynen, "Phenomenological Theory of Radar Targets," Ph.D. Dissertation, Technical University, Delft, The...Eaves Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. William A. Holm Atlanta, GA 30332 (404) 424-9609 Dr. Otto E. Rausch Electromagnetics Research Lab Dr. Georges A...Sudbury, MA 01776 Bell Aerospace Tektronix Dr. Lionel Shub P.O. Box 1 (716) 297-1000 Buffalo, NY 14240 Raytheon Company Dr. Edwin R. Hiller Hartwell

  19. Vertebral Development in Paleozoic and Mesozoic Tetrapods Revealed by Paleohistological Data.

    PubMed

    Danto, Marylène; Witzmann, Florian; Fröbisch, Nadia B

    2016-01-01

    Basal tetrapods display a wide spectrum of vertebral centrum morphologies that can be used to distinguish different tetrapod groups. The vertebral types range from multipartite centra in stem-tetrapods, temnospondyls, and seymouriamorphs up to monospondylous centra in lepospondyls and have been drawn upon for reconstructing major evolutionary trends in tetrapods that are now considered textbook knowledge. Two modes of vertebral formation have been postulated: the multipartite vertebrae formed first as cartilaginous elements with subsequent ossification. The monospondylous centrum, in contrast, was formed by direct ossification without a cartilaginous precursor. This study describes centrum morphogenesis in basal tetrapods for the first time, based on bone histology. Our results show that the intercentra of the investigated stem-tetrapods consist of a small band of periosteal bone and a dense network of endochondral bone. In stereospondyl temnospondyls, high amounts of calcified cartilage are preserved in the endochondral trabeculae. Notably, the periosteal region is thickened and highly vascularized in the plagiosaurid stereospondyls. Among "microsaur" lepospondyls, the thickened periosteal region is composed of compact bone and the notochordal canal is surrounded by large cell lacunae. In nectridean lepospondyls, the periosteal region has a spongy structure with large intertrabecular spaces, whereas the endochondral region has a highly cancellous structure. Our observations indicate that regardless of whether multipartite or monospondylous, the centra of basal tetrapods display first endochondral and subsequently periosteal ossification. A high interspecific variability is observed in growth rate, organization, and initiation of periosteal ossification. Moreover, vertebral development and structure reflect different lifestyles. The bottom-dwelling Plagiosauridae increase their skeletal mass by hyperplasy of the periosteal region. In nectrideans, the skeletal mass

  20. Vertebral Development in Paleozoic and Mesozoic Tetrapods Revealed by Paleohistological Data

    PubMed Central

    Danto, Marylène; Witzmann, Florian; Fröbisch, Nadia B.

    2016-01-01

    Basal tetrapods display a wide spectrum of vertebral centrum morphologies that can be used to distinguish different tetrapod groups. The vertebral types range from multipartite centra in stem-tetrapods, temnospondyls, and seymouriamorphs up to monospondylous centra in lepospondyls and have been drawn upon for reconstructing major evolutionary trends in tetrapods that are now considered textbook knowledge. Two modes of vertebral formation have been postulated: the multipartite vertebrae formed first as cartilaginous elements with subsequent ossification. The monospondylous centrum, in contrast, was formed by direct ossification without a cartilaginous precursor. This study describes centrum morphogenesis in basal tetrapods for the first time, based on bone histology. Our results show that the intercentra of the investigated stem-tetrapods consist of a small band of periosteal bone and a dense network of endochondral bone. In stereospondyl temnospondyls, high amounts of calcified cartilage are preserved in the endochondral trabeculae. Notably, the periosteal region is thickened and highly vascularized in the plagiosaurid stereospondyls. Among “microsaur” lepospondyls, the thickened periosteal region is composed of compact bone and the notochordal canal is surrounded by large cell lacunae. In nectridean lepospondyls, the periosteal region has a spongy structure with large intertrabecular spaces, whereas the endochondral region has a highly cancellous structure. Our observations indicate that regardless of whether multipartite or monospondylous, the centra of basal tetrapods display first endochondral and subsequently periosteal ossification. A high interspecific variability is observed in growth rate, organization, and initiation of periosteal ossification. Moreover, vertebral development and structure reflect different lifestyles. The bottom-dwelling Plagiosauridae increase their skeletal mass by hyperplasy of the periosteal region. In nectrideans, the skeletal

  1. [Little animals observed by Antony van Leeuwenhoek].

    PubMed

    Amako, Kazunobu

    2014-01-01

    Antony van Leeuwenhoek is the discoverer of bacteria and other microorganisms. However, his name is currently not as well-known as those of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch or Shibasaburo Kitasato. Why not? To answer this question I read a book published in 1932 by Clifford Dobell, an English protozoologist, and found some answers. First, Leeuwenhoek was not a professional scientist in any university or scientific institute, but merely an average citizen in Delft, Holland, working as a merchant in his own shop, and later he also served as an office-holder in Delft city hall. Second, he made and invented his own microscopes but never made his work on microscopes and observation techniques widely known to the public. Accordingly, after his death, his excellent techniques for observing microorganisms were not handed down to the next generation and eventually became forgotten by the scientific community. Although he did not write any scientific paper, he did write about his observations in many letters addressed to the Royal Society of London. Dr. Dobell had translated most of them into English and included them in his book. I picked up and translated several of these letters into Japanese and have included them in this review to show how he described his observations and also what he thought about the presence of such small animals invisible to the naked eye. By reading this review I hope you will come to understand the efforts and abilities of a citizen in Delft about 340 years ago.

  2. Parametric analysis of three dimensional flow models applied to tidal energy sites in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Anas; Venugopal, Vengatesan

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed parametric analysis on various input parameters of two different numerical models, namely Telemac3D and Delft3D, used for the simulation of tidal current flow at potential tidal energy sites in the Pentland Firth in Scotland. The motivation behind this work is to investigate the influence of the input parameters on the above 3D models, as the majority of past research has mainly focused on using the 2D depth-averaged flow models for this region. An extended description of the models setup, along with the utilised parameters is provided. The International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO) tidal gauges and Acoustic Doppler and Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements are used in calibrating model output to ensure the robustness of the models. Extensive parametric study on the impact of varying drag coefficients, roughness formulae and turbulence models has been investigated and reported. The results indicate that both Telemac3D and Delft3D models are able to produce excellent comparison against measured data; however, with Delft3D, the model parameters which provided higher correlation with the measured data, are found to be different from those reported in the previous literature, which could be attributed to the choice of boundary conditions and the mesh size.

  3. In-orbit results of Delfi-n3Xt: Lessons learned and move forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jian; Bouwmeester, Jasper; Gill, Eberhard

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides an update of the Delfi nanosatellite programme of the Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), with a focus on the recent in-orbit results of the second TU Delft satellite Delfi-n3Xt. In addition to the educational objective that has been reached with more than 80 students involved in the project, most of the technological objectives of Delfi-n3Xt have also been fulfilled with successful in-orbit demonstrations of payloads and platform. Among these demonstrations, four are highlighted in this paper, including a solid cool gas micropropulsion system, a new type of solar cell, a more robust Command and Data Handling Subsystem (CDHS), and a highly integrated Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem (ADCS) that performs three-axis active control using reaction wheels. Through the development of Delfi-n3Xt, significant experiences and lessons have been learned, which motivated a further step towards DelFFi, the third Delfi CubeSat mission, to demonstrate autonomous formation flying using two CubeSats named Delta and Phi. A brief update of the DelFFi mission is also provided.

  4. The influence of social networks on self-management support: a metasynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that chronic illness management (CIM) is not just an individual but a collective process where social networks can potentially make a considerable contribution to improving health outcomes for people with chronic illness. However, the mechanisms (processes, activities) taking place within social networks are insufficiently understood. The aim of this review was to focus on identifying the mechanisms linking social networks with CIM. Here we consider network mechanisms as located within a broader social context that shapes practices, behaviours, and the multiplicity of functions and roles that network members fulfil. Methods A systematic search of qualitative studies was undertaken on Medline, Embase, and Web for papers published between 1st January 2002 and 1st December 2013. Eligible for inclusion were studies dealing with diabetes, and with conditions or health behaviours relevant for diabetes management; and studies exploring the relationship between social networks, self-management, and deprivation. 25 papers met the inclusion criteria. A qualitative metasynthesis was undertaken and the review followed a line of argument synthesis. Results The main themes identified were: 1) sharing knowledge and experiences in a personal community; 2) accessing and mediation of resources; 3) self-management support requires awareness of and ability to deal with network relationships. These translated into line of argument synthesis in which three network mechanisms were identified. These were network navigation (identifying and connecting with relevant existing resources in a network), negotiation within networks (re-shaping relationships, roles, expectations, means of engagement and communication between network members), and collective efficacy (developing a shared perception and capacity to successfully perform behaviour through shared effort, beliefs, influence, perseverance, and objectives). These network mechanisms bring to the

  5. [Evaluation of carbapenem inactivation method for the identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains].

    PubMed

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Uluçam, Gülşen; Gençoğlu Özgür, Çiğdem

    2016-07-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of carbapenemases is of crucial importance in terms of infection control. Methods employed in the determination of carbapenemases should be constantly updated in the light of technical advances and newly emerging carbapenemase variants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the newly developed carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) for the identification of carbapenemases defined in the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacteriaceae isolates with resistance to at least one of the carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem or meropenem) were included in the study. The study isolates were obtained from various clinical specimens between 2008-2014 and consisted of 56 Enterobacteriaceae strains (12 Escherichia coli, 32 Klebsiella spp., and 12 Enterobacter spp.) in which the presence of the 38 blaOXA-48, 8 blaVIM, 7 blaIMP, 1 blaNDM-1, 1 blaKPC-2 and 1 blaOXA-48+blaVIM genes had been previously determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 78 in which no carbapenemase gene were detected. For the performance of the CIM, the test bacteria were suspended in sterile water and then a 10 μg meropenem disc was immersed in the suspension and incubated for 2 hours. This meropenem disc was then removed and subsequently placed on a Mueller-Hinton agar plate inoculated with E. coli ATCC 29522 and incubated at 35°C. The results were assessed after 6 hours and after overnight incubation. Development of an inhibition zone around the meropenem disk was interpreted as the absence of carbapenemase and the lack of an inhibition zone as the presence of carbapenemase. The results of the CIM were obtained after 8 hours. With the CIM, all isolates with previously determined carbapenemase genes were found to be positive and the isolates with no genes revealed to be negative. The sensitivity and specificity of CIM were estimated as 100%. The high sensitivity and specificity, ease of application and interpretation, rapid

  6. Six decades of the chair of Internal Medicine at the Medical Faculty in Skopje.

    PubMed

    Chakalaroski, K

    2013-01-01

    The chair of internal medicine in Republic of Macedonia was created in 1947. The Department of Internal Medicine (CIM) is the most numerous at Skopje's medical faculty (currently 56 members). According to the archive material from the first session of the Scientific Teaching Council of the Faculty of Medicine (17.03.1947), Mr Mario Krmpotic (Professor of Internal Medicine) was proposed as the first Director of the Internal Clinic (1947). For reasons unknown, Mr Krmpotic never came to Skopje to accept the post. As a consequence of this fact, the real founder of the CIM was the Russian Professor Alexandar Ignjatovski (1875-1955). Mr Ignjatovski was elected as the first Director of the Clinic for Internal Medicine in 1948 for a period of 4 years (1948-1952). At the same time, he was the first Chief of the CIM in Skopje (Macedonia). Dr D. Arsov was elected as the first Assistant Professor of Medicine in 1947, and second (and last) Director of the Clinic for Internal Medicine (1952-1974). For the same period (22 years) he was Head of the CIM. Dr D. Arsov sequentially and successively became first associated and then ordinary professor of medicine in the years 1951 and 1958. The regular activities of the CIM are as follows: 1) Undergraduate education for students (Clinical Investigation, Internal Medicine, Clinical Pharmacy) in general medicine, dentistry, geriatrics, urgent and family medicine (ECKTS); Undergraduate educationfor nurses, speech therapists, physiotherapists, radiologists (high /three year/ nurses School, ECKTS); 2) Postgraduate education (candidates for specialisation in internal medicine, infectology, anaesthesiology, neurology and surgery; 3) Continual medical education (a traditional morning scientific meeting on Thursdays, 08 h; weekly meetings of all internal medicine subspecialists); Scientific meetings, symposiums, congresses of former internal medicine associations (cardiology, pulmoallergology, gastroenterology, nephrology, haematology

  7. [Management of hypothermia -- Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre in Krakow].

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Kosiński, Sylweriusz; Jarosz, Anna; Sobczyk, Dorota; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sanak, Tomasz; Hymczak, Hubert; Kapelak, Bogusław; Drwiła, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidental hypothermia is a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the years 2009–2012 the Polish National Statistics Department reported 1836 deaths due to exposure to excessive natural cold. The Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre (CLHG, Centrum Leczenia Hipotermii Glebokiej) was set up in Krakow in 2013. It is a unit functioning within the structure of the Cardiac Surgery Clinic, established in order to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of patients in the advanced stages of severe hypothermia. Early identification of hypothermia, binding algorithm and coordination leading to extracorporeal rewarming, are the most important elements in the deep hypothermia management.

  8. Limited Evaluation of Image Quality Produced by a Portable Head CT Scanner (CereTom) in a Neurosurgery Centre

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Ariz Chong; Adnan, Johari Siregar; Rahman, Noor Azman A.; Palur, Ravikant

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Computed tomography (CT) is the preferred diagnostic toolkit for head and brain imaging of head injury. A recent development is the invention of a portable CT scanner that can be beneficial from a clinical point of view. Aim To compare the quality of CT brain images produced by a fixed CT scanner and a portable CT scanner (CereTom). Methods This work was a single-centre retrospective study of CT brain images from 112 neurosurgical patients. Hounsfield units (HUs) of the images from CereTom were measured for air, water and bone. Three assessors independently evaluated the images from the fixed CT scanner and CereTom. Streak artefacts, visualisation of lesions and grey–white matter differentiation were evaluated at three different levels (centrum semiovale, basal ganglia and middle cerebellar peduncles). Each evaluation was scored 1 (poor), 2 (average) or 3 (good) and summed up to form an ordinal reading of 3 to 9. Results HUs for air, water and bone from CereTom were within the recommended value by the American College of Radiology (ACR). Streak artefact evaluation scores for the fixed CT scanner was 8.54 versus 7.46 (Z = −5.67) for CereTom at the centrum semiovale, 8.38 (SD = 1.12) versus 7.32 (SD = 1.63) at the basal ganglia and 8.21 (SD = 1.30) versus 6.97 (SD = 2.77) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. Grey–white matter differentiation showed scores of 8.27 (SD = 1.04) versus 7.21 (SD = 1.41) at the centrum semiovale, 8.26 (SD = 1.07) versus 7.00 (SD = 1.47) at the basal ganglia and 8.38 (SD = 1.11) versus 6.74 (SD = 1.55) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. Visualisation of lesions showed scores of 8.86 versus 8.21 (Z = −4.24) at the centrum semiovale, 8.93 versus 8.18 (Z = −5.32) at the basal ganglia and 8.79 versus 8.06 (Z = −4.93) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. All results were significant with P-value < 0.01. Conclusions Results of the study showed a significant difference in image quality produced by the fixed CT scanner and

  9. Fahr's Disease Presenting with Dementia at Onset: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Spadaro, Letteria; Marra, Angela; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Fahr's disease (FD) is characterized by sporadic or familiar idiopathic calcification of the basal ganglia, dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and centrum semiovale, mainly presenting with movement disorder, dementia, and behavioral abnormalities. We described a rare case of Fahr's disease presenting at onset only with behavioral and neuropsychological alterations, whose diagnosis was supposed only after a brain CT, which showed extensive bilateral calcifications in the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum and basal ganglia. Since the onset of Fahr's disease may be a dysexecutive syndrome with behavioral abnormalities, the clinical and radiological features are really important to do the appropriate diagnosis. PMID:24803731

  10. Effects of adding injection-compression to rapid heat cycle molding on the structure of a light guide plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seokkwan; Min, Inki; Yoon, Kyunghwan; Kang, Jeongjin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of adding injection-compression to rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) (rapid heat cycle injection-compression molding (RICM)) on the physical quality and optical anisotropy of a molded light guide plate (LGP). Transcription ratio of microstructure, uniformity of part thickness and birefringence were experimentally evaluated on a 7 inch LGP of nominal thickness of 1.12 mm (including a microstructure array of 30 µm diameter and 14 µm height). The designed mold was equipped with rapid heating and compressing facilities and a microstructured nickel stamper was fabricated by UV LIGA process. In addition, to investigate the efficacy of RICM, experiments involving conventional injection molding (CIM), ICM, and RHCM were conducted in parallel with RICM using the same mold. RHCM and RICM yielded excellent transcription ratios for the microstructure, while CIM and RICM provided high thickness uniformity and low birefringence. Thus, RICM obtains high transcription ratio of microstructure, uniform thickness and low birefringence.

  11. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of cimetidine and its metallocomplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barańska, M.; Proniewicz, L. M.

    1999-11-01

    We present vibrational spectra of three stable, well-reproducible, polymorphic forms of cimetidine ( cim), a drug which is a powerful histamine H 2-receptor antagonist used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Assignments of Raman and IR bands are made using semiempirical methods: MNDO, AM1 and PM3. We also describe the synthesis of Me( cim) 2(ClO 4) 2, where Me=Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II) and Ni(II), and present their vibrational data. We show that the obtained complexes are isostructural, however a metal ion that occupies a center of octahedral unit introduces some distortions that can be seen in the spectra. We also make tentative assignment of metal-ligand stretching modes observed in low frequency range.

  12. Continuous Underway Seawater Measurements of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoerb, M.; Kim, M.; Bertram, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The products of isoprene and terpene oxidation have been shown to contribute significantly to secondary aerosol production rates over continental regions, where the emission rates have been well characterized. Significantly less is known about the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes from marine sources. We discuss the development of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) employing benzene reagent ion chemistry for the selective detection of biogenic volatile organic compounds. The CIMS was coupled to a seawater equilibrator for the measurement of dissolved gases in surface seawater. This system was deployed aboard the R/V Knorr during the Western Atlantic Climate Study II in Spring 2014. Here, we report surface seawater (5 m depth) concentrations of dimethyl sulfide, isoprene, and alpha-pinene. The concentration measurements are discussed in terms of surface seawater temperature, nutrient availability, and primary productivity.

  13. From Ambient Sensing to IoT-based Context Computing: An Open Framework for End to End QoC Management †

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Pierrick; Desprats, Thierry; Chabridon, Sophie; Sibilla, Michelle; Taconet, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Quality of Context (QoC) awareness is recognized as a key point for the success of context-aware computing. At the time where the combination of the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, and Ambient Intelligence paradigms offer together new opportunities for managing richer context data, the next generation of Distributed Context Managers (DCM) is facing new challenges concerning QoC management. This paper presents our model-driven QoCIM framework. QoCIM is the acronym for Quality of Context Information Model. We show how it can help application developers to manage the whole QoC life-cycle by providing genericity, openness and uniformity. Its usages are illustrated, both at design time and at runtime, in the case of an urban pollution context- and QoC-aware scenario. PMID:26087372

  14. From Ambient Sensing to IoT-based Context Computing: An Open Framework for End to End QoC Management.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pierrick; Desprats, Thierry; Chabridon, Sophie; Sibilla, Michelle; Taconet, Chantal

    2015-06-16

    Quality of Context (QoC) awareness is recognized as a key point for the success of context-aware computing. At the time where the combination of the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, and Ambient Intelligence paradigms offer together new opportunities for managing richer context data, the next generation of Distributed Context Managers (DCM) is facing new challenges concerning QoC management. This paper presents our model-driven QoCIM framework. QoCIM is the acronym for Quality of Context Information Model. We show how it can help application developers to manage the whole QoC life-cycle by providing genericity, openness and uniformity. Its usages are illustrated, both at design time and at runtime, in the case of an urban pollution context- and QoC-aware scenario.

  15. Application of vibrational spectroscopy, thermal analyses and X-ray diffraction in the rapid evaluation of the stability in solid-state of ranitidine, famotidine and cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Jamrógiewicz, Marzena; Ciesielski, Aleksander

    2015-03-25

    This paper reports the study on applicability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the estimation of the chemical stability and photostability of histamine H2-receptor antagonist substances. Ranitidine hydrochloride (RAN), famotidine (FAM) and cimetidine (CIM) were tested and differences in sensitivity were measured via soft independence modeling of class analogies (Simca) model. The low values of variations for FAM and CIM and high variations obtained for RAN using FTIR and NIR techniques indicated that these methods were suitable and applicable to classify the degradation of RAN. Examined methods are recommendable in the first technological stage of drug production, and the preclinical and clinical development of pharmaceuticals or their quality control.

  16. QTL mapping of slow-rusting, adult plant resistance to race Ug99 of stem rust fungus in PBW343/Muu RIL population.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Singh, Ravi P; Bhavani, Sridhar; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Eugenio, Lopez-Vera Eric

    2013-05-01

    Races of stem rust fungus pose a major threat to wheat production worldwide. We mapped adult plant resistance (APR) to Ug99 in 141 lines of a PBW343/Muu recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population by phenotyping them for three seasons at Njoro, Kenya in field trials and genotyping them with Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. Moderately susceptible parent PBW343 and APR parent Muu displayed mean stem rust severities of 66.6 and 5 %, respectively. The mean disease severity of RILs ranged from 1 to 100 %, with an average of 23.3 %. Variance components for stem rust severity were highly significant (p < 0.001) for RILs and seasons and the heritability (h (2)) for the disease ranged between 0.78 and 0.89. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis identified four consistent genomic regions on chromosomes 2BS, 3BS, 5BL, and 7AS; three contributed by Muu (QSr.cim-2BS, QSr.cim-3BS and QSr.cim-7AS) and one (QSr.cim-5BL) derived from PBW343. RILs with flanking markers for these QTLs had significantly lower severities than those lacking the markers, and combinations of QTLs had an additive effect, significantly enhancing APR. The QTL identified on chromosome 3BS mapped to the matching region as the known APR gene Sr2. Four additional QTLs on chromosomes 1D, 3A, 4B, and 6A reduced disease severity significantly at least once in three seasons. Our results show a complex nature of APR to stem rust where Sr2 and other minor slow rusting resistance genes can confer a higher level of resistance when present together.

  17. The Sick and the Weak: Neuropathies/Myopathies in the Critically Ill

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, O.; Reid, M. B.; Van den Berghe, G.; Vanhorebeek, I.; Hermans, G.; Rich, M. M.; Larsson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathies (CIP) and myopathies (CIM) are common complications of critical illness. Several weakness syndromes are summarized under the term intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). We propose a classification of different ICUAW forms (CIM, CIP, sepsis-induced, steroid-denervation myopathy) and pathophysiological mechanisms from clinical and animal model data. Triggers include sepsis, mechanical ventilation, muscle unloading, steroid treatment, or denervation. Some ICUAW forms require stringent diagnostic features; CIM is marked by membrane hypoexcitability, severe atrophy, preferential myosin loss, ultrastructural alterations, and inadequate autophagy activation while myopathies in pure sepsis do not reproduce marked myosin loss. Reduced membrane excitability results from depolarization and ion channel dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to energy-dependent processes. Ubiquitin proteasome and calpain activation trigger muscle proteolysis and atrophy while protein synthesis is impaired. Myosin loss is more pronounced than actin loss in CIM. Protein quality control is altered by inadequate autophagy. Ca2+ dysregulation is present through altered Ca2+ homeostasis. We highlight clinical hallmarks, trigger factors, and potential mechanisms from human studies and animal models that allow separation of risk factors that may trigger distinct mechanisms contributing to weakness. During critical illness, altered inflammatory (cytokines) and metabolic pathways deteriorate muscle function. ICUAW prevention/treatment is limited, e.g., tight glycemic control, delaying nutrition, and early mobilization. Future challenges include identification of primary/secondary events during the time course of critical illness, the interplay between membrane excitability, bioenergetic failure and differential proteolysis, and finding new therapeutic targets by help of tailored animal models. PMID:26133937

  18. JPRS Report, Science and Technology, Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-16

    Assignment" [Sven Hellman; Stockholm NY TEKNIK, 27 Apr 89] 15 FACTORY AUTOMATION, ROBOTICS Growth of French CIM Market Examined [Paris...existed on the market , an original experiment, calling for team work, was made. A team of seven people (one engineer, two foremen, two assistants...electrohydraulic, electric, and mechanical drive systems, has used the A-330/A-340 program to gain access to a new, interesting market . With subcontracts assigned

  19. Distinct muscle apoptotic pathways are activated in muscles with different fiber types a rat model of critical illness myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Benjamin T.; Confides, Amy L.; Rich, Mark M.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

    2015-01-01

    Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is associated with severe muscle atrophy and fatigue in affected patients. Apoptotic signaling is involved in atrophy and is elevated in muscles from patients with CIM. In this study we investigated underlying mechanisms of apoptosis-related pathways in muscles with different fiber type composition in a rat model of CIM using denervation and glucocorticoid administration (denervation and steroid-induced myopathy, DSIM). Soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed severe muscle atrophy (40–60% of control muscle weight) and significant apoptosis in interstitial as well as myofiber nuclei that was similar between the two muscles with DSIM. Caspase-3 and −8 activities, but not caspase-9 and −12, were elevated in TA and not in soleus muscle, while the caspase-independent proteins endonuclease G (EndoG) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) were not changed in abundance nor differentially localized in either muscle. Anti-apoptotic proteins HSP70, −27, and apoptosis repressor with a caspase recruitment domain (ARC) were elevated in soleus compared to TA muscle and ARC was significantly decreased with induction of DSIM in soleus. Results indicate that apoptosis is a significant process associated with DSIM in both soleus and TA muscles, and that apoptosis-associated processes are differentially regulated in muscles of different function and fiber type undergoing atrophy due to DSIM. We conclude that interventions combating apoptosis with CIM may need to be directed towards inhibiting caspase-dependent as well as -independent mechanisms to be able to affect muscles of all fiber types. PMID:25740800

  20. Analysis of secondary organic aerosols from ozonolysis of isoprene by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Sato, Kei; Hirokawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Okumura, Motonori; Tohno, Susumu; Imamura, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    To understand the mechanism of formation of the secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) produced by the ozonolysis of isoprene, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to identify the semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) produced in both the gaseous and the aerosol phases and to estimate the gas-aerosol partitioning of each SVOC in chamber experiments. To aid in the identification of the SVOCs, the products were also studied with negative ion-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NI-CIMS), which can selectively detect carboxylic acids and hydroperoxides. The gaseous products were observed by on-line PTR-MS and NI-CIMS, whereas the SVOCs in SOAs collected on a filter were vaporized by heating the filter and were then analysed by off-line PTR-MS and NI-CIMS. The formation of oligomeric hydroperoxides involving a Criegee intermediate as a chain unit was observed in both the gaseous and the aerosol phases by NI-CIMS. PTR-MS also detected oligomeric hydroperoxides as protonated molecules from which a H2O molecule was eliminated, [M-OH]+. In the aerosol phase, oligomers involving formaldehyde and methacrolein as chain units were observed by PTR-MS in addition to oligomeric hydroperoxides. The gas-aerosol partitioning of each component was calculated from the ion signals in the gaseous and aerosol phases measured by PTR-MS. From the gas-aerosol partitioning, the saturated vapour pressures of the oligomeric hydroperoxides were estimated. Measurements by a fast-mobility-particle-sizer spectrometer revealed that the increase of the number density of the particles was complete within a few hundred seconds from the start of the reaction.

  1. Integrated Computer System of Management in Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwesiuk, Krzysztof

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims at presenting a concept of an integrated computer system of management in logistics, particularly in supply and distribution chains. Consequently, the paper includes the basic idea of the concept of computer-based management in logistics and components of the system, such as CAM and CIM systems in production processes, and management systems for storage, materials flow, and for managing transport, forwarding and logistics companies. The platform which integrates computer-aided management systems is that of electronic data interchange.

  2. Exogenous IL-1Ra attenuates intestinal mucositis induced by oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil through suppression of p53-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Gao, Jin; Qian, Lan; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Shunying; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Wen; Ye, Hao; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis (CIM) is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemoagents, resulting in weight loss, diarrhea, and even death. The current treatments for CIM are palliative and have limited benefit. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is a natural antagonist of interleukin-1. Our previous studies showed the protective effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1Ra) on the intestine in mice after 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. In this study, we further evaluated rhIL-1Ra in the treatment of CIM induced by different chemoagents and their combination. Normal as well as tumor-bearing mice were administered oxaliplatin (L-OHP), 5-fluorouracil, or their combination to induce intestinal mucositis and mortality. rhIL-1Ra administered after the chemotherapy, but not after the onset of diarrhea, significantly improved mouse survival, attenuated body weight loss, and reduced the incidence, severity, and duration of diarrhea. Histological examination showed that rhIL-1Ra-treated mice had a relatively intact mucosa structure, more proliferating crypt cells, and higher acid mucin content than the vehicle-treated mice. rhIL-1Ra suppressed crypt apoptosis by reducing the levels of proapoptotic proteins in wild-type, but not in IL-1RI or p53 mice. In addition, rhIL-1Ra was as effective as octreotide acetate in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, but with the advantage of reducing the epithelial apoptosis, the major cause of CIM. Importantly, the tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy was not affected by rhIL-1Ra. Thus, our data strongly suggest that rhIL-1Ra may be useful for the treatment of intestinal mucositis and improving the quality of life for cancer patients on chemotherapy.

  3. Hybrid Simulation Modeling to Estimate U.S. Energy Elasticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylin-Stern, Adam C.

    This paper demonstrates how an U.S. application of CIMS, a technologically explicit and behaviourally realistic energy-economy simulation model which includes macro-economic feedbacks, can be used to derive estimates of elasticity of substitution (ESUB) and autonomous energy efficiency index (AEEI) parameters. The ability of economies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions depends on the potential for households and industry to decrease overall energy usage, and move from higher to lower emissions fuels. Energy economists commonly refer to ESUB estimates to understand the degree of responsiveness of various sectors of an economy, and use estimates to inform computable general equilibrium models used to study climate policies. Using CIMS, I have generated a set of future, 'pseudo-data' based on a series of simulations in which I vary energy and capital input prices over a wide range. I then used this data set to estimate the parameters for transcendental logarithmic production functions using regression techniques. From the production function parameter estimates, I calculated an array of elasticity of substitution values between input pairs. Additionally, this paper demonstrates how CIMS can be used to calculate price-independent changes in energy-efficiency in the form of the AEEI, by comparing energy consumption between technologically frozen and 'business as usual' simulations. The paper concludes with some ideas for model and methodological improvement, and how these might figure into future work in the estimation of ESUBs from CIMS. Keywords: Elasticity of substitution; hybrid energy-economy model; translog; autonomous energy efficiency index; rebound effect; fuel switching.

  4. Characterization of metal chelate methacrylate monolithic disk for purification of polyclonal and monoclonal immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Rajasekar R; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A

    2010-06-04

    Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) of commercial metal-chelate methacrylate monolith-convective interaction media (CIM) was performed with commercial human immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Cohn fraction II, III). Monoliths are an attractive stationary phase for purification of large biomolecules because they exhibit very low back pressure even at high flow rates and flow-unaffected binding properties. Adsorption of IgG onto CIM-IDA disk immobilized with Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) were studied with Tris-acetate (TA), phosphate-acetate (PA) and MMA (MES, MOPS and acetate) buffer systems at different flow rates. Adsorption and elution of IgG varied with different buffers and adsorption of IgG was maximum with MMA buffer. Adsorption of human IgG from Cohn fractions (II, III) was high when Cu(2+) was used as ligand. CIM-IDA disk showed dynamic binding capacity in the range of 14-16 mg/ml with Cu(2+) and 7-9 mg/ml with Ni(2+) for human IgG with MMA buffer. In the case of CIM-IDA-Zn(2+) column, the binding capacity was only about 0.5mg/ml of support. Different desorption strategies like lowering of pH and increasing of competitive agent were also studied to achieve maximum recovery. Chromatographic runs with human serum and mouse ascites fluid were also carried out with metal chelate methacrylate monolithic disk and the results indicate the potential of this technique for polyclonal human IgG and monoclonal IgG purification from complex biological samples.

  5. Rapid Prototyping of Application Specific Signal Processors Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-09

    Catalogue of Interface Features and Options (CIFO). POSIX was originally intended for the non-real-time commercial market using a C interface. POSIX...areas, but much broader CAx (e.g., CAD, CASE, CIM, CAE) and generic needs will provide the market push to develop these technologies: 27 I I DOMAIN...OODBs depending on their customer’s needs and market directions. By architecting a system to be OODB-independent and 35 3 Table 7 Data Base

  6. Industrial Technology Modernization Program. Project 80. Increase Efficiency of Card Test/Device Test Areas by the Usage of Improved Material Handling Systems. Revision 1. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Honeywell will be viewed as the leading supplier of Military Avionics products. While this is of important strategic value from a marketing ...FailtyTorsTech Mo Pouct Systm FacilityTuurenI Operations Description Physical Environments Producto Flow Material Flow Intoffna*lon Flow currentNew Stemns, CIM...standard hours were projected for ten years using an established percentage growth for the FM & TS operations derived from FSO marketing projections

  7. Repair Aircraft Parking Apron at Naval Station Norfolk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    officials stated that the approval chain for DD Form 1391 understood FOD operational risks, so they did not detail FOD -related matters. They also stated that...Acronyms CIM Chevron Industrial Membrane FOD Foreign Object Debris HPA Heliport Apron IG Inspector General NAVFAC Naval...with pavement condition indexes at or below the specified values or where foreign object debris ( FOD )* is in the immediate or foreseeable future. The

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    material systems make it possible to pro- duce optoelectronic components (semiconductor laser JPRS-EST-91-024 13 December 1991 WEST EUROPE 29 diodes ...Turin MEDIA DUEMILA, Sep 91] 25 UK Machine Tool Industry Increases Use of CIM [A Fryatt; Duesseldorf VDI NACHRICHTEN, 13 Sep 91] 27 LASERS ...SENSORS, OPTICS Germany: Trends in Laser Research, Subsidies [Duesseldorf VDI-Z, Sep 91] 27 German Research Ministry Announces Photonics Program

  9. N2O5 measurement in Hong Kong by a chemical ionization mass spectrometry: Presence of high N2O5 and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Tham Yee; Tao, Wang; Zhe, Wang; Xinfeng, Wang; Chao, Yan; Qiaozhi, Zha; Zheng, Xu; Likun, Xue

    2014-05-01

    Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) plays key roles in a number of nocturnal chemical processes within the troposphere, including the sink of nitrogen oxides (NOx). However, accurate measurement of this atmospheric trace compound remains as a challenging task, especially in polluted environment like China. We initially deploy a thermal dissociation chemical ionization mass spectrometry (TD-CIMS) for N2O5 field measurement in Hong Kong from 2010-2012. Unusual high N2O5 signal measured as NO3- (62 amu) were frequently observed. Various interference tests and correction were conducted to verify the data, but we caution the use of 62 amu for measuring ambient N2O5 in a high NOx environment like Hong Kong. Therefore, we optimized the CIMS to measure N2O5 as ion cluster of I(N2O5)- at 235 amu with some minor improvements and demonstrated to has the ability for simultaneous in situ measurements of N2O5 at an urban site. Then, the CIMS was deployed to another field study at a mountain-top site (Tai Mo Shan). A comparison of N2O5 measurement with a cavity ring-down spectrometry was performed and found to be in good correlation with the CIMS. High concentration of N2O5 was observed between the boundary layer and there are some occasions where N2O5 exceeds several ppb, which is among the highest values ever reported. These results provide deeper understanding on the chemistry of NOx in a polluted environment. Furthermore, our first observation of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and its co-existence with N2O5 also implies an active heterogeneous reactivity between N2O5 and chloride particles in an Asian environment. Thus, N2O5 is an important nocturnal intermediate and has the potential in jump-starting the atmospheric photochemistry in this region

  10. Mapping, Cross-walking, Converting and Exchanging Oceanographic Metadata Information in Video Data Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    NOAALINC these same metadata protocols; • A crosswalk and converter in NCDDC’s MERMAid (Metadata Enterprise Resource Management Aid) system [1... MERMAid . • Collections, tapes, clips, highlights videos, or still images may be documented using guidelines developed by the VDMS working group... MERMAid , NCDDC’s metadata catalog. A Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) application, developed for OER by NCDDC, provides a user interface to

  11. New Solutions for Navigating an Ocean of Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    management is now met by the integration of CIMS- produced records into the Metadata Enterprise Resource Management Aid 10 ( MERMAid ), a freely...expedition metadata records, and may utilize all the metadata record management capacity of the MERMAid system. The expedition portal was also...The Metadata Enterprise Resource management Aid ( MERMAid ) is a license-free, web-based tool used to develop, validate, manage, and publish metadata

  12. Biomechanical and Physiological Validation of the Omni-Directional Treadmill Upgrade as a Mobility Platform for Immersive Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Research; Headquarters, U.S. Department of the Army,Washington, DC , 1990. Ballesteros, M. L.; Buchthal, F.; Rosenfalck, P. The Pattern of Muscular...Locomotion on a Slippery Surface: Effects of Prior Experience and Knowledge. J. Neurophysiol. 2002, 88, 339–353. Murray, M .P.; Spurr, G. B.; Sepic ...KNAPP only) 300 ARMY PENTAGON RM 2C489 WASHINGTON DC 20310-0300 ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND 5 DIR USARL RDRL CIM G S FOPPIANO RDRL

  13. A Phase I/II Study for Analytic Validation of 89Zr-J591 ImmunoPET as a Molecular Imaging Agent for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; O'Donoghue, Joseph A.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Lyashchenko, Serge K.; Cheal, Sarah M.; Beylergil, Volkan; Lefkowitz, Robert A.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Martinez, Danny F.; Fung, Alex Mak; Solomon, Stephen B.; Gonen, Mithat; Heller, Glenn; Loda, Massimo; Nanus, David M.; Tagawa, Scott T.; Feldman, Jarett L.; Osborne, Joseph R.; Lewis, Jason S.; Reuter, Victor E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Bander, Neil H.; Scher, Howard I.; Larson, Steven M.; Morris, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Standard imaging for assessing osseous metastases in advanced prostate cancer remains focused on altered bone metabolism and is inadequate for diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive purposes. We performed a first-in-human phase I/II study of 89Zr-DFO-huJ591 (89Zr-J591) PET/CT immunoscintigraphy to assess performance characteristics for detecting metastases compared to conventional imaging modalities (CIMs) and pathology. Experimental Design Fifty patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers were injected with 5 mCi of 89Zr-J591. Whole body PET/CT scans were obtained, and images were analyzed for tumor visualization. Comparison was made to contemporaneously obtained bone scintigraphy and cross-sectional imaging on a lesion-by-lesion basis, and with biopsies of metastatic sites. Results Median standardized uptake value for 89Zr-J591-positive bone lesions (n = 491) was 8.9; soft tissue lesions (n = 90): 4.8 (p < .00003). 89Zr-J591 detected 491 osseous sites compared to 339 by MDP, and 90 soft tissue lesions compared to 124 by CT. Compared to all CIMs combined, 89Zr-J591 detected an additional 99 osseous sites. Forty-six lesions (21 bone, 25 soft tissue) were biopsied in 34 patients; 18/19 89Zr-J591-positive osseous sites and 14/16 89Zr-J591-positive soft tissue sites were positive for prostate cancer. The overall accuracy of 89Zr-J591 was 95.2% (20/21) for osseous lesions and 60% (15/25) for soft tissue lesions. Conclusions 89Zr-J591 imaging demonstrated superior targeting of bone lesions relative to CIMs. Targeting soft tissue lesions was less optimal, although 89Zr-J591 had similar accuracy as individual CIMs. This study will provide benchmark data for comparing performance of proposed PSMA targeting agents for prostate cancer. PMID:26175541

  14. European Security and NATO Enlargement: A View from Central Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Alexandria, VA, CIM 513/May 1997, p. 10. 64. Open Media Research Institute, Daily Report, March 28, 1997; Moscow, Associated Press, May 8, 1997...Security Agenda, Oxford; Oxford University Press for the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), 1997, p. 34. 65. Marie Mendras...response of the EU was to do nothing until Italy took the lead in organizing a humanitarian intervention to help restore order. For the paralysis and

  15. Increased apoptosis in osteoclasts and decreased RANKL immunoexpression in periodontium of cimetidine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Longhini, Renata; de Oliveira, Priscila Aparecida; de Souza Faloni, Ana Paula; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2013-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that histamine interferes with the recruitment, formation and activity of osteoclasts via H(1)- and H(2)-receptors. Cimetidine is a H(2)-receptor antagonist used for treatment of gastric ulcers that seems to prevent bone resorption. In this study, a possible cimetidine interference was investigated in the number of alveolar bone osteoclasts. The incidence of osteoclast apoptosis and immunoexpression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) was also evaluated. Adult male rats were treated with 100 mg kg(-1) of cimetidine for 50 days (CimG); the sham group (SG) received saline. Maxillary fragments containing the first molars and alveolar bone were fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. The sections were stained by H&E or submitted to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) method. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) method and immunohistochemical reactions for detecting caspase-3 and RANKL were performed. The number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts, the frequency of apoptotic osteoclasts and the numerical density of RANKL-positive cells were obtained. Osteoclast death by apoptosis was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In CimG, TRAP-positive osteoclasts with TUNEL-positive nuclei and caspase-3-immunolabeled osteoclasts were found. A significant reduction in the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and a high frequency of apoptotic osteoclasts were observed in CimG. Under TEM, detached osteoclasts from the bone surface showed typical features of apoptosis. Moreover, a significant reduction in the numerical density of RANKL-positive cells was observed in CimG. The significant reduction in the number of osteoclasts may be due to cimetidine-induced osteoclast apoptosis. However, RANKL immunoexpression reduction also suggests a possible interference of cimetidine treatment in the osteoclastogenesis.

  16. Enantioselective in-line and off-line CE methods for the kinetic study on cimetidine and its chiral metabolites with reference to flavin-containing monooxygenase genetic isoforms.

    PubMed

    Hai, Xin; Adams, Erwin; Hoogmartens, Jos; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2009-04-01

    An in-line screening and an off-line chiral CE method were developed to determine the stereoselectivity of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) isoforms using cimetidine (CIM) as a substrate. The S-oxygenation of CIM was investigated using achiral chemical oxidants and (human supersomes) enzymatic metabolism procedures. In the off-line setup, the chiral selector sulfobutylether-beta-CD was chosen to separate the CIM S-oxide (CSO) metabolites. The electrophoretic migration order of CSO was confirmed to be (+) before (-) through the use of single enantiomers obtained by preparative chromatography. For the electrophoretically mediated microanalysis method, the in-line enzymatic reaction was performed in 100 mM phosphate reaction buffer (pH 8.3), whereas 50 mM phosphate buffer with 30 mM chiral selector (pH 2.5) was used as a BGE. During the screening of FMO isoenzymes by the electrophoretically mediated microanalysis method, formation of the new chiral center on the CIM sulfur was found to be stereoselective. FMO1 produces more (-)-CSO-enantiomer, while FMO3 generates mainly (+)-CSO-enantiomer. On the other hand, FMO5 shows no activity. The kinetic constants of FMO1 and FMO3 were measured by the off-line method. A K(m)=4.31 mM for the formation of the (+)-CSO-enantiomer and a K(m)=4.56 mM for the (-)-CSO-enantiomer are reported for the first time for FMO1.

  17. Conference Proceedings. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Information/Data Base (I/DB) Task Group Meetings Held February 14-18, 1994, and Notes from the Previous Two I/DB Meetings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    process and the IDEFiX methodology (where complex data includes derived data, rules, objects, networks, images, voice, documents, etc.) - Address the...databases using IDEFiX tools. This is to be extended to support the development of data standards. The JDBE project is available to M&S data projects for...DMA’s initial step in developing a spatial IDEFIX data model with JIEO/CIM support and their future plans. This addresses a critical I/DB recognized

  18. Distinct muscle apoptotic pathways are activated in muscles with different fiber types in a rat model of critical illness myopathy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Benjamin T; Confides, Amy L; Rich, Mark M; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2015-06-01

    Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is associated with severe muscle atrophy and fatigue in affected patients. Apoptotic signaling is involved in atrophy and is elevated in muscles from patients with CIM. In this study we investigated underlying mechanisms of apoptosis-related pathways in muscles with different fiber type composition in a rat model of CIM using denervation and glucocorticoid administration (denervation and steroid-induced myopathy, DSIM). Soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed severe muscle atrophy (40-60% of control muscle weight) and significant apoptosis in interstitial as well as myofiber nuclei that was similar between the two muscles with DSIM. Caspase-3 and -8 activities, but not caspase-9 and -12, were elevated in TA and not in soleus muscle, while the caspase-independent proteins endonuclease G (EndoG) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) were not changed in abundance nor differentially localized in either muscle. Anti-apoptotic proteins HSP70, -27, and apoptosis repressor with a caspase recruitment domain (ARC) were elevated in soleus compared to TA muscle and ARC was significantly decreased with induction of DSIM in soleus. Results indicate that apoptosis is a significant process associated with DSIM in both soleus and TA muscles, and that apoptosis-associated processes are differentially regulated in muscles of different function and fiber type undergoing atrophy due to DSIM. We conclude that interventions combating apoptosis with CIM may need to be directed towards inhibiting caspase-dependent as well as -independent mechanisms to be able to affect muscles of all fiber types.

  19. Proceedings of the DoD Workshop on the Manufacturing/Producibility of Organic Matrix Composites Held in Arlington, Virginia on 12-14 April 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    efforts for non-autoclave fabrication of composite structures to establish such processes as vacuum bag/oven cure, thermoforming , press forming, and...sensors into the tools, with realtime process control models , is required for integration with future computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems...involves the fabrication of a plaster master model followed by construction of a transfer plaster mold with the reverse image. The next step involves

  20. Deconstructing Spatial Working Memory and Attention Deficits in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gmeindl, Leon; Courtney, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether spatial working memory (WM) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS), and, if it is, to localize impairment to specific cognitive subprocess(es). Method In Experiment 1, MS and control participants performed computerized memory-span and visuomotor tasks. WM subprocesses were taxed by manipulating (1) the requirement to remember serial order, (2) delay duration, and (3) the presence of irrelevant stimuli during target presentation. In Experiment 2, recall and recognition tests varied the difficulty of WM retrieval. In Experiment 3, an attention-cueing task tested the ability to voluntarily and rapidly reorient attention. Results Performance was worse for MS than for control participants in both spatial recall (Exp. 1 span: 95% CIMS = [5.11, 5.57], 95% CIControls = [5.58, 6.03], p = 0.003, 1-tailed; Exp. 2 span: 95% CIMS = [4.44, 5.54], 95% CIControls = [5.47, 6.57], p = 0.006, 1-tailed) and recognition (accuracy: 95% CIMS = [0.71, 0.81], 95% CIControls = [0.79, 0.88], p = 0.01, 1-tailed) tests. However, there was no evidence for deficits in spatiotemporal binding, maintenance, retrieval, distractor suppression, or visuomotor processing. In contrast, MS participants were abnormally slow to reorient attention (cueing effect (ms): 95% CIMS: [90, 169], 95% CIControls: [29, 107], p = 0.015, 1-tailed). Conclusions Results suggest that, whereas spatial WM is impaired in MS, once spatial information has been adequately encoded into WM, individuals with MS are, on average, able to maintain and retrieve this information. Impoverished encoding of spatial information, however, may be due to inefficient voluntary orienting of attention. PMID:22059650

  1. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Huey, L. G.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J. E.; Stickel, R. E.; Tanner, D. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Choi, S.; Wang, Y.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T.; Suleiman, R.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Shetter, R. E.; Fried, A.; Brune, W.; Anderson, B.; Zhang, X.; Chen, G.; Crawford, J.; Hecobian, A.; Ingall, E. D.

    2012-02-01

    A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO) and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC) to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2), hypobromous acid (HOBr), bromine oxide (BrO), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) as soluble bromide (Br-) was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/-0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = -3.4 pmol mol-1) between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol-1) under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol-1), indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD) derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  2. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Huey, L. G.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J. E.; Stickel, R. E.; Tanner, D. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Choi, S.; Wang, Y.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T.; Suleiman, R.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Shetter, R. E.; Fried, A.; Brune, W.; Anderson, B.; Zhang, X.; Chen, G.; Crawford, J.; Hecobian, A.; Ingall, E. D.

    2011-09-01

    A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time, high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) instrument to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC) to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2), hypobromous acid (HOBr), bromine oxide (BrO), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) as soluble bromide (Br-) was 0.9±0.1, 1.06±0.30, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.98; intercept = -3.5 pptv) between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pptv) under unpolluted conditions (NO < 100 pptv), indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BROTROPVCD) derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BROTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  3. Mentorship: Strategically Leveling the Playing Field for African American Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-10

    voice2001/010608/survey.htm (accessed December 18, 2008). 2 Molefi Kete Asante, 100 Greatest African Americans (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002), 41-43. 3...Clinician-Scientist,” Clinical and Investigative Medicine 21, no. 6 (December 1998): 279-282, http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_medical_association/ cim/vol-21/issue-6/0279.htm (accessed December 29, 2008).

  4. Experimental characterization of thermo-oxidation induced shrinkage and damage onset in polymer matrix composites at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, D. Q.; Gigliotti, M.; Lafarie, M. C.; Grandidier, J. C.

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental characterization of thermo-oxidation in carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) exposed to “high” temperatures (up to 150°C) and “high” oxygen pressures (up to 5 bars). Thermo-oxidation induces matrix shrinkage and damage in CFRP. In this study these are both investigated at room temperature by means of confocal interferometric microscopy (CIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Interwar U.S. and Japanese National Product and Defense Expenditure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Selected investment price indexes for Japan . ................... 19 Figure 7. Japanese defense expenditure in constant yen terms. Amounts are...CIM D0007249.A /Final June 2003 Interwar U.S. and Japanese National Product and Defense Expenditure William D. O’Neil 4825 Mark Center...and Japanese National Product and Defense Expenditure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  6. Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Architecture. Part 3. Volume 8. Technology Transfer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    VALIDATIOA IS EXPERT REVIEW4, MULTIPLE MODELS ALLOW FOR SIMPLIFICATION1 ’OF THE CONCEP-TS IND SY𔃻TAX FOR EA CH REVIEW AND THEREBY ENHANCE COMMUNICATON . 0...THE FACTORY OF THE FUTURE CAN BE DEFINED. "THE VOUGHT CORPORATION HAS BEEN AWARDED A "TO-BE" ARCHITECTURE CONTRACT FOR A "CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR...COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING (CIM)" FOR THE AEROSPACE FACTORY OF THE FUTURE. (AS A POINT OF INTEREST, THE VOUGHT CORPORATION HAS INDEPENDENTLY DECIDED

  7. Evolution of the Air Campaign Planning Process and the Contingency Theater Automated Planning System (CTAPS),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Intelligence Division CIM Corporate Information Management CINCCENT Commander in Chief, Central Command CIO Central Imagery Office CIS Combat...obtaining, deconflicting, and properly in- corporating order of battle and bomb damage assessment information into the ATO planning process. There were...Karyl, Open Systems Today, "OpenDoc: New Take on Object Technology," 1 August 1994. Soderholm, Steve, Captain, CTAPS Communicatins Connectivity of

  8. The impact of an antireflux procedure on intestinal metaplasia of the cardia.

    PubMed Central

    DeMeester, S R; Campos, G M; DeMeester, T R; Bremner, C G; Hagen, J A; Peters, J H; Crookes, P F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether antireflux surgery is more effective in producing loss of intestinal metaplasia located only at the gastroesophageal junction than it has been in patients with intestinal metaplasia extending up into the distal esophagus. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Biopsies of a normal appearing gastroesophageal junction will demonstrate cardiac mucosa containing goblet cells--the hallmark of intestinal metaplasia--in 10% to 15% of patients who are evaluated for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and cardia is rising faster than any other cancer in America, and most of these cancers are found adjacent to areas of intestinal metaplasia. Antireflux surgery in patients with Barrett's esophagus may provide protection from progression to dysplasia and cancer; however, it does not reliably cause regression of the intestinal metaplasia. Less is known about the potential for intestinal metaplasia limited to the cardia (CIM) to regress. METHODS: Sixty patients with intestinal metaplasia of the esophagus or cardia had antireflux surgery. Patients in the intestinal (CIM) group (n = 15) had no endoscopically visible segment of columnar epithelium. Patients in the Barrett's group (n = 45) had columnar epithelium visible within the esophagus. Median follow-up was 25 months in each group. RESULTS: Postoperative biopsies showed complete loss of intestinal metaplasia in 73% of the patients with CIM compared with 4.4% of the patients with Barrett's. Low-grade dysplasia, present in 10 patients preoperatively, regressed in 7 patients (70%). No patient progressed to high-grade dysplasia or cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of intestinal metaplasia after antireflux surgery is rare in patients with Barrett's, but occurred in most patients with CIM. This suggests that cardiac epithelium is dynamic and that microscopic areas of intestinal metaplasia are able to regress much more frequently than longer

  9. Competency for shoot regeneration from Arabidopsis root explants is regulated by DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Or; Landau, Udi; Candela, Héctor; Zemach, Assaf; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2015-09-01

    Plants exhibit high capacity to regenerate in three alternative pathways: tissue repair, somatic embryogenesis and de novo organogenesis. For most plants, de novo organ initiation can be easily achieved in tissue culture by exposing explants to auxin and/or cytokinin, yet the competence to regenerate varies among species and within tissues from the same plant. In Arabidopsis, root explants incubated directly on cytokinin-rich shoot inducing medium (SIM-direct), are incapable of regenerating shoots, and a pre-incubation step on auxin-rich callus inducing medium (CIM) is required to acquire competency to regenerate on the SIM. However the mechanism underlying competency acquisition still remains elusive. Here we show that the chromomethylase 3 (cmt3) mutant which exhibits significant reduction in CHG methylation, shows high capacity to regenerate on SIM-direct and that regeneration occurs via direct organogenesis. In WT, WUSCHEL (WUS) promoter, an essential gene for shoot formation, is highly methylated, and its expression on SIM requires pre-incubation on CIM. However, in cmt3, WUS expression induced by SIM-direct. We propose that pre-incubation on CIM is required for the re-activation of cell division. Following the transfer of roots to SIM, the intensive cell division activity continues, and in the presence of cytokinin leads to a dilution in DNA methylation that allows certain genes required for shoot regeneration to respond to SIM, thereby advancing shoot formation.

  10. Relationship between male sterility and β-1,3-glucanase activity and callose deposition-related gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, H Z; Zhang, G S; Zhu, W W; Ba, Q S; Niu, N; Wang, J W; Ma, S C; Wang, J S

    2015-01-26

    In previous studies, we first isolated one different protein β-1,3-glucanase using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry from normal wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chemical hybridization agent-induced male sterility (CIMS) wheat. In this experiment, β-1,3-glucanase activity and the expression of a callose deposition-related gene, UDP-glucose phosphorylase (UGPase), were determinate in normal, CIMS, and genetic male sterility (GS) wheat. β-1,3-glucanase activity was significantly different between the fertile and sterile lines during callose synthesis and degradation, but there was no difference between CIMS and GS wheat. The UGPase gene of callose deposition was highly expressed in the meiophase and sharply decreased in the tetrad stage. However, the expression of the UGPase gene was significantly different between the fertile and sterile lines. These data indicated that β-1,3-glucanase activity and the expression of the UGPase gene play important roles in the male sterility of wheat. Consequently, pollen mother cells (PMCs) might degenerate at the early meiosis stage, and differences in UGPase gene expression and β-1,3-glucanase activity might eventually result in complete pollen collapse. In addition, the critical period of anther abortion might be the meiosis stage to the tetrad stage rather than what we previously thought, the mononuclear period.

  11. Affinity selection of histidine-containing peptides using metal chelate methacrylate monolithic disk for targeted LC-MS/MS approach in high-throughput proteomics.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Rajasekar R; Sidhik, Sinash; Kamalanathan, Agamudi S; Bhagavatula, Krishna; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, bottom-up approach has become the popular method of choice for large scale analysis of complex proteome samples. Peptide fractionation determines the efficiency of the bottom-up method and often the resolving power of reverse phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is insufficient for efficient protein identification in case of complex biological samples. To overcome the inherent limitation of proteomics associated with sample complexity, we evaluated fast flow metal chelate methacrylate monolithic system - CIM (Convective Interaction Media) disk chelated with Cu(II) for targeted affinity selection of histidine-containing peptides. Initially the Cu(II)-IMAC using CIM disk was evaluated using tryptic digest of protein mixtures of 8 model proteins and was found to be highly efficient in capturing His-containing peptides with high degree of specificity and selectivity. Further the efficiency of His-peptide enrichment using CIM-IMAC was also demonstrated using complex biological samples like total Escherichia coli cell lysate. The analysis of the Cu(II)-IMAC retained peptides from tryptic digests of model protein mixture and E. coli not only demonstrated a significant reduction in sample complexity but also subsequently enabled the identification of additional peptides. His-peptide enrichment also enabled the identification of low abundant proteins that were not detected in the analysis of total E. coli digest.

  12. Gas-Phase Oxidation, Particle Uptake, and Product Studies of Isoprene Epoxydiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, K. H.; Nguyen, T. B.; St Clair, J. M.; Crounse, J.; Zhang, X.; Coggon, M.; Schwantes, R.; Bennett, N.; Stoltz, B.; Wennberg, P. O.; Seinfeld, J.

    2013-12-01

    Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), discovered in 2009 as low-NOx atmospheric oxidation products of the ubiquitous biogenic precursor isoprene, are key intermediates in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic emissions. Recent studies carried out in the Caltech environmental chambers have elucidated the gas-phase OH oxidation rates and products, particle uptake rates, and particle-phase OH oxidation products of three isomers of IEPOX synthesized in-house. Gas-phase oxidation studies were conducted in 1 m3 chambers at both high- and low-NOx conditions, and were monitored by GC-FID, two types of chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS), and GC-CIMS. Comparisons with previous studies on isoprene showed that the two β-IEPOX isomers dominate over the ∂ isomers under atmospheric conditions, and the use of propene as an internal standard provided a robust estimate of OH oxidation rates between 0.99*10-11 and 1.67*10-11 cm3molec-1s-1 for the three isomers. Particle uptake and oxidation studies were conducted in 28 m3 chambers, and were monitored by GC-FID, CIMS, an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), and a differential mobility analyzer (DMA). Particle uptake showed a strong dependence on humidity, with no uptake on dry seed, and was faster on ammonium sulfate seed than sodium chloride seed. Particle-phase oxidation gave similar products to gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals.

  13. The First Simultaneous Airborne Measurements of BrO, BrCl HOBr in the Tropics: An Assessment on the HOx Budget and O3 Depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, M. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Shallcross, D. E.; Evans, M. J.; Carpenter, L.; Andrews, S.; Lidster, R. T.; Harris, N. R. P.; Percival, C.

    2014-12-01

    This study represents the first simultaneous airborne measurements of BrO, BrCl, Br2 and HOBr in the tropics using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS). The results suggest that inorganic halogen chemistry has a more significant impact on O3 depletion and oxidising capacity of the troposphere than previously thought. The CIMS instrument was operated on-board the BAe-146 FAAM research aircraft across 20 flights, as part of the CAST (Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics) campaign based on Guam, Micronesia and was supported by measurements of O3 and NOx from core instruments and bromocarbons from Whole Air Samples (WAS). The mean tropospheric BrO concentration over 20 flights was calculated to be 0.69 ppt; a factor of 4 times greater than that predicted by GEOS-Chem running with a tropospheric bromine simulation. An underestimation of HOBr, Br2 and BrCl in the model, when compared to the CIMS data, will contribute to this discrepancy, thus increasing the availability of atomic Br through photolysis, however this does not compensate for the bias currently observed. The magnitude of this discrepancy and subsequent effect on O3 depletion in the tropics is assessed and possible mechanisms are proposed. The measurements of these halogenated species are further used to assess their impact on the HOx budget in the tropics via steady state estimations.

  14. Evaluation of the occlusal contact of crowns fabricated with the bite impression method.

    PubMed

    Makino, Sachi; Okada, Daizo; Shin, Chiharu; Ogura, Reiko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-30

    In prosthodontic treatment, reconstruction of a proper occlusal contact relationship is very important as well as reconstruction of a proper interproximal relationship and marginal fitness. Unfortunately, occlusal relationships are sometimes lost in the process of occlusal adjustment of crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal contacts of single crown fabricated by two different types of impression techniques. Nine subjects, whose molars required treatment with crown restoration, were enrolled in this study. Full cast crowns were fabricated using two types of impression techniques: the conventional impression method (CIM) and the bite impression method (BIM). The occlusal contacts of crowns were precisely evaluated at the following stages: after occlusal adjustment on the articulator (Step 0), before occlusal adjustment in the mouth (Step 1), after occlusal adjustment at the intercuspal position (Step 2), and after occlusal adjustment during lateral and protrusive excursions (Step 3). The number of occlusal contacts of the crowns on the functional cusps fabricated with BIM was significantly greater than that with CIM after occlusal adjustment. For this reason, the crowns fabricated with BIM might have a more functionally desirable occlusal surface compared to the crowns fabricated with CIM.

  15. Mixed culture biofilms of Salmonella Typhimurium and cultivable indigenous microorganisms on lettuce show enhanced resistance of their sessile cells to cold oxygen plasma.

    PubMed

    Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Han, Noori; Zhang, Cheng-Yi; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-04-01

    Control of foodborne pathogens in fresh produce is crucial for food safety, and numerous Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) outbreaks have been reported already. The present study was done to assess effectiveness of cold oxygen plasma (COP) against biofilms of ST mixed with cultivable indigenous microorganisms (CIM). ST and CIM were grown at 15 °C as monocultures and mixed cultures for planktonic state, biofilm on stainless steel, and lettuce leaves. Thereafter, the samples were treated with COP and surviving populations were counted using plate counting methods. Biofilms and stomatal colonization were examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and food quality was assessed after treatment. Mixed cultures of ST and CIM showed an antagonistic interaction on lettuce but not on SS or in planktonic state. Mixed cultures showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater resistance to COP compared to monoculture biofilms on lettuce but not on SS or planktonic state. Shift from smooth to rugose colony type was found for planktonic and for biofilms on SS but not on lettuce for ST. Mixed culture biofilms colonized stomata on the inside as demonstrated by FESEM. Although, lettuce quality was not affected by COP, this technology has to be optimized for further development of the successful inactivation of complex multispecies biofilm structures presented by real food environment.

  16. Mechanical Signaling in the Pathophysiology of Critical Illness Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kalamgi, Rebeca C.; Larsson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The complete loss of mechanical stimuli of skeletal muscles, i.e., the loss of external strain, related to weight bearing, and internal strain, related to the contraction of muscle cells, is uniquely observed in pharmacologically paralyzed or deeply sedated mechanically ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The preferential loss of myosin and myosin associated proteins in limb and trunk muscles is a significant characteristic of critical illness myopathy (CIM) which separates CIM from other types of acquired muscle weaknesses in ICU patients. Mechanical silencing is an important factor triggering CIM. Microgravity or ground based microgravity models form the basis of research on the effect of muscle unloading-reloading, but the mechanisms and effects may differ from the ICU conditions. In order to understand how mechanical tension regulates muscle mass, it is critical to know how muscles sense mechanical information and convert stimulus to intracellular biochemical actions and changes in gene expression, a process called cellular mechanotransduction. In adult skeletal muscles and muscle fibers, this process may differ, the same stimulus can cause divergent response and the same fiber type may undergo opposite changes in different muscles. Skeletal muscle contains multiple types of mechano-sensors and numerous structures that can be affected differently and hence respond differently in distinct muscles. PMID:26869939

  17. Intensive care unit acquired weakness in children: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, Vinay; Shamim, Mosharraf; Khilnani, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW) is a common occurrence in patients who are critically ill. It is most often due to critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) or to critical illness myopathy (CIM). ICUAW is increasingly being recognized partly as a consequence of improved survival in patients with severe sepsis and multi-organ failure, partly related to commonly used agents such as steroids and muscle relaxants. There have been occasional reports of CIP and CIM in children, but little is known about their prevalence or clinical impact in the pediatric population. This review summarizes the current understanding of pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of CIP and CIM in general with special reference to published literature in the pediatric age group. Subjects and Methods: Studies were identified through MedLine and Embase using relevant MeSH and Key words. Both adult and pediatric studies were included. Results: ICUAW in children is a poorly described entity with unknown incidence, etiology and unclear long-term prognosis. Conclusions: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy is relatively rare, but clinically significant sequelae of multifactorial origin affecting morbidity, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and possibly mortality in critically ill children admitted to pediatric ICU. PMID:24678152

  18. Thermally induced solid-state transformation of cimetidine. A multi-spectroscopic/chemometrics determination of the kinetics of the process and structural elucidation of one of the products as a stable N3-enamino tautomer.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Natalia L; Simonetti, Sebastian O; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2015-05-22

    Exposure of cimetidine (CIM) to dry heat (160-180°C) afforded, upon cooling, a glassy solid containing new and hitherto unknown products. The kinetics of this process was studied by a second order chemometrics-assisted multi-spectroscopic approach. Proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopic data were jointly used, whereas multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was employed as the chemometrics method to extract process information. It was established that drug degradation follows a first order kinetics. One of the products was structurally characterized by mono- and bi-dimensional NMR experiments. It was found to be the N3-enamino tautomer (TAU) of CIM, resulting from the thermal isomerization of the double bond of the cyanoguanidine moiety of the drug, from the imine form to its N3-enamine state. The thus generated tautomer demonstrated to be stable for months in the glassy solid and in methanolic solutions. A theoretical study of CIM and TAU revealed that the latter is less stable; however, the energy barrier for tautomer interconversion is high enough, precluding the process to proceed rapidly at room temperature.

  19. [Influence of KU-1257 on the recurrence and relapse of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers in rats].

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, H; Ohsawa, A; Kobayashi, F; Ohkubo, H; Taga, F

    1996-02-01

    The influence of KU-1257 on the recurrence and relapse of acetic acid ulcers in rats was investigated grossly and histologically in comparison with that of cimetidine. The ulcer was induced by topical application of glacial acetic acid at the junction of the corpus and antrum on the anterior wall of the stomach. The drug was administered from the 5th to the 153rd day after the ulcer induction and then discontinued to the 238th day. The healing rates of the control groups (control) rose until the 119th day after the ulcer induction, followed by ups and downs. The quality of healing in the regenerated mucosa and the granulation tissue of the healed ulcer was poor, resulting in the recurrence and relapse of ulcers. The recurrence and relapse of ulcers also occurred in the cimetidine groups (CIM). On the other hand, the KU-1257 groups (KU-1257) showed much lower recurrence and relapse rates of ulcers than the control and CIM groups. Moreover, KU-1257, unlike CIM, improved the quality of ulcer healing throughout the period of its administration and even after it was discontinued. These results suggest that KU-1257 improves the quality of ulcer healing, and this may contribute to the low recurrence and relapse rates of ulcers.

  20. Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V

    PubMed Central

    Brizola, Evelise; Mattos, Eduardo P.; Ferrari, Jessica; Freire, Patricia O.A.; Germer, Raquel; Llerena Jr, Juan C.; Félix, Têmis M.

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta type V (OI-V) has a wide clinical variability, with distinct clinical/radiological features, such as calcification of the interosseous membrane (CIM) between the radius-ulna and/or tibia-fibula, hyperplastic callus (HPC) formation, dislocation of the radial head (DRH), and absence of dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI). Recently, a single heterozygous mutation (c.-14C>T) in the 5′UTR of the IFITM5 gene was identified to be causative for OI-V. Here, we describe 7 individuals from 5 unrelated families that carry the c.-14C>T IFITM5 mutation. The clinical findings in these cases are: absence of DI in all patients, presence of blue sclera in 2 cases, and 4 patients with DRH. Radiographic findings revealed HPC in 3 cases. All patients presented CIM between the radius and ulna, while 4 patients presented additional CIM between the tibia and fibula. Spinal fractures by vertebral compression were observed in all individuals. The proportion of cases identified with this mutation represents 4% of OI cases at our institution. The clinical identification of OI-V is crucial, as this mutation has an autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expressivity. PMID:26648832

  1. Detection of dimethylamine in the low pptv range using nitrate chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight (CI-APi-TOF) mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Mario; Heinritzi, Martin; Herzog, Stephan; Leiminger, Markus; Bianchi, Federico; Praplan, Arnaud; Dommen, Josef; Curtius, Joachim; Kürten, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Amines are potentially important for atmospheric new particle formation, but their concentrations are usually low with typical mixing ratios in the pptv range or even smaller. Therefore, the demand for highly sensitive gas-phase amine measurements has emerged in the last several years. Nitrate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is routinely used for the measurement of gas-phase sulfuric acid in the sub-pptv range. Furthermore, extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOCs) can be detected with a nitrate CIMS. In this study we demonstrate that a nitrate CIMS can also be used for the sensitive measurement of dimethylamine (DMA, (CH3)2NH) using the NO3-•(HNO3)1 - 2• (DMA) cluster ion signal. Calibration measurements were made at the CLOUD chamber during two different measurement campaigns. Good linearity between 0 and ˜ 120 pptv of DMA as well as a sub-pptv detection limit of 0.7 pptv for a 10 min integration time are demonstrated at 278 K and 38 % RH.

  2. Arsenic in drinking water wells on the Bolivian high plain: Field monitoring and effect of salinity on removal efficiency of iron-oxides-containing filters.

    PubMed

    Van Den Bergh, K; Du Laing, G; Montoya, Juan Carlos; De Deckere, E; Tack, F M G

    2010-11-01

    In the rural areas around Oruro (Bolivia), untreated groundwater is used directly as drinking water. This research aimed to evaluate the general drinking water quality, with focus on arsenic (As) concentrations, based on analysis of 67 samples from about 16 communities of the Oruro district. Subsequently a filter using Iron Oxide Coated Sand (IOCS) and a filter using a Composite Iron Matrix (CIM) were tested for their arsenic removal capacity using synthetic water mimicking real groundwater. Heavy metal concentrations in the sampled drinking water barely exceeded WHO guidelines. Arsenic concentrations reached values up to 964 μ g L⁻¹ and exceeded the current WHO provisional guideline value of 10 μ g L⁻¹ in more than 50% of the sampled wells. The WHO guideline of 250 mg L⁻¹ for chloride and sulphate was also exceeded in more than a third of the samples, indicating high salinity in the drinking waters. Synthetic drinking water could be treated effectively by the IOCS- and CIM-based filters reducing As to concentrations lower than 10 μ g L⁻¹. High levels of chloride and sulphate did not influence As removal efficiency. However, phosphate concentrations in the range from 4 to 24 mg L⁻¹ drastically decreased removal efficiency of the IOCS-based filter but had no effects on removal efficiency of the CIM-based filter. Results of this study can be used as a base for further testing and practical implementation of drinking water purification in the Oruro region.

  3. Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V.

    PubMed

    Brizola, Evelise; Mattos, Eduardo P; Ferrari, Jessica; Freire, Patricia O A; Germer, Raquel; Llerena, Juan C; Félix, Têmis M

    2015-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta type V (OI-V) has a wide clinical variability, with distinct clinical/radiological features, such as calcification of the interosseous membrane (CIM) between the radius-ulna and/or tibia-fibula, hyperplastic callus (HPC) formation, dislocation of the radial head (DRH), and absence of dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI). Recently, a single heterozygous mutation (c.-14C>T) in the 5'UTR of the IFITM5 gene was identified to be causative for OI-V. Here, we describe 7 individuals from 5 unrelated families that carry the c.-14C>T IFITM5 mutation. The clinical findings in these cases are: absence of DI in all patients, presence of blue sclera in 2 cases, and 4 patients with DRH. Radiographic findings revealed HPC in 3 cases. All patients presented CIM between the radius and ulna, while 4 patients presented additional CIM between the tibia and fibula. Spinal fractures by vertebral compression were observed in all individuals. The proportion of cases identified with this mutation represents 4% of OI cases at our institution. The clinical identification of OI-V is crucial, as this mutation has an autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expressivity.

  4. Evaluation of NO+ reagent ion chemistry for online measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Veres, Patrick R.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2016-07-01

    NO+ chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NO+ CIMS) can achieve fast (1 Hz and faster) online measurement of trace atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that cannot be ionized with H3O+ ions (e.g., in a PTR-MS or H3O+ CIMS instrument). Here we describe the adaptation of a high-resolution time-of-flight H3O+ CIMS instrument to use NO+ primary ion chemistry. We evaluate the NO+ technique with respect to compound specificity, sensitivity, and VOC species measured compared to H3O+. The evaluation is established by a series of experiments including laboratory investigation using a gas-chromatography (GC) interface, in situ measurement of urban air using a GC interface, and direct in situ measurement of urban air. The main findings are that (1) NO+ is useful for isomerically resolved measurements of carbonyl species; (2) NO+ can achieve sensitive detection of small (C4-C8) branched alkanes but is not unambiguous for most; and (3) compound-specific measurement of some alkanes, especially isopentane, methylpentane, and high-mass (C12-C15) n-alkanes, is possible with NO+. We also demonstrate fast in situ chemically specific measurements of C12 to C15 alkanes in ambient air.

  5. Post-Activation Brain Warming: A 1-H MRS Thermometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Rango, Mario; Bonifati, Cristiana; Bresolin, Nereo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Temperature plays a fundamental role for the proper functioning of the brain. However, there are only fragmentary data on brain temperature (Tbr) and its regulation under different physiological conditions. Methods We studied Tbr in the visual cortex of 20 normal subjects serially with a wide temporal window under different states including rest, activation and recovery by a visual stimulation-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Thermometry combined approach. We also studied Tbr in a control region, the centrum semiovale, under the same conditions. Results Visual cortex mean baseline Tbr was higher than mean body temperature (37.38 vs 36.60, P<0.001). During activation Tbr remained unchanged at first and then showed a small decrease (-0.20 C°) around the baseline value. After the end of activation Tbr increased consistently (+0.60 C°) and then returned to baseline values after some minutes. Centrum semiovale Tbr remained unchanged through rest, visual stimulation and recovery. Conclusion These findings have several implications, among them that neuronal firing itself is not a major source of heat release in the brain and that there is an aftermath of brain activation that lasts minutes before returning to baseline conditions. PMID:26011731

  6. Osteology of Huabeisaurus allocotus (Sauropoda: Titanosauriformes) from the Upper Cretaceous of China

    PubMed Central

    D'Emic, Michael D.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul; Benson, Roger B. J.; Pang, Qiqing; Zhengwu, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Background The Late Cretaceous titanosauriform sauropod Huabeisaurus allocotus Pang and Cheng is known from teeth and much of the postcranial skeleton. Its completeness makes it an important taxon for integrating and interpreting anatomical observations from more fragmentary Cretaceous East Asian sauropods and for understanding titanosauriform evolution in general. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a detailed redescription of Huabeisaurus allocotus and a suite of anatomical comparisons with other titanosauriforms that demonstrate its validity via autapomorphies (e.g., division of some presacral vertebral laminae, reduced development of caudal ribs, the development of fossae relative to one another in caudal vertebral neural arches, high tibia-to-femur ratio). Huabeisaurus shares many features with other Cretaceous East Asian sauropods (e.g., pendant cervical ribs, anterior-middle caudal vertebrae with a nearly flat anterior centrum face and a concave posterior centrum face) that are absent in sauropods from other landmasses and strata, suggesting a close relationship among many of these forms within the clade Somphospondyli. Conclusions/Significance Restudy of Huabeisaurus provides further evidence for the existence of a clade of somphospondylans – Euhelopodidae – mainly found in the Cretaceous of East Asia. Euhelopodidae represents a fourth example of the evolution of narrow crowns within Sauropoda, along with diplodocoids, brachiosaurids, and advanced titanosaurs (lithostrotians). Despite being known from fewer species than Diplodocoidea, Brachiosauridae, or Lithostrotia, euhelopodids possessed a broader range of tooth shapes than any of these clades, suggesting that euhelopodids exemplified a comparably broad range of feeding strategies and perhaps diets. PMID:23936326

  7. Physical rehabilitation for critical illness myopathy and neuropathy: an abridged version of Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, J; Pohl, M; Kugler, J; Burridge, J; Mückel, S; Elsner, B

    2015-10-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) acquired or generalised weakness due to critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are major causes of chronically impaired motor function that can affect activities of daily living and quality of life. Physical rehabilitation of those affected might help to improve activities of daily living. Our primary objective was to assess the effects of physical rehabilitation therapies and interventions for people with CIP and CIM in improving activities of daily living such as walking, bathing, dressing and eating. Secondary objectives were to assess effects on muscle strength and quality of life, and to assess adverse effects of physical rehabilitation. On 16 July 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register and on 14 July 2014 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL Plus. In July 2014, we searched the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and three trials registries for ongoing trials and further data about included studies with no language restrictions. We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings and screened reference lists to identify further trials. We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and randomised controlled cross-over trials of any rehabilitation intervention in people with acquired weakness syndrome due to CIP/CIM. We would have extracted data, assessed the risk of bias and classified the quality of evidence for outcomes in duplicate, according to the standard procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. Outcome data collection would have been for activities of daily living (for example, mobility, walking, transfers and self care). Secondary outcomes included muscle strength, quality of life and adverse events. The search strategy retrieved 3587 references. After examination of titles and abstracts, we retrieved the full text of 24 potentially relevant studies. None of these studies met the inclusion criteria of our review. No data were

  8. [Effect of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine on carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex in anesthetized rats and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Xi-Ping; Huang, Wei-Qiu

    2002-12-25

    The changes in carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) performance induced by intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of histamine (HA) were investigated. The effects of pretreatment with HA receptors antagonists into the cerebroventricle or nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) on the responses of CSR to HA were also examined. Intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP)-mean arterial pressure (MAP) relationship curve was constructed by fitting to the logistic function with five parameters in 50 Wistar rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The left and right carotid sinus regions were isolated from the systemic circulation and the ISP was altered in a stepwise manner. The main results obtained are as follows. (1) i.c.v. injection of HA (100 ng) significantly shifted the ISP-MAP relationship curve upwards and moved the middle part of ISP-Gain relationship curve downwards, and reduced the MAP range and maximum gain (G(max)), but increased the threshold pressure (TP), saturation pressure (SP) and ISP at G(max) (ISP (Gmax)). (2) The pretreatment with H(1) or H(2) receptors antagonist, chlorpheniramine (CHL, 5 microg) or cimetidine (CIM, 15 microg), could obviously diminish the above-mentioned changes in CSR performance induced by HA, but the effect of CIM was less remarkable than that of CHL. (3) The pretreatment with both CHL and CIM (5 microg and 15 microg) at the same time abolished the responses of CSR performance to HA completely. (4) After microinjection of CHL (0.5 microg) or CIM (1.5 microg) into the NTS, the responses of CSR to HA were similar to those after i.c.v. CHL or CIM, but the change in TP was significantly decreased. These findings suggest that the intracerebroventricular administration of HA results in a rapid resetting of CSR and a decrease in reflex sensitivity. The response of CSR to HA might be mediated by both central H(1) and H(2) receptors, especially by H(1) receptors. The effects of the central HA on CSR might be related to a histaminergic

  9. The origin of Cenozoic basalts from central Inner Mongolia, East China: The consequence of recent mantle metasomatism genetically associated with seismically observed paleo-Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Pengyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Sun, Pu; Ye, Lei; Liu, Jinju; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2016-01-01

    We present new major element, trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data on Cenozoic basalts from central Inner Mongolia (CIM) in eastern China to study the origin of the incompatible-element enriched component in these basalts by testing whether or not the paleo-Pacific plate lying in the mantle transition zone beneath eastern China is the immediate cause. The Cenozoic CIM basalts have a large variation in major element, trace element and isotope compositions. Fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene can readily explain much of the major element compositional variation, while trace element and isotope ratio variation largely reflect source heterogeneities and source histories. The variably low 87Sr/86Sr, high εNd, high εHf and elevated ratios of high field strength element over large ion lithophile element (HFSE/LILE, e.g., Nb/U, Nb/La) indicate that the CIM basalts are of asthenospheric origin, which is characterized by mixing between DMM and EM1. However, the CIM basalts are enriched in incompatible elements and enriched in the progressively more incompatible elements (e.g., variably high [La/Sm]N = 1.66-3.38), suggesting that the magma source(s) must have been enriched prior to the major episode of the magmatism. Participation of subducted ocean crust in the mantle source region of these basalts is recognized, but cannot be the major source material because the subducted ocean crust is expectedly too depleted in incompatible elements (e.g., [La/Sm]N ≪ 1) to produce magmas highly enriched in incompatible elements with [La/Sm]N ≫ 1. With the new data, we consider that low mass fraction (low-F) melt metasomatism in the seismic low velocity zone (LVZ) beneath eastern China as the most likely process to generate incompatible-element enriched source(s) for mantle melts parental to the Cenozoic CIM basalts. The low-F metasomatic agent most likely resulted from dehydration melting of the transition-zone paleo-Pacific slab, which has been taking place

  10. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Techniques for Measurements of Gas-Phase Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J. A.; Yoshida, K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D. J.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Hubler, G.; Fortin, T. J.; Sueper, D. J.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2005-12-01

    Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) can be a highly selective technique with fast time response for measuring many atmospheric trace gases (e.g., hydroxyl radical (OH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3)). CIMS is highly versatile and has been used under a wide variety of conditions with many different ion-molecule detection schemes, even for detecting the same molecule. Because of its high proton affinity (853.6 kJ/mol), ammonia (NH3) is another ideal candidate for detection by CIMS. NH3, the dominant gas-phase base in the atmosphere, is a precursor of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfates, compounds that are important constituents of airborne fine particulate matter that affect air quality. The characterization of three NH3 CIMS instruments: an atmospheric pressure ionization instrument and a low-pressure flow tube reactor instrument, both utilizing protonated ethanol cluster ion chemistry, and a different low-pressure flow tube reactor instrument using protonated acetone dimer ion chemistry, is presented here. Instrument performance is assessed using ambient data from both ground-based and airborne field programs to examine detection sensitivity, background signal, and time response. Laboratory characterization of different inlet materials is also presented. All three instruments used PFA Teflon sampling inlets. Instrumental backgrounds were determined by scrubbing NH3 from ambient air using silicon phosphates that release phosphoric acid when exposed to ambient levels of humidity. Standard addition calibrations were performed using NH3 permeation devices whose output was determined via 185nm optical absorption. Regardless of CIMS technique or ion chemistry used, the observed detection sensitivities were all adequate for detecting changes in NH3 at the 10 pptv level on a 1s timescale. The time responses, defined by a 1/e2 decay in the calibration signal, ranged from 5s to 45s for the different sampling inlet configurations and are rapid enough

  11. Towards Better Coupling of Hydrological Simulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penton, D.; Stenson, M.; Leighton, B.; Bridgart, R.

    2012-12-01

    Standards for model interoperability and scientific workflow software provide techniques and tools for coupling hydrological simulation models. However, model builders are yet to realize the benefits of these and continue to write ad hoc implementations and scripts. Three case studies demonstrate different approaches to coupling models, the first using tight interfaces (OpenMI), the second using a scientific workflow system (Trident) and the third using a tailored execution engine (Delft Flood Early Warning System - Delft-FEWS). No approach was objectively better than any other approach. The foremost standard for coupling hydrological models is the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI), which defines interfaces for models to interact. An implementation of the OpenMI standard involves defining interchange terms and writing a .NET/Java wrapper around the model. An execution wrapper such as OatC.GUI or Pipistrelle executes the models. The team built two OpenMI implementations for eWater Source river system models. Once built, it was easy to swap river system models. The team encountered technical challenges with versions of the .Net framework (3.5 calling 4.0) and with the performance of the execution wrappers when running daily simulations. By design, the OpenMI interfaces are general, leaving significant decisions around the semantics of the interfaces to the implementer. Increasingly, scientific workflow tools such as Kepler, Taverna and Trident are able to replace custom scripts. These tools aim to improve the provenance and reproducibility of processing tasks. In particular, Taverna and the myExperiment website have had success making many bioinformatics workflows reusable and sharable. The team constructed Trident activities for hydrological software including IQQM, REALM and eWater Source. They built an activity generator for model builders to build activities for particular river systems. The models were linked at a simulation level, without any daily time

  12. CONFERENCE NOTE: Forthcoming Conference on Electromagnetic Metrology and Related Fundamental Contants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 CPEM—the world's leading international biennial conference for electromagnetic metrology and related fundamental constants—will be held on 20 24 August, 1984, at Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. Papers are requested for CPEM 84 which describe original work, not published or previously presented, covering the design, performance or application of electromagnetic measurements, techniques, instruments or systems. In cooperation with the relevant commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) the Conference Committee has decided that topics on fundamental constants related to electromagnetic measurements will also be part of CPEM 84. All papers concerned with EM-measurements and related fundamental constants will be considered. Papers in the following fields are regarded as particularly appropriate for this conference: EM-based fundamental constants and standards direct current and low frequency time and frequency antennas and fields microwaves and millimeter waves (micro)computer-aided measurements infrared, visible and ultraviolet radiation electro optics, fibre optics lasers cryo-electronics technical calibration services. The conference language will be English. Authors are requested to submit a summary (500 1000 words) along with an abstract (maximum 50 words) to facilitate paper selection by the programme committee. The summary must describe clearly what new and significant results have been obtained and why the results are important. Summaries must be received on or before 1 February, 1984 and must be sent to Prof. dr. H Postma, Technical Programme Chairman CPEM 84, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5046, NL-2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands. Authors will be notified before 15 May, 1984 whether their papers are accepted and informed of the manner of presentation and possible publication in the IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. conference issue.

  13. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly. Volume 29, Number 4, December 1982,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Hill Book Com- pany, New York, 1968).- 191 Van Dam, J., "Optimization of Spare Part Kits," Doctoral Thesis, University of Technol- 0 ogy, Delft...a 4- with (00) , VOL 29. No 4, DECEMBER 1992 NAVAL RFSIARCH I GISTICS QtARIFRI.N W 1 4 S 4 S S 0 S a 6 5 5 5 5 • * S *4 624 J G TAYLOR where a, b...distribution was originally derived by Fisher, Corbet and S 6 Williams [41 and has been discussed by Sherbrooke 1111 in connection with inventory

  14. Time comparison via OTS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, G.; Kaarls, R.; Kirchner, D.; Ressler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The time comparisons carried out via OTS-2 between the Technical University Graz (Austria) and the Van Swinden Laboratory Delft (Netherlands) are discussed. The method is based on the use of the synchronization pulse in the TV-frame of the daily evening broadcasting of a French TV-program to Northern Africa. Corrections, as a consequence of changes in the position of the satellite coordinates are applied weekly after reception of satellite coordinates. A description of the method is given as well as some of the particular techniques used in both the participating laboratories. Preliminary results are presented.

  15. Residential segregation from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century: evidence from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Lesger, Clé; Van Leeuwen, Marco H D

    2012-01-01

    A case study of three early modern Dutch cities (Alkmaar, Delft, and Amsterdam) using geographical information systems and confronting earlier historical, sociological, and geographical models finds clear patterns of segregation below the level of the city block, thus necessitating block-face mapping. The remarkable continuity in patterns of residential segregation is best explained by the workings of the real-estate market, allowing the well-to-do and middle classes to realize their preferences. In Amsterdam, the merchant elites were able to use their political dominance to plan a scenic and expansive residential environment free from noisy and odorous activities.

  16. Theodore J. Simons 1939-1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Raj

    Theodore Johannes Simons was born in the Netherlands in 1939. He graduated from the Technological University of Delft, where he majored in theoretical fluid dynamics. He was subsequently associated with the North Sea Storm Surge Research of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and served as a meteorological officer in the Royal Netherlands Air Force.In 1966, Simons came to the United States as a research student at the Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University (Fort Collins), where he studied atmospheric instability and numerical modeling of atmospheric development. He received his Ph.D. in 1970 for his study of the nonlinear dynamics of cyclone waves.

  17. Design and experimental results for the S809 airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D M

    1997-01-01

    A 21-percent-thick, laminar-flow airfoil, the S809, for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

  18. Design and experimental results for the S805 airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    An airfoil for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, the S805, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

  19. Beijerinck and the bioluminescent bacteria: microbiological experiments in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lesley A; Figge, Marian J; Dunlap, Paul V

    2011-02-01

    Microbiological research in the days before specialized equipment, or even electricity, required a great deal of ingenuity. The revival of 90-year-old bioluminescent bacteria from Beijerinck's laboratory in Delft prompted a review of his work with these microorganisms and revealed their use in simple techniques for the investigation of, among other things, sugar metabolism in yeasts, oxygen generation and uptake and even the survival of microorganisms in liquid hydrogen. He used variant strains of bioluminescent bacteria in an attempt to study heredity and variation in biological systems and described one of the earliest examples of enzyme induction.

  20. System for Automatic Detection and Analysis of Targets in FMICW Radar Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejfek, Luboš; Mošna, Zbyšek; Urbář, Jaroslav; Koucká Knížová, Petra

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the automatic system for the processing of the signals from the frequency modulated interrupted continuous wave (FMICW) radar and describes methods for the primary signal processing. Further, we present methods for the detection of the targets in strong noise. These methods are tested both on the real and simulated signals. The real signals were measured using the developed at the IAP CAS experimental prototype of FMICW radar with operational frequency 35.4 GHz. The measurement campaign took place at the TU Delft, the Netherlands. The obtained results were used for development of the system for the automatic detection and analysis of the targets measured by the FMICW radar.

  1. Assessment of turbulence-chemistry interaction models in the computation of turbulent non-premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, M. T.; Pozorski, J.

    2016-10-01

    The present work reports on the assessment of different turbulence-chemistry interaction closures for the modelling of turbulent non-premixed combustion. Two-dimensional axisymmetric simulations have been carried out based on three different laboratory flames. The methane fueled, piloted jet flame Sandia D, the simple jet syngas flame and the so-called Delft Jet-in-Hot Coflow flame are studied. All the flames can be characterised as non-premixed but differ by some features which are taken into account through appropriate modelling approach.

  2. Elastic Anisotropy of Trabecular Bone in the Elderly Human Vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, Ginu U.; Gallagher, John A.; Hussein, Amira I.; Barest, Glenn D.; Morgan, Elise F.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the nature of the elastic symmetry of trabecular bone is fundamental to the study of bone adaptation and failure. Previous studies have classified human vertebral trabecular bone as orthotropic or transversely isotropic but have typically obtained samples from only selected regions of the centrum. In this study, the elastic symmetry of human vertebral trabecular bone was characterized using microfinite element (μFE) analyses performed on 1019 cubic regions of side length equal to 5 mm, obtained via thorough sampling of the centrums of 18 human L1 vertebrae (age = 81.17 ± 7.7 yr; eight males and ten females). An optimization procedure was used to find the closest orthotropic representation of the resulting stiffness tensor for each cube. The orthotropic elastic constants and orientation of the principal elastic axes were then recorded for each cube and were compared to the constants predicted from Cowin's fabric-based constitutive model (Cowin, 1985, “The Relationship Between the Elasticity Tensor and the Fabric Tensor,” Mech. Mater., 4(2), pp. 137–147.) and the orientation of the principal axes of the fabric tensor, respectively. Deviations from orthotropy were quantified by the “orthotropic error” (van Rietbergen et al., 1996, “Direct Mechanics Assessment of Elastic Symmetries and Properties of Trabecular Bone Architecture,” J. Biomech., 29(12), pp. 1653–1657), and deviations from transverse isotropy were determined by statistical comparison of the secondary and tertiary elastic moduli. The orthotropic error was greater than 50% for nearly half of the cubes, and the secondary and tertiary moduli differed from one another (p < 0.0001). Both the orthotropic error and the difference between secondary and tertiary moduli decreased with increasing bone volume fraction (BV/TV; p ≤ 0.007). Considering only the cubes with an orthotropic error less than 50%, only moderate correlations were observed between the fabric

  3. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Manning, Phillip L; Egerton, Victoria M; Romano, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire), UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.

  4. Testimony therapy: treatment method for traumatized victims of organized violence.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Janie A; Schoutrop, Mirjam J A; Spinhoven, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Former political prisoners in Chile gave testimony of their traumatic experiences, which resulted in diminishing their posttraumatic symptoms. Based on this experience, testimony therapy has been developed and used in treatment of traumatized victims of war or other organized violence. This short-term therapy, as it applied in the treatment of traumatized asylum seekers and refugees in Centrum '45/De Vonk in the Netherlands, is described in this article. The therapy consists of 12 sessions in which patients tell their life stories, including the traumatic experiences. The narrative is reflected in a written document that, for example, can be read to family and friends, or be sent to a historical archive. This article discusses the preliminary research data on the effects of testimony therapy. Finally, hypotheses on the working mechanisms of testimony therapy are offered.

  5. Physical evidence of predatory behavior in Tyrannosaurus rex

    PubMed Central

    DePalma, Robert A.; Burnham, David A.; Martin, Larry D.; Rothschild, Bruce M.; Larson, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Feeding strategies of the large theropod, Tyrannosaurus rex, either as a predator or a scavenger, have been a topic of debate previously compromised by lack of definitive physical evidence. Tooth drag and bone puncture marks have been documented on suggested prey items, but are often difficult to attribute to a specific theropod. Further, postmortem damage cannot be distinguished from intravital occurrences, unless evidence of healing is present. Here we report definitive evidence of predation by T. rex: a tooth crown embedded in a hadrosaurid caudal centrum, surrounded by healed bone growth. This indicates that the prey escaped and lived for some time after the injury, providing direct evidence of predatory behavior by T. rex. The two traumatically fused hadrosaur vertebrae partially enclosing a T. rex tooth were discovered in the Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota. PMID:23858435

  6. Physical evidence of predatory behavior in Tyrannosaurus rex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePalma, Robert A., II; Burnham, David A.; Martin, Larry D.; Rothschild, Bruce M.; Larson, Peter L.

    2013-07-01

    Feeding strategies of the large theropod, Tyrannosaurus rex, either as a predator or a scavenger, have been a topic of debate previously compromised by lack of definitive physical evidence. Tooth drag and bone puncture marks have been documented on suggested prey items, but are often difficult to attribute to a specific theropod. Further, postmortem damage cannot be distinguished from intravital occurrences, unless evidence of healing is present. Here we report definitive evidence of predation by T. rex: a tooth crown embedded in a hadrosaurid caudal centrum, surrounded by healed bone growth. This indicates that the prey escaped and lived for some time after the injury, providing direct evidence of predatory behavior by T. rex. The two traumatically fused hadrosaur vertebrae partially enclosing a T. rex tooth were discovered in the Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota.

  7. Hyperperfusion on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Chemotherapy-Related Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    El-Hakam, Lisa Michael; Ramocki, Melissa Beth; Riviello, James John; Illner, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Acute chemotherapy-related leukoencephalopathy can present similar to acute stroke with symptoms including aphasia, dysarthria, and hemiplegia. Differentiation based on clinical appearance is challenging, and physicians must distinguish between the 2 conditions rapidly to institute appropriate therapies. An 8-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving chemotherapy, including intrathecal methotrexate, presented to our emergency center with 2 hours of expressive aphasia and flaccid right hemiplegia. Emergent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained, demonstrating diffusion restriction within bilateral corona radiata and centrum semiovale. Magnetic resonance perfusion revealed mildly increased perfusion, a finding inconsistent with ischemic stroke and previously unreported in acute chemotherapy-related leukoencephalopathy without necrosis. This increased perfusion conclusively eliminated stroke from the clinical differential. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging proved valuable to rapidly distinguish acute chemotherapy-related leukoencephalopathy from ischemia, and the evaluation of perfusion alterations in this disorder may provide further insight into the pathophysiology of this entity. PMID:20363963

  8. Fahr's syndrome presenting with pure and progressive presenile dementia.

    PubMed

    Modrego, P J; Mojonero, J; Serrano, M; Fayed, N

    2005-12-01

    Fahr's syndrome involves calcification of basal ganglia and dentate nuclei of the cerebellum. Clinically it may present with an array of movement disorders, dementia and other behavioural disturbances. Sporadic and familial cases have been reported with or without calcium/phosphorus metabolism. A rare form of frontotemporal dementia with neurofibrillary tangles and Fahr-type calcifications (DNTC) has been observed mainly in Japan. We report the singular case of a 50-year-old woman with progressive dementia but neither extrapyramidal symptoms nor a metabolic disorder. Brain CT showed Fahr-type calcifications in the basal ganglia, cerebellum and centrum semiovale as well as temporal atrophy; MRI showed diffuse atrophy predominantly in parietotemporal regions. The clinical and radiological features of our patient point to this uncommon form of dementia.

  9. Myelin imaging with C-11 labeled diphenylmethanol and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Herscovitch, P.; Dischino, D.D.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Welch, M.J.; Raichle, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have recently studied several C-11-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for their suitability as myelin imaging agents with positron emission tomography (PET). C-11 diphenylmethanol (DPM) was selected on the basis of its in vivo metabolic stability and high extraction and lipophilicity. PET studies were performed in three normal subjects and in one patient with multiple sclerosis (MS). Myelin distribution was imaged following the bolus intravenous administration of 25-30 mCi of C-11 DPM. Sequential scans were obtained after radiotracer administration to measure the DPM distribution as a function of time. In addition, regional cerebral blood flow was measured after the bolus intravenous injection of 0-15 water. A tomographic slice through the centrum semiovale was used to obtain regional data for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM).

  10. Application of melt ejection criterion in simulation of micromachining with laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semak, Vladimir V.; Schriempf, J. T.; Knorovsky, G. A.; MacCallum, D. O.

    2003-07-01

    The theoretical criterion defining the threshold pulse energy and beam intensity required for melt ejection is proposed. The results of numerical simulation present dependencies of the threshold pulse energy and beam intensity as functions of laser pulse duration and beam radius. The experimental verification of proposed criterion is described and the comparison of theoretical predictions and measurements is presented. The criterion is applied for simulation of laser drilling metal foil with thickness in the range 25 μm - 125 μm using laser beam with 12 μm beam radius and pulse durations 10 ns and 100 ns. The computational results are used to interpret the results of experimental study of laser drilling of 125 μm aluminum foil using a single mode beam of a XeCl laser performed at the Nederlands Centrum voor Laser Research (NCLR) and the University of Twente. Additional results on Nd:YAG spot welds in pure Ni are also presented.

  11. Physical evidence of predatory behavior in Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed

    DePalma, Robert A; Burnham, David A; Martin, Larry D; Rothschild, Bruce M; Larson, Peter L

    2013-07-30

    Feeding strategies of the large theropod, Tyrannosaurus rex, either as a predator or a scavenger, have been a topic of debate previously compromised by lack of definitive physical evidence. Tooth drag and bone puncture marks have been documented on suggested prey items, but are often difficult to attribute to a specific theropod. Further, postmortem damage cannot be distinguished from intravital occurrences, unless evidence of healing is present. Here we report definitive evidence of predation by T. rex: a tooth crown embedded in a hadrosaurid caudal centrum, surrounded by healed bone growth. This indicates that the prey escaped and lived for some time after the injury, providing direct evidence of predatory behavior by T. rex. The two traumatically fused hadrosaur vertebrae partially enclosing a T. rex tooth were discovered in the Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota.

  12. Testing of T91 steel in heavy liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chocholoušek, M.; Fulín, Z.; Janoušek, J.; Špirit, Z.

    2017-02-01

    Tests of candidate construction materials for a heavy liquid metal environment are performed at Centrum Vyzkumu Rez. Tests are focused among other things on the influence of corrosive environments on the mechanical properties of T91 steel. Non-standard environments require special testing devices, which must be able to perform tests in liquid lead or liquid lead bismuth eutectic. An important issue is also the monitoring of the oxygen volume, which has an influence on the production and stability of oxide layers and therefore on crack initiation. This article presents the issue of testing steel T91 and the associated development of a testing device for slow strain rate tests, especially in liquid lead bismuth eutectic environment.

  13. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning.

  14. Quantitative characterization of metastatic disease in the spine. Part I. Semiautomated segmentation using atlas-based deformable registration and the level set method

    SciTech Connect

    Hardisty, M.; Gordon, L.; Agarwal, P.; Skrinskas, T.; Whyne, C.

    2007-08-15

    Quantitative assessment of metastatic disease in bone is often considered immeasurable and, as such, patients with skeletal metastases are often excluded from clinical trials. In order to effectively quantify the impact of metastatic tumor involvement in the spine, accurate segmentation of the vertebra is required. Manual segmentation can be accurate but involves extensive and time-consuming user interaction. Potential solutions to automating segmentation of metastatically involved vertebrae are demons deformable image registration and level set methods. The purpose of this study was to develop a semiautomated method to accurately segment tumor-bearing vertebrae using the aforementioned techniques. By maintaining morphology of an atlas, the demons-level set composite algorithm was able to accurately differentiate between trans-cortical tumors and surrounding soft tissue of identical intensity. The algorithm successfully segmented both the vertebral body and trabecular centrum of tumor-involved and healthy vertebrae. This work validates our approach as equivalent in accuracy to an experienced user.

  15. A problematic early tetrapod from the Mississippian of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomson, K.S.; Shubin, N.S.; Poole, F.G.

    1998-01-01

    We report here the discovery of a new taxon of Paleozoic tetrapod from the Late Mississippian of Nevada (330-340 Ma). It has a unique vertebral column with principal centra having vertical anterior and posterior faces, ventrally incomplete accessory centra located antero-dorsally in each centrum, and enlarged presacral/sacral vertebrae. The head and pectoral girdle were not preserved but the large femur, robust pelvic girdle and enlarged sacral vertebrae possibly indicate a terrestrial mode of life. This new form significantly extends the western geographic range of known Mississippian tetrapods. It presents a mosaic of primitive and derived features, indicating that continued revision of traditional accounts of vertebral homology and the early diversifications of Paleozoic tetrapods will be necessary.

  16. [Angiodysplasia of moya-moya type disclosed by choreic unvoluntary abnormal movements during oral contraception. Apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J; Cabanot, C; Lévrier, O; Thuillier, J N; Chérif, A A

    1997-07-01

    Two seventeen year-old women, developed acute onset left choreic movements following two months and two weeks use of oral contraceptives. Left hemiparesia appeared a few days later, while involuntary movements discontinued. Cranial CT scan and MRI showed bilateral ischemic lesion in the frontal region for the first case and isolated lesion in the right centrum ovale for the second. Angiography showed nearly complete obstruction of the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery with an outline Moya-Moya network. After discontinuing oral contraceptives, there has been no relapse of neurologic dysfunction for more than three years for the first case and twelve months for the second one. The role of perfusion insufficiency in limb-shaking carotid transient ischemic attack is discussed and the possible relations between oral contraceptives, chorea and angiographic features resembling Moya-Moya disease are evaluated.

  17. Noninvasive Oxygen Monitoring in Three-Dimensional Tissue Cultures Under Static and Dynamic Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Weyand, Birgit; Nöhre, Mariel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Stolz, Marvin; Israelowitz, Meir; Gille, Christoph; von Schroeder, Herb P.; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a new method for noninvasive real-time oxygen measurement inside three-dimensional tissue-engineered cell constructs in static and dynamic culture settings in a laminar flow bioreactor. The OPAL system (optical oxygen measurement system) determines the oxygen-dependent phosphorescence lifetime of spherical microprobes and uses a two-frequency phase-modulation technique, which fades out the interference of background fluorescence from the cell carrier and culture medium. Higher cell densities in the centrum of the scaffolds correlated with lower values of oxygen concentration obtained with the OPAL system. When scaffolds were placed in the bioreactor, higher oxygen values were measured compared to statically cultured scaffolds in a Petri dish, which were significantly different at day 1–3 of culture. This technique allows the use of signal-weak microprobes in biological environments and monitors the culture process inside a bioreactor. PMID:26309802

  18. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by a dematiaceous scopulariopsis species.

    PubMed

    Hart, A P; Sutton, D A; McFeeley, P J; Kornfeld, M

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a rapidly fatal case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a 33-year-old immunocompetent male. The infection presented as a single large lesion in the deep white matter of one temporal lobe, which was then removed surgically. Histologic features observed in the lobectomy specimen were characterized by perivascular sleeves of mononuclear cells accompanied by hemorrhages. These were reminiscent of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis except for the presence of rare fungal organisms and sparse multinucleated giant cells similar to those occurring in AIDS. During the four days following surgery, a large focus of cerebritis with massive invasion of fungi developed in each centrum semiovale around the ventriculostomy sites. Fungal culture of the brain obtained at autopsy grew an organism consistent with a Scopulariopsis species.

  19. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Daumit, K. E.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Thornton, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    We measured a large suite of gas- and particle-phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas and particle phases, the latter being detected by temperature-programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO-HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25-50 % of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from high molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e., multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50 % of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle-phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption-temperature-based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas-particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the conversion of

  20. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A.; Daumit, K.; Hunter, J.; Kroll, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Thornton, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25-50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas-particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the conversion of

  1. Federation of UML models for cyber physical use cases

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-05

    This method employs the concept of federation, which is defined as the use of existing models that represent aspects of a system in specific domains (such as physical and cyber security domains) and building interfaces to link all of domain models. Federation seeks to build on existing bodies of work. Some examples include the Common Information Models (CIM) maintained by the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 57 (IEC TC 57) for the electric power industry. Another relevant model is the CIM maintained by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)? this CIM defines a representation of the managed elements in an Information Technology (IT) environment. The power system is an example of a cyber-physical system, where the cyber systems, consisting of computing infrastructure such as networks and devices, play a critical role in the operation of the underlying physical electricity delivery system. Measurements from remote field devices are relayed to control centers through computer networks, and the data is processed to determine suitable control actions. Control decisions are then relayed back to field devices. It has been observed that threat actors may be able to successfully compromise this cyber layer in order to impact power system operation. Therefore, future control center applications must be wary of potentially compromised measurements coming from field devices. In order to ensure the integrity of the field measurements, these applications could make use of compromise indicators from alternate sources of information such as cyber security. Thus, modern control applications may require access to data from sources that are not defined in the local information model. In such cases, software application interfaces will require integration of data objects from cross-domain data models. When incorporating or federating different domains, it is important to have subject matter experts work together, recognizing that not everyone has the

  2. Specific cerebral heat shock proteins and histamine receptor cross-talking mechanisms promote distinct lead-dependent neurotoxic responses in teleosts

    SciTech Connect

    Giusi, Giuseppina; Alo, Raffaella; Crudo, Michele; Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Canonaco, Marcello

    2008-03-01

    Recent interests are beginning to be directed towards toxic neurobiological dysfunctions caused by lead (Pb) in aquatic vertebrates. In the present work, treatment with a maximum acceptable toxic concentration of this heavy metal was responsible for highly significant (p < 0.01) abnormal motor behaviors such as hyperactive movements in the teleost Thalassoma pavo and the same treatment accounted for significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced hyperventilating states. On the other hand, greater abnormal motor behaviors were detected in the presence of the histamine (HA) receptor subtype 2 (H{sub 2}R) antagonist cimetidine (Cim), as shown by the very robust (p < 0.001) increases of the two behavioral states. Interestingly, elevated expression levels of stress-related factors, i.e. heat shock protein70/90 (HSP90/70) orthologs were reported for the first time in hypothalamic and mesencephalic areas of Pb-treated teleosts. In particular, an up-regulation of HSP70 was readily detected when this heavy metal was given concomitantly with Cim, while the histamine subtype 3 antagonist (H{sub 3}R) thioperamide (Thio), instead, blocked Pb-dependent up-regulatory trends of both chaperones in mostly hypothalamic areas. Moreover, intense neuronal damages of the above brain regions coincided with altered expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 when treated only with Cim. Overall these first results show that distinct H{sub n}R are able to exert a net neuroprotective role arising from their interaction with chaperones in fish exposed to Pb-dependent stressful conditions making this a potentially key interaction especially for T. pavo, aquatic species which plays an important ecological role towards the survival of other commercially vital fishes.

  3. A dynamic thermal ATR-FTIR/chemometric approach to the analysis of polymorphic interconversions. Cimetidine as a model drug.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Natalia L; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2014-04-01

    Crystal polymorphism of active ingredients is relevant to the pharmaceutical industry, since polymorphic changes taking place during manufacture or storage of pharmaceutical formulations can affect critical properties of the products. Cimetidine (CIM) has several relevant solid state forms, including four polymorphs (A, B, C and D), an amorphous form (AM) and a monohydrate (M1). Dehydration of M1 has been reported to yield mixtures of polymorphs A, B and C or just a single form. Standards of the solid forms of CIM were prepared and unequivocally characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, digital microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was coupled to variable temperature attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to dynamically characterize the behavior of form M1 of CIM over a temperature range from ambient to 160°C, without sample pretreatment. MCR-ALS analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra obtained from the tested solid under variable temperature conditions unveiled the pure spectra of the species involved in the polymorphic transitions. This allowed the simultaneous observation of thermochemical and thermophysical events associated to the changes involved in the solid forms, enabling their unequivocal identification and improving the understanding of their thermal behavior. It was demonstrated that under the experimental conditions, dehydration of M1 initially results in the formation of polymorph B; after melting and upon cooling, the latter yields an amorphous solid (AM). It was concluded that the ATR-FTIR/MCR association is a promising and useful technique for monitoring solid-state phase transformations.

  4. Measurements of Oxidized Organic Compounds during SOAS 2013 using nitrate ion chemical ionization coupled with High Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Stark, H.; Cnagaratna, M.; Junninen, H.; Hakala, J. P.; Mauldin, R.; Ehn, M.; Sipila, M.; Krechmer, J.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    We present ambient measurements of gaseous organic compounds by means of a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) using nitrate ion (NO3-) chemistry. This technique allows to selectively detect oxidized gas-phase species, e.g., oxidized organic molecules and sulfuric acid via clustering with NO3- and its high order clusters. The capability of making such measurements is important because both sulfuric acid and organic gas molecules have a recognized key role in new particle formation (NPF) processes and likely have an important role in particulate phase chemistry and formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The HR-ToF-CIMS was deployed during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) at the forest supersite in Centreville, AL, from June 1 to July 15, 2013. The main goal of the SOAS campaign was to investigate the composition and sources of SOA in the Southeast US, where emissions are mainly represented by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions and in less extent by anthropogenic emissions (AVOC). During SOAS, the HR-ToF-CIMS detected a range of organic ions that based on previous literature could be identified as oxidation products of both isoprene and terpenes. The isoprene products were 5 to 10 times more abundant than the terpene products. The isoprene-related molecules showed a diurnal cycle with a day time peak, typically after 1500 local time, while the terpene products were higher at night (between 2000 and 0600 local time). These results are consistent with the diurnal trends of primary BVOC emissions from other co-located instruments. The ambient data are also compared to laboratory measurements where oxidized organic vapors are produced using a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor by the OH oxidation of biogenic gas-phase precursors (isoprene, a-pinene) over multiple days of equivalent atmospheric exposure.

  5. A centrifugal ice microtome for measurements of atmospheric CO2 on air trapped in polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereiter, B.; Stocker, T. F.; Fischer, H.

    2012-10-01

    For atmospheric CO2 reconstructions using ice cores, the technique to release the trapped air from the ice samples is crucial for the precision and accuracy of the measurements. We present here a new dry extraction technique in combination with a new gas analytical system that together show significant improvements with respect to current systems. Ice samples (3-15 g) are pulverized using a novel Centrifugal Ice Microtome (CIM) by shaving the ice in a cooled vacuum chamber (-27 °C) in which no friction occurs due to the use of magnetic bearings. Both, the shaving principle of the CIM and the use of magnetic bearings have not been applied so far in this field. Shaving the ice samples produces finer ice powder and releases a minimum of 90% of the trapped air compared to 50%-70% when needle crushing is employed. In addition, the friction-free motion with an optimized design to reduce contaminations of the inner surfaces of the device result in a reduced system offset of about 2.0 ppmv compared to 4.9ppmv. The gas analytical part shows a factor two higher precision than our corresponding part of the previous system and all processes except the loading and cleaning of the CIM now run automatically. Compared to our previous system the new system shows a 3 times better measurement reproducibility of about 1.1 ppmv (1σ) which is similar to the best reproducibility of other systems applied in this field. With this high reproducibility, replicate measurements are not required anymore for most prospective measurement campaigns resulting in a possible output of 12-20 measurements per day compared to a maximum of 6 with other systems.

  6. A centrifugal ice microtome for measurements of atmospheric CO2 on air trapped in polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereiter, B.; Stocker, T. F.; Fischer, H.

    2013-02-01

    For atmospheric CO2 reconstructions using ice cores, the technique to release the trapped air from the ice samples is essential for the precision and accuracy of the measurements. We present here a new dry extraction technique in combination with a new gas analytical system that together show significant improvements with respect to current systems. Ice samples (3-15 g) are pulverised using a novel centrifugal ice microtome (CIM) by shaving the ice in a cooled vacuum chamber (-27 °C) in which no friction occurs due to the use of magnetic bearings. Both, the shaving principle of the CIM and the use of magnetic bearings have not been applied so far in this field. Shaving the ice samples produces finer ice powder and releases a minimum of 90% of the trapped air compared to 50%-70% when needle crushing is employed. In addition, the friction-free motion with an optimized design to reduce contaminations of the inner surfaces of the device result in a reduced system offset of about 2.0 ppmv compared to 4.9 ppmv. The gas analytical part shows a higher precision than the corresponding part of our previous system by a factor of two, and all processes except the loading and cleaning of the CIM now run automatically. Compared to our previous system, the complete system shows a 3 times better measurement reproducibility of about 1.1 ppmv (1 σ) which is similar to the best reproducibility of other systems applied in this field. With this high reproducibility, no replicate measurements are required anymore for most future measurement campaigns resulting in a possible output of 12-20 measurements per day compared to a maximum of 6 with other systems.

  7. An open data repository and a data processing software toolset of an equivalent Nordic grid model matched to historical electricity market data.

    PubMed

    Vanfretti, Luigi; Olsen, Svein H; Arava, V S Narasimham; Laera, Giuseppe; Bidadfar, Ali; Rabuzin, Tin; Jakobsen, Sigurd H; Lavenius, Jan; Baudette, Maxime; Gómez-López, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    This article presents an open data repository, the methodology to generate it and the associated data processing software developed to consolidate an hourly snapshot historical data set for the year 2015 to an equivalent Nordic power grid model (aka Nordic 44), the consolidation was achieved by matching the model׳s physical response w.r.t historical power flow records in the bidding regions of the Nordic grid that are available from the Nordic electricity market agent, Nord Pool. The model is made available in the form of CIM v14, Modelica and PSS/E (Siemens PTI) files. The Nordic 44 model in Modelica and PSS/E were first presented in the paper titled "iTesla Power Systems Library (iPSL): A Modelica library for phasor time-domain simulations" (Vanfretti et al., 2016) [1] for a single snapshot. In the digital repository being made available with the submission of this paper (SmarTSLab_Nordic44 Repository at Github, 2016) [2], a total of 8760 snapshots (for the year 2015) that can be used to initialize and execute dynamic simulations using tools compatible with CIM v14, the Modelica language and the proprietary PSS/E tool are provided. The Python scripts to generate the snapshots (processed data) are also available with all the data in the GitHub repository (SmarTSLab_Nordic44 Repository at Github, 2016) [2]. This Nordic 44 equivalent model was also used in iTesla project (iTesla) [3] to carry out simulations within a dynamic security assessment toolset (iTesla, 2016) [4], and has been further enhanced during the ITEA3 OpenCPS project (iTEA3) [5]. The raw, processed data and output models utilized within the iTesla platform (iTesla, 2016) [4] are also available in the repository. The CIM and Modelica snapshots of the "Nordic 44" model for the year 2015 are available in a Zenodo repository.

  8. A Field Measurement of Isocyanic Acid (HNCO): Evidence of a Secondary Source and Presence in Cloud Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A.; Liggio, G.; Wentzell, J. J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Macdonald, A.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Modini, R. L.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Schroder, J.; Bertram, A. K.; Hawkins, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been shown to cause a variety of adverse health effects via protein carbamylation reactions. It is proposed as a key compound in smoke related health issues due to its well-known sources, biomass burning and cigarette smoke. In spite of this, our understanding of the atmospheric fate of this toxic compound is incomplete. More ambient measurements are needed to elucidate additional sources and to better characterize the sinks of HNCO in the atmosphere. The recent development of the Acetate Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Acid-CIMS) has enabled on-line measurement of HNCO at ambient mixing ratios. Ambient measurements of HNCO were performed in La Jolla, CA during the spring/summer of 2012, using the Acid-CIMS. HNCO mixing ratios were found to be approximately 150 pptv during the night, but typically increased to over 300 pptv in the early afternoon. From the observed diurnal profile and the correlation of HNCO with temperature and other secondary compounds (e.g. nitric acid), we report evidence of a secondary, photochemical source of HNCO. The observed HNCO likely arose as a combination of primary and secondary sources. We have also detected HNCO in cloudwater by coupling the Acid-CIMS to a Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first field evidence of cloud scavenging of HNCO. Our result show that the cloud scavenging of HNCO may be more efficient than predicted from its effective Henry's law constant. Campaign-averaged diurnal profiles of Black Carbon (BC), isocyanic acid (HNCO) and nitric acid (HNO3). Dotted lines show the averaged time of sunrise and sunset during the campaign.

  9. A gene block causing cross-incompatibility hidden in wild and cultivated rice.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Kazuki; Khin-Thidar; Sano, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    Unidirectional cross-incompatibility was detected in advanced generations of backcrossing between wild (Oryza rufipogon) and cultivated (O. sativa) rice strains. The near-isogenic line (NIL) of T65wx (Japonica type) carrying an alien segment of chromosome 6 from a wild strain gave a reduced seed setting only when crossed with T65wx as the male. Cytological observations showed that abortion of hybrid seeds occurred as a consequence of a failure of early endosperm development followed by abnormalities in embryo development. The genetic basis of cross-incompatibility reactions in the female and male was investigated by testcrosses using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) that were established through dissecting the introgressed segments of wild and cultivated (Indica type) strains. The results revealed that the cross-incompatibility reaction was controlled by Cif in the female and by cim in the male. When the female plant with Cif was crossed with the male plant with cim, a failure of early endosperm development was observed in the hybrid zygotes. Among cultivars of O. sativa, cim was distributed predominantly in the Japonica type but not in the Indica type. In addition, a dominant suppressor, Su-Cif, which changes the reaction in the female from incompatible to compatible was proposed to present near the centromere of chromosome 6 of the Indica type. Further, the death of young F(1) zygotes was controlled by the parental genotypes rather than by the genotype of the hybrid zygote itself since all three genes acted sporophytically, which strongly suggests an involvement of parent-of-origin effects. We discuss the results in relation to the origin of a crossing barrier as well as their maintenance within the primary gene pool. PMID:14504241

  10. Planning for the semiconductor manufacturer of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargher, Hugh E.; Smith, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    Texas Instruments (TI) is currently contracted by the Air Force Wright Laboratory and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop the next generation flexible semiconductor wafer fabrication system called Microelectronics Manufacturing Science & Technology (MMST). Several revolutionary concepts are being pioneered on MMST, including the following: new single-wafer rapid thermal processes, in-situ sensors, cluster equipment, and advanced Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) software. The objective of the project is to develop a manufacturing system capable of achieving an order of magnitude improvement in almost all aspects of wafer fabrication. TI was awarded the contract in Oct., 1988, and will complete development with a fabrication facility demonstration in April, 1993. An important part of MMST is development of the CIM environment responsible for coordinating all parts of the system. The CIM architecture being developed is based on a distributed object oriented framework made of several cooperating subsystems. The software subsystems include the following: process control for dynamic control of factory processes; modular processing system for controlling the processing equipment; generic equipment model which provides an interface between processing equipment and the rest of the factory; specification system which maintains factory documents and product specifications; simulator for modelling the factory for analysis purposes; scheduler for scheduling work on the factory floor; and the planner for planning and monitoring of orders within the factory. This paper first outlines the division of responsibility between the planner, scheduler, and simulator subsystems. It then describes the approach to incremental planning and the way in which uncertainty is modelled within the plan representation. Finally, current status and initial results are described.

  11. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  12. A Causal Inference Model Explains Perception of the McGurk Effect and Other Incongruent Audiovisual Speech

    PubMed Central

    Magnotti, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Audiovisual speech integration combines information from auditory speech (talker’s voice) and visual speech (talker’s mouth movements) to improve perceptual accuracy. However, if the auditory and visual speech emanate from different talkers, integration decreases accuracy. Therefore, a key step in audiovisual speech perception is deciding whether auditory and visual speech have the same source, a process known as causal inference. A well-known illusion, the McGurk Effect, consists of incongruent audiovisual syllables, such as auditory “ba” + visual “ga” (AbaVga), that are integrated to produce a fused percept (“da”). This illusion raises two fundamental questions: first, given the incongruence between the auditory and visual syllables in the McGurk stimulus, why are they integrated; and second, why does the McGurk effect not occur for other, very similar syllables (e.g., AgaVba). We describe a simplified model of causal inference in multisensory speech perception (CIMS) that predicts the perception of arbitrary combinations of auditory and visual speech. We applied this model to behavioral data collected from 60 subjects perceiving both McGurk and non-McGurk incongruent speech stimuli. The CIMS model successfully predicted both the audiovisual integration observed for McGurk stimuli and the lack of integration observed for non-McGurk stimuli. An identical model without causal inference failed to accurately predict perception for either form of incongruent speech. The CIMS model uses causal inference to provide a computational framework for studying how the brain performs one of its most important tasks, integrating auditory and visual speech cues to allow us to communicate with others. PMID:28207734

  13. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; ...

    2015-02-18

    We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gasmore » and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the

  14. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; ...

    2015-07-16

    We measured a large suite of gas- and particle-phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas andmore » particle phases, the latter being detected by temperature-programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO–HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50 % of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from high molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e., multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50 % of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle-phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption-temperature-based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas-particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the

  15. Comparative volatile oil composition of four Ocimum species from northern India.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S

    2011-03-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. cvs. 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Soumya', Ocimum sanctum L. cvs. 'Green' (CIM-Ayu) and 'Purple', Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke have been studied by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phenylpropanoids (65.2-77.6%) constituted the major proportion of the essential oil compositions of O. sanctum, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes (72.7%) constituted the major proportion of the oil composition of O. kilimandscharicum. The essential oil compositions of cvs. 'Green' and 'Purple' of O. sanctum were almost the same, and both cultivars were dominated by eugenol (67.4% and 72.8%), β-elemene (11.0% and 10.9%), β-caryophyllene (7.3% and 8.4%) and germacrene D (2.4% and 2.2%), whilst the major components in O. basilicum cvs. 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Soumya' were methyl chavicol (68.0% and 64.9%) and linalool (21.9% and 25.6%), along with bicyclogermacrene (2.0% and 0.7%) and α-terpineol (1.2% and 0.1%). Eugenol (77.2%), 1,8-cineole (7.6%), germacrene D (2.7%) and β-caryophyllene (1.7%) were identified as the major constituents of O. gratissimum. On the contrary, the essential oil from O. kilimandscharicum was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (95.8%), represented by camphor (64.9%), limonene (8.7%), camphene (6.4%) and (E)-β-ocimene (3.0%).

  16. The effect of enzyme inhibition on the metabolism and activation of tacrine by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Spaldin, V; Madden, S; Pool, W F; Woolf, T F; Park, B K

    1994-01-01

    1. Tacrine (1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-aminoacridine-hydrochloride: THA) underwent metabolism in vitro by a panel (n = 12) of human liver microsomes genotyped for CYP2D6, in the presence of NADPH, to both protein-reactive and stable metabolites. 2. There was considerable variation in the extent of THA metabolism amongst human livers. Protein-reactive metabolite formation showed a 10-fold variation (0.6 +/- 0.1%-5.2 +/- 0.8% of incubated radioactivity mg-1 protein) whilst stable metabolites showed a 3-fold variation (24.3 +/- 1.7%-78.6 +/- 2.6% of incubated radioactivity). 3. Using cytochrome P450 isoform specific inhibitors CYP1A2 was identified as the major enzyme involved in all routes of THA metabolism. 4. There was a high correlation between aromatic and alicyclic hydroxylation (r = 0.92, P < 0.0001) consistent with these biotransformations being catalysed by the same enzymes. 5. Enoxacin (ENOX), cimetidine (CIM) and chloroquine (CQ) inhibited THA metabolism by a preferential decrease in the bioactivation to protein-reactive, and hence potentially toxic, species. The inhibitory potency of ENOX and CIM was increased significantly upon pre-incubation with microsomes and NADPH. 6. Covalent binding correlated with 7-OH-THA formation before (r = 0.792, P < 0.0001) and after (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001) inhibition by CIM, consistent with a two-step mechanism in the formation of protein-reactive metabolite(s) via a 7-OH intermediate. 7. The use of enzyme inhibitors may provide a useful tool for examining the relationship between the metabolism and toxicity of THA in vivo. PMID:7946932

  17. Specific cerebral heat shock proteins and histamine receptor cross-talking mechanisms promote distinct lead-dependent neurotoxic responses in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Giusi, Giuseppina; Alò, Raffaella; Crudo, Michele; Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Canonaco, Marcello

    2008-03-01

    Recent interests are beginning to be directed towards toxic neurobiological dysfunctions caused by lead (Pb) in aquatic vertebrates. In the present work, treatment with a maximum acceptable toxic concentration of this heavy metal was responsible for highly significant (p<0.01) abnormal motor behaviors such as hyperactive movements in the teleost Thalassoma pavo and the same treatment accounted for significantly (p<0.05) enhanced hyperventilating states. On the other hand, greater abnormal motor behaviors were detected in the presence of the histamine (HA) receptor subtype 2 (H(2)R) antagonist cimetidine (Cim), as shown by the very robust (p<0.001) increases of the two behavioral states. Interestingly, elevated expression levels of stress-related factors, i.e. heat shock protein70/90 (HSP90/70) orthologs were reported for the first time in hypothalamic and mesencephalic areas of Pb-treated teleosts. In particular, an up-regulation of HSP70 was readily detected when this heavy metal was given concomitantly with Cim, while the histamine subtype 3 antagonist (H(3)R) thioperamide (Thio), instead, blocked Pb-dependent up-regulatory trends of both chaperones in mostly hypothalamic areas. Moreover, intense neuronal damages of the above brain regions coincided with altered expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 when treated only with Cim. Overall these first results show that distinct H(n)R are able to exert a net neuroprotective role arising from their interaction with chaperones in fish exposed to Pb-dependent stressful conditions making this a potentially key interaction especially for T. pavo, aquatic species which plays an important ecological role towards the survival of other commercially vital fishes.

  18. Intercomparison of field measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) during the SHARP campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, J. P.; Dibb, J.; Lee, B. H.; Rappenglück, B.; Wood, E. C.; Levy, M.; Zhang, R.-Y.; Lefer, B.; Ren, X.-R.; Stutz, J.; Tsai, C.; Ackermann, L.; Golovko, J.; Herndon, S. C.; Oakes, M.; Meng, Q.-Y.; Munger, J. W.; Zahniser, M.; Zheng, J.

    2014-05-01

    Because of the importance of HONO as a radical reservoir, consistent and accurate measurements of its concentration are needed. As part of SHARP (Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors), time series of HONO were obtained by six different measurement techniques on the roof of the Moody Tower at the University of Houston. Techniques used were long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), stripping coil-visible absorption photometry (SC-AP), long path absorption photometry (LOPAP®), mist chamber/ion chromatography (MC-IC), quantum cascade-tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (QC-TILDAS), and ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ID-CIMS). Various combinations of techniques were in operation from 15 April through 31 May 2009. All instruments recorded a similar diurnal pattern of HONO concentrations with higher median and mean values during the night than during the day. Highest values were observed in the final 2 weeks of the campaign. Inlets for the MC-IC, SC-AP, and QC-TILDAS were collocated and agreed most closely with each other based on several measures. Largest differences between pairs of measurements were evident during the day for concentrations < ~100 parts per trillion (ppt). Above ~ 200 ppt, concentrations from the SC-AP, MC-IC, and QC-TILDAS converged to within about 20%, with slightly larger discrepancies when DOAS was considered. During the first 2 weeks, HONO measured by ID-CIMS agreed with these techniques, but ID-CIMS reported higher values during the afternoon and evening of the final 4 weeks, possibly from interference from unknown sources. A number of factors, including building related sources, likely affected measured concentrations.

  19. Role of notochord cells and sclerotome-derived cells in vertebral column development in fugu, Takifugu rubripes: histological and gene expression analyses.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takamasa; Freeha, Khalid; Wu, Xiaoming; Mogi, Makoto; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2016-10-01

    Despite the common structure of vertebrates, the development of the vertebral column differs widely between teleosts and tetrapods in several respects, including the ossification of the centrum and the function of the notochord. In contrast to tetrapods, vertebral development in teleosts is not fully understood, particularly for large fish with highly ossified bones. We therefore examined the histology and gene expression profile of vertebral development in fugu, Takifugu rubripes, a model organism for genomic research. Ossification of the fugu centrum is carried out by outer osteoblasts expressing col1a1, col2a1, and sparc, and the growing centra completely divide the notochord into double cone-shaped segments that function as intercentral joints. In this process, the notochord basal cells produce a thick notochord sheath exhibiting Alcian-blue-reactive cartilaginous properties and composing the intercentral ligament in cooperation with the external ligament connective tissue. Synthesis of the matrix by the basal cells was ascertained by an in vitro test. Expression of twist2 indicates that this connective tissue is descended from the embryonic sclerotome. Notochord basal cells express sox9, ihhb, shh, and col2a1a, suggesting that the signaling system involved in chondrocyte proliferation and matrix production also functions in notochord cells for notochord sheath formation. We further found that the notochord expression of both ntla and shh is maintained in the fugu vertebral column, whereas it is turned off after embryogenesis in zebrafish. Thus, our results demonstrate that, in contrast to zebrafish, a dynamic morphogenesis and molecular network continues to function in fugu until the establishment of the adult vertebral column.

  20. Spatial and temporal resolution effects on urban catchments with different imperviousness degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, Elena; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; van de Giesen, Nick C.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main problems in urban hydrological analysis is to measure the rainfall at urban scale with high resolution and use these measurements to model urban runoff processes to predict flows and reduce flood risk. With the aim of building a semi-distribute hydrological sewer model for an urban catchment, high resolution rainfall data are required as input. In this study, the sensitivity of hydrological response to high resolution precipitation data for hydrodynamic models at urban scale is evaluated with different combinations of spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim is to study sensitivity in relation to catchment characteristics, especially drainage area size, imperviousness degree and hydraulic properties such as special structures (weirs, pumping stations). Rainfall data of nine storms are considered with 4 different spatial resolutions (3000m, 1000m, 500m and 100m) combined with 4 different temporal resolutions (10min, 5min, 3min and 1min). The dual polarimetric X-band weather radar, located in the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) provided the high resolution rainfall data of these rainfall events, used to improve the sewer model. The effects of spatial-temporal rainfall input resolution on response is studied in three Districts of Rotterdam (NL): Kralingen, Spaanse Polder and Centrum district. These catchments have different average drainage area size (from 2km2 to 7km2), and different general characteristics. Centrum district and Kralingen are, indeed, more various and include residential and commercial areas, big green areas and a small industrial area, while Spaanse Polder is a industrial area, densely urbanized, and presents a high percentage of imperviousness.

  1. Peer-to-peer Cooperative Scheduling Architecture for National Grid Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyska, Ludek; Ruda, Miroslav; Toth, Simon

    For some ten years, the Czech National Grid Infrastructure MetaCentrum uses a single central PBSPro installation to schedule jobs across the country. This centralized approach keeps a full track about all the clusters, providing support for jobs spanning several sites, implementation for the fair-share policy and better overall control of the grid environment. Despite a steady progress in the increased stability and resilience to intermittent very short network failures, growing number of sites and processors makes this architecture, with a single point of failure and scalability limits, obsolete. As a result, a new scheduling architecture is proposed, which relies on higher autonomy of clusters. It is based on a peer to peer network of semi-independent schedulers for each site or even cluster. Each scheduler accepts jobs for the whole infrastructure, cooperating with other schedulers on implementation of global policies like central job accounting, fair-share, or submission of jobs across several sites. The scheduling system is integrated with the Magrathea system to support scheduling of virtual clusters, including the setup of their internal network, again eventually spanning several sites. On the other hand, each scheduler is local to one of several clusters and is able to directly control and submit jobs to them even if the connection of other scheduling peers is lost. In parallel to the change of the overall architecture, the scheduling system itself is being replaced. Instead of PBSPro, chosen originally for its declared support of large scale distributed environment, the new scheduling architecture is based on the open-source Torque system. The implementation and support for the most desired properties in PBSPro and Torque are discussed and the necessary modifications to Torque to support the MetaCentrum scheduling architecture are presented, too.

  2. Turning maneuvers in sharks: Predicting body curvature from axial morphology.

    PubMed

    Porter, Marianne E; Roque, Cassandra M; Long, John H

    2009-08-01

    Given the diversity of vertebral morphologies among fishes, it is tempting to propose causal links between axial morphology and body curvature. We propose that shape and size of the vertebrae, intervertebral joints, and the body will more accurately predict differences in body curvature during swimming rather than a single meristic such as total vertebral number alone. We examined the correlation between morphological features and maximum body curvature seen during routine turns in five species of shark: Triakis semifasciata, Heterodontus francisci, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, Chiloscyllium punctatum, and Hemiscyllium ocellatum. We quantified overall body curvature using three different metrics. From a separate group of size-matched individuals, we measured 16 morphological features from precaudal vertebrae and the body. As predicted, a larger pool of morphological features yielded a more robust prediction of maximal body curvature than vertebral number alone. Stepwise linear regression showed that up to 11 features were significant predictors of the three measures of body curvature, yielding highly significant multiple regressions with r(2) values of 0.523, 0.537, and 0.584. The second moment of area of the centrum was always the best predictor, followed by either centrum length or transverse height. Ranking as the fifth most important variable in three different models, the body's total length, fineness ratio, and width were the most important non-vertebral morphologies. Without considering the effects of muscle activity, these correlations suggest a dominant role for the vertebral column in providing the passive mechanical properties of the body that control, in part, body curvature during swimming.

  3. Long term motor function after neonatal stroke: Lesion localization above all.

    PubMed

    Dinomais, Mickael; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Groeschel, Samuel; Chabrier, Stéphane; Delion, Matthieu; Husson, Béatrice; Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Renaud, Cyrille; Nguyen The Tich, Sylvie

    2015-12-01

    Motor outcome is variable following neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS). We analyzed the relationship between lesion characteristics on brain MRI and motor function in children who had suffered from NAIS. Thirty eight full term born children with unilateral NAIS were investigated at the age of seven. 3D T1- and 3D FLAIR-weighted MR images were acquired on a 3T MRI scanner. Lesion characteristics were compared between patients with and without cerebral palsy (CP) using the following approaches: lesion localization either using a category-based analysis, lesion mapping as well as voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). Using diffusion-weighted imaging the microstructure of the cortico-spinal tract (CST) was related to the status of CP by measuring DTI parameters. Whereas children with lesions sparing the primary motor system did not develop CP, CP was always present when extensive lesions damaged at least two brain structures involving the motor system. The VLSM approach provided a statistical map that confirmed the cortical lesions in the primary motor system and revealed that CP was highly correlated with lesions in close proximity to the CST. In children with CP, diffusion parameters indicated microstructural changes in the CST at the level of internal capsule and the centrum semiovale. White matter damage of the CST in centrum semiovale was a highly reproducible marker of CP. This is the first description of the implication of this latter region in motor impairment after NAIS. In conclusion, CP in childhood was closely linked to the location of the infarct in the motor system.

  4. Socio-Spatial Intelligence: social media and spatial cognition for territorial behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Luini, Lorenzo P; Cardellicchio, Davide; Felletti, Fulvia; Marucci, Francesco S

    2015-09-01

    Investigative analysts gather data from different sources, especially from social media (SM), in order to shed light on cognitive factors that may explain criminal spatial behavior. A former research shows how tweets can be used to estimate private points of interest. Authors' aim was to demonstrate, as they extend the analysis to a wider statistical base, how social maps and Web applications could be used in investigative analysis and spatial cognition research. A total of 100 Twitter accounts with approximately 250 tweets each were submitted to common geographical techniques (measures such as Convex-Hull, Mean-Center, Median-Center, Standard-Deviation-Ellipse) in order to test the hypothesis that user areas of activity are predictable. Predictions were tested through a set of specific information: clear reference to areas of activity and clear reference about user's residence. Simple algorithms and procedures demonstrated that they could be used to predict where SM users live, giving positive results in about 4/5 cases and giving indications about their home location. In fact, all home positions were found in the Convex-Hull and most of them in the Standard-Deviation-Ellipse. Furthermore, in up to 80% of cases, houses were found within a buffer zone of 1.500 m with Median-Center as centrum (70% using Median-Center as centrum) with a minimum effectiveness threshold of 12-13 tweets. SM may help in studying people mobility and their cognition of space and, moreover, where they live, or their traveling behavior. The processing of geographical data in conjunction with the SM analysis may facilitate the construction of models describing specific behavior of people. The use of geographical information system tools and SM analysis represents an effective approach in order to acquire spatial and territorial information, referred to social relationship. The results may be used successfully in the understanding of social dynamics and for the prevention of criminal behavior.

  5. Comparative morphometric study of the australopithecine vertebral series Stw-H8/H41.

    PubMed

    Sanders, W J

    1998-03-01

    Lower spinal structure correlates well with positional behavior among mammals. Nonetheless, the functional morphology of the axial post-crania of australopithecines has received less attention than their appendicular skeletons. This paper presents a detailed description and comparative morphometric analysis of the australopithecine thoracolumbar vertebral series Stw-H8/H41, and examines spinal mechanics in early hominids. Stw-H8/H41 is an important specimen, as the australopithecine vertebral sample is small, and vertebral series are more useful than isolated elements for the interpretation of spinal function. Results of the study support the interpretation that australopithecine species are highly sexually dimorphic. The study also reveals a considerable amount of morphometric variation other than size among australopithecine vertebrae, though the sample is too small and incomplete to ascertain whether this indicates significant interspecific differences in spinal function. Most importantly, structural and metric observations confirm that the morphology of the lower spine in australopithecines has no modern analogue in its entirety. Aspects of zygapophyseal structure, numerical composition of the lumbar region, and centrum wedging suggest that the australopithecine vertebral column was adapted to human-like intrinsic lumbar lordosis and stable balance of the trunk over the pelvis in sustained bipedal locomotion. However, relative centrum size in australopithecines indicates that either they had a different mechanism for channeling vertical forces through the vertebral column than humans, or differed behaviorally from humans in ways that produced smaller increments of compression across their centra. These findings have important implications for hypotheses of australopithecine positional behavior, and demonstrate that larger samples and more complete vertebral series are needed to improve our understanding of australopithecine spinal function.

  6. Adaptive bone formation in acellular vertebrae of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Kranenbarg, Sander; van Cleynenbreugel, Tim; Schipper, Henk; van Leeuwen, Johan

    2005-09-01

    Mammalian bone is an active tissue in which osteoblasts and osteoclasts balance bone mass. This process of adaptive modelling and remodelling is probably regulated by strain-sensing osteocytes. Bone of advanced teleosts is acellular yet, despite the lack of osteocytes, it is capable of an adaptive response to physical stimuli. Strenuous exercise is known to induce lordosis. Lordosis is a ventrad curvature of the vertebral column, and the affected vertebrae show an increase in bone formation. The effects of lordosis on the strain distribution in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) vertebrae are assessed using finite element modelling. The response of the local tissue is analyzed spatially and ontogenetically in terms of bone volume. Lordotic vertebrae show a significantly increased strain energy due to the increased load compared with normal vertebrae when loaded in compression. High strain regions are found in the vertebral centrum and parasagittal ridges. The increase in strain energy is attenuated by a change in architecture due to the increased bone formation. The increased bone formation is seen mainly at the articular surfaces of the vertebrae, although some extra bone is formed in the vertebral centrum. Regions in which the highest strains are found do not spatially correlate with regions in which the most extensive bone apposition occurs in lordotic vertebrae of sea bass. Mammalian-like strain-regulated bone modelling is probably not the guiding mechanism in adaptive bone modelling of acellular sea bass vertebrae. Chondroidal ossification is found at the articular surfaces where it mediates a rapid adaptive response, potentially attenuating high stresses on the dorsal zygapophyses.

  7. Low-frequency conductance fluctuations in Si:P and Ge:P δ-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamim, Saquib; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Scappucci, Giordano; Klesse, W. M.; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Ghosh, Arindam

    Delta doped Si:P and Ge:P devices offer a formidable platform for application towards quantum computation. The fabrication of single donor devices by STM-lithography takes us forward to address the solid state quantum bits. The atomic scale control however makes the devices extremely sensitive to fluctuations and disorder which affect their long term stability. Hence, a study of low frequency 1/f noise for these devices is desirable. We measure 1/f noise in Si:P and Ge:P δ-layers of varying doping density. Fluctuations in conductivity arise due to fluctuations in mobility and the Hooge parameter scales inversely with mobility as 1 /μ3 for all devices. For highly doped Ge:P δ-layer, the noise magnitude in a perpendicular magnetic field (B⊥) reduces by factors of two at the phase breaking breaking field and the Zeeman field indicating universal conductance fluctuations (UCF). The phase breaking length lϕUCF extracted by fitting the B⊥ dependence of noise to the crossover function matches well with lϕWL extracted from weak localization (WL) fits to magnetoconductivity indicating that both UCF and WL are governed by same scattering rates. Present Address: QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands.

  8. Painting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  9. The potential of archive functionality in operational forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davids, Femke; Verkade, Jan

    2015-04-01

    One aspect of making good predictions is a good forecasting system (data and models) and another essential part of making good predictions is a well-trained forecaster. Good data management practices and training protocols are important in reaching these goals. Among other reasons, this led to the development of a new archive functionality within the forecasting software Delft-FEWS. This open archive is based on standards and supports different data access protocols. Options have been developed to archive specific hazard events either via automatic protocols or manually. Data and events can be accessed from within Delft-FEWS but also other software programs. The data is converted to NetCDF and metadata is added. These archived events can be retrieved in the live operational forecasting system to compare to a current situation to aid interpretation and decision making or used stand alone for training purposes. In this presentation we would like to demonstrate an application of this new functionality and the opportunities that it provides in a Dutch fluvial forecasting system.

  10. Three Giants in the Cradle of Reproductive Medicine; Reproduction Theories of the Seventeenth Century as Discerned by Pregnancy Portraiture in the Oeuvre of Jan Vermeer

    PubMed Central

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Spitz, Irving M.

    2016-01-01

    Portraits of pregnant women are rare in Catholic Renaissance art. In seventeenth-century Holland, the Catholic rule of Spain had been thrown off and a Protestant Calvinistic republic emerged, freeing Dutch artists to choose an unorthodox subject matter for their paintings. The Golden Age of Holland was characterized by extreme wealth, originating from overseas trade, which fostered a marked interest in philosophy, science, medicine, as well as art. Despite this, portraiture of pregnancy remained uncommon. An exception to this rule was Jan Vermeer of Delft, who lived during the zenith of this era. Jan Vermeer painted fewer than 40 pictures, fathered 15 children, and died bankrupt and little appreciated at the age of 43. Vermeer confined himself almost entirely to images of women in various domestic situations, including three figures of pregnant women. In this framework, pregnancy could be viewed as an icon for fidelity and conformism to social expectations. In this paper we investigate the roots of this unusual icon in Vermeer’s oeuvre, and suggest that the use of pregnancy in his paintings could have been inspired by his Delft-resident contemporaries Antony van Leeuwenhoek and Reinier de Graaf, fathers of well-known and opposing theories of reproduction. These eminent scientists and Vermeer’s pregnant wife, who frequently served as his model, might have made pregnancy less mysterious and more realistic to the painter. PMID:27101220

  11. Three Giants in the Cradle of Reproductive Medicine; Reproduction Theories of the Seventeenth Century as Discerned by Pregnancy Portraiture in the Oeuvre of Jan Vermeer.

    PubMed

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Spitz, Irving M

    2016-04-19

    Portraits of pregnant women are rare in Catholic Renaissance art. In seventeenth-century Holland, the Catholic rule of Spain had been thrown off and a Protestant Calvinistic republic emerged, freeing Dutch artists to choose an unorthodox subject matter for their paintings. The Golden Age of Holland was characterized by extreme wealth, originating from overseas trade, which fostered a marked interest in philosophy, science, medicine, as well as art. Despite this, portraiture of pregnancy remained uncommon. An exception to this rule was Jan Vermeer of Delft, who lived during the zenith of this era. Jan Vermeer painted fewer than 40 pictures, fathered 15 children, and died bankrupt and little appreciated at the age of 43. Vermeer confined himself almost entirely to images of women in various domestic situations, including three figures of pregnant women. In this framework, pregnancy could be viewed as an icon for fidelity and conformism to social expectations. In this paper we investigate the roots of this unusual icon in Vermeer's oeuvre, and suggest that the use of pregnancy in his paintings could have been inspired by his Delft-resident contemporaries Antony van Leeuwenhoek and Reinier de Graaf, fathers of well-known and opposing theories of reproduction. These eminent scientists and Vermeer's pregnant wife, who frequently served as his model, might have made pregnancy less mysterious and more realistic to the painter.

  12. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  13. Measurement of Organic and Inorganic Acids in the Uintah Basin, Utah during UBWOS 2012 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Gilman, J.; Li, S.; Edwards, P. M.; Wild, R.; Min, K.; Brown, S. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.; Koss, A.; Veres, P. R.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, high concentrations of ozone in winter have occurred in the winter in the Uintah Basin in Utah, a region with intensive oil and gas extraction activities. Two field campaigns (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study, UBWOS 2012 and 2013) aiming to understand the formation mechanisms of winter ozone were conducted in Jan.-Feb. in the two years. Snow cover and temperature were the main difference between the two campaigns: the winter in 2013 had a snow cover and several cold-pool conditions, whereas the winter of 2012 did not. As a result, only the winter of 2013 saw extensive ozone build-up during several episodes. A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) using acetate as reagent ion was deployed to measure organic and inorganic acids. Concentrations of formic acid in 2013 were much higher (a factor of 4.0) than those in 2012, consistent with higher concentrations of other VOCs species and ozone in 2013. Enhancement ratios of formic acid to acetone in Uintah Basin are comparable to those measured in Los Angeles (LA), even though Uintah Basin has much higher alkanes and lower alkenes mixing ratios compared to those in LA. The results are in contrast with the dominant role of alkenes in secondary formation of formic acid in state-of-art chemical mechanisms. The comparisons of these datasets can provide insight into missing secondary sources of formic acid. HONO concentrations measured with the CIMS were also significantly elevated in 2013, especially during daytime. The high daytime HONO measured by CIMS could be caused by three reasons: (1) photolysis of nitrate in snow and aerosol that generates HONO photochemically; (2) evolution of HONO from snow due to acidification and warming during the daytime; (3) potential interferences of other reactive nitrogen species to form NO2- (m/z 46), the ion for quantification of HONO in CIMS. The potential interferences will be explored through laboratory experiments and from the results of box model calculations. The HONO

  14. Integrating Systematic Chronic Care for Diabetes into an Academic General Internal Medicine Resident-Faculty Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, David A.; Kelso, Christine; Bowen, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    Background The quality of care for diabetes continues to fall short of recommended guidelines and results. Models for improving the care of chronic illnesses advocate a multidisciplinary team approach. Yet little is known about the effectiveness of such models in an academic setting with a diverse patient population and resident physicians participating in clinical care. Objective To implement a chronic illness management (CIM) practice within an academic setting with part-time providers, and evaluate its impact on the completion of diabetes-specific care processes and on the achievement of recommended outcomes for patients with diabetes mellitus. Design Retrospective cohort study Subjects Patients with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who receive their primary care in an academic general internal medicine resident-faculty practice. Measurements Process and outcomes measures in patients exposed to the CIM practice were compared with non-exposed patients receiving usual care. Main Results Five hundred and sixty-five patients met inclusion criteria. Patients in the CIM practice experienced a significant increase in completion of care processes compared to control patients for measurement of annual low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.7–5.7), urine microalbumin (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1–5.5), blood pressure (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–2.8), retinal examination (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.7), foot monofilament examination (OR 4.2, 95% CI 3.0–6.1) and administration of pneumococcal vaccination (OR 5.2, 95% CI 3.0–9.3). CIM-exposed patients were also more likely to achieve improvements in clinical outcomes of glycemic and blood pressure control reflected by hemoglobin A1c less than 7.0% (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.02–3) and blood pressure less than 130/80 (OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.1–4.5) compared to controls. Conclusions A systematic chronic care model can be successfully integrated into an academic general internal medicine practice and may result in improved

  15. STIS MAMA Missed Dispersion Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanning, Howard

    1997-07-01

    SMOV proposal 7078 includes the central {prime} wavelengths for the E140H at 1416A and E140M at 1425, and E230H at 2513. Therefore, in this proposal, we will obtain deep engineering wavecals of the two remaining central prime wavelengths of the E140H and all remaining prime settings for the Echelle gratings E230H and E230M will be obatined. The Pt/Cr-Ne {CIM} line lamp will be used with the appropriate supported 2-pixel wide slit. Observations are pure internals.

  16. Clinical Utility and Pitfalls of Ultrasound Guided Foreign Body Removal in War Fighters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    81 years old Cause of death: Liver Disease 1 38 Yes 2 6 6 interrupted Page 6 DoDCadaverCohortStudy5-13-09.xls Th igh # Ca da ve r S pe cim en In...body removal P4 #5861 Female Right leg 68 years old Cause of death: Huntington " s Chorea 1 5 Yes 23 23 0 N/A Radiological Procedure Removal... Huntington " s Chorea 1 5 Yes 26 26 0 N/A Radiological Procedure Removal Technique - Percutaneous - interventional radiological ultrasound

  17. Detection of formaldehyde emissions from an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta region of China using a proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yan; Diao, Yiwei; Zhang, Bingjie; Wang, Weiwei; Ren, Xinrong; Yang, Dongsen; Wang, Ming; Shi, Xiaowen; Zheng, Jun

    2016-12-01

    A proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PTR-ID-CIMS) equipped with a hydronium (H3+O) ion source was developed and deployed near an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China in spring 2015 to investigate industry-related emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollutants including formaldehyde (HCHO), aromatics, and other trace gases (O3 and CO) were simultaneously measured. Humidity effects on the sensitivity of the PTR-ID-CIMS for HCHO detection were investigated and quantified. The performances of the PTR-ID-CIMS were also validated by intercomparing with offline HCHO measurement technique using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH) cartridges and the results showed fairly good agreement (slope = 0.81, R2 = 0.80). The PTR-ID-CIMS detection limit of HCHO (10 s, three-duty-cycle averages) was determined to be 0.9-2.4 (RH = 1-81.5 %) parts per billion by volume (ppbv) based on 3 times the standard deviations of the background signals. During the field study, observed HCHO concentrations ranged between 1.8 and 12.8 ppbv with a campaign average of 4.1 ± 1.6 ppbv, which was comparable with previous HCHO observations in other similar locations of China. However, HCHO diurnal profiles showed few features of secondary formation. In addition, time series of both HCHO and aromatic VOCs indicated strong influence from local emissions. Using a multiple linear regression fit model, on average the observed HCHO can be attributed to secondary formation (13.8 %), background level (27.0 %), and industry-related emissions, i.e., combustion sources (43.2 %) and chemical productions (16.0 %). Moreover, within the plumes the industry-related emissions can account for up to 69.2 % of the observed HCHO. This work has provided direct evidence of strong primary emissions of HCHO from industry-related activities. These primary HCHO sources can potentially have a strong impact on local and regional air pollution formation

  18. The application of finance and accounting theory to the valuation of new energy and efficiency options

    SciTech Connect

    Awerbuch, S.

    1995-12-31

    New, renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies are often passive and capital intensive-attributes they share with computer-integrated-manufacturing (CIM), robotics, computer-aided-design (CAD) and similar manufacturing process technologies. The experience in manufacturing over the last two decades indicates that traditional accounting-based procedures for valuing such new technologies significantly understate their benefits. This paper highlights recent research which extends project valuation principles and illustrates how reliance on the engineering oriented levelized energy cost distorst benefit/cost streams.

  19. Missing SO2 oxidant in the coastal atmosphere? - Evidence from high resolution measurements of OH and atmospheric sulfur compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berresheim, H.; Adam, M.; Monahan, C.; O'Dowd, C.; Plane, J. M. C.; Bohn, B.; Rohrer, F.

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal and seasonal variations of gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) were measured in N.E. Atlantic air at the Mace Head atmospheric research station during the years 2010 and 2011. The measurements utilized selected ion/chemical ionization mass spectrometry (SI/CIMS) with a detection limit for both compounds of 4.3 × 10 4 cm-3 at 5 min signal integration. The H2SO4 and MSA gas-phase concentrations were analysed in conjunction with the condensational sink for both compounds derived from 3 nm-10 μm (diameter) aerosol size distributions. Accommodation coefficients of 1.0 for H2SO4 and 0.12 for MSA were assumed leading to estimated atmospheric lifetimes of the order of 7 min and 25 min, respectively. With the SI/CIMS instrument in OH measurement mode alternating between OH signal and background (non-OH) signal evidence was obtained for the presence of one or more unknown oxidants of SO2 in addition to OH. Depending on the nature of the oxidant(s) their ambient concentration may be enhanced in the CIMS inlet system by additional production. The apparent unknown SO2 oxidant was additionally confirmed by direct measurements of SO2 in conjunction with calculated H2SO4 concentrations. The calculated concentrations were consistently lower than the measured concentrations by a factor 4.8 ± 3.4 when considering the oxidation of SO2 by OH as the only source of H2SO4. Both the OH and the background signal were also observed to increase significantly during daytime aerosol nucleation events, independent of the ozone photolysis frequency, J(O1D), and were followed by peaks in both H2SO4 and MSA concentrations. This suggests a strong relation between the unknown oxidant(s), OH chemistry, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation of biogenic iodine compounds. As to the identity of the oxidant(s), we have been able to exclude ClO, BrO, IO, and OIO as possible candidates based on ab initio calculations. Stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) produced from

  20. Performance Characteristics of Five Candidate Secondary Batteries for Photovoltaic Power Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    t o* C\\IC\\J 1 -0 t.0r- ~ Qi::ccJ.c. cCJ\\rJ i~O~O Cc~l 00 C~ C8 m04 or n% -Cim-- ~ ~ l r~C CDlu C) =%C% r->- cje’j " on m W...Start-of-charge E0C End-of-charge EOS - End-of-stand C-12 r. -. 7 S1ATE-OrCiA£GL EVALUATION TEST LATA AT 50C bKC/C 8s-7L NIF [ - NICKrL-CAUNILM - L

  1. Phytochemical and biological investigation of Begonia heracleifolia.

    PubMed

    Frei, B; Heinrich, M; Herrmann, D; Orjala, J E; Schmitt, J; Sticher, O

    1998-05-01

    From the rhizomes of Begonia heracleifolia six known cucurbitacins ( 1- 6) were isolated. Based on spectral data (1D and 2D (1)H-, (13)C-NMR, ESI- and CI-MS) the structures were established as cucurbitacin B ( 1), cucurbitacin D ( 2), 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin D ( 3), 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin F ( 4), 2- O-beta-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin B ( 5), and 2- O-beta-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin D ( 6). Four of them ( 3- 6) were so far not reported as constituents of Begonia spp. Varyingly strong antiproliferative activity towards tumor and immune cells was observed for three compounds ( 1 - 3), due to different structural features.

  2. Department of Defense Congressional Action on Fy 1986 Appropriation Request.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-15

    C’) it 0 t N (1 It)----0 0 M)- V I -)-W - -I - - ) I I N - - C- - It - N I~~~- r01 I 0 I I I 0.0 I ti I N Uii 1 1N _C- _C vqm 0 I - I - I I - I CIM...CD (A (A NVI i CC 4 4 WW 22--’ O 1- -a 0 xx2 X0000 WJIAJI LL Z 4 I II (A in 0 xnnn) zZZ 2 Inz 1- m V)(0 N 0 "InD>> > >-> -".44 00 _j D - - U) CO2 2 .8 V

  3. On intermodulation beams of satellite DBF transmitting multibeam array antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongmei; Wang, Huali; Mu, Shanxiang

    2007-11-01

    Digital beamforming (DBF) transmitting multibeam planar array antenna with nonlinear behaviors of solid-state power amplifiers (SSPA) is discussed. This paper investigates the intermodulation beams produced by the nonlinearity characteristics of the SSPA with multiple carrier components. The Shimbo model is simplified to describe the nonlinear behaviors of SSPA. The optimal SSPA input back-off (IBO) point which is given the desired the carrier and the intermodulatin ratio (C/IM) is simulated. And the tradeoffs between linearity and efficiency of the power amplifier which influence this IBO is also discussed, helping to selecting suitable SSPA device and reducing the dc power consumption in satellite array antenna system.

  4. Prostheses and orthoses in the collections of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.

    PubMed

    Przeździak, Bogumił; Lutomirski, Adam; Kulczyk, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The authors described 424 orthopaedic appliances left by the prisoners of the Nazi Concentration Camp in Oświęcim. A collection of prostheses and orthoses, which is currently a part of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum's exhibition, is extraordinary as it illustrates the fate of innocent, crippled people, who were incarcerated and murdered. Another point of value of the collection is its technical aspect, as it provides a clear picture of construction of prostheses and orthoses at the beginning of the 20th century.

  5. New ester alkaloids from lupins (genus lupinus).

    PubMed

    Mühlbauer, P; Witte, L; Wink, M

    1988-06-01

    Esters of 13-hydroxylupanine and 4-hydroxylupanine with acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, tiglic, benzoic, and TRANS-cinnamic acid have been synthesized and characterized by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (EI-MS, CI-MS). In LUPINUS POLYPHYLLUS, L. ALBUS, L. ANGUSTIFOLIUS, and L. MUTABILIS we could identify new ester alkaloids (e.g. 13-propyloxylupanine, 13-butyryloxylupanine, 13-isobutyryloxylupanine, and 4-tigloyloxylupanine) besides the known esters, i.e. 13-acetoxylupanine, 13-isovaleroyloxylupanine, 13-angeloyloxylupanine, 13-tigloyloxylupanine, 13-benzoyloxylupanine, 13- CIS-cinnamoyloxylupanine nine, and 13- TRANS-cinnamoyloxylupanine.

  6. Special Course on Subsonic/Transonic Aerodynamic Interference for Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    D ~r I l.Yoshiharai Boeing Company, \\I/S 3N- V) P.O. Box 3707 Seattle Washington 981 24 USA LECTURERS Professor A.Jameson \\1r A. B. I laines 57...G.Krtniz NLR V FW-G in ll1 Anthony Fokkerweg 2 Ilunefelstr. 1 5 1059 CIM Amsterdam D )-2800 Bremen I Netherlands Germany Mr A.Vint Dr R.Whitcomhb Principal...Aerodynamnicist 46 Lakeshore D ~rive Apt. I B British Aeroslace PL-C I lampton Wffarlon D ~ivision Virginia 23666 Preston, Lancashire USA UK Mr I. Rettie

  7. Cullet Manufacture Using the Cylindrical Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. H.

    2000-01-20

    The base process for vitrification of the Am/Cm solution stored in F-canyon uses 25SrABS cullet as the glass former. A small portion of the cullet used in the SRTC development work was purchased from Corning while the majority was made in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Task 1.01 of TTR-NMSS/SE-006, Additional Am-Cm Process Development Studies, requested that a process for the glass former (cullet) fabrication be specified. This report provides the process details for 25SrAB cullet production thereby satisfying Task 1.01.

  8. [Depression and personality disorders: mutual influences].

    PubMed

    Rimlinger, B

    2010-12-01

    The first disposition described as having an influence on mood date back to ancient Greece. The current modeling of personality disorders is organized essentially in a category-specific logic (DSMIV, CIM-10) and dimensional logic ("big five", Eysenck model, Cloninger model, etc.). The heterogeneity of these evaluation tools affects the readability of the studies concerning the effects of comorbidity on depressive disorders. The frequency of the coexistence of personality disorders/depression (≥50%) which is associated with the severity of the depressive episodes, with pejorative evolutionary prognosis and resistance in treatments, appears to justify a reorganization of classifications in the future DSM-V.

  9. Cimetidine as a novel adjunctive treatment for early stage Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Shemenski, Justin

    2016-04-09

    Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. It is a complex disease which may affect the skin, joints, heart, eyes, and central nervous system. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is curative in most instances. However, a significant percentage of patients experience ongoing symptoms after treatment. Currently, there is much controversy regarding the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of Lyme disease. Pathogen persistence despite treatment lies at the heart of this debate. Many believe that the ongoing symptoms are due to factors such as autoimmunity or permanent damage that is incurred during the active infection. However, there is an emerging school of thought that states that ongoing symptoms are due to a persistent infection that is able to survive both the immune response and antibiotic therapy. Numerous studies have shown that Bb can indeed persist within the host despite treatment and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain Bb's persistence capabilities. These include: polymorphism, antigenic variance, biofilm formation, persister cells, and immunomodulation. There is evidence that Bb is able to alter cytokine profiles within the host which may allow the organism to survive the immune response. This immunomodulation follows a pattern of T-helper 1 (TH1) suppression in favor of T-helper 2 (TH2) processes. In contrast, it has been shown that the optimal immune response to Bb infection involves an early, robust TH1 response and a later conversion to TH2 dominance once the infection is controlled or cleared. It has been proposed that a reconstitution of proper immune-competency in the infected host may improve clinical outcomes in Lyme disease. Cimetidine (CIM) is an over-the-counter histamine-2 (H2) antagonist that is primarily used to lower acid secretions in the stomach. T-regulatory (Treg) cells also possess the H2 receptor, which has spurred interest in CIM as a

  10. User’s Manual for Generalized ILSGLD-ILS Glide Slope Peformance Prediction: Multipath Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    field format followed by a *CR The far~t point a, taken r.aia’e to the origin and is the near edge of the closest ; trp to the antenna, The qecond... C42 1444Ř 14 C :",o CIM9 1491 .2 142 C3 % 4 93 11 s494 1C cc 9 I LA 9 3 Pat 1 92 4 12 031 2 92. 13 Ii c?" 1496 ITA 1441 A r 1 112 1 23: 11119 11 1262

  11. H(1) and H(2) receptors in the locus ceruleus are involved in the intracerebroventricular histamine-induced carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex resetting in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Qing; Sun, Wan-Ping; Zhu, Yong-Jin; Zou, Rong; Zhou, Xi-Ping

    2006-07-01

    Objective To investigate the role of H(1) and H(2) receptors in the locus ceruleus (LC) in carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) resetting induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine (HA). Methods The left and right carotid sinus regions were isolated from the systemic circulation in 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) was altered in a stepwise manner in vivo. ISP-mean arterial pressure (MAP) relationship curve and its characteristic parameters were constructed by fitting to the logistic function with five parameters. The changes in CSR performance induced by i.c.v. HA and the effects of pretreatment with H(1) or H(2) receptors selective antagonist, chlorpheniramine (CHL) or cimetidine (CIM) into the LC, on the responses of CSR to HA were examined. Results I.c.v. HA (100 ng in 5 mu l) significantly shifted the ISP-MAP relationship curve upwards (P < 0.05) and obviously decreased the value of the reflex parameters such as MAP range and maximum gain (P < 0.05), but increased the threshold pressure, saturation pressure and ISP at maximum gain (P < 0.05). The pretreatment with CHL (0.5 mu g in 1 mu l) or CIM (1.5 mu g in 1 mu l) into the LC could obviously attenuate the changes mentioned above in CSR performance induced by HA, but the alleviative effect of CIM was less remarkable than that of CHL (P < 0.05). Respective microinjection of CHL or CIM alone into the LC with the corresponding dose and volume did not change CSR performance significantly (P > 0.05). Conclusion Intracerebroventricular administration of HA results in a rapid resetting of CSR and a decrease in reflex sensitivity, and the responses of CSR to HA may be mediated, at least in part, by H(1) and H(2) receptors activities in the LC, especially by H(1) receptors. Moreover, the effects of the central HA on CSR might be related to a histaminergic descending pathway from the hypothalamus to LC.

  12. Software Technology for Adaptable, Reliable Systems (STARS) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-25

    using IDEFIx notation. This high-level model was developed based on the information flow depicted in the activity model and independently to the ERD...The ERD model was compared against both the entities defined in the 00 model and the CIM IDEFix data model to ensure consistency. Although each of the...Space Model &hsPro Proe/t O •AppliatIo n Gene erin MOIA, IDEFIX utL antn e ei e hay e s e f he E r n M S Engineeapliaton-evl"odes.n.upprtofAppic

  13. Greenland Ice Sheet Program. 1979. Phase 1. Casing Operation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    A-l0-1119 699 COLD. REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAS HANOVER NH F/6 8/12 GREENLAND ICE SHEET PROGRAM. 1979. PHASE 1. CASING OPERATION. (U) JNAB J...Thermal drills Drills Glac iology Greenland 124 AnRACr (cimEaeu m reverse ssNnouiesaw ad Middfr by block nmber) )A modified CHREL thermal drill was used at...DYE-3 in Greenland to drill a 8.T5-in.-diamneter hole 251 ft deep for the installation of a steel casing. This activity was accomplished by a drill

  14. Development of a High-Resolution H3O+ Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Gas-phase Hydrocarbons and its Application During the 2015 SONGNEX Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Stark, H.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometers (ToF-CIMS) using H3O+ reagent ion chemistry (PTR-MS) are a relatively new technique in detection of gas-phase hydrocarbons, and recent improvements in instrument sensitivity, mass resolution, and ease of field deployment have expanded their use in atmospheric chemistry. The comparatively low-energy H3O+ ionization technique is ideal for measuring complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, and, compared to conventional quadrupole PTRMS, the newest generation of ToF-CIMS measure many more species simultaneously and with a sensitivity that is as high as a quadrupole PTR-MS. We describe here the development of a commercially available ToF CIMS into an H3O+CIMS suitable for deployment on aircraft, and its application during an aircraft campaign studying emissions from oil and natural gas extraction industry. We provide an overview of instrument development and specifications, including design, characterization, and field operation. We then discuss data processing and interpretation. First, we investigate determination of intensities of poorly resolved peaks. The mass resolution of the present instrument (m/Δm ~4500) enables separate analysis of many isobaric peaks, but peaks are also frequently not fully resolved. Using results from laboratory tests, we quantify how the accuracy can be limited by the overlap in neighboring peaks, and compare to theoretical predictions from literature. We then briefly describe our method for quality assurance of reported compounds, and correction for background and humidity effects. Finally, we present preliminary results from the first field deployment of this instrument during the Spring 2015 SONGNEX aircraft campaign. This campaign sampled emissions from oil and natural gas extraction regions and associated infrastructure in the Western and Central United States. We will highlight results that illustrate (1) new scientific capability from improved mass resolution, which

  15. Effects of High Pressure on Membrane Ion Binding and Transport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    x ,), X~C t tse + f lux stimnulatted by each divalent cition to ho ro’iuced hv a cnneFO-nt isorcentajeo wn expos..! to l1 I) atm. t’i -U re 11A 11’S... dic fillid p till- tit OA ’kild If.,() %Nrrv dolic IY % I-CIM , floX I 1111 IWIL Cl lilt’ 111"LlIAM -111 I"Irl"tri t*:i, ,, kiid Biook, 󈧧,. Tlitir t

  16. Turnkey offering a claimed sector 'first'.

    PubMed

    Law, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturer and supplier of LED theatre lights, HD camera systems, video integration technologies, and ceiling support units, Trumpf Medical Systems UK, and "logistical services" company Canute International Medical Services (CIMS), one of whose specialities is providing mobile medical units for diagnostic imaging, have entered into a partnership that will see the two companies offer fully fitted out modular operating theatres and other medical/clinical buildings incorporating the latest technology and equipment, on a fully project-managed, "turnkey" basis. Oliver Law, Trumpf Medical Systems UK managing director, explains the background, and the new service's anticipated customer benefits.

  17. Sensitivity studies of the new Coastal Surge and Inundation Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, A. J.; Veeramony, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper details the sensitivity studies involved in the validation of a coastal storm surge and inundation prediction system for operational use by the United States Navy. The system consists of the Delft3D-FLOW model coupled with the Delft3D-WAVE model. This dynamically coupled system will replace the current operational system, PC-Tides which does not include waves or other global ocean circulation. The Delft3D modeling system uses multiple nests to capture large, basin-scale circulation as well as coastal circulation and tightly couples waves and circulation at all scales. An additional benefit in using the presented system is that the Delft Dashboard, a graphical user interface product, can be used to simplify the set-up of Delft3D features such as the grid, elevation data, boundary forcing, and nesting. In this way less man-hours and training will be needed to perform inundation forecasts. The new coupled system is used to model storm surge and inundation produced by Hurricane Ike (2008) along the Gulf of Mexico coast. Due to the time constraints in an operational forecasting environment, storm simulations must be as streamlined as possible. Many factors such as model resolution, elevation data sets, parametrization of bottom friction, frequency of coupling between hydrodynamic and wave components, and atmospheric forcing among others can influence the run times and results of the simulations. To assess the sensitivity of the modeling system to these various components a "best" simulation was first developed. The best simulation consists of reanalysis atmospheric forcing in the form of Oceanweather wind and pressure fields. Further the wind field is modified by applying a directional land-masking to account for changes in land-roughness in the coastal zone. A number of air-sea drag coefficient formulations were tested to find the best match with observed results. An analysis of sea-level trends for the region reveals a seasonal trend of elevated sea level

  18. CHPS - an NWS development to enter the interoperability era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gijsbers, P.; Cajina, L.; Dietz, C.; Roe, J.; Welles, E.

    2009-12-01

    The NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) is the designated federal agency to provide hydrological forecast information to the wider public. Until now, this task has been conducted using the NWS River Forecast System (NWSRFS). While the NWSRFS has served the NWS’s needs for a long time, its architecture and code base limits the NWS ability to embrace and incorporate new techniques developed in the research arena. Therefore, the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD) is modernizing the software infrastructure so it can more easily accommodate advances in hydrologic science developed in the public and private community. The Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS) program has been initiated for this purpose. After several studies and assessments, DelftFEWS, developed by Deltares, was selected as the future software infrastructure for CHPS. With flow forecasting applications around the world, DelftFEWS has shown its capability to deploy a wide variety of hydrological models from multiple suppliers in a forecasting context. Nowadays, nearly 40 different numerical software models in the river, coastal and water quality domain can be deployed within DelftFEWS. Model states, parameters, run-time settings and forcings, either lumped or gridded, are exchanged with models using the so-called Published Interface (PI), a standardized set of XML-files. Model adapters typically transfer this data into native formats, but may also use Application Programming Interface (API) calls to feed the data to a model. In those cases where process interaction is needed between software models, a model composition may be deployed as one execution receiving their states, run-time settings and forcings via e.g. a FEWS-to-OpenMI adapter. Since the NWS manually interacts with its models during the forecasting process, DelftFEWS has been extended with capabilities to modify time series, model parameters and states during the forecasting process. In addition, an API is being offered to

  19. Methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emission data of gasoline-driven passenger cars representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Saxer, Christian J.; Wilhelm, Patrick

    The US urban driving cycle (FTP-75) is widely used to estimate both the emissions under hot engine conditions as well as those associated with the cold start. Applying fast analysis techniques such as chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS) the warm-up behavior of individual vehicles can be monitored at a time resolution of 1 s. CI-MS has been used to investigate the emissions of methane, benzene and the alkyl benzene class of compounds. The amount of the emissions at cold start influence was deduced from the time-resolved emission data of four gasoline-driven vehicle classes representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades. Overall, the emissions of five EURO-0, 20 EURO-1, 18 EURO-2 and so far of six EURO-3 passenger cars were recorded. The test vehicles were selected from the currently operating Swiss car fleet based on the car sales statistics. The average methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emissions are reported using both, the traditional bag method as well as the regression model. At room temperature a clear reduction of 94%, 81% and 85% was found for the methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emissions from EURO-0 to EURO-3 technology, respectively.

  20. Secondary formation of nitrated phenols: insights from observations during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bin; Liggio, John; Wentzell, Jeremy; Li, Shao-Meng; Stark, Harald; Roberts, James M.; Gilman, Jessica; Lerner, Brian; Warneke, Carsten; Li, Rui; Leithead, Amy; Osthoff, Hans D.; Wild, Robert; Brown, Steven S.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2016-02-01

    We describe the results from online measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) with acetate as reagent ion in an oil and gas production region in January and February of 2014. Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Based on known markers (CH4, NOx, CO2), primary emissions of nitrated phenols were not important in this study. A box model was used to simulate secondary formation of phenol, nitrophenol (NP), and dinitrophenols (DNP). The box model results indicate that oxidation of aromatics in the gas phase can explain the observed concentrations of NP and DNP in this study. Photolysis was the most efficient loss pathway for NP in the gas phase. We show that aqueous-phase reactions and heterogeneous reactions were minor sources of nitrated phenols in our study. This study demonstrates that the emergence of new ToF-CIMS (including PTR-TOF) techniques allows for the measurement of intermediate oxygenates at low levels and these measurements improve our understanding on the evolution of primary VOCs in the atmosphere.

  1. Secondary formation of nitrated phenols: insights from observations during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Liggio, J.; Wentzell, J.; Li, S.-M.; Stark, H.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B.; Warneke, C.; Li, R.; Leithead, A.; Osthoff, H. D.; Wild, R.; Brown, S. S.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe the results from online measurements of nitrated phenols using a time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) with acetate as reagent ion in an oil and gas production region in January and February of 2014. Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Based on known markers (CH4, NOx, CO2), primary emissions of nitrated phenols were not important in this study. A box model was used to simulate secondary formation of phenol, nitrophenol (NP) and dinitrophenols (DNP). The box model results indicate that oxidation of aromatics in the gas phase can explain the observed concentrations of NP and DNP in this study. Photolysis was the most efficient loss pathway for NP in the gas phase. We show that aqueous-phase reactions and heterogeneous reactions were minor sources of nitrated phenols in our study. This study demonstrates that the emergence of new ToF-CIMS (including PTR-TOF) techniques allows for the measurement of intermediate oxygenates at low levels and these measurements improve our understanding of the evolution of primary VOCs in the atmosphere.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide and methylhydroperoxide observations by chemical ionization mass spectrometry on the GV during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, D. W.; Silwal, I.; Treadaway, V.; McNeill, A.; Heikes, B.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gas phase measurements of hydrogen peroxide and methylhydroperoxide were made on 22 research flights on the NCAR Gulfstream-V using chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (CIMS) during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) in May and June 2012. A multi-reagent ion CIMS method, using O2- and CO4- reagent ions, and standard additions of hydrogen peroxide and methylhydroperoxide was developed to identify and quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and methylhydroperoxide (CH3OOH) in ambient air. The DC3 field program characterized a number of active convective systems in three different regions, Colorado, Oklahoma, and Alabama with observations extending from the surface to 13 km. A few flights were also flown to characterize the photochemical aging of lofted chemicals and lightning generated oxides of nitrogen. Peroxide observations will be used to examine transport efficiency and removal in isolated convective storms and larger scale multiple convective systems. Differences in peroxide storm input and transport process will be compared across the three regions. Peroxide observations coupled with other in situ chemical species observations and meteorological parameters will be used to assess the contribution of convective transport to the photochemical budget of hydrogen peroxide and methylhydroperoxide in the upper troposphere over the United States.

  3. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling resistance to maize chlorotic dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mark W; Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Anderson, Robert J; Louie, R

    2004-12-01

    Ineffective screening methods and low levels of disease resistance have hampered genetic analysis of maize (Zea mays L.) resistance to disease caused by maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). Progeny from a cross between the highly resistant maize inbred line Oh1VI and the susceptible inbred line Va35 were evaluated for MCDV symptoms after multiple virus inoculations, using the viral vector Graminella nigrifrons. Symptom severity scores from three rating dates were used to calculate area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) scores for vein banding, leaf twist and tear, and whorl chlorosis. AUDPC scores for the F(2) population indicated that MCDV resistance was quantitatively inherited. Genotypic and phenotypic analyses of 314 F(2) individuals were compared using composite interval mapping (CIM) and analysis of variance. CIM identified two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 3 and 10 and two minor QTL on chromosomes 4 and 6. Resistance was additive, with alleles from Oh1VI at the loci on chromosomes 3 and 10 contributing equally to resistance.

  4. Metabolic engineering of a synergistic pathway for n-butanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shuobo; Si, Tong; Liu, Zihe; Zhang, Hongfang; Ang, Ee Lui; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    n-Butanol has several favourable properties as an advanced fuel or a platform chemical. Bio-based production of n-butanol is becoming increasingly important for sustainable chemical industry. Synthesis of n-butanol can be achieved via more than one metabolic pathway. Here we report the metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce n-butanol through a synergistic pathway: the endogenous threonine pathway and the introduced citramalate pathway. Firstly, we characterized and optimized the endogenous threonine pathway; then, a citramalate synthase (CimA) mediated pathway was introduced to construct the synergistic pathway; next, the synergistic pathway was optimized by additional overexpression of relevant genes identified previously; meanwhile, the n-butanol production was also improved by overexpression of keto-acid decarboxylases (KDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). After combining these strategies with co-expression of LEU1 (two copies), LEU4, LEU2 (two copies), LEU5, CimA, NFS1, ADH7 and ARO10*, we achieved an n-butanol production of 835 mg/L in the final engineered strain, which is almost 7-fold increase compared to the initial strain. Furthermore, the production showed a 3-fold of the highest titer ever reported in yeast. Therefore, the engineered yeast strain represents a promising alternative platform for n-butanol production. PMID:27161023

  5. Clustering, methodology, and mechanistic insights into acetate chemical ionization using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, Patrick; Farmer, Delphine K.

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive characterization of cluster control and transmission through the Tofwerk atmospheric pressure interface installed on various chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometers using authentic standards. This characterization of the atmospheric pressure interface allows for a detailed investigation of the acetate chemical ionization mechanisms and the impact of controlling these mechanisms on sensitivity, selectivity, and mass spectral ambiguity with the aim of non-targeted analysis. Chemical ionization with acetate reagent ions is controlled by a distribution of reagent ion-neutral clusters that vary with relative humidity and the concentration of the acetic anhydride precursor. Deprotonated carboxylic acids are primarily detected only if sufficient declustering is employed inside the atmospheric pressure interface. The configuration of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) using an acetate chemical ionization source for non-targeted analysis is discussed. Recent approaches and studies characterizing acetate chemical ionization as it applies to the HR-TOF-CIMS are evaluated in light of the work presented herein.

  6. Identification of genomic regions determining the phenological development leading to floral transition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Båga, Monica; Fowler, D. Brian; Chibbar, Ravindra N.

    2009-01-01

    Autumn-seeded winter cereals acquire tolerance to freezing temperatures and become vernalized by exposure to low temperature (LT). The level of accumulated LT tolerance depends on the cold acclimation rate and factors controlling timing of floral transition at the shoot apical meristem. In this study, genomic loci controlling the floral transition time were mapped in a winter wheat (T. aestivum L.) doubled haploid (DH) mapping population segregating for LT tolerance and rate of phenological development. The final leaf number (FLN), days to FLN, and days to anthesis were determined for 142 DH lines grown with and without vernalization in controlled environments. Analysis of trait data by composite interval mapping (CIM) identified 11 genomic regions that carried quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the developmental traits studied. CIM analysis showed that the time for floral transition in both vernalized and non-vernalized plants was controlled by common QTL regions on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 6A and 7A. A QTL identified on chromosome 4A influenced floral transition time only in vernalized plants. Alleles of the LT-tolerant parent, Norstar, delayed floral transition at all QTLs except at the 2A locus. Some of the QTL alleles delaying floral transition also increased the length of vegetative growth and delayed flowering time. The genes underlying the QTLs identified in this study encode factors involved in regional adaptation of cold hardy winter wheat. PMID:19553371

  7. USP8 controls the trafficking and sorting of lysosomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Ewan; Urbé, Sylvie; Clague, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    The endosomal deubiquitylase USP8 has profound effects on endosomal morphology and organisation. Previous reports have proposed both positive (EGFR, MET) and negative roles in the down-regulation of receptors (Frizzled, Smoothened). Here we report an additional influence of USP8 on the retromer-dependent shuttling of ci-M6PR between the sorting endosome and biosynthetic pathway. Depletion of USP8 leads to a steady state redistribution of ci-M6PR from the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN) to endosomal compartments. Consequently we observe a defect in sorting of lysosomal enzymes, evidenced by increased levels of unprocessed Cathepsin D, which is secreted into the medium. The normal distribution of receptor can be restored by expression of siRNA-resistant USP8 but not by a catalytically inactive mutant or a truncated form, lacking a MIT domain required for endosomal localisation. We suggest that effects of USP8 depletion may reflect the loss of ESCRT-0 components which associate with retromer components Vps35 and SNX1, whilst failure to efficiently deliver lysosomal enzymes may also contribute to the observed block in receptor tyrosine kinase degradation.

  8. Oligomerization reaction of the Criegee intermediate leads to secondary organic aerosol formation in ethylene ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yosuke; Inomata, Satoshi; Hirokawa, Jun

    2013-12-05

    Ethylene ozonolysis was investigated in laboratory experiments using a Teflon bag reactor. A negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer (NI-CIMS) using SO2Cl(-) and Cl(-) as reagent ions was used for product analysis. In addition to the expected gas-phase products, such as formic acid and hydroperoxymethyl formate, oligomeric hydroperoxides composed of the Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) as a chain unit were observed. Furthermore, we observed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the ethylene ozonolysis, and the particle-phase products were also analyzed by NI-CIMS. The CH2OO oligomers were also observed as particle-phase components, suggesting that the oligomeric hydroperoxides formed in the gas phase partition into the particle phase. By adding methanol as a stabilized Criegee intermediate scavenger, both the gas-phase oligomer formation and SOA formation were strongly suppressed. This indicates that CH2OO plays a critical role in the formation of oligomeric hydroperoxides followed by SOA formation in ethylene ozonolysis. A new formation mechanism for the oligomeric hydroperoxides, which includes sequential addition of CH2OO to hydroperoxides, is proposed.

  9. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-03-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor.

  10. Rheological and thermal performance of newly developed binder systems for ceramic injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kasparkova, Vera; Hnatkova, Eva

    2016-05-01

    In a novel binder system, carnauba wax was considered to replace the synthetic backbone polymers (polyolefins) enhancing the environmental sustainability of Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM) technology. The paper presents comparison of the rheological performance and thermal behavior of the aluminum oxide CIM feedstocks based on a binder containing carnauba wax with those consisting of a commercial binder. Further, acrawax (N, N'-Ethylene Bis-stearamide) has been considered as another possible substitute of polyolefins. For both proposed substitutes there is a significant reduction in viscosity, and in case of carnauba wax based feedstock also in processing temperature, which is essential for injection molding of reactive powders. Thermal characterization comprised analyses of single neat binders, their mixtures and mixtures with aluminum oxide. The presence of powder lowered melting temperatures of all tested binders except of polyolefin. Further depression in melting point of poly(ethylene glycol) is observed in combination with polyolefin in the presence of powder, and it is related to changes in size of the crystalline domains.

  11. Skin capacitance imaging and corneosurfametry. A comparative assessment of the impact of surfactants on stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Haubrechts, Christelle; Léger, Didier Saint; Piérard, Gérald E

    2006-05-01

    Silicon image sensor (SIS) technology was recently introduced as an innovative tool (SkinChip, L'Oréal) providing sensitive imaging of the skin capacitance. This method can detect discrete focal variations in skin surface hydration, and thus early discrete manifestations of skin irritation induced by surfactants. In the present in vivo study, 2 neat and diluted shampoos, and 5% and 10% sodium laurylsulfate solutions were tested on human skin. Each surfactant solution was gently rubbed on the skin using wet hair wicks mimicking the casual use of a shampoo on the scalp. Clinical and SIS evaluations were carried out. In addition, the same products were tested using the ex vivo corneosurfametry bioassay performed on human stratum corneum (SC) harvested by cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings. The colourimetric index of mildness (CIM) was measured on these samples. The product reactivity with the SC was recognized by darker skin capacitance images, and by both lowered SkinChip-generated values and lowered CIM values. The extent in changes varied according to the nature of the test products and their concentrations. The SkinChip image changes likely corresponded to the acute surfactant-induced water swelling of the corneocytes. Skin capacitance imaging and corneosurfametry allow to disclose discrete surfactant-induced alterations of corneocytes.

  12. A comprehensive medical student career development program improves medical student satisfaction with career planning.

    PubMed

    Zink, Brian J; Hammoud, Maya M; Middleton, Eric; Moroney, Donney; Schigelone, Amy

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) initiated a new career development program (CDP). The CDP incorporates the 4-phase career development model described by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Careers in Medicine (CiM). The CDP offers self-assessment exercises with guidance from trained counselors for 1st- and 2nd-year medical students. Career exploration experiences include Career Seminar Series luncheons, shadow experiences with faculty, and a shadow program with second-year (M2) and fourth-year (M4) medical students. During the decision-making phase, students work with trained faculty career advisors (FCA). Mandatory sessions are held on career selection, preparing the residency application, interviewing, and program evaluation. During the implementation phase, students meet with deans or counselors to discuss residency application and matching. An "at-risk plan" assists students who may have difficulty matching. The CiM Web site is extensively used during the 4 stages. Data from the AAMC and UMMS Graduation Questionnaires (GQ) show significant improvements for UMMS students in overall satisfaction with career planning services and with faculty mentoring, career assessment activities, career information, and personnel availability. By 2003, UMMS students had significantly higher satisfaction in all measured areas of career planning services when compared with all other U.S. medical students.

  13. Molecular Composition and Volatility of Organic Aerosol in the Southeastern U.S.: Implications for IEPOX Derived SOA.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F D; Mohr, C; D'Ambro, E L; Lutz, A; Riedel, T P; Gaston, C J; Iyer, S; Zhang, Z; Gold, A; Surratt, J D; Lee, B H; Kurten, T; Hu, W W; Jimenez, J; Hallquist, M; Thornton, J A

    2016-03-01

    We present measurements as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) during which atmospheric aerosol particles were comprehensively characterized. We present results utilizing a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsol coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). We focus on the volatility and composition of isoprene derived organic aerosol tracers and of the bulk organic aerosol. By utilizing the online volatility and molecular composition information provided by the FIGAERO-CIMS, we show that the vast majority of commonly reported molecular tracers of isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is derived from thermal decomposition of accretion products or other low volatility organics having effective saturation vapor concentrations <10(-3) μg m(-3). In addition, while accounting for up to 30% of total submicrometer organic aerosol mass, the IEPOX-derived SOA has a higher volatility than the remaining bulk. That IEPOX-SOA, and more generally bulk organic aerosol in the Southeastern U.S. is comprised of effectively nonvolatile material has important implications for modeling SOA derived from isoprene, and for mechanistic interpretations of molecular tracer measurements. Our results show that partitioning theory performs well for 2-methyltetrols, once accretion product decomposition is taken into account. No significant partitioning delays due to aerosol phase or viscosity are observed, and no partitioning to particle-phase water or other unexplained mechanisms are needed to explain our results.

  14. Design and implementation of a Windows NT network to support CNC activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearrow, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Manufacturing, Materials, & Processes Technology Division is undergoing dramatic changes to bring it's manufacturing practices current with today's technological revolution. The Division is developing Computer Automated Design and Computer Automated Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) abilities. The development of resource tracking is underway in the form of an accounting software package called Infisy. These two efforts will bring the division into the 1980's in relationship to manufacturing processes. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is the final phase of change to be implemented. This document is a qualitative study and application of a CIM application capable of finishing the changes necessary to bring the manufacturing practices into the 1990's. The documentation provided in this qualitative research effort includes discovery of the current status of manufacturing in the Manufacturing, Materials, & Processes Technology Division including the software, hardware, network and mode of operation. The proposed direction of research included a network design, computers to be used, software to be used, machine to computer connections, estimate a timeline for implementation, and a cost estimate. Recommendation for the division's improvement include action to be taken, software to utilize, and computer configurations.

  15. Towards intraoperative surgical margin assessment and visualization using bioimpedance properties of the tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shadab; Mahara, Aditya; Hyams, Elias S.; Schned, Alan; Halter, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) has a high 10-year recurrence rate, making PCa the second leading cause of cancer-specific mortality among men in the USA. PCa recurrences are often predicted by assessing the status of surgical margins (SM) with positive surgical margins (PSM) increasing the chances of biochemical recurrence by 2-4 times. To this end, an SM assessment system using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was developed with a microendoscopic probe. This system measures the tissue bioimpedance over a range of frequencies (1 kHz to 1MHz), and computes a Composite Impedance Metric (CIM). CIM can be used to classify tissue as benign or cancerous. The system was used to collect the impedance spectra from excised prostates, which were obtained from men undergoing radical prostatectomy. The data revealed statistically significant (p<0.05) differences in the impedance properties of the benign and tumorous tissues, and between different tissue morphologies. To visualize the results of SM-assessment, a visualization tool using da Vinci stereo laparoscope is being developed. Together with the visualization tool, the EIS-based SM assessment system can be potentially used to intraoperatively classify tissues and display the results on the surgical console with a video feed of the surgical site, thereby augmenting a surgeon's view of the site and providing a potential solution to the intraoperative SM assessment needs.

  16. The application of SMA spring actuators to a lightweight modular compliant surface bioinspired robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, David L.; Cranney, John; Liang, Robert; Taya, Minoru

    2004-07-01

    The DARPA Sponsored Compliant Surface Robotics (CSR) program pursues development of a high mobility, lightweight, modular, morph-able robot for military forces in the field and for other industrial uses. The USTLAB and University of Washington Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems (CIMS) effort builds on USTLAB proof of concept feasibility studies and demonstration of a 4, 6, or 8 wheeled modular vehicle with articulated leg-wheel assemblies. A collaborative effort between USTLAB and UW-CIMS explored the application of Shape Memory Alloy Nickel Titanium Alloy springs to a leg extension actuator capable of actuating with 4.5 Newton force over a 50 mm stroke. At the completion of Phase II, we have completed mechanical and electronics engineering design and achieved conventional actuation which currently enable active articulation, enabling autonomous reconfiguration for a wide variety of terrains, including upside down operations (in case of flip over), have developed a leg extension actuator demonstration model, and we have positioned our team to pursue a small vehicle with leg extension actuators in follow on work. The CSR vehicle's modular spider-like configuration facilitates adaptation to many uses and compliance over rugged terrain. The developmental process, actuator and vehicle characteristics will be discussed.

  17. OH Background Measurements and Their Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, L.; Kosciuch, E.; Josh, M.

    2007-12-01

    The hydroxyl radical, OH is known to be the primary gas phase oxidant in most tropospheric environments, however other species can contribute to the total overall oxidizing capacity. Our CIMS technique for the measurement of OH involves both a signal and a background measurement. The signal measurement is a measure of all species that react with SO2 to produce H2SO4 (which presumably is mainly OH), while the background accounts for all species that can convert SO2 into H2SO4, yet do not react with propane. This background measurement while necessary for the determination of OH, is also a measure of other strong oxidants and can be quite large even in the absence of OH (as determined via the CIMS technique). Here we will focus on OH background data obtained in marine, urban, and remote continental conditions. Correlation of these measurements with other species such as NO and SO2 will be presented. Atmospheric implications will also be discussed.

  18. High-melting point sediment from refined coconut oil stored in a tank for a long term.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Fukiko

    2008-01-01

    A small amount of sediment occurs in refined coconut oil stored in a large-scale tank for a long term. This sediment is different from that generally called Cocos Wax, is insoluble in various organic solvents, and has an m.p. of about 100 degrees C. In this report, we have done a structural analysis of this sediment. The sediment was carried out by hydrolyzing with a KOH/ethyl alcohol solution including toluene. Samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, EI-MS, CI-MS, field desorption mass spectrometry (FD-MS), and MALDI/TOF-MS. The hydrolyzates were a compound including an oxo group, and its relative molecular mass was 382 for the acid part and 412 for the unsaponified matter according to EI-MS (ionization energy was 70 eV and 15 eV) and CI-MS (reagent gases were i-butane, ammonia, and nitrogen monoxide). The relative molecular mass of the sediment was 1140 according to the mass spectrometry of FD, EI, and MALDI. It was elucidated based on the characteristic absorption analysis by IR and the fragmentation behavior of the EI-MS that the sediment was a wax ester, 3, 9-di-9-oxotetradocosanecarboxy-11-oxohexacosane, consisting of an acid part of 9-oxotetradocosanecarboxylic acid and an unsaponified matter of 3, 9-di-hydroxy-11-oxohexacosane.

  19. Molecular mapping of the new blast resistance genes Pi47 and Pi48 in the durably resistant local rice cultivar Xiangzi 3150.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongmei; Huang, Ling; Feng, Guangping; Wang, Suhua; Wang, Yue; Liu, Jinling; Jiang, Nan; Yan, Weiting; Xu, Lingchao; Sun, Pingyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Pan, Sujun; Liu, Xionglun; Xiao, Yinghui; Liu, Erming; Dai, Liangying; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2011-05-01

    The indica rice cultivar Xiangzi 3150 (XZ3150) confers a high level of resistance to 95% of the isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae (the agent of rice blast disease) collected in Hunan Province, China. To identify the resistance (R) gene(s) controlling the high level of resistance in this cultivar, we developed 286 F(9) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between XZ3150 and the highly susceptible cultivar CO39. Inoculation of the RILs and an F(2) population from a cross between the two cultivars with the avirulent isolate 193-1-1 in the growth chamber indicated the presence of two dominant R genes in XZ3150. A linkage map with 134 polymorphic simple sequence repeat and single feature polymorphism markers was constructed with the genotype data of the 286 RILs. Composite interval mapping (CIM) using the results of 193-1-1 inoculation showed that two major R genes, designated Pi47 and Pi48, were located between RM206 and RM224 on chromosome 11, and between RM5364 and RM7102 on chromosome 12, respectively. Interestingly, the CIM analysis of the four resistant components of the RILs to the field blast population revealed that Pi47 and Pi48 were also the major genetic factors responsible for the field resistance in XZ3150. The DNA markers linked to the new R genes identified in this study should be useful for further fine mapping, gene cloning, and marker-aided breeding of blast-resistant rice cultivars.

  20. Arf6 controls retromer traffic and intracellular cholesterol distribution via a phosphoinositide-based mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Marquer, Catherine; Tian, Huasong; Yi, Julie; Bastien, Jayson; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Yang-Klingler, YoungJoo; Zhou, Bowen; Chan, Robin Barry; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Small GTPases play a critical role in membrane traffic. Among them, Arf6 mediates transport to and from the plasma membrane, as well as phosphoinositide signalling and cholesterol homeostasis. Here we delineate the molecular basis for the link between Arf6 and cholesterol homeostasis using an inducible knockout (KO) model of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We find that accumulation of free cholesterol in the late endosomes/lysosomes of Arf6 KO MEFs results from mistrafficking of Niemann–Pick type C protein NPC2, a cargo of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR). This is caused by a selective increase in an endosomal pool of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) and a perturbation of retromer, which controls the retrograde transport of CI-M6PR via sorting nexins, including the PI4P effector SNX6. Finally, reducing PI4P levels in KO MEFs through independent mechanisms rescues aberrant retromer tubulation and cholesterol mistrafficking. Our study highlights a phosphoinositide-based mechanism for control of cholesterol distribution via retromer. PMID:27336679

  1. Constraining the sensitivity of iodide adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry to multifunctional organic molecules using the collision limit and thermodynamic stability of iodide ion adducts

    DOE PAGES

    Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Iyer, Siddarth; Mohr, Claudia; ...

    2016-04-06

    The sensitivity of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ions formed per number density of analytes) is fundamentally limited by the collision frequency between reagent ions and analytes, known as the collision limit, the ion–molecule reaction time, and the transmission efficiency of product ions to the detector. We use the response of a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) to N2O5, known to react with iodide at the collision limit, to constrain the combined effects of ion–molecule reaction time, which is strongly influenced by mixing and ion losses in the ion–molecule reaction drift tube. A mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedure elucidatesmore » the relative binding energies of the ion adducts, which influence the transmission efficiency of molecular ions through the electric fields within the vacuum chamber. Together, this information provides a critical constraint on the sensitivity of a ToF-CIMS towards a wide suite of routinely detected multifunctional organic molecules for which no calibration standards exist. We describe the scanning procedure and collision limit determination, and we show results from the application of these constraints to the measurement of organic aerosol composition at two different field locations.« less

  2. Intercomparison of Chemically Independent Peroxide Observations During INTEX-NA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, D. W.; Shen, H.; Heikes, B. G.; Crounse, J. D.; Kwan, A. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Pippin, M. R.; Crawford, J. H.

    2005-12-01

    Gas phase peroxide measurements were preformed with two analytical techniques during the INTEX-NA field project. In the first method peroxides were partitioned into an aqueous phase in cyclone separators, the aqueous collection solution was injected on to an HPLC to separate hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. Separated peroxides were quantified by a post column derivatization reaction with p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and horse radish peroxidase forming a fluorescent dimer. This method is capable of identification and quantification of C1 and C2 organic peroxides. With the dual HPLC system a 30 sec integrated sample was analyzed every 90 sec. The second method employed chemical ionization mass spectrometry to quantify the peroxides via a direct gas phase ion-molecule reaction between the peroxide and a CFO3- ion. The Caltech CIMS technique makes a 0.5 sec measurement every 5 sec. Comparison of the observations of hydrogen peroxide by both techniques on the same time base results in nearly a 90% correspondence between the techniques. Both systems also quantified peroxyacetic acid (PAA) with a 72% correspondence between observations. The majority of discrepancies between the techniques occur for observations approaching the respective detection limits. The PAA observations are the first measurements for this compound in the troposphere. The specificity of the enzyme catalyzed technique for the peroxide moiety and the characteristic retention time, coupled to the unique mass number identification using CIMS lends confidence to the correct identification and quantification of PAA.

  3. Quasi-Liquid Layer Formation on Ice under Stratospheric Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeill, V. Faye; Loerting, Thomas; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.

    2004-01-01

    Characterization of the interaction of hydrogen chloride (HCl) with ice is essential to understanding at a molecular level the processes responsible for ozone depletion involving polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. To explain the catalytic role PSC particle surfaces play during chlorine activation, we proposed previously that HCl induces the formation of a disordered region on the ice surface, a quasi-liquid layer (QLL), at stratospheric conditions. The QLL is known to exist in pure ice crystals at temperatures near the melting point, but its existence at stratospheric temperatures (-85 C to -70 C) had not been reported yet. We studied the interaction of HCl with ice under stratospheric conditions using the complementary approach of a) ellipsometry to directly monitor the ice surface, using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to monitor the gas phase species present in the ellipsometry experiments, and b) flow-tube experiments with CIMS detection. Here we show that trace amounts of HCl induce QLL formation at stratospheric temperatures, and that the QLL enhances the chlorine-activation reaction of HCl with chlorine nitrate (ClONO2), and also enhances acetic acid (CH3COOH) adsorption.

  4. Dielectric relaxations on erythrocyte membrane as revealed by spectrin denaturation.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I T; Paarvanova, B

    2016-08-01

    We studied the effect of spectrin denaturation at 49.5°C (TA) on the dielectric relaxations and related changes in the complex impedance, Z*, complex capacitance, C*, and dielectric loss curve of suspensions containing human erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost membranes (EMs) and Triton-X-100 residues of EMs. The loss curve prior to, minus the loss curve after TA, resulted in a bell-shaped peak at 1.5MHz. The changes in the real and imaginary components of Z* and C* at TA, i.e., ΔZre, ΔZim, ΔCre and ΔCim, calculated in the same way, strongly varied with frequency. Between 1.0 and 12MHz the -ΔZim vs ΔZre, and ΔCim vs ΔCre plots depicted semicircles with critical frequencies, fcr, at 2.5MHz expressing recently reported relaxation of spectrin dipoles. Between 0.02 and 1.0MHz the -ΔZim vs ΔZre plot exhibited another relaxation whose fcr mirrored that of beta relaxation. This relaxation was absent on Triton-X-shells, while on erythrocytes and EMs it was inhibited by selective dissociation of either attachment sites between spectrin and bilayer. Considering above findings and inaccessibility of cytosole to outside field at such frequencies, the latter relaxation was assumed originating from a piezoelectric effect on the highly deformable spectrin filaments.

  5. Xylan degradation improved by a combination of monolithic columns bearing immobilized recombinant β-xylosidase from Aspergillus awamori X-100 and Grindamyl H121 β-xylanase.

    PubMed

    Volokitina, Maria V; Bobrov, Kirill S; Piens, Kathleen; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Tennikova, Tatiana B; Vlakh, Evgenia G; Kulminskaya, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic action of exo- and endohydrolazes is preferred for effective destruction of biopolymers. The main purpose of the present work was to develop an efficient tool for degradation of xylan. Macroporous lab-made monolithic columns and commercial CIM-Epoxy disk were used to immobilize the recombinant β-xylosidase from Aspergillus awamori and Grindamyl β-xylanase. The efficiency of xylan degradation using the low-loaded β-xylosidase column appeared to be four times higher than for the in-solution process and about six times higher than for the high-loaded bioreactor. Disk bioreactor with the Grindamil β-xylanase operated in a recirculation mode has shown noticeable advantages over the column design. Additionally, a system comprised of two immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) was tested to accelerate the biopolymer hydrolysis, yielding total xylan conversion into xylose within 20 min. Fast online monitoring HPLC procedure was developed where an analytical DEAE CIM disk was added to the two-enzyme system in a conjoint mode. A loss of activity of immobilized enzymes did not exceed 7% after 5 months of the bioreactor usage. We can therefore conclude that the bioreactors developed exhibit high efficiency and remarkable long-term stability.

  6. Chemical ionization by [NO]+ and subsequent collision-induced dissociation for the selective on-line detection of monoterpenes and linalool.

    PubMed

    Rimetz-Planchon, Juliette; Dhooghe, Frederik; Schoon, Niels; Vanhaecke, Frank; Amelynck, Crist

    2011-03-15

    Existing on-line Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) techniques for quantification of atmospheric trace gases, such as Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs), suffer from difficulty in discriminating between isomeric (and more generally isobaric) compounds. Selective detection of these compounds, however, is important because they can affect atmospheric chemistry in different ways, depending on their chemical structure. In this work, Flowing Afterglow Tandem Mass Spectrometry (FATMS) was used to investigate the feasibility of the selective detection of a series of monoterpenes, an oxygenated monoterpene (linalool) and a sesquiterpene (β-caryophyllene). Ions at m/z 137 from [H(3)O](+) chemical ionization of α-pinene, linalool and β-caryophyllene have been subjected to Collision-Induced Dissociation (CID) with Ar in the collision cell of a tandem mass spectrometer at center-of-mass energies ranging between 0 and 8 eV. Similar fragmentation patterns were obtained, demonstrating that this method is not suited for the selective detection of these compounds. However, CID of the ions at m/z 136 produced via [NO](+) chemical ionization of a series of monoterpenes has revealed promising results. Some tracer-product ions for individual compounds or groups of compounds were found, which can be considered as a step forward towards selective on-line monitoring of BVOCs with CIMS techniques.

  7. Changes in treated incidence of borderline personality disorder in denmark: 1970-2009.

    PubMed

    Ørts Clemmensen, Lene Maria; Olrik Wallenstein Jensen, Signe; Zanarini, Mary C; Skadhede, Søren; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2013-09-01

    Objectifs : Rechercher s’il y a des tendances dans l’incidence du trouble de la personnalité limite (TPL) traité dans des hôpitaux psychiatriques danois selon différents systèmes diagnostiques, de 1970 à 2009. Méthodes : Tous les patients ayant reçu un diagnostic de TPL pour la première fois comme diagnostic principal ou auxiliaire et traités comme patients externes ou hospitalisés d’hôpitaux psychiatriques danois ont été identifiés grâce au registre danois central de recherche en psychiatrie. Les taux normalisés selon l’âge, le sexe, ont été calculés avec la Classification internationale des maladies (CIM), 8e révision, pour la période diagnostique de 1970 à 1993 et la CIM-10 pour la période diagnostique de 1994 à 2009. Résultats : L’incidence du TPL chez les femmes comme diagnostic principal ou secondaire a augmenté de façon linéaire de 1970 à 2009 (β = 0,69 par 100 000 par an [IC à 95 % 0,66 à 0,73]). Les taux chez les hommes ont aussi augmenté de façon linéaire de 1970 à 1993 (β = 0,37 [IC à 95 % 0,30 à 0,43]), suivis d’une décroissance linéaire (β = –0,22 [IC à 95 % –0,29 à –0,15]) dans la période utilisant la CIM-10 entre 1994 et 2009. L’augmentation du TPL chez les femmes est plus faible après le milieu des années 1990, après contrôle pour les patients externes obligatoirement inscrits depuis 1995. Conclusion : L’absence de critères définis du TPL dans la CIM-8 peut avoir été interprétée sommairement comme équivalant au concept déterminant de Kernberg sur l’organisation de personnalité limite, donnant suite à des taux semblables pour les hommes et les femmes. Cependant, dans la CIM-10, les cliniciens utilisant des critères plus ciblés pour le trouble de personnalité émotionnellement instable (de type limite) tendaient à diagnostiquer le TPL plus souvent chez les femmes. Ces résultats suggèrent l’importance d’utiliser des critères diagnostiques spécifiques. Ils

  8. Missing SO2 oxidant in the coastal atmosphere? - observations from high-resolution measurements of OH and atmospheric sulfur compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berresheim, H.; Adam, M.; Monahan, C.; O'Dowd, C.; Plane, J. M. C.; Bohn, B.; Rohrer, F.

    2014-11-01

    Diurnal and seasonal variations of gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) were measured in NE Atlantic air at the Mace Head atmospheric research station during the years 2010 and 2011. The measurements utilized selected-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (SI/CIMS) with a detection limit for both compounds of 4.3 × 104 cm-3 at 5 min signal integration. The H2SO4 and MSA gas-phase concentrations were analyzed in conjunction with the condensational sink for both compounds derived from 3 nm to 10 μm (aerodynamic diameter) aerosol size distributions. Accommodation coefficients of 1.0 for H2SO4 and 0.12 for MSA were assumed, leading to estimated atmospheric lifetimes on the order of 7 and 25 min, respectively. With the SI/CIMS instrument in OH measurement mode alternating between OH signal and background (non-OH) signal, evidence was obtained for the presence of one or more unknown oxidants of SO2 in addition to OH. Depending on the nature of the oxidant(s), its ambient concentration may be enhanced in the CIMS inlet system by additional production. The apparent unknown SO2 oxidant was additionally confirmed by direct measurements of SO2 in conjunction with calculated H2SO4 concentrations. The calculated H2SO4 concentrations were consistently lower than the measured concentrations by a factor of 4.7 ± 2.4 when considering the oxidation of SO2 by OH as the only source of H2SO4. Both the OH and the background signal were also observed to increase significantly during daytime aerosol nucleation events, independent of the ozone photolysis frequency, J(O1D), and were followed by peaks in both H2SO4 and MSA concentrations. This suggests a strong relation between the unknown oxidant(s), OH chemistry, and the atmospheric photolysis and photooxidation of biogenic iodine compounds. As to the identity of the atmospheric SO2 oxidant(s), we have been able to exclude ClO, BrO, IO, and OIO as possible candidates based on {ab initio} calculations

  9. Dealing with the safety paradox of delta-branches closure; a geomorphology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloff, C.; Tromp, R.; Sieben, A.

    2013-12-01

    Closing off estuaries by dams is a conventional solution to reduce flood risks and salt intrusion in river deltas. However, if not all branches are closed, residual tidal currents develop or increase in connecting channels between the closed and open branches. These channels start to erode, causing bank instability and possible failure of levees. Hence, paradoxically, the intended increase in safety by this closure creates a new threat with increased flood risks. We illustrate this for existing channel erosion and dike stability problems in the Dutch Rhine River delta in the Netherlands, as well as for proposed future closure works in the Mekong River in Vietnam. Crucial for assessing and dealing with the erosion problems, is a proper prediction of flow conditions and of bed erodibility. The channels incise ancient deltaic deposits, consisting of diverse sections and layers of sand, clay and peat with diverse states of compaction. In the presented studies we show how we applied Delft3D to model the full delta, with all relevant dynamics and complex interactions between tidal flow and river discharges. For the Dutch situation, we simulated the long-term fate of the eroding interconnecting channels, applying a detailed description of subsurface heterogeneous erodibility (space and depth varying). Since these rivers are incising slowly in clay and peat beds covering highly-erodible sand layers, alternate sections occur of undersupplied ';fixed' beds, and of very deep scour holes. For the Vietnam case, we show how the location of a barrier and operation of gates, can be used to control both the salinity intrusion and channel erosion for the Mekong delta. Although the morphology studies for the Dutch delta with high-density data availability obviously justify a detailed Delft3D approach, it is shown that even in the Mekong delta with poor data quality, a coarse-grid large-scale Delft3D model can provide the answers necessary for planning the closure works and potential

  10. Hydrodynamic evaluation of long term impacts of climate change and coastal effluents in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Abubaker; Elshorbagy, Walid

    2015-12-30

    A comprehensive basin wide hydrodynamic evaluation has been carried out to assess the long term impacts of climate change and coastal effluents on the salinity and seawater temperature of the Arabian Gulf (AG) using Delft3D-Flow model. The long term impacts of climate change scenarios A2 and B1 of the IPCC-AR4 on the AG hydrodynamics were evaluated. Using the current capacity and production rates of coastal desalination, power, and refinery plants, two projection scenarios until the year 2080 with 30 year intervals were developed namely the realistic and the optimistic discharge scenarios. Simulations of the individual climate change scenarios ascertained overall increase of the AG salinity and temperature and decrease of precipitation. The changes varied spatially with different scenarios as per the depth, proximity to exchange with ocean water, flushing, vertical mixing, and flow restriction. The individual tested scenarios of coastal projected discharges showed significant effects but within 10-20 km from the outfalls.

  11. The influence of wave energy and sediment transport on seagrass distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Lacy, Jessica R.

    2012-01-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model (Delft3D) was used to simulate the water levels, waves, and currents associated with a seagrass (Zostera marina) landscape along a 4-km stretch of coast in Puget Sound, WA, USA. A hydroacoustic survey of seagrass percent cover and nearshore bathymetry was conducted, and sediment grain size was sampled at 53 locations. Wave energy is a primary factor controlling seagrass distribution at the site, accounting for 73% of the variability in seagrass minimum depth and 86% of the variability in percent cover along the shallow, sandy portions of the coast. A combination of numerical simulations and a conceptual model of the effect of sea-level rise on the cross-shore distribution of seagrass indicates that the area of seagrass habitat may initially increase and that wave dynamics are an important factor to consider in predicting the effect of sea-level rise on seagrass distributions in wave-exposed areas.

  12. A low-computational-cost inverse heat transfer technique for convective heat transfer measurements in hypersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avallone, F.; Greco, C. S.; Schrijer, F. F. J.; Cardone, G.

    2015-04-01

    The measurement of the convective wall heat flux in hypersonic flows may be particularly challenging in the presence of high-temperature gradients and when using high-thermal-conductivity materials. In this case, the solution of multidimensional problems is necessary, but it considerably increases the computational cost. In this paper, a low-computational-cost inverse data reduction technique is presented. It uses a recursive least-squares approach in combination with the trust-region-reflective algorithm as optimization procedure. The computational cost is reduced by performing the discrete Fourier transform on the discrete convective heat flux function and by identifying the most relevant coefficients as objects of the optimization algorithm. In the paper, the technique is validated by means of both synthetic data, built in order to reproduce physical conditions, and experimental data, carried out in the Hypersonic Test Facility Delft at Mach 7.5 on two wind tunnel models having different thermal properties.

  13. Surface cooled, vacuum impregnated superconducting magnet systems: Design, construction, applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Pieterman, Karel

    The design and construction of three superconducting magnet systems for applications in the fields of medical imaging, plasma physics and nuclear physics are described. All three systems have vacuum impregnated, intrinsically stable coils with cooling at the outer surfaces of the winding package with liquid helium, and are all coupled in some way to closed cycle cooling systems. General theories are discussed. The techniques used in both the design and the construction of the different magnet systems, are given. The use of numerical methods for the calculation of thermal and mechanical properties of superconducting coil systems, is emphasized. The experimental results obtained with the Delft magnetic resonance imaging system are described and examples of images showing sagittal sections of the human head, successfully produced with this system, are given.

  14. Isothermal density derivative of S(k) and the triplet correlation function: an experimental study in liquid Kr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Magli, Renato

    1993-08-01

    Recent accurate measurements performed on liquid Kr have been used to test some of the models proposed in the literature for the triplet correlation function g 3( r, s). It turns out that neither the superposition approximation suggested by Kirkwood (J.P. Hansen and I.R. McDonald, Theory of simple liquids, Academic Press, London, 1986), nor a modification of it which partially takes into account linear density effects (H. Fredrikze, Ph.D. Thesis, Delft, 1985) are able to satisfactorily reproduce the experimental isothermal derivatives of the structure factor. Also the uniform fluid model (P.A. Egelstaff, D.I. Page and C.R.T. Heard, J. Phys. C, 4 (1971) 1453), gives a poor representation especially at lower densities. It is concluded that, in order to correctly describe triplet correlation effects, a full account of the irreducible contributions to g 3( r, s) is necessary.

  15. CONFERENCE NOTE: International Workshop on Radiation Thermometry Noordwijkerhout, the Netherlands, 24 25 June 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-01-01

    Radiation thermometry is applied in the measurement of temperature where direct contact with the object is impossible, such as in the case of very high temperatures or moving bodies. Important industrial applications are metal, glass, ceramics and plastics and, latterly, semiconductor technology. Recent developments, such as multi-wavelength pyrometry, have motivated the Nederlands Meetinstituut and two Russian institutes, Energotechnica and Symco Association, to organize this workshop. Specialists from Russia, the USA, the UK, Germany and the Netherlands will present state-of-the-art practical applications in radiation thermometry. The workshop will be held on 24 and 25 June 1993 in the "Leeuwenhorst" Congress Centre, Noordwijkerhout, the Netherlands. Information on the technical contents of the programme can be obtained from Dr P Bloembergen, Tel. +31(15) 691 660. Registration For further details please contact: The Training and Consultancy Department, Nederlands Meetinstituut, PO Box 654, 2600 AR Delft, the Netherlands Tel. +31 (15) 691 567.

  16. A Multi-Functional Particle Spectrometer to be Demonstrated on Delfi-C3 Successor Nano Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampridis, D.; Maddox, E.; Moon, S.; Kraft, S.; Elstak, J.; Rotteveel, J.

    2008-08-01

    In this article, a highly miniaturised Multi-functional Particle Spectrometer (MPS) is proposed for the monitoring of the space environment. The spectrometer separates protons, electrons, ions and gamma-rays, which affect systems differently, over a large energy range (0.1- 400 MeV). The proposed base line design consists of a combination of a solid state pixel tracker and a scintillation detector. Instrument control and data processing are performed with state-of-the-art electronics. Apart from its original focus in planetary exploration missions, the MPS has also been proposed and accepted to be demonstrated on the Delft University Delfi-C3 successor satellite (Delfi-n3Xt) in 2010. We present the design, mission goals and accommodation constraints on such a small satellite.

  17. Teaching nanoscience across scientific and geographical borders A European Master programme in nanoscience and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, A.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.; Rep, D.; Rudquist, P.; Schwille, P.; Sluijter, B.; Wendin, G.

    2008-03-01

    Within the Erasmus Mundus Master (EMM) Programme, five European Universities (KU Leuven, Belgium, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Delft University of Technology and Leiden University, the Netherlands, and the University of Dresden, Germany) have joined forces to offer a unique master programme in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 'EMM-nano', at the cutting edge of state-of-the-art research. The students design and build their individual area of specialisation within nanophysics, nanotechnology, biophysics, biotechnology through their choice of trajectory between the partners. We discuss some of the challenges related to the crossdisciplinary nature of the field, educational activities in cleanrooms, and issues related to the integration of teaching programmes across the borders within Europe.

  18. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verelst, D. R. S.; Larsen, T. J.; van Wingerden, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible blades are mounted. The tower support structure has free yawing capabilities provided at the base. A short overview on the technical details of the experiment is given as well as a brief summary of the design process. The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy's aeroelastic simulation program HAWC2.

  19. ExoFly: a flapping wing aerobot for planetary survey and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, T. E.; Mulder, J. A.; Remes, B.; Berkouwer, W.; Peeters, B.; Lentink, D.; Passchier, C.

    2008-09-01

    ExoFly is a light-weight (20 to 200 g.) flappingwing robotic fly, capable of exploration and scientific observations of the surface and lower atmosphere of planets. It is only in the last years that flapping wing insect flight is fully understood, and the step to robotic flapping-wing concept is very recent [1,2,3]. The concept of ExoFly is based on the DelFly, which has successfully been developed in the last years by the Technical University Delft, Wageningen University and TNO. Flapping winged flight is well suited to the low density and highly viscous Martian atmosphere, but may also be used in a denser atmosphere such as Titan. In any planetary mission, ExoFly would be a highly innovative mission element, technically part of the mission infrastructure, but enabling scientific breakthrough observations with the imaging system and micro-payload.

  20. A numerical model investigation of the formation and persistence of an erosion hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin; List, Jeffrey H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delft3D-SWAN coupled flow and wave model was constructed for the San Francisco Bight with high-resolution at 7 km-long Ocean Beach, a high-energy beach located immediately south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. The model was used to investigate tidal and wave-induced flows, basic forcing terms, and potential sediment transport in an area in the southern portion of Ocean Beach that has eroded significantly over the last several decades. The model predicted flow patterns that were favorable for sediment removal from the area and net erosion from the surf-zone. Analysis of the forcing terms driving surf-zone flows revealed that wave refraction over an exposed wastewater outfall pipe between the 12 and 15 m isobaths introduces a perturbation in the wave field that results in erosion-causing flows. Modeled erosion agreed well with five years of topographic survey data from the area.

  1. Thermal annealing of C ion irradiation defects in nuclear graphite studied by positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, C. Q.; Schut, H.; Li, Z. C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the thermal behaviour of radiation induced point defects in nuclear graphite, ETU10 graphite was implanted with 350 keV C+ ion to doses of 1015 and 1016 cm-2. The point defects introduced by the implantation were characterized by Positron Annihilation Doppler Broadening (PADB) and their thermal behaviour was studied during “in situ” annealing at Delft Variable Energy Positron beam (VEP). The annealing was performed for 5 minutes at temperatures ranging from 300 K (as implanted) to 1500 K in steps of 100 K. For both doses, an annealing stage at around 450 K is observed followed by a second stage around 700 K. For the high dose implantation vacancy complexes are found which are stable up to a temperature around 1400K.

  2. A high-resolution operational forecast system for oil spill response in Belfast Lough.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Ana J; Castanedo, Sonia; Núñez, Paula; Mellor, Adam; Clements, Annika; Pérez, Beatriz; Cárdenas, Mar; Chiri, Helios; Medina, Raúl

    2017-01-15

    This paper presents a high-resolution operational forecast system for providing support to oil spill response in Belfast Lough. The system comprises an operational oceanographic module coupled to an oil spill forecast module that is integrated in a user-friendly web application. The oceanographic module is based on Delft3D model which uses daily boundary conditions and meteorological forcing obtained from COPERNICUS and from the UK Meteorological Office. Downscaled currents and meteorological forecasts are used to provide short-term oil spill fate and trajectory predictions at local scales. Both components of the system are calibrated and validated with observational data, including ADCP data, sea level, temperature and salinity measurements and drifting buoys released in the study area. The transport model is calibrated using a novel methodology to obtain the model coefficients that optimize the numerical simulations. The results obtained show the good performance of the system and its capability for oil spill forecast.

  3. Model scenerios of shoreline change at kaanapali beach, maui, hawaii: Seasonal and extreme events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitousek, S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Merrifield, M.A.; Pawlak, G.; Storlazzi, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Kaanapali beach is a well-defined littoral cell of carbonate sand extending 2 km south from Black Rock (a basalt headland) to Hanakao'o Point. The beach experiences dynamic seasonal shoreline change forced by longshore transport from two dominant swell regimes. In summer, south swells (Hs=1-2mT p=14-25s) drive sand to the north, while in winter, north swells (Hs=5-8mTp=14-20s) drive sand to the south where it accumulates on a submerged fossil reef. The Delft3D modeling system accurately predicts directly observed tidal currents and wave heights around West Maui, and is applied to simulate shoreline change. Morphologic simulations qualitatively resolve the observed seasonal behavior.

  4. Model scenarios of shoreline change at Kaanapali Beach, Maui, Hawaii: seasonal and extreme events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitousek, Sean; Fletcher, Charles H.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Pawlak, Geno; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2007-01-01

    Kaanapali beach is a well-defined littoral cell of carbonate sand extending 2 km south from Black Rock (a basalt headland) to Hanakao'o Point. The beach experiences dynamic seasonal shoreline change forced by longshore transport from two dominant swell regimes. In summer, south swells (Hs = 1–2 m Tp = 14–25 s) drive sand to the north, while in winter, north swells (Hs = 5–8 m Tp = 14–20 s) drive sand to the south where it accumulates on a submerged fossil reef. The Delft3D modeling system accurately predicts directly observed tidal currents and wave heights around West Maui, and is applied to simulate shoreline change. Morphologic simulations qualitatively resolve the observed seasonal behavior.

  5. Chenier plain development: feedbacks between waves, mud and sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss Chenier plains ontogeny through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and shelf slope play an important role in the formation of Chenier plains. In our numerical experiments waves affect Chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex Chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and Chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  6. Modeling of Mud-Wave Interaction: Mud-Induced Wave Transport & Wave-Induced Mud Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    a,9)E’(r,) dcr d/ fE’(u,90) d ad 0 [m’] WLENMI 0 0 / 00 27 1 x2n 0 0 2nx = S,,=pg J f(nsin0cosO)E’(a,O) dadO [J/m2 ] computed in SWAN o 0 S, =pg fJ f...Section 3.6. At present, no complete theory exists. There is some theoretical work, based on the Biot model (Sumer and Fredsoe, 2002; McDougal, et al...Therefore, we propose a new method, which is partly based on earlier work carried out at Delft Hydraulics (Van Kesteren and Cornelisse, 1995). It is

  7. Design and experimental results for the S814 airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    A 24-percent-thick airfoil, the S814, for the root region of a horizontal-axis wind-turbine blade has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift which is overpredicted. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the higher maximum lift and the lower profile drag of the S814 airfoil, thus confirming the achievement of the objectives.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the putative heart of Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette.

    PubMed

    Jehaes, E; Pfeiffer, H; Toprak, K; Decorte, R; Brinkmann, B; Cassiman, J J

    2001-03-01

    According to official historiography, the 10-year-old Louis XVII died in the Temple of Paris on June 8, 1795. However, public rumour spread the theory that Louis XVII escaped and that his descendants would be alive today. One such putative 'Louis XVII' was Carl Wilhelm Naundorff, who died in 1845 in Delft (the Netherlands). Comparative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis gave evidence that his remains could not be identified as those of Louis XVII. In the present study, mtDNA analysis was performed on the heart of the young boy who died in the prison of Paris in 1795. In order to obtain the strongest evidence possible, two laboratories independently analysed the heart. The results showed that the consensus mtDNA sequence of the heart was identical to that of the maternal relatives of Louis XVII.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA analysis on remains of a putative son of Louis XVI, King of France and Marie-Antoinette.

    PubMed

    Jehaes, E; Decorte, R; Peneau, A; Petrie, J H; Boiry, P A; Gilissen, A; Moisan, J P; Van den Berghe, H; Pascal, O; Cassiman, J J

    1998-01-01

    Carl Wilhelm Naundorff was buried in 1845 in Delft as Louis Charles, Duc de Normandie, 'Louis XVII'. However, the son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette-Louis XVII--officially died in the Temple of Paris in 1795. In order to resolve the identity of Naundorff, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of his remains were compared with the sequences obtained from the hairs of two sisters of Marie-Antoinette, Marie-Antoinette herself, and with the sequences obtained from DNA samples of two living maternal relatives. The mtDNA sequence of a bone sample from Naundorff showed two nucleotide differences from the sequences of the three sisters and four differences from the sequences of living maternal relatives. Based on this evidence it becomes very unlikely that Naundroff is the son of Marie-Antoinette.

  10. RADS Version 4: An Efficient Way to Analyse the Multi-Mission Altimeter Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharroo, Remko; Leuliette, Eric; Naeije, Marc; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Pires, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    The Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS) has grown to become a mature altimeter database. Over the last 18 years it is continuously being developed, first at Delft University of Technology, now also at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT).RADS now serves as a fundamental Climate Data Record for sea level. Because of the multiple users involved in vetting the data and the regular updates to the database, RADS is one of the most accurate and complete databases of satellite altimeter data around.RADS version 4 is a major change from the previous version. While the database is compatible with both software versions, the new software provides new tools, allows easier expansion, and has a better and more standardised interface.

  11. Open Access Wind Tunnel Measurements of a Downwind Free Yawing Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verelst, David; Larsen, Torben; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2016-09-01

    A series of free yawing wind tunnel experiments was held in the Open Jet Facility (OJF) of the TU Delft. The ≈ 300 W turbine has three blades in a downwind configuration and is optionally free to yaw. Different 1.6m diameter rotor configurations are tested such as blade flexibility and sweep. This paper gives a brief overview of the measurement setup and challenges, and continues with presenting some key results. This wind tunnel campaign has shown that a three bladed downwind wind turbine can operate in a stable fashion under a minimal yaw error. Finally, a description of how to obtain this open access dataset, including the post-processing scripts and procedures, is made available via a publicly accessible website.

  12. Does littoral sand bypass the head of Mugu Submarine Canyon? - a modeling study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping; Elias, Edwin; Kinsman, Nicole; Wang, Ping; Rosati, Julie D.; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    A newly developed sand-tracer code for the process-based model Delft3D (Deltares, The Netherlands) was used to simulate the littoral transport near the head of the Mugu Submarine Canyon in California, USA. For westerly swells, which account for more than 90% of the wave conditions in the region, the sand tracers in the downcoast littoral drift were unable to bypass the canyon head. A flow convergence near the upcoast rim of the canyon intercepts the tracers and moves them either offshore onto the shelf just west of the canyon rim (low wave height conditions) or into the canyon head (storm wave conditions). This finding supports the notion that Mugu Canyon is the true terminus of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell.

  13. Modeling of Fracture Propagation in Concrete Structures Using a Constitutive Relation with Embedded Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruszczak, Stanisław; Haghighat, Ehsan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the problem of modeling of mixed mode cracking in concrete structures is addressed within the context of a constitutive law with embedded discontinuity (CLED). This approach, which was originally developed for describing the propagation of localized deformation in a "smeared" sense, is enhanced here to model a discrete nature of crack propagation. The latter is achieved by coupling the CLED approach with the level-set method, which is commonly used within the framework of Extended Finite Element (XFEM). Numerical simulations of experimental tests conducted at Delft University, which involve four-point bending of a notched concrete beam under the action of two independent actuators, are presented. The results based on enhanced CLED approach are directly compared with XFEM simulations. The predictions from both these methodologies are quite consistent with the experimental data, thereby giving advantage to CLED scheme in view of its simplicity in the numerical implementation.

  14. Molecular Dynamic Simulations of Interaction of an AFM Probe with the Surface of an SCN Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Adris; Kaukler, William; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations is conducted in order to estimate forces of probe-substrate interaction in the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). First a review of available molecular dynamic techniques is given. Implementation of MD simulation is based on an object-oriented code developed at the University of Delft. Modeling of the sample material - succinonitrile (SCN) - is based on the Lennard-Jones potentials. For the polystyrene probe an atomic interaction potential is used. Due to object-oriented structure of the code modification of an atomic interaction potential is straight forward. Calculation of melting temperature is used for validation of the code and of the interaction potentials. Various fitting parameters of the probe-substrate interaction potentials are considered, as potentials fitted to certain properties and temperature ranges may not be reliable for the others. This research provides theoretical foundation for an interpretation of actual measurements of an interaction forces using AFM.

  15. Hydrodynamic and Salinity Intrusion Model in Selangor River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, N. F.; Tahir, W.

    2016-07-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport model has been used to develop the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion model for Selangor River Estuary. Delft3D-FLOW was applied to the study area using a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid. External boundary forces included ocean water level, salinity, and stream flow. The hydrodynamic and salinity transport used for the simulation was calibrated and confirmed using data on November 2005 and from May to June 2014. A 13-day period for November 2005 data and a 6-day period of May to June 2014 data were chosen as the calibration and confirmation period because of the availability of data from the field-monitoring program conducted. From the calibration results, it shows that the model was well suited to predict the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion characteristics of the study area.

  16. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive torque control concept for variable speed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diepeveen, N. F. B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near maximum aerodynamic efficiency for below rated wind speeds. The experiments with a small horizontal-axis wind turbine rotor, coupled to a hydraulic circuit, were conducted at the Open Jet Facility of the Delft University of Technology. In theory, the placement of a nozzle at the end of the hydraulic circuit causes the pressure and hence the rotor torque to increase quadratically with flow speed and hence rotation speed. The rotor torque is limited by a pressure relief valve. Results from the experiments proved the functionality of this passive speed control concept. By selecting the correct nozzle outlet area the rotor operates at or near the optimum tip speed ratio.

  17. Spotlight COSMO-SkyMed DEM generation and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, N.; Lorusso, R.; Milillo, G.

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with COSMO SkyMed Spotlight data in providing DEMs. In particular, the peculiarity of Spotlight data (affected from Doppler centroid drift) is investigated, and the use of the processing chain included in the Delft Object-oriented Radar Interferometric Software (DORIS [1]). The effects of not correctly handled Doppler drift is shown. The standard interferometric processing, without Doppler drift handling, has been applied to Spotlight image pairs, resulting in interferometric coherence loss in interferograms as we move away from scene center. So, the standard processing chain has been modified to take in account the Doppler centroid drift affecting Spotlight data and very high resolution and accuracy DEMs have been obtained. Some Spotlight image pairs have been processed and the obtained DEMs have been shown and analyzed proving the high details and product accuracy.

  18. Turning the Tide: Estuaries Shaped by Channel-Shoal Interactions, Eco-engineers and Inherited Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinhans, M. G.; Braat, L.; Leuven, J.; Baar, A. W.; van der Vegt, M.; Van Maarseveen, M. C. G.; Markies, H.; Roosendaal, C.; van Eijk, A.

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries exhibit correlations between inlet dimensions, tidal prism and intertidal area, but to what extent estuary planform shape and shoal patterns resulted from biomorphological processes or from inherited conditions such as coastal plain and drowned valley dimensions remains unclear. We explore the hypothesis that mud flats and vegetation as a self-formed lateral confinement have effects analogous to that of river floodplain on braided versus meandering river patterns. Here we use the Delft3D numerical model and a novel tidal flume setup, the Metronome, to create estuaries from idealized initial conditions, with and without mud supply at the fluvial boundary. Experimental mud was simulated by crushed nutshell. Both the numerical and experimental estuaries were narrower with increasing mud, and had a lower degree of channel braiding. The experimental estuaries developed meanders at the river boundary with floodplain developing on the pointbar whereas cohesionless cases were more dynamic.

  19. Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking

    PubMed Central

    van der Spek, Stefan; van Schaick, Jeroen; de Bois, Peter; de Haan, Remco

    2009-01-01

    The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands) for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as ‘sensor technology’ measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research. PMID:22574061

  20. Relationship between gas exchange, wind speed, and radar backscatter in a large wind-wave tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Richard H.; Bliven, L. F.

    1991-01-01

    The relationships between the gas exchange, wind speed, friction velocity, and radar backscatter from the water surface was investigated using data obtained in a large water tank in the Delft (Netherlands) wind-wave tunnel, filled with water supersaturated with SF6, N2O, and CH4. Results indicate that the gas-transfer velocities of these substances were related to the wind speed with a power law dependence. Microwave backscatter from water surface was found to be related to gas transfer velocities by a relationship in the form k(gas) = a 10 exp (b A0), where k is the gas transfer velocity for the particular gas, the values of a and b are obtained from a least squares fit of the average backscatter cross section and gas transfer at 80 m, and A0 is the directional (azimuthal) averaged return.