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Sample records for cincta insecta collembola

  1. Two metal-binding peptides from the insect Orchesella cincta (Collembola) as a result of metallothionein cleavage.

    PubMed

    Hensbergen, P J; Donker, M H; Hunziker, P E; van der Schors, R C; van Straalen, N M

    2001-10-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is an ubiquitous heavy metal-binding protein which has been identified in animals, plants, protists, fungi and bacteria. In insects, primary structures of MTs are known only for Drosophila and the collembolan, Orchesella cincta. The MT cDNA from O. cincta encodes a 77 amino acid protein with 19 cysteines. Isolations of the protein itself have demonstrated the presence of two smaller metal-binding peptides, whose amino acid sequences correspond to parts of the cDNA, and which apparently result from cleavage of the native protein. The present study was undertaken to complete the picture of cleavage sites within the MT protein by applying protein isolation techniques in combination with mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequence analysis. Further, recombinant expression allowed us to study the intrinsic stability of the MT and to perform in vitro cleavage studies. The results show that the MT from O. cincta is specifically cleaved at two sites, both after the amino acid sequence Thr-Gln (TQ). One of these sites is located in the N-terminal region and the other in the linker region between two putative metal-binding clusters. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant O. cincta MT can be isolated in an uncleaved form; however, this protein can be cleaved in vitro by the proteolytic activity of O. cincta. In combination with other studies, the results suggest that the length of the linker region is important for the stability of MT as a two domain metal-binding protein.

  2. Short-term biochemical ill effects of insect growth regulator (IGR) pesticides in Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola: Insecta) as potential biomarkers of soil pollution.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ipsita; Joy, V C

    2016-02-01

    The insect growth regulator (IGR) chemicals are considered as safe alternatives to synthetic organic pesticides, but only scant information are available on their possible impact on non-target and ecologically important soil insect fauna of croplands. Previous studies by the authors showed that recommended agricultural doses of IGRs buprofezin (Applaud 25SC at 250 g a.i. ha(-1)), flubendiamide (Takumi 20WG at 50 g a.i. ha(-1)) and novaluron (Rimon 10EC at 100 g a.i. ha(-1)) produced less mortality of adults of a non-target soil insect Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola) but decreased major life history parameters namely moulting, fecundity and egg hatching success. This detritivorous microarthropod is very sensitive to soil characteristics and is ecologically relevant to the tropical soils. Present microcosm study showed strong biochemical impact of the above doses of IGRs on tissue nutrient levels and digestive enzyme activities in C. javanus within 7 days of exposure to treated sandy loam soil. The levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and free amino acids declined significantly and persistently in the specimens reared in IGR-treated soils than in the specimens of untreated soil. Similarly, α-amylase, cellulase and protease activities declined significantly in the specimens of IGR-treated soil. These nutritional scarcities would reduce metabolism, growth and reproduction in the affected insects. Therefore, the observed biochemical responses, especially the levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates and α-amylase activity in C. javanus are early warning indices and potential biomarkers of soil pollution in croplands.

  3. Short-term biochemical ill effects of insect growth regulator (IGR) pesticides in Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola: Insecta) as potential biomarkers of soil pollution.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ipsita; Joy, V C

    2016-02-01

    The insect growth regulator (IGR) chemicals are considered as safe alternatives to synthetic organic pesticides, but only scant information are available on their possible impact on non-target and ecologically important soil insect fauna of croplands. Previous studies by the authors showed that recommended agricultural doses of IGRs buprofezin (Applaud 25SC at 250 g a.i. ha(-1)), flubendiamide (Takumi 20WG at 50 g a.i. ha(-1)) and novaluron (Rimon 10EC at 100 g a.i. ha(-1)) produced less mortality of adults of a non-target soil insect Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola) but decreased major life history parameters namely moulting, fecundity and egg hatching success. This detritivorous microarthropod is very sensitive to soil characteristics and is ecologically relevant to the tropical soils. Present microcosm study showed strong biochemical impact of the above doses of IGRs on tissue nutrient levels and digestive enzyme activities in C. javanus within 7 days of exposure to treated sandy loam soil. The levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and free amino acids declined significantly and persistently in the specimens reared in IGR-treated soils than in the specimens of untreated soil. Similarly, α-amylase, cellulase and protease activities declined significantly in the specimens of IGR-treated soil. These nutritional scarcities would reduce metabolism, growth and reproduction in the affected insects. Therefore, the observed biochemical responses, especially the levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates and α-amylase activity in C. javanus are early warning indices and potential biomarkers of soil pollution in croplands. PMID:26780417

  4. Gene Family Evolution Reflects Adaptation to Soil Environmental Stressors in the Genome of the Collembolan Orchesella cincta

    PubMed Central

    Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Anna; Derks, Martijn F. L.; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Agamennone, Valeria; Suring, Wouter; Smit, Sandra; van Straalen, Nico M.; Roelofs, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Collembola (springtails) are detritivorous hexapods that inhabit the soil and its litter layer. The ecology of the springtail Orchesella cincta is extensively studied in the context of adaptation to anthropogenically disturbed areas. Here, we present a draft genome of an O. cincta reference strain with an estimated size of 286.8 Mbp, containing 20,249 genes. In total, 446 gene families are expanded and 1,169 gene families evolved specific to this lineage. Besides these gene families involved in general biological processes, we observe gene clusters participating in xenobiotic biotransformation. Furthermore, we identified 253 cases of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Although the largest percentage of them originated from bacteria (37.5%), we observe an unusually high percentage (30.4%) of such genes of fungal origin. The majority of foreign genes are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cellulose degradation. Moreover, some foreign genes (e.g., bacillopeptidases) expanded after HGT. We hypothesize that horizontally transferred genes could be advantageous for food processing in a soil environment that is full of decaying organic material. Finally, we identified several lineage-specific genes, expanded gene families, and horizontally transferred genes, associated with altered gene expression as a consequence of genetic adaptation to metal stress. This suggests that these genome features may be preadaptations allowing natural selection to act on. In conclusion, this genome study provides a solid foundation for further analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to environmental stressors. PMID:27289101

  5. Gene Family Evolution Reflects Adaptation to Soil Environmental Stressors in the Genome of the Collembolan Orchesella cincta.

    PubMed

    Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Anna; Derks, Martijn F L; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Agamennone, Valeria; Suring, Wouter; Smit, Sandra; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Collembola (springtails) are detritivorous hexapods that inhabit the soil and its litter layer. The ecology of the springtail Orchesella cincta is extensively studied in the context of adaptation to anthropogenically disturbed areas. Here, we present a draft genome of an O. cincta reference strain with an estimated size of 286.8 Mbp, containing 20,249 genes. In total, 446 gene families are expanded and 1,169 gene families evolved specific to this lineage. Besides these gene families involved in general biological processes, we observe gene clusters participating in xenobiotic biotransformation. Furthermore, we identified 253 cases of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Although the largest percentage of them originated from bacteria (37.5%), we observe an unusually high percentage (30.4%) of such genes of fungal origin. The majority of foreign genes are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cellulose degradation. Moreover, some foreign genes (e.g., bacillopeptidases) expanded after HGT. We hypothesize that horizontally transferred genes could be advantageous for food processing in a soil environment that is full of decaying organic material. Finally, we identified several lineage-specific genes, expanded gene families, and horizontally transferred genes, associated with altered gene expression as a consequence of genetic adaptation to metal stress. This suggests that these genome features may be preadaptations allowing natural selection to act on. In conclusion, this genome study provides a solid foundation for further analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to environmental stressors. PMID:27289101

  6. Impact of insect growth regulators on the predator Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bajonero Cuervo, Johanna; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2016-07-01

    The generalist predator Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is an important biological control agent of several arthropod pests in different agroecosystems. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six insect growth regulators sprayed on first-instar larvae of C. cincta. Lufenuron and diflubenzuron were highly harmful to first-instar larvae of C. cincta, causing 100 % of mortality before they reached the second instar. Buprofezin caused ~25 % mortality of the larvae and considerably reduced the fecundity and longevity of the insects, but substantially increased the proportion of females in the surviving population of C. cincta. Methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide did not affect the duration and survival of the immature stages, but methoxyfenozide significantly reduced the fecundity and longevity of the insects. Pyriproxyfen reduced the survival of the larval stage by 19.5 %, but did not affect the development, survival and reproduction of the surviving individuals. Based on reduction coefficient, the insecticides diflubenzuron and lufenuron were considered harmful to C. cincta, whereas buprofezin and methoxyfenozide were slightly harmful and tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen were harmless. The estimation of life-table parameters indicated that buprofezin and methoxyfenozide significantly reduced the R o , r and λ of C. cincta, whereas pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide caused no adverse effect on population parameters, indicating that these insecticides could be suitable for use in pest management programs towards the conservation and population increase of the predator in agroecosystems. However, more studies should be conducted to evaluate the compatibility of these insecticides with the predator C. cincta under semi-field and field conditions. PMID:27137778

  7. Collembola are Unlikely to Cause Human Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, CSH; Lim, SL; Chew, FT; Ong, TC; Deharveng, L

    2009-01-01

    There have been several unconfirmed case reports of dermatitis caused by Collembola (springtails). We recently investigated two nurses with dermatitis suspected to be caused by Drepanura Schött (Collembola: Entomobryidae). IgE antibodies to Collembola proteins were not detected in sera from the nurses and skin tests with the Collembola extract and crushed whole Collembola were negative in both the nurses and volunteers. This study suggests that the springtail Drepanura may not cause human dermatitis and that other organisms and organic matter that are also found in the moist environment inhabited by Collembola might instead be responsible. PMID:19611235

  8. Brain organization in Collembola (springtails).

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2011-07-01

    Arthropoda is comprised of four major taxa: Hexapoda, Crustacea, Myriapoda and Chelicerata. Although this classification is widely accepted, there is still some debate about the internal relationships of these groups. In particular, the phylogenetic position of Collembola remains enigmatic. Some molecular studies place Collembola into a close relationship to Protura and Diplura within the monophyletic Hexapoda, but this placement is not universally accepted, as Collembola is also regarded as either the sister group to Branchiopoda (a crustacean taxon) or to Pancrustacea (crustaceans + hexapods). To contribute to the current debate on the phylogenetic position of Collembola, we examined the brains in three collembolan species: Folsomia candida, Protaphorura armata and Tetrodontophora bielanensis, using antennal backfills, series of semi-thin sections, and immunostaining technique with several antisera, in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions. We identified several neuroanatomical structures in the collembolan brain, including a fan-shaped central body showing a columnar organization, a protocerebral bridge, one pair of antennal lobes with 20-30 spheroidal glomeruli each, and a structure, which we interpret as a simply organized mushroom body. The results of our neuroanatomical study are consistent with the phylogenetic position of Collembola within the Hexapoda and do not contradict the hypothesis of a close relationship of Collembola, Protura and Diplura. PMID:21420507

  9. New Neanurinae (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ru; Wang, Wen-Bin; Jiang, Jigang

    2016-01-01

    Three new species, two of Vitronura and one of Lobellina of subfamily Neanurinae (Neanuridae, Collembola) from Central China are described. In addition a key for valid Lobellina species is included. PMID:27470797

  10. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  11. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  12. Effects of starvation on body composition and cold tolerance in the collembolan Orchesella cincta and the isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, H A.; Nedved, O; Lavy, D

    1997-10-01

    The effects of long-term starvation on the body composition of the isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille) and the collembolan Orchesella cincta (L.) were studied, by determining the body composition in starved and fed animals. A period under summer conditions (19 degrees C, 75% RH and L/D 16/8 photoperiod), was followed by a period under winter conditions (5 degrees C, 75% RH and LD 6/18 photoperiod). O. cincta was held under summer conditions for 3weeks, during which its protein and lipid content decreased, while its water content increased. In P. scaber, the same occurred during the 6weeks they were kept under summer conditions. During subsequent weeks under winter conditions, changes in cold tolerance of the animals were investigated. Cold tolerance and haemolymph osmolality were measured once a week. Starved animals had lower cold tolerance than fed ones. For P. scaber a decreased haemolymph osmolality was found in starved animals compared to fed ones. This is assumed to be caused by a combination of the consumption of carbohydrates out of the haemolymph and of protein reserves and the accumulation of body water. O. cincta appeared to be capable of osmoregulation, as haemolymph osmolality did not differ between starved and fed animals, despite differences in body water content. Decreased cold tolerance in starved animals of both species may be caused by increased water content or, more probably, by the decrease in reserves needed to produce cryoprotective substances.

  13. Mixotrophy in the newly described phototrophic dinoflagellate Woloszynskia cincta from western Korean waters: feeding mechanism, prey species and effect of prey concentration.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nam Seon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Yoo, Yeong Du; Yoon, Eun Young; Lee, Kyung Ha; Lee, Kitack; Kim, Gwanghoon

    2011-01-01

    Woloszynskia species are dinoflagellates in the order Suessiales inhabiting marine or freshwater environments; their ecophysiology has not been well investigated, in particular, their trophic modes have yet to be elucidated. Previous studies have reported that all Woloszynskia species are photosynthetic, although their mixotrophic abilities have not been explored. We isolated a dinoflagellate from coastal waters in western Korea and established clonal cultures of this dinoflagellate. On the basis of morphology and analyses of the small/large subunit rRNA gene (GenBank accession number=FR690459), we identified this dinoflagellate as Woloszynskia cincta. We further established that this dinoflagellate is a mixotrophic species. We found that W. cincta fed on algal prey using a peduncle. Among the diverse prey provided, W. cincta ingested those algal species that had equivalent spherical diameters (ESDs) ≤12.6 μm, exceptions being the diatom Skeletonema costatum and the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. However, W. cincta did not feed on larger algal species that had ESDs≥15 μm. The specific growth rates for W. cincta increased continuously with increasing mean prey concentration before saturating at a concentration of ca. 134 ng C/ml (1,340 cells/ml) when Heterosigma akashiwo was used as food. The maximum specific growth rate (i.e. mixotrophic growth) of W. cincta feeding on H. akashiwo was 0.499 d(-1) at 20 °C under illumination of 20 μE/m(2) /s on a 14:10 h light-dark cycle, whereas its growth rate (i.e. phototrophic growth) under the same light conditions without added prey was 0.040 d(-1). The maximum ingestion and clearance rates of W. cincta feeding on H. akashiwo were 0.49 ng C/grazer/d (4.9 cells/grazer/d) and 1.9 μl/grazer/h, respectively. The calculated grazing coefficients for W. cincta on co-occurring H. akashiwo were up to 1.1 d(-1). The results of the present study suggest that grazing by W. cincta can have a potentially considerable impact

  14. Traumatic ventriculitis following consumption of introduced insect prey (Hymenoptera) in nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    PubMed

    Rippon, Rosemary J; Alley, Maurice R; Castro, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Nestling mortality in the endangered and endemic Hihi, also called Stitchbird (Notiomystis cincta), was studied over the 2008-09 breeding season at Zealandia-Karori Sanctuary, Wellington, New Zealand. Histopathology showed traumatic ventriculitis in seven of 25 (28%) dead nestlings. Single or multiple granulomas centered on chitinous insect remnants were found lodged within the gizzard mucosa, muscle layers, and ventricular or intestinal serosa. The insect remnants were confirmed as bee or wasp stings (Hymenoptera) using light and electron microscopy. Bacteria or yeasts were also found in some granulomas, and death was due to bacterial septicemia in four cases. Endemic New Zealand birds are likely to lack evolutionary adaptations required to safely consume introduced honey bees (Apis mellifera) and vespulid wasps (Vespula germanica [German wasp], and Vespula vulgaris [common wasp]). However, these insects are attracted to feeding stations used to support translocated Hihi populations. As contact between bees, wasps, and the endemic fauna of New Zealand seems inevitable, it may be necessary to minimize the numbers of these introduced insects in areas set aside for ecologic restoration.

  15. Sexually selected dichromatism in the hihi Notiomystis cincta: multiple colours for multiple receivers

    PubMed Central

    Walker, L K; Ewen, J G; Brekke, P; Kilner, R M

    2014-01-01

    Why do some bird species show dramatic sexual dichromatism in their plumage? Sexual selection is the most common answer to this question. However, other competing explanations mean it is unwise to assume that all sexual dichromatism has evolved by this mechanism. Even if sexual selection is involved, further work is necessary to determine whether dichromatism results from competition amongst rival males, or by female choice for attractive traits, or both. Here, we test whether sexually dichromatic hihi (Notiomystis cincta) plumage is currently under sexual selection, with detailed behavioural and genetic analyses of a free-living island population. Bateman gradients measured for males and females reveal the potential for sexual selection, whilst selection gradients, relating reproductive success to specific colourful traits, show that there is stabilizing selection on white ear tuft length in males. By correlating colourful male plumage with different components of reproductive success, we show that properties of yellow plumage are most likely a product of male–male competition, whilst properties of the black and white plumage are an outcome of both male–male competition and female choice. Male plumage therefore potentially signals to multiple receivers (rival males and potential mates), and this may explain the multicoloured appearance of one of the most strikingly dichromatic species in New Zealand. PMID:24836349

  16. Tricholoma matsutake 1-Ocen-3-ol and methyl cinnamate repel mycophagous Proisotoma minuta (Collembola: Insecta).

    PubMed

    Sawahata, Takuo; Shimano, Satoshi; Suzuki, Masahiro

    2008-02-01

    Two major volatiles produced by the mycelia and fruiting bodies of Tricholoma matsutake (1-octen-3-ol and methyl cinnamate) repel a mycophagous collembolan, Proisotoma minuta. Aggregation of the collembolans on their diet was significantly inhibited by exposure to 1 ppm methyl cinnamate or 10 to 100 ppm 1-octen-3-ol. The aggregation activity decreased dose-dependently upon exposure to 1-octen-3-ol at concentrations higher than 0.01 ppm. Aggregation in the presence of methyl cinnamate exhibited three phases: no significant effect at concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 ppm, significant inhibition from 1 to 100 ppm, and strong inhibition at 1,000 ppm. These results may explain why certain collembolan species do not prefer T. matsutake fruiting bodies.

  17. New Method for Automatic Body Length Measurement of the Collembolan, Folsomia candida Willem 1902 (Insecta: Collembola)

    PubMed Central

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Kosztolányi, András; Bakonyi, Gábor; Szabó, Borbála; Dombos, Miklós

    2014-01-01

    The collembolan, Folsomia candida, is widely used in soil ecotoxicology. In recent years, growth rate of collembolans has become as frequently used endpoint as reproduction rate in ecotoxicological studies. However, measuring collembolan body sizes to estimate growth rate is a complicated and time-consuming task. Here we present a new image analysis method, which facilitates and accelerates the body length measurement of the collembolan Folsomia candida. The new software package, called CollScope, consists of three elements: 1) an imaging device; 2) photographing software; 3) an ImageJ macro for image processing, measurement and data analysis. We give a complete description of the operation of the software, the image analyzing process and describe its accuracy and reliability. The software with a detailed usage manual is attached as Supplementary Material. We report a case study to demonstrate that the automated measurement of collembolan body sizes is highly correlated with the traditional manual measurements (estimated measuring accuracy 0.05 mm). Furthermore, we performed a dose-response ecotoxicity test using cadmium-sulfate by using CollScope as well as classical methods for size measurement. Size data measured by CollScope or manually did not differ significantly. Furthermore the new software package decreased time consumption of the measurements to 42% when tested on 35 animals. Consequently, methodological investigations performed in this study should be regarded as a recommendation for any other routine dose-response study where body growth is an endpoint. PMID:24901322

  18. Surface Structure and Wetting Characteristics of Collembola Cuticles

    PubMed Central

    Gundersen, Håkon; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Thaulow, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cuticles of the arthropods Collembola (springtails) are known to be superhydrophobic, displaying such properties as water-repellence and plastron formation; overhanging surface structures have been suggested as the source of these properties. Superhydrophobicity is closely related to surface structuring and other surfaces with overhanging structures have been shown to possess robust superhydrophobic properties. In effort to correlate the wetting performance and surface structuring of the cuticles, from both a technical and evolutionary point of view, we investigated a selection of Collembola species including species from several families and covering habitats ranging from aquatic to very dry. The observed contact angles of wetting was in general larger than those predicted by the conventional models. Not all the studied Collembola were found to have superhydrophobic properties, indicating that superhydrophobicity is common, but not a universal trait in Collembola. Overhanging structures were found in some, but not all Collembola species with superhydrophobic cuticles; which leads to the conclusion that there is no direct link between overhanging surface structures and superhydrophobicity in Collembola. PMID:24498281

  19. Surface structure and wetting characteristics of Collembola cuticles.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Håkon; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Thaulow, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cuticles of the arthropods Collembola (springtails) are known to be superhydrophobic, displaying such properties as water-repellence and plastron formation; overhanging surface structures have been suggested as the source of these properties. Superhydrophobicity is closely related to surface structuring and other surfaces with overhanging structures have been shown to possess robust superhydrophobic properties. In effort to correlate the wetting performance and surface structuring of the cuticles, from both a technical and evolutionary point of view, we investigated a selection of Collembola species including species from several families and covering habitats ranging from aquatic to very dry. The observed contact angles of wetting was in general larger than those predicted by the conventional models. Not all the studied Collembola were found to have superhydrophobic properties, indicating that superhydrophobicity is common, but not a universal trait in Collembola. Overhanging structures were found in some, but not all Collembola species with superhydrophobic cuticles; which leads to the conclusion that there is no direct link between overhanging surface structures and superhydrophobicity in Collembola. PMID:24498281

  20. Condition dependence of nestling mouth colour and the effect of supplementing carotenoids on parental behaviour in the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    PubMed

    Ewen, John G; Thorogood, Rose; Karadas, Filiz; Cassey, Phillip

    2008-08-01

    Carotenoids are integument pigments that often reflect foraging efficiency, disease resistance and body condition. In contrast to the widespread attention this relationship has received in adult birds, the condition dependence of nestling colouration remains an understudied component of animal communication. Here we assess the condition dependence of carotenoid pigmentation in nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta, an endangered New Zealand bird) and examine the influence of carotenoid supplementation on nestling quality and parental visitation rates. Our results show that carotenoids provided to breeding adult hihi were transferred to their offspring and resulted in an intensified orange-yellow flange colour. After accounting for carotenoid supplementation the parameter that most consistently explained variation in nestling flange colour was nestling tarsus length at 23 days, indicating condition dependence of this trait. We did not, however, detect direct effects of carotenoid supplementation on nestling mass or immune response (or any other fitness parameter measured). Carotenoid supplementation did, however, result in an increased paternal provisioning rate.

  1. Folsomia candida (Collembola): a "standard" soil arthropod.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Michelle T; Hopkin, Steve P

    2005-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem 1902, a member of the order Collembola (colloquially called springtails), is a common and widespread arthropod that occurs in soils throughout the world. The species is parthenogenetic and is easy to maintain in the laboratory on a diet of granulated dry yeast. F. candida has been used as a "standard" test organism for more than 40 years for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on nontarget soil arthropods. However, it has also been employed as a model for the investigation of numerous other phenomena such as cold tolerance, quality as a prey item, and effects of microarthropod grazing on pathogenic fungi and mycorrhizae of plant roots. In this comprehensive review, aspects of the life history, ecology, and ecotoxicology of F. candida are covered. We focus on the recent literature, especially studies that have examined the effects of soil pollutants on reproduction in F. candida using the protocol published by the International Standards Organization in 1999.

  2. Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta)

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Patricia; Ewen, John G; Clucas, Gemma; Santure, Anna W

    2015-01-01

    Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders’ sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations. PMID:26366197

  3. Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    PubMed

    Brekke, Patricia; Ewen, John G; Clucas, Gemma; Santure, Anna W

    2015-09-01

    Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders' sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations. PMID:26366197

  4. Negative responses of Collembola in a forest soil (Alptal, Switzerland) under experimentally increased N deposition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Schleppi, Patrick; Li, Mai-He; Fu, Sheng-Lei

    2009-07-01

    The response of specific groups of organisms, like Collembola to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is still scarcely known. We investigated the Collembola community in a subalpine forest (Alptal, Switzerland) as subjected for 12 years to an experimentally increased N deposition (+25 on top of ambient 12 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). In the 0-5 cm soil layer, there was a tendency of total Collembola densities to be lower in N-treated than in control plots. The density of Isotomiella minor, the most abundant species, was significantly reduced by the N addition. A tendency of lower Collembola group richness was observed in N-treated plots. The Density-Group index (dDG) showed a significant reduction of community diversity, but the Shannon-Wiener index (H') was not significantly affected by the N addition. The Collembola community can be considered as a bioindicator of N inputs exceeding the biological needs, namely, soil N saturation.

  5. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa's springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  6. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa's springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  7. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  8. Cucolepis cincta gen.n. et sp.n. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from the squirrel cuckoo Piaya cayana lesson (Aves: Cuculiformes) from Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna J; Mariaux, Jean; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2012-12-01

    Cucolepis gen. n. is erected as monotypic for Cucolepis cincta sp. n., a new species of cyclophyllidean cestode of the family Paruterinidae. The new species is described from the squirrel cuckoo, Piaya cayana Lesson (Aves: Cuculiformes), taken from two localities in Paraguay in 1984 and 1985. This new genus is most similar to the genus Triaenorhina Spasskii et Shumilo, 1965 in terms of the hook morphology and large epiphyseal structures extending from both the handle and guard, but differs in several aspects of the strobilar morphology, such as the shape of the cirrus sac, genital atrium, uterus and paruterine organ. The strobilar morphology of the new genus strongly resembles that of the genus Francobona Georgiev et Kornyushin, 1994, especially the shape of the cirrus sac and genital atrium, yet Francobona spp. lack, the developed epiphyseal structures observed in species of Cucolepis and Triaenorhina. Previous records and the nature of parasite-host associations between cuculiform birds and their cestode parasites are discussed.

  9. Ancient Ephemeroptera-Collembola symbiosis fossilized in amber predicts contemporary phoretic associations.

    PubMed

    Penney, David; McNeil, Andrew; Green, David I; Bradley, Robert S; Jepson, James E; Withers, Philip J; Preziosi, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography is used to identify a unique example of fossilized phoresy in 16 million-year-old Miocene Dominican amber involving a springtail being transported by a mayfly. It represents the first evidence (fossil or extant) of phoresy in adult Ephemeroptera and only the second record in Collembola (the first is also preserved in amber). This is the first record of Collembola using winged insects for dispersal. This fossil predicts the occurrence of similar behaviour in living springtails and helps explain the global distribution of Collembola today. PMID:23082186

  10. Ancient Ephemeroptera–Collembola Symbiosis Fossilized in Amber Predicts Contemporary Phoretic Associations

    PubMed Central

    Penney, David; McNeil, Andrew; Green, David I.; Bradley, Robert S.; Jepson, James E.; Withers, Philip J.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography is used to identify a unique example of fossilized phoresy in 16 million-year-old Miocene Dominican amber involving a springtail being transported by a mayfly. It represents the first evidence (fossil or extant) of phoresy in adult Ephemeroptera and only the second record in Collembola (the first is also preserved in amber). This is the first record of Collembola using winged insects for dispersal. This fossil predicts the occurrence of similar behaviour in living springtails and helps explain the global distribution of Collembola today. PMID:23082186

  11. An introduction to Iranian Collembola (Hexapoda): an update to the species list.

    PubMed

    Shayanmehr, Masoumeh; Yahyapour, Elliyeh; Kahrarian, Morteza; Lafooraki, Elham Yoosefi

    2013-01-01

    The Collembola fauna of Iran is little known and no comprehensive examination of this group of Hexapoda is available for this region. The only notable work on Collembola was carried out by Cox (1982). Recently, studies on the Collembola fauna have started in several regions. In this paper, publications by different researchers are documented and the species that have been found in different regions of Iran until January 2013 are listed. At present, 112 species, belonging to 18 families and 57 genera are known from Iran. PMID:24146566

  12. The Gut of the Soil Microarthropod Folsomia candida (Collembola) Is a Frequently Changeable but Selective Habitat and a Vector for Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Thimm, Torsten; Hoffmann, Andrea; Borkott, Heinz; Charles Munch, Jean; Tebbe, Christoph C.

    1998-01-01

    Interaction potentials between soil microarthropods and microorganisms were investigated with Folsomia candida (Insecta, Collembola) in microcosm laboratory experiments. Microscopic analysis revealed that the volumes of the simple, rod-shaped guts of adult specimens varied with their feeding activity, from 0.7 to 11.2 nl. A dense layer of bacterial cells, associated with the peritrophic membrane, was detected in the midgut by scanning electron microscopy. Depending on the molting stage, which occurred at intervals of approximately 4 days, numbers of heterotrophic, aerobic gut bacteria changed from 4.9 × 102 to 2.3 × 106 CFU per specimen. A total of 11 different taxonomic bacterial groups and the filamentous fungus Acremonium charticola were isolated from the guts of five F. candida specimens. The most abundant isolate was related to Erwinia amylovora (96.2% DNA sequence similarity to its 16S rRNA gene). F. candida preferred to feed on Pseudomonas putida and three indigenous gut isolates rather than eight different type culture strains. When luciferase reporter gene-tagged bacterial strains were pulse fed to F. candida, gut isolates were continuously shed for 8 days to several weeks but Escherichia coli HB101 was shed for only 1 day. Ratios of ingested to released bacterial cells demonstrated that populations of nonindigenous gut bacteria like Sinorhizobium meliloti L33 and E. coli HB101 were reduced by more than 4 orders of magnitude but that the population of gut isolate Alcaligenes faecalis HR4 was reduced only 500-fold. This work demonstrates that F. candida represents a frequently changeable but selective habitat for bacteria in terrestrial environments and that microarthropods have to be considered factors that modify soil microbial communities. PMID:9647845

  13. Springtails in the Classroom: Collembola as Model Organisms for Inquiry-based Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John C.; Tripp, Bradley B.; Simpson, Rod T.; Coleman, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Advocates the use of springtails (Collembola) in the K-12 classroom as a model invertebrate that can easily be reared and manipulated to demonstrate key concepts in biology. Describes experimental procedures using springtails. (SAH)

  14. Three new species of Collembola from soils of Mediterranean cork-oak forests of Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Giuga, Luca; Jordana, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of soil Collembola from cork-oak (Quercus suber) forests located in eastern Sicily (Italy) are described Neonaphorura alicatai sp. nov., Friesea guarinoi sp. nov. and Arrhopalites antonioi sp. nov..

  15. Environmental correlates of species richness of European springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner; Fiera, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge about environmental correlates of the spatial distribution of animal species stems mostly from the study of well known vertebrate and a few invertebrate taxa. The poor spatial resolution of faunistic data and undersampling prohibit detailed spatial modeling for the vast majority of arthropods. However, many such models are necessary for a comparative approach to the impact of environmental factors on the spatial distribution of species of different taxa. Here we use recent compilations of species richness of 35 European countries and larger islands and linear spatial autocorrelation modeling to infer the influence of area and environmental variables on the number of springtail (Collembola) species in Europe. We show that area, winter length and annual temperature difference are major predictors of species richness. We also detected a significant negative longitudinal gradient in the number of springtail species towards Eastern Europe that might be caused by postglacial colonization. In turn, environmental heterogeneity and vascular plant species richness did not significantly contribute to model performance. Contrary to theoretical expectations, climate and longitude corrected species-area relationships of Collembola did not significantly differ between islands and mainlands.

  16. Effects of understory structure on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola (Arthropoda) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Troian, Vera R; Baldissera, Ronei; Hartz, Sandra M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different landscape structures on the understory Collembola community. Four different forest physiognomies were compared: Pinus spp. plantation, Eucalyptus spp. plantation, Araucaria angustifolia plantation, and a remaining native Araucaria forest. Three areas containing two sampling units (25 mx2 m each) were selected in each forest physiognomy. Understory Collembola collection was done with a 1x1 m canvas sheet held horizontally below the vegetation, which was beaten with a 1 m long stick, seasonally from September 2003 to August 2004. We evaluated the influence of forest physiognomies on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola communities. It was also verified if the habitat structure of each physiognomy was associated with the composition of the Collembola community. A total number of 4,111 individuals were collected belonging to the families Entomobrydae and Tomocerida (Entomobryomorpha), and Sminthuridae (Symphypleona), and divided in 12 morphospecies. Pinus plantation presented the highest richness, abundance and diversity of Collembola and it was associated to diverse understory vegetation. The abundance of Entomobrydae and Sminthuridae was associated to the presence of bushes, while Tomoceridae abundance was associated to the presence of trees. The habitat structure, measured through understory vegetation density and composition, plays an important role on the determination of the structure and composition of the Collembola community.

  17. Sneathiella glossodoripedis sp. nov., a marine alphaproteobacterium isolated from the nudibranch Glossodoris cincta, and proposal of Sneathiellales ord. nov. and Sneathiellaceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Midori; Fukunaga, Yukiyo; Harayama, Shigeaki; Yokota, Akira

    2008-03-01

    A novel marine bacterium, designated strain MKT133(T), was isolated from the foot epidermis of a nudibranch, Glossodoris cincta (Mollusca), collected in seawater off the coast of Japan at a depth of 4 m. This bacterium was Gram-negative, motile, mesophilic and strictly aerobic, with small rod-shaped cells. Colonies of the strain after 4-5 days incubation on marine agar 2216 at 30 degrees C were less than 1 mm in diameter. The strain required salt for growth and contained Q-10 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C(18 : 1) omega 7c, C(16 : 0) and C(17 : 1) as major cellular fatty acids and C(14 : 0) 3-OH as a hydroxy fatty acid. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate had highest similarity to Sneathiella chinensis, with 97.2 % sequence similarity to the type strain. Our phylogenetic analysis also revealed that this clade represents a distinct lineage and forms a deep branch with less than 90 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the members of the eight known orders within the Alphaproteobacteria. Sufficient differences exist to distinguish this strain from Sneathiella chinensis. The name Sneathiella glossodoripedis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain MKT133(T) (=IAM 15419(T) =KCTC 12842(T)). The novel order Sneathiellales ord. nov. and family Sneathiellaceae fam. nov. are proposed for the distinct phyletic line represented by the genus Sneathiella. PMID:18319453

  18. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Alatalo, Juha M; Jägerbrand, Annika K; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness. The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change. PMID:26670681

  19. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    PubMed Central

    Alatalo, Juha M.; Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness. The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change. PMID:26670681

  20. Phylogeny of Collembola based on cuticular compounds:inherent usefulness and limitation of a character type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porco, David; Deharveng, Louis

    2009-08-01

    The phylogeny of Collembola, originally discussed from a morphological point of view, has more recently benefited from novel insights brought by molecular analyses. Both morphological and molecular characters produced a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis including all orders, most families, and a large number of genera. However, several conflicting points exist between molecular and morphological data, and new characters are clearly needed to resolve these inconsistencies. In this study the usefulness of a new character type not previously used in the phylogenetic study of Collembola was tested: the epicuticular chemical compounds. Our phylogenetic analysis was based on 380 compounds from 26 Collembola species. The results show good resolution for terminal branches but not for internal nodes. This is probably due to the partial involvement of epicuticular lipids in ecological functions such as water conservation and sexual attraction. Thus, this character type is appropriate for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships among recently diversified groups.

  1. A case of an apparent infestation by Proisotoma spp. springtails (Collembola: Isotomidae) in a cat.

    PubMed

    Beccati, Massimo; Gallo, Maria G; Chiavassa, Elisa; Peano, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This case report is presumed to be the first case of infestation of a cat by springtails which are small arthropods closely related to insects. The organisms, found by skin scrapings, were identified as Proisotoma spp. (Collembola: Isotomidae). The cat presented with dermatological lesions (itchy, furfuraceous dermatitis), and we speculate that they were due to this infestation. The pathogenic role of the Collembola was hypothesized because of the large number of organisms, the presence of eggs indicating an active reproduction cycle, the lack of other pathogens (fleas, mites or lice) and the clinical recovery accompanied by the disappearance of Collembola following treatment. The owner seemed to be affected by the infestation, because a few days after having purchased the cat, she developed a pruriginous papular dermatitis on the neck and the arms, which disappeared shortly after treatment of the kitten and a careful washing of all of its toys and other accoutrements. PMID:22049948

  2. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  3. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category

  4. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-07-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  5. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L; Duffy, Grant A

    2015-07-08

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the 'suctorial' mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  6. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L; Duffy, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the 'suctorial' mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  7. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  8. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  9. Plant species richness drives the density and diversity of Collembola in temperate grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2011-05-01

    Declining biodiversity is one of the most important aspects of anthropogenic global change phenomena, but the implications of plant species loss for soil decomposers are little understood. We used the experimental grassland community of the Jena Experiment to assess the response of density and diversity of Collembola to varying plant species richness, plant functional group richness and plant functional group identity. We sampled the experimental plots in spring and autumn four years after establishment of the experimental plant communities. Collembola density and diversity significantly increased with plant species and plant functional group richness highlighting the importance of the singular hypothesis for soil invertebrates. Generally, grasses and legumes beneficially affected Collembola density and diversity, whereas effects of small herbs usually were detrimental. These impacts were largely consistent in spring and autumn. By contrast, in the presence of small herbs the density of hemiedaphic Collembola and the diversity of Isotomidae increased in spring whereas they decreased in autumn. Beneficial impacts of plant diversity as well as those of grasses and legumes were likely due to increased root and microbial biomass, and elevated quantity and quality of plant residues serving as food resources for Collembola. By contrast, beneficial impacts of small herbs in spring probably reflect differences in microclimatic conditions, and detrimental effects in autumn likely were due to low quantity and quality of resources. The results point to an intimate relationship between plants and the diversity of belowground biota, even at small spatial scales, contrasting the findings of previous studies. The pronounced response of soil animals in the present study was presumably due to the fact that plant communities had established over several years. As decomposer invertebrates significantly impact plant performance, changes in soil biota density and diversity are likely

  10. Bottom-up determination of soil collembola diversity and population dynamics in response to interactive climatic factors.

    PubMed

    A'Bear, A Donald; Boddy, Lynne; Jones, T Hefin

    2013-11-01

    Soil invertebrate contributions to decomposition are climate dependent. Understanding the influence of abiotic factors on soil invertebrate population dynamics will strengthen predictions regarding ecosystem functioning under climate change. As well as being important secondary decomposers, mycophagous collembola exert a strong influence on the growth and activity of primary decomposers, particularly fungi. Species-specific grazing preferences for different fungi enable fungal community composition to influence the direct impacts of climate change on collembola populations. We investigate the interactive roles of altered abiotic conditions (warming, wetting and drying) and the identity of the dominant decomposer fungus in determining collembola community dynamics in woodland soil mesocosms. The bottom-up influence of the dominant component of the fungal resource base was an important mediator of the direct climatic impacts on collembola populations. The positive influences of warming and wetting, and the negative influence of drying, on collembola abundance and diversity were much less pronounced in fungal-inoculation treatments, in which populations were reduced compared with uninoculated mesocosms. We conclude that the thick, sclerotised cords of the competitively dominant decomposer fungi reduced the biomass of smaller, more palatable soil fungi, limiting the size of collembola populations and their ability to respond to altered abiotic conditions. PMID:23609802

  11. A quantitative protocol for DNA metabarcoding of springtails (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Seikoh; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Fujii, Saori; Sunagawa, Haruki; Nagahama, Hideki; Akutsu, Masako; Shinzato, Naoya; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Nakamori, Taizo

    2016-09-01

    We developed a novel protocol with superior quantitative analysis results for DNA metabarcoding of Collembola, a major soil microarthropod order. Degenerate PCR primers were designed for conserved regions in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (mt16S) genes based on published collembolan mitogenomes. The best primer pair was selected based on its ability to amplify each gene, irrespective of the species. DNA was extracted from 10 natural communities sampled in a temperate forest (with typically 25-30 collembolan species per 10 soil samples) and 10 mock communities (with seven cultured collembolan species). The two gene regions were then amplified using the selected primers, ligated with adapters for 454 technology, and sequenced. Examination of the natural community samples showed that 32 and 36 operational taxonomic units (defined at a 90% sequence similarity threshold) were recovered from the mtCOI and mt16S data, respectively, which were comparable to the results of the microscopic identification of 25 morphospecies. Further, sequence abundances for each collembolan species from the mtCOI and mt16S data of the mock communities, after normalization by using a species as the internal control, showed good correlation with the number of individuals in the samples (R = 0.91-0.99), although relative species abundances within a mock community sample estimated from sequences were skewed from community composition in terms of the number of individuals or biomass of the species. Thus, this protocol enables the comparison of collembolan communities in a quantitative manner by metabarcoding. PMID:27611697

  12. The multi-layered protective cuticle of Collembola: a chemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nickerl, Julia; Tsurkan, Mikhail; Hensel, René; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Collembola, also known as springtails, are soil-dwelling arthropods that typically respire through the cuticle. To avoid suffocating in wet conditions, Collembola have evolved a complex, hierarchically nanostructured, cuticle surface that repels water with remarkable efficiency. In order to gain a more profound understanding of the cuticle characteristics, the chemical composition and architecture of the cuticle of Tetrodontophora bielanensis was studied. A stepwise removal of the different cuticle layers enabled controlled access to each layer that could be analysed separately by chemical spectrometry methods and electron microscopy. We found a cuticle composition that consisted of three characteristic layers, namely, a chitin-rich lamellar base structure overlaid by protein-rich nanostructures, and a lipid-rich envelope. The specific functions, composition and biological characteristics of each cuticle layer are discussed with respect to adaptations of Collembola to their soil habitat. It was found that the non-wetting characteristics base on a rather typical arthropod cuticle surface chemistry which confirms the decisive role of the cuticle topography. PMID:25100321

  13. The multi-layered protective cuticle of Collembola: a chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nickerl, Julia; Tsurkan, Mikhail; Hensel, René; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    Collembola, also known as springtails, are soil-dwelling arthropods that typically respire through the cuticle. To avoid suffocating in wet conditions, Collembola have evolved a complex, hierarchically nanostructured, cuticle surface that repels water with remarkable efficiency. In order to gain a more profound understanding of the cuticle characteristics, the chemical composition and architecture of the cuticle of Tetrodontophora bielanensis was studied. A stepwise removal of the different cuticle layers enabled controlled access to each layer that could be analysed separately by chemical spectrometry methods and electron microscopy. We found a cuticle composition that consisted of three characteristic layers, namely, a chitin-rich lamellar base structure overlaid by protein-rich nanostructures, and a lipid-rich envelope. The specific functions, composition and biological characteristics of each cuticle layer are discussed with respect to adaptations of Collembola to their soil habitat. It was found that the non-wetting characteristics base on a rather typical arthropod cuticle surface chemistry which confirms the decisive role of the cuticle topography. PMID:25100321

  14. Trophic transfer of silver nanoparticles from earthworms disrupts the locomotion of springtails (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jin Il; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how nanomaterials are transferred through food chains and evaluating their resulting toxicity is important. However, limited research has been conducted on the toxic consequences of trophically transferred nanomaterials in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we documented the adverse effects of trophically transferred silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a soil-earthworm (Eisenia andrei)-Collembola (Lobella sokamensis) food chain. We exposed E. andrei to soil with AgNPs at concentrations of 50, 200, and 500μg AgNPs/g soil dry weight and assessed their survival after 7days. Trophic-transfer containers were then prepared and E. andrei that survived the 7days test period were washed, killed in boiling water, and added to the containers with L. sokamensis. We noted negligible effects and low bioaccumulation at the lowest AgNP concentration (50μg AgNPs/g soil dry weight) in earthworms and the L. sokamensis that fed on them. The highest concentration of AgNPs (500μg AgNPs/g soil dry weight) resulted in juvenile earthworm mortality and increased transfer of AgNPs to Collembola, which subsequently inhibited their locomotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the trophic transfer and adverse effects of AgNPs in a soil-earthworm-Collembola food chain, a common prey-decomposer interaction in soil ecosystems. PMID:27187058

  15. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of five endemic cave-restricted species.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-01-01

    Eight species of Collembola are reported from recent collections made in caves on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Five of these species are new to science and apparently endemic to the island: Coecobrya aitorererere n. sp., Cyphoderus manuneru n. sp., Entomobrya manuhoko n. sp., Pseudosinella hahoteana n. sp. and Seira manukio n. sp. The Hawaiian species Lepidocyrtus olena Christiansen & Bellinger and the cosmopolitan species Folsomia candida Willem also were collected from one or more caves. Coecobrya kennethi Jordana & Baquero, recently described from Rapa Nui and identified as endemic, was collected in sympatric association with C. aitorererere n.sp. With the exception of F. candida, all species are endemic to Rapa Nui or greater Polynesia and appear to be restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A key is provided to separate Collembola species reported from Rapa Nui. We provide recommendations to aid in the conservation and management of these new Collembola, as well as the other presumed cave-restricted arthropods.

  16. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  17. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  18. Collembola, the biological species concept and the underestimation of global species richness.

    PubMed

    Cicconardi, Francesco; Fanciulli, Pietro P; Emerson, Brent C

    2013-11-01

    Despite its ancient origin, global distribution and abundance in nearly all habitats, the class Collembola is comprised of only 8000 described species and is estimated to number no more than 50,000. Many morphologically defined species have broad geographical ranges that span continents, and recent molecular work has revealed high genetic diversity within species. However, the evolutionary significance of this genetic diversity is unknown. In this study, we sample five morphological species of the globally distributed genus Lepidocyrtus from 14 Panamanian sampling sites to characterize genetic diversity and test morphospecies against the biological species concept. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data were analysed and a total of 58 molecular lineages revealed. Deep lineage diversification was recovered, with 30 molecular lineages estimated to have established more than 10 million years ago, and the origin almost all contemporary lineages preceding the onset of the Pleistocene (~2 Mya). Thirty-four lineages were sampled in sympatry revealing unambiguous cosegregation of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence variation, consistent with biological species. Species richness within the class Collembola and the geographical structure of this diversity are substantially misrepresented components of terrestrial animal biodiversity. We speculate that global species richness of Collembola could be at least an order of magnitude greater than a previous estimate of 50,000 species.

  19. Soil Collembola communities within Plešné Lake and Čertovo Lake catchments, the Bohemian Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuchta, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The soil Collembola communities were studied for three years in disturbed spruce forest stands in the catchments areas of Čertovo and Plešné Lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. The study was focused on the impact of the windthrow, bark beetle outbreak damage and consecutive changes in the forest stands including soil environment. Four different treatments were selected for the study on both study areas: undamaged (control) forest stands, "dead" forest stands damaged by bark beetle, slightly managed windthrown forest stands left for the natural succession, and freshly harvested windthrown stands. After two years of research a total of 7,294 Collembola specimens were recorded belonging to 93 species. We recorded the highest collembolan abundance and species richness in the reference stands within catchments of both lakes, while both given parameters were considerably lower in harmed forest stands. To summarize, the disturbance led to a general decrease of Collembola communities.

  20. Collembola populations under sclerophyllous coppices in Provence (France): comparison between two types of vegetation, Quercus ilex L. and Quercus coccifera L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortet, Jérôme; Poinsot-Balaguer, Nicole

    1998-10-01

    A comparative analysis of soil Collembola using two types of sclerophyllous vegetation ( Quercus ilex and Quercus coccifera) was performed at a calcareous site in Provence (France). Collembola populations were examined over a one-year period (11 successive months) in three different soil layers. Although no statistically significant differences could be observed for Collembola abundance and diversity, multivariate analyses (FCA) differentiated the two coppices. Phenologies of some species showed specific responses to the microclimate induced by edaphic conditions. Even though the two coppices were sclerophyllous, the structure of each vegetation, the quantity and quality of litter, which were different, could influence environmental conditions and thus the dynamics of collembolan populations.

  1. The mitochondrial genome of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenosvesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore,Jeffrey L.; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward As and Ts, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the 16S rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects.

  2. The complete mitogenome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoning; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing data with an average coverage of 1406.7X. The circular genome is 15,122 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop or control region. The tRNA-Ile gene was not found in the mitochondrial genome, as is identical to two other curculionidae species, i.e. Sphenophorus sp. (GU176342) and Naupactus xanthographus (GU176345). All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 started with TTG. Two PCGs (COI and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T. Two PCGs (ND4L and ND1) harbor the stop codon TAG, while all other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (38.7% A, 14.4% C, 9.2% G and 37.8% T) with an overall AT content of 76.5%.

  3. Fine structure of adhesive devices of Strepsiptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf G

    2004-01-01

    Legs and other body parts of males, females and first instar larvae of almost all recognised families of Strepsiptera (Insecta) were examined. Descriptions of tibial, tarsal and pretarsal adhesive structures for each family are presented. These and attachment devices not associated with the legs are discussed. Strepsiptera evolved two strictly different types of tarsal attachment structures: hairy surfaces in the males and smooth flexible pads in the first instar larvae. Additional adhesive devices are present in several subgroups: mushroom-shaped microtrichia on the maxillary palp of males of Bohartillidae and acute pointed tibiae, or tarsal segments of males in different families. First instar larvae have evolved adhesive hairs on the ventral side of the body and on the podomeres. Specialised adhesive hairs are absent in the groundplan of adult males of Strepsiptera, but have evolved with the adoption of permanent endoparasitism of females. The most elaborate attachment structures, both in males and first instar larvae, are present in parasites of fast flying hymenopteran hosts (Aculeata). PMID:18089021

  4. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

    PubMed

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  5. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates—filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates. PMID:23904586

  6. Austrodontella monticola sp. nov., a new species of Collembola from montane New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Babenko, Anatoly; Minor, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Collembola were collected from soil in the alpine belt (1600-1900 m a.s.l.) of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. A list of species found is provided. Austrodontella monticola sp. nov., the third species of a Odontellidae genus with a southern distribution is described. The other two species in the genus occur in southern Australia and in the Indian Ocean sector of the Subantarctic respectively. Notes on A. trispina (Womersley, 1935), the type species of the genus, are provided. PMID:26249888

  7. New genus, new species and new record of Neanurinae (Collembola, Neanuridae) for the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Gabriel C; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and a new species of Paleonurini (Collembola, Neanurinae) are described in this paper. The new species Ectonura snowdeni sp. nov., is the first record of the austral genus Ectonura for the Neotropics. A new genus from Southeast Brazil, Itanura gen. nov., is created based mainly on head tubercles arrangement. Its type species is Neanura brasiliensis Arlé, 1959 comb. nov., which is redescribed with the designation of a lectotype. Its distribution range is expanded with two new records from high altitude mountains of Southeast Brazil. Specimens from these two localities exhibit small morphological differences with those of the type locality, which are discussed. PMID:26624092

  8. New genus, new species and new record of Neanurinae (Collembola, Neanuridae) for the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Gabriel C; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and a new species of Paleonurini (Collembola, Neanurinae) are described in this paper. The new species Ectonura snowdeni sp. nov., is the first record of the austral genus Ectonura for the Neotropics. A new genus from Southeast Brazil, Itanura gen. nov., is created based mainly on head tubercles arrangement. Its type species is Neanura brasiliensis Arlé, 1959 comb. nov., which is redescribed with the designation of a lectotype. Its distribution range is expanded with two new records from high altitude mountains of Southeast Brazil. Specimens from these two localities exhibit small morphological differences with those of the type locality, which are discussed.

  9. The spermatogenesis and oogenesis of the springtail Podura aquatica Linné, 1758 (Hexapoda: Collembola).

    PubMed

    Fanciulli, Pietro Paolo; Gottardo, Marco; Dallai, Romano

    2013-06-01

    Podura aquatica is a springtail of uncertain systematic position. Our study dealing with the ultrastructure of the spermatogenesis and oogenesis of this species is a contribution to a better knowledge of both the reproduction and the systematics of the taxon. In the male, the spermatogenesis proceeds in a similar way to that of other Collembola. Primary spermatocytes do not show synaptonemal complexes which, instead, are found in primary oocytes. Thus a genomic recombination seems to be present only in females, as it occurs in other springtails. Degeneration of secondary spermatocytes, as reported in some families of the Symphypleona, was not observed in P. aquatica. At the end of spermiogenesis, a rolled up sperm cell provided with an anterior long appendage adhering to the acrosome is produced. In the female, the oogenesis also proceeds in a conventional way with the production of eggs rich in yolk. A branched spermatheca is present at the end of the common oviduct, close to the genital opening. It contains many sperm in its lumen. Contrary to the globular appearance of sperm cells in the male genital ducts, in the spermatheca they are straight, elongated, and lack the long anterior appendage. P. aquatica shows a spermatogenesis, sperm structure, and oogenesis similar to those of other Collembola. In agreement with the results of recent phylogenetic studies, we confirm that P. aquatica is a member of Poduridae, and it does not belong to a group close to the Symphypleona. PMID:23515073

  10. The impact of disturbance and ensuing forestry practices on Collembola in spruce forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuchta, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Soil Collembola communities were investigated in spruce forest stands of the High Tatra Mts that had been heavily damaged by a windstorm in November 2004 and subsequently by a wildfire in July 2005. The study focused on the impact of these disturbances and forestry practices on collembolan community distribution and structure four years after the disturbance. Four different treatments were selected for this study: intact forest stands (REF), non-extracted windthrown stands (NEX), clear-cut windthrown stands (EXT) and burnt windthrown stands (FIR). From a total of 7,820 individuals, 72 species were identified. The highest total abundance mean was recorded in FIR stands followed by NEX and EXT stands and, surprisingly, the lowest in REF stands. The highest total species richness was observed in REF stands, followed by NEX stands and FIR stands and the lowest in EXT stands. In REF and NEX stands the most abundant species were Folsomia penicula and Tetracanthella fjellbergi, while in heavily damaged stands the most abundant was Anurophorus laricis. The present study shows the negative impact of windthrow on Collembola communities as reflected in decreased species richness and abundance. However, disturbance by fire caused a considerable increase in collembolan abundance three years after the event. Moreover, we found out that clearing of windthrown spruce forests after a windstorm is less favourable for communities of soil collembolans and slows down the recovery process.

  11. Monochoroterpes, a replacement name for Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 (Insecta: Ephemeroptera), nec Monophyllus Leach, 1821 (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Kluge, Nikita J; Jacobus, Luke M

    2015-01-01

    The genus group name Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 was established to include a single species of the mayfly family Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Hainan Island, China, Choroterpes (Monophyllus) monophyllus Kluge, 2012. Unfortunately, this name is preoccupied by Monophyllus Leach, 1821, a genus of Phyllostomidae bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from the Antilles (type species: M. redmani Leach, 1821: 76). Therefore, we propose a replacement name for the mayfly genus group as follows. PMID:25947682

  12. Sorting out non-sorted circles: Effects of winter climate change on the Collembola community of cryoturbated subarctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krab, Eveline; Monteux, Sylvain; Becher, Marina; Blume-Werry, Gesche; Keuper, Frida; Klaminder, Jonatan; Kobayashi, Makoto; Lundin, Erik J.; Milbau, Ann; Roennefarth, Jonas; Teuber, Laurenz Michael; Weedon, James; Dorrepaal, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Non-sorted circles (NSC) are a common type of cryoturbated (frost-disturbed) soil in the arctic and store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) by the burial of organic matter. They appear as sparsely vegetated areas surrounded by denser tundra vegetation, creating patterned ground. Snowfall in the arctic is expected to increase, which will modify freezing intensity and freeze-thaw cycles in soils, thereby impacting on SOC dynamics. Vegetation, soil fauna and microorganisms, important drivers of carbon turnover, may benefit directly from the altered winter conditions and the resulting reduction in cryoturbation, but may also impact each other through trophic cascading. We investigated how Collembola, important decomposer soil fauna in high latitude ecosystems, are affected by increased winter insulation and vegetation cover. We subjected NSC in North-Swedish subarctic alpine tundra to two years of increased thermal insulation (snow fences or fiber cloth) in winter and spring, increasing soil temperatures and strongly reducing freeze-thaw frequency. From these NSC we sampled the Collembola community in: (i) the non-vegetated center, (ii) sparsely vegetated parts in the center and (iii) the vegetated domain surrounding NSC. To link changes in Collembola density and community composition to SOC dynamics, we included measurements of decomposer activity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total extractable nitrogen (TN). We observed differences in Collembola density, community composition and soil fauna activity between the sampling points in the NSC. Specifically Collembola diversity increased with the presence of vegetation and density was higher in the vegetated outer domains. Increased winter insulation did not affect diversity but seemed to negatively affect density and decomposer activity in the vegetated outer domains. Interestingly, SOM distribution over NSC changed with snow addition (also to a lesser extent with fleece insulation) towards less SOM in the

  13. Checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): an update based on the 2004 to 2013 literature.

    PubMed

    Larivière, Marie-Claude; Larochelle, André

    2014-01-23

    An updated checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) is provided as a supplement to the "Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue" of Larivière and Larochelle (2004: Fauna of New Zealand 50). A total of 142 genera and 319 species belonging to 28 families are recorded for New Zealand. Changes to the 2004 catalogue are documented. The synonymy and primary type information of taxa described between 2004 and July 2013 are also given. The presence of the anthocorid Macrotrachelia nigronitens in New Zealand is confirmed.

  14. Proteomics of cryoprotective dehydration in Megaphorura arctica Tullberg 1876 (Onychiuridae: Collembola).

    PubMed

    Thorne, M A S; Worland, M R; Feret, R; Deery, M J; Lilley, K S; Clark, M S

    2011-06-01

    The Arctic springtail, Megaphorura arctica Tullberg 1876 (Onychiuridae: Collembola), is one of the few organisms known to survive the extreme stresses of its environment by using cryoprotective dehydration. We have undertaken a proteomics study comparing M. arctica, acclimated at -2°C, the temperature known to induce the production of the anhydroprotectant trehalose in this species, and -6°C, the temperature at which trehalose expression plateaus, against control animals acclimated at +5°C. Using difference gel electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identified three categories of differentially expressed proteins with specific functions, up-regulated in both the -2°C and -6°C animals, that were involved in metabolism, membrane transport and protein folding. Proteins involved in cytoskeleton organisation were only up-regulated in the -6°C animals. PMID:21199019

  15. Population dynamics and diapause response of the springtail pest Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae) in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John M K; Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Weeks, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The springtail, Sminthurus viridis (L.) (Collembola: Sminthuridae), is an important agricultural pest across southern Australia. We investigated the seasonal abundance patterns and summer diapause response of S. viridis in southeastern Australia by using field and shadehouse (a greenhouse that offers seedlings shade) experiments. Seasonal activity patterns of S. viridis were largely consistent with previous studies, with the pest active from autumn to spring. In addition, the timing and pattern of the summer-diapausing egg stage was established, with multiple generations probably producing diapause eggs. A strong relationship between soil moisture and temperature with autumn emergence also was observed. These results suggest that S. viridis autumn pest pressure can be predicted and indicate that late-season spraying strategies currently used for a sympatric agricultural pest are unlikely to be as effective against S. viridis. PMID:21510194

  16. Effects of Season and Management of Irrigated Cotton Fields on Collembola (Hexapoda) in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lytton-Hitchins, James A; Greenslade, Penelope; Wilson, Lewis J

    2015-06-01

    The effects of production practices on the relative abundance of springtails (Collembola) in irrigated cotton fields of northern New South Wales (NSW) were studied over 2 yr to examine effects of farm management on these decomposer organisms. Pitfall trapping and soil core extraction was undertaken in both pseudoreplicated plots within whole fields on cotton farms and on experimental replicate plots of Envirofeast cotton and Lucerne. The relative abundance of surface-active springtails in cotton rows and densities of soil species from the rhizosphere were calculated. Twenty-three species of Collembola were collected from 5 fields, 19 in pitfall traps, and 11 in soil cores. Five species, Setogaster sp., Proisotoma minuta, Entomobrya unostrigata, Entomobrya multifasciata grp, and Lepidobrya sp. were numerically dominant on the ground at 86-96% of individuals and Mesaphorura sp., Folsomides parvulus, and Hemisotoma thermophila grp dominant in the soil. Native grassland samples contained 15 species of which a probable 10 were native and 8 were not found in cotton. Nineteen species of the 24 species identified from cotton were predominantly fungal feeders. Highest catches of Collembola occurred after flowering and soil Collembola increased with depth and during cotton growth on unsprayed plots but decreased on sprayed plots. Surface soil moistures affected daily catch rates with decomposing residues, crop stage, predator abundance, and season as secondary factors. Insecticide (endosulfan, pyrethroid, carbamate, and organophosphate) and predator effects were either negligible or unclear depending on the factor involved. Springtails appear to be predominately food limited during times of adequate soil moisture in cotton fields. PMID:26313958

  17. Assessing the potential for intrinsic recovery in a Collembola two-generation study: possible implementation in a tiered soil risk assessment approach for plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Gregor; Kabouw, Patrick; Barth, Markus; Marx, Michael T; Frommholz, Ursula; Royer, Stefanie; Friedrich, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Collembola are soil dwelling organisms that provide important ecosystem services within soils. To increase realism in evaluating potential effects of plant protection products a Collembola two-generation study was developed. This test assesses the potential for recovery of Collembola when exposed to plant protection products. Juvenile individuals of Folsomia candida (Willem, Ann Soc Entomol Belg 46:275-283, 1902) which hatched under conditions of exposure to a test substance in a modified OECD 232 bioassay were introduced into a second consecutive bioassay containing the same test substance aged in soil. This test system determines whether a population which was initially impacted by a substance in a 1st bioassay shows normal reproduction or survival in a 2nd bioassay after aging of the test substance in soil. An intermediate period for juvenile growth is included between the 1st and 2nd bioassay in order to reduce the control treatment variability in reproduction and mortality to fulfill the validity criteria according to the OECD 232 guideline. The Collembola two-generation study is able to differentiate between substances showing either a potential long-term risk or comprising a low risk. Comparing the results of this two generation study with data from semi-field or field studies indicates a high degree of conservatism when this test is considered within a tiered risk assessment scheme. This approach represents a valuable tool which makes the risk assessment more efficient by providing an alternative refinement option for highly conservative tier 1 Collembola risk assessment. PMID:26441339

  18. Assessing the potential for intrinsic recovery in a Collembola two-generation study: possible implementation in a tiered soil risk assessment approach for plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Gregor; Kabouw, Patrick; Barth, Markus; Marx, Michael T; Frommholz, Ursula; Royer, Stefanie; Friedrich, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Collembola are soil dwelling organisms that provide important ecosystem services within soils. To increase realism in evaluating potential effects of plant protection products a Collembola two-generation study was developed. This test assesses the potential for recovery of Collembola when exposed to plant protection products. Juvenile individuals of Folsomia candida (Willem, Ann Soc Entomol Belg 46:275-283, 1902) which hatched under conditions of exposure to a test substance in a modified OECD 232 bioassay were introduced into a second consecutive bioassay containing the same test substance aged in soil. This test system determines whether a population which was initially impacted by a substance in a 1st bioassay shows normal reproduction or survival in a 2nd bioassay after aging of the test substance in soil. An intermediate period for juvenile growth is included between the 1st and 2nd bioassay in order to reduce the control treatment variability in reproduction and mortality to fulfill the validity criteria according to the OECD 232 guideline. The Collembola two-generation study is able to differentiate between substances showing either a potential long-term risk or comprising a low risk. Comparing the results of this two generation study with data from semi-field or field studies indicates a high degree of conservatism when this test is considered within a tiered risk assessment scheme. This approach represents a valuable tool which makes the risk assessment more efficient by providing an alternative refinement option for highly conservative tier 1 Collembola risk assessment.

  19. The effect of the glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine e nicosulfuron herbicides upon the Edaphic collembola (Arthropoda: Ellipura) in a no tillage system.

    PubMed

    Lins, Vilma S; Santos, Honório R; Gonçalves, Manoel C

    2007-01-01

    The use of herbicides is a common and intensive practice in no tillage systems. The herbicides can influence, directly or indirectly, the population of edaphic arthropods. Collembola is a group that functions as a bio-indicator of soil conditions. The degree of abundance and diversity of Collembola provides the level of soil disturbance provoked by agricultural practices. This experiment was designed to compare the influence of herbicides on the population fluctuation of Collembola in a no-till soil preparation system. The work was conducted in a non irrigated no-till area at the Núcleo Experimental de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campus de Dourados, in soil planted with corn as a surface covering, during the period of December, 2002 to December, 2003. The data were analyzed according to a completely randomized model, in a split plot design. The plots received four types of herbicides: glyphosate, atrazine, 2,4-D and nicosulfuron. A fifth plot did not receive any herbicide (control), for a total of five treatment types. The sub plots were represented by their collection times (10, 20, 30 and 40 days after the herbicide applications). Both the type of herbicide and the time of data sampling influenced the Collembola population fluctuaction. The treatments with atrazine and 2,4-D caused the most reduction of the population of Collembola, depending on the time of application.

  20. Structural variation of the ribosomal gene cluster within the class Insecta

    SciTech Connect

    Mukha, D.V.; Sidorenko, A.P.; Lazebnaya, I.V.

    1995-09-01

    General estimation of ribosomal DNA variation within the class Insecta is presented. It is shown that, using blot-hybridization, one can detect differences in the structure of the ribosomal gene cluster not only between genera within an order, but also between species within a genera, including sibling species. Structure of the ribosomal gene cluster of the Coccinellidae family (ladybirds) is analyzed. It is shown that cloned highly conservative regions of ribosomal DNA of Tetrahymena pyriformis can be used as probes for analyzing ribosomal genes in insects. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Trichadenotecnum species from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Lienhard, Charles; Ghani, Idris Abd

    2014-07-14

    Species of the bark louse genus Trichadenotecnum Enderlein (Insecta: Psocodea) from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore are revised with illustrations and identification keys. Twenty species are here recognised, with four new species and ten recorded for the first time from this region, together with an unnamed species represented by a single female. The previously described species T. marginatum New & Thornton is not included because its generic assignment is questionable. Females of T. cinnamonum Endang & New, T. imrum New & Thornton and T. sibolangitense Endang, Thornton & New, and the male of T. kerinciense Endang & New are described for the first time. A new species group is defined for T. krucilense Endang, Thornton & New.

  2. Masquerading as self? Endoparasitic Strepsiptera (Insecta) enclose themselves in host-derived epidermal bag.

    PubMed

    Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney; Ross, Larry D; Johnston, J Spencer

    2003-06-24

    We report here the case of a metazoan parasite, a strepsipteran, that manipulates host epidermal tissue and wraps itself within it; which probably camouflages the endoparasite and is recognized as "self" by the host. This mechanism is one of immune avoidance among parasitoid insects. The host-derived epidermal "bag" might have enabled Strepsiptera to radiate to disparate hosts compared with the relatively few taxa (596 species) described so far. They have been recorded as parasitizing 34 families belonging to seven orders of Insecta. We also report a mechanism of insect ecdysis between the first- and second-instar larva, while enclosed in the bag. PMID:12788973

  3. Environmental physiology of three species of Collembola at Cape Hallett, North Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent J; Terblanche, John S; Scott, Matthew B; Blatch, Gregory L; Jaco Klok, C; Chown, Steven L

    2006-01-01

    The environmental physiology of three speciesof Collembola: Cryptopygus cisantarcticus, Isotoma klovstadi (Isotomidae) and Friesea grisea (Neanuridae) was investigated from November 2002 to February 2003 at Cape Hallett, North Victoria Land, Antarctica. All three species were freeze avoiding, and while supercooling points were variable on seasonal and daily scales in I. klovstadi and C. cisantarcticus, they remained largely static in F. grisea. LT50 (temperature where 50% of animals are killed by cold) was -13.6, -19.1 and -19.8 degrees C for C. cisantarcticus, I. klovstadi and F. grisea, respectively. Upper lethal temperature was 34, 34 and 38 degrees C for C. cisantarcticus, I. klovstadi and F. grisea. Critical thermal minimum onset (the temperature where individuals entered chill coma) was ca. -7, -12 and -8 degrees C for C. cisantarcticus, I. klovstadi and F. grisea, and 25% of I. klovstadi individuals froze without entering chill coma. Critical thermal maximum (the onset of spasms at high temperature) was 30, 33 and 34 degrees C for C. cisantarcticus, I. klovstadi and F. grisea. Haemolymph osmolality was approximately 720 mOsm for C. cisantarcticus and 680 mOsm for I. klovstadi, and both species showed a moderate degree of thermal hysteresis, which persisted through the season. Desiccation resistance was measured as survival above silica gel, and the species survived in the rank order of C. cisantarcticus< I. klovstadi = F. grisea. Desiccation resulted in an increase in haemolymph osmolality in I. klovstadi, and water was quickly regained by desiccation-stressed individuals that had access to liquid water, but not by individuals placed in high humidity, indicating that this species is unable to absorb atmospheric water vapour. SDS-PAGE did not suggest any strong patterns in protein synthesis either seasonally or in response to temperature or desiccation stress. Microclimate temperatures were measured at sites representative of collection sites for the three

  4. Genetic diversity among populations of Antarctic springtails (Collembola) within the Mackay Glacier ecotone.

    PubMed

    Beet, Clare R; Hogg, Ian D; Collins, Gemma E; Cowan, Don A; Wall, Diana H; Adams, Byron J

    2016-09-01

    Climate changes are likely to have major influences on the distribution and abundance of Antarctic terrestrial biota. To assess arthropod distribution and diversity within the Ross Sea region, we examined mitochondrial DNA (COI) sequences for three currently recognized species of springtail (Collembola) collected from sites in the vicinity, and to the north of, the Mackay Glacier (77°S). This area acts as a transition between two biogeographic regions (northern and southern Victoria Land). We found populations of highly divergent individuals (5%-11.3% intraspecific sequence divergence) for each of the three putative springtail species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity. Based on molecular clock estimates, these divergent lineages are likely to have been isolated for 3-5 million years. It was during this time that the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) was likely to have completely collapsed, potentially facilitating springtail dispersal via rafting on running waters and open seaways. The reformation of the WAIS would have isolated newly established populations, with subsequent dispersal restricted by glaciers and ice-covered areas. Given the currently limited distributions for these genetically divergent populations, any future changes in species' distributions can be easily tracked through the DNA barcoding of springtails from within the Mackay Glacier ecotone. PMID:27463035

  5. Cryptic Diversity in the Ubiquist Species Parisotoma notabilis (Collembola, Isotomidae): A Long-Used Chimeric Species?

    PubMed Central

    Porco, David; Potapov, Mikhail; Bedos, Anne; Busmachiu, Galina; Weiner, Wanda M.; Hamra-Kroua, Salah; Deharveng, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Parisotoma notabilis is the most common species of Collembola in Europe and is currently designated as ubiquist. This species has been extensively used in numerous studies and is considered as well characterized on a morphological ground. Despite the homogeneity of its morphology, the sequencing of the barcoding fragment (5′ end of COI) for several populations throughout Europe and North America revealed four distinct genetic lineages. The divergence found between these lineages was similar to the genetic distance among other species of the genus Parisotoma included in the analysis. All four lineages have been confirmed by the nuclear gene 28S. This congruence between mitochondrial and nuclear signals, as well as the geographical distribution pattern of lineages observed in Europe, supports the potential specific status of these lineages. Based on specimens from the type locality (Hamburg), the species name was successfully assigned to one of these lineages. This finding raises several problems as Parisotoma notabilis has been widely used in many ecological studies. Accumulation of new data for the different lineages detected, especially ecological information and life history traits, is needed to help resolve this situation. PMID:23049931

  6. Catalogue of type materials of springtails (Hexapoda, Collembola) in the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids & Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Stebaeva, Sophya; Lonsdale, Owen; Babenko, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    The catalogue assembles and updates all data concerning the type material of Collembola kept in the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids & Nematodes in Ottawa (CNC). Information is provided for type material of 69 species. Included are holotypes of 31 species (together with 5 ones from Cretaceous amber), syntypes of 26 species (four of them are presently considered to be junior synonyms) and paratypes of 32 species (one of which is considered a junior synonym). Essential label data, references to original descriptions, and modern status including synonyms are given. PMID:27394350

  7. A comparative study of the effects of metal contamination on Collembola in the field and in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Fountain, M T; Hopkin, S P

    2004-08-01

    We examined the species diversity and abundance of Collembola at 32 sampling points along a gradient of metal contamination in a rough grassland site (Wolverhampton, England), formerly used for the disposal of metal-rich smelting waste. Differences in the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn between the least and most contaminated part of the 35 metre transect were more than one order of magnitude. A gradient of Zn concentrations from 597 to 9080 microg g(-1) dry soil was found. A comparison between field concentrations of the four metals and previous studies on their relative toxicities to Collembola, suggested that Zn is likely to be responsible for any ecotoxicological effects on springtails at this site. Euedaphic (soil dwelling) Collembola were extracted by placing soil cores into Tullgren funnels and epedaphic (surface dwelling) species were sampled using pitfall traps. There was no obvious relationship between the total abundance, or a range of commonly used diversity indices, and Zn levels in soils. However, individual species showed considerable differences in abundance. Metal "tolerant" (e.g., Ceratophysella denticulata) and metal "sensitive" (e.g., Cryptopygus thermophilus) species could be identified. Epedaphic species appeared to be influenced less by metal contamination than euedaphic species. This difference is probably due to the higher mobility and lower contact with the soil pore water of epedaphic springtails in comparison to euedaphic Collembola. In an experiment exposing the standard test springtail, Folsomia candida, to soils from all 32 sampling points, adult survival and reproduction showed small but significant negative relationships with total Zn concentrations. Nevertheless, juveniles were still produced from eggs laid by females in the most contaminated soils with 9080 microg g(-1) Zn. Folsomia candida is much more sensitive to equivalent concentrations of Zn in the standard OECD soil. Thus, care should be taken in extrapolating the

  8. The toxicity of soil samples containing TNT and other ammunition derived compounds in the enchytraeid and collembola-biotest.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, R; Achazi, R K

    1999-01-01

    The effect of ammunition-like compounds and armament waste on the mortality and reproduction of terrestrial invertebrates was assayed by using two biotests: the enchytraeid-biotest with Enchytraeus crypticus and the collembola-biotest with Folsomia Candida. Toxicity was investigated by using standard soil (Lufa 2.2) spiked with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine (hexogen, RDX), octahydro-l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7-tetrazocine (octogen, HMX) and 2,4,6-triaminotoluene (TAT). Ecotoxicity was investigated with ammunition-contaminated soil material from the former ammunition plant "Tanne" at Clausthal-Zellerfeld (CTNTla) and the Brandplatz (incineration site) in Torgau-Elsnig (TETNT1a), Germany. TNT increased mortality and reduced reproduction of both test organisms corresponding to the concentrations used, whereas hexogen, octogen and TAT had no effect in the tested concentrations (1000-2000 mg/kg). From the two soil materials, TETNT1a was much more toxic than CTNT1a. The LC50(7d) in the enchytraeid-biotest was 570 mg TNT/kg and the EC50(28d) 369 mg TNT/kg soil material (dw). In the collembola-biotest the LC50(7d) was 185 mg TNT/kg and the EC50(28d) 110 mg TNT/kg soil matter (dw).

  9. Diversity in plants and other Collembola ameliorate impacts of Sminthurus viridis on plant community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Gary M.

    2006-05-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of herbivory by Sminthurus viridis in structuring botanical composition in developing grasslands, and how these effects may be modified by diversity in collembolan and plant species. Differential susceptibility to S. viridis feeding was demonstrated in 23 dicotyledonous and three monocotyledonous plants assayed as seedlings at the first true leaf stage. The composition of seedling communities developing from natural and artificially constructed soil seed banks varied with the level of S. viridis infestation, with plant species least susceptible to herbivory making the greatest contribution to plant biomass. The combined effect of herbivory by S. viridis and Bourletiella hortensis on Trifolium repens biomass was shown to be less than the effect of S. viridis alone, indicating competitive interference. The adverse effects of herbivory by S. viridis on T. repens biomass was reduced by increased diversity of plants growing in association with the legume, and the presence of four non-herbivorous arthropleonan Collembola. S. viridis was shown to reduce seedling numbers, species diversity and biomass in communities developing from the soil seed bank, but the presence of non-herbivorous arthropleonan species reduced the effect of S. viridis. The experiments demonstrate the potential for herbivory by S. viridis to significantly alter species composition in developing grassland communities. However, interactions with collembolan and plant species profoundly modified S. viridis herbivory impacts, either by reducing feeding intensity or enhancing plant growth. These results highlight the fact that data from simple, synthetic systems may be poor predictors of herbivory impacts under field conditions where more complex species interactions occur.

  10. Appendage patterning in the primitively wingless hexapods Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae) and Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    Schaeper, Nina D; Wimmer, Ernst A; Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2013-11-01

    Arthropod appendages are among the most diverse animal organs and have been adapted to a variety of functions. Due to this diversity, it can be difficult to recognize homologous parts in different appendage types and different species. Gene expression patterns of appendage development genes have been used to overcome this problem and to identify homologous limb portions across different species and their appendages. However, regarding the largest arthropod group, the hexapods, most of these studies focused on members of the winged insects (Pterygota), but primitively wingless groups like the springtails (Collembola) or silverfish and allies (Zygentoma) are underrepresented. We have studied the expression of a set of appendage patterning genes in the firebrat Thermobia domestica and the white springtail Folsomia candida. The expressions of Distal-less (Dll) and dachshund (dac) are generally similar to the patterns reported for pterygote insects. Modifications of gene regulation, for example, the lack of Dll expression in the palp of F. candida mouthparts, however, point to changes in gene function that can make the use of single genes and specific expression domains problematic for homology inference. Such hypotheses should therefore not rely on a small number of genes and should ideally also include information about gene function. The expression patterns of homothorax (hth) and extradenticle (exd) in both species are similar to the patterns of crustaceans and pterygote insects, but differ from those in chelicerates and myriapods. The proximal specificity of hth thus appears to trace from a common hexapod ancestor and also provides a link to the regulation of this gene in crustaceans. PMID:23873479

  11. Experimental studies of ice nucleation in an Antarctic springtail (Collembola, Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    Block, W; Worland, M R

    2001-05-01

    Ice nucleation was studied in field-fresh and acclimated (4 degrees C without food for 11-20 days) samples of the springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus Willem (Collembola, Isotomidae) at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island on the Antarctic Peninsula. Ice nucleator activity (INA) was measured by a freezing droplet technique in addition to supercooling point (SCP) profiles and polyol, sugar, and water contents. Field and acclimated samples showed bimodal SCP distributions with a distinct high group (HG; mean SCP -8 to -10 degrees C) and low group (LG: mean SCP -23 to -25 degrees C), which were significantly different. Acclimation at 4 degrees C increased the proportion of individuals in the LG relative to that in the HG without significant effects on the mean SCP of both groups. INA of the HG was significantly greater than that of the LG, and acclimation further reduced the INA of the LG. The number of active ice nucleator agents (INAs) calculated for the HG of field samples increased by 23-100 times over the temperature range -5 to -8 degrees C compared to only 7 times for the LG over the same range. These differences were accentuated in the acclimation experiments. Glucose and galactose were the main carbohydrates in both field and acclimated springtails, with the latter compound occurring in almost twice the concentration in the LG compared with that in the HG. Acclimation reduced the concentration of both compounds (glucose by 77% and galactose by 54%), whereas water content increased significantly. Digestion of food may have continued during acclimation at 4 degrees C, which could reduce the LG INA. Lowering of temperature over time is more likely to elicit a cold hardening response than constant temperature acclimation. INA numbers calculated at the nucleation temperatures for C. antarcticus samples were higher in the LG than in the HG. However, inactivation of INAs may be a key mechanism underlying cold hardening in this species, either by sequestration

  12. Appendage patterning in the primitively wingless hexapods Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae) and Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    Schaeper, Nina D; Wimmer, Ernst A; Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2013-11-01

    Arthropod appendages are among the most diverse animal organs and have been adapted to a variety of functions. Due to this diversity, it can be difficult to recognize homologous parts in different appendage types and different species. Gene expression patterns of appendage development genes have been used to overcome this problem and to identify homologous limb portions across different species and their appendages. However, regarding the largest arthropod group, the hexapods, most of these studies focused on members of the winged insects (Pterygota), but primitively wingless groups like the springtails (Collembola) or silverfish and allies (Zygentoma) are underrepresented. We have studied the expression of a set of appendage patterning genes in the firebrat Thermobia domestica and the white springtail Folsomia candida. The expressions of Distal-less (Dll) and dachshund (dac) are generally similar to the patterns reported for pterygote insects. Modifications of gene regulation, for example, the lack of Dll expression in the palp of F. candida mouthparts, however, point to changes in gene function that can make the use of single genes and specific expression domains problematic for homology inference. Such hypotheses should therefore not rely on a small number of genes and should ideally also include information about gene function. The expression patterns of homothorax (hth) and extradenticle (exd) in both species are similar to the patterns of crustaceans and pterygote insects, but differ from those in chelicerates and myriapods. The proximal specificity of hth thus appears to trace from a common hexapod ancestor and also provides a link to the regulation of this gene in crustaceans.

  13. Novel Primers From Informative Nuclear Loci for Louse Molecular Phylogenetics (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Allen, Julie M; Johnson, Kevin P

    2014-11-01

    While parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) have historically been an important model taxon for understanding host-parasite coevolution, very few molecular markers have been developed for phylogenetic analysis. The current markers are insufficient to resolve many of the deeper nodes in this group; therefore, sequences from additional genetic loci are necessary. Here, we design primers targeting several nuclear protein coding genes based on a complete genome and transcriptome of Pediculus humanus L. plus transcriptomes and modest coverage genomic data from five genera of avian feather lice. These primers were tested on 32 genera of avian feather lice (Ischnocera), including multiple species within some genera. All of the new primer combinations produced sequences for the majority of the genera and had similar or higher divergences than the most widely used nuclear protein-coding gene in lice, EF-1α. These results indicate that these new loci will be useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships among parasitic lice. PMID:26309297

  14. A review of the current state of knowledge of fossil Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera).

    PubMed

    Jepson, James E

    2015-01-01

    There are 32 individual specimens of Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) currently recorded from the fossil record, the oldest of which dates back to the Lower Jurassic. These include 19 described species (in 16 genera), 1 specimen described to genus level and 9 unnamed specimens The specimens have been assigned to the extant subfamilies Drepanicinae (4), Mantispinae (10), Symphrasinae (1), and the extinct subfamily Mesomantispinae (16), with one incertae sedis within Mantispidae. There are currently no known fossil representatives of the subfamily Calomantispinae. Mesithoninae has been removed from Mantispidae and placed back within Berothidae. The species Mesithone carnaria and M. monstruosa, however, are true mantispids and have been removed from Mesithone and placed within a new genus Karataumantispa gen. nov. in the subfamily Mesomantispinae. The current state of knowledge of the fossil record of Mantispidae is reviewed and a key to the genera of Mesomantispinae is provided. PMID:26249453

  15. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset. PMID:27045773

  17. [Distribution and diversity of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) on the altitudinal gradient of a temperate forest in Mexico].

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Arturo; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2011-03-01

    Mountain ecosystems have shown slow mineralization activity due to weather conditions, and to some groups with arthropods with special roles. The Collembola is an important group for litter fragmentation, showing different distribution patterns. The objective of the present study was to determine the diversity of Collembola along a volcano altitudinal gradient. For this, four sampling expeditions evaluated four altitudinal levels (I = 2 753, II = 3 015, III = 3 250 and IV = 3 687 masl) in Iztaccihuatl Volcano, from November 2003, and March, June and August 2004. Shannon diversity (H'), Pielou evenness (J') and Simpson dominance (1/lambda) indices were calculated. The similarity between the associations of springtails between the sampling sites was evaluated by a cluster analysis using the Pearson correlation coefficient, as distance and the unpaired arithmetic averages (UPGMA) as amalgamation method. A total of 24 075 springtails, distributed in 12 families, 46 genera and 86 species was collected. The higher species abundance was found at the altitudinal area II. The lowest diversity value was recorded in IV, while the higher diversity values were found in III. Significant differences between Shannon indices were found between zones II-III (t(0.01, 187) = 4.11, p < 0.05) and between III-IV (t(0.01, 187) = 3.8, p < 0.05) according to modified t-test. When considering sampling dates, no significant differences were found. The dendrogram showed that in composition the level I is more homogeneous throughout the year. In conclusion, a statistically significant seasonal variation in springtail abundances was not found, but it was observed that, the lower altitude (I) resulted more homogeneous along the studied period, followed by level II and III. There is a particular assemblage of springtails community in each altitudinal area studied; in general, the sites with low slope resulted more diverse in Collembola communities. These results show that there are important

  18. Experimental studies of ice nucleation in an Antarctic springtail (Collembola, Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    Block, W; Worland, M R

    2001-05-01

    Ice nucleation was studied in field-fresh and acclimated (4 degrees C without food for 11-20 days) samples of the springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus Willem (Collembola, Isotomidae) at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island on the Antarctic Peninsula. Ice nucleator activity (INA) was measured by a freezing droplet technique in addition to supercooling point (SCP) profiles and polyol, sugar, and water contents. Field and acclimated samples showed bimodal SCP distributions with a distinct high group (HG; mean SCP -8 to -10 degrees C) and low group (LG: mean SCP -23 to -25 degrees C), which were significantly different. Acclimation at 4 degrees C increased the proportion of individuals in the LG relative to that in the HG without significant effects on the mean SCP of both groups. INA of the HG was significantly greater than that of the LG, and acclimation further reduced the INA of the LG. The number of active ice nucleator agents (INAs) calculated for the HG of field samples increased by 23-100 times over the temperature range -5 to -8 degrees C compared to only 7 times for the LG over the same range. These differences were accentuated in the acclimation experiments. Glucose and galactose were the main carbohydrates in both field and acclimated springtails, with the latter compound occurring in almost twice the concentration in the LG compared with that in the HG. Acclimation reduced the concentration of both compounds (glucose by 77% and galactose by 54%), whereas water content increased significantly. Digestion of food may have continued during acclimation at 4 degrees C, which could reduce the LG INA. Lowering of temperature over time is more likely to elicit a cold hardening response than constant temperature acclimation. INA numbers calculated at the nucleation temperatures for C. antarcticus samples were higher in the LG than in the HG. However, inactivation of INAs may be a key mechanism underlying cold hardening in this species, either by sequestration

  19. The Influence of Soil Characteristics on the Toxicity of Oil Refinery Waste for the Springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Reinecke, Adriaan J; van Wyk, Mia; Reinecke, Sophie A

    2016-06-01

    We determined the toxicity of oil refinery waste in three soils using the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola) in bioassays. Sublethal exposure to a concentration series of API-sludge presented EC50's for reproduction of 210 mg/kg in site soil; 880 mg/kg in LUFA2.2- and 3260 mg/kg in OECD-soil. The sludge was the least toxic in the OECD-soil with the highest clay and organic matter content, the highest maximum water holding capacity, and the least amount of sand. It was the most toxic in the reference site soil with the lowest organic matter content and highest sand content. The results emphasized the important role of soil characteristics such as texture and organic matter content in influencing toxicity, possibly by affecting bioavailability of toxicants. PMID:27048278

  20. Indirect effects of habitat disturbance on invasion: nutritious litter from a grazing resistant plant favors alien over native Collembola.

    PubMed

    Leinaas, Hans Petter; Bengtsson, Jan; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L

    2015-08-01

    Biological invasions are major threats to biodiversity, with impacts that may be compounded by other forms of environmental change. Observations of high density of the invasive springtail (Collembola), Hypogastrura manubrialis in heavily grazed renosterveld vegetation in the Western Cape, South Africa, raised the question of whether the invasion was favored by changes in plant litter quality associated with habitat disturbance in this vegetation type. To examine the likely mechanisms underlying the high abundance of H. manubrialis, cages with three types of naturally occurring litter with different nutrient content were placed out in the area and collected after different periods of time. Hypogastrura manubrialis was mainly found in the nutrient-rich litter of the yellowbush (Galenia africana), which responds positively to disturbance in the form of overgrazing. This suggests that invasion may have been facilitated by a positive interaction with this grazing resistant plant. By contrast, indigenous Collembola were least abundant in yellowbush litter. Negative correlations between high abundance of H. manubrialis and the abundance and diversity of other species suggest that competitive interactions might underlie low abundance of these other species at the patch level. Group behavior enables H. manubrialis to utilize efficiently this ephemeral, high quality resource, and might improve its competitive ability. The results suggest that interactions among environmental change drivers may lead to unforeseen invasion effects. H. manubrialis is not likely to be very successful in un-grazed renosterveld, but in combination with grazing, favoring the nutrient-rich yellowbush, it may become highly invasive. Field manipulations are required to fully verify these conclusions. PMID:26380678

  1. Indirect effects of habitat disturbance on invasion: nutritious litter from a grazing resistant plant favors alien over native Collembola

    PubMed Central

    Leinaas, Hans Petter; Bengtsson, Jan; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are major threats to biodiversity, with impacts that may be compounded by other forms of environmental change. Observations of high density of the invasive springtail (Collembola), Hypogastrura manubrialis in heavily grazed renosterveld vegetation in the Western Cape, South Africa, raised the question of whether the invasion was favored by changes in plant litter quality associated with habitat disturbance in this vegetation type. To examine the likely mechanisms underlying the high abundance of H. manubrialis, cages with three types of naturally occurring litter with different nutrient content were placed out in the area and collected after different periods of time. Hypogastrura manubrialis was mainly found in the nutrient-rich litter of the yellowbush (Galenia africana), which responds positively to disturbance in the form of overgrazing. This suggests that invasion may have been facilitated by a positive interaction with this grazing resistant plant. By contrast, indigenous Collembola were least abundant in yellowbush litter. Negative correlations between high abundance of H. manubrialis and the abundance and diversity of other species suggest that competitive interactions might underlie low abundance of these other species at the patch level. Group behavior enables H. manubrialis to utilize efficiently this ephemeral, high quality resource, and might improve its competitive ability. The results suggest that interactions among environmental change drivers may lead to unforeseen invasion effects. H. manubrialis is not likely to be very successful in un-grazed renosterveld, but in combination with grazing, favoring the nutrient-rich yellowbush, it may become highly invasive. Field manipulations are required to fully verify these conclusions. PMID:26380678

  2. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  3. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200–700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165–172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m−1. By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103–129° and SFEs above 20 mN m−1. Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates. PMID:23235705

  4. Research on possible medical use of silk produced by caddisfly larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Trichoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Tszydel, M; Zabłotni, A; Wojciechowska, D; Michalak, M; Krucińska, I; Szustakiewicz, K; Maj, M; Jaruszewska, A; Strzelecki, J

    2015-05-01

    Silk products are used in medicine as biomaterials, and are particularly promising as scaffolds in tissue engineering. To date only silkworm and spider silk medical potential has been evaluated, whereas the possible application of the material spun by caddisflies in wet environment has not been examined. Biomedical application of every natural material requires biocompatibility testing and evaluation of unique microbiological and mechanical properties. This article focuses on silk fibers formed in caddisflies cocoons of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae. Preliminary biological evaluation shows that trichopteran silk is not cytotoxic to human cells. Caddisfly silk itself does not possess antiseptic properties and thus sterilization is indispensable for its application in medicine. Among tested methods of sterilization and disinfection only thermal methods (tyndallization and autoclaving) enabled complete eradication of bacteria and gave fully sterile material. Caddisfly silk appeared to be resistant to high temperature. Fully sterile fibers can be stored without a loss of breaking force and tensile strength. Our work shows that trichopteran silk has a significant potential to be used as a biomaterial.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246

  6. The mitochondrial genome of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore, Jeffrey L; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco

    2006-07-19

    In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward A and T, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also a significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the LSU rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects. PMID:16766140

  7. Critical evaluation of five methods for quantifying chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Clayton, D H; Drown, D M

    2001-12-01

    Five methods for estimating the abundance of chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) were tested. To evaluate the methods, feral pigeons (Columba livia) and 2 species of ischnoceran lice were used. The fraction of lice removed by each method was compared, and least squares linear regression was used to determine how well each method predicted total abundance. Total abundance was assessed in most cases using KOH dissolution. The 2 methods involving dead birds (body washing and post-mortem-ruffling) provided better results than 3 methods involving live birds (dust-ruffling, fumigation chambers, and visual examination). Body washing removed the largest fraction of lice (>82%) and was an extremely accurate predictor of total abundance (r2 = 0.99). Post-mortem-ruffling was also an accurate predictor of total abundance (r2 > or = 0.88), even though it removed a smaller proportion of lice (<70%) than body washing. Dust-ruffling and fumigation chambers removed even fewer lice, but were still reasonably accurate predictors of total abundance, except in the case of data sets restricted to birds with relatively few lice. Visual examination, the only method not requiring that lice be removed from the host, was an accurate predictor of louse abundance, except in the case of wing lice on lightly parasitized birds.

  8. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Yi; Duan, Xiao-Yu; Qiang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. This circular genome is 15 496 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one A + T-rich D-loop or control region. Most PCGs are initiated with the ATN codons, except for COX1 with the unusual CGA as its initiation codon. Four PCGs (COX1, COX2, ND3, and ND4) are terminated with incomplete codon T, ND4L uses TAG as its termination codon, while all the other eight PCGs employ the usual ATN codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (40.1% A, 40.9% T, 7.6% G, and 11.4% C) with an overall A + T content of 81.0%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining (NJ) method suggests that C. dominula is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from other families.

  9. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. II. Sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera: "Symphyta")

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 47 species of "Symphyta" (Insecta: Hymenoptera), 30 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Argidae) Sterictiphora serotina; (Cimbicidae) Abia americana; (Diprionidae) Monoctenus fulvus; (Orussidae) Orussus terminalis; (Pamphiliidae) Onycholyda luteicornis, Pamphilius ocreatus, P. persicum, P. rileyi; (Pergidae) Acordulecera dorsalis, A. mellina, A. pellucida; (Tenthredinidae) Caliroa quercuscoccineae, Empria coryli, Hoplocampa marlatti, Macrophya cassandra, Monophadnoides conspiculatus, Monophadnus bakeri, Nematus abbotii, Neopareophora litura, Pachynematus corniger, Paracharactus rudis, Periclista marginicollis, Pristiphora banski, P. chlorea, Strongylogaster impressata, S. remota, Taxonus epicera, Thrinax albidopictus, T. multicinctus, Zaschizonyx montana; (Xiphydriidae) Xiphydria tibialis. PMID:27222635

  10. Assessment of water quality in urban streams based on larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera).

    PubMed

    Tszydel, Mariusz; Markowski, Marcin; Majecki, Janusz; Błońska, Dagmara; Zieliński, Mateusz

    2015-10-01

    Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae were used as indicators of stream contamination in the city of Łódź, Poland. The larvae of H. angustipennis were present at 9 sampling sites established for this study. Significant differences between the sampling sites were noted for environmental parameters as well as concentration of chemicals in water and biodiversity of aquatic invertebrates. Statistical analyses showed significant correlations between quantity and quality of water pollutants and density of H. angustipennis larvae, concentration of metals in larval bodies, and the appearance of morphological anomalies in tracheal gills and anal papillae. In comparison to literature data, the level of contaminants in water, including heavy metals, for each of the studied streams of Łódź was surprisingly low while concentration of these metals in the whole bodies of H. angustipennis larvae was very high. Some of the heavy metals present in the water might be identified only after conducting analyses of their concentration in the larval bodies. Therefore, long life cycle of H. angustipennis and heavy metal tolerance with a possibility of their accumulation in the larval bodies may constitute a support to traditional chemical assessment of water quality or traditional biomonitoring.

  11. Research on possible medical use of silk produced by caddisfly larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Trichoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Tszydel, M; Zabłotni, A; Wojciechowska, D; Michalak, M; Krucińska, I; Szustakiewicz, K; Maj, M; Jaruszewska, A; Strzelecki, J

    2015-05-01

    Silk products are used in medicine as biomaterials, and are particularly promising as scaffolds in tissue engineering. To date only silkworm and spider silk medical potential has been evaluated, whereas the possible application of the material spun by caddisflies in wet environment has not been examined. Biomedical application of every natural material requires biocompatibility testing and evaluation of unique microbiological and mechanical properties. This article focuses on silk fibers formed in caddisflies cocoons of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae. Preliminary biological evaluation shows that trichopteran silk is not cytotoxic to human cells. Caddisfly silk itself does not possess antiseptic properties and thus sterilization is indispensable for its application in medicine. Among tested methods of sterilization and disinfection only thermal methods (tyndallization and autoclaving) enabled complete eradication of bacteria and gave fully sterile material. Caddisfly silk appeared to be resistant to high temperature. Fully sterile fibers can be stored without a loss of breaking force and tensile strength. Our work shows that trichopteran silk has a significant potential to be used as a biomaterial. PMID:25723346

  12. Polarization sensitivity in Collembola: an experimental study of polarotaxis in the water-surface-inhabiting springtail Podura aquatica.

    PubMed

    Egri, Ádám; Farkas, Alexandra; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2016-08-15

    The ventral eye of the water-surface-inhabiting springtail Podura aquatica has six ommatidia with horizontal and vertical microvilli and perceives light from the ventral, frontal and frontodorsal regions, whereas the dorsal eye possesses two upward-looking ommatidia with vertical microvilli. The ventral eye may detect water by its polarization sensitivity, even if the insect is resting with its head slightly tipped down on a raised surface. The polarization sensitivity and polarotaxis in springtails (Collembola) have not been investigated. Therefore, we performed behavioural choice experiments to study them in P. aquatica We found that the strength of phototaxis in P. aquatica depends on the polarization characteristics of stimulating light. Horizontally and vertically polarized light were the most and least attractive, respectively, while unpolarized stimulus elicited moderate attraction. We show that horizontally polarized light attracts more springtails than unpolarized, even if the polarized stimulus was 10 times dimmer. Thus, besides phototaxis, P. aquatica also performs polarotaxis with the ability to measure or at least estimate the degree of polarization. Our results indicate that the threshold d* of polarization sensitivity in P. aquatica is between 10.1 and 25.5%. PMID:27312471

  13. Intraspecific Phenotypic Variation and Morphological Divergence of Strains of Folsomia candida (Willem) (Collembola: Isotomidae), the "Standard" Test Springtaill.

    PubMed

    Tully, Thomas; Potapov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    We describe and compare the external morphology of eleven clonal strains and one sexual lineage of the globally distributed Folsomia candida, known as "standard" test Collembola. Of the 18 morphological characters studied, we measured 14 to have significant between-strains genetic variations, 9 of these had high heritabilities (>78%). The quantified morphological polymorphism was used to analyse the within-species relationships between strains by using both a parsimony analysis and a distance tree. These two detailed morphological phylogenies have revealed that the parthenogenetic strains grouped themselves into two major clades. However the exact position of the sexual strain remains unclear and further analysis is needed to confirm its exact relationship with the parthenogenetic ones. The two morphologically based clades were found to be the same as the ones previously described using molecular analysis. This shows that despite large within-strain variations, morphological characters can be used to differentiate some strains that have diverged within a single morphospecies. We discuss the potential evolutionary interpretations and consequences of these different levels of phenotypic variability. PMID:26355293

  14. Within-species variation in long-term trajectories of growth, fecundity and mortality in the Collembola Folsomia candida.

    PubMed

    Mallard, F; Farina, M; Tully, T

    2015-12-01

    Senescence--the progressive deterioration of organisms with age--affects many traits of which survival and reproduction are the most commonly studied. Recent comparative studies have revealed a remarkable amount of variation in the patterns of ageing across the tree of life. This between-species diversity raises many questions about the evolution of senescence and of the shapes of the life-history age trajectories. Here, we study how the different components of the shapes of these life-history age trajectories can vary within a single species to shed light on the possible constraints involved in their evolution. To do so, we closely followed in controlled laboratory conditions, and for more than 450 days, the mortality, body length and fecundity of small cohorts of two clonal lineages of the Collembola Folsomia candida. We studied three components of the adult mortality trajectory: the baseline mortality, onset and speed of senescence. We found that they can differ between strains of a single species in such a way that, remarkably, an increased life expectancy is not synonymous with a delayed senescence: the strain that grows bigger has the longest life expectancy but suffers from a precocious senescence. We observed marked differences between the strains in the asymptotic body length and reproductive investment. More generally, our results highlight the importance of finely describing the long-term trajectories of several life-history traits in order to better understand how the patterns of senescence have been shaped by natural selection. PMID:26348879

  15. Deep phylogeographic divisions and long-term persistence of forest invertebrates (Hexapoda: Collembola) in the North-Western Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Cicconardi, F; Nardi, F; Emerson, B C; Frati, F; Fanciulli, P P

    2010-01-01

    The North-Western Mediterranean basin is well known for its high number of relictual endemic taxa, and has been indicated as one of the world's major biodiversity hotspots at the species level. A possible contributing factor may be long-term persistence of populations and their prolonged stability. This study was designed to investigate the phylogeographic structure of three common species of the genus Lepidocyrtus (Hexapoda: Collembola), soil-dwelling arthropods characterized by limited dispersal capabilities and generally associated with forest habitats. We observed a remarkable geographic structure, with numerous deeply divergent genetic lineages occupying islands as well as mainland sites with no apparent gene flow among most sites, even across distances of only tens of kilometres. The reconstructed time frame for the evolution of these lineages suggests divergence between 5 and 15 Ma. This indicates a remarkably ancient origin and long-term persistence of individual lineages over a fine geographic scale despite the occurrence of abrupt sea level and climatic fluctuations in the area. This further suggests that currently recognized morphological species might be a serious underestimation of the true springtail biodiversity within this region. PMID:20015142

  16. Genetic structure and long-distance dispersal in populations of the wingless pest springtail, Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae).

    PubMed

    Roberts, John M K; Weeks, Andrew R

    2011-02-01

    The lucerne flea, Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae) (L.) is a major pest of broadacre agriculture across southern Australia. Few molecular studies have been conducted on S. viridis and none have examined its population genetics, despite the importance for developing effective control strategies. Here, we characterize the genetic structure of Australian populations using three allozyme and eight microsatellite loci, as well as sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene. We found that S. viridis in Australia are diploid, sexually reproducing and exhibit significant population structure as a result of limited gene flow. Despite significant differentiation between populations, there was very low cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence variation, indicating the presence of a single species in Australia. The observed structure only marginally complied with an 'isolation by distance' model with human-mediated long-distance dispersal likely occurring. Allozymes and microsatellites gave very similar FST estimates, although differences found for novel alternative estimates of differentiation suggest that the allozymes did not capture the full extent of the population structure. These results highlight that control strategies may need to vary for locally adapted S. viridis populations and strategies aimed at limiting the spread of any future pesticide resistance will need to manage the effects of human-mediated dispersal. PMID:21219669

  17. Intraspecific Phenotypic Variation and Morphological Divergence of Strains of Folsomia candida (Willem) (Collembola: Isotomidae), the "Standard" Test Springtaill

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Thomas; Potapov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    We describe and compare the external morphology of eleven clonal strains and one sexual lineage of the globally distributed Folsomia candida, known as “standard” test Collembola. Of the 18 morphological characters studied, we measured 14 to have significant between-strains genetic variations, 9 of these had high heritabilities (>78%). The quantified morphological polymorphism was used to analyse the within-species relationships between strains by using both a parsimony analysis and a distance tree. These two detailed morphological phylogenies have revealed that the parthenogenetic strains grouped themselves into two major clades. However the exact position of the sexual strain remains unclear and further analysis is needed to confirm its exact relationship with the parthenogenetic ones. The two morphologically based clades were found to be the same as the ones previously described using molecular analysis. This shows that despite large within-strain variations, morphological characters can be used to differentiate some strains that have diverged within a single morphospecies. We discuss the potential evolutionary interpretations and consequences of these different levels of phenotypic variability. PMID:26355293

  18. Avoidance tests with Collembola and earthworms as early screening tools for site-specific assessment of polluted soils.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Tiago Natal; Ribeiro, Rui; Sousa, José Paulo

    2004-09-01

    Avoidance tests with earthworms and collembolans were conducted to demonstrate their feasibility as early screening tools for assessing the toxic potential of metal-polluted soils. Four different soils, with different degrees of metal contamination, were obtained from an abandoned mining area. All possible paired combinations were assessed for an avoidance response by the organisms. Data revealed that both species were able to avoid the most contaminated soils at the center of the ore extraction and treatment areas compared to those collected further away from the mine. However, earthworms and springtails differed in sensitivity to metals, especially when testing the two most polluted soils that had different contamination profiles. Earthworms exhibited a more consistent, less variable response than springtails. Overall results showed that avoidance tests with collembolans and earthworms have the potential to be used as screening tools in ecological risk assessment schemes for contaminated land, to trigger other tests in case of concern. However, further method development is needed to reduce variability in the data, particularly in the Collembola assays, and to gain knowledge about the possible effects of soil properties on the outcome of the tests. PMID:15378996

  19. The impact of disturbance and ensuing forestry practices on Collembola in monitored stands of windthrown forest in the Tatra National Park (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Čuchta, Peter; Miklisová, Dana; Kováč, Lubomír

    2013-06-01

    Soil Collembola communities were investigated in spruce forest stands of the High Tatra Mts that had been heavily damaged by a windstorm in November 2004 and subsequently by a wildfire in July 2005. The study focused on the impact of these disturbances and forestry practices on collembolan community distribution and structure 4 years after the disturbance. Four different treatments were selected for this study: intact forest stands (REF), non-extracted windthrown stands (NEX), clear-cut windthrown stands (EXT) and burnt windthrown stands (FIR). From a total of 7,820 individuals, 72 species were identified. The highest total abundance mean was recorded in FIR stands followed by NEX and EXT stands and, surprisingly, the lowest in REF stands. The highest total species richness was observed in REF stands, followed by NEX stands and FIR stands and the lowest in EXT stands. In REF and NEX stands, the most abundant species were Folsomia penicula and Tetracanthella fjellbergi, while in heavily damaged stands, the most abundant was Anurophorus laricis. The ordination method used demonstrated a significant influence of treatment on the abundance of Collembola. ANOVA used confirmed significant differences for all dominant species between treatments. The present study shows the negative impact of windthrow on Collembola communities as reflected in decreased species richness and abundance. However, disturbance by fire caused a considerable increase in collembolan abundance 3 years after the event. Moreover, we show that clearing of windthrown spruce forests after a windstorm is less favourable for communities of soil collembolans and slows down the recovery process.

  20. Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each chromosome. Results Minicircular mt genomes are found in six of the ten louse species examined to date and three types of minicircles were identified: heteroplasmic minicircles which coexist with full sized mt genomes (type 1); multigene chromosomes with short, simple control regions, we infer that the genome consists of several such chromosomes (type 2); and multiple, single to three gene chromosomes with large, complex control regions (type 3). Mapping minicircle types onto a phylogenetic tree of lice fails to show a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia). Conclusions Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within the group. Life history adaptive explanations which attribute minicircular mt genomes in lice to the adoption of blood-feeding in the Anoplura are not supported by this expanded data set as minicircles are found in multiple non-blood feeding louse groups but are not found in the blood-feeding genus Heterodoxus. In contrast, a mechanist explanation based on the loss of mtSSB suggests that minicircles may be selectively favoured due to the incapacity of the mt replisome to synthesize long replicative products without mtSSB and thus the

  1. Type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea and adjacent regions deposited at Insect Collections of Chungnam National University (CNU) in Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunghoon; Kim, Junggon; Oh, Sumin; Heiss, Ernst

    2015-07-06

    A list of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea (mostly by the late Dr. Michail Josifov, Sofia, Bulgaria) acquired earlier by E. Heiss, now donated to and deposited in the insect collections of Chungnam National University (CNU), Deajeon, Korea, is presented. A total of 31 holotypes and 694 paratypes of 41 species and 1 subspecies in 6 families and 9 subfamilies are presented: Miridae (Deraeocorinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, Phylinae), Tingidae (Tinginae), Piesmatidae (Piesmatinae), Berytidae (Metacanthinae), Cymidae (Cyminae), Pentatomidae (Asopinae).

  2. A checklist of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) associated with Mexican wild mammals, including geographical records and a host-parasite list.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; León-Paniagua, Livia; Rivas, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of 44 species of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) recorded in Mexico, belonging to nine genera in six families is given, together with a list of the 63 species of Mexican wild mammal hosts with which they are associated. Summaries of the known geographical records and host relationships for each louse species are presented for each Mexican state. Data were compiled from published and original records, including three new locality records from the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero.

  3. The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Insecta, Hemiptera, Rhopalidae): First Asian record, with a review of bionomics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jing-Fu; Hsieh, Yi-Xuan; Rédei, Dávid

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhopalidae: Serinethinae), a species native in tropical and subtropical regions of the New World and accidentally introduced to Hawaii, is reported for the first time from Asia (Taiwan). This record represents the first occurrence of the species in Asia. Stable populations composed of hundreds of specimens were found in seven localities of Kaohsiung City and one locality in Tainan City, and a single specimen was observed in Chiayi County. Aggregating adults and larvae fed in large numbers on the sapindacean plants Cardiospermum halicacabum L. and Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A. C. Smith ssp. formosana (Hayata) F. G. Meyer. Diagnostic characters of adults and larvae of Jadera haematoloma are discussed. A review of its bionomics and a bibliography are provided. Initial observations on the populations in southern Taiwan are presented. The species is potentially invasive, and further extension of its range is anticipated in Southeast Asia. PMID:23794880

  4. Redescription of Gyropus parvus (Ewing, 1924) (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) from tucos-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys ) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martino, N S; Romero, M D; Castro, D C

    2010-02-01

    A detailed redescription of Gyropus parvus (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) is given based on specimens collected from the type host, Ctenomys colburni Allen 1903 , and the type locality, Estancia Huanuluán, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina. We expand and provide new chaetotaxy. New scanning electron microscopy images showing microstructural details of adults and eggs of G. parvus obtained from topotype specimens are included. Sexual dimorphism was mainly shown by differences in body size and abdominal chaetotaxy, with females being 17.5% larger than males and with more setae in each cluster. Significant differences between males and females were also observed in sternal plate measurements. Features described here show homogeneity within type host population. This information contributes to our knowledge of intra- and inter-specific variability for parasite populations. Our investigation constitutes the first collection of G. parvus from the type host and locality since it was described.

  5. Co-occurrence analyses show that non-random community structure is disrupted by fire in two groups of soil arthropods (Isopoda Oniscidea and Collembola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Luiselli, Luca; Bologna, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that natural catastrophes may destroy non-random community structure in natural assemblages of organisms. As a study system, we selected fire as the catastrophic event, and two groups of soil arthropods (Collembola and Isopoda Oniscidea) as target organisms. By co-occurrence analyses and Monte Carlo simulations of niche overlap analysis (C-score, with fixed-equiprobable model; RA2 and RA3 algorithms) we evaluated whether the community structure of these two groups were random/non-random at three unburnt sites and at three neighbour burnt sites that were devastated by a large-scale fire in summer 2000. Both taxa experienced a remarkable reduction in the number of species sampled in burnt versus unburnt sites, but the difference among sites was not statistically significant for Oniscidea. We determined that community structure was clearly non-random at the unburnt sites for both Collembola (according to RA3 algorithm) and Isopoda Oniscidea (according to co-occurrence analysis) and that, as predicted by theory, the catastrophic event did deeply alter the community structure by removing the non-random organization of the species interactions. We also observed a shift from segregation to aggregation/randomness in soil arthropods communities affected by fire, a pattern that was similar to that observed in natural communities of organisms perturbed by the introduction of alien species, thus indicating that this pattern may be generalizable when alteration of communities may occur.

  6. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. Here, we re-evaluate the position of Collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences. Results In total 48 ribosomal proteins were obtained for the collembolan Folsomia candida. These 48 sequences were aligned with sequence data on 35 other ecdysozoans. Each ribosomal protein gene was available for 25% to 86% of the taxa. However, the total sequence information was unequally distributed over the taxa and ranged between 4% and 100%. A concatenated dataset was constructed (5034 inferred amino acids in length), of which ~66% of the positions were filled. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods, resulted in a topology that supports monophyly of Hexapoda. Conclusion Although ribosomal proteins in general may not evolve independently, they once more appear highly valuable for phylogenetic reconstruction. Our analyses clearly suggest that Hexapoda is monophyletic. This underpins the inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial datasets when analyzing pancrustacean relationships. Caution is needed when applying mitochondrial markers in deep phylogeny. PMID:18366624

  7. [Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park].

    PubMed

    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most

  8. [Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park].

    PubMed

    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most

  9. Nonconsumptive Predator-Prey Interactions: Sensitivity of the Detritivore Sinella curviseta (Collembola: Entomobryidae) to Cues of Predation Risk From the Spider Pardosa milvina (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Sitvarin, Michael I; Romanchek, Christian; Rypstra, Ann L

    2015-04-01

    Predators can affect prey indirectly when prey respond to cues indicating a risk of predation by altering activity levels. Changes in prey behavior may cascade through the food web to influence ecosystem function. The response of the collembolan Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae) to cues indicating predation risk (necromones and cues from the wolf spider Pardosa milvina (Hentz) (Araneae: Lycosidae)) was tested. Additionally, necromones and predator cues were paired in a conditioning experiment to determine whether the collembolan could form learned associations. Although collembolans did not alter activity levels in response to predator cues, numerous aspects of behavior differed in the presence of necromones. There was no detectable conditioned response to predator cues after pairing with necromones. These results provide insight into how collembolans perceive and respond to predation threats that vary in information content. Previously detected indirect impacts of predator cues on ecosystem function are likely due to changes in prey other than activity level. PMID:26313189

  10. Nonconsumptive Predator-Prey Interactions: Sensitivity of the Detritivore Sinella curviseta (Collembola: Entomobryidae) to Cues of Predation Risk From the Spider Pardosa milvina (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Sitvarin, Michael I; Romanchek, Christian; Rypstra, Ann L

    2015-04-01

    Predators can affect prey indirectly when prey respond to cues indicating a risk of predation by altering activity levels. Changes in prey behavior may cascade through the food web to influence ecosystem function. The response of the collembolan Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae) to cues indicating predation risk (necromones and cues from the wolf spider Pardosa milvina (Hentz) (Araneae: Lycosidae)) was tested. Additionally, necromones and predator cues were paired in a conditioning experiment to determine whether the collembolan could form learned associations. Although collembolans did not alter activity levels in response to predator cues, numerous aspects of behavior differed in the presence of necromones. There was no detectable conditioned response to predator cues after pairing with necromones. These results provide insight into how collembolans perceive and respond to predation threats that vary in information content. Previously detected indirect impacts of predator cues on ecosystem function are likely due to changes in prey other than activity level.

  11. What is the phylogenetic signal limit from mitogenomes? The reconciliation between mitochondrial and nuclear data in the Insecta class phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Efforts to solve higher-level evolutionary relationships within the class Insecta by using mitochondrial genomic data are hindered due to fast sequence evolution of several groups, most notably Hymenoptera, Strepsiptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera. Accelerated rates of substitution on their sequences have been shown to have negative consequences in phylogenetic inference. In this study, we tested several methodological approaches to recover phylogenetic signal from whole mitochondrial genomes. As a model, we used two classical problems in insect phylogenetics: The relationships within Paraneoptera and within Holometabola. Moreover, we assessed the mitochondrial phylogenetic signal limits in the deeper Eumetabola dataset, and we studied the contribution of individual genes. Results Long-branch attraction (LBA) artefacts were detected in all the datasets. Methods using Bayesian inference outperformed maximum likelihood approaches, and LBA was avoided in Paraneoptera and Holometabola when using protein sequences and the site-heterogeneous mixture model CAT. The better performance of this method was evidenced by resulting topologies matching generally accepted hypotheses based on nuclear and/or morphological data, and was confirmed by cross-validation and simulation analyses. Using the CAT model, the order Strepsiptera was recovered as sister to Coleoptera for the first time using mitochondrial sequences, in agreement with recent results based on large nuclear and morphological datasets. Also the Hymenoptera-Mecopterida association was obtained, leaving Coleoptera and Strepsiptera as the basal groups of the holometabolan insects, which coincides with one of the two main competing hypotheses. For the Paraneroptera, the currently accepted non-monophyly of Homoptera was documented as a phylogenetic novelty for mitochondrial data. However, results were not satisfactory when exploring the entire Eumetabola, revealing the limits of the phylogenetic

  12. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  13. PCB congener analysis of water and caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) in the upper Hudson River by glass capillary chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Simpson, K.W.; Shane, L.; Koblintz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The separation and analysis of the constituents of industrially produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been almost exclusively performed using techniques involving packed gas chromatographic columns. However, the packed column chromatograms proved to be inadequate with regard to the separation of the many congeners which compose the complex PCB mixtures. Unlike the packed column methods, a separation technique based upon gas capillary technology produces chromatograms with sharp peaks, and hence accurate analysis is possible according to individual congener concentrations. This capability permitted more precise analysis of macroinvertebrates - specifically aquatic insects in the polluted water of the upper Hudson River. This study examines the presence and relative concentration of 74 congeners in water and caddisfly larvae collected from 3 sites in the Hudson River. Caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) usually dominate the macroinvertebrate communities in riffle habitats of the study area. Their relatively large size and abundance facilitated the acquisition of sufficient biomass for analysis (200 mg wet weight). The sampling was carried out on July 6, 1983 and August 15, 1983.

  14. Differences in straggling rates between two genera of dove lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) reinforce population genetic and cophylogenetic patterns.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Johnson, Kevin P; Parker, Patricia G

    2004-09-01

    Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology.

  15. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  16. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  17. Molecular phylogeny supports S-chaetae as a key character better than jumping organs and body scales in classification of Entomobryoidea (Collembola)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Sun, Dan-Dan; Yu, Dao-Yuan; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The jumping organ (furcula) is the most characteristic structure among collembolans, and it is of great taxonomical values at higher levels. The largest superfamily Entomobryoidea is traditionally classified into four families only by the morphology of the furcula. Actually, many taxa among these families are strikingly similar in morphology without considering furcula. The phylogeny of Entomobryoidea was reconstructed here based on mitochondrial and ribosomal fragments. This indicated that both Paronellidae and Cyphoderidae were ingroups within Entomobryidae with the former polyphyletic. Topology tests, which used the likelihood and Bayesian approaches, also rejected the traditional hypotheses relying on furcula morphology. Further ancestral state reconstructions have revealed that traditional taxonomical characters, i.e., furcula and body scales, had multiple independent origins in Entomobryoidea whereas tergal specialized chaetae (S-chaetae) exhibited strong phylogenetic signals. By integrating both molecular and morphological evidence, the results of this study drastically undermine the present classification of Entomobryoidea. Tergal S-chaetotaxic pattern in combination with other characters are more reasonable in taxonomy at suprageneric levels than convergent furcula. This study provides new insights of the jumping organ, which could be adaptively modified during evolution of Collembola. PMID:26212216

  18. Two new genera and five new species of Tullbergiidae (Collembola) from the southern Appalachian Mountains of North America, with redescription of Tullbergia clavata Mills.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C

    2016-01-01

    Two new genera and five new species of Tullbergiidae (Collembola) are described from the North American Appalachian zone in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina. Ameritulla n. gen. is established for species with 15 setae on the middle tibiotarsus, blunt papilla A on the labial palpus, two long rows of vesicles in the postantennal organ (PAO), two dorsal sensilla on the third antennal segment and crescentic pseudocelli. Ameritulla clavata (Mills, 1934) n. comb. (=Tullbergia clavata Mills, 1934) is designated as type species and redescribed from type specimens, and A. obscura n. sp. is described. On Mixturatulla ozwini n. gen., n. sp. papillae A and B of the labial palpus are thick and blunt, the second row of the PAO is laterally broken into numerous spherical vesicles, and the dorsum of Abd. VI has two rows of large, coalesced tubercles. Psammophorura miniclavata n. sp. lacks pseudocelli on the third abdominal segment, which are present in previously described species. Stenaphorura shaconage n. sp. is the first species of its genus reliably recorded from North America. It differs from its Palaearctic relatives in having 2+2 pseudocelli on most body segments. Tullbergia nearctica n. sp. resembles T. arctica (Wahlgren, 1900) but differs in several chaetotaxic characters. Sensilliform setae traditionally considered as ordinary pointed setae are recognized and charted. A new setal nomenclature is proposed for the ventral setae of the sixth abdominal segment. PMID:27615985

  19. Two new genera and five new species of Tullbergiidae (Collembola) from the southern Appalachian Mountains of North America, with redescription of Tullbergia clavata Mills.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C

    2016-01-01

    Two new genera and five new species of Tullbergiidae (Collembola) are described from the North American Appalachian zone in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina. Ameritulla n. gen. is established for species with 15 setae on the middle tibiotarsus, blunt papilla A on the labial palpus, two long rows of vesicles in the postantennal organ (PAO), two dorsal sensilla on the third antennal segment and crescentic pseudocelli. Ameritulla clavata (Mills, 1934) n. comb. (=Tullbergia clavata Mills, 1934) is designated as type species and redescribed from type specimens, and A. obscura n. sp. is described. On Mixturatulla ozwini n. gen., n. sp. papillae A and B of the labial palpus are thick and blunt, the second row of the PAO is laterally broken into numerous spherical vesicles, and the dorsum of Abd. VI has two rows of large, coalesced tubercles. Psammophorura miniclavata n. sp. lacks pseudocelli on the third abdominal segment, which are present in previously described species. Stenaphorura shaconage n. sp. is the first species of its genus reliably recorded from North America. It differs from its Palaearctic relatives in having 2+2 pseudocelli on most body segments. Tullbergia nearctica n. sp. resembles T. arctica (Wahlgren, 1900) but differs in several chaetotaxic characters. Sensilliform setae traditionally considered as ordinary pointed setae are recognized and charted. A new setal nomenclature is proposed for the ventral setae of the sixth abdominal segment.

  20. Laboratory assessment of the impacts of transgenic Bt rice on the ecological fitness of the soil non-target arthropod, Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yiyang; Xiao, Nengwen; Krogh, Paul Henning; Chen, Fajun; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins (Bt rice) for pest control is considered an important solution to food security in China. However, tests for potential effects on non-target soil organisms are required for environmental risk assessment. The soil collembolan Folsomia candida L. (Collembola: Isotomidae) is a potential non-target arthropod that is often used as a biological indicator in bio-safety assessments of transgenic crops. In the present study, the roots, stems, and leaves of Bt rice were exposed to F. candida under laboratory conditions, with survival, reproduction and growth of the collembolan as ecological fitness parameters. Significant differences in ecological fitness were found among the different treatments, including differences in the plant parts and varieties of non-Bt rice, presumably as the result of three factors: gene modification, plant parts and rice varieties. The fitness of F. candida was less affected by the different diets than by the exposure to the same materials mixed with soil. Our results clearly showed that there was no negative effect of different Bt rice varieties on the fitness of F. candida through either diet or soil exposure.

  1. Diversity of larvae of littoral Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) and their role as bioindicators in urban reservoirs of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Morais, S S; Molozzi, J; Viana, A L; Viana, T H; Callisto, M

    2010-11-01

    The Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) have a high species richness, with species adapted to live under widely different environmental conditions. The study of the taxonomic composition of chironomid larvae and the percentage of occurrence of deformities in mouthparts, mainly in the mentum, are used in biomonitoring programmes in order to obtain information on the levels of organic and chemical pollution of aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abundance of chironomid larvae and to quantify the occurrence of mentum deformities in the specimens collected in three urban reservoirs with different trophic levels. The reservoirs are located in the hydrographic basin of the Paraopeba River, an affluent of the São Francisco River basin (Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil). The Serra Azul Reservoir is oligotrophic, the Vargem das Flores Reservoir is mesotrophic, and the Ibirité Reservoir is eutrophic. Along the littoral zone of each reservoir, 30 samples were collected during each sampling campaign. Sampling was carried out every three months for one year, with two sampling campaigns during the wet season and two during the dry season in 2008. Physical and chemical parameters measured in the water column included the water depth, Secchi depth, air and water temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, Total-N, Total-P, P-ortho, and chlorophyll-a. The chironomid larvae were identified to the genus level. The structure of the chironomid assemblages was evaluated based on taxonomic richness (24 genera), density, equitability, and diversity. The potential indicator taxa for each reservoir were established through an Indicator Species Analysis. The values for taxonomic richness (20 taxa), equitability (0.737), and Shannon-Wiener diversity (2.215) were highest in the Serra Azul Reservoir. Fissimentum was the indicator taxon in Serra Azul, the oligotrophic reservoir; whereas

  2. Collembolan Transcriptomes Highlight Molecular Evolution of Hexapods and Provide Clues on the Adaptation to Terrestrial Life

    PubMed Central

    Faddeeva, A.; Studer, R. A.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Sie, D.; Ylstra, B.; Mariën, J.; op den Camp, H. J. M.; Datema, E.; den Dunnen, J. T.; van Straalen, N. M.; Roelofs, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Collembola (springtails) represent a soil-living lineage of hexapods in between insects and crustaceans. Consequently, their genomes may hold key information on the early processes leading to evolution of Hexapoda from a crustacean ancestor. Method We assembled and annotated transcriptomes of the Collembola Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta, and performed comparative analysis with protein-coding gene sequences of three crustaceans and three insects to identify adaptive signatures associated with the evolution of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade. Results Assembly of the springtail transcriptomes resulted in 37,730 transcripts with predicted open reading frames for F. candida and 32,154 for O. cincta, of which 34.2% were functionally annotated for F. candida and 38.4% for O. cincta. Subsequently, we predicted orthologous clusters among eight species and applied the branch-site test to detect episodic positive selection in the Hexapoda and Collembola lineages. A subset of 250 genes showed significant positive selection along the Hexapoda branch and 57 in the Collembola lineage. Gene Ontology categories enriched in these genes include metabolism, stress response (i.e. DNA repair, immune response), ion transport, ATP metabolism, regulation and development-related processes (i.e. eye development, neurological development). Conclusions We suggest that the identified gene families represent processes that have played a key role in the divergence of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade that eventually evolved into the most species-rich group of all animals, the hexapods. Furthermore, some adaptive signatures in collembolans may provide valuable clues to understand evolution of hexapods on land. PMID:26075903

  3. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Diabrotica barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data.

    PubMed

    Coates, Brad S

    2014-06-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (16,747 bp) and Diabrotica barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were in typical of insect mitochondrial genomes. Non-standard nad4 and cox3 stop codons were composed of single T nucleotides and likely completed by adenylation, and atypical TTT start codons was predicted for both D. v. virgifera and D. barberinad1 genes. The D. v. virgifera and D. barberi haplotypes showed 819 variable nucleotide positions within PCG regions (7.36% divergence), which suggest that speciation may have occurred ~3.68 million years ago assuming a linear rate of short-term substitution. Phylogenetic analyses of Coleopteran MtD genome show clustering based on family level, and may have the capacity to resolve the evolutionary history within this Order of insects. PMID:24657060

  4. The Influence of Heavy Metals and Water Parameters on the Composition and Abundance of Water Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera) in the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda

    2014-01-01

    The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ 2 = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H’ and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin. PMID:27073600

  5. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    PubMed

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas.

  6. The Influence of Heavy Metals and Water Parameters on the Composition and Abundance of Water Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera) in the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda

    2014-12-01

    The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ (2) = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H' and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin.

  7. The Influence of Heavy Metals and Water Parameters on the Composition and Abundance of Water Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera) in the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda

    2014-12-01

    The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ (2) = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H' and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin. PMID:27073600

  8. Rapid and accurate taxonomic classification of insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcode sequences using a naïve Bayesian classifier

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Teresita M; Gibson, Joel F; Shokralla, Shadi; Baird, Donald J; Golding, G Brian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Current methods to identify unknown insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase (COI barcode) sequences often rely on thresholds of distances that can be difficult to define, sequence similarity cut-offs, or monophyly. Some of the most commonly used metagenomic classification methods do not provide a measure of confidence for the taxonomic assignments they provide. The aim of this study was to use a naïve Bayesian classifier (Wang et al. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2007; 73: 5261) to automate taxonomic assignments for large batches of insect COI sequences such as data obtained from high-throughput environmental sequencing. This method provides rank-flexible taxonomic assignments with an associated bootstrap support value, and it is faster than the blast-based methods commonly used in environmental sequence surveys. We have developed and rigorously tested the performance of three different training sets using leave-one-out cross-validation, two field data sets, and targeted testing of Lepidoptera, Diptera and Mantodea sequences obtained from the Barcode of Life Data system. We found that type I error rates, incorrect taxonomic assignments with a high bootstrap support, were already relatively low but could be lowered further by ensuring that all query taxa are actually present in the reference database. Choosing bootstrap support cut-offs according to query length and summarizing taxonomic assignments to more inclusive ranks can also help to reduce error while retaining the maximum number of assignments. Additionally, we highlight gaps in the taxonomic and geographic representation of insects in public sequence databases that will require further work by taxonomists to improve the quality of assignments generated using any method.

  9. Heptageniidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Braasch, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nine genera and twenty-two species of heptageniid mayflies from Thailand are defined in this present work as well as one suggested further subgenus, Compsoneuria (Siamoneuria) kovaci (species “incertae sedis”) including some particular characters. Taxonomic remarks, diagnoses, line drawings of key characters, distribution, habitat and biological data, and a larval key to the genera and species are provided. The chorionic eggs of eight genera and eight species were observed and shown using a scanning electron microscope. PMID:23794803

  10. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-01-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  11. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Stereolidae Rafinesque, 1815 nom. oblitum (Throscidae) and Lophocaterini Crowson, 1964 over Lycoptini Casey, 1890 nom. oblitum (Trogossitidae); Monotoma Herbst, 1799 nom. protectum over Monotoma Panzer, 1792 nom. oblitum (Monotomidae); Pediacus Shuckard, 1839 nom. protectum over Biophloeus Dejean, 1835 nom. oblitum (Cucujidae), Pachypus Dejean, 1821 nom. protectum over Pachypus Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae), Sparrmannia Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Leocaeta Dejean, 1833 nom. oblitum and Cephalotrichia Hope, 1837 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae). PMID:21594053

  12. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  13. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom.

  14. Abundance and Diversity of Soil Arthropods in the Olive Grove Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night. PMID:22943295

  15. Abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in the olive grove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night.

  16. Genome size of termites (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Isoptera) and wood roaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Cryptocercidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru

    2008-09-01

    The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes ( C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.

  17. Genome size of termites (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Isoptera) and wood roaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Cryptocercidae).

    PubMed

    Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru

    2008-09-01

    The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes (C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.

  18. A new species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Western Alps (Insecta: Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorum sp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorum sp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe – a supposedly well-explored region. PMID:27069351

  19. Two new Megalothorax species of the minimus group (Collembola, Neelidae).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Clément; Porco, David; Deharveng, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Two new Megalothorax species, Megalothorax potapovi sp. n. from the Russian Far East and Megalothorax sanguineus sp. n. from the French Pyrénées are described. The two new species have a set of morphological characters (including a smooth mucro) that places them among the minimus group sensu Schneider and D'Haese (2013). Megalothorax potapovi characteristics include dorsal protuberance on forehead, peculiar chaetotaxy of antenna III and strong lanceolate chaetae on body. Megalothorax sanguineus characteristics include strong red pigmentation, large network of integumentary channels on head and elongated apex of the two postero-distal spines of dens. The DNA barcodes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I-COI) of the two species are also provided and analyzed among a broader sampling of the genus in order to support further their specific status. A special focus is given to the labral morphological characteristics. Pseudopores-like elements are reported for the first time in the genus. Positions of the τ-chaetae near the dorsal sensory field of thorax II are compared for several species of the genus. PMID:26877679

  20. Entomobryoidea (Collembola) from Himachal Pradesh (India) in the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Enrique; Mandal, Gurupada; Jordana, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Collections made during March-April, 2010, October-November, 2010 and 2011 from different districts of Himachal Pradesh, India, by the Apterygota section of the Zoological Survey of India contained new species of Entomobryoidea. Localities sampled were Solan, Shimla, Kullu, Bilaspur, Kagra, Chamba and Sirmaur districts of Himachal Pradesh. Collections were mainly made using an aspirator from leaf litter, mosses, under stones, flowering garden plants and river embankments, wetlands and rotting logs. Sixteen species were found, belonging to genera: Entomobrya, Himalanura, Homidia, Sinella, Willowsia, Lepidocyrtus (Acrocyrtus), Lepidocyrtus (Cinctocyrtus), Seira, Drepanosira and Salina. Twelve of these have been described as new species. PMID:26624165

  1. Pax6 in Collembola: Adaptive Evolution of Eye Regression.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Nan; Li, Sheng; Luan, Yun-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the compound eyes in insects, collembolan eyes are comparatively simple: some species have eyes with different numbers of ocelli (1 + 1 to 8 + 8), and some species have no apparent eye structures. Pax6 is a universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. In this study, full-length Pax6 cDNAs, Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6, were cloned from an eyeless collembolan (Folsomia candida, soil-dwelling) and an eyed one (Ceratophysella denticulata, surface-dwelling), respectively. Their phylogenetic positions are between the two Pax6 paralogs in insects, eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy), and their protein sequences are more similar to Ey than to Toy. Both Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6 could induce ectopic eyes in Drosophila, while Fc-Pax6 exhibited much weaker transactivation ability than Cd-Pax6. The C-terminus of collembolan Pax6 is indispensable for its transactivation ability, and determines the differences of transactivation ability between Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6. One of the possible reasons is that Fc-Pax6 accumulated more mutations at some key functional sites of C-terminus under a lower selection pressure on eye development due to the dark habitats of F. candida. The composite data provide a first molecular evidence for the monophyletic origin of collembolan eyes, and indicate the eye degeneration of collembolans is caused by adaptive evolution. PMID:26856893

  2. Two new Megalothorax species of the minimus group (Collembola, Neelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Clément; Porco, David; Deharveng, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new Megalothorax species, Megalothorax potapovi sp. n. from the Russian Far East and Megalothorax sanguineus sp. n. from the French Pyrénées are described. The two new species have a set of morphological characters (including a smooth mucro) that places them among the minimus group sensu Schneider and D’Haese (2013). Megalothorax potapovi characteristics include dorsal protuberance on forehead, peculiar chaetotaxy of antenna III and strong lanceolate chaetae on body. Megalothorax sanguineus characteristics include strong red pigmentation, large network of integumentary channels on head and elongated apex of the two postero-distal spines of dens. The DNA barcodes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I–COI) of the two species are also provided and analyzed among a broader sampling of the genus in order to support further their specific status. A special focus is given to the labral morphological characteristics. Pseudopores-like elements are reported for the first time in the genus. Positions of the τ-chaetae near the dorsal sensory field of thorax II are compared for several species of the genus. PMID:26877679

  3. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves.

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  4. Arrhopalites potapovi sp. nov. (Collembola, Symphypleona) from Russia.

    PubMed

    Vargovitsh, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    A new springtail species of the family Arrhopalitidae, Arrhopalites potapovi sp. nov., is described. It belongs to the caecus species group characterized by 3,2,1,1,1 anterior setae on dens and separates from Arrhopalites caecus (Tullberg) and other congeners by strongly differentiated cuticular spines on sixth abdominal segment, shape of female subanal appendages and foot complex. It was found under the loose bark of trees from two localities along Lake Baikal and it is the second representative of the genus Arrhopalites Börner sensu stricto in Russia. PMID:25947839

  5. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves

    PubMed Central

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  6. Gene expression analysis of collembola in cadmium containing soil.

    PubMed

    Nota, Benjamin; Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Franken, Oscar; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Mariën, Janine; De Boer, Muriel E; De Boer, Tjalf E; Ylstra, Bauke; Van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2008-11-01

    Increasing concern about pollution of our environment calls for advanced and rapid methods to estimate ecological toxicity. The use of gene expression microarrays in environmental studies can potentially meet this challenge. We present a novel method to examine soil toxicity. We exposed the collembolan Folsomia candida to soil containing an ecologically relevant cadmium concentration, and found a cumulative total of 1586 differentially expressed transcripts across three exposure durations, including transcripts involved in stress response, detoxification, and hypoxia. Additional enrichment analysis of gene ontology (GO) terms revealed that antibiotic biosynthesis is important at all time points examined. Interestingly, genes involved in the "penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthesis pathway" have never been identified in animals before, but are expressed in F. candida's tissue. The synthesis of antibiotics can possibly be a response to increased cadmium-induced susceptibility to invading pathogens, which might be caused by repression of genes involved in the immune-system (C-type lectins and Toll receptor). This study presents a first global view on the environmental stress response of an arthropod species exposed to contaminated soil, and provides a mechanistic basis for the development of a gene expression soil quality test. PMID:19031917

  7. Pax6 in Collembola: Adaptive Evolution of Eye Regression

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ya-Nan; Li, Sheng; Luan, Yun-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the compound eyes in insects, collembolan eyes are comparatively simple: some species have eyes with different numbers of ocelli (1 + 1 to 8 + 8), and some species have no apparent eye structures. Pax6 is a universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. In this study, full-length Pax6 cDNAs, Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6, were cloned from an eyeless collembolan (Folsomia candida, soil-dwelling) and an eyed one (Ceratophysella denticulata, surface-dwelling), respectively. Their phylogenetic positions are between the two Pax6 paralogs in insects, eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy), and their protein sequences are more similar to Ey than to Toy. Both Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6 could induce ectopic eyes in Drosophila, while Fc-Pax6 exhibited much weaker transactivation ability than Cd-Pax6. The C-terminus of collembolan Pax6 is indispensable for its transactivation ability, and determines the differences of transactivation ability between Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6. One of the possible reasons is that Fc-Pax6 accumulated more mutations at some key functional sites of C-terminus under a lower selection pressure on eye development due to the dark habitats of F. candida. The composite data provide a first molecular evidence for the monophyletic origin of collembolan eyes, and indicate the eye degeneration of collembolans is caused by adaptive evolution. PMID:26856893

  8. New species of Pseudachorutes (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Zoughailech, Abdelmalek; Hamra-Kroua, Salah; Deharveng, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Pseudachorutes are described from the Collo massif in northeastern Algeria, all three with morphological features unique or rare in the genus. P. deficiens sp. nov. lacks chaeta E on the labium, a character only retrieved in P. ouatilouensis Najt & Weiner, 1997 from New Caledonia, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and of chaeta M on tibiotarsus. P. octosensillatus sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that have 8 S-chaetae on Ant IV. P. labiatus sp. nov. has 3 x-papillae on the labium, like P. cf. indiana Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980 from Alaska, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and a lower number of vesicles in PAO (5-6 vs 10-14). PMID:27615903

  9. X-ray induced visible alterations in the giant chromosomes of Phryne cincta (Nematocera, Diptera): relation of radiation sensitivity to pronuclear chromosome structure.

    PubMed

    Israelewski, N

    1975-12-10

    In order to induce chromosomal rearrangements, males were exposed to x-rays and then mated to non-irradiated females. The number of each type of structural alteration was determined by examination of the polytene chromosomes of the F1 progeny. -- A comparison of the results with similar studies made on Drosophila revealed a significantly greater sensitivity in Phryne. Parallel to that an extremely high frequency of small inversions was ascertained in Phryne, and the observed ratio of inversions to translocations was the inverse of that which would be expected from purely mathematical considerations based on the lengths of the different chromosomes. These facts allow the conclusion that the paternal pronuclear chromosomes in Phryne are highly spiralized. Besides, the kinetochore-to-translocation-breakpoint distance was measured in both of the chromosomes involved in each reciprocal translocation and the differences (kinetochore-break distance differences) were registered and from them the arrangement of the chromosomes in the pronucleus of Phryne deduced. The data obtained support the assumption of an ordered, polar-field type of orientation. In Drosophila, in contrast, the comparable data showed that the pronuclear chromosomes are not spiralized and are randomly arranged (Bauer, 1939). -- These results seem to indicate that a close correlation exists between the different radiation sensitivities of Drosophila and Phryne and the different states of spiralisation and arrangements of their chromosomes in the pronucleus stage. It is hypothesized that the influence of the maternal genome on the degree of spiralization of the paternal chromosomes could account for differences in the pronuclear chromosome structure of both species.

  10. Divergence of unique DNA sequences in Lepidoptera (insecta)

    SciTech Connect

    Ado, N.Yu.; Petrov, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The authors contribute additional information about the interrelationship between lepidoteran taxons. Such information may be obtained by the techniques of genosystematics. DNA was extracted from the last larval instars of images by the usual methods. The labeled and unlabeled fragments were 150-250 nucleotide pairs (n.p.) long. DNA hybridization was performed under gentle conditions: 0.5 M Na phosphage buffer, pH 6.8, at 55/sup 0/C, incubation to 10,000 C/sub o/T (product of initial concentration of single-strand DNA molecules, moles/liter, and time of incubation (in seconds)), permitting the comparison of genomes of species from taxons phylogenetically far apart. The ratio of labeled fragments of reference unique DNA sequences to unlabeled total DNA was 1:2500. The techniques of hybridization and determination of the thermal stability (T/sub m/) of the duplexes, taking into account the auto-reassociation of the labeled DNA fragments. The radioactivity was determined in a dioxane-based scintillator, after partial acid hydrolysis of the DNA at 55/sup 0/C, in a counter. Under the experimental conditions chosen, reassociation of unique DNA sequences in homologous reactions was 70-85%

  11. An annotated checklist of the Greek Stonefly Fauna (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species. PMID:27395093

  12. Chironomids (Insecta: Diptera) as Indicators of Ecological Status in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziali, L.; Lencioni, V.; Rossaro, B.

    2005-05-01

    Benthic communities are used in biological assessment and monitoring in lakes. Chironomids are considered indicators of oxygen level and trophic state. The taxocoenosis of 42 Italian lakes with different volume, depth, annual minimum hypolimnetic oxygen concentration, transparency and phosphorous concentration were investigated. Larvae were collected with a Petersen grab at different depths, pupal exuviae with a drift net near the outlet of lakes and adults with a sweep net along the shore. 334 species were identified: 41 Tanypodinae, 17 Diamesinae, 3 Prodiamesinae, 118 Orthocladiinae, 155 Chironominae (61 Tanytarsini, 93 Chironomini and 1 Pseudochironomini). Drift samples included many more taxa than grab samples, adult samples often included terrestrial species. Lake Garda, Como and Maggiore were the richest in species (78, 72 and 66 respectively), as expected because of their large size. Species richness did not result as good indicator: both oligotrophic (Monate 52 species, Toblino 33) and eutrophic lakes (Annone 57, Pusiano 42) were characterized by similar species numbers. Different species were more suitable indicators of oxygen concentration rather than of nutrients. A comparison of different lakes is preliminary because of: 1. different morphometric and trophic conditions; 2. different sampling effort; 3. lack of knowledge of species optima and tolerance.

  13. Tropical dermatology: Venomous arthropods and human skin: Part I. Insecta.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-09-01

    Although many tropical insects carry infectious diseases, cutaneous injury can occur by other mechanisms, for example erucism (envenomation by caterpillars) or lepidopterism (dermatitis from moths). Pararama is a unique form of erucism seen in workers in contact with rubber trees in the Amazon, and it is caused by Premolis larvae, resulting in progressive periarticular fibrosis, ankylosis, and the loss of articulation. Ants and aquatic insects of the Belostomatidae family can cause painful bites and stings. Anaphylactic shock and death can result from the venom of bees and wasps. Beetles can cause vesicular dermatitis via cantharidin or paederin. Myiasis results from fly larvae (maggots) feeding on live or necrotic tissue of humans or other hosts, while New World screwworm fly larvae feed only on living tissue and burrow (ie, screw) more deeply when attempts are made to remove them. Tungiasis is characterized by very pruritic and painful papules and ulcers resulting from a Tunga flea penetrating the host's skin. Dermatologists should be able to diagnose and treat the cutaneous manifestations of these tropical insects and educate their patients on prevention. PMID:22890734

  14. Chromosome numbers in antlions (Myrmeleontidae) and owlflies (Ascalaphidae) (Insecta, Neuroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Khabiev, Gadzhimurad N.; Krivokhatsky, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A short review of main cytogenetic features of insects belonging to the sister neuropteran families Myrmeleontidae (antlions) and Ascalaphidae (owlflies) is presented, with a particular focus on their chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems. Diploid male chromosome numbers are listed for 37 species, 21 genera from 9 subfamilies of the antlions as well as for seven species and five genera of the owlfly subfamily Ascalaphinae. The list includes data on five species whose karyotypes were studied in the present work. It is shown here that antlions and owlflies share a simple sex chromosome system XY/XX; a similar range of chromosome numbers, 2n = 14-26 and 2n = 18-22 respectively; and a peculiar distant pairing of sex chromosomes in male meiosis. Usually the karyotype is particularly stable within a genus but there are some exceptions in both families (in the genera Palpares and Libelloides respectively). The Myrmeleontidae and Ascalaphidae differ in their modal chromosome numbers. Most antlions exhibit 2n = 14 and 16, and Palparinae are the only subfamily characterized by higher numbers, 2n = 22, 24, and 26. The higher numbers, 2n = 20 and 22, are also found in owlflies. Since the Palparinae represent a basal phylogenetic lineage of the Myrmeleontidae, it is hypothesized that higher chromosome numbers are ancestral for antlions and were inherited from the common ancestor of Myrmeleontidae + Ascalaphidae. They were preserved in the Palparinae (Myrmeleontidae), but changed via chromosomal fusions toward lower numbers in other subfamilies. PMID:26807036

  15. A review of the fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía

    2016-01-01

    The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance. PMID:27394731

  16. Croatian mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera): species diversity and distribution patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vilenica, Marina; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Sartori, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the mayfly biodiversity in the Balkan Peninsula is still far from complete. Compared to the neighbouring countries, the mayfly fauna in Croatia is very poorly known. Situated at the crossroads of central and Mediterranean Europe and the Balkan Peninsula, Croatia is divided into two ecoregions: Dinaric western Balkan and Pannonian lowland. Mayflies were sampled between 2003 and 2013 at 171 sites, and a total of 66 species was recorded. Combined with the literature data, the Croatian mayfly fauna reached a total of 79 taxa. Of these, 29 species were recorded for the first time in Croatia while 15 species were not previously recorded in Dinaric western Balkan ecoregion. Based on the mayfly assemblage, sampling sites were first structured by ecoregion and then by habitat type. In comparison with the surrounding countries, the Croatian mayfly fauna is the most similar to the Hungarian and Bosnian fauna. Some morphologically interesting taxa such as Baetis cf. nubecularis Eaton, 1898 and Rhithrogena from the diaphana group were recorded. Ephemera cf. parnassiana Demoulin, 1958, the species previously recorded only from Greece, was also recorded. PMID:26478701

  17. Revision of Trachelissa Aurivillius, 1912 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Quintino, Hingrid Yara S; Monné, Marcela L

    2014-01-01

    A revision of the genus Trachelissa Aurivillius, 1912, based on a study of external morphology and terminalia, is presented. The genus and its species are redescribed. Five species are recognized, two of which are described as new: T. bella sp. nov. from Bolivia and T. opaca sp. nov. from Argentina. A new host plant for T. maculicollis Audinet-Serville, 1834 is recorded. A key to all species, and their photographs and distribution maps are provided. 

  18. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  19. A review of the fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía

    2016-04-13

    The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance.

  20. An annotated checklist of the Greek Stonefly Fauna (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid

    2016-05-17

    An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species.

  1. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed. PMID:23853355

  2. On Afromantispa and Mantispa (Insecta, Neuroptera, Mantispidae): elucidating generic boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Snyman, Louwtjie P.; Sole, Catherine L.; Ohl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Afromantispa Snyman & Ohl, 2012 was recently synonymised with Mantispa Illiger, 1798 by Monserrat (2014). Here morphological evidence is presented in support of restoring the genus Afromantispa stat. rev. to its previous status as a valid and morphologically distinct genus. Twelve new combinations (comb. n.) are proposed as species of Afromantispa including three new synonyms. PMID:26478700

  3. New Jurassic Hangingflies (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sulin; Shih, Chungkun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Ren, Dong

    2016-01-01

    A new bittacid genus, Composibittacus gen. nov., with two new species, C. bipunctatus gen. et sp. nov. and C. reticulatus sp. nov., and a new species of Orthobittacus Willmann 1989, O. maculosus sp. nov., are described from the latest Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. Composibittacus gen. nov. has unique wing characters, such as five pterostigmal crossveins between R1 and R2 and R1 and R2+3 and an elongated pterostigma area, which distinguishes it from all other known genera in Bittacidae. Orthobittacus maculosus sp. nov. differs from other species of Orthobittacus by a combination of the following wing characters: M with six branches in forewings and hind wings, two crossveins between C and Sc, and two pterostigmal crossveins in the forewing. In addition, O. maculosus sp. nov. has light-colored or white spots on the fore- and hind wings. These new venational characters of Composibittacus gen. nov. and O. maculosus sp. nov. enhance our understanding of the diverse morphological characters of early hangingflies. Furthermore, based on the striking similarity of the wings of O. maculosus sp. nov. and Juracimbrophlebia ginkgofolia Wang, Labandeira, Shih & Ren 2012 (Cimbrophlebiidae), we propose that leaf mimesis and mutualism with ginkgo plants might have been present in the Bittacidae, as has been proposed in the Cimbrophlebiidae. PMID:27395863

  4. The Nabidae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marcela; Coscarón, María C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, five genera and 14 species are recorded in the subfamilies Prostemmatinae and Nabinae: Hoplistoscelis sordidus Reuter, Lasiomerus constrictus Champion, Metatropiphorus alvarengai Reuter, Nabis argentinus Meyer-Dür, Nabis (Tropiconabis) capsiformis Germar, Nabis faminei Stål, Nabis paranensis Harris, Nabis punctipennis Blanchard, Nabis roripes Stål, Nabis setricus Harris, Nabis tandilensis Berg, Pagasa (Pagasa) costalis Reuter, Pagasa (Lampropagasa) fuscipennis Reuter and Pagasa (Pagasa) signatipennis Reuter. PMID:24146557

  5. Larvae of hydromanicus (insecta: trichoptera: hydropsychidae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prommi, Taeng On; Permkam, Surakrai

    2015-01-29

    Larvae of only 2 of the 13 species of Hydromanicus known from Thailand have been described previously. In this research, the "metamorphotype method" was used to associate yet-unidentifiable larvae and pupae with their identifiable adults: Pupal identifications were based on genitalic features in common with described adults, and larvae were associated with the pupae. Herein, the final larval instar of Hydromanicus malayanus, H. abiud and H. inferior are described and illustrated. 

  6. A new species of Mengenilla (Insecta, Strepsiptera) from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans; Niehuis, Oliver; Gloyna, Kai; Misof, Bernhard; Beutel, Rolf G

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Mengenilla Hofeneder, 1910 (Strepsiptera, Mengenillidae) from southern Tunisia is described. Mengenilla moldrzykisp. n. can be distinguished from congeners by a slightly emarginated posterodorsal margin of the head, compound eyes with a light tan dorsal part, mandibles with a narrow distal part, and a v-shaped pronotum. With the description of Mengenilla moldrzykisp. n., eleven valid species of Mengenilla are currently recognised. Mengenilla moldrzykisp. n. is the third species of the genus with known females and female puparia. First instar larvae, endoparasitic larval stages, the male puparium and the host are unknown. The new species is also the first strepsipteran with a fully sequenced genome. PMID:22707907

  7. Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Beutel, Rolf G; Pohl, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In a few insect groups, males pierce the female's integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females. PMID:27125507

  8. Mating of Xenos vesparum (Rossi) (Strepsiptera, Insecta) revisited.

    PubMed

    Beani, L; Giusti, F; Mercati, D; Lupetti, P; Paccagnini, E; Turillazzi, S; Dallai, R

    2005-09-01

    The controversial mating of the strepsipteran Xenos vesparum was studied to investigate the possible sperm routes for fertilization. The female, which is a neotenic permanent endoparasite of Polistes wasps, extrudes only its anterior region, the "cephalothorax," from the host abdomen. This region has an opening where both mating and larval escape occur. Observations with scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed spermatozoa not only in the hemocoel, but also in the "ventral canal" (an extragenital duct peculiar to strepsipteran females) and in the "genital ducts" (ectodermal invaginations connecting the ventral canal to the hemocoel) of recently mated females. Xenos vesparum spermatozoa can reach the oocytes either through the hemocoel as a result of a hypodermic insemination, or by moving along the extragenital ducts, which are later used by first instar larvae to escape. The hypothesis of hypodermic insemination is reconsidered in the light of behavioral and ultrastructural evidence. PMID:16047336

  9. Molecular phylogeny of Polyneoptera (Insecta) inferred from expanded mitogenomic data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    The Polyneoptera represents one of the earliest insect radiations, comprising the majority of hemimetabolous orders, in which many species have great economic importance. Here, we sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes of the polyneopteran insects by using high throughput pooled sequencing technology, and presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for this group based on expanded mitochondrial genome data. Our analyses included 189 taxa, of which 139 species represent all the major polyneopteran lineages. Multiple results support the monophyly of Polyneoptera, the monophyly of Dictyoptera, and the monophyly of Orthoptera. Sister taxon relationships Plecoptera + Dermaptera, and Zoraptera + Embioptera are also supported by most analyses. Within Dictyoptera, the Blattodea is consistently retrieved as paraphyly due to the sister group relationship of Cryptocercus with Isoptera. In addition, the results demonstrate that model selection, data treatment, and outgroup choice can have significant effects on the reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of Polyneoptera. PMID:27782189

  10. Tropical dermatology: Venomous arthropods and human skin: Part I. Insecta.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-09-01

    Although many tropical insects carry infectious diseases, cutaneous injury can occur by other mechanisms, for example erucism (envenomation by caterpillars) or lepidopterism (dermatitis from moths). Pararama is a unique form of erucism seen in workers in contact with rubber trees in the Amazon, and it is caused by Premolis larvae, resulting in progressive periarticular fibrosis, ankylosis, and the loss of articulation. Ants and aquatic insects of the Belostomatidae family can cause painful bites and stings. Anaphylactic shock and death can result from the venom of bees and wasps. Beetles can cause vesicular dermatitis via cantharidin or paederin. Myiasis results from fly larvae (maggots) feeding on live or necrotic tissue of humans or other hosts, while New World screwworm fly larvae feed only on living tissue and burrow (ie, screw) more deeply when attempts are made to remove them. Tungiasis is characterized by very pruritic and painful papules and ulcers resulting from a Tunga flea penetrating the host's skin. Dermatologists should be able to diagnose and treat the cutaneous manifestations of these tropical insects and educate their patients on prevention.

  11. Supergroup F Wolbachia bacteria parasitise lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Covacin, Catherine; Barker, Stephen C

    2007-02-01

    We studied six species of lice from three of the four suborders of lice. These lice were infected with Wolbachia bacteria from supergroups A and F. This is the first report of an infection of supergroup F Wolbachia in lice. To date, Wolbachia from supergroup F have been found in filarial nematodes, Mansonella spp., and, rarely, in insects. We inferred the phylogeny of the Wolbachia from lice and representatives of all Wolbachia supergroups, with nucleotide sequences from the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). There was no evidence of congruence between the taxon of louse and the Wolbachia bacteria that infect lice. There is no evidence that Wolbachia and their louse hosts co-evolved at least at the level of Wolbachia supergroups. We propose a novel mechanism for the horizontal transfer of Wolbachia between different species of lice from birds: transfer of Wolbachia during phoresis by hippoboscid flies.

  12. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed.

  13. Reduced taxonomic richness of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) in diving birds.

    PubMed

    Felsõ, B; Rózsa, L

    2006-08-01

    Avian lice occupy different habitats in the host plumage that the physical environment outside the host body may affect in several ways. Interactions between host plumage and water may be an important source of such effects. Here, we use a comparative approach to examine the effect of a host's diving behavior on the taxonomic richness of its lice. Louse genera richness was significantly lower in clades of diving birds than on their nondiving sister clades. Species richness of host and body mass did not differ significantly between these clades; thus, these factors did not bias our results. This study suggests that the hosts' diving behavior can effectively influence ectoparasite communities.

  14. Fossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) as Paleothermometers in the African Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggermont, H.; Heiri, O.; Russell, J.; Vuille, M.; Audenaert, L.; Klaassen, G.; Verschuren, D.

    2008-12-01

    Reconstruction of Africa's temperature history from natural climate archives such as lake sediments is essential to amend the current scarcity of information on natural tropical climate and ecosystem variability. Chironomids are well-established paleothermometers in north-temperate/boreal regions, but their potential in tropical lakes has never before been assessed. We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments from 65 lakes and permanent pools in southwestern Uganda and central/southern Kenya, spanning elevations between 489 and 4575 m asl. Using various subsets of lakes and corresponding Surface-Water Temperatures (SWTemp) and Mean Annual Air Temperatures (MATemp), we developed a series of inference models for quantitative paleotemperature reconstruction. Models using both low-, mid- and high-elevation sites suffer to some extent from the small number of samples between 2500 and 3500 m asl, and from the presence of ecologically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable taxa. Models confined to mountain sites produce poorer error statistics, but are less prone to the biogeographical and taxonomic complexities associated with long climatic gradients. Overall, error statistics compare favourably with those of inference models developed for temperate regions, indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past temperature change. We subsequently used these models to evaluate whether high-elevation lakes in the Rwenzori Mountains (>3000 m asl) have been impacted by climate warming in recent centuries by comparing temperatures inferred from chironomid assemblages in modern sediments with those derived from chironomid assemblages in sediments deposited within or briefly after the Little Ice Age (1270-1850 AD). Depending on the model used, between 44 and 63% of the 16 lakes studied indicate significantly warmer temperatures in recent times (corresponding with an average MATemp rise of 0.88 ° C, and average SWTemp rise of 1.33 ° C), while all but one of the other lakes show temperature changes that are statistically insignificant. We conclude that chironomid communities in Rwenzori lakes adequately record past temperature changes, with potential for evaluating the impacts of past air temperature variation on the long-term dynamics of the Rwenzori glaciers.

  15. Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Beutel, Rolf G.; Pohl, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In a few insect groups, males pierce the female’s integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females. PMID:27125507

  16. The blattodeas.s. (Insecta, dictyoptera) of the Guiana shield.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dominic A; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L; Wilson, Megan M; Ware, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblattaberenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodeas.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under-sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under-sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics.

  17. Subforaminal bridges in Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a focus on Chalcidoidea.

    PubMed

    Burks, R A; Heraty, J M

    2015-03-01

    Variation in structures of the posterior surface of the head in Hymenoptera is compared and interpreted according to theories of head capsule evolution, with focus on understanding previously baffling conditions in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. Features are investigated separately without first classifying subforaminal bridges into subcategories. In Proctotrupomorpha (including Chalcidoidea), Ceraphronoidea and some Ichneumonoidea, there are multiple posterior pits associated with the tentorium. In most examined Hymenoptera with a subforaminal bridge, there was a differentiated median area, typically with highly variable microtrichia. This area is elevated in Cephoidea and Pamphilioidea, but is not elevated in other Hymenoptera. Subforaminal bridges in Apocrita previously classified as hypostomal bridges are discussed in the context of A.P. Rasnitsyn's hypothesis that relative importance of adult feeding drives subforaminal bridge evolution.

  18. Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The caddisfly fauna of Minnesota contains at least 277 species within 21 families and 75 genera. These species are based on examination of 312,884 specimens from 2,166 collections of 937 Minnesota aquatic habitats from 1890 to 2007. Included in these totals is my own quantitative sampling of 4 representative habitat types: small streams, medium rivers, large rivers, and lakes, from each of the 58 major Minnesota watersheds from June through September during 1999–2001. All species are illustrated herein, and their known Minnesota abundances, distributions, adult flight periodicities, and habitat affinities presented. Four species: Lepidostoma griseum (Lepidostomatidae), Psilotreta indecisa (Odontoceridae), and Phryganea sayi and Ptilostomis angustipennis (Phryganeidae) are added to the known fauna. An additional 31 dubious species records are removed for various reasons. Of the 5 determined caddisfly regions of the state, species richness per watershed was highest in the Lake Superior and Northern Regions, intermediate in the Southeastern, and lowest in the Northwestern and Southern. Of the 48 individual collections that yielded >40 species, all but 1 were from the Northern Region. Many species, especially within the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae, have appeared to decrease in distribution and abundance during the past 75 years, particularly those once common within the Northwestern and Southern Regions. Many species now appear regionally extirpated, and a few have disappeared from the entire state. The loss of species in the Northwestern and Southern Regions, and probably elsewhere, is almost certainly related to the conversion of many habitats to large-scale agriculture during the mid-20th century. PMID:22615539

  19. Nine new species of Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera) from Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Romera, Carlos; Barrientos, Jose Antonio

    2014-08-28

    One new species of Triphleba Rondani and eight new species of Megaselia Rondani are described from Montseny Natural Park (mainland Spain). The new species are Megaselia arbuciensis García-Romera sp.nov., Megaselia barrientosi García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia callunae García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia carminis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia ivanis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia longianalis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia montseniensis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia sarae García-Romera sp. nov., Triphleba beatricis García-Romera sp. nov. 

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Heliconius pachinus (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhao-Hui; Dai, Pan-Feng; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Heliconius pachinus has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The circular genome is 15,369 bp in length, and comprises the typical components: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. PCGs are mostly initiated with either the ATN codons (COII, COIII, Cytb, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, ND6, ATP6 & ATP8) or the TTG codon (ND1); the COI gene may use the unusual CGA as its initiation codon, as suggested for other lepidopteran species. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND3) or incomplete termination codon T (COI, COII & ND4), while the others use TAA as their termination codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.2% A, 42.0% T, 7.7% G, 11.1% C) with an overall GC content of 18.8%.

  1. Reassessing the phylogenetic position of the epizoic earwigs (Insecta: Dermaptera).

    PubMed

    Naegle, Michael A; Mugleston, Joseph D; Bybee, Seth M; Whiting, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Dermaptera is a relatively small order of free-living insects that typically feed on detritus and other plant material. However, two earwig lineages - Arixeniidae and Hemimeridae - are epizoic on Cheiromeles bats and Beamys and Cricetomys rats respectively. Both of these epizoic families are comprised of viviparous species. The monophyly of these epizoic lineages and their placement within dermapteran phylogeny has remained unclear. A phylogenetic analyses was performed on a diverse sample of 47 earwig taxa for five loci (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, COI, Histone 3, and Tubulin Alpha I). Our results support two independent origins of the epizoic lifestyle within Dermaptera, with Hemimeridae and Arixeniidae each derived from a different lineage of Spongiphoridae. Our analyses places Marava, a genus of spongiphorids that includes free-living but viviparous earwigs, as sister group to Arixeniidae, suggesting that viviparity evolved prior to the shift to the epizoic lifestyle. Additionally, our results support the monophyly of Forficulidae and Chelisochidae and the paraphyly of Labiduridae, Pygidicranidae, Spongiphoridae, and Anisolabididae. PMID:27033951

  2. Intraspecific Signals Inducing Aggregation in Periplaneta americana (Insecta: Dictyoptera).

    PubMed

    Imen, Saïd; Christian, Malosse; Virginie, Durier; Colette, Rivault

    2015-06-01

    Chemical communication is necessary to induce aggregation and to maintain the cohesion of aggregates in Periplaneta americana (L.) cockroaches. We aimed to identify the chemical message inducing aggregation in this species. Two types of bioassays were used-binary choice tests in Petri dishes and tests in Y-olfactometer. Papers conditioned by direct contact of conspecifics induce aggregation when proposed in binary choice tests and were attractive in a Y-olfactometer. The identification of the molecules present on these conditioned papers indicated that dichloromethane extracts contained mainly cuticular hydrocarbons whereas methanol extracts contained more volatile molecules. Only a mixture of extracts in both solvents induced aggregation. High concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are necessary to induce aggregation when presented alone. When presented with volatile molecules present in methanol extracts, low concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are sufficient to induce aggregation if they are presented in contact. Among volatile molecules collected on filter paper, a mixture of three compounds-hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and pentaethylene glycol-induced aggregation. Our results provide evidence that aggregation processes in P. americana relies on a dual mechanism: attraction over long distances by three volatile molecules and maintenance on site by contact with cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:26313978

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Poratrioza sinica (Insecta: Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Poratrioza sinica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) has been sequenced and annotated in this study. This mitogenome is 14,863 bp in length with an A + T content of 72.0%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the putative ancestral insect mitogenome. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons except for nad5, which uses TTG as the initial codon. All the transfer RNA genes have the typical cloverleaf structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The control region is 700 bp in length with 82.4% A + T content. This is the second completely sequenced mitogenome from the family Psyllidae of Hemiptera.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) parasitoids associated with Melitaeini butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Melitaeini).

    PubMed

    Kankare, Maaria; Shaw, Mark R

    2004-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Cotesia Cameron (Braconidae) species parasitising Melitaeini butterflies were examined using DNA sequence data (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and NADH1 dehydrogenase genes, nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region) as well as 12 microsatellite loci. Molecular data were available from ostensibly six species of Cotesia from 16 host butterfly species in Europe, Asia, and North America. Analysis of the combined sequence data using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood revealed two distinct Cotesia clades. In one clade (C. acuminata (Reinhard); C. bignellii (Marshall)) host ranges are apparently narrow and, although Euphydryas (s. lato) is well-utilised, permeation of Melitaea (s. lato) has been slight. In the other clade (C. melitaearum (Wilkinson); C. lycophron (Nixon); C. cynthiae (Nixon)) host utilization across the Melitaeini as a whole is more extensive and the data are consistent with more recent, or active, speciation processes. Neighbour-joining trees calculated separately for the two main clades based on chord distance (DCE) of microsatellite allele frequencies were consistent with phylogenetic trees obtained from the sequence data. Our analysis strongly suggests the presence of several additional, previously unrecognised, Cotesia species parasitising this group of butterflies.

  5. Two new species of Tomocerus ocreatus complex (Collembola, Tomoceridae) from Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Daoyuan; Yao, Jin; Hu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Tomocerus Nicolet, 1842 are described from Nanjing, China. Tomocerus qinae sp. nov. is similar to the Vietnamese species Tomocerus ocreatus, but is different from the latter mainly in the colour pattern, the length of antennae, and the pattern of ungual teeth. Tomocerus qixiaensis sp. nov. is similar to Tomocerus ocreatus and Tomocerus qinae sp. nov., but can be distinguished from them by the short antennae and the blunt prominent macrochaetae on manubrium and dens. DNA barcode sequences of the new species are provided. PMID:27394254

  6. Endonura Cassagnau in Iran, with a key to species of the genus (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae)

    PubMed Central

    Smolis, Adrian; Kahrarian, Morteza; Piwnik, Agata; Skarżyński, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Endonura are described from Iran. Endonura dichaeta sp. n. can be recognized by an ogival labrum, head without chaetae O and E, chaeta D connected with tubercle Cl, tubercle Dl with five chaetae on head, absence of tubercles Di on thorax I and tubercle (Di+Di) of thorax V with 2+2 chaetae. Endonura ceratolabralis sp. n. is characterized by large body size, reduction of labral chaetotaxy, ogival labrum, head without chaeta O and fusion of tubercles Di and De on first thoracic segment. Endonura persica sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners by a nonogival labrum, absence of chaeta O, tubercles Dl and (L+So) with five and eight chaetae respectively and claw with inner tooth. The key to all species of the genus is given. PMID:26877671

  7. Two new species of Willowsia (Collembola: Entomobryidae) from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yitong

    2016-01-01

    The genus Willowsia Shoebotham, 1917 belongs to the family Entomobryidae. Within the family it is characterised by having 4-segmented antennae, 8+8 eyes, spines and scales absent from dens, claw with unpaired inner teeth, bidentate mucro and scales on body. Twenty-six species have been described in the genus worldwide including eight species from China. Two new species, Willowsia pseudoshi sp. nov. and W. variabilis sp. nov., from China are described here. The former species has pale yellow antennae except for distal part of Antenna IV which has some blue pigment and 4 macrochaetae are present on Abdomen I. The latter species has the whole antenna pigmented blue and 7-8 macrochaetae present on Abdomen I. A key to Chinese species of Willowsia is given. PMID:27615876

  8. On the genus Paralobella (Collembola: Neanuridae: Lobellini) with description of a new Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongzheng; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2016-01-01

    Remarks on the genus Paralobella Cassagnau & Deharveng, 1984 and a key to world species is provided. P. breviseta sp. nov. is described from Eastern China, it is distinguished from all known members of the genus by its biggest size, digitate body dorsolateral and lateral tubercles and very short setae on dorso-internal tubercles. PMID:27395557

  9. Euedaphic and hemiedaphic Collembola suffer larger damages than epedaphic species to nitrogen input.

    PubMed

    Song, Lihong; Liu, Jing; Yan, Xiumin; Chang, Liang; Wu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands are commonly limited in available nitrogen. But marshes in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeastern China suffer large amounts of exogenous nitrogen from agriculture fertilization after wetland reclamation. This paper focuses on the ecological effects of a short-term increase of nitrogen input on collembolan communities. Our results show a significant decrease in collembolan abundance and Shannon diversity index, and the abundance of euedaphic and hemiedaphic collembolans decreased faster than epedaphic collembolans. These results indicate that euedaphic or hemiedaphic fauna suffer more biodiversity loss caused by nitrogen deposition than epedaphic fauna and call for more researches on trait-based approaches under environmental stress in the future. PMID:26549750

  10. A new species and new records of Arrhopalitidae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Vargovitsh, Robert S; Buşmachiu, Galina

    2015-01-01

    Eight species of the family Arrhopalitidae Stach, 1956 are listed from the Republic of Moldova. A new species, Arrhopalites prutensis sp. nov. is described. It belongs to the diversus group of species with 3, 2, 1, 1 anterior setae on dens, possesses neosminthuroid seta on the furca base region-a character rarely noted for the family. The new species is closely related to A. baccettii Dallai, 1969 and A. antonioi Giuga & Jordana, 2013 described from Sicily. Five species of the family are firstly recorded for the country. PMID:26249876

  11. Synonymy of Katianna coeruleocephala Handschin, 1920 (Collembola: Katiannidae) with Bourletiella viridescens (Bourletiellidae).

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    Katianna coeruleocephala was described by Handschin in 1920 from Poespo, Java. It was collected in December, 1896 by Dr. Zehntner with the collecting details given as rotten "Louv" (leaves?) from live orchard. Handschin (1920) labelled his figures of the species (p. 146) as Katianna coerulescephala but the first spelling of the species name (p. 145) has priority. Katianna coeruleocephala has never been recollected. The only mention of the species in the literature since 1920 has been by Suhardjono (1989) in a check list for Indonesia and Suhardjono (2012) who listed it as present on Java and provided the main characteristics of the genus Katianna Börner, 1923. She stated it was a "new" (translate as endemic?) species in Java with a preferred habitat in cold and damp litter but no comment was made on the taxonomic status of the Indonesian species. PMID:27395532

  12. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV. PMID:27594797

  13. Endonura Cassagnau in Iran, with a key to species of the genus (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae).

    PubMed

    Smolis, Adrian; Kahrarian, Morteza; Piwnik, Agata; Skarżyński, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Endonura are described from Iran. Endonura dichaeta sp. n. can be recognized by an ogival labrum, head without chaetae O and E, chaeta D connected with tubercle Cl, tubercle Dl with five chaetae on head, absence of tubercles Di on thorax I and tubercle (Di+Di) of thorax V with 2+2 chaetae. Endonura ceratolabralis sp. n. is characterized by large body size, reduction of labral chaetotaxy, ogival labrum, head without chaeta O and fusion of tubercles Di and De on first thoracic segment. Endonura persica sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners by a nonogival labrum, absence of chaeta O, tubercles Dl and (L+So) with five and eight chaetae respectively and claw with inner tooth. The key to all species of the genus is given. PMID:26877671

  14. A new genus of Entomobryinae (Collembola, Entomobryidae) from Brazilian Amazon with body scales and dental spines.

    PubMed

    Cipola, Nikolas Gioia; Morais, José Wellington De; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    A new monotypic genus of Entomobryinae from Brazilian Amazon is described and illustrated. Amazhomidia gen. nov. is similar to other genera of the subfamily, especially to Sinhomidia Zhang, in presence of apically pointed scales on body dorsally and spines on dens. It differs from all other genera of Entomobryinae by the combination of: bifurcate prelabral chaetae, cephalic groove with scale-like chaetae and two transverse rows macrochaetae present on anterior central region of the abdominal IV segment. Amazhomidia ducke sp. nov., the type species of the new genus is described. An identification key to the genera of Entomobryidae with scales and dental spines is also provided. PMID:27394776

  15. Taxonomy of the Proisotoma complex. V. Sexually dimorphic Ephemerotoma gen. nov. (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    Potapov, Mikhail; Kahrarian, Morteza; Deharveng, Louis; Shayanmehr, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    A new genus is proposed based on a new species from Iran, Ephemerotoma skarzynskii gen. et sp. nov., and three known species: E. huadongensis (Chen, 1985) comb. nov., E. multituberculata (Martynova, 1971) comb. nov. and E. porcella (Ellis, 1976) comb. nov. The genus shares the characters of Subisotoma Stach and Proctostephanus Börner and is distributed in southern areas of Eurasia (Eastern Mediterranean, Iran, Tajikistan, China). Ephemerotoma gen. nov. belongs to the Proisotoma-complex and is characterized by a simple maxillary palp, only 4 guards on labial papilla E and 2 prelabral chaetae. Four s-chaetae on Abd.V are arranged in two rows, two anterior and two posterior chaetae. All members of Ephemerotoma gen. nov. are redescribed or discussed based on type or fresh material, and a key to species of the genus is given. Scutisotoma potapovi Xie & Chen, 2008 is considered a synonym of E. huadongensis, while Proisotoma anopolitana is moved to the genus Proctostephanus. Sexual dimorphism is described for three species. PMID:26701434

  16. New species of Lepidocyrtus Bourlet and Entomobrya Rondani (Collembola: Entomobryoidea: Entomobryidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Bruno C; Cipola, Nikolas G; Godeiro, Nerivânia N

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic comprehension of Brazilian entomobryids had several contributions during the last decade, but the absence of detailed chaetotaxic schemes to most of endemic species difficult identifications and probably hides undescribed species in surveys across the country. Herein we describe two new species of the family and provide detailed dorsal chaetotaxy of them, in hope to guide future identifications and descriptions within the genera in Brazil and Neotropical Region. Lepidocyrtus sotoi sp. nov. is possibly more related to L. biphasis due to the lack of antennal and leg scales, but presents a unique dorsal head chaetotaxy among the Neotropical species of the genus. Entomobrya bahiana sp. nov. presents an uncommon color pattern and dorsal chaetotaxy in Th. II-III, Abd. II and IV when compared to other Entomobrya spp. from Neotropical Region. PMID:26624176

  17. New blind species and new records of Sinella from Nanjing, China (Collembola, Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Nanjing, China. Sinella quinseta sp. n. from Purple Mountain possesses unique 5+5 central macrochaetae on Abd. II, and can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Sinella qixiaensis sp. n. from Qixia Mountain is characterized by the paddle-like S-chaetae of Ant. III organ and the smooth straight chaetae on the manubrium and base of dens; it differs from two closely related species by the smooth manubrial chaetae, the labial chaetae, the Ant. III organ, and the macrochaetae on Abd. II. Sinella fuyanensis Chen & Christiansen and Sinella quinocula Chen & Christiansen were also newly recorded from Nanjing. PMID:27551205

  18. A new genus and a new species of Sminthuridae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Diego Dias; Palacios-Vargas, José G; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    Sminthuridae comprises approximately 240 species distributed worldwide. In Brazil it is represented only by 11 species and four genera. Herein we describe a new genus and species of subfamily Sminthurinae from Atlantic Forest of Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The new described genus is similar to Gisinurus, Songhaica, Dietersminthurus and Soqotrasminthurus, especially in its unguis shape, with open cavity; but differs from all other genera of Sminthuridae by the presence of a single pretarsal chaeta in anterior side, smooth mucronal edges and a unique head chaetotaxy. PMID:26250241

  19. A new species of Metacoelura (Collembola: Paronellidae) from Australia, and redescription of Metacoelura articulata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yitong; Zhao, Chun; Greenslade, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    The genus Metacoelura Salmon, 1951 is unusual as it possesses some characters typical of the family Entomobryidae and others of the Paronellidae. Three species and subspecies have been described, all from Australasian tropical regions. Metacoelura articulata is redescribed and a new species, Metacoelura majeri sp. nov., is described based on material collected in Australia. A key to species of the genus is provided. PMID:27394786

  20. Three new species and one new record of Tullbergiidae (Collembola: Onychiuroidea) from Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Arbea, Javier I

    2016-01-01

    Three new species, Tullbergia rapoporti sp. nov., Dinaphorura nerudai sp. nov. and Dinaphorura najtae sp. nov., and one new record, Tullbergia meridionalis Cassagnau & Rapoport, 1962 are described based on specimens from Tierra del Fuego. Tullbergia rapoporti sp. nov. is similar to T. crozetensis, but can be distinguished from it by the presence of an empodial appendage and the chaetotaxy of Abd VI. Dinaphorura nerudai sp. nov. is diagnosed by the dorsal pso formula, the seven spiniform processes on Abd VI, an elongate PAO, the absence of vesicle on Ant IV and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Dinaphorura najtae sp. nov. is characterised by the dorsal pso formula, the seven spiniform processes on Abd VI, a triangular PAO, the absence of vesicle on Ant IV and the dorsal chaetotaxy. PMID:27394481

  1. Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of fifteen North American Entomobrya (Collembola, Entomobryidae), including four new species.

    PubMed

    Katz, Aron D; Giordano, Rosanna; Soto-Adames, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The chaetotaxy of 15 species of eastern North American Entomobrya is redescribed in order to determine potential characters for the diagnosis of cryptic lineages and evaluate the diagnostic and phylogenetic utility of chaetotaxy. As a result, four new species (Entomobrya citrensis Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n., Entomobrya jubata Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n., Entomobrya neotenica Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n. and Entomobrya unifasciata Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n.) are described, and new diagnoses are provided for Entomobrya assuta Folsom, Entomobrya atrocincta Schött, Entomobrya decemfasciata (Packard), Entomobrya ligata Folsom, Entomobrya multifasciata (Tullberg), and Entomobrya quadrilineata (Bueker). Furthermore, previously undocumented levels of intraspecific variation in macrosetal pattern are reported, tempering the exclusive use of chaetotaxy for species delimitation. Phylogenetic relationships, estimated using both morphological and molecular data, indicate that Entomobrya is likely paraphyletic. The phylogenies also suggest that unreliable character homology, likely fostered by Entomobrya's profusion of macrosetae, may limit the phylogenetic utility of chaetotaxy in groups characterized by an abundance of dorsal macrosetae. PMID:26487816

  2. Hydrogen peroxide and ecdysone in the cryoprotective dehydration strategy of Megaphorura arctica (Onychiuridae: Collembola).

    PubMed

    Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana; Petri, Edward T; Kojić, Danijela; Purać, Jelena; Popović, Zeljko D; Worland, Roger M; Clark, Melody S; Mojović, Miloš; Blagojević, Duško P

    2013-02-01

    The Arctic springtail, Megaphorura arctica, survives sub-zero temperatures in a dehydrated state via trehalose-dependent cryoprotective dehydration. Regulation of trehalose biosynthesis is complex; based in part on studies in yeast and fungi, its connection with oxidative stress caused by exposure of cells to oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), or dehydration, is well documented. In this respect, we measured the amount of H₂O₂ and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutases: copper, zinc--CuZnSOD and manganese containing--MnSOD, and catalase--CAT), as the regulatory components determining H₂O₂ concentrations, in Arctic springtails incubated at 5 °C (control) versus -2 °C (threshold temperature for trehalose biosynthesis). Because ecdysone also stimulates trehalose production in insects and regulates the expression of genes involved in redox homeostasis and antioxidant protection in Drosophila, we measured the levels of the active physiological form of ecdysone--20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). Significantly elevated H₂O₂ and 20-HE levels were observed in M. arctica incubated at -2 °C, supporting a link between ecdysone, H₂O₂, and trehalose levels during cryoprotective dehydration. CAT activity was found to be significantly lower in M. arctica incubated at -2 °C versus 5 °C, suggesting reduced H₂O₂ breakdown. Furthermore, measurement of the free radical composition in Arctic springtails incubated at 5 °C (controls) versus -2 °C by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy revealed melanin-derived free radicals at -2 °C, perhaps an additional source of H₂O₂. Our results suggest that H₂O₂ and ecdysone play important roles in the cryoprotective dehydration process in M. arctica, linked with the regulation of trehalose biosynthesis. PMID:23143920

  3. Impact of metal pools and soil properties on metal accumulation in Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Vijver, M; Jager, T; Posthuma, L; Peijnenburg, W

    2001-04-01

    Soil-dwelling organisms are exposed to metals in different ways. Evidence exists for predominant pore water uptake of metals by soft-bodied oligochaete species. In the present research, uptake kinetics of metals and the metalloid As by the semi-soft-bodied springtail Folsomia candida were studied, for which uptake via the pore water is less obvious. Springtails were exposed in 16 field soils and in metal-spiked artificial Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Paris, France) soil (OECD soil). Subsequently, accumulation parameters were statistically related to soil metal pools and soil properties. In Cd-spiked OECD soil, internal Cd levels were linearly related to external Cd concentrations, whereas the springtails maintained fixed internal levels of Cu and Zn regardless of spiked concentrations. In the field soils, all body concentrations of the elements As, Cr, and Ni were below detection limit. The essential metals Cu and Zn were presumably regulated, and no influence of soil characteristics could be demonstrated. For Cd and Pb, accumulation patterns were correlated mainly to solid-phase soil characteristics. The presence of these explanatory variables in the multiple correlations suggests that an uptake mechanism that is solely determined by pore water concentrations should not be taken as a universally applicable principle in risk assessments of metals for soil invertebrates. Cadmium in OECD soils was more available for uptake than in the field soils. The difference remained when extractability was taken into account. The results suggest that experiments in OECD soil cannot be used directly in risk assessment for nonessential metals (at least for F. candida), although a reduction of uncertainties in metal risk assessment can be reached by consistent use of body residues rather than external concentrations. PMID:11345445

  4. New Palaearctic species of the tribe Thalassaphorurini Pomorski, 1998 (Collembola, Onychiuridae)

    PubMed Central

    Babenko, Anatoly B.; Chimitova, Ayuna B.; Stebaeva, Sophya K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The paper is devoted to a taxonomic revision of the genus Sensillonychiurus Pomorski & Sveenkova, 2006. Five new species of this genus, i.e. Sensillonychiurus mirus sp. n., Sensillonychiurus taimyrensis sp. n., Sensillonychiurus vegae sp. n., Sensillonychiurus vitimicus sp. n., and Sensillonychiurus amuricus sp. n., as well as three new species of the related genus Allonychiurus Yoshii, 1995, i.e. Allonychiurus subvolinensis sp. n., Allonychiurus elikonius sp. n., and Allonychiurus unisetosus sp. n. are being described from various regions of Eurasia. The diagnoses of both genera are amended to include described species. Two genera, Tantulonychiurus Pomorski, 1996 and Thibaudichiurus Weiner, 1996, are treated as junior synonyms of the genus Allonychiurus. Agraphorura eisi (Rusek, 1976) is transferred to Sensillonychiurus; Tantulonychiurus volinensis (Szeptycki, 1964) and Tantulonychiurus asiaticus Babenko, 2007 to Allonychiurus. A review of morphological peculiarities of Sensillonychiurus is performed, comparisons with the other genera of Thalassaphorurini given, and a key to the known species provided. PMID:21998539

  5. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV.

  6. New cave species of Sinella Brook, 1882 from China (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Springtails, especially entomobryids, are abundant in Karst faunas. Five new species of Sinella Brook are described here from caves in southern China: S. liuae sp. nov., S. hunanica sp. nov., S. tigris sp. nov., S. minuta sp. nov. and S. tiani sp. nov. A new record of Sinella sineocula Chen & Christiansen, is also recorded. These species differ in claw structure, chaetae on ventral side of the head, and body chaetotaxy. An updated key to cave species of Sinella from China is provided. PMID:27615947

  7. Euedaphic and hemiedaphic Collembola suffer larger damages than epedaphic species to nitrogen input.

    PubMed

    Song, Lihong; Liu, Jing; Yan, Xiumin; Chang, Liang; Wu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands are commonly limited in available nitrogen. But marshes in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeastern China suffer large amounts of exogenous nitrogen from agriculture fertilization after wetland reclamation. This paper focuses on the ecological effects of a short-term increase of nitrogen input on collembolan communities. Our results show a significant decrease in collembolan abundance and Shannon diversity index, and the abundance of euedaphic and hemiedaphic collembolans decreased faster than epedaphic collembolans. These results indicate that euedaphic or hemiedaphic fauna suffer more biodiversity loss caused by nitrogen deposition than epedaphic fauna and call for more researches on trait-based approaches under environmental stress in the future.

  8. A new species of Tullbergia (Collembola, Tullbergiidae) from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Vargas, José G.; Martínez, Ana E. Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Tullbergia from Argentina is described and illustrated; it is differentiated from Tullbergia paranensis by the number of vesicles of postantennal organ, pseudocelli shape and its formulae and the number of dorsal sensilla on Ant. IV. In addition a key for the identification of the members of the family from Argentina is included. PMID:25061344

  9. Predation of Notiophilus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on Collembola as a Predator-Prey Teaching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The carabid beetle (Notiophilus) preys readily on an easily-cultured collembolan in simple experimental conditions. Some features of this predator-prey system are outlined to emphasize its use in biology instruction. Experiments with another potential collembolan are described in the context of developing the method for more advanced studies.…

  10. Two new species of Willowsia (Collembola: Entomobryidae) from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yitong

    2016-01-01

    The genus Willowsia Shoebotham, 1917 belongs to the family Entomobryidae. Within the family it is characterised by having 4-segmented antennae, 8+8 eyes, spines and scales absent from dens, claw with unpaired inner teeth, bidentate mucro and scales on body. Twenty-six species have been described in the genus worldwide including eight species from China. Two new species, Willowsia pseudoshi sp. nov. and W. variabilis sp. nov., from China are described here. The former species has pale yellow antennae except for distal part of Antenna IV which has some blue pigment and 4 macrochaetae are present on Abdomen I. The latter species has the whole antenna pigmented blue and 7-8 macrochaetae present on Abdomen I. A key to Chinese species of Willowsia is given.

  11. A new species of Lepidocyrtus (Collembola, Entomobryidae) from the Börzsöny Mountains, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The genus Lepidocyrtus was previously represented by 17 species in Hungary, including four species with locus typicus in this country. Opportunistic sampling in mid-mountain grassland and forest habitats resulted in records of several species from the L. lignorum group and allowed to describe the new species L. traseri sp. nov. The L. lignorum group, established and named after the eponymic species, is composed by a total of 11 species. The main characteristics shared by every species in this group are the dorsal body macrochaetotaxy R0R1R2/00/0101+3 and the presence of scales on the antennae and legs. The new species is close to L. lignorum (Fabricius, 1793) and L. violaceus (Geoffroy, 1762) but differs from them by the color pattern, number of interocular scales, type of labral papillae and the number of inner setae on the manubrial plate. An identification key is given for differentiating all species of this group. PMID:27615681

  12. New species of Isotomiella Bagnall, 1939 from Southeast of Brazil (Collembola, Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Maria Cleide; Abrantes, Eduardo A; Neves, Ana Carolina R

    2012-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Isotomiella Bagnall, 1939 are described and illustrated, the first: Isotomiella macedoisp. n., based on males and females, from the "Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos" (Teresópolis municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro) differs from the other by tibiotarsus III thickened and blunt and two antero-lateral chaetae of labrum strongly thickened. The second species Isotomiella uaisp. n. from "Serra da Gandarela", (Caeté municipality, State of Minas Gerais) differs from the other by presence of short sensilla on antennal IV and tergites, two anterolabral chaetae thickened and falcate mucro.

  13. Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of fifteen North American Entomobrya (Collembola, Entomobryidae), including four new species

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Aron D.; Giordano, Rosanna; Soto-Adames, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The chaetotaxy of 15 species of eastern North American Entomobrya is redescribed in order to determine potential characters for the diagnosis of cryptic lineages and evaluate the diagnostic and phylogenetic utility of chaetotaxy. As a result, four new species (Entomobrya citrensis Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n., Entomobrya jubata Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n., Entomobrya neotenica Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n. and Entomobrya unifasciata Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n.) are described, and new diagnoses are provided for Entomobrya assuta Folsom, Entomobrya atrocincta Schött, Entomobrya decemfasciata (Packard), Entomobrya ligata Folsom, Entomobrya multifasciata (Tullberg), and Entomobrya quadrilineata (Bueker). Furthermore, previously undocumented levels of intraspecific variation in macrosetal pattern are reported, tempering the exclusive use of chaetotaxy for species delimitation. Phylogenetic relationships, estimated using both morphological and molecular data, indicate that Entomobrya is likely paraphyletic. The phylogenies also suggest that unreliable character homology, likely fostered by Entomobrya’s profusion of macrosetae, may limit the phylogenetic utility of chaetotaxy in groups characterized by an abundance of dorsal macrosetae. PMID:26487816

  14. New troglomorphic species of Tomocerus with well-developed postantennal organs (Collembola: Tomoceridae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Daoyuan; Li, Youbang

    2016-01-01

    Three new troglobitic species of Tomocerus are described from the southwestern karsts of China. All of them have well developed postantennal organs. Tomocerus dong sp. nov. is similar to Tomocerus postantennalis Yu, Zhang & Deharveng and Tomocerus deharvengi sp. nov., but is different from them mainly in the number of prelabral chaetae and the dorsal body chaetotaxy. T. deharvengi sp. nov. is very similar to T. postantennalis but differs from the latter in the cephalic chaetotaxy, the number of manubrial pseudopores and the number of dental spines. T. cthulhu sp. nov. is peculiar for the multi-furcated vesicles of ventral tube, and is different from the three aforementioned species mainly in the dorsal body chaetotaxy. The position of the new species and the relationships between them are discussed. PMID:27615979

  15. A new species and new records of Arrhopalitidae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Vargovitsh, Robert S; Buşmachiu, Galina

    2015-01-01

    Eight species of the family Arrhopalitidae Stach, 1956 are listed from the Republic of Moldova. A new species, Arrhopalites prutensis sp. nov. is described. It belongs to the diversus group of species with 3, 2, 1, 1 anterior setae on dens, possesses neosminthuroid seta on the furca base region-a character rarely noted for the family. The new species is closely related to A. baccettii Dallai, 1969 and A. antonioi Giuga & Jordana, 2013 described from Sicily. Five species of the family are firstly recorded for the country.

  16. A new species of Furculanurida (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Ivory Coast, with comments on related genera.

    PubMed

    Zon, Serge Demeango; Tano, Yao; Deharveng, Louis

    2014-10-29

    A new species of Pseudachorutinae, Furculanurida emucronata sp. nov., is described from Lamto in the Ivory Coast. It differs from all known Pseudachorutinae species by the presence of a strong lateral tooth on the claw of leg I, and from other species of the genus Furculanurida by the absence of a mucro. It is provisionally assigned to the genus Furculanurida which is redefined accordingly. The heterogeneity of the genus is stressed, and its relationships with Arlesiella, Kenyura, Pseudachorutes and Stachorutes are discussed.

  17. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV. PMID:27594797

  18. New troglomorphic species of Tomocerus with well-developed postantennal organs (Collembola: Tomoceridae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Daoyuan; Li, Youbang

    2016-09-09

    Three new troglobitic species of Tomocerus are described from the southwestern karsts of China. All of them have well developed postantennal organs. Tomocerus dong sp. nov. is similar to Tomocerus postantennalis Yu, Zhang & Deharveng and Tomocerus deharvengi sp. nov., but is different from them mainly in the number of prelabral chaetae and the dorsal body chaetotaxy. T. deharvengi sp. nov. is very similar to T. postantennalis but differs from the latter in the cephalic chaetotaxy, the number of manubrial pseudopores and the number of dental spines. T. cthulhu sp. nov. is peculiar for the multi-furcated vesicles of ventral tube, and is different from the three aforementioned species mainly in the dorsal body chaetotaxy. The position of the new species and the relationships between them are discussed.

  19. Katianna maryae n. sp. (Collembola: Katiannidae), a southern Appalachian species of a Gondwanan genus.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C

    2014-01-14

    Katianna maryae n. sp. is described from turf and grassy fields in eastern Tennessee, USA. This species is the first of its genus to be noted from temperate North America. It is distinguished from other described Katianna spp. by a combination of the following characters: color pattern of body an intricate mosaic of purple-brown, yellow-orange and white; copper-brown median stripe between eye patches; fourth antennal segment annuliform but not subsegmented; region between interantennal and clypeal region devoid of setae, clypeal region with six rows of setae; fore and middle feet with 8 clavate tenent hairs, hind foot with 6; apical filament of unguiculus long on fore and middle tibiotarsi, short on hind tibiotarsus; unguis with intricate multidentate pseudonychia; posterior face of dens with one proximal seta and a pair of subapical setae.

  20. A new genus of Entomobryinae (Collembola, Entomobryidae) from Brazilian Amazon with body scales and dental spines.

    PubMed

    Cipola, Nikolas Gioia; Morais, José Wellington De; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2016-04-21

    A new monotypic genus of Entomobryinae from Brazilian Amazon is described and illustrated. Amazhomidia gen. nov. is similar to other genera of the subfamily, especially to Sinhomidia Zhang, in presence of apically pointed scales on body dorsally and spines on dens. It differs from all other genera of Entomobryinae by the combination of: bifurcate prelabral chaetae, cephalic groove with scale-like chaetae and two transverse rows macrochaetae present on anterior central region of the abdominal IV segment. Amazhomidia ducke sp. nov., the type species of the new genus is described. An identification key to the genera of Entomobryidae with scales and dental spines is also provided.

  1. New species of Lepidocyrtus Bourlet and Entomobrya Rondani (Collembola: Entomobryoidea: Entomobryidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Bruno C; Cipola, Nikolas G; Godeiro, Nerivânia N

    2015-10-02

    The taxonomic comprehension of Brazilian entomobryids had several contributions during the last decade, but the absence of detailed chaetotaxic schemes to most of endemic species difficult identifications and probably hides undescribed species in surveys across the country. Herein we describe two new species of the family and provide detailed dorsal chaetotaxy of them, in hope to guide future identifications and descriptions within the genera in Brazil and Neotropical Region. Lepidocyrtus sotoi sp. nov. is possibly more related to L. biphasis due to the lack of antennal and leg scales, but presents a unique dorsal head chaetotaxy among the Neotropical species of the genus. Entomobrya bahiana sp. nov. presents an uncommon color pattern and dorsal chaetotaxy in Th. II-III, Abd. II and IV when compared to other Entomobrya spp. from Neotropical Region.

  2. A new genus and a new species of Sminthuridae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Diego Dias; Palacios-Vargas, José G; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2015-07-27

    Sminthuridae comprises approximately 240 species distributed worldwide. In Brazil it is represented only by 11 species and four genera. Herein we describe a new genus and species of subfamily Sminthurinae from Atlantic Forest of Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The new described genus is similar to Gisinurus, Songhaica, Dietersminthurus and Soqotrasminthurus, especially in its unguis shape, with open cavity; but differs from all other genera of Sminthuridae by the presence of a single pretarsal chaeta in anterior side, smooth mucronal edges and a unique head chaetotaxy.

  3. Joint toxic action of binary metal mixtures of copper, manganese and nickel to Paronychiurus kimi (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Son, Jino; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Yongeun; Shin, Key-Il; Hyun, Seunghun; Cho, Kijong

    2016-10-01

    The joint toxic effects of binary metal mixtures of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) on reproduction of Paronhchiurus kimi (Lee) was evaluated using a toxic unit (TU) approach by judging additivity across a range of effect levels (10-90%). For all metal mixtures, the joint toxic effects of metal mixtures on reproduction of P. kimi decreased in a TU-dependent manner. The joint toxic effects of metal mixtures also changed from less than additive to more than additive at an effect level lower than or equal to 50%, while a more than additive toxic effects were apparent at higher effect levels. These results indicate that the joint toxicity of metal mixtures is substantially different from that of individual metals based on additivity. Moreover, the close relationship of toxicity to effect level suggests that it is necessary to encompass a whole range of effect levels rather than a specific effect level when judging mixture toxicity. In conclusion, the less than additive toxicity at low effect levels suggests that the additivity assumption is sufficiently conservative to warrant predicting joint toxicity of metal mixtures, which may give an additional margin of safety when setting soil quality standards for ecological risk assessment. PMID:27318557

  4. New Chinese record of the genus Spinonychiurus (Collembola, Onychiuridae), with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new collembolan species is described, Spinonychiurus sinensis sp. n., which has seven chaetae in the distal row of the tibiotarsi. It is placed in the genus Spinonychiurus due to two important characters: the two subsegments on Abd. III sternum and the absence of d0 on the head. This is the first report of the genus Spinonychiurus in China. The diagnosis of Spinonychiurus is broadened and the key to the world species is provided. PMID:25317055

  5. Manganese toxicity in soil for Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta), and Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Kuperman, R G; Checkai, R T; Simini, M; Phillips, C T

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing Ecological Soil Screening Level (Eco-SSL) benchmarks for ecological risk assessment (ERA) of contaminants at Superfund sites. Eco-SSLs are developed from published values whenever sufficient quantity and quality of data exist. Because insufficient information was available to generate an Eco-SSL for Mn, standardized toxicity testing was undertaken to fill the data gaps. Tests included the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) cocoon production test, the enchytraeid (Enchytraeus crypticus) reproduction test, and the collembolan (Folsomia candida) reproduction test, all conducted in Sassafras sandy loam soil that supports a relatively high bioavailability of metals. Weathering and aging of manganese-amended soil were carried out to more closely simulate exposure effects at Superfund sites on soil invertebrates. Data were analyzed by nonlinear regression to determine EC20 and EC50 values based on concentration-response relationships. The toxicity order for manganese in Sassafras sandy loam was E. crypticus>E. fetida>F. candida, with EC20 values of 116, 629, and 1209 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Eco-SSL requirement for the testing of multiple representative species is well justified. All study results will be submitted to the Eco-SSL Task Group for quality control review prior to inclusion in the Eco-SSL database.

  6. Holoblastic early cleavage of Tetrodontophora bielanensis (Collembola) eggs, with special reference to its irregularity.

    PubMed

    Klag, J; Jura, C; Krzysztofowicz, A; Kisiel, E

    1999-01-01

    The fertilized eggs of Tetrodontophora bielanensis start to cleave 6 to 8 days after oviposition and initially only karyokineses occur. The cytokinesis begins after two karyokineses, when four nuclei are observed in the ooplasm. Two cleavage furrows, perpendicular to each other, appear simultaneously at the egg poles where polar bodies are located and gradually the furrows encompass the whole egg diameter. The furrow formation is initiated by the bundle of microfilaments that contract and pull superficial fragments of the oolemma into the yolk and subsequently new membranes, separating the daughter cells, start to form. However, they do not grow towards the egg centre but bifurcate, leaving the central part of the ooplasm outside of the newly formed blastomeres. Starting from the fourth or fifth cleavage division, the bifurcations permanently occur and multiple cleavage furrows are formed on the embryo surface. Moreover, fragments of the ooplasm, enclosed within the cell membrane but devoid of cell nucleus are observed. During further development such cell fragments become reincorporated into the embryo. This mode of cleavage leads eventually to the formation of cellular blastoderm on the embryo surface. The results presented in the paper suggest that the control of cleavage in T. bielanensis acts not at the level of cytoplasmic determinants but rather at the level of positional information of blastomeres. PMID:10482251

  7. New blind species and new records of Sinella from Nanjing, China (Collembola, Entomobryidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Heng; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Nanjing, China. Sinella quinseta sp. n. from Purple Mountain possesses unique 5+5 central macrochaetae on Abd. II, and can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Sinella qixiaensis sp. n. from Qixia Mountain is characterized by the paddle-like S-chaetae of Ant. III organ and the smooth straight chaetae on the manubrium and base of dens; it differs from two closely related species by the smooth manubrial chaetae, the labial chaetae, the Ant. III organ, and the macrochaetae on Abd. II. Sinella fuyanensis Chen & Christiansen and Sinella quinocula Chen & Christiansen were also newly recorded from Nanjing. PMID:27551205

  8. A new relictual and highly troglomorphic species of Tomoceridae (Collembola) from a deep Croatian cave

    PubMed Central

    Lukić, Marko; Houssin, Céline; Deharveng, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Tritomurus veles sp. n. (Tomoceridae) is described from a Croatian cave. It is characterized by troglomorphic features (absence of eyes, reduced pigmentation, slender claw, pointed tibiotarsal tenent hairs) that only compare, among Tomoceridae, to the microendemic species Tritomurus falcifer from the Pyrénées. Tritomurus veles also shares with Tritomurus falcifer the absence of macrochaetae on head, a presumably non-adaptive character that within Tomoceridae is unique to these two species. Both species have no known epigean relatives in their respective distribution areas and can be considered as relictual. PMID:21594037

  9. Three new species and one new record of Tullbergiidae (Collembola: Onychiuroidea) from Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Arbea, Javier I

    2016-03-20

    Three new species, Tullbergia rapoporti sp. nov., Dinaphorura nerudai sp. nov. and Dinaphorura najtae sp. nov., and one new record, Tullbergia meridionalis Cassagnau & Rapoport, 1962 are described based on specimens from Tierra del Fuego. Tullbergia rapoporti sp. nov. is similar to T. crozetensis, but can be distinguished from it by the presence of an empodial appendage and the chaetotaxy of Abd VI. Dinaphorura nerudai sp. nov. is diagnosed by the dorsal pso formula, the seven spiniform processes on Abd VI, an elongate PAO, the absence of vesicle on Ant IV and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Dinaphorura najtae sp. nov. is characterised by the dorsal pso formula, the seven spiniform processes on Abd VI, a triangular PAO, the absence of vesicle on Ant IV and the dorsal chaetotaxy.

  10. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  11. Joint toxic action of binary metal mixtures of copper, manganese and nickel to Paronychiurus kimi (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Son, Jino; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Yongeun; Shin, Key-Il; Hyun, Seunghun; Cho, Kijong

    2016-10-01

    The joint toxic effects of binary metal mixtures of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) on reproduction of Paronhchiurus kimi (Lee) was evaluated using a toxic unit (TU) approach by judging additivity across a range of effect levels (10-90%). For all metal mixtures, the joint toxic effects of metal mixtures on reproduction of P. kimi decreased in a TU-dependent manner. The joint toxic effects of metal mixtures also changed from less than additive to more than additive at an effect level lower than or equal to 50%, while a more than additive toxic effects were apparent at higher effect levels. These results indicate that the joint toxicity of metal mixtures is substantially different from that of individual metals based on additivity. Moreover, the close relationship of toxicity to effect level suggests that it is necessary to encompass a whole range of effect levels rather than a specific effect level when judging mixture toxicity. In conclusion, the less than additive toxicity at low effect levels suggests that the additivity assumption is sufficiently conservative to warrant predicting joint toxicity of metal mixtures, which may give an additional margin of safety when setting soil quality standards for ecological risk assessment.

  12. The meaning of predatory specialization as illustrated by Aelurillus m-nigrum, an ant-eating jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) from Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Huseynov, Elchin F; Jackson, Robert R; Cross, Fiona R

    2008-03-01

    The distinctions between a predator's diet, its prey-choice behaviour and its preference are illustrated in a study of Aelurillus m-nigrum Kulczyn'ski, a salticid spider from Azerbaijan. The natural diet of A. m-nigrum was determined from records of individuals feeding in the field (N=58). Ten arthropod orders were represented. Nine were from the class Insecta (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Psocoptera) and one from the class Arachnida (Araneae). Of 50 insects among the prey, 21 (42%) were Hymenoptera, with ants (family Formicidae) alone accounting for 31% of all prey records. Although the majority (69%) of the natural prey were not ants, results from prey-choice testing in the laboratory implied that A. m-nigrum preferred ants as prey. However, this preference was evident only when the testing environment included sand and a small stone. Our findings illustrate the importance of not conflating the concept of a predator's preference with the concept of a predator's natural diet and illustrate that physical features of a predator's habitat may be an important factor in influencing how strongly preference is expressed. PMID:18178038

  13. Biodiversity of termite (Insecta: Isoptera) in tropical peat land cultivated with oil palms.

    PubMed

    Kon, Thian-Woei; Bong, Choon-Fah J; King, Jie-Hung P; Leong, Chan-Teck S

    2012-02-01

    Termites are the major decomposers in tropical region but yet their occurrences in oil palm plantation especially in peat soil are generally treated as pest. Study of termite species in peat land was conducted in selected oil palm plantations in North Sarawak with 5-7 years old palms and South Sarawak with 13-15 years old palms with two sites in each area. Results of quadrate (25 x 25 x 30 cm) sampling showed termite was significantly higher in relative density with increasing depth of soil (0-10 = 21.23, 10-20 = 42.52 and 20-30 cm = 81.12%) which could be advantaged from being predated by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) which were higher in density from soil surface to 10 cm soil depth with relative density of 31.84%. Modified transect sampling (50x6 m) had successfully sampled 18 species of termites from 2 families (Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae), 5 subfamilies (Rhinotermitinae, Coptotermitinae, Termitinae, Macrotermitinae and Nasutitermitinae) and 11 genera (Coptotermes, Schedorhinotermes, Termes, Macrotermes, Nasutitermes, Globitermes, Amitermes, Parrhinotermes, Pericapritermes, Havilanditermes and Prohamitermes). Both plantation sites have termite dominantly feeding on rotten wood as a result of abundant dead woods. However, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren was identified to feed on the living tissues of oil palm causing damage or death of the tree. Study showed higher encounter of soil-feeding termite in longer established plantation. It indicates the gradually shifting of soil condition towards a stabilized environment which favors the successful settlement of soil feeder termite species. Termite control should be more targets specific to avoid harming beneficial termites. PMID:22866541

  14. Checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko; Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea recorded from Finland is presented. The checklist covers the following families: Calliphoridae, Rhiniidae, Sarcophagidae, Rhinophoridae, Tachinidae, Oestridae and Hippoboscidae. PMID:25337034

  15. Differential toxicity to Cd, Pb, and Cu in dragonfly larvae (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Tollett, V D; Benvenutti, E L; Deer, L A; Rice, T M

    2009-01-01

    Odonate larvae are important organisms in aquatic ecosystems but have been rarely studied in laboratory toxicity tests. Only a few previous studies have been conducted on odonates and their responses to heavy metals. We exposed two species of libellulid larvae (Anisoptera: Libellulidae) to equimolar concentrations of cadmium, lead, or copper in 7-day survival tests. Larvae were tolerant of high concentrations of cadmium and lead, as no significant decrease in survival was observed at exposures as high as 0.893 and 2.232 mM, respectively. In contrast, larvae were more sensitive to copper exposure, demonstrating significantly decreased survival to exposures as low as 2.360 microM. In whole animal samples, larvae accumulated very high concentrations (>1000 microg/g dry weight) of all three metals in an exposure-related manner. Much of this accumulation could probably be attributed to adsorption or accumulation of metal within the exoskeleton, because odonate larvae are known to sequester metals into this material. Our results were generally consistent with previous observations indicating that odonates are tolerant to metal exposures, even in comparison with other aquatic invertebrates. However, there are few studies that have used odonates in toxicity tests and compared these organisms to other aquatic life. Based on their abundance and their simple requirements in the laboratory, we believe that odonate larvae can be useful toxicological model organisms.

  16. [Papilionoidea from Sierra de Huantla, Morelos and Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera)].

    PubMed

    Luna-Reyes, Mercedes; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants. Despite this, our knowledge of the Papilionoidea of the region is poor. We analyzed the local and temporal distribution of Papilionoidea at 24 localities in the states of Morelos and Puebla. The study sites are situated between 900 and 1300 m. a.s.l., and are composed of dry tropical forest (dtf). We recorded 8790 individuals of 83 genera and 142 species of Papilionoidea (sensu Kristensen, 1975), over 79 days of field work, with 2-4 days at each of the 24 localities. Twenty five species were newly recorded for the state of Puebla. Our data render Morelos and Puebla among the seven richest Mexican states, in terms of Papilionoidea diversity. Our results show that the Sierra de Huautla has the lowest diversity, but the highest standard abundance, compared to other Mexican regions with similar vegetation. Patterns of diversity and seasonal abundance are atypical, in that individuals of many species are unusually abundant during the wet months.

  17. Mitochondrial genomic comparisons of the subterranean termites from the Genus Reticulitermes (Insecta: Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stephen L; Whiting, Michael F

    2007-02-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are some of the most significant pests of structural timber and tree farming in the northern hemisphere, causing losses in the billions of dollars annually because of direct damage and termite control costs. This group has been frequently targeted for population genetic, phylogenetic, and species limit studies, most of which use mitochondrial (mt) genes; however, only a small fraction of the genome has been sequenced. The entire mt genome was sequenced for the eastern North American members of Reticulitermes: R. flavipes, R. santonensis, R. virginicus, and R. hageni. The mt genome has the same gene content and organization as that found in most insect species; however, the nucleotide composition and skew are highly biased (AT% low, strong A- and C-skew). Both the protein-coding and transfer RNA genes show high absolute levels of nucleotide substitution, suggesting that the high rates of mutation within Reticulitermes inferred from analyses of single mt genes are a general characteristic of the entire mt genome. The AT-rich or control region has a remarkable structure not previously observed in insect mt genomes. The majority of the control region is made up of 2 sets of repeat units, typically with 2 full and 1 partial copies of both the A (or small; 186 bp) and B (or large; 552 bp) repeats. The partial repeat units overlap by 36 bp. The size, location, and degree of overlap for the partial repeat units correspond to highly conserved stem/loop structures within the repeat units, suggesting that these structures are involved in the replication-mediated processes that govern repeat-unit evolution within mt genomes. Finally, molecular variation within the mt gene regions was compared with previous regions used in molecular diagnostics or phylogenetics of Reticulitermes. High numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in each of the mt genes, and some of the highest variability was found in gene regions that have not previously been investigated in this group. The whole mt genome sequence can thus be used to predict useful regions for future investigation. PMID:17546084

  18. Inconsistency in the analysis of morphological deformities in chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Salmelin, Johanna; Vuori, Kari-Matti; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of morphological deformities of chironomid larvae as an indicator of sediment toxicity has been studied for decades. However, standards for deformity analysis are lacking. The authors evaluated whether 25 experts diagnosed larval deformities in a similar manner. Based on high-quality digital images, the experts rated 211 menta of Chironomus spp. larvae as normal or deformed. The larvae were from a site with polluted sediments or from a reference site. The authors revealed this to a random half of the experts, and the rest conducted the assessment blind. The authors quantified the interrater agreement by kappa coefficient, tested whether open and blind assessments differed in deformity incidence and in differentiation between the sites, and identified those deformity types rated most consistently or inconsistently. The total deformity incidence varied greatly, from 10.9% to 66.4% among experts. Kappa coefficient across rater pairs averaged 0.52, indicating insufficient agreement. The deformity types rated most consistently were those missing teeth or with extra teeth. The open and blind assessments did not differ, but differentiation between sites was clearest for raters who counted primarily absolute deformities such as missing and extra teeth and excluded apparent mechanical aberrations or deviations in tooth size or symmetry. The highly differing criteria in deformity assignment have likely led to inconsistent results in midge larval deformity studies and indicate an urgent need for standardization of the analysis. PMID:26061223

  19. Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Xing; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou; Liu, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

    2013-11-14

    Diapause is a complex and dynamic process. Chilo suppressalis, an important rice pest in Asia enters facultative diapause as larvae. Our results demonstrated in Yangzhou, China, diapause was initiated between September 4 and 12, 2010. After diapause termination, C. suppressalis remained in quiescence in the field for as long as three months. The average time between collection of field larvae of C. suppressalis and their pupation decreased as the season progressed from fall to next spring. Unexpectedly, the pupated ratio of female to male in the initiation of diapause was 0.22. The abundance of hsp90, hsp70, hsp60 and CsAQP1 all peaked on January 8 or 15, 2011. Nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger that is positively correlated with the diapause of C. suppressalis. Among several geographically separated populations of C. suppressalis, there are no significant differences in the mRNA levels of hsp70, hsp60 or CsAQP1.

  20. Salivary digestive enzymes of the wheat bug, Eurygaster integriceps (Insecta: Hemiptera: Scutelleridae).

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali Reza; Dastranj, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    The digestive enzymes from salivary gland complexes (SGC) of Eurygaster integriceps, and their response to starvation and feeding were studied. Moreover, digestive amylases were partially purified and characterized by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The SGC are composed of two sections, the principal glands and accessory glands. The principal glands are further divided into the anterior lobes and posterior lobes. The SGC main enzyme was α-amylase, which hydrolyzed starch better than glycogen. The other carbohydrases were also present in the SGC complexes. Enzymatic activities toward mannose (α/β-mannosidases) were little in comparison to activities against glucose (α/β-glucosidases) and galactose (α/β-galactosidases), the latter being the greatest. Acid phosphatase showed higher activity than alkaline phosphatase. There was no measurable activity for lipase and aminopeptidase. Proteolytic activity was detected against general and specific protease substrates. Activities of all enzymes were increased in response to feeding in comparison to starved insects, revealing their induction and secretion in response to feeding pulse. The SGC amylases eluted in four major peaks and post-electrophoretic detection of the α-amylases demonstrated the existence of at least five isoamylases in the SGC. The physiological implication of these findings in pre-oral digestion of E. integriceps is discussed. PMID:24961557

  1. One new species and two new records of the genus Aeolothrips from Iran (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Aeolothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Jalil; Awal, Mehdi Modarres; Fekrat, Lida; Minaei, Kambiz; Manzari, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aeolothrips gundeliae sp. n. is described, and two bicolored species of the same genus, Aeolothrips ericae Bagnall and Aeolothrips albithorax Pelikan are newly reported from northeast of Iran. Diagnostic characters are provided for each species as well as illustrations to distinguish these species. PMID:26884701

  2. Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Xing; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou; Liu, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    Diapause is a complex and dynamic process. Chilo suppressalis, an important rice pest in Asia enters facultative diapause as larvae. Our results demonstrated in Yangzhou, China, diapause was initiated between September 4 and 12, 2010. After diapause termination, C. suppressalis remained in quiescence in the field for as long as three months. The average time between collection of field larvae of C. suppressalis and their pupation decreased as the season progressed from fall to next spring. Unexpectedly, the pupated ratio of female to male in the initiation of diapause was 0.22. The abundance of hsp90, hsp70, hsp60 and CsAQP1 all peaked on January 8 or 15, 2011. Nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger that is positively correlated with the diapause of C. suppressalis. Among several geographically separated populations of C. suppressalis, there are no significant differences in the mRNA levels of hsp70, hsp60 or CsAQP1. PMID:24226906

  3. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).

  4. Stoneflies (Insecta: Plecoptera) from Serra Bonita, Bahia, Brazil: new species and updated records.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Tácio; Lecci, Lucas S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2014-03-13

    There are 176 species representing eight genera and two families of Plecoptera known from Brazil. However, only ten of these species are recorded from the State of Bahia. In this study, an inventory of stoneflies from the southern region of Bahia State, Serra Bonita, including the municipality of Camacan, was undertaken from 2007-2012. Stoneflies were collected using UV light pan traps, Malaise traps, and aerial nets. One new gripopterygid species, Tupiperla bispoi n. sp., is described and illustrated. Four genera representing ten other species are recorded: Gripopteryx cancellata, G. clemira, G. garbei, G. pinima, Paragripopteryx sp., and Tupiperla tessellata (Gripopterygidae), Kempnyia alterosarum, K. gracilenta, K. jatim, and K. neotropica (Perlidae). With the present study, the number of known species of stoneflies recorded from Bahia State is 17, ten of these recorded from the Serra Bonita region.

  5. Comparative Mitogenomic Analysis of Damsel Bugs Representing Three Tribes in the Family Nabidae (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fan; Shi, Aimin; Zhou, Xuguo; Cai, Wanzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Nabidae, a family of predatory heteropterans, includes two subfamilies and five tribes. We previously reported the complete mitogenome of Alloeorhynchus bakeri, a representative of the tribe Prostemmatini in the subfamily Prostemmatinae. To gain a better understanding of architecture and evolution of mitogenome in Nabidae, mitogenomes of five species representing two tribes (Gorpini and Nabini) in the subfamily Nabinae were sequenced, and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of three nabid tribes in two subfamilies was carried out. Methodology/Principal Findings Nabid mitogenomes share a similar nucleotide composition and base bias, except for the control region, where differences are observed at the subfamily level. In addition, the pattern of codon usage is influenced by the GC content and consistent with the standard invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code and the preference for A+T-rich codons. The comparison among orthologous protein-coding genes shows that different genes have been subject to different rates of molecular evolution correlated with the GC content. The stems and anticodon loops of tRNAs are extremely conserved, and the nucleotide substitutions are largely restricted to TψC and DHU loops and extra arms, with insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Comparative analysis shows similar rates of substitution between the two rRNAs. Long non-coding regions are observed in most Gorpini and Nabini mtDNAs in-between trnI-trnQ and/or trnS2-nad1. The lone exception, Nabis apicalis, however, has lost three tRNAs. Overall, phylogenetic analysis using mitogenomic data is consistent with phylogenies constructed mainly form morphological traits. Conclusions/Significance This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds light on the architecture and evolution of mitogenomes in the family Nabidae. Nucleotide diversity and mitogenomic traits are phylogenetically informative at subfamily level. Furthermore, inclusion of a broader range of samples representing various taxonomic levels is critical for the understanding of mitogenomic evolution in damsel bugs. PMID:23029320

  6. Levels of asymmetry in Formica pratensis Retz. (Hymenoptera, Insecta) from a chronic metal-contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Rabitsch, W.B.

    1997-07-01

    Asymmetries of bilaterally symmetrical morphological traits in workers of the ant Formica pratensis Retzius were compared at sites with different levels of metal contamination and between mature and pre-mature colonies. Statistical analyses of the right-minus-left differences revealed that their distributions fit assumptions of fluctuating asymmetry (FA). No direct asymmetry or antisymmetry were present. Mean measurement error accounts for a third of the variation, but the maximum measurement error was 65%. Although significant differences of FA in ants were observed, the inconsistent results render uncovering a clear pattern difficult. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in the ants decreased with the distance from the contamination source, but no relation was found between FA and the heavy metal levels. Ants from the premature colonies were more asymmetrical than those from mature colonies but accumulated less metals. The use of asymmetry measures in ecotoxicology and biomonitoring is criticized, but should remain widely applicable if statistical assumptions are complemented by genetic and historical data.

  7. Larval morphology of Panorpodes kuandianensis (Insecta, Mecoptera, Panorpodidae) and its evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Yue, Chao; Hua, Baozhen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval characters play a significant role in evolutionary and systematic studies of holometabolous insects. However, Panorpodidae, a derived family of Mecoptera, are largely unknown in their immature stages to date. Here, the first instar larva of the short-faced scorpionfly Panorpodes kuandianensis Zhong, Zhang & Hua, 2011 is described and illustrated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The larva of Panorpodes is remarkable for the absence of compound eyes on the head and the presence of seven small unpaired proleg-like processes along the midventral line on abdominal segments II–VIII. The homology of these unpaired appendage-like processes, their ecological adaptation, and the evolutionary implications of some larval characters of Panorpodidae are discussed. PMID:24715802

  8. The histology of the cerebral neurosecretory system in several representatives of Cleroidea (Coleoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    1989-01-01

    In Thymalus sp. (Peltidae), Melambia tekkensi (Trogositidae), Trichodes apiarius and Thanasimus formicarius (Cleridae), the composition of cerebral neurosecretory cells (NSC) is similar to that found earlier in Meloidae (Panov 1985a) and Tenebrionidae (Melnikova and Panov 1981; Melnikova 1983). 20 type I NSCs, 16 type II NSCs, 4 type III NSCs, several type IV NSCs and 4 type V NSCs are characteristic of their pars intercerebralis. On the other hand, a reduction of type I and II NSC number to 10 and 12 cells, respectively, was revealed in Malachius affinis, Malachius viridis and Malachius bipustulatus (Melyridae). There are 6 large dorsolateral NSCs and 2 lateral ones in each brain hemisphere of most Cleroidea studied. Their retrocerebral endocrine complex is similar to that of most polyphagous coleopterans: a single nervus corporis cardiaci leaves each brain side, the corpora cardiaca are fused with lateral aorta walls and corresponding corpora allata.

  9. Intraspecific transfer of cantharidin within selected members of the family Meloidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood Reza; Dettner, Konrad; Boland, Wilhelm; Gäde, Gerd; Dötterl, Steffan

    2007-09-01

    The use of deuterium-labelled cantharidin (CAN-D(2)) to study details of cantharidin transfer in blister beetles indicates that the dynamics of organ-selective cantharidin accumulation may differ over time. Although the accessory glands absorb a high amount of CAN-D(2) in the short term, they ultimately accumulate less than the testes. Confirming previous studies, the last steps in the pathway of biosynthesis of cantharidin occur in the male's body distantly from the reproductive system but the ultimate product, cantharidin, is transported into the male reproductive tract via the membrane of the accessory glands. From there it first transfers preferentially to the epididimis and the vas deferens, followed by final deposition in the testes. Most, if not all, of the cantharidin passes internally within the sexual organs; hemolymph transport is not involved. In female meloids, cantharidin enters the genitalia from the male as a nuptial gift. High amounts are first absorbed by the spermatophoral receptacle followed by spreading through the ovaries and an ultimate accumulation in the eggs. The amount taken up by the ovaries remains considerably lower than that of the receptacle. Over time these two organs stop accumulating cantharidin, while the bursa copulatrix starts to incorporate the gift actively. The accumulated amount taken up by bursa is mainly supplied by the receptacle and ovaries suggesting that an internal transfer of cantharidin is used in females as the main transport route.

  10. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  11. Cleridae (Insecta: Coleoptera) type collection at National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC), Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India).

    PubMed

    Faisal, Mohammad; Singh, Sudhir; Yousuf, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Clerids are small predacious beetles (Coleoptera) that belong to the family Cleridae. In the National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC) Cleridae is represented by 31 authentically identified specimens including types of 27 species. The type material of Cleridae, deposited in the NFIC, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India), is listed and illustrated with digital automontage photographs. A list of 27 type species of Cleridae, 13 holotypes and 14 paratypes with information on species names, reference of the original publication, all available information on labels of types (country, locality, date of collection, collector name, etc) along with colored photographs of types and the labels that are attached to them, taken with Auto-montage 3-D imaging system, is provided. 

  12. Bacterial formyl peptides affect the innate cellular antimicrobial responses of larval Galleria mellonella (Insecta: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Alavo, Thiery B C; Dunphy, Gary B

    2004-04-01

    The non-self cellular (hemocytic) responses of Galleria mellonella larvae, including the attachment to slides and the removal of the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Bacillus subtilis from the hemolymph, were affected by N-formyl peptides. Both N-formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) and the ester derivative decreased hemocyte adhesion in vitro, and both elevated hemocyte counts and suppressed the removal of both X. nematophila and B. subtilis from the hemolymph in vivo. The amide derivative and the antagonist tertiary-butoxy-carbonyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (tBOC) increased hemocyte attachment to glass. The fMLF suppressed protein discharge from monolayers of granular cells with and without bacterial stimulation, while tBOC stimulated protein discharge. The peptide tBOC offset the effects of fMLF in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report implying the existence of formyl peptide receptors on insect hemocytes in which the compounds fMLF and tBOC inhibited and activated hemocyte activity, respectively.

  13. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  14. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  15. Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armitage, Brian J.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are subject to natural processes, such as water-level fluctuation and wave-induced erosion, and to human alterations. In order to evaluate the quality of these wetlands over space and time, biological communities are often examined. This paper reports on the use of adult caddisflies to evaluate fringing wetlands of Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of Panorpidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gui-Lin; Yan, Gang; Xu, Hao; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Panorpidae are the largest family in Mecoptera, covering approximately 70% species of the order. However, the phylogenetic relationship within Panorpidae has not been adequately explored. Here we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among 70 species of five genera in Panorpidae using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference based on two mitochondrial (cox1 and cox2) and one nuclear (28S rRNA) gene fragments with Panorpodes kuandianensis and Brachypanorpa carolinensis in Panorpodidae as outgroups. The results show that the genera Neopanorpa, Sinopanorpa and Dicerapanorpa are monophyletic, while the widespread genus Panorpa is reconfirmed to be a paraphyletic group. The P. centralis group is monophyletic and may merit a generic status, while the P. davidi and P. amurensis groups are paraphyletic. The divergence time estimated from BEAST analysis indicates that the Panorpidae may originate in the period from early Paleogene (63.6mya) to middle Eocene (41.2mya), and most diversification within Panorpidae occurred in the Cenozoic. The phylogeny and biogeography of Panorpidae are briefly discussed.

  17. Origin of the hungry caterpillar: Evolution of fasting in slug moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, J M; Weller, S J; Epstein, M E

    2016-01-01

    Studies of caterpillar defense strategy evolution typically focus on aposematic coloration, gregarious behavior, and/or chemical defense. In the slug moth family Limacodidae, the evolution of chemical defense is coupled to the life history trait of first instar feeding behaviors. In nettle caterpillars, the first instars fast and molt into a second instar that feeds. In contrast, gelatines and monkey slug larval forms feed in the first instar. This study focused on whether the evolution of fasting associated with the nettle morphology was a derived trait of single or multiple origins. Twenty-nine species of Limacodidae (including one Chrysopolominae) representing 27 genera and four outgroup species with known first and final instar morphologies and behaviors were included. Four out-group species representing Megalopygidae (1 sp), Dalceridae (1 sp) and Aididae (2 sp) were included. These were sequenced for three molecular markers for a total of 4073 bp, mitochondrial COI (∼1500 bp), 18S (∼1900 bp) and the D2 region of 28S (approximately 670 bp). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted. The resulting phylogeny and comparative analysis of feeding strategy revealed that the nettle caterpillar morphology and behavior of larval fasting may have a single origin. PMID:26432392

  18. Mitochondrial genomic comparisons of the subterranean termites from the Genus Reticulitermes (Insecta: Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stephen L; Whiting, Michael F

    2007-02-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are some of the most significant pests of structural timber and tree farming in the northern hemisphere, causing losses in the billions of dollars annually because of direct damage and termite control costs. This group has been frequently targeted for population genetic, phylogenetic, and species limit studies, most of which use mitochondrial (mt) genes; however, only a small fraction of the genome has been sequenced. The entire mt genome was sequenced for the eastern North American members of Reticulitermes: R. flavipes, R. santonensis, R. virginicus, and R. hageni. The mt genome has the same gene content and organization as that found in most insect species; however, the nucleotide composition and skew are highly biased (AT% low, strong A- and C-skew). Both the protein-coding and transfer RNA genes show high absolute levels of nucleotide substitution, suggesting that the high rates of mutation within Reticulitermes inferred from analyses of single mt genes are a general characteristic of the entire mt genome. The AT-rich or control region has a remarkable structure not previously observed in insect mt genomes. The majority of the control region is made up of 2 sets of repeat units, typically with 2 full and 1 partial copies of both the A (or small; 186 bp) and B (or large; 552 bp) repeats. The partial repeat units overlap by 36 bp. The size, location, and degree of overlap for the partial repeat units correspond to highly conserved stem/loop structures within the repeat units, suggesting that these structures are involved in the replication-mediated processes that govern repeat-unit evolution within mt genomes. Finally, molecular variation within the mt gene regions was compared with previous regions used in molecular diagnostics or phylogenetics of Reticulitermes. High numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in each of the mt genes, and some of the highest variability was found in gene regions that have not previously been investigated in this group. The whole mt genome sequence can thus be used to predict useful regions for future investigation.

  19. Taxonomic and Numerical Resolutions of Nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera) in Cerrado Streams

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories. PMID:25083770

  20. Taxonomic revision of Trypanidius Blanchard, 1846 in South America (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Carelli, Allan; Monné, Marcela L; Machado, Vanessa Souza

    2013-01-01

    The genus Trypanidius Blanchard, 1846 includes 15 species in the Neotropical Region, nine of which occur in South America. In this contribution, the genus and South American species are redescribed and Trypanidius mimicavus sp. nov. is described from Bolivia. New distributional data are given for T. andicola Blanchard, 1846; T. dimidiatus Thomson, 1860; and T. notatus (Fabricius, 1787). All species are illustrated and a key to all species is provided.

  1. A remarkable new species of the sharpshooter genus Egidemia (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae).

    PubMed

    Mejdalani, Gabriel; Garcia, Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Egidemia China, 1927, Egidemia impudica, is described and illustrated from the Department of Magdalena (Colombia). The male genitalia of the new species have a very peculiar, diagnostic feature: the pygofer is considerably reduced and truncate posteriorly, so that part of the aedeagus is exposed. A key to males of all known Egidemia species is provided. Notes comparing Egidemia impudica with the other nine known species of the genus are also given.

  2. Taxonomic Revision of the genus Mesomphalia Hope, 1839 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Simões, Marianna V P; Monné, Marcela L

    2014-01-01

    A revision of the genus Mesomphalia Hope, 1839, is presented based on a detailed morphological study of all species, except M. ampliata Boheman, 1850 and M. albofasciculata Boheman, 1856. The genus and species are redescribed. One species is transferred to Stolas Billberg, 1820, as S. scrobiculata (Boheman, 1850) comb. nov.; one species is transferred to Cyrtonota Chevrolat, 1836, as C. pyramidata (Boheman, 1850) comb. nov.; M. sexmaculata Boheman, 1850 syn. nov. is a junior subjective synonym of M. turrita (Illiger, 1801); one new species M. spaethi Simões & Monné, sp. nov. is described. Following this revision, Mesomphalia now contains fourteen species. A key to the species, photographs and distribution maps are provided.

  3. [Co-adaptation between mites (Arachnida: Klinckowstroemiidae) and Passalidae beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.

  4. New species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from Europe: Alps and Pyrenees as harbours of unknown biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon; Previšić, Ana; Malicky, Hans

    2015-01-20

    New species are described from the genera Consorophylax and Anisogamus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Limnephilinae, Stenophylacini). Additionally the larva of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, the male of A. waringeri sp. nov. has more-slender superior appendages; a more-rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of species in the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on abdominal segment I, a unique feature among Eurasian Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The discovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess an incompletely described biodiversity under threat of extinction. 

  5. The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

    PubMed

    Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata. PMID:26246088

  6. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology. PMID:26249885

  7. A taxonomic synopsis of Limnogeton Mayr, 1853 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José Ricardo I; Meyin-A-Ebong, Solange E; Le-Gall, Philippe; Guilbert, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Afrotropical Belostomatidae fauna has long proved to be a difficult taxonomic problem, not so much for the overwhelmingly large number of species involved but rather because of a lack of trained specialists. The rarity of some taxa also contributes to confusion, because some species remain poorly described or are known only from one or two specimens. During a visit to the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France and the Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium, it was possible to comprehensively review the Limnogeton species based mainly on the specimens housed in the aforementioned collections. An updated key to adults of all species presently included in the genus, particularly based on male genitalia characters studied during the present study, has been provided.

  8. Contribution to the knowledge of Turkish stoneflies with annotated catalogue (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Darilmaz, Mustafa Cemal; Salur, Ali; Murányi, Dávid; Vinçon, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The stoneflies of Turkey are reviewed providing all known distributions and including new records. Additionally, ecological and biogeographical notes are given. The genus Taeniopteryx Pictet 1841 is reported from Turkey for the first time and 12 species new for the Turkish fauna: Leuctra joosti Braasch 1970, L. kopetdaghi Zhiltzova 1972, Protonemura rauschi Theischinger 1975, P. strandschaensis Braasch & Joost 1972, Nemoura asceta Murányi 2007, N. cambrica Stephens 1836, N. uncinata Despax 1934, Taeniopteryx caucasica Zhiltzova 1981, Brachyptera risi (Morton 1896), Pontoperla katherinae (Balinsky 1950), Siphonoperla neglecta (Rostock 1881), and Bulgaroperla mirabilis nigrita Zwick 1978.          Protonemura bithynica Aubert 1964 and Nemoura turcica Zwick 1972 are recognized as full species. The previously unknown female of Leuctra marilouae Vinçon & Sivec 2001 is described. The type locality is also given for each species located in Turkey.          The distributions of several rare endemic species are augmented by additional new records (Leuctra aculeata Zwick 1982, L. brachyptera Kazancı 1985, L. karcali Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. kurui Kazancı 1983, L. marilouae Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. sipahilerae Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. theischingeri Vinçon & Sivec 2001, Protonemura bacurianica bacurianica Zhiltzova 1957, P. oreas Martynov 1928, P. spinulata Martynov 1928 (first confirmed records from Anatolia), P. triangulata Martynov 1928, Nemoura dromokeryx Theischinger 1976, N. martynovia Claassen 1936, and Brachyptera berkii Kazancı 2001.          Several species previously reported only from females are excluded from the Turkish fauna: Leuctra minuta minuta Zhiltzova 1960, L. svanetica Zhiltzova 1960, P. dilatata Martynov 1928. Other species are also excluded from the Turkish fauna: L. fusca fusca (Linnaeus 1758), N. carpathica Illies 1963, Siphonoperla burmeisteri (Pictet 1841), and S. libanica Alouf, 1992.          According to literature and our new faunistic data, 117 stonefly taxa representing 7 families and 24 genera are known from Turkey. Among them, 44 are endemic species from Anatolia.

  9. Distribution and characterization of nitric oxide synthase in the nervous system of Triatoma infestans (Insecta: Heteroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Coronel, María F.; Nowicki, Susana; Nighorn, Alan J.; Villar, Marcelo J.

    2007-01-01

    The biochemical characterization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and its distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) were studied in the heteropteran bug Triatoma infestans. NOS-like immunoreactivity was found in the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and thoracic ganglia by using immunocytochemistry. In the protocerebrum, NOS-immunoreactive (IR) somata were detected in the anterior, lateral, and posterior soma rinds. In the optic lobe, numerous immunostained somata were observed at the level of the first optic chiasma, around the lobula, and in the proximal optic lobe. In the deutocerebrum, NOS-IR perikarya were mainly observed in the lateral soma rind, surrounding the sensory glomeruli, and a few cell bodies were seen in association with the antennal mechanosensory and motor neuropil. No immunostaining could be detected in the antennal nerve. The subesophageal and prothoracic ganglia contained scattered immunostained cell bodies. NOS-IR somata were present in all the neuromeres of the posterior ganglion. Western blotting showed that a universal NOS antiserum recognized a band at 134 kDa, in agreement with the expected molecular weight of the protein. Analysis of the kinetics of nitric oxide production revealed a fully active enzyme in tissue samples of the CNS of T. infestans. PMID:17235602

  10. The First Mitochondrial Genome for Caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) with Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Xingyue; Yang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    The Trichoptera (caddisflies) is a holometabolous insect order with 14,300 described species forming the second most species-rich monophyletic group of animals in freshwater. Hitherto, there is no mitochondrial genome reported of this order. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a caddisfly species, Eubasilissa regina (McLachlan, 1871). A phylogenomic analysis was carried out based on the mt genomic sequences of 13 mt protein coding genes (PCGs) and two rRNA genes of 24 species belonging to eight holometabolous orders. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support the sister relationship between Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. PMID:24391451

  11. Environmental influence on coprophagous Scarabaeidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) assemblages in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Tissiani, A S O; Sousa, W O; Santos, G B; Ide, S; Battirola, L; Marques, M I

    2015-11-01

    Here we examine assemblage structure of coprophagous Scarabaeidae (dung beetles) in the Pantanal of the state of Mato Grosso with respect to flooding regimes, soil texture, leaf litter volume and tree dominance in native and exotic pastures. Samples were collected along 30 transects of 250 m in length in a 5×5 km grid (25 km2). Five pitfalls baited with human feces were placed in each transect. A total of 1692 individuals in 19 species were captured, the majority in the subfamily Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae. Assemblages were influenced by the duration of flooding and leaf litter volume. None of the other habitat variables was correlated with species richness. Cultivated pastures with exotic grasses were unimportant for composition of the assemblages of beetles. These results indicate that duration of flooding is the most important regulating force in this community.

  12. The morphology of the eggs of three species of Zoraptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Yuta; Beutel, Rolf G; Dallai, Romano; Gottardo, Marco; Lee, Chow-Yang; Machida, Ryuichiro

    2015-11-01

    The egg structure of Zorotypus magnicaudelli, Zorotypus hubbardi and Zorotypus impolitus was examined and described in detail. Major characteristics of zorapteran eggs previously reported were confirmed in these species, with the partial exception of Z. impolitus: 1) a pair of micropyles at the equator of the egg's ventral side, 2) a honeycomb pattern on the egg surface, 3) a two-layered chorion, 4) micropylar canals running laterally, 5) a flap covering the inner opening of the micropylar canal and 6) no region specialized for hatching. These features are probably part of the groundplan of the order. Three groups (A-C) and two subgroups (A1 and A2) of Zoraptera can be distinguished based on characters of the reproductive apparatus including eggs. However, information for more species is needed for a reliable interpretation of the complex and apparently fast evolving character system. The egg of Z. impolitus presumably shows apomorphic characteristics not occurring in other species, a chorion without layered construction and polygonal surface compartments with different sculptures on the dorsal and ventral sides of the egg. Another feature found in this species, distinct enlargement of the micropyles, is also found in Z. hubbardi. The increased micropylar size is likely correlated with the giant spermatozoa produced by males of these two species. These two features combined with the large size of the spermatheca are arguably a complex synapomorphy of Z. hubbardi and Z. impolitus. The phylogenetic placement of Zoraptera is discussed based on the egg structure. A clade of Zoraptera + Eukinolabia appears most plausible, but the issue remains an open question.

  13. Endosymbiotic microorganisms in Adelges (Sacchiphantes) viridis (Insecta, Hemiptera, Adelgoidea: Adelgidae): Molecular characterization, ultrastructure and transovarial transmission.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Anna; Gołas, Aniela; Kot, Marta; Wieczorek, Karina; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify endosymbiotic microorganisms living in the body cavity of a Polish population of an aphid, Adelges (Sacchiphantes) viridis, as well as to describe their ultrastructure and mode of transmission between generations. Molecular data (amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes) indicated that endosymbionts of A. (S.) viridis are Betaproteobacteria of the species "Candidatus Vallotia virida". Endosymbiotic bacteria are rod-shaped and localized in the cytoplasm of specific cells, termed bacteriocytes, of host insects. Endosymbionts sharing the same bacteriocytes differ in the density of their cytoplasm. There are two morphotypes of endosymbiotic bacteria: with electron-dense cytoplasm and electron-translucent cytoplasm. Since only bacteria containing electron-dense cytoplasm were observed in the binary fusion stage, differences in density of the cytoplasm are probably due to changes in the cytoskeleton of bacteria during division. Endosymbionts of A. (S.) viridis are transovarially (i.e. via oocytes) transmitted from the mother to the offspring.

  14. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, K; Murugan, K; Nareshkumar, A; Ramasubramanian, N; Bragadeeswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). Methods M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. Results Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs. PMID:23569741

  15. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  16. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  17. Crickets (Insecta, Orthoptera, Grylloidea) from Southern New Caledonia,
    with descriptions of new taxa.

    PubMed

    Anso, Jérémy; Jourdan, Hervé; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Intensive sampling of cricket communities has been undertaken in southern New Caledonia in selected plots of vegetation, i.e. rain forest, preforest and maquis shrubland. This leads to the discovery of many new taxa, which are described in the present paper, together with closely related species from nearby areas. Descriptions are based on general morphology and characters of genitalia. Calling songs are described for all acoustic taxa but two, and observations about species habitats are given. In total, 35 species belonging to 13 genera are studied, including 21 new species and two new genera. The pattern of assemblages of cricket species in New Caledonia is discussed. PMID:27395569

  18. Critical Structure for Telescopic Movement of Honey bee (Insecta: Apidae) Abdomen: Folded Intersegmental Membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z-S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. PMID:27456912

  19. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana

    PubMed Central

    Mouro, Lucas D.; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C.S.; Waichel, Breno L.

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian–Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261

  20. Biodiversity of Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera): delineation and characterization of regions.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2004-07-01

    Despite the value of aquatic insects in aquatic ecosystem biomonitoring, few studies within North America have addressed relationships between aquatic insect assemblages and landscape-level environmental variables. In this study, over 300,000 adult caddisfly specimens representing 224 species were collected and analyzed from samples of 225 Minnesota aquatic habitats within 58 watersheds. Detrended Correspondence Analysis and a UPGMA dendrogram of caddisfly relative abundance data determined that five regions of caddisfly biodiversity exist within the state. Species richness and diversity were significantly highest in the Lake Superior and Northern regions, lowest in the Northwestern and Southern regions, and intermediate in the Southeastern region. Canonical Correspondence Analysis determined that caddisfly species composition was related to temperature, percentage of disturbed habitat, and stream gradient. Although a strong correlation between temperature and percentage of disturbed habitat made determination of the relative importance of those variables difficult, it is likely that anthropogenic disturbance has decreased caddisfly biodiversity in at least the Northwestern and Southern regions. Now that regions of biodiversity have been established, future changes to the fauna can be evaluated with greater precision and confidence. This study represents the most comprehensive faunal analysis of an aquatic insect order within the Western Hemisphere.

  1. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  2. A new species of Fuziidae (Insecta, Blattida) from the Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dandan; Liang, Junhui; Ren, Dong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species attributed to the genus Parvifuzia Guo & Ren, 2011, Parvifuzia peregrina sp. n., is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China. This new species, with apex of wing almost reaching the end of the abdomen and forewing venation with 30–32 veins at margin, broadens the diversity of Parvifuzia. This new species, with strongly curved cerci, could tightly clasp female and complete copulation more efficiently, same as other members of the family Fuziidae. PMID:22977342

  3. Taxonomic and numerical resolutions of nepomorpha (insecta: heteroptera) in cerrado streams.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories. PMID:25083770

  4. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.

  5. [Parasitism of Ips sexdentatus (Insecta: Scolytidae) by Parasitorhabditis ipsophila (Nematoda: Rhabditidae)].

    PubMed

    Lieutier, F

    1984-01-01

    The study of parasitism percentages and contaminations intensity in Ips sexdentatus parasitized by P. ipsophila as well as the examination of the wormholes in the galleries of the bark beetle gave better insight into certain features of nematode biology. Larvae of I. sexdentatus could be infected, whereas pupae could not. Adults were contaminated from initial stages of maturation and throughout preswarming maturation. Following swarming and installation on a new tree, insects were rapidly decontaminated, but recontamination could occur by the end of oviposition. P. ipsophila larvae were found in the mesenteron before they penetrated into the hind gut. Seemingly, the parasite underwent no evolution within its host. All developmental stages of the nematode could be observed in the galleries of the bark beetle as long as the latter was present. No apparent relation exists between parasitism of the digestive tract by P. ipsophila and parasitism of the body or fat body by Parasitaphelenchus or Contortylenchus diplogaster. P. ipsophila exerts very limited effects on I. sexdentatus populations. A slight delay in swarming and initiation of oviposition, and a very low decrease in density of notches of oviposition and of eggs was observed, but the features of the gallery of oviposition (total length, length before the first notch) showed no alteration. No mortality was detected.

  6. 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans', an intracellular bacterial pathogen of the cockroach Blatta orientalis (Insecta: Blattodea).

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Thomas, Vincent; Goy, Genevieve; Venditti, Danielle; Radek, Renate; Greub, Gilbert

    2007-04-01

    The genus Rickettsiella comprises various intracellular bacterial pathogens of arthropods, exhibiting a chlamydia-like developmental cycle. Species may be divided into two main groups, the R. popilliae-R. grylli group and the R. chironomi group. Previous phylogenetic studies based on the 16S ribosomal RNA encoding gene showed that two Rickettsiella species, one from each group, belong in reality to two distantly related lineages, the gamma-Proteobacteria (R. grylli) and the Chlamydiales ('Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis', a pathogen of terrestrial isopods). In the present work, the 16S rDNA sequence of another Rickettsiella-like species, causing abdominal swelling to its cockroach host Blatta orientalis, was determined and phylogenetic analysis performed. Identical 16S rDNA sequences of 1495 nucleotides were obtained from fat body and ovary tissues of both healthy and diseased cockroach individuals. The sequence shared only 73% of similarity with R. grylli, but 82-87% with most Chlamydiales, and even 96.3% with 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis'. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the affiliation of the cockroach pathogen within the order Chlamydiales, and based on ultrastructural characteristics and genetic analyses, we propose its inclusion in the 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia' as a distinct taxon, 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans'. These results extend our knowledge of the phylogenetic diversity of the Chlamydiales.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  8. The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs – including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata. PMID:26246088

  9. [Comparative histology of mushroom bodies in carnivorous beetles of the suborder polyphaga (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom bodies in beetles of the families Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Cantharidae, Trogossitidae, Peltidae, Cleridae, Malachiidae, and Coccinellidae are shown to be rather poorly developed. The calyx region of the mushroom bodies in these beetles never forms two separate cups, and the peduncular apparatus includes a unified shaft almost over its entire length. Only the pedunculus contains two separate shafts in a few cases. Two proliferative centers consisting of one to three neuroblasts are often found in each Kenyon cell group. The shift from carnivorous to feeding on pollen or leaves, which has taken place in some taxa, does not visibly affect the degree of mushroom body development.

  10. Beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J

    2014-08-01

    The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.

  11. [Histological structure of tripartite mushroom bodies in ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera: Carabidae)].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to members of the suborder Polyphaga; ground beetles have been found to possess tripartite mushroom bodies, which are poorly developed in members of basal taxa and maximally elaborated in evolutionarily advanced groups. Nevertheless, they do not reach the developmental stage, which has been previously found in particular families of beetles. It has been pointed out that anew formation of the Kenyon cells occurs during at least the first months of adult life, and inactive neuroblasts are found even in one-year-old beetles. It has been suggested that there is a relation between the Kenyon cell number and development of the centers of Kenyon cell new-formation.

  12. Evolutionary History of Assassin Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Insights from Divergence Dating and Ancestral State Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11–14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears the way for in-depth evolutionary hypothesis testing in one of the most speciose clades of predators. PMID:23029072

  13. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5–9) serrated, lateral spines on S6–9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6–7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6–9 serrate, lateral spines on S7–9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7–9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water’s edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva. PMID:27635319

  14. Redescription of the larva of Gynacantha cylindrata Karsch (Insecta: Odonata: Aeshnidae).

    PubMed

    Domenico, Marco Di; Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Carchini, Gianmaria

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate stadium larva of Gynacantha cylindrata Karsch, 1891 is described and illustrated based on fifteen male and female exuviae from Bundibugyo, Uganda. The larva resembles those of the few described African species of the genus but shows a denser coverage of spine-like setae on body surface and abundance of hair-like setae on mouthparts. The female gonapophyses appear to be the longest described in the genus up to now and similar to those of G. villosa, a species included in the same group of African species. PMID:27395964

  15. First Record of Anisoptera (Insecta: Odonata) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese Amber.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Mario; Bechly, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The fossil dragonfly Burmalindenia imperfecta gen. et sp. nov. is described from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber as the first record of the odonate suborder Anisoptera for this locality and one of the few records from amber in general. The inclusion comprises two fragments of the two hind wings of a dragonfly. The fossil can be attributed to a new genus and species of the family Gomphidae, presumably in the subfamily Lindeniinae, and features a strange teratological phenomenon in its wing venation. PMID:27394756

  16. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5-9) serrated, lateral spines on S6-9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6-7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6-9 serrate, lateral spines on S7-9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7-9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water's edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva. PMID:27635319

  17. Cerapanorpa, a new genus of Panorpidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    A new genus of Panorpidae (Mecoptera), Cerapanorpa gen. nov., is erected with Panorpa obtusa Cheng, 1949 as its type species. The new genus can be readily recognized by having a single digitate anal horn on the posterior edge of tergum VI in males, and a broad main plate bearing two pairs of basal plates at the genital plate and a well-developed elongate axis in females. Nineteen described species are transferred from Panorpa Linnaeus, 1758 to the new genus. In addition, three new species, Cerapanorpa liupanshana sp. nov., Cerapanorpa protrudens sp. nov. and Cerapanorpa sinuata sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Panorpa alticola Zhou, 2000 syn. nov. is regarded as a junior synonym of P. obtusa Cheng, 1949. A key to genera of Panorpidae is updated to include the new genus. A key to species of Cerapanorpa is also presented. PMID:27615872

  18. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-06-25

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.

  19. A survey of the praying mantises of Rwanda, including new records (Insecta, Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of two surveys targeting praying mantises in four localities in Rwanda, specifically Akagera National Park, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, and the Arboretum de Ruhande at the National University of Rwanda. Using an assortment of collecting techniques, including metal halide light traps, sweep netting vegetation and general searching, we obtained 387 adult and 352 juvenile specimens, representing 41 species. A total of 28 novel species records for Rwanda are added to the 18 previously recorded species for the country, in addition to 20 novel species records for the broader region, including neighbouring Uganda and Burundi. This study provides high resolution images of the dorsal habitus of both sexes of representative species, both pinned and living. Species distribution records are presented and discussed. With a 155% increase in species recorded from Rwanda, this survey illustrates the need for further taxonomic work in the region.

  20. A peculiar new virus-spermatozoon association in the bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) (Heteroptera-Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mercati, David; Dallai, Romano

    2016-01-01

    The sperm of the heteropteran bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) are of two types, differing in length and size of their flagella. The thicker sperm are shorter than the thinner ones and have large mitochondrial derivatives. The presence of virus particles associated with the plasma membrane of thinner sperm is described for the first time; thicker sperm are immune to virus infection. The fact that virus particles are present on thinner sperm only initiates considerations on the transmission of virus.

  1. Survey of macromoths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of a Palouse prairie remnant site in eastern Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Palouse or Palouse Prairie is a bioregion consisting primarily of native grasses, shrubs, and forbs that originally covered over 16,000 km2 of central Idaho, southeastern Washington, and northeastern Oregon. Less than 1% of this habitat remains with much of it having been converted to agricultu...

  2. Influence of life history and sex on metal accumulation in two beetle species (insecta: Coleoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindqvist, L.; Block, M.

    1997-04-01

    Insects are important components of most terrestrial environments owing to their great abundance, biomass and diversity. They also make up an important food resource for other animals. Consequently, in many food webs insects constitute important links in metal-transport chains between trophic levels. Therefore trace-metal concentrations in insects have an important influence on the trace-metal distribution in the biosphere. In various insects, Cd, Cu and Zn are usually accumulated to the extent that they reach levels above those of the food, whereas Fe is not. In response to metal pollution, accumulation of nonessential metals was found to increase markedly, whereas essential metals accumulated less owing to regulating mechanisms in the insects. In polluted environments, metal concentrations were found to be higher in predatory invertebrates than in phytophagous ones in studies where insects were analysed in broad categories such as families. However, no such trend was observed when species were treated separately. The pattern of metal accumulation can differ between species. This is true even for species utilizing the same food resource. For instance, concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe differed between four species of sawflies feeding on pine needles from the same locality. It is therefore likely that insects with different food sources accumulate metals differently depending on the concentration and chemical form of the metals in the food. There have been few studies aimed at determining whether patterns of metal accumulation differ between males and females of the same species. In one such study on the sawfly Neodiprion sertifer concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe tended to be higher in males than in females. However, this pattern was not found in two other sawfly species. Target organs for Cd were found to differ between males and females in the grasshopper Aiolopus thalassinus. The testis accumulated Cd to a higher degree than the ovaries.

  3. Rampant nuclear insertion of mtDNA across diverse lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J; Whiting, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies. PMID:25333882

  4. Fossils from the Middle Jurassic of China shed light on morphology of Choristopsychidae (Insecta, Mecoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xiao; Shih, Chung Kun; Petrulevičius, Julian F.; Dong, Ren

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Choristopsychidae, established by Martynov in 1937 with a single isolated forewing, is a little known extinct family in Mecoptera. Since then, no new members of this enigmatic family have been described. Based on 23 well-preserved specimens with complete body and wings from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China, we report one new genus and three new species of Choristopsychidae, two new species of the genus Choristopsyche Martynov, 1937: Choristopsyche perfecta sp. n. and Choristopsyche asticta sp. n.; one new species of Paristopsyche gen. n.: Paristopsyche angelineae sp. n.; and re-describe Choristopsyche tenuinervis Martynov, 1937. In addition, we emend the diagnoses of Choristopsychidae and Choristopsyche. Analyzing the forewing length/width ratios of representative species in Mecoptera, we confirm that choristopsychids have the lowest ratio of forewing length/width, meaning broadest forewings. These findings, the first fossil choristopsychids with well-preserved body structure and the first record of Choristopsychidae in China, shed light on the morphology of these taxa and broaden their distribution from Tajikistan to China, while increasing the diversity of Mesozoic Mecoptera in China. PMID:23950679

  5. Rampant nuclear insertion of mtDNA across diverse lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J; Whiting, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies.

  6. The non-LTR retrotransposon R2 in termites (Insecta, Isoptera): characterization and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ghesini, Silvia; Luchetti, Andrea; Marini, Mario; Mantovani, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    The full-length element of the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 is here characterized in three European isopteran species: the more primitive Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), including two highly divergent mitochondrial lineages, and the more derived Reticulitermes lucifugus and R. urbis (Rhinotermitidae). Partial 3' sequences for R. grassei and R. balkanensis were also analyzed. The essential structural features of R2 elements are conserved in termites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that termite elements belong to the same clade and that their phylogeny is fully compatible with the phylogeny of their host species. The study of the number and the frequency of R2 insertion variants in four R. urbis colonies suggests a greatly reduced, or completely absent, recent element activity.

  7. Origin of the hungry caterpillar: Evolution of fasting in slug moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, J M; Weller, S J; Epstein, M E

    2016-01-01

    Studies of caterpillar defense strategy evolution typically focus on aposematic coloration, gregarious behavior, and/or chemical defense. In the slug moth family Limacodidae, the evolution of chemical defense is coupled to the life history trait of first instar feeding behaviors. In nettle caterpillars, the first instars fast and molt into a second instar that feeds. In contrast, gelatines and monkey slug larval forms feed in the first instar. This study focused on whether the evolution of fasting associated with the nettle morphology was a derived trait of single or multiple origins. Twenty-nine species of Limacodidae (including one Chrysopolominae) representing 27 genera and four outgroup species with known first and final instar morphologies and behaviors were included. Four out-group species representing Megalopygidae (1 sp), Dalceridae (1 sp) and Aididae (2 sp) were included. These were sequenced for three molecular markers for a total of 4073 bp, mitochondrial COI (∼1500 bp), 18S (∼1900 bp) and the D2 region of 28S (approximately 670 bp). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted. The resulting phylogeny and comparative analysis of feeding strategy revealed that the nettle caterpillar morphology and behavior of larval fasting may have a single origin.

  8. Setting boundaries: environmental and spatial effects on Odonata larvae distribution (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity. PMID:25806986

  9. The Distribution of eIF4E-Family Members across Insecta

    PubMed Central

    Tettweiler, Gritta; Kowanda, Michelle; Lasko, Paul; Sonenberg, Nahum; Hernández, Greco

    2012-01-01

    Insects are part of the earliest faunas that invaded terrestrial environments and are the first organisms that evolved controlled flight. Nowadays, insects are the most diverse animal group on the planet and comprise the majority of extant animal species described. Moreover, they have a huge impact in the biosphere as well as in all aspects of human life and economy; therefore understanding all aspects of insect biology is of great importance. In insects, as in all cells, translation is a fundamental process for gene expression. However, translation in insects has been mostly studied only in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We used all publicly available genomic sequences to investigate in insects the distribution of the genes encoding the cap-binding protein eIF4E, a protein that plays a crucial role in eukaryotic translation. We found that there is a diversity of multiple ortholog genes encoding eIF4E isoforms within the genus Drosophila. In striking contrast, insects outside this genus contain only a single eIF4E gene, related to D. melanogaster eIF4E-1. We also found that all insect species here analyzed contain only one Class II gene, termed 4E-HP. We discuss the possible evolutionary causes originating the multiplicity of eIF4E genes within the genus Drosophila. PMID:22745595

  10. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2015-01-01

    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera. PMID:26624314

  11. A survey of the praying mantises of Rwanda, including new records (Insecta, Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of two surveys targeting praying mantises in four localities in Rwanda, specifically Akagera National Park, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, and the Arboretum de Ruhande at the National University of Rwanda. Using an assortment of collecting techniques, including metal halide light traps, sweep netting vegetation and general searching, we obtained 387 adult and 352 juvenile specimens, representing 41 species. A total of 28 novel species records for Rwanda are added to the 18 previously recorded species for the country, in addition to 20 novel species records for the broader region, including neighbouring Uganda and Burundi. This study provides high resolution images of the dorsal habitus of both sexes of representative species, both pinned and living. Species distribution records are presented and discussed. With a 155% increase in species recorded from Rwanda, this survey illustrates the need for further taxonomic work in the region. PMID:26624167

  12. New species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from Europe: Alps and Pyrenees as harbours of unknown biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon; Previšić, Ana; Malicky, Hans

    2015-01-01

    New species are described from the genera Consorophylax and Anisogamus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Limnephilinae, Stenophylacini). Additionally the larva of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, the male of A. waringeri sp. nov. has more-slender superior appendages; a more-rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of species in the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on abdominal segment I, a unique feature among Eurasian Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The discovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess an incompletely described biodiversity under threat of extinction.  PMID:25661619

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the 'twisted-wing parasite' Mengenilla australiensis (Insecta, Strepsiptera): a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Strepsiptera are an unusual group of sexually dimorphic, entomophagous parasitoids whose evolutionary origins remain elusive. The lineage leading to Mengenilla australiensis (Family Mengenillidae) is the sister group to all remaining extant strepsipterans. It is unique in that members of this family have retained a less derived condition, where females are free-living from pupation onwards, and are structurally much less simplified. We sequenced almost the entire mitochondrial genome of M. australiensis as an important comparative data point to the already available genome of its distant relative Xenos vesparum (Family Xenidae). This study represents the first in-depth comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis of Strepsiptera. Results The partial genome of M. australiensis is presented as a 13421 bp fragment, across which all 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 18 transfer RNA (tRNA) sequences are identified. Two tRNA translocations disrupt an otherwise ancestral insect mitochondrial genome order. A+T content is measured at 84.3%, C-content is also very skewed. Compared with M. australiensis, codon bias in X. vesparum is more balanced. Interestingly, the size of the protein coding genome is truncated in both strepsipterans, especially in X. vesparum which, uniquely, has 4.3% fewer amino acids than the average holometabolan complement. A revised assessment of mitochondrial rRNA secondary structure based on comparative structural considerations is presented for M. australiensis and X. vesparum. Conclusions The mitochondrial genome of X. vesparum has undergone a series of alterations which are probably related to an extremely derived lifestyle. Although M. australiensis shares some of these attributes; it has retained greater signal from the hypothetical most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Strepsiptera, inviting the possibility that a shift in the mitochondrial selective environment might be related to the specialization accompanying the evolution of a small, morphologically simplified completely host-dependent lifestyle. These results provide useful insights into the nature of the evolutionary transitions that accompanied the emergence of Strepsiptera, but we emphasize the need for adequate sampling across the order in future investigations concerning the extraordinary developmental and evolutionary origins of this group. PMID:20003419

  14. A "spare" compensates for the risk of destruction of the elongated penis of earwigs (Insecta: Dermaptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Matsuo, Yoh

    2001-11-01

    Male animals in several groups have multiple intromittent organs that outnumber the corresponding female gonopore. In Dermaptera (earwigs), males of the family Anisolabididae have paired, elongated male intromittent organs (virgae), while females have a single sperm-storage organ (spermatheca). Several authors have assumed that one of the paired virgae is non-functional, because it points in the "wrong" direction. We investigated the mating success of handicapped males of Euborellia plebeja in which one of their paired virgae was removed experimentally. These handicapped males succeeded in inseminating a mate. Males with genital damage are found in the field, suggesting that the "spare" functions under natural conditions. Based on phylogenetic information on earwigs, we discuss possible evolutionary scenarios for this genital peculiarity.

  15. Catalog of Hymenoptera described by Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Penati, Fabio; Mariotti, Alberto

    2015-03-10

    Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) was an Italian civil engineer who described 377 new taxa of Hymenoptera, 199 of which are still valid and in use today, and proposed 6 replacement names. The present catalog provides a brief biography of Gribodo, a bibliography of his 42 publications and a complete list of the taxa proposed by Gribodo. The catalog lists, for all published names, details on the type series, type locality and collector, present status based on literature, all data labels, relevant references and remarks. A gazetteer of type-localities, a systematical list of Genus- and Species-group names, a chronological list of new names proposed by Giovanni Gribodo, with name-bearing types, and a list of Algerian species and varieties are also given. Furthermore, an unpublished manuscript by Gribodo on hymenopterological fauna of Tunisia, still kept at the Civic Museum of Natural History "Giacomo Doria" (Genoa, Italy), is described, and data on the 57 "new" taxa therein listed are reported, discussing their relevance in order to ascertain the original type series of 27 taxa validly published later. Finally, the problem posed by the enigmatic "disappearance" of a large number of Algerian types, already faced by several entomologists in the past, is analyzed, in order to prevent future mistaken designations of lectotypes and neotypes. The following six nomenclatural acts are proposed here by R. Wahis: Hemipepsis sycophanta Gribodo, 1884 = Hemipepsis bellicosa (Smith, 1873) new synonym; Anospilus sulcithorax (Gribodo, 1924) new combination; Auplopus validus (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Dichragenia quartinae (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Diplonyx caesar (Gribobo, 1894) new combination; Paracyphononyx melanicrus Gribodo, 1884 status revalidated (resurrected from synonymy with Pompilus ruficrus Klug, 1834). The following four nomenclatural acts are proposed by F. Penati: Parachrysis Gribodo, 1879 [subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus] = Chrysis Linnaeus, 1760 new synonym; Psammotherma (Mutilla) quartinae Gribodo, 1884 = Psammotherma flabellata (Fabricius, 1804) new synonym; Megascolia (Regiscolia) alecto (Smith, 1858) subspecies vespillo (Gribodo, 1893) new combination; Megachile (Megachile) moutoni Gribodo, 1894 emendated name.

  16. Two new bee-killing flies from Brazil (Insecta: Diptera: Phoridae: Melaloncha)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Melaloncha is a large group of species of parasitoid phorid flies that attack Hymenoptera, mostly stingless bees (Meliponinae, Apidae) in the Neotropical Region. New information Two new Brazilian species, Melaloncha (Melaloncha) peacockorum sp. n. and Melaloncha (Udamochiras) nielsi sp. n., are described and their identification clarified. PMID:26929720

  17. Review of Anasillomos Londt, 1983 with the description of a new species (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae).

    PubMed

    Dikow, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The southern African assassin-fly genus Anasillomos Londt, 1983 is reviewed. A new species, Anasillomosjuergeni sp. n., is described from the Namib desert and represents the second species in the genus. Descriptions/re-descriptions, photographs, and identification keys are provided to aid in the identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence are discussed. PMID:25829862

  18. Evolutionary history of assassin bugs (insecta: hemiptera: Reduviidae): insights from divergence dating and ancestral state reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11-14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears the way for in-depth evolutionary hypothesis testing in one of the most speciose clades of predators. PMID:23029072

  19. New predatory cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria: Manipulatoridae fam.n.) from the Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršanský, Peter; Bechly, Günter

    2015-04-01

    We describe a new extinct lineage Manipulatoridae (new family) of cockroaches from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. Manipulator modificaputis gen. et sp. n. is a morphologically unique extinct cockroach that represents the first (of a total of 29 known worldwide) cockroach family reported exclusively from the Myanmar amber. This family represents an early side branch of the stem group of Mantodea (most probably a sister group of Eadiidae within Blattaria/Corydioidea) because it has some synapomorphies with the Mantodea (including the stem group and Eadiidae). This family also retains symplesiomorphies that exclude a position in the crown group, and furthermore has unique autapomorphies that exclude a position as a direct ancestor of Mantodea. The unique adaptations such as strongly elongated extremities and freely movable head on a long neck suggest that these animals were pursuit predators. Five additional specimens (including two immatures) reported from the Myanmar amber suggest that this group was relatively rare but belonged to the indigenous and autochthonous inhabitants of the ancient amber forest of the Myanmar region.

  20. [Generic diversity of Trichoptera (Insecta) of Paramo Rabanal (Cundinamarca-Boyacá, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Latorre-Beltrán, Ivonne T; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Favila, Mario E

    2014-04-01

    Trichopterans are considered an important and diverse biotic element in continental aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the assemblages of the order Trichoptera in two subwatersheds with a gradient of disturbance. Four sampling events were conducted in two subwatersheds in the Eastern Mountain Range of the Colombian Andes. For the analysis we used rarefaction curves, Bray-Curtis Index and Partitioning Diversity and total richness and Shannon's diversity as metrics. Although total richness was similar between both subwatersheds, abundance was always highest in streams within the conserved subwatershed. Each subwatershed was dominated by different genera, except Ochrotrichia, which was abundant at all sites. Alpha diversity was similar among streams in the conserved watershed, while a reduction in diversity potentially associated with the disturbance gradient was observed in streams of the disturbed subwatershed. Beta diversity (0Dbeta and 1Dbeta) between subwatersheds and among conserved streams was similar, while in disturbed streams a similar gradient to that of alpha diversity was found. The similitude analysis clustered streams according to their conservation status. Differences found in trichopteran assemblages do confirm that the use of their attributes is adequate to assess the conservation status of stream ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2): 97-110. Epub 2014 April 01. PMID:25189072

  1. Evidence for Gene Flow between Two Sympatric Mealybug Species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

  2. The fine structure of the rectal pads of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Mashimo, Y; Machida, R; Beutel, R G

    2016-07-01

    The rectal pads of a species of the controversial polyneopteran order Zoraptera were examined using histological sections and TEM micrographs. Six pads are present along the thin rectal epithelium. Each pad consists of a few large principal cells surrounded by flattened junctional cells, which extend also beneath the principal cells. The cells are lined by a thin apical cuticle. No basal cells and no cavity have been observed beneath the pad. Principal cells have a regular layer of apical microvilli and are joined by intercellular septate junctions, which are interrupted by short dilatations of the intercellular space. At these levels the two adjacent plasma membranes are joined by short zonulae adhaerentes. In the cytoplasm, a rich system of strict associations between lateral plasma membranes and mitochondria forms scalariform junctions. Rectal pads share ultrastructural features with similar excretory organs of several neopteran groups, in particular with Blattodea (roaches and termites) and Thysanoptera, and are involved in fluid reabsorption and ion regulation. PMID:27368527

  3. Principles of the highly ordered arrangement of metaphase I bivalents in spermatocytes of Agrodiaetus (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Dantchenko, Alexander V

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the nature of highly ordered bivalent arrangement in lepidopteran spermatocytes by analysing and comparing the patterns of bivalent distribution in intact metaphase I plates of 24 closely related species of the genus Agrodiaetus (Lycaenidae). The studied species greatly differed in haploid chromosome numbers (from n = 13 to n = 90) and in the structure of their karyotypes. We found that the larger the bivalent, the closer to the centre of the metaphase plate it was situated. In species with a high chromosome number and asymmetrical karyotype structure, the largest bivalent was located in the centre of the circular metaphase plate. Bivalents of equal size were approximately equidistant from the centre of the metaphase plate and formed concentric circles around the largest bivalent. These principles are diametrically different from those known in the majority of other animals and plants, in which the smallest elements of the chromosome set are situated in the centre of metaphase plate. The only exception from the above principles was observed in spermatocytes of A. surakovi which were heterozygous for reciprocal translocation involving two or three chromosome pairs. In addition to one large bivalent, the heterozygous cells had a multivalent, the size of which was comparable to or even exceeded that of the largest bivalentin the karyotype. In spite of thelarge size, the multivalent was always situated at the periphery of metaphase plate. This indicated that the chromosome size itself is not the only factor determining the bivalent position. We also found that the structure of the metaphase plate is fundamentally different in mitotic and meiotic cells of Agrodiaetus. In spermatogonial metaphase, chromosomes were tightly brought together, forming a dense compact disk, whereas during metaphase I of spermatocytes, all bivalents were clearly separated from each other, and the distance between adjacent bivalents varied from 0.4 to 1.5 microm. Based on the above findings, we proposed a model of bivalent distribution in the Lepidoptera. According to the model, during congregation in the prometaphase stage there is a centripetal movement of bivalents made by a force directed to the centre of the metaphase plate transverse to the spindle. This force is proportional to the kinetochore size of a particular bivalent. The Lepidoptera have a special near-holokinetic type of chromosome organisation. Therefore, large bivalents having large kinetochores are situated in the central part of metaphase plate. Another possible factor affecting the bivalent position is the interaction of bivalents with the cisternae of the membrane system compartmentalising the intraspindle space. PMID:11863071

  4. Endogenous cellulolytic enzyme systems in the longhorn beetle Mesosa myops (Insecta: Coleoptera) studied by transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Song, Keqing; Teng, Huajing; Zhang, Bin; Li, Wenzhu; Xue, Huaijun; Yang, Xingke

    2015-09-01

    The Cerambycidae (longhorn beetle) is a large family of Coleoptera with xylophagous feeding habits. Cellulose digestion plays an important role in these wood-feeding insects. In this study, transcriptomic technology was used to obtain one glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) cellulase and seven GH5 cellulases from Mesosa myops, a typical longhorn beetle. Analyses of expression dynamics and evolutionary relationships provided a complete description of the cellulolytic system. The expression dynamics related to individual development indicated that endogenous GH45 and GH5 cellulases dominate cellulose digestion in M. myops. Evolutionary analyses suggested that GH45 cellulase gene is a general gene in the Coleoptera Suborder Polyphaga. Evolutionary analyses also indicated that the GH5 cellulase group in Lamiinae longhorn beetles is closely associated with wood feeding. This study demonstrated that there is a complex endogenous cellulolytic system in M. myops that is dominated by cellulases belonging to two glycoside hydrolase families.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  6. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  7. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2015-10-09

    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future. PMID:27000261

  9. General trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca (Insecta, Homoptera, Aphidinea + Coccinea)

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov-Zimin, Ilya A.; Stekolshchikov, Andrey V.; Gautam, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Parallel trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca are discussed, based on the catalogue of chromosomal numbers and genetic systems of scale insects by Gavrilov (2007) and the new catalogue for aphids provided in the present paper. To date chromosome numbers have been reported for 482 species of scale insects and for 1039 species of aphids, thus respectively comprising about 6% and 24% of the total number of species. Such characters as low modal numbers of chromosomes, heterochromatinization of part of chromosomes, production of only two sperm instead of four from each primary spermatocyte, physiological sex determination, "larval" meiosis, wide distribution of parthenogenesis and chromosomal races are considered as a result of homologous parallel changes of the initial genotype of Aphidococca ancestors. From a cytogenetic point of view, these characters separate Aphidococca from all other groups of Paraneoptera insects and in this sense can be considered as additional taxonomic characters. In contrast to available paleontological data the authors doubt that Coccinea with their very diverse (and partly primitive) genetic systems may have originated later then Aphidinea with their very specialised and unified genetic system. PMID:26312130

  10. Australian thrips of the Haplothrips lineage (Insecta: Thysanoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Mound, Laurence A.; Minaei, Kambiz

    2007-12-01

    Water is important and ubiquitous and surprisingly not understood. Just because is it common, does not mean its understood "Poets say science takes away from the beauty of the stars-mere globs of gas atoms. I too can see the stars on a desert night, and feel them. But do I see less or more? ... What is the pattern, or the meaning, or the why? It does not do harm to the mystery to know a little about it. For far more marvelous is the truth than any artists of the past imagined it." - Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, 1963. (Cited in the introduction to Chapter 3 of "The Snowflake, Winter's Secret Beauty, Text by Kenneth Libbrecht, Photography by Patricia Rasmussen.) 1. Highlight the fact that water is still one of the most active and challenging research areas in chemistry and physics 2. Describe in general terms why water is unique from the point of view of its properties o Large dipole-moment o Very polarizable o Involved in is own chemistry (e.g. auto ionization defining the pH scale) • Atomic view: o Oxygen and Hydrogen. o Hydrogen is a quantum mechanical in nature. Classical physics is no good. o Water’s Charge-charge interaction described by classical physics laws (e.g. Coulomb) o The statistical mechanics of water. Why counting is important. o You need the full arsenal of theoretical methods to understand water • Waters well known bulk properties do not explain waters anomalies o Surface tension, heat capacity • Understanding the microscopic nature of water and how this gives rise to the known bulk quantities is the thrust of state-of-the-art research o Hydrogen bonding o Liquid structure o The so-called “spherical cow” model gets you no where with water o There are 10s-100s of different water models available in the scientific literature. It is a hard business • All of life takes place at the interfaces of solid, liquid, and gas o Biology takes advantage of waters varying properties in different geometries (e.g. confined, surfaces, etc. o Water behaves differently in confined environments • Water is the most abundant greenhouse gas o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of the radiation budget of the earth o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of weather.

  11. Review of Anasillomos Londt, 1983 with the description of a new species (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The southern African assassin-fly genus Anasillomos Londt, 1983 is reviewed. A new species, Anasillomos juergeni sp. n., is described from the Namib desert and represents the second species in the genus. Descriptions/re-descriptions, photographs, and identification keys are provided to aid in the identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence are discussed. PMID:25829862

  12. Utilizing online resources for taxonomy: a cybercatalog of Afrotropical apiocerid flies (Insecta: Diptera: Apioceridae)

    PubMed Central

    Agosti, Donat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A cybercatalog to the Apioceridae (apiocerid flies) of the Afrotropical Region is provided. Each taxon entry includes links to open-access, online repositories such as ZooBank, BHL/BioStor/BLR, Plazi, GBIF, Morphbank, EoL, and a research web-site to access taxonomic information, digitized literature, morphological descriptions, specimen occurrence data, and images. Cybercatalogs as the one presented here will need to become the future of taxonomic catalogs taking advantage of the growing number of online repositories, linked data, and be easily updatable. Comments on the deposition of the holotype of Apiocera braunsi Melander, 1907 are made. PMID:26491392

  13. The first African Anthracoptilidae (Insecta: Paoliida) near the Permian--Triassic boundary in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nel, Andre; Garrouste, Romain; Prokop, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The first findings of Antracoptilidae (Paoliida) from the Late Permian/ Early Triassic of Africa, i.e. the new genus Afrocladus comprising A. pumilio sp. nov. and A. kenyaensis sp. nov., are described from the Mombasa Basin of Maji ya Chumvi Formation in Kenya (Duruma sandstones). Both diagnoses are based on wing venation pattern. Their occurrences close to the P-T boundary possibly indicate the last appearence date of the group being known since early Pennsylvanian. Moreover, their significantly smaller wing sizes compared to known taxa suggest adaptations to different habitats and environmental conditions or different life strategy. PMID:25781736

  14. DNA Barcoding to Improve the Taxonomy of the Afrotropical Hoverflies (Insecta: Diptera: Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jordaens, Kurt; Goergen, Georg; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Backeljau, Thierry; Vokaer, Audrey; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The identification of Afrotropical hoverflies is very difficult because of limited recent taxonomic revisions and the lack of comprehensive identification keys. In order to assist in their identification, and to improve the taxonomy of this group, we constructed a reference dataset of 513 COI barcodes of 90 of the more common nominal species from Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria (W Africa) and added ten publically available COI barcodes from nine nominal Afrotropical species to this (total: 523 COI barcodes; 98 nominal species; 26 genera). The identification accuracy of this dataset was evaluated with three methods (K2P distance-based, Neighbor-Joining (NJ) / Maximum Likelihood (ML) analysis, and using SpeciesIdentifier). Results of the three methods were highly congruent and showed a high identification success. Nine species pairs showed a low (< 0.03) mean interspecific K2P distance that resulted in several incorrect identifications. A high (> 0.03) maximum intraspecific K2P distance was observed in eight species and barcodes of these species not always formed single clusters in the NJ / ML analayses which may indicate the occurrence of cryptic species. Optimal K2P thresholds to differentiate intra- from interspecific K2P divergence were highly different among the three subfamilies (Eristalinae: 0.037, Syrphinae: 0.06, Microdontinae: 0.007–0.02), and among the different general suggesting that optimal thresholds are better defined at the genus level. In addition to providing an alternative identification tool, our study indicates that DNA barcoding improves the taxonomy of Afrotropical hoverflies by selecting (groups of) taxa that deserve further taxonomic study, and by attributing the unknown sex to species for which only one of the sexes is known. PMID:26473612

  15. The complete mitogenome of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Insecta: Isoptera: Termopsidae).

    PubMed

    Qian, Zeng-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis was reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 7052×. The circular genome is 15,444 bp in length, and consists of 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 and ND5 genes with the start codon GTG. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND1) or incomplete stop codon T (COII, ND5 & Cytb), while the others use TAA as their stop codons. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (45.8% A, 19.8% C, 10.9% G, 23.5% T) with an overall GC content of 30.7%. These data would contribute to the design of novel molecular markers for population and evolutionary studies of this and related termite species.

  16. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta) of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980). The number of true flies (Diptera) known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist) and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae) have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae) known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase), Pipunculidae (98%), and Chironomidae (90%). PMID:25337004

  17. Brachyceran Diptera (Insecta) in Cretaceous ambers, Part IV, Significant New Orthorrhaphous Taxa.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, David A; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M; Hauser, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. etsp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa significantly expand the Mesozoic fossil record of rare and phylogenetically significant taxa of lower Brachycera. PMID:22287902

  18. Brachyceran Diptera (Insecta) in Cretaceous ambers, Part IV, Significant New Orthorrhaphous Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, David A.; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Hauser, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. et sp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa significantly expand the Mesozoic fossil record of rare and phylogenetically significant taxa of lower Brachycera. PMID:22287902

  19. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2012-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764

  20. The use of caddisfly fauna (Insecta: Trichoptera) to characterise the Late-glacial River Trent, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, M. T.; Agnew, M. D.; Wood, P. J.

    2003-10-01

    Trichoptera have been utilised infrequently in palaeoecological studies despite their value as environmental indicators of freshwater habitat structure and quality, via their aquatic larvae, and catchment macroclimate conditions, via the aerial adults. Two sites, dated ca. 11 600 14C yr BP, in the middle reaches of the River Trent (England) supported caddisfly (Trichoptera) assemblages indicative of a dynamic braided river with extensive floodplain development. At the first, Barrow-upon-Trent, the caddisfly assemblage was dominated by taxa indicative of a medium to large gravel-bed river (Lepidostoma hirtum, Micrasema setiferum and taxa from the family Hydropsychidae). At the second site, Hemington, the caddisfly fauna was dominated by taxa from the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae. These usually occur in slow flowing and standing waters and are indicative of cut-off channels on the floodplain. Micrasema setiferum does not occur in the contemporary UK fauna and has a modern distribution across central Europe and Fennoscandia. A gridded climatology extracted for those geographical areas where M. setiferum occurs today indicated a greater degree of continentality than currently prevailing in the Trent catchment. The value of Trichoptera in palaeoecological studies is explored and a model of channel evolution for the River Trent is presented based on caddisfly data. Copyright

  1. Reconstructing the anatomy of the 42-million-year-old fossil Mengea tertiaria (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G

    2010-09-01

    Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron micro-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present. PMID:20711557

  2. The genus Triozocera Pierce, 1909 (Insecta: Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae) in South America.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Marcos; Cook, Jerry L

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Triozocera from the Brazilian Amazon basin was found in a sample of male Strepsiptera from the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA-Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil). Triozocera buehrheimi sp.n. is described and the status of T. paulistana Kogan, 1958, the first strepsipteran described from Brazil, is reviewed, with additional diagnostic characters used to reinstate the species based on comparative analyses to the other three species occurring in southern US, Mexico, and Central America: T. mexicana Pierce, 1909, T. tecpanensis Brailowsky and Márquez, 1974, and T. vernalis Kifune and Brailowsky, 1987. A key to those species is included. PMID:24871713

  3. New findings on sperm ultrastructure of Xenos vesparum (Rossi) (Strepsiptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Beani, L; Kathirithamby, J; Lupetti, P; Afzelius, B A

    2003-02-01

    The systematic position of insect order Strepsiptera is still under debate. It was, therefore, thought of interest to examine the ultrastructure of a strepsipteran in a search for synapomorphies shared with Coleoptera, Diptera, or any other insect order. The fine structure of spermatozoa and the spermatid from Xenos vesparum (Rossi) was re-examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and a fixation technique that permits the visualization of the macromolecular organization of the organelles. The spermatozoon was shown to possess several traits that are characteristics of insects in general, such as a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme, two mitochondrial derivatives containing a crystalline material and two 'zipper lines' present along the sperm tail. Seventeen protofilaments occurred along most of the accessory tubules, which reduced to 16 posteriorly. An acrosome is absent. The neck region contains a prominent centriolar adjunct, which gives rise to two accessory bodies which adhere to the mitochondrial derivatives, and to slender strands of the so-called intertubular material found between the accessory tubules. Of interest is the finding that the glycocalyx consists of prominent filamentous strands, similar to those found in siphonapterans, mecopterans and basal dipterans. PMID:12589726

  4. The morphology and evolution of the female postabdomen of Holometabola (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Hünefeld, Frank; Missbach, Christine; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-07-01

    In the present article homology issues, character evolution and phylogenetic implications related to the female postabdomen of the holometabolan insects are discussed, based on an earlier analysis of a comprehensive morphological data set. Hymenoptera, the sistergroup of the remaining Holometabola, are the only group where the females have retained a fully developed primary ovipositor of the lepismatid type. There are no characters of the female abdomen supporting a clade Coleopterida + Neuropterida. The invagination of the terminal segments is an autapomorphy of Coleoptera. The ovipositor is substantially modified in Raphidioptera and distinctly reduced in Megaloptera and Neuroptera. The entire female abdomen is extremely simplified in Strepsiptera. The postabdomen is tapering posteriorly in Mecopterida and retractile in a telescopic manner (oviscapt). The paired ventral sclerites of segments VIII and IX are preserved, but valvifers and valvulae are not distinguishable. In Amphiesmenoptera sclerotizations derived from the ventral appendages VIII are fused ventromedially, forming a solid plate, and the appendages IX are reduced. The terminal segments are fused and form a terminal unit which bears the genital opening subapically. The presence of two pairs of apophyses and the related protraction of the terminal unit by muscle force are additional autapomorphies, as is the fusion of the rectum with the posterior part of the genital chamber (cloaca). Antliophora are supported by the presence of a transverse muscle between the ventral sclerites of segment VIII. Secondary egg laying tubes have evolved independently within Boreidae (absent in Caurinus) and in Tipulomorpha. The loss of two muscle associated with the genital chamber are likely autapomorphies of Diptera. The secondary loss of the telescopic retractability of the postabdomen is one of many autapomorphies of Siphonaptera. PMID:22583791

  5. Revision of the Neotropical bark mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 (Insecta, Mantodea, Liturgusini)

    PubMed Central

    Svenson, Gavin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The praying mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 occurs only in Central and South America and represents the most diverse genus of Neotropical Liturgusini (Ehrmann 2002). The genus includes bark dwelling species, which live entirely on the trunks and branches of trees and run extremely fast. All species included within the genus Liturgusa are comprehensively revised with a distribution stretching from central Mexico, the island of Dominica to the southeastern regions of Brazil and southern Bolivia. All known species are redescribed to meet the standards of the new treatment of the genus (11 species). Three new genera are described including Fuga gen. n., Velox gen. n., and Corticomantis gen. n. for species previously included in Liturgusa as well as Hagiomantis. Liturgusa mesopoda Westwood, 1889 is moved to within the previously described genus Hagiomantis Audinet Serville, 1838. A total of 19 species are newly described within Liturgusa, Fuga, and Velox including L. algorei sp. n., L. bororum sp. n., L. cameroni sp. n., L. cura sp. n., L. dominica sp. n., L. fossetti sp. n., L. kirtlandi sp. n., L. krattorum sp. n., L. manausensis sp. n., L. maroni sp. n., L. milleri sp. n., L. neblina sp. n., L. purus sp. n., L. stiewei sp. n., L. tessae sp. n., L. trinidadensis sp. n., L. zoae sp. n., F. grimaldii sp. n., and V. wielandi sp. n. Four species names are synonymized: Liturgusa peruviana Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889 and Hagiomantis parva Piza, 1966, syn. n., Liturgusa sinvalnetoi Piza, 1982, syn. n., and Liturgusa parva Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Mantis annulipes Audinet Serville, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for the following two species: Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894 and Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838). A male neotype is designated for Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939. Males for eight species are described for the first time including Liturgusa cayennensis Saussure, 1869, Liturgusa lichenalis Gerstaecker, 1889, Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939, Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894, Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889, Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838), Corticomantis atricoxata (Beier, 1931), and Hagiomantis mesopoda (Westwood, 1889). The female of Fuga fluminensis (Piza, 1965) is described for the first time. Complete bibliographic histories are provided for previously described species. The spelling confusion surrounding Liturgusa/Liturgousa is resolved. Full habitus images for males and females are provided for nearly all species. Habitus and label images of type specimens are provided when possible. Diagnostic illustrations of the head and pronotum for males and females are provided for all species when possible. Illustrations of male genital structures are provided for all species for which males are known. Measurement data, including ranges and averages, are provided for males and females of all species. Combined male and female genus and species level dichotomous keys are provided with a Spanish translation. A complete table of all examined specimens lists label data, museum codes, repositories, and other specimen specific information. A KML file with all georeferenced locality records is downloadable from mantodearesearch.com for viewing in Google Earth. Natural history information is provided for species observed by the author. PMID:24715776

  6. Reconstructing the anatomy of the 42-million-year-old fossil † Mengea tertiaria (Insecta, Strepsiptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G.

    2010-09-01

    Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of † Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron μ-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between † Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of † Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present.

  7. Antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Seong-Ryul; Lee, Kyung-Seok; Park, Shin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2010-05-01

    This study was under taken to evaluate the antioxidant properties of larvae extracts of Allomyrina dichotoma. The antioxidant activities of various larvae extracts of water, methanol, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and hexane were measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion radical and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). The methanolic larvae extracts displayed the greatest effect in DPPH radical scavenging assay, but the reducing activity of larvae extracts was weaker in the superoxide anion radical assay. However, methanol (ME) and chloroform extracts (CE) could be compared to ascorbic acid in (1)O(2) quenching ability. ME (the concentration of 50% (1)O(2) quenching, QC(50)=0.080mg/ml) and CE (QC(50)=0.051mg/ml) extracts had 1.7, 2.7 times better efficiency than ascorbic acid (QC(50)=0.138mg/ml), respectively. Also the extracts were found to protect biological systems in Escherichia coli and lactate dehydrogenase against detrimental effects of (1)O(2) of type II photosensitization in vitro. The ability of larvae extracts to scavenge free radicals could significantly change contents of GA equivalent, an important factor for the potency of antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that our study may contribute to the development of new bioactive products with potential applications to reduce oxidative stress in living organisms involving reactive oxygen species as well as play a vital role in insect organisms against oxidative damage of undesirable conditions.

  8. [Transverse folding and the evolution of hind wings in beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, D N

    2013-01-01

    Strong intensification of the protective function of the fore wing in Coleoptera has made their flight apparatus a posteromotoric one and invited an apparatus responsible for folding the hindwings beneath the elytra to develop. Folding apparatus could hardly develop without higher deformability of veins or their parts, which diminished strength properties of the wing support. The effect was stressed by folds that intersected veins. Organization of the folds into a system confined this negative influence to a few wing regions and some veinal sections. This having happened, wing support and folding pattern evolved interrelated, the former into being more flexible, with no or minimum loss of rigidity, and the latter towards being less harmful for the supporting elements, especially axial ones. Monofunctionality, together with very simple structure and little specialization of constituent parts, made the folding pattern very labile during evolution. The folding pattern evolved more rapidly than wing venation, thus defining transformations of the latter. Evolutionary conservatism of wing venation stemmed from that many veins were strongly specialized in performing two conflicting functions. An adaptive compromise was necessary for the conflict to be solved, which determined the wing to orthogenetic development. The main evolutionary trends for wing venation and folding pattern were those towards simplification and a higher complexity, respectively. The beetle wing has passed through two main evolutionary stages. Among them, the first resulted in the development of the "Archostemata" wing type, the second started from the "cantharoid" structural plan. The main evolutionary factors were the infancies of wing posteromotorism at the first stage while the wing strongly influenced by size evolution, with the main trend towards miniaturization, at the second. The archostematan and "cantharoid" morphofunctional wing types differ fundamentally. In the wing of the former kind, folding and flight apparatus, because of considerably overlapping supporting systems, constitute a lasting coadaptive ensemble, with only minor deviations from the ground-plan occurring through evolution. The uprise of the "cantharoid" wing type was an upgrade of morpho-functional organization. The region of maximum transverse deformations having been extruded from the remigium basal part, chief supporting axes of the wing increased their rigid properties. The supporting systems of the two wing apparatus became more autonomous, having been separated. This expanded the adaptive zone for the wing strongly, which a great variety of derived wing types have emerged from. PMID:25438578

  9. [Transverse folding and the evolution of hind wings in beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Strong intensification of the protective function of the fore wing in Coleoptera has made their flight apparatus a posteromotoric one and invited an apparatus responsible for folding the hindwings beneath the elytra to develop. Folding apparatus could hardly develop without higher deformability of veins or their parts, which diminished strength properties of the wing support. The effect was stressed by folds that intersected veins. Organization of the folds into a system confined this negative influence to a few wing regions and some veinal sections. This having happened, wing support and folding pattern evolved interrelated, the former into being more flexible, with no or minimum loss of rigidity, and the latter towards being less harmful for the supporting elements, especially axial ones. Monofunctionality, together with very simple structure and little specialization of constituent parts, made the folding pattern very labile during evolution. The folding pattern evolved more rapidly than wing venation, thus defining transformations of the latter. Evolutionary conservatism of wing venation stemmed from that many veins were strongly specialized in performing two conflicting functions. An adaptive compromise was necessary for the conflict to be solved, which determined the wing to orthogenetic development. The main evolutionary trends for wing venation and folding pattern were those towards simplification and a higher complexity, respectively. The beetle wing has passed through two main evolutionary stages. Among them, the first resulted in the development of the "Archostemata" wing type, the second started from the "cantharoid" structural plan. The main evolutionary factors were the infancies of wing posteromotorism at the first stage while the wing strongly influenced by size evolution, with the main trend towards miniaturization, at the second. The archostematan and "cantharoid" morphofunctional wing types differ fundamentally. In the wing of the former kind, folding and flight apparatus, because of considerably overlapping supporting systems, constitute a lasting coadaptive ensemble, with only minor deviations from the ground-plan occurring through evolution. The uprise of the "cantharoid" wing type was an upgrade of morpho-functional organization. The region of maximum transverse deformations having been extruded from the remigium basal part, chief supporting axes of the wing increased their rigid properties. The supporting systems of the two wing apparatus became more autonomous, having been separated. This expanded the adaptive zone for the wing strongly, which a great variety of derived wing types have emerged from. PMID:25508109

  10. Embryonic development of Zoraptera with special reference to external morphology, and its phylogenetic implications (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Yuta; Beutel, Rolf G; Dallai, Romano; Lee, Chow-Yang; Machida, Ryuichiro

    2014-03-01

    The embryonic development of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera) is described with the main focus on its external features. A small heart-shaped embryo is formed on the dorsal side of the egg by the fusion of paired blastoderm regions with higher cellular density. The orientation of its anteroposterior axis is opposed to that of the egg. This unusual condition shows the potential autapomorphy of Zoraptera. The embryo extends along the egg surface and after reaching its full length, it migrates into the yolk. After developing there for a period of time, it reappears on the surface, accompanied by a reversion of its anteroposterior axis, finally taking its position on the ventral side of the egg. The definitive dorsal closure completes, and the prelarva hatches after perforating the chorion with very long egg tooth formed on the embryonic cuticle. Embryological data suggest the placement of Zoraptera among the "lower neopteran" or polyneopteran lineage: features supporting this are embryo formation by the fusion of paired regions with higher cellular density and blastokinesis accompanied by full elongation of the embryo on the egg surface. The extraordinarily long egg tooth has potential synapomorphy with Embioptera or Eukinolabia (= Embioptera + Phasmatodea). Together with the results from our previous studies on the egg structure, male reproductive system and spermatozoa, the close affinity of Zoraptera with Eukinolabia appears likely, that is, a clade Zoraptera + (Embioptera + Phasmatodea).

  11. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species. PMID:22912691

  12. 18S rRNA secondary structure and phylogenetic position of Peloridiidae (Insecta, hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Ouvrard, D; Campbell, B C; Bourgoin, T; Chan, K L

    2000-09-01

    A secondary structure model for 18S rRNA of peloridiids, relict insects with a present-day circumantarctic distribution, is constructed using comparative sequence analysis, thermodynamic folding, a consensus method using 18S rRNA models of other taxa, and support of helices based on compensatory substitutions. Results show that probable in vivo configuration of 18S rRNA is not predictable using current free-energy models to fold the entire molecule concurrently. This suggests that refinements in free-energy minimization algorithms are needed. Molecular phylogenetic datasets were created using 18S rRNA nucleotide alignments produced by CLUSTAL and rigorous interpretation of homologous position based on certain secondary substructures. Phylogenetic analysis of a hemipteran data matrix of 18S rDNA sequences placed peloridiids sister to Heteroptera. Resolution of affiliations between the three main euhemipteran lineages was unresolved. The peloridiid 18S RNA model presented here provides the most accurate template to date for aligning homologous nucleotides of hemipteran taxa. Using folded 18S rRNA to infer homology of character as morpho-molecular structures or nucleotides and scoring particular sites or substructures is discussed. PMID:10991793

  13. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  14. Resin gathering in neotropical resin bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): functional and comparative morphology.

    PubMed

    Forero, Dimitri; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Weirauch, Christiane

    2011-02-01

    Apiomerini (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) collect plant resins with their forelegs and use these sticky substances for prey capture or maternal care. These behaviors have not been described in detail and morphological structures involved in resin gathering, transfer, and storage remain virtually undocumented. We here describe these behaviors in Apiomerus flaviventris and document the involved structures. To place them in a comparative context, we describe and document leg and abdominal structures in 14 additional species of Apiomerini that represent all but one of the 12 recent genera in the tribe. Based on these morphological data in combination with the behavioral observations on A. flaviventris, we infer behavioral and functional hypotheses for the remaining genera within the tribe Apiomerini. Setal abdominal patches for resin storage are associated with maternal care so far only documented for species of Apiomerus. Based on the occurrence of these patches in several other genera, we propose that maternal care is widespread within the tribe. Ventral abdominal glands are widespread within female Apiomerini. We propose that their products may prevent hardening of stored resins thus providing long-term supply for egg coating. Judging from the diverse setal types and arrangements on the front legs, we predict six different behavioral patterns of resin gathering within the tribe.

  15. Familial Clarification of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. and New Saucrosmylids from Daohugou, China (Insecta, Neuroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Ren, Dong; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Backgound Saucrosmylids are characterized by the typically large body size, complicated venation and diverse wing markings, which were only discovered in Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Ningcheng county, Inner Mongolia, China. Principal Findings Saucrosmylinae Ren, 2003, originally included as a subfamily in the Osmylidae, was transferred and elevated to family rank based on the definitive synapomorphic character. The updated definition of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. was outlined in detail: presence of nygma and trichosors; diverse markings on membrane; complicated cross-veins; distal fusion of Sc and R1; expanded space between R1 and Rs having 2–7 rows of cells that should be a synapomorphic character of the family; proximal MP fork. And the previous misuses of Saucrosmylidae are also clarified. Furthermore, a new genus with a new species and an indeterminate species of Saucrosmylidae are described as Ulrikezza aspoeckae gen. et sp. nov. and Ulrikezza sp. from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. A key to genera of Saucrosmylidae is provided. Conclusions/Significance The intriguing group represents a particular lineage of Neuroptera in the Mesozoic Era. The familial status of Saucrosmylidae was firstly advanced that clarified the former incorrect citation and use of the family name. As an extinct clade, many species of the saucrosmylids were erected just based on a single fore- or hindwing, and it should be realized that providing more stable characters is necessary when describing new lacewing taxa just based on an isolated hindwing. It is vital for the systematics of Saucrosmylidae. PMID:26485027

  16. Distinct Genetic Lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by COI and 16S DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I. Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The ‘p’ values are distinctly different from intraspecific ‘p’ distance (0–0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus – B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  17. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres (‘p’ = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the ‘p’ distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  18. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera) of the Guiana Shield

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dominic A.; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L.; Wilson, Megan M.; Ware, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics. PMID:25684997

  19. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  20. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9–20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis – the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–4.2 kb in size and has 2–6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago. PMID:26617060

  1. New records of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Higor D. D.; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New information New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella). PMID:27226754

  2. Catalog of Hymenoptera described by Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Penati, Fabio; Mariotti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) was an Italian civil engineer who described 377 new taxa of Hymenoptera, 199 of which are still valid and in use today, and proposed 6 replacement names. The present catalog provides a brief biography of Gribodo, a bibliography of his 42 publications and a complete list of the taxa proposed by Gribodo. The catalog lists, for all published names, details on the type series, type locality and collector, present status based on literature, all data labels, relevant references and remarks. A gazetteer of type-localities, a systematical list of Genus- and Species-group names, a chronological list of new names proposed by Giovanni Gribodo, with name-bearing types, and a list of Algerian species and varieties are also given. Furthermore, an unpublished manuscript by Gribodo on hymenopterological fauna of Tunisia, still kept at the Civic Museum of Natural History "Giacomo Doria" (Genoa, Italy), is described, and data on the 57 "new" taxa therein listed are reported, discussing their relevance in order to ascertain the original type series of 27 taxa validly published later. Finally, the problem posed by the enigmatic "disappearance" of a large number of Algerian types, already faced by several entomologists in the past, is analyzed, in order to prevent future mistaken designations of lectotypes and neotypes. The following six nomenclatural acts are proposed here by R. Wahis: Hemipepsis sycophanta Gribodo, 1884 = Hemipepsis bellicosa (Smith, 1873) new synonym; Anospilus sulcithorax (Gribodo, 1924) new combination; Auplopus validus (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Dichragenia quartinae (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Diplonyx caesar (Gribobo, 1894) new combination; Paracyphononyx melanicrus Gribodo, 1884 status revalidated (resurrected from synonymy with Pompilus ruficrus Klug, 1834). The following four nomenclatural acts are proposed by F. Penati: Parachrysis Gribodo, 1879 [subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus] = Chrysis Linnaeus, 1760 new synonym; Psammotherma (Mutilla) quartinae Gribodo, 1884 = Psammotherma flabellata (Fabricius, 1804) new synonym; Megascolia (Regiscolia) alecto (Smith, 1858) subspecies vespillo (Gribodo, 1893) new combination; Megachile (Megachile) moutoni Gribodo, 1894 emendated name. PMID:25781809

  3. Thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) of Iran: a revised and updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555

  4. Two new genera and two new species of Mantophasmatodea (Insecta, Polyneoptera) from Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Predel, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species and two new genera (Pachyphasma, Striatophasma) of Mantophasmatodea are described from Namibia. Pachyphasma brandbergense is endemic to the Brandberg massif; Striatophasma occupies an extensive area south of the region inhabited by Mantophasma. Phylogenetic analyses (see Predel et al. in press) suggest a sistergroup relationship of Striatophasma and the South African Austrophasmatidae. PMID:22328860

  5. A new species of sucking louse (Insecta, Anoplura) parasitic on Auliscomys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Castro, D D; Gonzalez, A; Dreon, M

    2001-04-01

    Hoplopleura auliscomydis n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from Auliscomys micropus (Waterhouse 1837), from Collń Curá, Neuquén Province, Argentina. Descriptions are provided for the holotype male, female, first nymphal instar, external architecture of eggs (by scanning electron microscopy), and sites of oviposition, providing differences from its close relative Hoplopleura neotomydis Castro, González, and Cicchino, 1995. The geographical ranges of these 2 species are restricted to the Neuquén Province in Argentina. A key to the 9 species of the Hoplopleura travassosi species-group recorded in Argentina is also given.

  6. Immunolocalization of odorant-binding proteins in noctuid moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Maida, R; Steinbrecht, R A

    2001-09-01

    Odorant-binding proteins were studied in the noctuid moths Agrotis segetum, Autographa gamma, Helicoverpa armigera, Heliothis virescens and Spodoptera littoralis using antisera raised against the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding protein 2 (GOBP2) of Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae). Proteins immunoreacting with these antisera were only found on the antennae and PBP and GOBP2 could be identified on western blots of males and females of all five species. PBPs were predominantly localized in sensilla trichodea and GOBP2 in sensilla basiconica, in good correlation with the stimulus specificity of the receptor cells in these sensilla. In H. armigera and H. virescens the majority of the s. trichodea immunoreacted with the antiserum against PBP of A. polyphemus; in A. segetum, A. gamma and S. littoralis, on the other hand, a high percentage of s. trichodea remained unlabelled. Probably, the PBP expressed in these sensilla is so different that it does not immunoreact with the antiserum used. Such a protein was found by native PAGE of antennal extracts of A. segetum and S. littoralis. These data correlate with the fact that the two heliothine species use pheromones with the same alkyl chain length as A. polyphemus, while the other three species use pheromones with shorter chains. In H. armigera, H. virescens, A. gamma and S. littoralis female antennae were also immunolabelled and a large number of PBP-expressing s. trichodea was consistently found. In S.littoralis this fits with the electrophysiologically recorded high pheromone sensitivity of female s. trichodea, whereas in females of H. armigera and H. virescens no or only weak responses to pheromone stimulation have been reported. Therefore, PBP expression in a sensillum does not necessarily imply pheromone sensitivity of its receptor cells. PMID:11555483

  7. An Extraordinary Host-Specific Sex Ratio in an Avian Louse (Phthiraptera: Insecta)--Chemical Distortion?

    PubMed

    Douglas, H D; Malenke, J R

    2015-08-01

    Distortions of sex ratios and sexual traits from synthetic chemicals have been well documented; however, there is little evidence for such phenomena associated with naturally occurring chemical exposures. We reasoned that chemical secretions of vertebrates could contribute to skewed sex ratios in ectoparasitic insects due to differences in susceptibility among the sexes. For example, among ectoparasitic lice the female is generally the larger sex. Smaller males may be more susceptible to chemical effects. We studied sex ratios of lice on two sympatric species of colonial seabirds. Crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) secrete a strong smelling citrus-like odorant composed of aldehydes while a closely related congener the least auklet (Aethia pusilla) lacks these compounds. Each auklet hosts three species of lice, two of which are shared in common. We found that the sex ratio of one louse species, Quadraceps aethereus (Giebel), was highly skewed on crested auklets 1:69 (males: females), yet close to unity on least auklets (1:0.97). We suggest that a host-specific effect contributes to this difference, such as the crested auklet's chemical odorant.

  8. Parasitism underground: lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) along its coastal distribution in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martino, Natalia S; Romero, Mariano D; Malizia, Ana I

    2014-03-01

    Species of South American subterranean rodents belonging to the genus Ctenomys (commonly called tuco-tucos) are widely distributed across the southern Neotropical region. Despite their relatively well-studied biology and reproductive physiology, current knowledge of their ectoparasite fauna is limited to a few ambiguous studies, based on scattered samples from a small number of host individuals. Ctenomys talarum is the most widely distributed species in the genus. Lice (Phthiraptera) were collected from these tuco-tucos throughout their entire coastal range. Two species, one chewing louse (Gyropus parvus), and one sucking louse (Eulinognathus americanus) were collected. The distribution ranges for both louse species were extended with new locality records. No lice were found in two host populations. Furthermore, co-occurrence of both ectoparasites was not detected.

  9. Changes in base composition bias of nuclear and mitochondrial genes in lice (Insecta: Psocodea).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P

    2013-12-01

    While it is well known that changes in the general processes of molecular evolution have occurred on a variety of timescales, the mechanisms underlying these changes are less well understood. Parasitic lice ("Phthiraptera") and their close relatives (infraorder Nanopsocetae of the insect order Psocodea) are a group of insects well known for their unusual features of molecular evolution. We examined changes in base composition across parasitic lice and bark lice. We identified substantial differences in percent GC content between the clade comprising parasitic lice plus closely related bark lice (=Nanopsocetae) versus all other bark lice. These changes occurred for both nuclear and mitochondrial protein coding and ribosomal RNA genes, often in the same direction. To evaluate whether correlations in base composition change also occurred within lineages, we used phylogenetically controlled comparisons, and in this case few significant correlations were identified. Examining more constrained sites (first/second codon positions and rRNA) revealed that, in comparison to the other bark lice, the GC content of parasitic lice and close relatives tended towards 50 % either up from less than 50 % GC or down from greater than 50 % GC. In contrast, less constrained sites (third codon positions) in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes showed less of a consistent change of base composition in parasitic lice and very close relatives. We conclude that relaxed selection on this group of insects is a potential explanation of the change in base composition for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, which could lead to nucleotide frequencies closer to random expectation (i.e., 50 % GC) in the absence of any mutation bias. Evidence suggests this relaxed selection arose once in the non-parasitic common ancestor of Phthiraptera + Nanopsocetae and is not directly related to the evolution of the parasitism in lice.

  10. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan

    2015-11-30

    Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago.

  11. An annotated checklist of parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from the Galápagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Palma, Ricardo L; Peck, Stewart B

    2013-01-01

    We list all described species and subspecies of parasitic lice from the Galápagos Islands, based on literature and specimen records. A total of eight families, 47 genera, and 104 species and subspecies of parasitic lice are listed, of which 26 are new species records and eight are new genus records. Also, we report 17 new host-louse associations. The checklist includes 17 endemic species (16 from birds, one from a mammal), 79 native species and subspecies (78 from birds, one from a mammal), and eight species and subspecies (five from birds, three from mammals) introduced by human agency. Nine species assigned in error to the Galápagos Islands in the literature are discussed and deleted from the fauna. For each valid species and subspecies we give information on its taxonomic history, type material, host associations, geographic distribution, biogeographical status, systematic relationships, and relevant literature references. We also give a brief summary of louse biology, and an account of the history of louse collecting, expeditions, collections, and research relating to Galápagos Islands lice. We include a host-parasite list, and a list of hosts which breed in the Galápagos Islands but without lice recorded from them. Also, we formally designate four lectotypes from the Kellogg Collection.

  12. Comparisons of host specificity in feather louse genera (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) parasitizing gulls (Aves: Laridae: Larus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species.

  13. Extraordinary number of gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of lice (Phthiraptera: Insecta).

    PubMed

    Covacin, C; Shao, R; Cameron, S; Barker, S C

    2006-02-01

    The arrangement of genes in the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of most insects is the same, or near-identical, to that inferred to be ancestral for insects. We sequenced the entire mt genome of the small pigeon louse, Campanulotes bidentatus compar, and part of the mt genomes of nine other species of lice. These species were from six families and the three main suborders of the order Phthiraptera. There was no variation in gene arrangement among species within a family but there was much variation in gene arrangement among the three suborders of lice. There has been an extraordinary number of gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of lice!

  14. The Chewing Lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) Fauna of the Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (Aves, Parulidae).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Reiley, Bryan M

    2015-09-01

    We examined Swainson's warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834), Aves: Parulidae) for lice fauna during 2 yr at three study sites in Arkansas, USA. A total of 66 individuals were examined; eight birds (10.6%) were parasitized with 16 lice of two new species belonging to two genera Myrsidea Waterson, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Parasitological parameter data are given on the prevalence of lice on Swainson's warblers. Species descriptions and illustrations are provided for Myrsidea bensoni sp. nov. and Brueelia limnothlypiae sp. nov.; including a key for females of the genus Myrsidea that parasitize Parulidae (Passeriformes).

  15. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  16. Contribution to the knowledge of Turkish stoneflies with annotated catalogue (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Darilmaz, Mustafa Cemal; Salur, Ali; Murányi, Dávid; Vinçon, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The stoneflies of Turkey are reviewed providing all known distributions and including new records. Additionally, ecological and biogeographical notes are given. The genus Taeniopteryx Pictet 1841 is reported from Turkey for the first time and 12 species new for the Turkish fauna: Leuctra joosti Braasch 1970, L. kopetdaghi Zhiltzova 1972, Protonemura rauschi Theischinger 1975, P. strandschaensis Braasch & Joost 1972, Nemoura asceta Murányi 2007, N. cambrica Stephens 1836, N. uncinata Despax 1934, Taeniopteryx caucasica Zhiltzova 1981, Brachyptera risi (Morton 1896), Pontoperla katherinae (Balinsky 1950), Siphonoperla neglecta (Rostock 1881), and Bulgaroperla mirabilis nigrita Zwick 1978.          Protonemura bithynica Aubert 1964 and Nemoura turcica Zwick 1972 are recognized as full species. The previously unknown female of Leuctra marilouae Vinçon & Sivec 2001 is described. The type locality is also given for each species located in Turkey.          The distributions of several rare endemic species are augmented by additional new records (Leuctra aculeata Zwick 1982, L. brachyptera Kazancı 1985, L. karcali Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. kurui Kazancı 1983, L. marilouae Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. sipahilerae Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. theischingeri Vinçon & Sivec 2001, Protonemura bacurianica bacurianica Zhiltzova 1957, P. oreas Martynov 1928, P. spinulata Martynov 1928 (first confirmed records from Anatolia), P. triangulata Martynov 1928, Nemoura dromokeryx Theischinger 1976, N. martynovia Claassen 1936, and Brachyptera berkii Kazancı 2001.          Several species previously reported only from females are excluded from the Turkish fauna: Leuctra minuta minuta Zhiltzova 1960, L. svanetica Zhiltzova 1960, P. dilatata Martynov 1928. Other species are also excluded from the Turkish fauna: L. fusca fusca (Linnaeus 1758), N. carpathica Illies 1963, Siphonoperla burmeisteri (Pictet 1841), and S. libanica Alouf, 1992.          According to literature and our new faunistic data, 117 stonefly taxa representing 7 families and 24 genera are known from Turkey. Among them, 44 are endemic species from Anatolia. PMID:27395953

  17. Head anatomy of adult Sisyra terminalis (Insecta: Neuroptera: Sisyridae)--functional adaptations and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Randolf, Susanne; Zimmermann, Dominique; Aspöck, Ulrike

    2013-11-01

    The external and internal head anatomy of Sisyra terminalis is described in detail and compared with data from literature. A salivary pump consisting of a peculiar reservoir and a hitherto unknown muscle, M. ductus salivarii, is newly described for Neuroptera. The upward folded paraglossae form a secondary prolongation of the salivary system. These structures are discussed as functional adaptations for feeding on aphids and desiccated honeydew. In a phylogenetic analysis the basal position of the Sisyridae within Neuroptera is retrieved. The following new synapomorphies are postulated: (1) for Neuropterida, the presence of a M. submentomentalis and prepharyngeal ventral transverse muscles, and the absence of a M. submentopraementalis; (2) for Neuroptera and Sialidae, the presence of a mandibular gland; (3) for Neuroptera, the presence of four scapopedicellar muscles; (4) for Neuroptera exclusive Nevrorthidae and Sisyridae, the weakening of dorsal tentorial arms, the presence of a M. tentoriomandibularis medialis superior and the shifted origin of M. tentoriocardinalis.

  18. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    PubMed

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed.

  19. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5–9) serrated, lateral spines on S6–9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6–7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6–9 serrate, lateral spines on S7–9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7–9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water’s edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva.

  20. Re-Visiting Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Relationships in the Genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species. PMID:22912691

  1. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species.

  2. A new type of ant-decapitation in the Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Giar-Ann; Porras, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Dohrniphora is a hyperdiverse group of phorid flies, a family whose species are commonly characterized as generalized scavengers. The lifestyle of most species of Dohrniphora is unknown, although one cosmopolitan, synanthropic species, D. cornuta (Bigot) fits the general scavenger mold. Here we show that flies of the D. longirostrata species group exhibit highly specific “headhunting” behavior in which injured Odontomachus ants are decapitated, the heads dragged away, and females either feed on their contents or lay an egg nearby. Since most females studied lacked eggs in their ovaries, we conclude that this bizarrely specialized feeding is necessary to provide nutrients for reproduction in these flies. Our study provides further evidence that injured ants are a common, stable resource in tropical ecosystems that support a wide array of phorid flies. Such narrowly constrained lifestyles, as exemplified by exclusively feeding on and breeding in the head contents of certain ponerine worker ants, could allow the co-existence of a huge community of saprophagous flies. PMID:25709534

  3. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)). PMID:24883360

  4. Checklist of the Diptera superfamilies Tephritoidea and Sciomyzoidea of Finland (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A revised checklist of the flies of superfamilies Tephritoidea and Sciomyzoidea of Finland is provided. The following families are covered: Eurygnathomyiidae, Lonchaeidae, Neottiophilidae, Pallopteridae, Piophilidae, Platystomatidae, Tephritidae, Ulidiidae (Tephritoidea); Coelopidae, Dryomyzidae, Heterocheilidae, Phaeomyiidae, Sciomyzidae, Sepsidae (Sciomyzoidea). PMID:25337022

  5. Barcoding Bugs: DNA-Based Identification of the True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Doo-Sang; Foottit, Robert; Maw, Eric; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding, the analysis of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene, has been shown to provide an efficient method for the identification of species in a wide range of animal taxa. In order to assess the effectiveness of barcodes in the discrimination of Heteroptera, we examined 344 species belonging to 178 genera, drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 90% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 3% in 77% of congeneric species pairs. Instances where barcodes fail to distinguish species represented clusters of morphologically similar species, except one case of barcode identity between species in different genera. Several instances of deep intraspecific divergence were detected suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusions/Significance Although this analysis encompasses 0.8% of the described global fauna, our results indicate that DNA barcodes will aid the identification of Heteroptera. This advance will be useful in pest management, regulatory and environmental applications and will also reveal species that require further taxonomic research. PMID:21526211

  6. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary. PMID:26694371

  7. An enigmatic new stick insect from the Philippine Islands (Insecta: Phasmatodea).

    PubMed

    Gottardo, Marco; Heller, Philipp

    2012-09-01

    A new genus and species of stick insect is described and figured from Mount Halcon, on the Philippine island of Mindoro. Conlephasma enigma gen. et sp. n. is a stout, flightless, and apparently ground-dwelling species with vivid integumental colors. When disturbed, specimens spray a defensive secretion from the prothoracic exocrine glands. The systematic position of Conlephasma within Euphasmatodea is unclear. The elongated galealobulus and the trichome area located laterally in the galea, represent unusual apomorphic characters of the maxilla that could indicate affinities with Necrosciinae or Pseudophasmatinae. All tibiae exhibit the anareolate condition. Euplantulae are of two types: those of tarsomeres I-IV feature a nubby microstructure, whilst the one on the ventral side of the pretarsus is smooth. Males are characterized by the presence of a well-developed vomer on the tenth abdominal segment. A distinctive and apomorphic trait of female terminalia is represented by the elongated tenth abdominal tergum. Conlephasma can represent an interesting taxon for studies on the evolution of the stick and leaf insects.

  8. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-12-17

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary.

  9. The Hemiptera (Insecta) of Canada: Constructing a Reference Library of DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, H. Eric L.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided. PMID:25923328

  10. MOSCHweb - a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; Lopresti, Massimo; Giovanni, Filippo Di

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an original interactive key web application for the identification of Palaearctic Tachinidae genera. The full list of terminal taxa included in the key, which is the most updated list of genera currently recorded for the Palaearctic Region, is given. We also briefly discuss the need for dealing with detailed and standardized taxa descriptions as a base to keep matrix-based interactive tools easily updated, by proposing a standardized protocol.

  11. Arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. III. Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the third in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 54 species of Heteroptera, 11 of which were new state records for Arkansas: (Aradidae) Aradus approximatus, Aradus duzeei, Aradus ornatus, Neuroctenus elongatus, Neuroctenus pseudonymus, Notapictinus aurivilli; (Cydnidae) Sehirus cinctus; (Lygaeidae) Nysius raphanus; (Miridae) Prepops insitivus; (Reduviidae) Zelus tetracanthus; (Rhyparochromidae) Kolenetrus plenus. PMID:27346950

  12. Revision of the Neotropical bark mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 (Insecta, Mantodea, Liturgusini).

    PubMed

    Svenson, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    The praying mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 occurs only in Central and South America and represents the most diverse genus of Neotropical Liturgusini (Ehrmann 2002). The genus includes bark dwelling species, which live entirely on the trunks and branches of trees and run extremely fast. All species included within the genus Liturgusa are comprehensively revised with a distribution stretching from central Mexico, the island of Dominica to the southeastern regions of Brazil and southern Bolivia. All known species are redescribed to meet the standards of the new treatment of the genus (11 species). Three new genera are described including Fuga gen. n., Velox gen. n., and Corticomantis gen. n. for species previously included in Liturgusa as well as Hagiomantis. Liturgusa mesopoda Westwood, 1889 is moved to within the previously described genus Hagiomantis Audinet Serville, 1838. A total of 19 species are newly described within Liturgusa, Fuga, and Velox including L. algorei sp. n., L. bororum sp. n., L. cameroni sp. n., L. cura sp. n., L. dominica sp. n., L. fossetti sp. n., L. kirtlandi sp. n., L. krattorum sp. n., L. manausensis sp. n., L. maroni sp. n., L. milleri sp. n., L. neblina sp. n., L. purus sp. n., L. stiewei sp. n., L. tessae sp. n., L. trinidadensis sp. n., L. zoae sp. n., F. grimaldii sp. n., and V. wielandi sp. n. Four species names are synonymized: Liturgusa peruviana Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889 and Hagiomantis parva Piza, 1966, syn. n., Liturgusa sinvalnetoi Piza, 1982, syn. n., and Liturgusa parva Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Mantis annulipes Audinet Serville, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for the following two species: Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894 and Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838). A male neotype is designated for Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939. Males for eight species are described for the first time including Liturgusa cayennensis Saussure, 1869, Liturgusa lichenalis Gerstaecker, 1889, Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939, Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894, Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889, Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838), Corticomantis atricoxata (Beier, 1931), and Hagiomantis mesopoda (Westwood, 1889). The female of Fuga fluminensis (Piza, 1965) is described for the first time. Complete bibliographic histories are provided for previously described species. The spelling confusion surrounding Liturgusa/Liturgousa is resolved. Full habitus images for males and females are provided for nearly all species. Habitus and label images of type specimens are provided when possible. Diagnostic illustrations of the head and pronotum for males and females are provided for all species when possible. Illustrations of male genital structures are provided for all species for which males are known. Measurement data, including ranges and averages, are provided for males and females of all species. Combined male and female genus and species level dichotomous keys are provided with a Spanish translation. A complete table of all examined specimens lists label data, museum codes, repositories, and other specimen specific information. A KML file with all georeferenced locality records is downloadable from mantodearesearch.com for viewing in Google Earth. Natural history information is provided for species observed by the author. PMID:24715776

  13. Some taxonomic and nomenclatural changes in American Mantodea (Insecta, Dictyoptera)--Part I.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Antonio A; Rivera, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Multiple nomenclatural problems persist in mantodean taxonomy. This constitutes an important challenge for praying mantis systematics, its forthcoming development and future consolidation. In this first contribution, we attempt solving a number of issues involving mostly Neotropical praying mantis species described by Brazilian entomologists Paulo S. Terra, Cândido F. de Mello-Leitão, Salvador de Toledo Piza Junior and Lauro J. Jantsch. We provide evidence to justify the following nomenclatural changes. In Acanthopidae, Acontiothespis travassosi Jantsch, 1986 is a new synonym of Raptrix perspicua (F. 1787). Changes in Thespidae are: Emboicy Terra, 1982 is a new synonym of Chloromiopteryx Giglio-Tos, 1915, E. mirim Terra, 1982 is transferred to Chloromiopteryx as C. mirim (Terra, 1982) (new combination); Musoniola plurilobata Mello-Leitão, 1937 is transferred to Chloromiopteryx as C. plurilobata (Mello-Leitão, 1937) (new combination); Metathespis modesta Piza, 1968 is removed from synonymy with Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838) and considered valid as C. modesta (Piza, 1968) (new combination and status revalidated); Metathespis precaria Piza, 1968 is removed from synonymy with Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838) and considered a new synonym of Miobantia rustica (Fabricius, 1781); Eumiopteryx magna Jantsch, 1991 is transferred to Anamiopteryx as A. magna (Jantsch, 1991) (new combination). For Mantidae/Amelinae, Tithrone corseuli Jantsch, 1986 and T. clauseni Jantsch, 1995 are new synonyms of Litaneutria minor (Scudder, 1872); in Mantidae/Photininae Coptopteryx gigliotosi Piza, 1960 (non Werner, 1925), its replacement name Coptopteryx ermannoi Jantsch & Corseuil, 1988 and Paraphotina precaria Piza, 1966 (the latter currently placed within Coptopteryx) are all new synonyms of Coptopteryx argentina (Burmeister, 1838), whereas Brachypteromantis bonariensis Piza 1960 (currently placed among Coptopteryx) is a new synonym of Coptopteryx gayi (Blanchard, 1851); Tithrone major Piza, 1962 is transferred to Orthoderella as O. major (Piza, 1962) (new combination); Orthoderella brasiliensis Roy & Stiewe, 2011 is a new synonym of Orthoderella major (Piza, 1962); Tithrone catharinensis Piza, 1962 is a new synonym of Photina vitrea (Burmeister, 1838); Margaromantis Piza, 1982, Rehniella Lombardo, 1999, Colombiella Koçak & Kemal, 2008 and Lombardoa Özdikmen, 2008 are all new synonyms of Photiomantis Piza, 1968 (status revalidated); Metriomantis planicephala Rehn 1916 is transferred to Photiomantis as P. planicephala (Rehn, 1916) (new combination) and Photiomantis silvai Piza, 1968 is considered a new synonym of Photiomantis planicephala (Rehn, 1916);  Margaromantis nigrolineata Menezes & Bravo, 2015 is transferred to Photiomantis as P. nigrolineata (Menezes & Bravo, 2015) (new combination). In Mantidae/Vatinae, Uromantis amazonica Jantsch, 1985 and Uromantis paraensis Jantsch, 1985 (currently placed among Stagmomantis), are new synonyms of Chopardiella latipennis (Chopard, 1911), while Pseudovates hyalostigma Mello-Leitão, 1937 and Vates obscura Toledo Piza, 1983 are new synonyms of V. biplagiata Sjöstedt, 1930. Lectotypes are designated for Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838) and Orthoderella major (Piza, 1962). Finally, we provide supplementary information about the works of S. de T. Piza and L. J. Jantsch, and a necessary critical assessment of their taxonomic contributions to the Mantodea. PMID:25947440

  14. A new species of Dystacta Saussure, 1871 from Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda (Insecta, Mantodea, Dystactinae).

    PubMed

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    A recent targeted entomological survey in the Republic of Rwanda has produced two conspecific male and female specimens of an undescribed species of praying mantis (Mantodea). The specimens were collected in Nyungwe National Park in May of 2013. The species is closest morphologically to Dystacta alticeps (Schaum, 1853). Therefore, a new species is described, Dystacta tigrifrutex sp. n., along with the first instar nymphs and ootheca. In addition, the previously monotypic genus Dystacta Saussure, 1871 is re-described to provide a broader definition of the genus group. Habitus images, measurement data, a key to species, natural history information, and locality data are provided. PMID:24899847

  15. A new species of Dystacta Saussure, 1871 from Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda (Insecta, Mantodea, Dystactinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A recent targeted entomological survey in the Republic of Rwanda has produced two conspecific male and female specimens of an undescribed species of praying mantis (Mantodea). The specimens were collected in Nyungwe National Park in May of 2013. The species is closest morphologically to Dystacta alticeps (Schaum, 1853). Therefore, a new species is described, Dystacta tigrifrutex sp. n., along with the first instar nymphs and ootheca. In addition, the previously monotypic genus Dystacta Saussure, 1871 is re-described to provide a broader definition of the genus group. Habitus images, measurement data, a key to species, natural history information, and locality data are provided. PMID:24899847

  16. Arthropod fauna of rolled alder leaves in Washington State, United States of America (Insecta: Arachnida)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...

  17. Vastarena, a new genus for the New Caledonian cicada Abroma pumila Distant (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Delorme, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    In New Caledonia, the species Abroma pumila (Distant, 1892) shows several incompatibilities with the genus type species A. guerinii (Signoret, 1860). A new genus, Vastarena, is proposed. PMID:27615969

  18. Digestive enzyme activity of two stonefly species (Insecta, Plecoptera) and their feeding habits.

    PubMed

    de Figueroa, J M Tierno; Trenzado, C E; López-Rodríguez, M J; Sanz, A

    2011-11-01

    The digestive enzymes of two stoneflies species, Hemimelaena flaviventris and Isoperla morenica, were studied for the first time. These species are temporary water inhabitants and exhibit great feeding plasticity. Although they are traditionally referred to as predators, a previous study revealed that H. flaviventris incorporates some diatoms into its diet in addition to feeding usually on several prey, and I. morenica (in that study under the name of I. curtata) only feeds on animals occasionally. The enzymatic activities of digestive amylase, lipase, protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin were determined for each species at the same developmental stage. The results show that H. flaviventris has a greater digestive enzymatic pool and higher relative and absolute protease, lipase and trypsin activities than I. morenica. The latter has a relative higher amylase activity. As higher amylase activity is typical of phytophagous species and higher protease activity typical of carnivorous species; these results reveal that H. flaviventris is a more efficient zoophagous species than I. morenica. The ecological implications of these findings, including the higher secondary production of H. flaviventris in its habitat, are discussed.

  19. Ultrastructure and Morphology of Compound Eyes of the Scorpionfly Panorpa dubia (Insecta: Mecoptera: Panorpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Xiao; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Mecoptera are unique in holometabolous insects in that their larvae have compound eyes. In the present study the cellular organisation and morphology of the compound eyes of adult individuals of the scorpionfly Panorpa dubia in Mecoptera were investigated by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the compound eyes of adult P. dubia are of the apposition type, each eye comprising more than 1200 ommatidia. The ommatidium consists of a cornea, a crystalline cone made up of four cone cells, eight photoreceptors, two primary pigment cells, and 18 secondary pigment cells. The adult ommatidium has a fused rhabdom with eight photoreceptors. Seven photoreceptors extend from the proximal end of the crystalline cone to the basal matrix, whereas the eighth photoreceptor is shorter, extending from the middle level of the photoreceptor cluster to the basal matrix. The fused rhabdom is composed of the rhabdomeres of different photoreceptors at different levels. The adult ommatidia have the same cellular components as the larval ommatidia, but the tiering scheme is different. PMID:27258365

  20. The complete mitogenome of the Cydno Longwing Heliconius cydno (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Qian, Zeng-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the Cydno Longwing Heliconius cydno has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The circular genome is 15,367 bp in length, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. PCGs are mostly initiated with the ATN codons (COII, COIII, Cytb, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, ND6, ATP6 & ATP8), except for the ND1 and COI genes with TTG and the unusual CGA as their initiation codons, respectively. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND3) or incomplete termination codon T (COI, COII & ND4), while all the others use TAA as their termination codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.3% A, 42.1% T, 7.6% G, 11.0% C) with an overall GC content of 18.6%.

  1. Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

  2. Grasshoppers, Crickets and Katydids (Insecta: Orthoptera) of Cuba: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Yong, Sheyla; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2014-07-07

    An annotated list of the Cuban fauna of Orthoptera is presented. For each species we include details of valid names, synonyms, type specimens (type category, sex, locality and depository), geographic distribution and bibliographic references. Clarifying notes are added, as well as comments on the species considered doubtful. A total of 140 species included in 62 genera, 31 subfamilies and 12 families make up the known Cuban fauna of Orthoptera. The family Episactidae, the acridid subfamily Ommatolampidinae with 3 unknown genera, 3 unknown genera of Tettigoniidae (Conocephalinae) and 1 undescribed new genus of Tetrigidae (Cladonotinae) are here recorded for the first time from Cuba. Syntypes are designated for Hygronemobius histrionicus Zayas.

  3. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Lucas D; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C S; Waichel, Breno L

    2016-01-14

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea.

  4. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas) are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas]), found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA) of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families). Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies) in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained) was supported by statistical tests of codiversification. Codiversification tests also supported concordance of the Sulcia phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts, as well as concordance of planthopper-associated Vidania and Sulcia phylogenies. Conclusions Our results indicate that the Betaproteobacterium Vidania is an ancient endosymbiont that infected the common ancestor of Fulgoroidea at least 130 million years ago. Comparison of our findings with the early light-microscopic surveys conducted by Müller suggests that Vidania is Müller’s x-symbiont, which he hypothesized to have codiversified with most lineages of planthoppers and with the Sulcia endosymbiont. PMID:22697166

  5. Distribution of chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) in polluted rivers of the Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; HassanAhmad, Abu; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical parameters on the abundance and diversity of chironomids was studied in six rivers with moderate to highly polluted water in the Juru River Basin. The rivers: Ceruk Tok Kun (CTKR) as reference site, and polluted rivers of Pasir (PR), Juru (JR), Permatang Rawa (PRR), Ara (AR) and Kilang Ubi (KUR) were sampled over a period of five months (November 2007-March 2008). Nine chirnomid species: Chironimus kiiensis, C. javanus, Polypedilum trigonus, Microchironomus sp., Dicrotendipes sp., Tanytarsus formosanus, Clinotanypus sp., Tanypus punctipennis and Fittkauimyia sp. were identified. Assessment of their relationships with several environmental parameters was performed using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Tanytarsus formosanus was the most dominant in the relatively clean CTKR and moderately polluted JR with mean densities of 19.66 and 25.32 m(-2), respectively while C. kiiensis was abundant in more polluted rivers. Tanytarsus formosanus, Dicrotendipes sp. and Microchironomus sp. were grouped under moderate to high water temperature, total organic matter (TOM), total suspended solids (TSS), velocity, pH, phosphates and sulphates. However, Tanypus punctipennis, Fittkauimyia sp., and Clinotanypus sp. were associated with high contents of river sediment such as TOM, Zn and Mn and water ammonium-N and nitrate-N and they were associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the water. Chironomus kiiensis, C. javanus and P. trigonus showed positive relationships with TOM, ammonium-N and nitrate-N as well as trace metals of Zn, Cu and Mn. These three species could be considered as tolerant species since they have the ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions with low DO and high concentrations of pollutants. Based on the water parameter scores in all rivers, the highest diversity of chironomid larvae was reported in CTKR. With higher concentrations of organic and/or inorganic pollutants as reported in PPR, KUR and AR, the chironomid larval diversity decreased, and the abundance of tolerant species, mainly Chironomus spp., increased.

  6. Exposure to Exogenous Enkephalins Disrupts Reproductive Development in the Eastern Lubber Grasshopper, Romalea microptera (Insecta: Orthoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju; Song, Hojun; von Kalm, Laurence; Borst, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Enkephalins play a major role in reproductive physiology in crustaceans; however their role in reproductive development in insects is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of exposure to exogenous leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk), methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk), and the opioid antagonist naloxone on gonad development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera. Injection of either Leu-Enk or naloxone alone significantly increased the testicular index and testicular follicular diameter in males, and the ovarian index, oocyte length, and oocyte diameter in females. In contrast, injection of Met-Enk inhibited all measures of reproductive development in both sexes. Surprisingly, co-injection of naloxone with either enkephalin enhanced the effect associated with administration of the enkephalin alone. This study clearly demonstrates the ability of enkephalins to disrupt insect sexual development and also suggests the existence of conserved enkephaline-dependent regulatory mechanisms in insects and crustaceans. PMID:23226477

  7. The histology of the cerebral neurosecretory system in several representatives of Cleroidea (Coleoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    1989-01-01

    In Thymalus sp. (Peltidae), Melambia tekkensi (Trogositidae), Trichodes apiarius and Thanasimus formicarius (Cleridae), the composition of cerebral neurosecretory cells (NSC) is similar to that found earlier in Meloidae (Panov 1985a) and Tenebrionidae (Melnikova and Panov 1981; Melnikova 1983). 20 type I NSCs, 16 type II NSCs, 4 type III NSCs, several type IV NSCs and 4 type V NSCs are characteristic of their pars intercerebralis. On the other hand, a reduction of type I and II NSC number to 10 and 12 cells, respectively, was revealed in Malachius affinis, Malachius viridis and Malachius bipustulatus (Melyridae). There are 6 large dorsolateral NSCs and 2 lateral ones in each brain hemisphere of most Cleroidea studied. Their retrocerebral endocrine complex is similar to that of most polyphagous coleopterans: a single nervus corporis cardiaci leaves each brain side, the corpora cardiaca are fused with lateral aorta walls and corresponding corpora allata. PMID:2723412

  8. Intraspecific transfer of cantharidin within selected members of the family Meloidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood Reza; Dettner, Konrad; Boland, Wilhelm; Gäde, Gerd; Dötterl, Steffan

    2007-09-01

    The use of deuterium-labelled cantharidin (CAN-D(2)) to study details of cantharidin transfer in blister beetles indicates that the dynamics of organ-selective cantharidin accumulation may differ over time. Although the accessory glands absorb a high amount of CAN-D(2) in the short term, they ultimately accumulate less than the testes. Confirming previous studies, the last steps in the pathway of biosynthesis of cantharidin occur in the male's body distantly from the reproductive system but the ultimate product, cantharidin, is transported into the male reproductive tract via the membrane of the accessory glands. From there it first transfers preferentially to the epididimis and the vas deferens, followed by final deposition in the testes. Most, if not all, of the cantharidin passes internally within the sexual organs; hemolymph transport is not involved. In female meloids, cantharidin enters the genitalia from the male as a nuptial gift. High amounts are first absorbed by the spermatophoral receptacle followed by spreading through the ovaries and an ultimate accumulation in the eggs. The amount taken up by the ovaries remains considerably lower than that of the receptacle. Over time these two organs stop accumulating cantharidin, while the bursa copulatrix starts to incorporate the gift actively. The accumulated amount taken up by bursa is mainly supplied by the receptacle and ovaries suggesting that an internal transfer of cantharidin is used in females as the main transport route. PMID:17493632

  9. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Lucas D; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C S; Waichel, Breno L

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261

  10. Rampant Nuclear Insertion of mtDNA across Diverse Lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J.; Whiting, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies. PMID:25333882

  11. Aligned 18S for Zoraptera (Insecta): phylogenetic position and molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P

    2005-11-01

    The order Zoraptera (angel insects) is one of the least known insect groups, containing only 32 extant species. The phylogenetic position of Zoraptera is poorly understood, but it is generally thought to be closely related to either Paraneoptera (hemipteroid orders: booklice, lice, thrips, and bugs), Dictyoptera (blattoid orders: cockroaches, termites, and mantis), or Embioptera (web spinners). We inferred the phylogenetic position of Zoraptera by analyzing nuclear 18S rDNA sequences, which we aligned according to a secondary structure model. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses both supported a close relationship between Zoraptera and Dictyoptera with relatively high posterior probability. The 18S sequences of Zoraptera exhibited several unusual properties: (1) a dramatically increased substitution rate, which resulted in very long branches; (2) long insertions at helix E23; and (3) modifications of secondary structures at helices 12 and 18.

  12. Critical Structure for Telescopic Movement of Honey bee (Insecta: Apidae) Abdomen: Folded Intersegmental Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z–S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. PMID:27456912

  13. Deliberately unequal gene sampling: boon or bane for phylogenetics of Lepidoptera (Insecta)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper addresses two much-debated questions, on which evidence is still limited, about the design of molecular phylogenetic studies. The first is whether one can economically improve the resolution of a phylogeny estimate by increasing gene sampling in only a subset of tax, without having the an...

  14. Extrachromosomal amplification of rDNA in oocytes of Hemerobius spp. (Insecta, Neuroptera).

    PubMed

    Kubrakiewicz, J; Biliński, S M

    1995-05-01

    In previtellogenic oocytes of the neuropteran, Hemerobius spp., two distinct, DNA-positive intranuclear structures have been observed. Chromosomes of meiotic prophase assemble in the center of the oocyte nucleus forming a highly polymorphic karyosphere, which persists in this position until the very late stages of vitellogenesis. The extrachromosomal DNA body, containing amplified ribosomal genes, undergoes fragmentation and dispersion in the nucleoplasm. At the onset of previtellogenic growth, transcription of extra rDNA starts, which is accompanied by the appearance of dense, granular material (multiple nucleoli). Arising nucleoli gradually fill the nucleoplasm. At the electron microscopic (EM) level two electron dense structural forms of the granular material have been described. Together with general histological and ultrastructural analysis the amplification of rDNA genes in Hemerobius spp. oocytes has been demonstrated by means of the spreading technique, which has shown that extra rDNA is organized in rings containing various numbers of active ribosomal genes. The transcription activity of amplified genes is manifested in the form of typical "Christmas tree" structures.

  15. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-06-19

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology.

  16. Origin and pathway of the epidermal secretion in the damselfly head-arresting system (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Gorb, S N.

    1998-11-01

    In damselflies, the arrester system is responsible for an additional attachment of the head to the neck. It consists of a pair of mobile postcervical sclerites (SPC) covered by microtrichia. In their lateral position, SPCs can fixate the head on fields of microtrichia on the back surface of the head. The intact surface of microtrichia of the SPC is usually covered by a lipid-containing secretion. The present study provides ultrastructural data on the secretory epidermis and pore channels adapted to transport the secretion to the cuticle surface. 1) Shock-frozen preparations of the contact area show that microtrichia of co-opted surfaces do not interlock with each other. When co-opted fields are pressed to each other, deformations of flexible microtrichia of the SPC result in an increase of contact area between corresponding structures and consequently in an increase of frictional forces. 2) In the area of the SPC, only electron-lucent vesicles have been found. Histochemical procedures revealed that the material stored in vesicles and liberated on the external surface of the SPC is presumably non-volatile lipid. 3) Only a small number of large pore channels reach the surface of a microtrichium. Most of them terminate with tiny terminal channels, whose diameter is approximately six to twenty times smaller than the diameter of structures of secretory blooms occurring in SEM in shock-frozen and air-dried preparations. The terminal channels do not penetrate the epicuticular layer. It seems that the secretion reaches the epicuticle through terminal channels and diffuses through the epicuticle without any channel structures.

  17. Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

  18. Isotomidae (Collembola) of Buryat Republic. III. The genera Vertagopus and Agrenia, with a note on 'Claw index'.

    PubMed

    Potapov, Mikhail; Gulgenova, Ayuna; Babykina, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Two genera are revised based on material from Buryatia (Russia, East Siberia). Vertagopus ceratus sp. nov. and V. asiaticus sp. nov. are described of which the former species is strictly alpine and is defined by pale colouration, the presence of chaetae on the anterior side of the ventral tube, and abundant sensillar chaetotaxy. V. asiaticus sp. nov. is widely distributed in Asia and is unusual due to only 9 chaetae in apical whorl on tibiotarsi. A key to species of Vertagopus Börner, recorded in the republic is given, and notes on morphology, distribution, and ecology are provided. In the genus Agrenia Börner, a form similar with A. bidenticulata was recorded in mountainous areas. Buryatian populations considerably differ from the diagnosis of the typical arctic A.bidenticulata (Tullberg) by a much longer claw. A conception of A. bidenticulata sensu lato complex is temporarily proposed basing on available materials from Palearctic, including High Arctic, sub-Arctic and South Siberian mountains. The complex consists of several local forms which are different in Claw index and associated Tibiotarsus/Claw ratio, while the dependence of the two indexes on the latitude is shown. PMID:27394328

  19. Supplementary descriptive notes of the Sinella and Coecobrya (Collembola: Entomobryidae) species from North America, Hawaii and Japan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Yan, Qibao; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Many known collembolan species lack sufficient descriptive details so that further taxonomical comparison cannot be achieved. When sorting documents and materials from Prof. Jian-Xiu CHEN, Nanjing University, we found many old but valuable drafts on Sinella and Coecobrya species from North America, Hawaii and Japan. Supplementary descriptions, particularly chaetotaxy, were provided for the following species: S. agna Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980, S. alata Christiansen, 1960, S. baca Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980, S. barri Christiansen, 1960, S. hoffmani Wray, 1952, S. sexoculata (Schött, 1896), S. straminea (Folsom, 1899), S. yosiia Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. akiyoshiana Yosii, 1956, C. borerae Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. ishikawai Yosii, 1956, C. kukae Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. lua Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. nupa Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. tibiotarsalis Yosii, 1964. Sinella cavernarum (Packard, 1888) was redescribed based on topotypes and more additional materials. PMID:27394318

  20. Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Luís André; Maria, Vera L; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2015-10-01

    The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days). The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that AgNO₃ was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC₂₀ and EC₅₀ was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO₃ and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag⁺ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO). Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses. PMID:26473892

  1. Evidence of Protaphorura fimata (Collembola: Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae) feeding on germinating lettuce in the Salinas Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V; Bettiga, Christopher; Ramirez, Christian; Soto-Adames, Felipe N

    2015-02-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the impact of Protaphorura fimata Gisin (Family: Onychiuridae) feeding on seeds and germinating seedlings of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae). First, various densities of P. fimata were incubated with 25 lettuce seeds for 7 d and feeding injury was evaluated in three soilless arena experiments. As a second step, 100 P. fimata were incubated with 25 lettuce seeds in three arena experiments with soil media. Finally, in a commercial field the incidence and impact of P. fimata on recently planted lettuce was assessed following applications of pyrethroid-insecticides: 2 d before planting, at planting, and 20 d later. In experiments without soil, the number of ungerminated seeds, feeding injury sites, and plants with injury were significantly greater in arenas with P. fimata than without. Similarly, the number of germinated seedlings, shoot fresh, and dry weights, and the length and width of fully opened-leaves were greater in arenas without than with P. fimata in assays with soil. In the field, P. fimata densities were significantly lower in beds that received insecticides at 2 d before and at planting than in untreated beds. Also, the fresh and dry weights of lettuce plants were significantly greater in the beds that received insecticide than in untreated. The results clearly show that P. fimata is a pest of lettuce and can cause severe feeding injury to germinating seeds or seedlings, thereby reducing their growth rate. The potential implications of P. fimata feeding and feeding injury characteristics are discussed. PMID:26470124

  2. Two new species of Homidia (Collembola, Entomobryidae) and a key to species in the genus from Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Homidia are described from Yandang Mountain, China: H. yandangensis sp. nov. and H. quadrimaculata sp. nov. The new species are diagnosed by their unique colour patterns, the number of macrochaetae on areas A8-10 of abdominal segment IV, the relative position of specialised microchaetae/specialised ordinary chaetae on abdominal segment I and specialised ordinary chaetae/macrochaeta m3 on abdominal segment V. Specimens from two localities of H. yandangensis sp. nov. differ in the macrochaeta a5 on area A9 of abdominal segment IV. Descriptions of the subadult dorsal thoracic and abdominal chaetotaxy of H. yandangensis sp. nov. and a key to species of Homidia from Zhejiang Province are provided here. PMID:26624455

  3. Paratullbergia Womersley in China: the description of a new species and a key to the genus (Collembola, Tullbergiidae).

    PubMed

    Bu, Yun; Gao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The genus Paratullbergia Womersley, 1930 is recorded for the first time from China. Paratullbergia changfengensis sp. n. from Shanghai is described and illustrated. It is characterized by the presence of 1+1 pseudocelli on thoracic segment I, with two pairs of pseudocelli on each of thoracic segments II and III, presence of seta px on abdominal segment IV, seta a2 and p4 on abdominal segment V as microsetae, and less differentiated sensory seta p3 on abdominal segment V. Both sexes present. The new species can be easily distinguished from its congeners by the presence of pseudocelli on thoracic segment I. An updated key to the world species of the genus Paratullbergia is provided. PMID:26668547

  4. A new species of the genus Xenylla Tullberg, 1869 (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) from Korea, with a key for East Asian species.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hypogastruridae from Korea, Xenylla namia sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is easily distinguished from previously described Xenylla species by a combination of the following characters: labral setae arrangement of 2/5,5,4, labial papilla E with one guard seta (e3), head without c2 seta, thoracic sterna II and III with a pair of medial setae, abdominal sternum III with 1 median seta above the retinaculum, abdominal sternum IV with seta m1. An identification key to East Asian species of Xenylla with detailed differences between East Asian Xenylla species is provided. PMID:27395598

  5. Genus Neelus Folsom, 1896 (Hexapoda, Collembola) reveals its diversity in cave habitats: two new species from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Lukić, Marko; Kováč, Ľubomír

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Neelus Folsom, 1896, N. cvitanovici sp. nov. and N. lackovici sp. nov., are described from caves of Croatia. N. lackovici sp. nov. exhibit marked troglomorphic features such as extremely elongated ungua and antennae, larger body among others. Descriptions are completed with comparative tables for chaetotaxy of antennae and legs. Diagnostic table for the congeners and identification key to the world species are provided. Distribution records of other Neelus species in Croatian caves are added. Threats of troglobiotic Neelus species in Croatia are discussed. PMID:27394325

  6. Paratullbergia Womersley in China: the description of a new species and a key to the genus (Collembola, Tullbergiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Yun; Gao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Paratullbergia Womersley, 1930 is recorded for the first time from China. Paratullbergia changfengensis sp. n. from Shanghai is described and illustrated. It is characterized by the presence of 1+1 pseudocelli on thoracic segment I, with two pairs of pseudocelli on each of thoracic segments II and III, presence of seta px on abdominal segment IV, seta a2 and p4 on abdominal segment V as microsetae, and less differentiated sensory seta p3 on abdominal segment V. Both sexes present. The new species can be easily distinguished from its congeners by the presence of pseudocelli on thoracic segment I. An updated key to the world species of the genus Paratullbergia is provided. PMID:26668547

  7. The genus Drepanura (Collembola: Entomobryidae) in Australia: descriptions of two new species and redescriptions of five known species.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yitong; Chun, Zhao; Greenslade, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Seven Australian species of the genus Drepanura are reported. Two of the seven are new and five are redescribed. The new species are: D. liuae sp. nov. and D. polychaeta sp. nov. Redescriptions are given for D. albocoerulea (Schött, 1917), D. cinquilineata Womersley, 1934, D. citricola Womersley, 1934, D. cobaltina (Schött, 1917) and D. coeruleopicta (Schött, 1917). The chaetotaxy is described and a key to the Australian species of the genus is given. PMID:26701533

  8. Diversity of Paranura Axelson, 1902 (Collembola: Neanuridae: Neanurinae) in Pacific Region of Russia and United States.

    PubMed

    Smolis, Adrian; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Eight new species of the genus Paranura are described from temperate zone of Holarctic. Five of them: Paranura reticulata sp. nov., Paranura oregonensis sp. nov., Paranura reducta sp. nov., Paranura cassagnaui sp. nov. and Paranura microchaetosa sp. nov. were found in coniferous forests of Oregon state, USA. Three others: Paranura kedrovayensis sp. nov., Paranura setosa sp. nov. and Paranura conjuncta sp. nov. were collected in mixed woods of Russian Far East. All new species are illustrated in detail and compared with existing taxa. P. reticulata sp. nov. is characterised by having three ocular chaetae, relatively short chaeta F on head, four ordinary chaetae De on th. III and three chaetae Di in abd. V (in s-uenoi two chaetae). The presence of only one ordinary chaeta De on abdomen IV is the most characteristic and recognizable character of P. oregonensis sp. nov. P. reducta sp. nov. is most diagnostically recognized by labral chaetotaxy, with only 4 chaetae. The species is true saproxylic form living inside decayed logs of coniferous trees only. P. cassagnaui sp. nov. is easy to distinguish by the presence of complete chaetotaxy of central area of head, presence of microchaetae on furcal remnant and the fusion of tubercles Di on abd. V. P. microchaetosa sp. nov. and P. kedrovayensis sp. nov. are superficially very similar to each other in dorsal chaetotaxy, and differ in number of ordinary chaetae De on abd. IV, trochanter and labium, and in the presence/absence of microchaetae on furcal remnant. P. setosa sp. nov. can be easily identified by one or two additional chaetae on central area of head, a character unknown in other species of the genus. P. conjuncta sp. nov. is characterised by the fusion of tubercles Di on abdomen V, the presence of microchaetae on furcal remnant and developed tubercle on central area of head. In addition, P. mjohjangensis Deharveng & Weiner, 1984 is newly recorded from Russia. An updated key to all world species of Paranura is also provided. PMID:26624400

  9. A revision of Pseudoparonella, Plumachaetas, Parachaetoceras and Lawrenceana (Collembola: Paronellidae), with description of three new species from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of Pseudoparonella to other paronellid genera is currently unresolved. Authors have proposed different taxonomical systems for which the proposed subgeneric divisions have not been compared. We compared these genera in detail and conclude here that antennal length is a reliable diagnostic character. The antennae of species in the genera Plumachaetas and Parachaetoceras, are longer than body and bear long chaetae but are not longer than body in Pseudoparonella. The subapical chaeta on the maxillary outer lobe is another character potentially discriminant as it is pointed in Pseudoparonella but thick and blunt in Plumachaetas. The subgenus Lawrenceana is synonymised here with Plumachaetas because of long antennae. Three new species, Pseudoparonella seminigra sp. nov., Plumachaetas yoshii sp. nov., and Plumachaetas sunae sp. nov., are described from New Caledonia. Variation in colour patterns of Pseudoparonella griseocoerulea Yoshii is reported. New records of Pseudoparonella tanimbarica Yoshii & Suhardjono and Ps. shibatai Yosii, as well as a key to genera, are also provided. PMID:26701546

  10. The dorsal chaetotaxy of first instar Trogolaphysa jataca, with description of twelve new species of Neotropical Trogolaphysa (Hexapoda: Collembola: Paronellidae).

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N

    2015-01-01

    Adult members of tribe Paronellini are characterized by a substantially reduced idiochaetotaxy and as a result chaeta homology determination is often ambiguous. To evaluate previous hypotheses of chaetae homology in adult Trogolaphysa, a complete description of the dorsal chaetotaxy of first instar Trogolaphysa jataca (Wray, 1953b), supplemented with observations on first instar Trogolaphysa paracarpenteri sp. nov., is presented. It is showed that first instar Trogolaphysa carries an almost complete set of dorsal chaetae and that the reduction in adult idiochaetotaxy is secondary. In addition, the organization of primary chaetae in T. jataca points to a closer relationship with genera in subfamily Entomobryinae than to Orchesellinae. Based on chaetae correspondence between first instar and adult T. jataca it is established that the inner median chaetae on adult head corresponds to M1 instead of S1, the mesothorax p3 complex includes chaetae p1-p4, and on the fourth abdominal segment, anterior macrochaeta on column A corresponds to A3, and the secondary bothriotrix corresponds to D3p. In addition, T. relicta (Palacios-Vargas, Ojeda & Christiansen, 1985) is re-described based on a paratype, and 12 new species are described: from Mexico, T. stannardi sp. nov., T. dimorphica sp. nov., T. laterolineata sp. nov., T. marieloiseae sp. nov., T. clarencei sp. nov., T. ocellata sp. nov., T. paracarpenteri sp. nov., T. palaciosi sp. nov., T. octosetosa sp. nov., and T. trioculata sp. nov.; from Jamaica, T. balteata sp. nov.; and from Argentina, T. entreriosensis sp. nov. PMID:26624337

  11. Ecotoxicity of mercury to Folsomia candida and Proisotoma minuta (Collembola: Isotomidae) in tropical soils: Baseline for ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2016-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic nonessential trace metal. Despite its natural occurrence in the Earth's Crust, its concentrations have been steadily increasing in the environment due to anthropogenic sources. Recent studies have showed great concern about soil fauna, once the potential adverse effects of mercury concentrations in the environment of these invertebrates are still poorly understood, especially when linked to forest soils and tropical biota. Different collembolan species can show distinct toxicity effects to the contaminants, impairing its developing lifelong and affecting its diversity and abundance in the environment. Laboratory studies were performed to evaluate the ecotoxicity of Hg(II) to collembolan species collected in Brazil, Proisotoma minuta (autochthonous) and Folsomia candida (allochthonous), as a tool to predict effects in ecological risk assessment of tropical regions. Behavioral, acute and chronic tests were carried under temperatures of 20°C and 24°C using two test soils, natural and artificial, spiked with increasing mercury concentrations. F. candida was more sensitive to mercury contamination than P. minuta, presenting the most restrictive values of EC50 and LC50. Reproduction was a considerably more sensitive endpoint than avoidance and mortality. The 28-day lower EC50 values were found in chronic tests for F. candida in natural soil to 24°C (3.32mgHgkg(-1)), while for P. minuta was in tropical artificial soil to 20°C (4.43mgHgkg(-1)). There were similarity for each collembolan species to respond at the Hg(II) effects when exposed at 20°C and 24°C. F. candida can be suitable as a bioindicator species to mercury ecotoxicity tests in tropical forest soils. PMID:26796529

  12. The ultrastructure of the ejaculatory duct in the springtail Orchesella villosa (Geoffroy) (Hexapoda, Collembola) and the formation of the spermatophore.

    PubMed

    Fanciulli, Pietro Paolo; Zizzari, Zaira Valentina; Frati, Francesco; Dallai, Romano

    2012-02-01

    The initial part of the ejaculatory duct of Orchesella villosa contains a "valve" and a "sorter" avoiding respectively the reflow and allowing the separation of the secretion for the spermatophore stalk from the sperm fluid. For most of its length, the ejaculatory duct lumen is divided into two parts: in the dorsal part the sperm fluid flows while in the ventral district the secretion for the stalk occurs. Laterally, on both sides of the duct, longitudinal muscle fibers are present. The epithelium of the dorsal region consists of two types of long secretory cells; the most peculiar of them are those provided with extracellular cisterns flowing directly into the duct lumen as it occurs in 1st type of epidermal cells. These cells could be involved in the control of the viscosity of the sperm fluid. The second type of cells produce a secretion probably involved in the formation of the outer coat of the apical sperm droplet. The ventral epithelium consists of short cells contributing to the enrichment of the secretion for the spermatophore stalk and perhaps also to the viscosity of the secretion flowing in the lumen. In the distal part of the ejaculatory duct, the ventral district is provided with a thick layer of muscle fibers and with 3+3 cuticular laminae dividing the lumen into a series of slits through which the secretion of the stalk is squeezed out into filaments. This organization allows the twisting and hardening of these filaments. A drop of sperm fluid is laid on top of the long and rigid spermatophore stalk. PMID:22056322

  13. Interactive effects of λ-cyhalothrin, soil moisture, and temperature on Folsomia candida and Sinella curviseta (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Bandow, Cornelia; Coors, Anja; Karau, Nora; Römbke, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    The authors investigated whether and how 2 environmental factors could influence the toxicity of a pyrethroid to 2 representatives of an important group of soil organisms. The impacts of different temperatures (20 °C and 26 °C) and soil moisture levels (30%, 50%, and 70% of water holding capacity) were investigated in combination with the insecticide λ-cyhalothrin on the reproduction success of Folsomia candida and Sinella curviseta in a full factorial design. Testing was based on the standard collembolan reproduction test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, guideline 232) following an effect concentration design. The results showed an effect of environmental and chemical factors on the number of juveniles of these animals. Particularly in dry soil, the reproduction of both species was reduced, while higher soil moisture levels influenced the number of juveniles positively compared with the middle soil moisture level. In general, however, higher soil moisture led to increased sensitivity to λ-cyhalothrin. In both organisms, temperature affected the toxicity of the pesticide but in different directions: high temperature led to higher toxicity in F. candida but to lower toxicity in S. curviseta. PMID:24288263

  14. A new species of the genus Xenylla Tullberg, 1869 (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) from Korea, with a key for East Asian species.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hypogastruridae from Korea, Xenylla namia sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is easily distinguished from previously described Xenylla species by a combination of the following characters: labral setae arrangement of 2/5,5,4, labial papilla E with one guard seta (e3), head without c2 seta, thoracic sterna II and III with a pair of medial setae, abdominal sternum III with 1 median seta above the retinaculum, abdominal sternum IV with seta m1. An identification key to East Asian species of Xenylla with detailed differences between East Asian Xenylla species is provided.

  15. The dorsal chaetotaxy of Trogolaphysa (Collembola, Paronellidae), with descriptions of two new species from caves in Belize

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N.; Taylor, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Species diagnosis in Trogolaphysa has been based, until now, almost exclusively on number of eyes and shape of claws and mucro. Chaetotaxy, a character system important to diagnose species in other genera of scaled Entomobryoidea, has been described only for a few Trogolaphysa species. Here the complete dorsal chaetotaxy of six species of Trogolaphysa is described using the AMS and Szeptycki’s systems for head and body, respectively. A morphology-based parsimony analysis was performed to evaluate whether chaetotaxic characters overcome the influence of putatively cave adaptive convergent characters to resolve species level relationships, and to evaluate the evolution of the dorsal macrochaetae of the head. Phylogenetic analysis using only putative cave-adaptive characters support clades of unrelated taxa, but the addition of chaetotaxy overcomes the influence of convergent characters. A phylogeny based on all characters supports a trend towards reduced head macrochaetae number. Head macrochaetae are lost beginning with A3 and followed, in order, by S5, S3 and M3. In addition, a checklist of New World Trogolaphysa is provided and two new species, Trogolaphysa giordanoae sp. n. and Trogolaphysa jacobyi sp. n., are described on the basis of material collected in six caves in southern Belize. PMID:24003314

  16. Description and conservation status of a new species of Australotomurus (Collembola: Entomobryidae: Orchesellinae) from urban Perth remnant bushland.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Jordana, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the Australian endemic genus Australotomurus Stach, 1947 A. morbidus sp. nov., is described from four urban remnants in Perth. Australotomurus morbidus sp. nov. is the first species in the genus found to possess male secondary sexual characters on antennal segment III as well as I. The males of all other described species in the genus occurring in south-eastern Australia have secondary sexual characters on antennal segments I and II rather than I and III. Typical habitats for Australotomurus species are long undisturbed native grasslands and heathland at low and high elevations. The new species extends the known distribution of the genus ca. 2,000 km west. Australotomurus morbidus sp. nov. is the only species in the genus currently vulnerable to extinction because of its restricted distribution to only four localities, all of which are subject to considerable human disturbance. This species was listed as critically endangered when it was known (but not yet described) from only one locality but was delisted a few years later when three other locations for the species were found. The history and records of A. morbidus sp. nov. suggest that listing species using current Western Australian legislation does not necessarily protect vulnerable species. The new species is described here and new records for some other Australian species of Orchesellinae provided, including the first Australian record of Heteromurus major (Moniez, 1889). PMID:25544101

  17. Interactive effects of λ-cyhalothrin, soil moisture, and temperature on Folsomia candida and Sinella curviseta (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Bandow, Cornelia; Coors, Anja; Karau, Nora; Römbke, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    The authors investigated whether and how 2 environmental factors could influence the toxicity of a pyrethroid to 2 representatives of an important group of soil organisms. The impacts of different temperatures (20 °C and 26 °C) and soil moisture levels (30%, 50%, and 70% of water holding capacity) were investigated in combination with the insecticide λ-cyhalothrin on the reproduction success of Folsomia candida and Sinella curviseta in a full factorial design. Testing was based on the standard collembolan reproduction test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, guideline 232) following an effect concentration design. The results showed an effect of environmental and chemical factors on the number of juveniles of these animals. Particularly in dry soil, the reproduction of both species was reduced, while higher soil moisture levels influenced the number of juveniles positively compared with the middle soil moisture level. In general, however, higher soil moisture led to increased sensitivity to λ-cyhalothrin. In both organisms, temperature affected the toxicity of the pesticide but in different directions: high temperature led to higher toxicity in F. candida but to lower toxicity in S. curviseta.

  18. Adaptations and Predispositions of Different Middle European Arthropod Taxa (Collembola, Araneae, Chilopoda, Diplopoda) to Flooding and Drought Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Michael Thomas; Guhmann, Patrick; Decker, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary This review summarizes adaptations and predispositions of different arthropod taxa (springtails, web spiders, millipedes and centipedes) to flood and drought conditions. The main focus sis directed to arthropod species, which are living in Middle European floodplain forests and wetlands, because of the fast change of flood and drought conditions in these habitats. Furthermore the effects of the predicted regional climate change like increasing aperiodic summer flooding and decreasing winter and spring floods are also discussed. Abstract Floodplain forests and wetlands are amongst the most diverse and species rich habitats on earth. Arthropods are a key group for the high diversity pattern of these landscapes, due to the fact that the change between flooding and drought causes in different life cycles and in a variety of adaptations in the different taxa. The floodplain forests and wetlands of Central Amazonia are well investigated and over the last 50 years many adaptations of several hexapod, myriapod and arachnid orders were described. In contrast to Amazonia the Middle European floodplains were less investigated concerning the adaptations of arthropods to flood and drought conditions. This review summarizes the adaptations and predispositions of springtails, web spiders, millipedes and centipedes to the changeable flood and drought conditions of Middle European floodplain forests and wetlands. Furthermore the impact of regional climate change predictions like increasing aperiodic summer floods and the decrease of typical winter and spring floods are discussed in this article. PMID:26487164

  19. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  20. Adaptations and Predispositions of Different Middle European Arthropod Taxa (Collembola, Araneae, Chilopoda, Diplopoda) to Flooding and Drought Conditions.

    PubMed

    Marx, Michael Thomas; Guhmann, Patrick; Decker, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Floodplain forests and wetlands are amongst the most diverse and species rich habitats on earth. Arthropods are a key group for the high diversity pattern of these landscapes, due to the fact that the change between flooding and drought causes in different life cycles and in a variety of adaptations in the different taxa. The floodplain forests and wetlands of Central Amazonia are well investigated and over the last 50 years many adaptations of several hexapod, myriapod and arachnid orders were described. In contrast to Amazonia the Middle European floodplains were less investigated concerning the adaptations of arthropods to flood and drought conditions. This review summarizes the adaptations and predispositions of springtails, web spiders, millipedes and centipedes to the changeable flood and drought conditions of Middle European floodplain forests and wetlands. Furthermore the impact of regional climate change predictions like increasing aperiodic summer floods and the decrease of typical winter and spring floods are discussed in this article. PMID:26487164

  1. Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Luís André; Maria, Vera L.; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; Amorim, Mónica J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days). The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that AgNO3 was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC20 and EC50 was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag+ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO). Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses. PMID:26473892

  2. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E.; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  3. New diagnosis for species of Plutomurus Yosii (Collembola, Tomoceridae), with descriptions of two new species from Georgian caves.

    PubMed

    Barjadze, Shalva; Baquero, Enrique; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Giordano, Rosanna; Jordana, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Plutomurus, P. revazi sp. nov. from Prometheus and Satsurblia caves and P. eristoi sp. nov. from Satevzia Cave are described, illustrated and differentiated from other morphologically closely related species. A high variability in the number of teeth in the claw, unguiculus and mucro of P. revazi sp. nov. demonstrate that these characters are not useful for species diagnosis. However, dorsal chaetotaxy was shown to be stable character for this purpose. Analysis of DNA sequences for the COI and 28S genes is congruent with species-level groups delimited by chaetotaxy, and provide additional support for chaetotaxy as the most reliable morphological character system to distinguish species in Plutomurus. A key to species of the genus Plutomurus found in Georgia is provided, which for the first time includes characters of the macrochaetotaxy. PMID:27395573

  4. Responses of Folsomia fimetaria (Collembola: Isotomidae) to copper under different soil copper contamination histories in relation to risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Scott-Fordsmand, J.J.; Krogh, P.H.; Weeks, J.M.

    2000-05-01

    The collembolan Folsomia fimetaria L. was exposed in the laboratory to a range of elevated soil copper concentrations under two different contamination histories. These results were compared with the in situ abundance of F. fimetaria in a copper-contaminated field site. In the laboratory studies, an EC10 of 337 mg Cu/kg was observed for soil spiked with copper 1 d before the experiment. Using soil from a field site contaminated with copper more than 70 years previously, no effect was observed at concentrations as great as 2,911 mg Cu/kg. Reproduction was threefold more sensitive than mortality or growth. Differences in copper sensitivity between sexes and between juvenile clutches were also indicated. The abundance of F. fimetaria showed no change with soil copper concentrations during the first year (spring sampling) of in situ observations. During the second year (autumn sampling), a reduced number per area was observed with increasing soil copper concentrations. Both the presence and abundance of other euedaphic collembolans generally exhibited distribution patterns similar to those of F. fimetaria. Thus, the contamination history and the toxicological endpoint were very important for interpreting the outcome of the standard laboratory toxicity test. Laboratory studies to some extent reflected the in situ abundance, but this depended on the contamination history and the field sampling time. Laboratory experiments using new copper-spiked soil provided the lowest effect levels.

  5. Diversity of Paranura Axelson, 1902 (Collembola: Neanuridae: Neanurinae) in Pacific Region of Russia and United States.

    PubMed

    Smolis, Adrian; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-10-22

    Eight new species of the genus Paranura are described from temperate zone of Holarctic. Five of them: Paranura reticulata sp. nov., Paranura oregonensis sp. nov., Paranura reducta sp. nov., Paranura cassagnaui sp. nov. and Paranura microchaetosa sp. nov. were found in coniferous forests of Oregon state, USA. Three others: Paranura kedrovayensis sp. nov., Paranura setosa sp. nov. and Paranura conjuncta sp. nov. were collected in mixed woods of Russian Far East. All new species are illustrated in detail and compared with existing taxa. P. reticulata sp. nov. is characterised by having three ocular chaetae, relatively short chaeta F on head, four ordinary chaetae De on th. III and three chaetae Di in abd. V (in s-uenoi two chaetae). The presence of only one ordinary chaeta De on abdomen IV is the most characteristic and recognizable character of P. oregonensis sp. nov. P. reducta sp. nov. is most diagnostically recognized by labral chaetotaxy, with only 4 chaetae. The species is true saproxylic form living inside decayed logs of coniferous trees only. P. cassagnaui sp. nov. is easy to distinguish by the presence of complete chaetotaxy of central area of head, presence of microchaetae on furcal remnant and the fusion of tubercles Di on abd. V. P. microchaetosa sp. nov. and P. kedrovayensis sp. nov. are superficially very similar to each other in dorsal chaetotaxy, and differ in number of ordinary chaetae De on abd. IV, trochanter and labium, and in the presence/absence of microchaetae on furcal remnant. P. setosa sp. nov. can be easily identified by one or two additional chaetae on central area of head, a character unknown in other species of the genus. P. conjuncta sp. nov. is characterised by the fusion of tubercles Di on abdomen V, the presence of microchaetae on furcal remnant and developed tubercle on central area of head. In addition, P. mjohjangensis Deharveng & Weiner, 1984 is newly recorded from Russia. An updated key to all world species of Paranura is also provided.

  6. Gluing the 'unwettable': soil-dwelling harvestmen use viscoelastic fluids for capturing springtails.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonas O; Schönhofer, Axel L; Schaber, Clemens F; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-10-01

    Gluing can be a highly efficient mechanism of prey capture, as it should require less complex sensory-muscular feedback. Whereas it is well known in insects, this mechanism is much less studied in arachnids, except spiders. Soil-dwelling harvestmen (Opiliones, Nemastomatidae) bear drumstick-like glandular hairs (clavate setae) at their pedipalps, which were previously hypothesized to be sticky and used in prey capture. However, clear evidence for this was lacking to date. Using high-speed videography, we found that the harvestman Mitostoma chrysomelas was able to capture fast-moving springtails (Collembola) just by a slight touch of the pedipalp. Adhesion of single clavate setae increased proportionally with pull-off velocity, from 1 μN at 1 μm s(-1) up to 7 μN at 1 mm s(-1), which corresponds to the typical weight of springtails. Stretched glue droplets exhibited characteristics of a viscoelastic fluid forming beads-on-a-string morphology over time, similar to spider capture threads and the sticky tentacles of carnivorous plants. These analogies indicate that viscoelasticity is a highly efficient mechanism for prey capture, as it holds stronger the faster the struggling prey moves. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy of snap-frozen harvestmen with glued springtails revealed that the gluey secretions have a high affinity to wet the microstructured cuticle of collembolans, which was previously reported to be barely wettable for both polar and non-polar liquids. Glue droplets can be contaminated with the detached scaly setae of collembolans, which may represent a counter-adaptation against entrapment by the glue, similar to the scaly surfaces of Lepidoptera and Trichoptera (Insecta) facilitating escape from spider webs. PMID:25274325

  7. Successful Determination of Larval Dispersal Distances and Subsequent Settlement for Long-Lived Pelagic Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-de-León, Pelayo; Jones, Timothy; Bell, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance, we still have a poor understanding of the level of connectivity between marine populations in most geographical locations. Taking advantage of the natural features of the southeast coast of New Zealand's North Island, we deployed a series of settlement stations and conducted plankton tows to capture recent settlers and planktonic larvae of the common intertidal gastropod Austrolittorina cincta (6–8 week larval period). Satellite image analysis and ground truthing surveys revealed the absence of suitable intertidal rocky shore habitat for A. cincta over a 100 km stretch of coastline between Kapiti Island to the south and Wanganui to the north. Fifteen settlement stations (3 replicates×5 sites), which were used to mimic intertidal habitat suitable for A. cincta, were deployed for two months around and north of Kapiti Island (at 0.5, 1, 5, 15, 50 km). In addition, we also conducted plankton tows at each settlement station when the stations were first deployed to collect A. cincta larvae in the water column. On collection, all newly settled gastropods and larvae in the plankton samples were individually isolated, and a species-specific microsatellite marker was used to positively identify A. cincta individuals. Most of the positively identified A. cincta settlers and larvae were collected at the first three sampling stations (<5 km). However, low numbers of A. cincta settlers and larvae were also recorded at the two more distant locations (15 and 50 km). Dispersal curves modeled from our data suggested that <1% of gastropod larvae would travel more than 100 km. While our data show that most larvae are retained close to their natal populations (<5 km), a small proportion of larvae are able to travel much larger geographic distances. Our estimates of larval dispersal and subsequent settlement are one of only a few for marine species with a long-lived larva. PMID:22427885

  8. Review of the systematics, biology and ecology of lice from pinnipeds and river otters (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae).

    PubMed

    Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis

    2013-01-01

    We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible. PMID:26131525

  9. Venom and Dufour's glands of the emerald cockroach wasp Ampulex compressa (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Sphecidae): structural and biochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Gnatzy, Werner; Michels, Jan; Volknandt, Walter; Goller, Stephan; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    The digger wasp species Ampulex compressa produces its venom in two branched gland tubules. They terminate in a short common duct, which is bifurcated at its proximal end. One leg is linked with the venom reservoir, the other one extends to the ductus venatus. Each venom gland tubule possesses, over its entire length, a cuticle-lined central duct. Around this duct densely packed class 3 gland units each composed of a secretory cell and a canal cell are arranged. The position of their nuclei was demonstrated by DAPI staining. The brush border of the secretory cells surrounds the coiled end-apparatus. Venom is stored in a bladder like reservoir, which is surrounded by a thin reticulated layer of muscle fibres. The reservoir as a whole is lined with class 3 gland units. The tubiform Dufour's gland has a length of about 350 μm (∅ 125 μm) only and is surrounded by a network of pronounced striated muscle fibres. The glandular epithelium is mono-layered belonging to the class 1 type of insect epidermal glands. The gland cells are characterized by conspicuous lipid vesicles. Secretion of material via the gland cuticle into the gland lumen is apparent. Analysis of the polypeptide composition demonstrated that the free gland tubules and the venom reservoir contain numerous proteins ranging from 3.4 to 200 kDa. The polypeptide composition of the Dufour's gland is completely different and contains no lectin-binding glycoproteins, whereas a dominant component of the venom droplets is a glycoprotein of about 80 kDa. Comparison of the venom reservoir contents with the polypeptide pattern of venom droplets revealed that all of the major proteinaceous constituents are secreted. The secreted venom contains exclusively proteins present in the soluble contents of the venom gland. The most abundant compound class in the Dufour's gland consisted of n-alkanes followed by monomethyl-branched alkanes and alkadienes. Heptacosane was the most abundant n-alkane. Furthermore, a single volatile compound, 2-methylpentan-3-one, was identified in various concentrations in the lipid extract of the Dufour's gland. PMID:26352105

  10. A new species of Stenopsyche, with descriptions of larvae and females of some species associated by gene sequences (Insecta: Trichoptera).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Hua; Sun, Chang-Hai; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2015-12-09

    Twenty-seven individuals of Stenopsyche from An-hui, Shan-xi and Si-chuan provinces, China, were examined and their DNA (mtCOI) sequences were extracted and analyzed. The larva, male, and female of a new species, S. huangshanensis sp. nov., associated by mtCOI gene sequences, are described and illustrated. Larvae and adult females of 3 known species, S. angustata Martynov 1930, S. navasi Ulmer 1926, and S. tienmushanensis Hwang 1957, were successfully associated with their identifiable males; the larvae and females of S. navasi and S. tienmushanensis were described and illustrated for the first time, and the larva and female of S. angustata were re-described and re-illustrated. DNA from identifiable males of Stenopsyche lotus Weaver 1987 was also sequenced, but the larva and female of this species remain unknown. An unknown larva, not associated with an identifiable adult, was described and illustrated as Stenopsyche sp. 1. All the sequences were uploaded to GenBank. All specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Nanjing Agricultural University.

  11. Genome exclusion and gametic DAPI-DNA content in the hybridogenetic Bacillus rossius-grandii benazzii complex (Insecta Phasmatodea).

    PubMed

    Tinti, F; Scali, V

    1992-11-01

    Among Sicilian stick insects, two hybridogenetic complexes have been discovered: Bacillus rossius-grandii benazzii and B. rossius-grandii grandii, which also produce androgenetic offspring. The egg maturation of the former is analyzed here through DAPI fluorometry, which, besides the assessment of the meiotic stages, also allows their DNA measurements and the analysis of sperm-head evolution into male pronuclei in these polyspermic eggs. Hybridogenetic eggs undergo an extrasynthesis of chromosomes, because two groups of n autobivalents (4C each) are segregated at metaphase 1st; the two groups must correspond to the pure parental species haplosets. Then the grandii chromosomes degenerate (1st polar body), while the rossius chromosomes divide further to produce two groups of n autodiads (2C each); one of them degenerates (2nd polar body), and the other is ready to perform syngamy (female pronucleus). Meanwhile, several B. grandii sperm evolve into male pronuclei by doubling their DNA (from 1C to 2C content) and assuming an interphase nucleus appearance. If regular mixis occurs, the F1 hybrid constitution is restored but, if it fails, a fusion between two sperms may occur, originating fully paternal descendants (natural androgenesis). The genome exclusion mechanism of stick-insect hybridogens appears to be more primitive than those observed in the already known hybridogenetic complexes of Poeciliopsis and Rana esculenta. Unfertilized eggs of hybridogens are capable of self-activation, but the cytology of the related clonally reproducing B. whitei indicates that its parthenogenetic mechanism stems from the hybridization event (hybrid theory) rather than from tychoparthenogenetic potentialities (spontaneous theory).

  12. DNA-based identification of forensically important species of Sarcophagidae (Insecta: Diptera) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Napoleão, K S; Mello-Patiu, C A; Oliveira-Costa, J; Takiya, D M; Silva, R; Moura-Neto, R S

    2016-05-06

    Sarcophagidae, or flesh flies, are of great importance in forensic entomology, but their effective application requires precise taxonomic identification, which relies almost exclusively on characteristics of the male genitalia. Given that female flies and larvae are most abundant in animal carcasses or on corpses, precise morphological identification can be difficult; therefore, DNA sequencing can be an additional tool for use in taxonomic identification. This paper analyzes part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from three Sarcophagidae species of forensic importance in the City of Rio de Janeiro: Oxysarcodexia fluminensis, Peckia chrysostoma, and Peckia intermutans. COI fragments of 400 bp from 36 specimens of these three species were sequenced. No intraspecific differences were found among specimens of O. fluminensis, but P. chrysostoma and P. intermutans each had two haplotypes, ranging from 0 to 0.7%. The interspecific divergence was 8.5-11.6%, corroborating previously reported findings.

  13. Environmental controls on the distribution and diversity of lentic Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) across an altitudinal gradient in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Gosling, William D; Coe, Angela L; Bush, Mark; Mayle, Francis E; Axford, Yarrow; Brooks, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To predict the response of aquatic ecosystems to future global climate change, data on the ecology and distribution of keystone groups in freshwater ecosystems are needed. In contrast to mid- and high-latitude zones, such data are scarce across tropical South America (Neotropics). We present the distribution and diversity of chironomid species using surface sediments of 59 lakes from the Andes to the Amazon (0.1-17°S and 64-78°W) within the Neotropics. We assess the spatial variation in community assemblages and identify the key variables influencing the distributional patterns. The relationships between environmental variables (pH, conductivity, depth, and sediment organic content), climatic data, and chironomid assemblages were assessed using multivariate statistics (detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis). Climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) were most significant in describing the variance in chironomid assemblages. Temperature and precipitation are both predicted to change under future climate change scenarios in the tropical Andes. Our findings suggest taxa of Orthocladiinae, which show a preference to cold high-elevation oligotrophic lakes, will likely see range contraction under future anthropogenic-induced climate change. Taxa abundant in areas of high precipitation, such as Micropsectra and Phaenopsectra, will likely become restricted to the inner tropical Andes, as the outer tropical Andes become drier. The sensitivity of chironomids to climate parameters makes them important bio-indicators of regional climate change in the Neotropics. Furthermore, the distribution of chironomid taxa presented here is a vital first step toward providing urgently needed autecological data for interpreting fossil chironomid records of past ecological and climate change from the tropical Andes.

  14. A new permopsocidan genus and species from the Late Permian of Australia (Insecta: Acercaria: Psocidiidae).

    PubMed

    Prokop, Jakub; Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2016-01-01

    The psocidiid Hypopsylla belmontensis gen. et sp. nov., new psocidiid genus and species, is described and figured from the Late Permian of New South Wales in Australia. This discovery extends the knowledge on the diversity of the small order Permopsocida whose members passed the Permian-Triassic boundary and became extinct in Cretaceous. PMID:27515638

  15. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  16. Description of a new genus and two new species of high frequency cicada from New Caledonia (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Delorme, Quentin; Mille, Christian; Jourdan, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Murmurillana Delorme gen. nov., is described within the tribe Cicadettini Buckton, 1889, designating Murmurillana inaudibilis Delorme sp. nov., as the type species. Murmurillana inaudibilis Delorme sp. nov. and Murmurillana paenetacita Delorme sp. nov. are described from New Caledonia. They are respectively found in mid altitude dense Niaouli shrub (Melaleuca quinquenervia, Myrtaceae) vegetation, mixed with dense fern cover (Pteridium sp., Dennstaedtiaceae) on the Massif of Aoupinié (800 m) and on foothills of the Mont Panié (570 m). Male calling songs of the two new species are described from field recordings. These calling songs exhibit unusually high dominant frequencies. A key to the species of Murmurillana Delorme gen. nov., is also provided. PMID:27395606

  17. Extremely miniaturised and highly complex: the thoracic morphology of the first instar larva of Mengenilla chobauti (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Osswald, Judith; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2010-07-01

    Thoracic structures of the extremely small first instar larva of the strepsipteran species Mengenilla chobauti (ca. 200 microm) were examined, described and reconstructed 3-dimensionally. The focus is on the skeletomuscular system. The characters were compared to conditions found in other insect larvae of very small (Ptiliidae) or large (Dytiscus) size (both Coleoptera) and features of "triungulin" larvae, first instar larvae of Rhipiphoridae, Meloidae (both Coleoptera), and Mantispidae (Neuroptera). The specific lifestyle and the extreme degree of miniaturisation result in numerous thoracic modifications. Many sclerites of the exo- and endoskeleton are reduced. Cervical sclerites, pleural ridges, furcae and spinae are absent. Most of the longitudinal muscles are connected within the thorax, and a pair of ventral longitudinal muscles is present in the pleural region of the meso- and metathorax. This results in a high intersegmental flexibility. Due to the size reduction and the correlated shift of the brain to the thorax, with 94 identified muscles the thoracic musculature appears highly compact. Compared to larger larvae the number of both the individual muscles and the muscle bundles are distinctly reduced. The thorax of the first instar larvae displays many additional strepsipteran autapomorphies. At least partly due to the highly specialised condition, potential synapomorphies with other groups were not found.

  18. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857), Turin

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera), belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis comparata Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis dives Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis pumila Klug, 1845; Chrysis succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis analis Spinola, 1808; Chrysis assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis bihamata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis chilensis Spinola, 1851; Chrysis dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis episcopalis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis incrassata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pulchella Spinola, 1808; Chrysis ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis refulgens Spinola, 1806; Chrysis splendens Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; Hedychrum difficile Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984); Chrysis calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965); Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991)); Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986); Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984). Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781); Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis distinguenda Spinola, 1838, and Chrysis coronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrum alterum Lepeletier, 1806, and Hedychrum aulicum Spinola, 1843, are considered nomina oblita. Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854, and Hedychrum niemelai Linsenmaier, 1959, are retained as nomina protecta. The first available name for Chrysis succinctula sensu Linsenmaier is Chrysis tristicula Linsenmaier, 1959, (stat. n.) The current status and validity of some types in the Spinola collection are discussed. Photographs of fifty-three types are given. PMID:25632245

  19. Case 3693 Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae): Proposed suppression of Cryptodacus Gundlach, 1862 (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norrbom, Allen L.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Chen, Xiao-Lin; David, King J.; De Meyer, Marc; Freidberg, Amnon; Han, Ho-Yeon; Steck, Gary J.; Thompson, F. Christian; White, Ian M.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this application, under Article 23.9.3, is to conserve current usage of the well-established genus-group name Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 for a genus of Neotropical fruit flies by suppression of the earlier, unused name Crypto- dacus Gundlach, 1862, currently a junior synonym of Arrhyton Günther, 1858, a genus of snakes, under the plenary power of the Commission, in the interest of nomenclatural stability. Cryptodacus Gundlach has not been used as a valid name since 1883, whereas Cryptodacus Hendel has been used in a significant body of literature relating to fruit fly systematics, morphology and phylogeny and is the currently used name in various name and molecular databases. 

  20. A DNA barcode library for ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Germany: The genus Bembidion Latreille, 1802 and allied taxa

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well. PMID:27408547

  1. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  2. Central European Acer- and Salicaceae-feeding aphids of the genus Stomaphis (Insecta: Aphidoidea: Lachnidae) -separate species or populations?

    PubMed

    Depa, Lukasz; Mróz, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    In Europe, there are three aphid species of the genus Stomaphis Walker that feed on trees in the genus Acer and one that feeds on trees in the family Salicaceae. Although these species are considered morphologically distinct, their uncertain host specificity and variation in morphological features has led to misidentifications or questionable attribution of subspecies status. The aim of the present study was to clarify the identity of the Central European representatives on the basis of morphological and molecular analyses. Our study is based on 42 samples from Central Europe and Northern Italy. Mitochondrial markers COXI and COXII were used to determine the molecular identity of the specimens studied. Our molecular analyses revealed the existence of three clades (two on Acer, one on Salicaceae) as defined by both molecular markers. Morphological analysis showed a broad range of variability of the key morphological features in all three clades. Despite significant differences in the mean values of morphometric traits, their range of variability strongly overlapped. Samples from COXI clades on Acer showed two different patterns of geographical distribution. Host specificity is recognized only at the level of host plant genera (Acer) and family (Salicaceae), excluding the possibility of the existence of separate subspecies on single host plant species.

  3. Faunistic catalog of the caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its surroundings in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia - PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:22958122

  4. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers highlight the biodiversity of Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius, 1793) (Insecta, Isoptera, Kalotermitidae) in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Velonà, A; Luchetti, A; Ghesini, S; Marini, M; Mantovani, B

    2011-06-01

    The biodiversity of the European termite Kalotermes flavicollis is here studied through the analysis of mitochondrial (303 bp of control region and 912 bp of COI/tRNA(Leu)/COII) and nuclear (five microsatellite and 20 Inter-SINE loci) markers on 18 colonies collected in Southern France, Corsica, Sardinia, peninsular Italy, the Balkans and Greece. Different statistical analyses (Bayesian phylogenetic analysis,parsimony network, F-statistics, PCA) were performed. Mitochondrial sequences produced an unresolved polytomy including samples from peninsular Italy, Balkans and Greece, and three main clades: southern France, Corsica-Sardinia and Portoscuso(SW Sardinia). Nuclear markers confirm these data, further highlighting a more significant divergence at the regional scale. The results obtained for the peri-Tyrrhenian area agree with major paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events that shaped the biodiversity of the local fauna. K. flavicollis biodiversity and its phylogeographic pattern are also evaluated in the light of the data available for the other native European termite taxon (genus Reticulitermes), in order to produce a more complete scenario of the Mediterranean. In the area comprised between southern France and Italy, the degree of diversity is similar; however, in the eastern area, while K. flavicollis is differentiated only at the population level, the genus Reticulitermes comprises at least six entities of specific and/or subspecific level. This discrepancy may be explained by taking into account the different evolutionary histories of the two taxa. PMID:21226979

  5. Bioefficacy of plant-mediated gold nanoparticles and Anthocepholus cadamba on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, A Naresh; Jeyalalitha, T; Murugan, K; Madhiyazhagan, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases in India, e.g., malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, and Japanese encephalitis cause thousands of deaths per year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is of serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Noble metal nanoparticles have been used because of their unique optical properties; especially gold and silver have a broad absorption band in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cymbopogan citratus is an ecofriendly approach for safer environment. C. citratus leaf broth was a good reducing agent that converted chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) to metal gold and further heating converted it into nanoparticles. Characterization using UV spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the particles are gold nanoparticles ranging between 10 and 110 nm with an average particles size of 20 nm. Further biosynthesized gold nanoparticles and Anthocephalus cadamba were experimented for the larvicidal effect on the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Results showed that the gold nanoparticles are much toxic than the plant extract. Observed lethal concentrations (LC(50) and LC(90)) were 1.08 and 2.76 ppm for gold nanoparticles and 21.82 and 79.52 ppm for the third instar of C. quinquefasciatus.

  6. Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Quixadá, Ceará State, Brazil: new records and new species.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Bravo, Freddy; Monnè, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Quixadá County, Ceará State, Brazil is presented. Fifty-six specimens were examined and 32 species were identified, distributed in 29 genera, 19 tribes and two subfamilies. Fifteen species are new distributional records for Ceará State. Nealcidion latipenne (Bates, 1863) is recorded by the first time in Caatinga Biome. Lathroeus immaculatus sp. nov. (Acanthocinini, Lamiinae) is described and figured.

  7. The genus Macronemus Dejean, 1835 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae): two new species, new records and a new synonymy.

    PubMed

    Machado, Vanessa S; Monné, Marcela L

    2013-01-01

    The genus Macronemus Dejean, 1835 is redescribed and two new species are described: Macronemus mimus sp. nov. from Brazil (Bahia to Santa Catarina) and Argentina and Macronemus giuglarisi sp. nov. from French Guiana and Brazil (Amapá, Amazonas). M. verrucosus (Pascoe, 1866) is considered a new synonym of M. asperulus White, 1855. New distributional data and a key to the seven species of the genus are provided.

  8. Two new species and new records of Cerambycidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) from Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A; Botero, Juan P; Carelli, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The descriptions of two species of Lamiinae, Lepturges (Lepturges) batesi sp. nov. (Acanthocinini) and Onocephala chicomendes sp. nov. (Onocephalini) and an addendum of Cerambycinae and Lamiinae to the list of species of Cerambycidae in the Itatiaia National Park are presented. The data are based on fieldwork conducted over the last six years. Eighteen species of Cerambycinae and 21 of Lamiinae are recorded, with a total of 39 new distribution records.

  9. A new genus and new bromelicolous species of Cicadellini (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mejdalani, Gabriel; Quintas, Victor; Carvalho, Rachel A; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    A new genus, Cavichiana, is described for a new species of Cicadellini, C. bromelicola, from Southeastern Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo). The new genus can be distinguished from other genera of the Cicadellini by the following combination of features: (1) head deltoid, strongly produced anteriorly; (2) ocelli located distinctly anterad of anterior eye angles; (3) aedeagus tubular, elongate, its apex with a conspicuous crown of spines; (4) paraphyses with both stalk and rami elongate, rami slender and each with basidorsal dentiform projection. The new species has a distinctive color pattern. The dorsum is dark brown to black with contrasting blue to white spots. The anterior half of the fore wings has a large, circular transcommissural yellow macula bordered by a blue to white border, the anterior portion of this macula covering the scutellum. Specimens of the new species were found on leaves of bromeliads in areas of restinga (sand dune vegetation) of the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil. Other cases of association between hemipterans and bromeliads are listed and briefly discussed.

  10. Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov. (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Praesiricidae), the Hitherto Largest Sawfly from the Mesozoic of China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Taiping; Shih, Chungkun; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Large body size of an insect, in general, enhances its capability of predation, competition, and defense, resulting in better survivability and reproduction. Hymenopterans, most being phytophagous or parasitic, have a relatively small to medium body size, typically under 50.0 mm in body length. Principal Findings Herein, we describe Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., assigned to Praesiricidae, from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China. This new species is the largest fossil hymenopteran hitherto with body estimated >55.0 mm long and wing span >92.0 mm. H. duolunica is, to our knowledge, the only sawfly with Sc present in the hind wing but not in the forewing. Its Rs1 and M1 meeting each other at 145° angle represents an intermediate in the transition from “Y” to “T” shapes. Even though Hoplitolyda differs significantly from all previously described genera in two subfamilies of Praesricidae, we leave the new genus unplaced in existing subfamilies, pending discovery of material with more taxonomic structure. Conclusions/Significance Hoplitolyda has many unique and interesting characters which might have benefitted its competition, survival, and reproduction: large body size and head with robust and strong mandibles for defense and/or sexual selection, unique wing venation and setal arrangements for flight capability and mobility, dense hairs on body and legs for sensing and protection, etc. Considering the reported ferocious predators of feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, birds, and mammals coexisting in the same eco-system, Hoplitolyda is an interesting case of “survival of the fittest” in facing its evolutionary challenges. PMID:23671596

  11. Preliminary list of the leaf-roller moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Virginia with comments on spatial and temporal distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the examination of 3,457 pinned specimens, we document 263 species of leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The vast majority of specimens examined are from five unrelated efforts: a survey of George Washington Memorial Parkway National Park, Fairfa...

  12. On the female of Gypona reversa DeLong & Martinson, 1972, with emphasis on genital structures (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Luci B. N.; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Gypona reversa DeLong & Martinson, 1972 has its ovipositor described and illustrated based on the examination of specimens from its type locality. This is the first species of Gypona Germar, 1821 to have the female genitalia detailed description published. PMID:25589876

  13. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, James E.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Tachinidae of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued and seven genera and eight species are newly described. There are 237 genera and 1126 species recognized, of which 101 genera and 1043 species are endemic to the region. The catalogue is based on examination of the primary literature comprising about 525 references as well as numerous name-bearing types and other specimens housed in collections. Taxa are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically under the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus (where recognized), species, and rarely subspecies. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms (mostly restricted to Afrotropical taxa) and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country within the Afrotropical Region and by larger geographical divisions outside the region. Additional information is given in the form of notes, numbering about 300 in the catalogue section. Seven genera and eight species are described as new: Afrophylax Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Austrosolieria Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa) and Austrosolieria freidbergi Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Malawi) (Tachininae, Leskiini); Carceliathrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Filistea Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, gen. n. and Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Uganda) (Exoristinae, Blondeliini); Mesnilotrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, gen. n. (Dexiinae, Dexiini); Myxophryxe Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n., Myxophryxe murina Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), Myxophryxe regalis Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), and Myxophryxe satanas Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini); and Stiremania Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Stiremania karoo Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa), and Stiremania robusta Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini). Paraclara Bezzi, 1908 is transferred from the Cylindromyiini to the Hermyini, comb. n. Sarrorhina Villeneuve, 1936 is transferred from the Minthoini to the Graphogastrini, comb. n. Three genera are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Madremyia Townsend, 1916 (Eryciini); Paratrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (Blondeliini); and Simoma Aldrich, 1926 (Goniini). Three genera previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Calozenillia Townsend, 1927 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Eurysthaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); and Trixa Meigen, 1824 (Palaearctic and Oriental regions). Two species are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Amnonia carmelitana Kugler, 1971 (Ethiopia, Kenya); and Simoma grahami Aldrich, 1926 (Namibia). Three species previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Euthera peringueyi Bezzi, 1925 (Oriental Region); Hamaxia incongrua Walker, 1860 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Leucostoma tetraptera (Meigen, 1824) (Palaearctic Region). New replacement names are proposed for five preoccupied names of Afrotropical species: Billaea rubida O’Hara & Cerretti for Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve, 1916, preoccupied in the genus Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Musca rutilans Fabricius, 1781, nom. n.; Cylindromyia braueri O’Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera nigra Villeneuve, 1918, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Glossidionophora nigra Bigot, 1885, nom. n.; Cylindromyia rufohumera O’Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera scapularis Villeneuve, 1944, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Ocyptera scapularis Loew, 1845, nom. n.; Phytomyptera longiarista O’Hara & Cerretti for Phytomyzoneura aristalis Villeneuve, 1936, preoccupied in the genus Phytomyptera Rondani, 1845 by Phasiostoma aristalis Townsend, 1915, nom. n.; and Siphona (Siphona) pretoriana O’Hara & Cerretti for Siphona laticornis Curran, 1941, preoccupied in the genus Siphona Meigen, 1803 by Actia laticornis Malloch, 1930, nom. n. New type species fixations are made under the provisions of Article 70.3.2 of the ICZN Code for two genus-group names: Lydellina Villeneuve, 1916, type species newly fixed as Lydellina villeneuvei Townsend, 1933 (valid genus name); and Sericophoromyia Austen, 1909, type species newly fixed as Tachina quadrata Wiedemann, 1830 (synonym of Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). Lectotypes are designated for the following nine nominal species based on examination of one or more syntypes of each: Degeeria crocea Villeneuve, 1950; Degeeria semirufa Villeneuve, 1950; Erycia brunnescens Villeneuve, 1934; Exorista oculata Villeneuve, 1910; Kiniatilla tricincta Villeneuve, 1938; Myxarchiclops caffer Villeneuve, 1916; Ocyptera linearis Villeneuve, 1936; Peristasisea luteola Villeneuve, 1934; and Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938. The following four genus-group names that were previously treated as junior synonyms or subgenera are recognized as valid generic names: Bogosiella Villeneuve, 1923, status revived; Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939, status revived; Perlucidina Mesnil, 1952, status revived; and Thelymyiops Mesnil, 1950, status n. The following six species-group names that were previously treated as junior synonyms are recognized as valid species names: Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908, status revived; Degeeria cinctella Villeneuve, 1950, status revived (as Medina cinctella (Villeneuve)); Nemoraea miranda intacta Villeneuve, 1916, status revived (as Nemoraea intacta Villeneuve); Succingulum exiguum Villeneuve, 1935, status revived (as Trigonospila exigua (Villeneuve)); Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia abbreviata (Mesnil)); and Wagneria rufitibia nudinerva Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia nudinerva (Mesnil)). The following 25 new or revived combinations are proposed: Afrophylax aureiventris (Villeneuve, 1910), comb. n.; Blepharella orbitalis (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Bogosiella pomeroyi Villeneuve, 1923, comb. revived; Brachychaetoides violacea (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Carceliathrix crassipalpis (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Charitella whitmorei (Cerretti, 2012), comb. n.; Dyshypostena edwardsi (van Emden, 1960), comb. n.; Dyshypostena tarsalis Villeneuve, 1939, comb. revived; Estheria buccata (van Emden, 1947), comb. n.; Estheria surda (Curran, 1933), comb. n.; Filistea aureofasciata (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Madremyia setinervis (Mesnil, 1968), comb. n.; Mesnilotrix empiformis (Mesnil, 1976), comb. n.; Myxophryxe longirostris (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Nealsomyia chloronitens (Mesnil, 1977), comb. n.; Nealsomyia clausa (Curran, 1940), comb. n.; Nilea longicauda (Mesnil, 1970), comb. n.; Paratrixa aethiopica Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Paratrixa stammeri Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Perlucidina africana (Jaennicke, 1867), comb. n.; Perlucidina perlucida (Karsch, 1886), comb. revived; Prolophosia retroflexa (Villeneuve, 1944), comb. n.; Sturmia profana (Karsch, 1888), comb. n.; additionally, Ceromasia rufiventris Curran, 1927 is treated as an unplaced species of Goniini, comb. n. and Hemiwinthemia stuckenbergi Verbeke, 1973 is treated as an unplaced species of Leskiini, comb. n. New or revived generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following nine names: Afrosturmia Curran, 1927 with Blepharella Macquart, 1851, syn. n.; Archiphania van Emden, 1945 with Catharosia Rondani, 1868, syn. revived; Besseria longicornis Zeegers, 2007 with Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908 (current name Besseria fossulata), syn. n.; Dexiomera Curran, 1933 with Estheria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, syn. n.; Hemiwinthemia francoisi Verbeke, 1973 with Nemoraea capensis Schiner, 1868 (current name Smidtia capensis), syn. n.; Kinangopana van Emden, 1960 with Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939, syn. n.; Metadrinomyia Shima, 1980 with Charitella Mesnil, 1957, syn. n.; Phorocera majestica Curran, 1940 with Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938 (current name Myxophryxe longirostris), syn. n.; and Podomyia discalis Curran, 1939 with Antistasea fimbriata Bischof, 1904 (current name Antistasea fimbriata), syn. n. PMID:27110184

  14. Description of the female terminalia of twelve species of Proconiini and a key to genera from Argentina (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Dellapé, Gimena

    2016-01-01

    The female terminalia of 12 sharpshooter species are described and illustrated: Aulacizes basalis, A. conspersa, A. insistans, A. obsoleta, A. quadripunctata, Cicciana latreillei, Pseudometopia amblardii, Stictoscarta sulcicollis, Tretogonia bergi, T. cribata, T. dentalis, and T. notatifrons. A key to the identification of the Argentinean Proconiini genera including male and female characters is provided. PMID:27395170

  15. Contrasting genetic structure of closely related giant water bugs: phylogeography of Appasus japonicus and Appasus major (Insecta: Heteroptera, Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Kitano, Tadashi; Tojo, Koji

    2014-03-01

    Appasus japonicus and A. major, two belostomatid species of the giant water bug found in parts of East Asia, have very similar morphological characteristics and ecological niches, and also overlapping habitats. However, the results of our previous published study utilizing molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed extensive genetic differences, which indicated that the possibility of inter-specific hybridization was extremely unlikely. We collected A. japonicus and A. major from the Japanese Archipelago, Korean Peninsula, and Russian Far East, and conducted molecular analyses of mitochondrial DNA COI and 16S rRNA to compare phylogenetic relationships between these species. Three major clades were recognized within A. japonicus. Specimens from the Korean population constituted a monophyletic clade, and were a sister group of the western region of the Japanese Archipelago. The Eastern Japanese clade was clearly differentiated. Four major clades were recognized within A. major. Specimens from the Japanese and Korean populations revealed two distinct monophyletic clades. Significant differentiation was clearly observed between their genetic structures. Furthermore, the results of mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline plot analyses suggested the possibility of a bottleneck effect or founder effect in two of the A. major clades. Collectively, these results demonstrated both similarities and differences in these two species even though their distribution widely overlaps in East Asia, with their morphological characteristics and ecological niches being very similar. These differences in genetic structures are considered to be due to their evolutionary history.

  16. Chapter 3. Integration of botanicals and microbial pesticides for the control of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes are the single most important group of insects in terms of public health significance and causing diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and other fevers. There has been an outbreak of Chikungunya and dengue all over the India from 2006 – 2009. Aedes ae...

  17. A New Fossil of Necrotauliidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Jiulongshan Formation of China and Its Taxonomic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yujia; Zhang, Weiting; Yao, Yunzhi; Ren, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background Acisarcuatus variradius gen. et sp. nov., an extinct new species representing a new genus, is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we revised the diagnosis of Necrotauliidae Handlirsch, 1906. One new genus and species of Necrotauliidae is described. An analysis based on the fossil morphological characters clarified the taxonomic status of the new taxa. Conclusions/Significance New fossil evidence supports the viewpoint that the family Necrotauliidae belongs to the Integripalpia. PMID:25494387

  18. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders. Mecoptera was recovered as the sister-group of Diptera. Neuropterida (Neuroptera + Megaloptera), and a sister-group relationship with (Diptera + Mecoptera) were supported across all analyses. Conclusions Our comparative studies indicate that mitochondrial genomes are a useful phylogenetic tool at the ordinal level within Holometabola, at the superfamily within Hymenoptera and at the subfamily level within Braconidae. Variation at all of these hierarchical levels suggests that the utility of mitochondrial genomes is likely to be a valuable tool for systematics in other groups of arthropods. PMID:20537196

  19. How old are the rove beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and their lineages? Seeking an answer with DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2013-06-01

    The phylogeny and related evolutionary history of rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) remain unclear. This study provides phylogenetic analyses for the family based on three genes (mitochondrial COI, nuclear protein-coding wingless and a portion of the ribosomal 28S rDNA) including 2413 bp for 104 taxa representing most major staphylinid lineages. The subfamilies Oxyporinae, Paederinae, Steninae, and Proteininae are all well-supported clades, as evidenced by all three inference methods, namely maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference, and maximum likelihood. From fossils available for calibration, the divergence time of the main lineages in the family is estimated based on an uncorrelated lognormal relaxed molecular clock analysis method. The molecular clock analysis suggests that the family Staphylinidae dates from approximately the Early Triassic epoch and the most lineages of the family started to radiate from the Late Jurassic to the Early Paleogene.

  20. A new species of Rotigonalia (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Peru with a key to males of the genus.

    PubMed

    Leal, Afonso Henrique; Mejdalani, Gabriel; Creão-Duarte, Antonio J

    2016-01-01

    Rotigonalia regina sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on a male specimen from Pasco, Peru. The holotype of R. regina is rather large in comparison with other specimens of the genus, but the inflated clypeus and the shape of the paraphyses support its inclusion in Rotigonalia Young, 1977. A key to males of the five known species of Rotigonalia is given. PMID:27395668