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Sample records for cinnamomum cassia extracts

  1. Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Verspohl, Eugen J; Bauer, Katrin; Neddermann, Eckhard

    2005-03-01

    Rats were given Cinnamomum cassia bark or extracts from Cinnamomum cassia and zeylanicum to evaluate blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in rats under various conditions. The cassia extract was superior to the zeylanicum extract. The cassia extract was slightly more efficacious than the equivalent amount of Cassia bark. A decrease in blood glucose levels was observed in a glucose tolerance test (GTT), whereas it was not obvious in rats that were not challenged by a glucose load. The elevation in plasma insulin was direct since a stimulatory in vitro effect of insulin release from INS-1 cells (an insulin secreting cell line) was observed. Thus the cassia extract has a direct antidiabetic potency.

  2. Efficacy of Cinnamomum cassia Blume. in age induced sexual dysfunction of rats

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Jamwal, Rohitash; Dethe, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cinnamomum cassia has been suggested in Ayurveda for the management of sexual dysfunction. This research work was conducted to shed some light on the mechanism of action of the extract, and evaluate the efficacy of its methanol extract in age induced sexual dysfunction in male Wistar rats. Secondary objective of the project was to study the effect of treatment on sperm parameters and smooth muscle:collagen level in rat penile tissue. Methods Young and aged male rats were treated with methanol extract of Cinnamomum cassia at a dose of 100 mg/kg and sexual behavior was observed on 28th day in presence of female rats in estrous phase. Sildenafil was used as standard medicine. Effect of treatment was studied on epididymal sperm parameters, and Massons trichrome staining of rat penile tissues was performed to know the level of smooth muscle:collagen. Results The treatment significantly increased sexual function in aged rats that had decreased in comparison to young rats, but did not have any significant effect on sperm count, live and defective sperm percentage. However, treatment induced an increase in smooth muscle level and a decrease in collagen level in the aged rat penile tissue in comparison to that of age matched control. Conclusion Based on our studies, we found that Cinnamomum cassia extract was effective in management of sexual dysfunction in aged rats and hence we propose a possible mechanism of action for Cinnamomum cassia which could be responsible for restoring sexual activity in aged rat. PMID:24563594

  3. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection.

  4. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection. PMID:20185867

  5. Nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-07-01

    Six new compounds including one γ-butyrolactone, cinncassin A (1), two tetrahydrofuran derivatives, cinncassins B and C (2, 3), two lignans, cinncassins D and E (4, 5), and one phenylpropanol glucoside, cinnacassoside D (6), together with 14 known lignans (7-20) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and calculated ECD data. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 5, 7, 8, and 15 showed potent inhibition activities with IC50 values of 17.6, 17.7, 18.7, and 17.5μM, respectively. PMID:27223848

  6. The standardized BHH10 extract, a combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, reverses bone mass and metabolism in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kang, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Woo; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17β-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity. PMID:25230217

  7. Influence of herbal combinations on the extraction efficiencies of chemical compounds from Cinnamomum cassia, Paeonia lactiflora, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the herbal components of Gyeji-tang, evaluated by HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Woo-Ram; Park, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Guemsan; Choi, Goya; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-09-10

    During decoction process, the ingredients of herbal formula interact with each other, such that therapeutic properties and chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Cinnamomum cassia (CC), Paeonia lactiflora (PL), and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU), are the main herbal constituents of Gyeji-tang, a traditional herbal formula. To evaluate the chemical interaction between CC, PL, and GU during the course of decoction, quantification of 16 marker compounds in the herbal decoction, performed using a Box-Behnken experimental design, was carried out by HPLC-diode array detection using validated method. Correlations between the amounts of marker compounds from CC, PL, and GU were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained showed that amounts of single herb marker compounds significantly changed (usually decreased) by decoction in the presence of other herbs and that these changes depended on the chemical natures of the markers and the herbal medicines present. Results also demonstrated that the extraction efficiencies of marker compounds increased when the proportion of the herb containing them was increased and decreased in proportion to amounts of herbs added. In conclusion, chemical interactions between compositional herbal medicines may occur when herbs are co-decocted. This study provides insight of understanding the herbal interactions in herbal formulae. PMID:27399342

  8. Influence of herbal combinations on the extraction efficiencies of chemical compounds from Cinnamomum cassia, Paeonia lactiflora, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the herbal components of Gyeji-tang, evaluated by HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Woo-Ram; Park, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Guemsan; Choi, Goya; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-09-10

    During decoction process, the ingredients of herbal formula interact with each other, such that therapeutic properties and chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Cinnamomum cassia (CC), Paeonia lactiflora (PL), and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU), are the main herbal constituents of Gyeji-tang, a traditional herbal formula. To evaluate the chemical interaction between CC, PL, and GU during the course of decoction, quantification of 16 marker compounds in the herbal decoction, performed using a Box-Behnken experimental design, was carried out by HPLC-diode array detection using validated method. Correlations between the amounts of marker compounds from CC, PL, and GU were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained showed that amounts of single herb marker compounds significantly changed (usually decreased) by decoction in the presence of other herbs and that these changes depended on the chemical natures of the markers and the herbal medicines present. Results also demonstrated that the extraction efficiencies of marker compounds increased when the proportion of the herb containing them was increased and decreased in proportion to amounts of herbs added. In conclusion, chemical interactions between compositional herbal medicines may occur when herbs are co-decocted. This study provides insight of understanding the herbal interactions in herbal formulae.

  9. Cinnamomum cassia Suppresses Caspase-9 through Stimulation of AKT1 in MCF-7 Cells but Not in MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour Rad, Sima; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Lee, Guan Serm; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is a popular culinary spice used for flavoring and in traditional medicine. C. cassia extract (CE) induces apoptosis in many cell lines. In the present study, particular differences in the mechanism of the anti-proliferative property of C. cassia on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings The hexane extract of C. cassia demonstrated high anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50, 34±3.52 and 32.42 ±0.37 μg/ml, respectively). Oxidative stress due to disruption of antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx and CAT) activity is suggested as the probable cause for apoptosis initiation. Though the main apoptosis pathway in both cell lines was found to be through caspase-8 activation, caspase-9 was also activated in MDA-MB-231 cells but suppressed in MCF-7 cells. Gene expression studies revealed that AKT1, the caspase-9 suppressor, was up-regulated in MCF-7 cells while down-regulated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Although, AKT1 protein expression in both cell lines was down-regulated, a steady increase in MCF-7 cells was observed after a sharp decrease of suppression of AKT1. Trans-cinnamaldehyde and coumarin were isolated and identified and found to be mainly responsible for the observed anti-proliferative activity of CE (Cinnamomum cassia). Conclusion Activation of caspase-8 is reported for the first time to be involved as the main apoptosis pathway in breast cancer cell lines upon treatment with C. cassia. The double effects of C. cassia on AKT1 gene expression in MCF-7 cells is reported for the first time in this study. PMID:26700476

  10. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  11. The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, Ashley N.; Stockert, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men) participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P-value of 3.915 × 10−10. The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average overall decrease in their blood sugar levels of about 30 mg/dL, which is comparable to oral medications available for diabetes. All subjects were educated on appropriate diabetic diets and maintained that diet for the entire 12 week study. Greater decreases in blood glucose values were observed in patients using the cinnamon compared to those using the dietary changes alone. PMID:23882151

  12. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon leaf, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Citronella...

  13. Aqueous Cinnamon Extract (ACE-c) from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia causes apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa) through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemoprevention, which includes the use of synthetic or natural agents (alone or in combination) to block the development of cancer in human beings, is an extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention. Cinnamon is one of the most widely used herbal medicines with diverse biological activities including anti-tumor activity. In the present study, we have reported the anti-neoplastic activity of cinnamon in cervical cancer cell line, SiHa. Methods The aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE-c) was analyzed for its cinnamaldehyde content by HPTLC analysis. The polyphenol content of ACE-c was measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Cytotoxicity analysis was performed by MTT assay. We studied the effect of cinnamon on growth kinetics by performing growth curve, colony formation and soft agar assays. The cells treated with ACE-c were analyzed for wound healing assay as well as for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression at mRNA and protein level by RT-PCR and zymography, respectively. Her-2 protein expression was analyzed in the control and ACE-c treated samples by immunoblotting as well as confocal microscopy. Apoptosis studies and calcium signaling assays were analyzed by FACS. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in cinnamon treated cells was studied by JC-1 staining and analyzed by confocal microscopy as well as FACS. Results Cinnamon alters the growth kinetics of SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with ACE-c exhibited reduced number of colonies compared to the control cells. The treated cells exhibited reduced migration potential that could be explained due to downregulation of MMP-2 expression. Interestingly, the expression of Her-2 oncoprotein was significantly reduced in the presence of ACE-c. Cinnamon extract induced apoptosis in the cervical cancer cells through increase in intracellular calcium signaling as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion Cinnamon could be used as a potent chemopreventive drug

  14. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pannee, Chinjarernpan; Chandhanee, Itthipanichpong; Wacharee, Limpanasithikul

    2014-10-01

    Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages. PMID:25364694

  15. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon...

  16. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon...

  17. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon...

  18. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon...

  19. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon...

  20. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon...

  1. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon...

  2. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon...

  3. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon...

  4. Cinnamomum cassia Bark in Two Herbal Formulas Increases Life Span in Caenorhabditis elegans via Insulin Signaling and Stress Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Young-Beob; Dosanjh, Laura; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Shim, Bum Sang; Luo, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. Methods and Principal Findings In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB) and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN) and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS) significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS) also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human Aβ. Conclusion/Significance These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s). PMID:20179756

  5. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts.

    PubMed

    Goldson Barnaby, Andrea; Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  6. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  7. Effect of a Vietnamese Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major component trans-cinnamaldehyde on the cell viability, membrane integrity, membrane fluidity, and proton motive force of Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Dumas, Emilie; Thanh, Mai Le; Degraeve, Pascal; Ben Amara, Chedia; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The antibacterial mechanism of a Cinnamomum cassia essential oil from Vietnam and of its main component (trans-cinnamaldehyde, 90% (m/m) of C. cassia essential oil) against a Listeria innocua strain was investigated to estimate their potential for food preservation. In the presence of C. cassia essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde at their minimal bactericidal concentration (2700 μg·mL(-1)), L. innocua cells fluoresced green after staining with Syto9® and propidium iodide, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy, suggesting that the perturbation of membrane did not cause large pore formation and cell lysis but may have introduced the presence of viable but nonculturable bacteria. Moreover, the fluidity, potential, and intracellular pH of the cytoplasmic membrane were perturbed in the presence of the essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde. However, these membrane perturbations were less severe in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde than in the presence of multicomponent C. cassia essential oil. This indicates that in addition to trans-cinnamaldehyde, other minor C. cassia essential oil components play a major role in its antibacterial activity against L. innocua cells.

  8. LARVICIDAL POTENTIAL AND MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA MIMOSOIDES EXTRACTS.

    PubMed

    Alayo, M A; Femi-Oyewo, M N; Bakre, L G; Fashina, A O

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate larvicidal activities of extracts of Cassia mimosoides leaves and pods as a potential agent in vector control of malaria and to evaluate repellent effect against Anopheles gambiae mosquito of the extract formulated in an aqueous cream base. Petroleum spirit, ethanol, water and dichloromethane extracts were tested against third and fourth instar Anopheles gambiae larvae. The petroleum extract was formulated in an aqueous cream base and repellency determined using N-N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) as control. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, steroids, and flavonoids but absence of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids in powdered C. mimosoides. A dose related response was observed in the mortality rate of the extracts, with 2 mg/ml petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts achieving 100 % mortality. Larvicidal activity of extracts based on LC50 values was petroleum ether > dichloromethane > ethanol > water. The formulated petroleum ether extract cream had a characteristic odor, hard and smooth texture, skin feeling of smoothness, ease of application by rubbing, easy removal using soap and water, non-irritating effect on skin and an acceptable pH value. The cream containing 2%-6% (w/w) extract and control achieved 100% repellency against mosquitoes after an exposure time of 5 minutes. There was a linear relationship between percent concentration of plant extract in the cream samples and repellent activity. These results suggest that crude extracts of C. mimosoides can be developed as eco-friendly larvicide and mosquito repellent and encourage further effort to investigate the bioactive compounds in the extracts.

  9. LARVICIDAL POTENTIAL AND MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA MIMOSOIDES EXTRACTS.

    PubMed

    Alayo, M A; Femi-Oyewo, M N; Bakre, L G; Fashina, A O

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate larvicidal activities of extracts of Cassia mimosoides leaves and pods as a potential agent in vector control of malaria and to evaluate repellent effect against Anopheles gambiae mosquito of the extract formulated in an aqueous cream base. Petroleum spirit, ethanol, water and dichloromethane extracts were tested against third and fourth instar Anopheles gambiae larvae. The petroleum extract was formulated in an aqueous cream base and repellency determined using N-N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) as control. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, steroids, and flavonoids but absence of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids in powdered C. mimosoides. A dose related response was observed in the mortality rate of the extracts, with 2 mg/ml petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts achieving 100 % mortality. Larvicidal activity of extracts based on LC50 values was petroleum ether > dichloromethane > ethanol > water. The formulated petroleum ether extract cream had a characteristic odor, hard and smooth texture, skin feeling of smoothness, ease of application by rubbing, easy removal using soap and water, non-irritating effect on skin and an acceptable pH value. The cream containing 2%-6% (w/w) extract and control achieved 100% repellency against mosquitoes after an exposure time of 5 minutes. There was a linear relationship between percent concentration of plant extract in the cream samples and repellent activity. These results suggest that crude extracts of C. mimosoides can be developed as eco-friendly larvicide and mosquito repellent and encourage further effort to investigate the bioactive compounds in the extracts. PMID:26867378

  10. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of twig extract from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Min; Chen, Yu-Han; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report concerning the α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of cinnamon twig extracts. Comparing the antihyperglycemic activity of renewable plant parts, indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum; tǔ ròu guì) twig extracts (CoTE) showed better α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than leaf, 2-cm branch and 5-cm branch extracts. Chemotype of C. osmophloeum has no influence on the antihyperglycemic activities and proanthocyanidin contents of CoTE. Among four soluble fractions obtained from CoTE by following bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, the n-butanol soluble fraction (BSF) with abundant proanthocyanidins and condensed tannins, exhibited the best antihyperglycemic and PTP1B inhibitory activities. In addition, the BSF displayed the excellent DPPH free-radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of all four soluble fractions from CoTE showed high correlation coefficient with their proanthocyanidin and condensed tannin contents. Furthermore, CoTE had no toxicity on 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. Results obtained demonstrated that CoTE has excellent antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activities, and thus has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:27419094

  11. Antimicrobial activity of cloves and cinnamon extracts against food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria, and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in ground chicken meat with their essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol, aqueous extracts, and essential oils of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) were analyzed for determination of antibacterial activity against 21 food borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes (5 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (...

  12. Extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil by Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jian-Ren; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chung; Ko, Chun-Han; Chang, Fang-Chih; Feng, Fong-Long; Wang, Ya-Nang

    2014-12-01

    83 acres of rice paddy fields in Taoyuan county, Taiwan, were polluted by cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) through a nearby irrigation channel, and rice plantation was ceased in 1987. Camphor trees (Cinnamomum camphora) have been planted in 2 acre of the above fields since 1991. Heavy metal accumulation of roots, leaves, branches and heartwood of camphor trees were analyzed during 20-year afforestation. Averaged Cd contents of the roots were found larger than the ones of the branches, leaves, sapwood and heartwood of camphor trees growing in three polluted plots. Averaged diameters at breast height (DBH) of the planted camphor trees were 13-15 cm. Cd pollution did not significantly impact the growth of camphor trees, as similar DBH's were found from both polluted and control sites. Annual growths of DBH were from 0.63 to 0.77 cm year(-1). Planting camphor trees sequestered 68.8 ton biomass per acre. During 20-year period, 0.69-1.98 ton C year(-1) ha(-1) were sequestered on three polluted plots. The above numbers exceeded IPCC LULUCF reference values 0.31-0.53 ton C year(-1) ha(-1) for activities at forest lands. PMID:25204813

  13. Effects of the polyphenol content on the anti-diabetic activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts.

    PubMed

    IM, Krishnakumar; Issac, Abin; NM, Johannah; Ninan, Eapen; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadassan

    2014-09-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a popular kitchen spice widely investigated for insulin potentiating effects. Though a group of water soluble polyphenols belonging to the oligomeric procyanidins has been identified as the bioactive principle, the lack of systematic information on the effect of the polyphenol content on safety and anti-diabetic efficacy remains as a major limitation for the development of optimized and standardized cinnamon extracts for functional use. In the present paper, water soluble extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum containing 45 and 75% gallic acid equivalents (GAE) of polyphenol content were prepared by a novel process and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. The polyphenol enhanced extracts were shown to be safe and offered better antioxidant potential, hypoglycemic effect, hypolipidimic effect, and significant decrease in other biochemical parameters as compared to the standard aqueous extract containing 15% GAE, when administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 200 mg per kg b.w. for 30 days. The efficacy of polyphenol extracts in lowering blood glucose levels and ameliorating oxidative stress was further demonstrated in humans by administrating 'procynZ-45' containing 45% GAE polyphenols at a relatively low dosage of (125 mg × 2) per day for 30 days to 15 volunteers who had elevated fasting blood glucose levels; but not involved in any medication.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, T.; Wins, J. Albino; Murugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of phytochemical constituents, which are secondary metabolites and are used either directly or indirectly in the pharmaceutical industry. ‘For centuries, man has effectively used various components of plants or their extracts for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. In the present study methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Cassia auriculata leaf were subjected for antimicrobial activity by well-diffusion method against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The results revealed that the methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms (zone of inhibition of 12-20 mm), except Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 10 mm or nil). The aqueous extracts showed moderate activity by ‘Zone of inhibition ≤12 or nil). The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents by standard protocols’ and were shown to contain carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The antibacterial activity of these extracts is possibly linked to the presence of flavonoids, steroid, saponins and/or tannins. Further studies are needed to determine the precise active principles from Cassia auriculata. PMID:23901174

  15. Supercritical CO2 extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Sanjust, Enrico; Meli, Massimo; Sollai, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The volatile oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction in different conditions of pressure and temperature. Its chemical composition was characterized by GC-MS analysis. Nineteen compounds, which in the supercritical extract represented >95% of the oil, were identified. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde (77.1%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (6.0%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), and eugenol (3.0%) were found to be the major constituents. The SFE oil of cinnamon was screened for its biological activity about the formation of melanin in vitro. The extract showed antityrosinase activity and was able to reduce the formation of insoluble flakes of melanin from tyrosine. The oil also delayed the browning effect in apple homogenate. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to be mainly responsible of this inhibition effect.

  16. Bioactivity studies on Cassia alata Linn. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Irene M; Canlas, Arlyn P; Pascua, Marcy Paul I; Sabando, May N; Soliven, Leen Aloha P

    2002-03-01

    The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Cussia alata Linn. were tested for their antimutagenic, antifungal, analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, the hexane extract was analgesic as it reduced the number of squirms induced by acetic acid by 59.5%. Both the hexane and EtOAc extracts exhibited antiinflammatory activity at a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse with a 65.5% and 68.2% decrease in carrageenan-induced inflammation, respectively. The chloroform extract was antimutagenic, at a dosage of 2 mg/20 g mouse, with a 65.8% inhibition in the mutagenicity of tetracycline. It was also the most active against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, at a concentration of 50 mg/mL but it had no activity against Candida albicans. The hexane and EtOAc extracts showed some activity against both organisms, with the EtOAc extract being more active against C. albicans. The EtOAc extract was hypoglycaemic. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, it decreased the blood sugar level of mice by 58.3%. Pharmacological studies showed that all extracts caused an immediate decrease in motor activity, enophthalmus, hyperemia, micturition and diarrhoea. At a dosage of 150 mg/20 g mouse, the EtOAc extract caused paralysis, screen grip loss and enophthalmus accompanied by drooping and closure of the eyelids. PMID:11933153

  17. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Yu, Chih-Wen; Chen, Hsiao Ling; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Hung, Shu-Hsien; Lee, Tai-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, an endemic plant to Taiwan, contains compounds that inhibit tyrosinase activity, similar to C. zeylanicum. The cytotoxicity of three sources of C. osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts was measured in B16-F10 cells using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At concentrations greater than 21.25 μg/mL, the ethanol extracts were toxic to the cells; therefore, 21.25 μg/mL was selected to test the tyrosinase activities. At this concentration, all three ethanol extracts decreased the melanin content by 50% in IBMX-induced B16-F10 cells. In addition to the melanin content, greater than 20% of the tyrosinase activity was inhibited by these ethanol extracts. The RT-PCR results showed that tyrosinase and transcription factor MITF mRNAs expression were down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, greater than 40% of the human tyrosinase promoter activity was inhibited based on the reporter assay. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts protect cells from UV exposure. C. osmophloeum Kanehira neutralized the IBMX-induced increase in melanin content in B16-F10 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase gene expression at the level of transcription. Moreover, the ethanol extracts also partially inhibited UV-induced cell damage and prevented cell death. Taken together, we conclude that C. osmophloeum Kanehira is a potential skin-whitening and protective agent.

  18. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Yu, Chih-Wen; Chen, Hsiao Ling; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Hung, Shu-Hsien; Lee, Tai-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, an endemic plant to Taiwan, contains compounds that inhibit tyrosinase activity, similar to C. zeylanicum. The cytotoxicity of three sources of C. osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts was measured in B16-F10 cells using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At concentrations greater than 21.25 μg/mL, the ethanol extracts were toxic to the cells; therefore, 21.25 μg/mL was selected to test the tyrosinase activities. At this concentration, all three ethanol extracts decreased the melanin content by 50% in IBMX-induced B16-F10 cells. In addition to the melanin content, greater than 20% of the tyrosinase activity was inhibited by these ethanol extracts. The RT-PCR results showed that tyrosinase and transcription factor MITF mRNAs expression were down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, greater than 40% of the human tyrosinase promoter activity was inhibited based on the reporter assay. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts protect cells from UV exposure. C. osmophloeum Kanehira neutralized the IBMX-induced increase in melanin content in B16-F10 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase gene expression at the level of transcription. Moreover, the ethanol extracts also partially inhibited UV-induced cell damage and prevented cell death. Taken together, we conclude that C. osmophloeum Kanehira is a potential skin-whitening and protective agent. PMID:27084445

  19. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Cassia siamea Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2015-01-01

    A traditional Thai medicinal extract from Cassia siamea was evaluated with respect to its larvicidal properties by determining the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h against the fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, which is a carrier of mosquito-borne diseases, by studying the histopathological alterations. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were 394.29, 350.24, 319.17 and 272.42 ppm, respectively. The histopathological lesions after exposure to 25% of the 24-h LC50 were observed primarily in the midgut of the larva. Lesions with edema, swelling, and deformation or elongation of the epithelial cells were observed. Moreover, cells protruding into the lumen and absent microvilli were also found in some areas. The present study reveals that aqueous C. siamea leaf extracts have natural biopesticide properties. PMID:26868707

  20. Phytotoxicity of Phytolacca americana leaf extracts on the growth, and physiological response of Cassia mimosoides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ok; Johnson, Jon D; Lee, Eun Ju

    2005-12-01

    We examined the allelochemical effects of control soil, native soil (treated soil), and leaf extracts of Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) on the germination rate and seedling growth of Cassia mimosoides var. nomame. We also studied the resulting changes in root-tip ultrastructure and peroxidase isozyme biochemistry. P. americana leaf extract inhibited seed germination, seedling growth, and biomass when compared to control and treated soil. Root and shoot growth in treated soil was stimulated relative to control soil, but root growth was inhibited by 50% in the leaf extract treatment. Biomass of C. mimosoides seedlings grown on leaf extract was reduced sevenfold when compared to the control seedlings. The amounts of total phenolic compounds in the leaf extract, treated soil, and control soil were 0.77, 0.14, and 0.03 mg l(-1), respectively. The root tips of C. mimsoides treated with leaf extracts of P. americana showed amyloplasts and large central vacuoles with electron-dense deposits inside them when compared to control root tips. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GuPOX) in whole plant, roots, and shoots of C. mimosoides increased as leaf extract increased; maximum activity was observed in extract concentrations of 75% and higher. Root GuPOX activity was three times higher than in shoots. Therefore, we conclude that inhibition of C. mimosoides growth is related to the phenolic compounds in the P. americana leaf extract and the ultrastructure changes in root-tip cells and increased GuPOX activity is a response to these allelochemicals.

  1. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark aqueous extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Nyadjeu, Paulin; Dongmo, Alain; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît; Kamanyi, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume stem bark aqueous extract in rats. The in vivo activities of the extract were evaluated on normotensive and three rat models of hypertension while the in vitro tests were assayed on rat isolated aorta rings. Acute intravenous injection of the extract (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) induced a significant reduction in mean arterial blood pressure in anaesthetised normotensive Wistar rats, salt-loaded hypertensive, L-NAME hypertensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pre-treatment of rats with either propranolol or atropine significantly inhibited the hypotensive effects of the plant extract suggesting its possible action through the interferences with both cholinergic and sympathetic transmissions. Moreover, pre-treatment of rats with L-NAME inhibited the sustained plant antihypertensive effects, suggesting a possible active vasodilatation, which might be partly mediated by an endothelial l-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In isolated rat aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (60mM), the extract exhibited cumulative vasodilating effects, which were attenuated with either L-NAME, vascular endothelium removal or both tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide pre-treatments. The vasorelaxant effects may be involved in the extract antihypertensive mechanism, partially by increasing the endothelial nitric oxide and by activating the KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle.

  2. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Extracts on Tyrosinase Suppressor, Wound Repair Promoter, and Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Man-Gang; Kuo, Su-Yu; Yen, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan's endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts had greater wound healing power than the vehicle control group (petroleum jelly with 8% DMSO, w/v). In addition, the antioxidant capacity of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extracts in vitro was evaluated. We measured C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract's free radical scavenging capability, metal chelating, and reduction power, such as biochemical activity analysis. The results showed that a high concentration of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract had a significant scavenging capability of free radical, a minor effect of chelating ability, and moderate reducing power. Further exploration of the possible physiological mechanisms and the ingredient components of skincare product for skin-whitening, wound repair, or antioxidative agents are to be done. PMID:25839053

  3. Cinnamomum loureirii Extract Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Ameliorates Trimethyltin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cho Rong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kwon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Youn-Jung; Park, Gwi Gun; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the deficiency of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain, and the main treatment strategy for improving AD symptoms is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the present study, we aimed to identify potent AChE inhibitors from Cinnamomum loureirii extract via bioassay-guided fractionation. We demonstrated that the most potent AChE inhibitor present in the C. loureirii extract was 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. To confirm the antiamnesic effects of the ethanol extract of C. loureirii, mice were intraperitoneally injected with the neurotoxin trimethyltin (2.5 mg/kg) to induce cognitive dysfunction, and performance in the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests was assessed. Treatment with C. loureirii extract significantly improved performance in both behavioral tests, suggesting that this extract may be neuroprotective and therefore beneficial in preventing or ameliorating the degenerative processes of AD, potentially by restoring cholinergic function. PMID:27374288

  4. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    PubMed

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

  5. Antioxidant properties of water extracts from Cassia tora L. in relation to the degree of roasting.

    PubMed

    Yen, G C; Chuang, D Y

    2000-07-01

    The antioxidant properties of water extracts from Cassia tora L. (WECT) prepared under different degrees of roasting were investigated. The water extracts of unroasted C. tora L. (WEUCT) showed 94% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid at a dose of 0.2 mg/mL, which was higher than that of alpha-tocopherol (82%). Water extracts prepared from C. tora L. roasted at 175 degrees C for 5 min and at 200 degrees C for 5 min exhibited 83% and 82%, respectively, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. This result indicated that the antioxidant activities of WECT decreased with longer roasting time or higher roasting temperature. The IC(50) of WEUCT in liposome oxidation induced by the Fenton reaction was 0.41 mg/mL, which was higher than that of alpha-tocopherol (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL). WEUCT also exhibited good antioxidant activity in enzymatic and nonenzymatic microsome oxidative systems. The water extracts of roasted C. tora L. increased in the degree of browning and produced chemiluminescence when compared with the unroasted sample. However, the total polyphenolic compounds of WECT decreased after the roasting process finished. In conclusion, the decrease in the antioxidant activity of water extracts from roasted C. tora L. might have been due to the degradation of Maillard reaction products and the decrease of polyphenolic compounds.

  6. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091

  7. Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia.

  8. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of Cinnamomi cassiae (Lauraceae) bark aqueous extract in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ikram, Huma; Akhtar, Naheed

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor leading to a number of chronic and metabolic disorders. Obesity is the fifth leading cause of global deaths. At least 2.8 million adults are dying each year as being overweight or obese. Cinnamomi cassiae is widely used traditional medicinal plant, used indigenously, to decrease glucose and cholesterol. 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT; Serotonin) is an important neurotransmitter reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia. Present study was designed to investigate the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cinnamon bark aqueous extract (CBAE) in obese rats and to find the possible involvement of 5-HT in reducing the body weight in these experimental animals. CBAE was repeatedly administered orally in the test animals for 5 weeks. A decrease in the food intake along with a concomitant increase in brain 5-HT level was observed in rats administered with CBAE. Findings may help in extending therapeutics in the pathophysiology of obesity and related eating disorders. Decrease activities in behavioral models were also monitored in CBAE treated animals.

  9. Local and systemic toxicity of Echis carinatus venom: neutralization by Cassia auriculata L. leaf methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Nanjaraj Urs, A N; Yariswamy, M; Joshi, Vikram; Suvilesh, K N; Sumanth, M S; Das, Diganta; Nataraju, A; Vishwanath, B S

    2015-01-01

    Viper bites cause high morbidity and mortality especially in tropical and subtropical regions, affecting a large number of the rural population in these areas. Even though anti-venoms are available, in most cases they fail to tackle viper venom-induced local manifestations that persist even after anti-venom administration. Several studies have been reported the use of plant products and approved drugs along side anti-venom therapy for efficient management of local tissue damage. In this regard, the present study focuses on the protective efficacy of Cassia auriculata L. (Leguminosae) against Echis carinatus venom (ECV) induced toxicity. C. auriculata is a traditional medicinal plant, much valued in alternative medicine for its wide usage in ayurveda, naturopathy, and herbal therapy. Further, it has been used widely by traditional healers for treatment of snake and scorpion bites in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. In the present study, C. auriculata leaf methanol extract (CAME) significantly inhibited enzymatic activities of ECV proteases (96 ± 1 %; P = 0.001), PLA2 (45 ± 5 %; P = 0.01) and hyaluronidases (100 %; P = 0.0003) in vitro and hemorrhage, edema and myotoxicity in vivo. Further, CAME effectively reduced the lethal potency of ECV and increased the survival time of mice by ~6 times (17 vs 3 h). These inhibitory potentials of CAME towards hydrolytic enzymes, mortal and morbid symptoms of ECV toxins clearly substantiates the use by traditional healers of C. auriculata as a folk medicinal remedy for snakebite. PMID:25378214

  10. Local and systemic toxicity of Echis carinatus venom: neutralization by Cassia auriculata L. leaf methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Nanjaraj Urs, A N; Yariswamy, M; Joshi, Vikram; Suvilesh, K N; Sumanth, M S; Das, Diganta; Nataraju, A; Vishwanath, B S

    2015-01-01

    Viper bites cause high morbidity and mortality especially in tropical and subtropical regions, affecting a large number of the rural population in these areas. Even though anti-venoms are available, in most cases they fail to tackle viper venom-induced local manifestations that persist even after anti-venom administration. Several studies have been reported the use of plant products and approved drugs along side anti-venom therapy for efficient management of local tissue damage. In this regard, the present study focuses on the protective efficacy of Cassia auriculata L. (Leguminosae) against Echis carinatus venom (ECV) induced toxicity. C. auriculata is a traditional medicinal plant, much valued in alternative medicine for its wide usage in ayurveda, naturopathy, and herbal therapy. Further, it has been used widely by traditional healers for treatment of snake and scorpion bites in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. In the present study, C. auriculata leaf methanol extract (CAME) significantly inhibited enzymatic activities of ECV proteases (96 ± 1 %; P = 0.001), PLA2 (45 ± 5 %; P = 0.01) and hyaluronidases (100 %; P = 0.0003) in vitro and hemorrhage, edema and myotoxicity in vivo. Further, CAME effectively reduced the lethal potency of ECV and increased the survival time of mice by ~6 times (17 vs 3 h). These inhibitory potentials of CAME towards hydrolytic enzymes, mortal and morbid symptoms of ECV toxins clearly substantiates the use by traditional healers of C. auriculata as a folk medicinal remedy for snakebite.

  11. Antifungal and antioxidative potential of oil and extracts derived from leaves of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum tamala.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Mishra, A K; Mishra, A

    2012-01-01

    Plant—based antimicrobials and antioxidants represent a vast untapped source for medicines and food supplements and hence have enormous therapeutic potential. Present work reports the fungicidal potential of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm (Lauraceae) leaf oil against five food spoilage and pathogenic fungi. In addition antioxidant efficacy of seven different solvent extracts derived from leaf was also evaluated using in vitro models. The oil demonstrated potent antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium spp. in agar diffusion assay. Zone of inhibition ranged from 17-25 mm. The MFC values of oil against all the test fungi were found to be 230μg/ml. Phytochemicals present in C. tamala leaf were extracted in several solvents for assessing their effect in oxidative defense. The extracts exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay and reducing power assay. The antioxidative activities of extracts were compared with the activities of standard antioxidant compounds BHA and ascorbic acid. Petroleum ether, ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts exhibited about 30-67% antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay. Aqueous and ethanol extracts exhibited better reducing power which increased gradually with increasing amount of the extract concentration showing dose dependent response. Results indicated that natural phytochemicals present in C. tamala leaf extracts have potential to prevent growth of food spoilage/pathogenic fungi. In addition they also have capability to mitigate the oxidative stress by antioxidant response. PMID:23273204

  12. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-01

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii.

  13. Nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability induced by senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Silva, C R; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Leitão, A C; Pádula, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (senna) is commonly used in self-medication and is frequently used to treat intestine constipation. A previous study involving bacteria and plasmid DNA suggested the possible toxicity of the aqueous extract of senna (SAE). The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge concerning SAE genotoxicity mechanisms because of its widespread use and its risks to human health. We investigated the impact of SAE on nuclear DNA and on the stability of mitochondrial DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wt, ogg1, msh6, and ogg1msh6) strains, monitoring the formation of petite mutants. Our results demonstrated that SAE specifically increased Can(R) mutagenesis only in the msh6 mutant, supporting the view that SAE can induce misincorporation errors in DNA. We observed a significant increase in the frequency of petite colonies in all studied strains. Our data indicate that SAE has genotoxic activity towards both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. PMID:25501195

  14. Assessment of antimutagenic and genotoxic potential of senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract using in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Silva, C R; Monteiro, M R; Rocha, H M; Ribeiro, A F; Caldeira-de-Araujo, A; Leitão, A C; Bezerra, R J A C; Pádula, M

    2008-02-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is widely used as a laxative, although potential side effects, such as toxicity and genotoxicity, have been reported. This study evaluated genotoxic and mutagenic effects of senna aqueous extract (SAE) by means of four experimental assays: inactivation of Escherichia coli cultures; bacterial growth inhibition; reverse mutation test (Mutoxitest) and DNA strand break analysis in plasmid DNA. Our results demonstrated that SAE produces single and double strand breaks in plasmid DNA in a cell free system. On the other hand, SAE was not cytotoxic or mutagenic to Escherichia coli strains tested. In effect, SAE was able to avoid H(2)O(2)-induced mutagenesis and toxicity in Escherichia coli IC203 (uvrA oxyR) and IC205 (uvrA mutM) strains, pointing to a new antioxidant/antimutagenic action of SAE. PMID:17826029

  15. Nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability induced by senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Silva, C R; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Leitão, A C; Pádula, M

    2014-11-27

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (senna) is commonly used in self-medication and is frequently used to treat intestine constipation. A previous study involving bacteria and plasmid DNA suggested the possible toxicity of the aqueous extract of senna (SAE). The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge concerning SAE genotoxicity mechanisms because of its widespread use and its risks to human health. We investigated the impact of SAE on nuclear DNA and on the stability of mitochondrial DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wt, ogg1, msh6, and ogg1msh6) strains, monitoring the formation of petite mutants. Our results demonstrated that SAE specifically increased Can(R) mutagenesis only in the msh6 mutant, supporting the view that SAE can induce misincorporation errors in DNA. We observed a significant increase in the frequency of petite colonies in all studied strains. Our data indicate that SAE has genotoxic activity towards both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  16. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients' daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level.

  17. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients' daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level. PMID:27651812

  18. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients’ daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level.

  19. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients’ daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level. PMID:27651812

  20. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Benarroz, M O; Fonseca, A S; Rocha, G S; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, V C; Pereira, M O; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2008-02-01

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1 hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  1. Biosynthesis characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cassia roxburghii DC. aqueous extract, and coated on cotton cloth for effective antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Balashanmugam, Pannerselvam; Kalaichelvan, Pudupalayam Thangavelu

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver precursor using a plant biomaterial, Cassia roxburghii DC., aqueous extract. The AgNPs were synthesized from the shade-dried leaf extract and assessed for their stability; they elucidated characteristics under UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited a maximum absorption at 430 nm, and the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that they were crystal in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conversion of Ag+ ions to AgNPs due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. The HR-TEM analysis revealed that they are spherical ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm. The spot EDAX analysis showed the presence of silver atoms. In addition, AgNPs were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against six different pathogenic bacteria: three Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus, and three Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter aerogenes. They were highly sensitive to AgNPs, whereas less sensitive to AgNO3. Furthermore, the green synthesized AgNPs were immobilized on cotton fabrics and screened for antibacterial activity. The immobilized AgNPs on cotton cloth showed high antibacterial activity. Therefore, they could be a feasible alternative source in treating wounds or may help in replacing pharmaceutical band-aids.

  2. Anti-plasmodial activity of ethanolic extract of root and stem back of Cassia sieberiana DC on mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrazak, Nuhu; Asiya, Umar Imam; Usman, NataaLa Shehu; Unata, Iduh Micheal; Farida, Aminu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed within 4 days of suppressive test in vivo antimalarial activity of Ethanolic extract of root and stem bark of Cassia sieberiana DC against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei NK65 in mice. Methodology: Two sets, each of five groups of four mice per each group were used. The groups of animals were administered with 100, 200, and 300 mg extract/kg body weight respectively, while positive control group were administered with 5 mg chloroquine/kg body weight and the negative control, were administered with 5 m1 distilled water/kg body weight. Oral acute toxicity was evaluated using up and down procedure. Result: Both the root and stem bark extract of C. sieberiana showed antimalarial property for suppressive tests. Chemo suppression of the root extract exerted significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent reduction in the level of parasiteamia of 30.7%, 52.7%, and 55.8%. And from stem extract 17.6%, 38.0%, and 63.9% were recorded on mice when compared with 96.0% suppressive rate obtained from weight of chloroquine. The phytochemical screening of the plants root and stem bark extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, reducing sugars and carbohydrates. The oral median lethal dose was determined to be >3000 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The acute toxicity results of this study showed that the plant parts used are assumed to be safe and has anti-plasmodial activity that can be explored for the management of malaria. PMID:26401393

  3. In vitro, in situ and in vivo studies on the anticandidal activity of Cassia fistula seed extract.

    PubMed

    Jothy, Subramanion L; Zakariah, Zuraini; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Cassia fistula seeds have many therapeutic uses in traditional medicine practice. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the anticandidal activity of the C. fistula seed extract at ultra-structural level through transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The effect of seed extract on the growth profile of the Candida albicans was examined via time-kill assays and in vivo efficacy of the extract was tested in an animal model. In addition, the anticandidal effect of seed extract was further evaluated by microscopic observations using SEM and TEM to determine any major alterations in the ultrastructure of C. albicans. The complete inhibition of C. albicans growth was shown by C. fistula seed extract at 6.25 mg/mL concentration. The time-kill assay suggested that C. fistula seed extract had completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and also exhibited prolonged anti-yeast activity. The SEM and TEM observations carried out to distinguish the metamorphosis in the morphology of control and C. fistula seed extract-treated C. albicans cells revealed the notable effect on the outer cell wall and cytoplasmic content of the C. albicans and complete collapse of yeast cell exposed to seed extract at concentration 6.25 mg/mL at 36 h. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 6-fold decrease in C. albicans in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g/kg body weight). The results suggested that the C. fistula seed extract possessed good anticandidal activity and is a potential candidate for the development of anticandidal agents. PMID:22678414

  4. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

  5. Biosynthesis characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cassia roxburghii DC. aqueous extract, and coated on cotton cloth for effective antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Balashanmugam, Pannerselvam; Kalaichelvan, Pudupalayam Thangavelu

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver precursor using a plant biomaterial, Cassia roxburghii DC., aqueous extract. The AgNPs were synthesized from the shade-dried leaf extract and assessed for their stability; they elucidated characteristics under UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited a maximum absorption at 430 nm, and the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that they were crystal in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conversion of Ag+ ions to AgNPs due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. The HR-TEM analysis revealed that they are spherical ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm. The spot EDAX analysis showed the presence of silver atoms. In addition, AgNPs were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against six different pathogenic bacteria: three Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus, and three Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter aerogenes. They were highly sensitive to AgNPs, whereas less sensitive to AgNO3. Furthermore, the green synthesized AgNPs were immobilized on cotton fabrics and screened for antibacterial activity. The immobilized AgNPs on cotton cloth showed high antibacterial activity. Therefore, they could be a feasible alternative source in treating wounds or may help in replacing pharmaceutical band-aids. PMID:26491310

  6. Anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress activities of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm in rats

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Gayaprasad; Khoshla, Sarvesh; Kosuru, Ramoji; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress actions of Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaves (aqueous extract) in rats. Materials and Methods: Behavioral procedures of anxiety, depression, and stress were assessed in rats. CT (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was given once a daily for 7 days via oral route and the efficacy was matched by those elicited by lorazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.), imipramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and Withania somnifera (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress studies, respectively. Standard drugs were given 1 time, 30 min preceding the behavioral trials. Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test was employed to analyze the results. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant as compared to control. CT at 400 mg/kg produced an antianxiety effect equivalent to lorazepam, in the elevated plus maze, open field, and social interaction tests among selected doses of the CT. CT at 400 mg/kg also induced an antidepressant activity similar to imipramine, in the behavioral despair, learned helplessness test, and tail suspension among selected doses of the CT. Moreover, CT at 400 mg/kg produced a significant antistress effect comparable to W. somnifera in water immersion-restraint stress by decreasing ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, and by normalizing the plasma levels of corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels when related to stress control. Conclusion: The study shows that among the different CT doses, CT at 400 mg/kg possesses significant anxiolytic, antidepressant, and anti-stress effects and has therapeutic beneficial for the management of psychological ailments. PMID:27721543

  7. A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora) is reportedly effective in treatment of skin and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study explores the protease inhibitory activity of the above plant seeds against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Methods The crushed seeds of Cassia tora were washed thoroughly with acetone and hexane for depigmentation and defatting. The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulphate (0-30, 30-60, 60-90%) followed by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The inhibitory potential of crude seed extract and most active dialyzed fraction against trypsin and proteases was established by spot test using unprocessed x-ray film and casein digestion methods, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of most active fraction (30-60%) and SEC elutes were carried employing Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Gelatin SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of fungal spore germination was studied in the presence of dialyzed active inhibitor fraction. Standard deviation (SD) and ANOVA were employed as statistical tools. Results The crude seeds' extract displayed strong antitryptic, bacterial and fungal protease inhibitory activity on x-ray film. The seed protein fraction 30-60% was found most active for trypsin inhibition in caseinolytic assay (P < 0.001). The inhibition of caseinolytic activity of the proteases increased with increasing ratio of seed extract. The residual activity of trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases remained only 4, 7 and 3.1%, respectively when proteases were incubated with 3 mg ml-1 seed protein

  8. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils extracted from cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spices are added into foods mainly for enhancing the organoleptic quality of the food. The application of spices and their derivatives in foods as preservatives has been investigated for years. In this study, we determined the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of three spices, cassia bark...

  9. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nagappan, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Results 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. Conclusions From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation. PMID:23569999

  10. Isolinderanolide B, a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, inhibits proliferation of T24 human bladder cancer cells by blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Lin, En-Shyh; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chen, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Isolinderanolide B (IOB), a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in T24 human bladder cancer cells. To identity the anticancer mechanism of IOB, its effect on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and levels of p53, p21 Waf1/Cip1, Fas/APO-1 receptor, and Fas ligand was assayed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the G0/G1 phase arrest is because of increase in the expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1. An enhancement in Fas/APO-1 and membrane-bound Fas ligand (mFasL) might be responsible for the apoptotic effect induced by IOB. This study reports the novel finding that the induction of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and activity of the Fas/mFas ligand apoptotic system may participate in the antiproliferative activity of IOB in T24 cells.

  11. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    PubMed

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  12. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  13. A potential low-coumarin cinnamon substitute: Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Feng; Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-02-19

    The essential oils from leaves of Taiwan's indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. cinnamaldehyde) have similar constituents as compared to that from commercial bark cinnamons. This indigenous cinnamon has been proven to have excellent bioactivities. To understand whether this indigenous cinnamon contains a high level of the hepatotoxic compound, coumarin, as often seen in Cassia cinnamons, current research focused on determining the coumarin content in this indigenous cinnamon and screening the low-coumarin clones. The results demonstrated that the coumarin contents in all tested indigenous cinnamon clones were much lower than that found in Cassia cinnamons. In addition, this indigenous cinnamon contains about 80% (w/w) of cinnamaldehyde and 0.4-2.7% (w/w) of eugenol in its leaf essential oils. This combination could provide this indigenous cinnamon a better shelf life compared to that of regular commercial cinnamons. These results suggested that leaves of this indigenous cinnamon could be a potential resource for a safer cinnamon substitute.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon (C. zeylanicum and C. cassia) extracts - identification of E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxy cinnamaldehyde as the most potent bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Karunaweera, Niloo; Lee, Samiuela; van Der Kooy, Frank; Harman, David G; Raju, Ritesh; Bennett, Louise; Gyengesi, Erika; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is a contributing factor in many age-related diseases. In a previous study, we have shown that Sri Lankan cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was one of the most potent anti-inflammatory foods out of 115 foods tested. However, knowledge about the exact nature of the anti-inflammatory compounds and their distribution in the two major cinnamon species used for human consumption is limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of C. zeylanicum and C. cassia and elucidate their main phytochemical compounds. When extracts were tested in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, most of the anti-inflammatory activity, measured by down-regulation of nitric oxide and TNF-α production, was observed in the organic extracts. The most abundant compounds in these extracts were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde. The highest concentration of E-cinnamaldehyde was found in the DCM extract of C. zeylanicum or C. cassia (31 and 34 mg g(-1) of cinnamon, respectively). When these and other constituents were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 macrophages, the most potent compounds were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, which exhibited IC₅₀ values for NO with RAW 264.7 cells of 55 ± 9 μM (7.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 35 ± 9 μM (5.7 ± 1.5 μg mL(-1)), respectively; and IC₅₀ values for TNF-α of 63 ± 9 μM (8.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 78 ± 16 μM (12.6 ± 2.6 μg mL(-1)), respectively. If therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in target tissues, cinnamon and its components may be useful in the treatment of age-related inflammatory conditions.

  15. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    PubMed

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  16. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82–87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  17. Cassia tora Seed Extract and Its Active Compound Aurantio-obtusin Inhibit Allergic Responses in IgE-Mediated Mast Cells and Anaphylactic Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungsuk; Lim, Sue Ji; Lee, Hee-Ju; Nho, Chu Won

    2015-10-21

    Cassia tora seed is widely used due to its various biological properties including anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there has been no report of the effects of C. tora seed extract (CTE) on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses. In this research, we demonstrated the effects of CTE and its active compound aurantio-obtusin on IgE-sensitized allergic reactions in mast cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed degranulation, histamine production, and reactive oxygen species generation and inhibited the production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-4. CTE and aurantio-obtusin also suppressed the prostaglandin E2 production and expression of cyclooxygenase 2. Furthermore, CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed IgE-mediated FcεRI signaling such as phosphorylation of Syk, protein kinase Cμ, phospholipase Cγ, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. CTE and aurantio-obtusin blocked mast cell-dependent PCA in IgE-mediated mice. These results suggest that CTE and aurantio-obtusin are a beneficial treatment for allergy-related diseases. PMID:26434611

  18. Studies on some Pharmacognostic profiles of Cassia tora Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Tapan Kumar; Mandal, Subhash C.; Saha, B.P.; Pal, M.

    2000-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaves, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents. Fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light after treatment wit different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Leguminosae) were studied to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical study on different tracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22556931

  19. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Suman; Roy, Saptarshi; Lyndem, Larisha Mawkhleing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia angustifolia (C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). Methods Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently. Results C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively. Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h. Conclusions This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested. PMID:25183125

  20. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

  1. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. PMID:25605550

  2. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Tropea Garzia, Giovanna; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  3. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Garzia, Giovanna Tropea; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Cassia alata from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, D; Osman, H

    1995-03-01

    Ethanolic extract of Cassia alata leaves was investigated for its antimicrobial activities on several microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, dermatophytic fungi and non-dermatophytic fungi. In vitro, the extract exhibited high activity against various species of dermatophytic fungi but low activity against non-dermatophytic fungi. However, bacterial and yeast species showed resistance against in vitro treatment with the extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the extract revealed that Trichophyton mentagorphytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagorophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum had the MIC of 125 mg/ml, whereas Microsporum canis had the MIC of 62.5 mg/ml. The inhibition can be observed on the macroconidia of Microsporum gypseum which resulted in structural degeneration beyond repair. The mechanism of inhibition can be related to the cell leakage as observed by irregular, wrinkle shape and loss in rigidity of the macroconidia.

  5. Naphthalene glycosides in Cassia senna and Cassia angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Lemli, J; Toppet, S; Cuveele, J; Janssen, G

    1981-09-01

    From leaves and pods of Cassia senna L. and C. angustifolia Vahl. were isolated the naphthalene glycosides 6-hydroxymusizin glycoside and the new tinnevellin glycoside. The structures were established mainly by spectroscopic methods ( (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS). PMID:17402001

  6. Characterization and in vitro studies on anticancer, antioxidant activity against colon cancer cell line of gold nanoparticles capped with Cassia tora SM leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Ezra Elumalai; John Poonga, Preetam Raj; Panicker, Shirly George

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized gold nanoparticles of an ethnobotanically and medicinally important plant species Cassia tora against colon cancer cells and to find its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to improve the bioavailability of C. tora, we synthesized gold nanoparticles through green synthesis, by simple mixing and stirring of C. tora leaf powder and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution which gave a dispersion of gold nanoparticles conjugate with C. tora secondary metabolites (SMs) with characteristic surface plasmon resonance. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta sizer, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity was carried out for gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs, using well-diffusion method. The MTT assay for cell viability and markers such as catalase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was predictable to confirm the cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. The treatment of gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs on Col320 cells showed reduction in the cell viability through MTT assay, and it also significantly suppressed the release of H2O2, LPO and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. C. tora SMs conjugate gold nanoparticles showed enhanced bioavailability, antioxidant and anticancer effect against colon cancer cell line (Col320).

  7. Toxicity of spray and fumigant products containing cassia oil to Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Ii; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Koh, Young-Yull; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2006-08-01

    The toxicity of formulations of oil of cassia, Cinnamomum cassia Blume, (20 and 50 g L(-1) sprays and 100% oil-based fumigant) to adult Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes and D. pteronyssinus Trouessart was examined using contact and vapour-phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with the lethal activity of three commercial acaricides: benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate and diethyl-m-toluamide (deet). The contact toxicity of cassia oil to both dust mite species was comparable with that of benzyl benzoate but was higher than that of the other two acaricides. Sprays containing 20 and 50 g L(-1) cassia oil were effective against both mite species when applied to fabric, glass, paper, plastic, tin or wood substrates. Applications of the 50 g L(-1) spray to different space volumes and surface areas determined that 50-60 mg of cassia oil was needed to control dust mites in 3.4 m(3) or in 1 m(2). In tests with fumigant devices, toxicity varied according to the thickness of non-woven fabric covering the device, the exposure time, the number of fumigant devices used and the volume of the space sprayed. Fumigant toxicity to adult D. pteronyssinus was more pronounced with devices enclosed in thinner (40 microm) versus thicker (45 or 50 microm) non-woven fabric covers. A single fumigant device with a 40 microm thick non-woven fabric cover resulted in substantial control in a space of 0.05 m(3) but exhibited only moderate to weak control in spaces >or= 0.097 m(3) at 4 days after application. Two fumigant devices gave 88% mortality in a space of 1.73 m(3). Cassia oil applied as sprays or in fumigant devices appears to provide effective protection of humans from house dust mites. PMID:16786540

  8. From type 2 diabetes to antioxidant activity: a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of common and cassia cinnamon bark.

    PubMed

    Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Seely, Dugald; Perri, Dan; Cooley, Kieran; Forelli, Taryn; Mills, Edward; Koren, Gideon

    2007-09-01

    Common (Cinnamomum verum, C. zeylanicum) and cassia (C. aromaticum) cinnamon have a long history of use as spices and flavouring agents. A number of pharmacological and clinical effects have been observed with their use. The objective of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature for preclinical and clinical evidence of safety, efficacy, and pharmacological activity of common and cassia cinnamon. Using the principles of evidence-based practice, we searched 9 electronic databases and compiled data according to the grade of evidence found. One pharmacological study on antioxidant activity and 7 clinical studies on various medical conditions were reported in the scientific literature including type 2 diabetes (3), Helicobacter pylori infection (1), activation of olfactory cortex of the brain (1), oral candidiasis in HIV (1), and chronic salmonellosis (1). Two of 3 randomized clinical trials on type 2 diabetes provided strong scientific evidence that cassia cinnamon demonstrates a therapeutic effect in reducing fasting blood glucose by 10.3%-29%; the third clinical trial did not observe this effect. Cassia cinnamon, however, did not have an effect at lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). One randomized clinical trial reported that cassia cinnamon lowered total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides; the other 2 trials, however, did not observe this effect. There was good scientific evidence that a species of cinnamon was not effective at eradicating H. pylori infection. Common cinnamon showed weak to very weak evidence of efficacy in treating oral candidiasis in HIV patients and chronic salmonellosis.

  9. Cassia tora Linn Cream Inhibits Ultraviolet-B-Induced Psoriasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Manmohan; Kansara, Niraj

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the antipsoriatic activity of newly formulated O/W creams of methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves by using ultraviolet-B-induced psoriasis in rat. The plant Cassia tora L. is traditionally claimed to be useful in the treatment of a number of skin diseases. However, there are no established scientific reports for its antipsoriatic activity. Methanolic Cassia tora L. leaves extract was used to prepare various concentrations of O/W creams and tested for acute dermal toxicity study. The different O/W creams showed good physical characteristics and passed the sensitivity, irritation, grittiness and bleeding test. The results of acute dermal toxicity showed that the creams were safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. In case of psoriasis model, histopathological analysis revealed that there were absence of Munro's microabscess, elongation of rete ridges, and capillary loop dilation in the section in Test 2 (0.1%) and standard group. O/W creams and methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves exhibited significant reduction in percentage of relative epidermal thickness and spleen index as compared to positive control. We concluded that topical O/W creams and crude extract containing methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves have potent antipsoriatic activity in ultraviolet-B-induced psoriasis in rat. PMID:22536527

  10. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

    2004-12-01

    In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi. PMID:15567249

  11. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  12. A traditional method of Cinnamomum carolinense preparation eliminates safrole from a therapeutic Pohnpean tea.

    PubMed

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Balick, Michael J; Lee, Roberta; Raynor, William; Pelep, Yosio; Kennelly, Edward J

    2005-11-14

    Cinnamomum carolinense, locally known as madeu, is a tree endemic to the volcanic mountains of the Island of Pohnpei in the Eastern Carolines of the South Pacific. The bark is harvested from trees and brewed to make a medicinal tea and hot beverage that is regularly consumed. Many species of Cinnamomum contain the known hepatocarcinogen safrole, sparking concern regarding habitual consumption of this beverage. HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed the presence of the carcinogen in alcoholic extracts of Cinnamomum carolinense bark shavings (0.435%, w/w), but safrole was not detected in the tea. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of safrole were determined to be 1.25 and 3.75 microg/mL, respectively. The traditional preparation method, which boils the bark shavings, degrades the safrole.

  13. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles from Methanol Leaf Extract of Cassia didymobotyra and Assessment of Their Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Umar, Ahmad; Al Sahli, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved for the first time using methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra and their in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities were also evaluated. Methanol leaf extracts of C. didymobotyra after mixing with AgNO3 solution showed the change in color from light brown to dark yellowish brown within 1 hour. UV-visible spectroscopy study showed the surface plasmon resonance at around 420 nm clearly indicating the biosynthesis of AgNPs. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis proved the presence of biosynthesized AgNPs in spherical shape with huge disparity in sizes. The average size of biosynthesized nanoparticle was about 18 nm. The occurrence of face centered cubic shapes of nanoparticles was established by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Further, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed the possible capping of AgNPs because of the active biomolecules present in the methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra. The antioxidant activities of biosynthesized AgNPs were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and found that AgNPs demonstrated a strong antioxidant properties compared to methanol leaf extract. Nevertheless, the biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against all the tested human pathogenic bacterial strains compared to crude methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra. Thus, it is concluded that these biosynthesized AgNPs are cost effective, eco-friendly in nature and could be applied for developing new antibacterial drugs and other biomedical applications in near future. PMID:26682418

  14. Pro-healing effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Jagadish V; Rana, A C; Chowdhury, Anirban Roy

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol extract of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was evaluated for wound healing activity in Wistar rats. The extract was administered by the oral route at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight (1/8 and 1/4 of LD(50), respectively) for all the wound models selected, excision, incision and dead space wounds. The extract significantly enhanced the wound breaking strength in the case of incision wound, the rate of wound contraction and the period of epithelization in the case of excision wound. The granulation tissue weight, its breaking strength and its hydroxyproline content was also increased by the extract in the dead space wound.

  15. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon.

  16. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth.

    PubMed

    Smitha, S L; Philip, Daizy; Gopchandran, K G

    2009-10-15

    Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is an important branch of nanotechnology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth as the reducing agent is reported. The morphology of the particles formed consists of a mixture of gold nanoprisms and spheres with fcc (111) structure of gold. At lower concentrations of the extract, formation of prism shaped Au particles dominates, while at higher concentrations almost spherical particles alone are observed. Good crystallinity of the nanoparticles with fcc phase is evident from XRD patterns, clear lattice fringes in the high resolution TEM image and bright circular rings in the SAED pattern. Au nanoparticles grown are observed to be photoluminescent and the intensity of photoemission is found to increase with increase in leaf broth concentration. The ability to modulate the shape of nanoparticles as observed in this study for gold nanoparticles opens up the exciting possibility of developing further synthetic routes employing ecofriendly sources.

  17. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  18. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals. Objectives: To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon by gavage for 28 days, while the controls received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standardized conditions. On day 28, a 5 mL blood sample from each rat was taken from tail area to measure testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Testes were collected and were then prepared for sperm analysis by the WHO method. Results: Sperm quality parameters, total serum testosterone, SOD, CAT, and GPX levels were significantly increased in the cinnamon group in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Also, rats in the cinnamon group showed a significant decrease in the level of plasma MDA (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There were no significant differences between the groups in testis weight (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The administration of 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon significantly increased the sperm population, motility and viability, which supports the theory that in mammalians, cinnamon has a beneficial effect on spermatogenesis. PMID:25838932

  19. Chemical composition of the flower oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Jagan Mohan Rao, L; Sakariah, K K

    2000-09-01

    The steam-distilled oil of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) flowers was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. It consists of 23% hydrocarbons and 74% oxygenated compounds. A total of 26 compounds constituting approximately 97% of the oil were characterized. (E)-Cinnamyl acetate (41.98%), trans-alpha-bergamotene (7.97%), and caryophyllene oxide (7.2%) are found to be major compounds. This is the first report on the chemical composition of the flower oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

  20. Development and Characterization of Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana Nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Prada, Ariadna L; Bitencourt, Antônio P R; Amado, Jesús R R; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2016-01-01

    Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana are important plant species with folk use and great potential for phytopharmaceuticals. Nanodispersions are disperse systems of insoluble or immiscible substances in a liquid medium that may be prepared with or without coating polymers. To our knowledge, no studies were carried in order to achieve coating-polymer free nanoformulations using B. orellana extract or any C. grandis-based nanoformulations. Thus, on the present study we aimed to develop C. grandis nanoformulations using three different coating polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, PEG 4000 and Kollicoat®), while B. orellana nanodispersions were obtained using different surfactants (polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, polyethylene glycol 400 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 400 dioleate and polyethylene glycol 600 dioleate) as coating polymer-free nanoformulations. Characterization of nanoformulations was performed by different parameters, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential. Our results suggested that some optimal nanoformulations were obtained for both plant species. Moreover, possible stable behavior was observed during storage period for C. grandis (30 days) and B. orellana (21 days). On this context, the present study contributes to nanobiotechnology development of phytopharmaceuticals, allowing achievement of novel nano-delivery systems with two important folk medicinal plant extracts and making them potential products for innovative phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:26876518

  1. Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Javed, Ijaz; Faisal, Imran; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Muhammad, Faqir; Aslam, Bilal; Ahmad, Mahmood; Shahzadi, Andleeb

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits. For this purpose, forty eight albino rabbits were randomly divided into eight equal groups; untreated control on normal routine feed, untreated control on butter and cholesterol, treated control on synthetic cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin (Tablet survive (R) 20 mg), three treated groups on three respective doses of C. zeylanicum bark powder and two treated groups on water and methanol extracts of C. zeylanicum bark powder. Butter ad lib and cholesterol powder 500 mg/kg body weight were used to induce experimental hyperlipidaemia in all groups except untreated control group. The results suggested that C. zeylanicum bark powder at the rate of 0.50 g/kg, 0.75 g/kg and methanol extract equivalent to 0.75 g/kg powder produced respective percent reductions in total lipids by 45, 49 and 64; triglycerides by 38, 53 and 60; total cholesterol by 53, 64 and 69 and LDL-cholesterol by 50, 59 and 62. However, at these dosage levels HDL-cholesterol showed respective percent increase of 42, 48 and 53. Nonetheless, C. zeylanicum bark powder at the level of 0.25g/kg and C. zeylanicum extract in water could not significantly reduce lipid profile indicators. Based on these studies, it can safely be said that C. zeylanicum bark powder methanol extract equivalent to 0.75g/kg bark powder and simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg b. wt.) were equieffective in treating hyperlipidaemia.

  2. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chives Allium schoenoprasum L. Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Clary (clary sage)...

  3. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chives Allium schoenoprasum L. Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Clary (clary sage)...

  4. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chives Allium schoenoprasum L. Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Clary (clary sage)...

  5. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chives Allium schoenoprasum L. Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Clary (clary sage)...

  6. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chives Allium schoenoprasum L. Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Clary (clary sage)...

  7. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chives Allium schoenoprasum L. Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Clary (clary sage)...

  8. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... schoenoprasum L. Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Clary (clary sage) Salvia sclarea L. Clover Trifolium...

  9. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chives Allium schoenoprasum L. Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Clary (clary sage)...

  10. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chives Allium schoenoprasum L. Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Clary (clary sage)...

  11. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Chives Allium schoenoprasum L. Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Cinnamon, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Clary (clary sage)...

  12. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde), tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8+ T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NFκB and AP1 in mouse melanoma model. Methods Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Results Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro. Conclusion Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NFκB and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of

  13. Differentiating parts of Cinnamomum cassia using LC-qTOF-MS in conjunction with principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yi; Yu, Jhe-Wei; Lu, Fen-Ling; Lin, Mei-Chih; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2016-09-01

    Cinnamon bark (Rou Gui in Chinese), cinnamon twig (Gui Zhi) and shaved cinnamon bark (Gui Sin) have been widely used as spices and in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. On-going issues related to quality and authenticity necessitate the development of analytical methods capable of providing an objective evaluation of samples. In this study, chemical fingerprints of cinnamon bark, cinnamon twigs and shaved cinnamon bark were established using liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA). From 125 samples of cinnamon, we identified the following eight compounds and their the detection ratios: coumarin, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde and 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde. Of these, 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde presented the largest variations in detection ratio, making up 64.0, 97.4 and 50.0% in cinnamon bark, cinnamon twig, and shaved cinnamon bark, respectively. The quantities of cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin and cinnamaldehyde also varied between the three parts of the plant. Chemical fingerprints of the three cinnamon samples were established using principal component analysis, the results of which indicate that cinnamon bark and shaved cinnamon bark could be easily differentiated, despite a marked similarity in outward appearance. Cinnamon twig was also shown to depart from the other clusters. The proposed method provides a fast and efficient means of identifying cinnamon herbs for quality control purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Differentiating parts of Cinnamomum cassia using LC-qTOF-MS in conjunction with principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yi; Yu, Jhe-Wei; Lu, Fen-Ling; Lin, Mei-Chih; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2016-09-01

    Cinnamon bark (Rou Gui in Chinese), cinnamon twig (Gui Zhi) and shaved cinnamon bark (Gui Sin) have been widely used as spices and in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. On-going issues related to quality and authenticity necessitate the development of analytical methods capable of providing an objective evaluation of samples. In this study, chemical fingerprints of cinnamon bark, cinnamon twigs and shaved cinnamon bark were established using liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA). From 125 samples of cinnamon, we identified the following eight compounds and their the detection ratios: coumarin, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde and 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde. Of these, 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde presented the largest variations in detection ratio, making up 64.0, 97.4 and 50.0% in cinnamon bark, cinnamon twig, and shaved cinnamon bark, respectively. The quantities of cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin and cinnamaldehyde also varied between the three parts of the plant. Chemical fingerprints of the three cinnamon samples were established using principal component analysis, the results of which indicate that cinnamon bark and shaved cinnamon bark could be easily differentiated, despite a marked similarity in outward appearance. Cinnamon twig was also shown to depart from the other clusters. The proposed method provides a fast and efficient means of identifying cinnamon herbs for quality control purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26873449

  15. Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2007-07-11

    Cinnamomum burmannii Blume (cinnamon stick) from Indonesia is a little-investigated spice. In this study, the antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon stick extract were evaluated against five common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Cinnamon stick extract exhibited significant antibacterial properties. Major compounds in cinnamon stick were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS) as a predominant volatile oil component ((E)-cinnamaldehyde) and several polyphenols (mainly proanthocyanidins and (epi)catechins). Both (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of bacteria treated with the crude extract of cinnamon stick and its major components. This study suggests that cinnamon stick and its bioactive components have potential for application as natural food preservatives.

  16. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

  17. A stimulatory effect of Cassia occidentalis on melanoblast differentiation and migration.

    PubMed

    Babitha, Sumathy; Shin, Jeong-Hyun; Nguyen, Dung H; Park, Sang-Joo; Reyes, Gaudelia A; Caburian, Adeltrudes; Kim, Eun Ki

    2011-04-01

    In vitiligo, the active melanocytes in the epidermis are totally missing, whereas melanoblast cells in the outer root sheath of hair follicles are not affected. In an attempt to find potent repigmenting agents for vitiligo therapy, pod extracts of Cassia occidentalis was found to be effective in inducing differentiation and migration of mouse melanoblast cell line. Methanolic extract redissolved in DMSO at 12.5 μg/ml was found to cause 3.5- to 3.8-fold melanin induction in melb-a melanoblast cells after 4 days in treatment medium. In addition it induced the tyrosinase activity and altered melb-a cell morphology. Transwell migration assay showed the potential of this herbal candidate to induce direct migration of treated cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the effect of Cassia occidentalis on the differentiation and migration of melanoblast cells. The findings of present study are significant in designing preclinical and clinical studies on the efficacy of C. occidentalis as a stimulant for skin repigmentation in vitiligo. PMID:21328088

  18. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linjing; Wu, Hongbing; Qiu, Mingfeng; Sun, Wei; Wei, Runmin; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Yang, Yiting; Xin, Xue; Zou, Haimiao; Chen, Tianlu; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Jing; Ma, Chungwah; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang), a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine), lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol), gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid), biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine), and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH), and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). PMID:24159348

  19. Trimer procyanidin oligomers contribute to the protective effects of cinnamon extracts on pancreatic β-cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Lu; Yu, Bang-wei; Jia, Qi; Chen, Kai-xian; Fan, Hui-min; Li, Yi-ming; Wang, He-yao

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cinnamon extracts rich in procyanidin oligomers have shown to improve pancreatic β-cell function in diabetic db/db mice. The aim of this study was to identify the active compounds in extracts from two species of cinnamon responsible for the pancreatic β-cell protection in vitro. Methods: Cinnamon extracts were prepared from Cinnamomum tamala (CT-E) and Cinnamomum cassia (CC-E). Six compounds procyanidin B2 (cpd1), (−)-epicatechin (cpd2), cinnamtannin B1 (cpd3), procyanidin C1 (cpd4), parameritannin A1 (cpd5) and cinnamtannin D1 (cpd6) were isolated from the extracts. INS-1 pancreatic β-cells were exposed to palmitic acid (PA) or H2O2 to induce lipotoxicity and oxidative stress. Cell viability and apoptosis as well as ROS levels were assessed. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was examined in PA-treated β-cells and murine islets. Results: CT-E, CC-E as well as the compounds, except cpd5, did not cause cytotoxicity in the β-cells up to the maximum dosage using in this experiment. CT-E and CC-E (12.5–50 μg/mL) dose-dependently increased cell viability in both PA- and H2O2-treated β-cells, and decreased ROS accumulation in H2O2-treated β-cells. CT-E caused more prominent β-cell protection than CC-E. Furthermore, CT-E (25 and 50 μg/mL) dose-dependently increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in PA-treated β-cells and murine islets, but CC-E had little effect. Among the 6 compounds, trimer procyanidins cpd3, cpd4 and cpd6 (12.5–50 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased the cell viability and decreased ROS accumulation in H2O2-treated β-cells. The trimer procyanidins also increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in PA-treated β-cells. Conclusion: Trimer procyanidins in the cinnamon extracts contribute to the pancreatic β-cell protection, thus to the anti-diabetic activity. PMID:27238208

  20. Phenolic acid allelochemicals induced morphological, ultrastructural, and cytological modification on Cassia sophera L. and Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Aasifa; Siddiqui, M B; Bi, Shazia

    2016-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Calotropis procera on growth behavior, ultrastructural changes on Cassia sophera L., and cytological changes on Allium cepa L. was investigated. LAE at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %) significantly reduced the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of C. sophera. Besides, the ultrastructural changes (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) induced in epidermal cells of 15-day-old seedlings of Cassia leaf were also noticed. The changes induced were shrinking and contraction of epidermal cells along with the formation of major grooves, canals, and cyst-like structures. The treated samples of epidermal cells no longer seem to be smooth as compared to control. LAE at different concentrations induces chromosomal aberrations and variation in shape of the interphase and prophase nucleus in A. cepa root tip cells when compared with control groups. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts. The most frequent aberrations were despiralization at prophase with the formation of micronuclei, sticky anaphase with bridges, sticky telophase, C-metaphase, etc. The results also show the induction of ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and cells with heterochromatic nuclei by extract treatment. Upon HPLC analysis, nine phenolic acids (caffeic acid, gentisic acid, catechol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, resorcinol, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) were identified. Thus, the phenolic acids are mainly responsible for the allelopathic behavior of C. procera. PMID:26387115

  1. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis.

    PubMed

    Torey, Angeline; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Yeng, Chen; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2010-05-01

    Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R(2) = 0.8685), rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  2. Simultaneous quantitative determination of cinnamaldehyde and methyl eugenol from stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume using RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Gursale, Atish; Dighe, Vidya; Parekh, Guarang

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and precise reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed, validated and used for simultaneous quantitative determination of cinnamaldehyde and methyl eugenol from the methanolic extract of dried bark powder of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (family Lauraceae). The ultrasonic extraction method was used for the extraction of these compounds. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis was carried out using a Intersil ODS-3V-C(18) (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column and a mobile phase comprising of methanol-acetonitrile-water in the volume ratio of 35:20:45, delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 cm(3)/min. The detection and quantitation of both the compounds was carried out at 221 nm.

  3. Chemical composition of volatile oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum buds.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Rao, Lingamallu Jaganmohan; Sakariah, Kunnumpurath K

    2002-01-01

    The hydro-distilled volatile oil of the Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) buds was analyzed using GC and GC-MS for the first time. Thirty-four compounds representing approximately 98% of the oil was characterized. It consists of terpene hydrocarbons (78%) and oxygenated terpenoids (9%). alpha-Bergamotene (27.38%) and alpha-copaene (23.05%) are found to be the major compounds. A comparison of the chemical composition of the oil was made with that of flowers and fruits.

  4. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  5. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  6. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Arshad H

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  7. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg.

  8. Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum: biological activity and structure

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Carolina; Sun, Lin; Munro, Murray Herbert Gibson; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi. PMID:25183332

  9. A distinct tymovirus infecting Cassia hoffmannseggii in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, C; Pio-Ribeiro, G; Andrade, G P; Melo, F L; Oliveira, V C; Guimarães, F C; Resende, R O; Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Nagata, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Leaves of Cassia hoffmannseggii, a wild fabaceous species found in the Atlantic Forest, with a severe mosaic symptom were collected in Pernambuco State, Brazil. By transmission electron microscopy, two types of virus particles were found: the first was recognized as particles of a potyvirus, which was later identified as Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus; and the second was isometric and present in high concentration. The observation of vesicles at the periphery of chloroplasts suggested a tymovirus infection, which was confirmed by subsequent assays. A serological assay against several tymovirus antisera resulted in positive reaction of this tymo-like virus with an antiserum of Passion fruit yellow mosaic virus. By means of RT-PCR and using degenerated primers for the conserved region of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of tymoviruses, a specific DNA fragment was amplified and sequenced. Based on this sequence, a specific forward primer was synthesized and successfully used to amplify the 3' terminal genome region, containing the partial RdRp gene and the complete coat protein (CP) sequences. The CP was 188 amino acids (aa) long, and the highest CP aa identity was observed with Kennedya yellow mosaic virus (61 %). Based on the current ICTV demarcation criterion, this isolate was considered as a distinct tymovirus and tentatively named as Cassia yellow mosaic-associated virus. PMID:22528644

  10. New identification of proanthocyanidins in cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Fuguet, Elisabet; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-01-01

    The inner bark of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The positive health effects associated with the consumption of cinnamon could in part be due to its phenolic composition; proanthocyanidins (PA) are the major polyphenolic component in commercial cinnamon. We present a thorough study of the PA profile of cinnamon obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. In addition to the advantages of MALDI-TOF as a sensitive technique for the analysis of high-molecular-weight compounds, the tandem arrangement allows the identification of the compounds through their fragmentation patterns from MS/MS experiments. This is the first time that this technique has been used to analyze polymeric PA. The results show that cinnamon PA are more complex than was previously thought. We show here for the first time that they contain (epi)gallocatechin and (epi)catechingallate units. As gallates (galloyl moieties) and the pyrogallol group in gallocatechins have been related to the biological activity of grape and tea polyphenols, the presence of these substructures may explain some of the properties of cinnamon extracts. MALDI-TOF/TOF reveals that cinnamon bark PA include combinations of (epi)catechin, (epi)catechingallate, (epi)gallocatechin, and (epi)afzelechin, which results in a highly heterogeneous mixture of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, and propelargonidins.

  11. A new anthraquinone from seed of Cassia obtusifolia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bao-jun; Zhang, Wei-dong; Jiang, Hong-fang; Zhu, Yu-yao; Chen, Lei; Zha, Xiao-ming; Lu, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Wei-ming

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of Cassia obtusifolia L. are known as homology of medicine and food material, which is a commonly consumed beverage in China. One new compound, 8-hydroxy-1,7-dimethoxy-3-methylanthracene-9,10-dione-2-O-β-d-glucoside (1), together with 11 known compounds, including seven anthraquinones (2-8), was isolated from the seeds. The 2D NMR data of compound 2 are reported for the first time. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, IR and HR-ESI-MS spectra. The cytotoxic activities of all the compounds against five cell lines (LO2, HCT-116, A549, HepG2 and SGC7901) were evaluated by using CCK8 methods. Compounds 1, 3 and 7 show moderate cytotoxicity towards HCT-116 cells compared with oxaliplatin.

  12. Formation and distribution of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia, as determined by a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Atzorn, R; Weiler, E W; Zenk, M H

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of nanogram-amounts of sennoside B and related compounds in plant extracts is described. The assay makes use of [ (3)H]-8-glucosidorheinanthrone of high specific activity (5.2 Ci/mmol) whose synthesis is reported here. From this material, [ (3)H]-sennoside A and [ (3)H]-sennoside B have also been synthesized. The assay is applied to the analysis of sennoside formation and distribution in CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL. High levels of sennosides in dried leaves and fruits have been observed whereas the seed alone, as well as stems and roots, contain very little sennoside. In flowers, as much as 4-5% of the dry weight consists of sennoside B and other immunoreactive constituents. Sennosides have been found in cotyledons of three day old seedlings in concentrations comparable to that of the mature leaf. Upon dehydration, leaf levels of sennoside B rise steadily, this rise being inversely correlated with the water loss. The absolute levels of sennoside B formed this way are the same as compared to rapid drying at 60 degrees C. PMID:17401811

  13. Structure elucidation and DNA binding specificity of natural compounds from Cassia siamea leaves: A biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Mehtab; Ahmad, Faheem; Malla, Ali Mohammed; Khan, Mohd Sohrab; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Tabish, Mohammad; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Silva, P S Pereira

    2016-06-01

    A novel isoflavone, 5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (1) along with a known pyranocoumarin, Seselin (2) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cassia siamea (Family: Fabaceae). Compound 1 has been reported for the first time from any natural source and has not been synthesized so far. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physical evidences viz. elemental analysis, UV, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and mass spectral analysis. Structure of compound (1) was further authenticated by single-crystal X-ray analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A multi-technique approach employing UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence, KI quenching studies, competitive displacement assay, circular dichroism and viscosity studies have been utilized to probe the extent of interaction and possible binding modes of isolated compounds (1-2) with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA). Both the compounds were found to interact with DNA via non-intercalative binding mode with moderate proficiencies. Groove binding was the major interaction mode in the case of compound 2 while compound 1 probably interacts with DNA through electrostatic interactions. These studies provide deeper insight in understanding of DNA-drug (natural products) interaction which could be helpful to improve their bioavailability for therapeutic purposes. PMID:27085054

  14. Characterization of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)-enriched seed oil from Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) and its oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhang, Bing; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Li, Jing; Fan, Ya-Wei; Liu, Rong; Tang, Liang; Lee, Ki-Teak; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2011-05-11

    Medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)-enriched oil was extracted by supercritical fluid extraction of carbon dioxide (SFE-CO(2)) from Cinnamomum camphora seeds. The SFE-CO(2) process was optimized using the Box-Behnken design (BBD). The maximum oil yield (42.82%) was obtained under the optimal SFE-CO(2) conditions: extraction pressure, 21.16 MPa; extraction temperature, 45.67 °C; and extraction time, 2.38 h. Subsequently, the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, tocopherol content, and DSC profile as well as oxidative stabilities of C. camphora seed oil (CCSO) were studied. Results showed that CCSO contained two major medium-chain fatty acids, capric acid (53.27%) and lauric acid (39.93%). The predominant TAG species in CCSO was LaCC/CLaC (ECN 32, 79.29%). Meanwhile, it can be found that CCSO had much higher oxidative stabilities than coconut oil due to the higher content of tocopherols in CCSO (α-tocopherol, 8.67 ± 0.51 mg/100 g; γ-tocopherol, 22.6 ± 1.02 mg/100 g; δ-tocopherol, 8.38 ± 0.47 mg/100 g). Conclusively, CCSO with such a high level of MCTs and high oxidative stabilities could be potentially applied in special food for specific persons such as weak patients and overweight persons because oils enriched in MCTs can be rapidly absorbed into body to provide energy without fat accumulation.

  15. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Carolina; Fitchett, Chris; Munro, Murray H. G.; Jalil, Juriyati; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2012-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The bioactive extract fraction was purified further and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectral and X-ray crystallography analysis. A polyketide compound, 5-hydroxyramulosin, was identified as the constituent of the bioactive fungal extract fraction. This compound inhibited the fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (IC50 1.56 μg/mL) and was cytotoxic against murine leukemia cells (IC50 2.10 μg/mL). 5-Hydroxyramulosin was the major compound produced by the endophytic fungus. This research suggests that fungal endophytes are a good source of bioactive metabolites which have potential applications in medicine. PMID:22454674

  16. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-09-30

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

  17. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  18. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  19. Potential source of S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaf: essential oil profile and enantiomeric purity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Lin, Chun-Ya; Yeh, Ting-Feng; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2012-08-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool is one of the chemotypes of the indigenous cinnamon in Taiwan. In this study, hydrodistillation was used for extracting the essential oils (EOs) of C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves collected from various plants and seasons, and GC-MS and GC-FID were used to examine variations and contents of the chemical composition in EOs. Moreover, the absolute configuration of the main constituent and its EO content were illustrated by GC-FID with a chiral column. In addition, we also investigated the effect of the extraction time (1, 2, 6, and 10 h) on the yield of EO and the contents of the main constituents. Results from this study revealed that the average EO yield of 12 plants was 3.7%, and linalool accounted for more than 90%. The linalool in the EO was proved to be pure S-(+)-linalool, and its content in the leaves ranged from 28.8 ± 0.3 to 35.1 ± 0.2 mg/g. Furthermore, there were no obvious differences in EO yield and S-(+)-linalool content from various plants and seasons. On the other hand, we also demonstrated that EO and S-(+)-linalool from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves can be completely extracted out by 1 h of hydrodistillation.

  20. Chemical composition of the underutilized legume Cassia hirsuta L.

    PubMed

    Vadivel, V; Janardhanan, K

    2000-01-01

    Seven accessions of the underutilized legume, Cassia hirsuta L., seeds collected from seven different agroclimatic regions of Tamil Nadu, India, were analyzed for proximate composition, total proteins, protein fractions, mineral profiles and selected antinutritional factors. Crude protein ranged from 15.52 to 20.74%, crude lipid 3.77-7.04%, crude fiber 4.68-6.92%, ash 3.98-6.42% and carbohydrates 62.45-70.16%. Energy values of the seeds were 1549-1634 kJ/100 g (DM), which are comparable to those of other legumes. Data on seed protein fractions revealed that globulins constituted the bulk of the seed protein as in most legumes. Mineral contents of the seeds showed greater variation. Potassium was the most abundant mineral (1029-1786 mg/100 g), whereas manganese was low (2.1-2.2 mg/100 g). Antinutritional factors such as total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA and lectins were analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that the accessions of C. hirsuta seeds collected from Tamil Nadu, India, could be good sources of some important nutrients for humans. PMID:11086879

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of heteromorphic stamens in Cassia biscapsularis L.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhonglai; Hu, Jin; Zhao, Zhongtao; Zhang, Dianxiang

    2016-01-01

    Hermaphroditic flowers have evolved primarily under the selection on male function. Evolutionary modification often leads to stamen differentiation within flowers, or “heteranthery”, a phenomenon intrigued scientists since the 18th century until recently. However, the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism has barely been touched. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling in Cassia biscapsularis L., a heterantherous species with representative patterns of stamen differentiation. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the staminodes (the degenerated stamens) and fertile stamens, while much fewer genes differentially expressed among the three sets of fertile stamens. GO term enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis characterized functional properties of DEGs in different stamen types. Transcripts showing close correlation between expression pattern and stamen types were identified. Transcription factors from the bHLH family were suggested to have taken crucial part in the formation of staminodes. This first global transcriptomic analysis focusing on stamen differentiation opens the door toward a more comprehensive understanding on the molecular regulation of floral organ evolution. Especially, the generated unigene resource would be valuable for developing male sterile lines in agronomy. PMID:27527392

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of heteromorphic stamens in Cassia biscapsularis L.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhonglai; Hu, Jin; Zhao, Zhongtao; Zhang, Dianxiang

    2016-01-01

    Hermaphroditic flowers have evolved primarily under the selection on male function. Evolutionary modification often leads to stamen differentiation within flowers, or "heteranthery", a phenomenon intrigued scientists since the 18(th) century until recently. However, the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism has barely been touched. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling in Cassia biscapsularis L., a heterantherous species with representative patterns of stamen differentiation. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the staminodes (the degenerated stamens) and fertile stamens, while much fewer genes differentially expressed among the three sets of fertile stamens. GO term enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis characterized functional properties of DEGs in different stamen types. Transcripts showing close correlation between expression pattern and stamen types were identified. Transcription factors from the bHLH family were suggested to have taken crucial part in the formation of staminodes. This first global transcriptomic analysis focusing on stamen differentiation opens the door toward a more comprehensive understanding on the molecular regulation of floral organ evolution. Especially, the generated unigene resource would be valuable for developing male sterile lines in agronomy. PMID:27527392

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of heteromorphic stamens in Cassia biscapsularis L.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhonglai; Hu, Jin; Zhao, Zhongtao; Zhang, Dianxiang

    2016-01-01

    Hermaphroditic flowers have evolved primarily under the selection on male function. Evolutionary modification often leads to stamen differentiation within flowers, or "heteranthery", a phenomenon intrigued scientists since the 18(th) century until recently. However, the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism has barely been touched. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling in Cassia biscapsularis L., a heterantherous species with representative patterns of stamen differentiation. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the staminodes (the degenerated stamens) and fertile stamens, while much fewer genes differentially expressed among the three sets of fertile stamens. GO term enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis characterized functional properties of DEGs in different stamen types. Transcripts showing close correlation between expression pattern and stamen types were identified. Transcription factors from the bHLH family were suggested to have taken crucial part in the formation of staminodes. This first global transcriptomic analysis focusing on stamen differentiation opens the door toward a more comprehensive understanding on the molecular regulation of floral organ evolution. Especially, the generated unigene resource would be valuable for developing male sterile lines in agronomy.

  4. Cassia spectabilis DC seed galactomannan: structural, crystallographical and rheological studies.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, V P; Taravel, F R; Joseleau, J P; Milas, M; Chanzy, H; Rinaudo, M

    1998-01-01

    The seeds of Cassia spectabilis DC (family: Leguminoseae), an Indian fast growing spreading tree, contain about 40% of endosperm and possess the characteristics of becoming a potential source of commercial gum. The purified galactomannan shows Mw 1.1 x 10(6), intrinsic viscosity [eta] 615ml/g with k' = 1.706 x 10(-1), and a mannose to galactose ration of 2.65. The hydrolysis of the fully methylated polysaccharide reveals clearly the expected structure of legume galactomannans. The orthorhombic lattice constants of the hydrated gums are as follows: a = 9.12 A, b = 25.63 A and c = 10.28 A. The results of X-ray fiber studies show that the b dimension of the unit cell is very sensitive to relative humidity (RH), galactose substitution and orientation of the films. The probable space group symmetry of the unit cell is P2(1)2(1)2. Rheological studies of the galactomannan have shown that the transition from semi-dilute to dilute regime occurs at a critical concentration Cc* = 2.75. The slope of the log-log plot of specific viscosity versus C at zero shear rate is 5.87 in the more concentrated regime. The viscoelastic and critical shear rate behavior indicate the characteristics of a coil polymer. The large dependence of the viscosity on the coil overlap parameter is probably due to polymer-polymer interactions and peculiarity of the galactose distribution along the chain. Above 20 g/L concentration, the rheological behavior of the gum is like the one of a weak-gel.

  5. Biological control potential of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides for coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from a greenhouse-grown seedling of coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis) and evaluated as a mycoherbicide for that weed. Host range tests revealed that coffee senna, wild senna (C. pilosa),and sicklepod (C. obtusifolia) were also affected...

  6. Anthraquinones and flavonoids of Cassia tora leaves ameliorate sodium selenite induced cataractogenesis in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Cassia tora leaves, an edible plant traditionally used for eye ailments, in preventing experimental cataractogenesis. Cataract is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment worldwide characterized by the cloudiness or opacification of the lens due to the disturbance of even distribution of lens proteins and lipids. A significant number of epidemiological studies have suggested the potential role of herbal medicine in the prevention of cataract by maintaining lens architecture. The study was conducted in neonatal rat pups of 8-10 days old with an ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora leaves (ECT) administered by gastric intubation. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and various parameters such as redox status and gene expressions were evaluated in lenses. ECT administration caused a significant decrease in the onset and maturation of cataract, potentiated antioxidant defense and normalized lens crystallin expression against cataract induced animals. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis of ECT revealed the presence of flavonoids and anthraquinones. Thus, the present study indicates the therapeutic potential of Cassia tora leaves in preventing cataract and the effect is endorsed by the presence of antioxidants in Cassia tora leaves. PMID:26786764

  7. Astragalin from Cassia alata induces DNA adducts in vitro and repairable DNA damage in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Saito, Samuel; Silva, Givaldo; Santos, Regineide Xavier; Gosmann, Grace; Pungartnik, Cristina; Brendel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reverse phase-solid phase extraction from Cassia alata leaves (CaRP) was used to obtain a refined extract. Higher than wild-type sensitivity to CaRP was exhibited by 16 haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with defects in DNA repair and membrane transport. CaRP had a strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity with an IC(50) value of 2.27 μg mL(-1) and showed no pro-oxidant activity in yeast. CaRP compounds were separated by HPLC and the three major components were shown to bind to DNA in vitro. The major HPLC peak was identified as kampferol-3-O-β-d-glucoside (astragalin), which showed high affinity to DNA as seen by HPLC-UV measurement after using centrifugal ultrafiltration of astragalin-DNA mixtures. Astragalin-DNA interaction was further studied by spectroscopic methods and its interaction with DNA was evaluated using solid-state FTIR. These and computational (in silico) docking studies revealed that astragalin-DNA binding occurs through interaction with G-C base pairs, possibly by intercalation stabilized by H-bond formation.

  8. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene.

  9. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene. PMID:26718058

  10. Effects of simulated rainfall on disease development and weed control of the bioherbicidal fungi Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum are virulent pathogens of sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), and hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), respectively, under favorable environmental conditions. In greenhouse experiments, the effects of simulated rainfall on pathogenesis and mortality of these ...

  11. Discrimination of Semen cassiae from two related species based on the multivariate analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liying; Wu, Hongwei; Zhou, Xidan; Xu, Yilong; Zhou, Guohong; Wang, Ting; Kou, Zhenzhen; Wang, Zhuju

    2015-07-01

    A simple and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method was developed to discriminate Semen cassiae from two related species: Cassia obtusifolia L. (CO) and Cassia tora L. (CT), the seeds of which are abbreviated as COS and CTS, respectively. 22 major bioactive ingredients in 42 samples (20 COS and 22 CTS) collected from different provinces of China were identified. The statistical methods included similarity analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The pattern analysis method was specific and could be readily used for the comprehensive evaluation of Semen cassiae samples. Therefore, high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint in combination with pattern analysis provided a simple and reliable method for discriminating between COS and CTS.

  12. Verification of the antidiabetic effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) using insulin-uncontrolled type 1 diabetic rats and cultured adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Fukushima, Misato; Ito, Yoshimasa; Muraki, Etsuko; Hosono, Takashi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    It has long been believed that an intake of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) alleviates diabetic pathological conditions. However, it is still controversial whether the beneficial effect is insulin-dependent or insulin-mimetic. This study was aimed at determining the insulin-independent effect of cinnamon. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups and orally administered with an aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) for 22 d. The diabetic rats that had taken CE at a dose of more than 30 mg/kg/d were rescued from their hyperglycemia and nephropathy, and these rats were found to have upregulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in their brown adipose tissues as well as in their muscles. This was verified by using 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which CE upregulates GLUT4 translocation and increases the glucose uptake. CE exhibited its anti-diabetic effect independently from insulin by at least two mechanisms: i) upregulation of mitochondrial UCP-1, and ii) enhanced translocation of GLUT4 in the muscle and adipose tissues.

  13. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH. PMID:27549514

  14. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH. PMID:27549514

  15. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 μg/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 μg/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy

  16. An overview on chemical composition, bioactivity and processing of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vasundhara; Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala, also known as Indian bay leaves, are a lesser-known spice used in the Indian subcontinent. It imparts a warm, peppery, clove-cinnamon like flavor to a variety of food preparations. Besides food applications, the leaves have also been traditionally used for curing a number of ailments and for other perceived health benefits. They find mention in the Aurvedic, Yunani, and other traditional medicinal literature. This review summarizes the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves on biological systems such as immune system, gastro-intestinal tract, liver and its antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial activity. Chemical components that may be responsible for its flavor as well as bioactivity, have also been discussed. PMID:24236996

  17. An overview on chemical composition, bioactivity and processing of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vasundhara; Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala, also known as Indian bay leaves, are a lesser-known spice used in the Indian subcontinent. It imparts a warm, peppery, clove-cinnamon like flavor to a variety of food preparations. Besides food applications, the leaves have also been traditionally used for curing a number of ailments and for other perceived health benefits. They find mention in the Aurvedic, Yunani, and other traditional medicinal literature. This review summarizes the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves on biological systems such as immune system, gastro-intestinal tract, liver and its antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial activity. Chemical components that may be responsible for its flavor as well as bioactivity, have also been discussed.

  18. Biodiesel production from non-edible lignocellulosic biomass of Cassia fistula L. fruit pulp using oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alok; Sindhu, Dev K; Arora, Neha; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Vikas; Pruthi, Parul A

    2015-12-01

    This study explored biodiesel production from a low cost, abundant, non-edible lignocellulosic biomass from aqueous extract of Cassia fistula L. (CAE) fruit pulp. The CAE was utilized as substrate for cultivating novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1. This oleaginous yeast accumulates high amount of triacylglycerides as large intracellular lipid droplets (4.35±0.54μm) using CAE as sole nutritional source. Total lipids (4.86±0.54g/l) with lipid content of 53.18% (w/w) were produced by R. kratochvilovae HIMPA1 on CAE. The FAME profile obtained revealed palmitic acid (C16:0) 43.06%, stearic acid (C18:0) 28.74%, and oleic acid (C18:1) 17.34% as major fatty acids. High saturated fatty acids content (72.58%) can be blended with high PUFA feedstocks to make it an industrially viable renewable energy product.

  19. Cinnamon polyphenol extract regulates tristetraprolin and related gene expression in mouse adipocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been widely used in spices, flavoring agents, and preservatives. Cinnamon polyphenol extract (CPE) may be important in the alleviation of chronic diseases, but the molecular evidence is not substantial. Tristetraprolin (TTP) family proteins have anti-inflammatory ef...

  20. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition. PMID:22645080

  1. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    PubMed

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  2. Phytochemical investigation of Annulohypoxylon ilanense, an endophytic fungus derived from Cinnamomum species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Der; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Su, Yung-Shun; Hsieh, Sung-Yuan; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yuan, Gwo-Fang

    2013-03-01

    Cultivation of the fungal strain Annulohypoxylon ilanense, an endophytic fungus isolated from the wood of medicinal plant Cinnamomum species, resulted in the isolation of one new furanoid derivative, ilanefuranone (1), one new pyrrole alkaloid, ilanepyrrolal (2), and one new biarylpropanoid derivative, ilanenoid (3), together with 22 known compounds, of which one α-tetralone analog, (-)-(4R)-3,4-dihydro-4,6-dihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-one (4) was isolated for the first time from a natural source. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical evidence, in-depth NMR spectroscopic analysis, and high-resolution mass spectrometry, and the antimycobacterial activities were also evaluated.

  3. Direct Analysis in Real Time by Mass Spectrometric Technique for Determining the Variation in Metabolite Profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Atul Kumar; Singh, S. P.; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. is an important traditional medicinal plant, mentioned in various ancient literatures such as Ayurveda. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proved. To characterize diversity in terms of metabolite profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm genotypes, a newly emerging mass spectral ionization technique direct time in real time (DART) is very helpful. The DART ion source has been used to analyze an extremely wide range of phytochemicals present in leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. Ten genotypes were assessed for the presence of different phytochemicals. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols. These constituents vary in the different genotypes of Cinnamomum tamala. Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART data of these Cinnamomum genotypes. The result shows that the genotype of Cinnamomum tamala could be differentiated using DART MS data. The active components present in Cinnamomum tamala may be contributing significantly to high amount of antioxidant property of leaves and, in turn, conditional effects for diabetic patients. PMID:22701361

  4. [Transcriptome analysis for leaves of five chemical types in Cinnamomum camphora].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiangmei; Wu, Yanfang; Xiao, Fuming; Xiong, Zhenyu; Xu, Haining

    2014-01-01

    Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) is a representative species in Lauraceae family, and can be subdivided into five types: linalool, camphor, cineol, iso-nerolidol and borneol. In this paper, the leaves transcriptomes of Cinnamomum camphora were sequenced with the platform of Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. Based on the GO (Gene Ontology), COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database, the function classification, pathway annotation, and the coding sequence prediction of all-Unigenes were carried out. 156 278 Unigenes with an average length of 584 bp and N50 (N50 value is defined as the Unigene length where half the assembly is represented by Unigenes of this size or longer) of 1 023 bp were generated by de novo assembly. A total of 5 5955 Unigenes (35.80%) were annotated through similarity comparison, in which 24 717 and 21 806 Unigenes were assigned into GO and COG, respectively. By searching KEGG database, 3 350 Unigenes were involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, in which 424 Unigenes were involved in monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. The analysis of monoterpenoids biosynthesis pathway showed that 9 Unigenes likely encode (+)-linalool synthase, and their expression levels were higher in linalool type but lower in cineole type. This study provides a foundation for further characterizing the functional genes in C. camphora.

  5. HPLC quantification of kaempferol-3-O-gentiobioside in Cassia alata.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Iizuka, Toru; Nagai, Masahiro; Murata, Yoshimi

    2003-07-01

    Kaempferol-3-O-gentiobioside, the major flavonoid glycoside in Indonesian Cassia alata was quantified in various parts of the plant. The mature leaf was found to contain the highest content of this metabolite. A decrease of the flavonoid content in the juvenile leaf during the period of October through December was also observed. The contents ranged from 2.0 to 5.0% and 1.0 to 4.0% in mature and juvenile leaves, respectively. The other parts studied were flower (sepal and petal), rachis, stem and seed. Kaempferol-3-O-gentiobioside was not detected in the seed. PMID:12837355

  6. Protective effect of different parts of Cassia fistula on human umbilical vein endothelial cells against glycated protein-induced toxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Einstein, John Wilking; Mustafa, Moh Rais; Nishigaki, Ikuo; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Moh, Mustafa Ali

    2008-10-01

    The protective effect of methanol extracts of Cassia fistula (flowers, leaves and bark) was examined in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) against toxicity induced by glycated protein (GFBS) in vitro. The experiments consisted of eight groups of HUVEC with five flasks in each group. Group I was treated with 15% FBS, group II with GFBS (70 microM) alone, and the other six groups were treated with GFBS plus 25 and 50 microg of each of the three types of C. fistula extracts. After 72 h of incubation, cells were collected and tested for lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The protective effect of C. fistula extracts against GFBS-induced cytotoxicity was examined in HUVEC by using trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays. Results showed that HUVEC incubated with GFBS alone showed a significant (P < 0.001) elevation of lipid peroxidation accompanied by depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), in addition to decreased cytosolic GST. Treatment of HUVEC with C. fistula extracts at a concentration of 25 and 50 microg significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and normalized the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and GST levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological changes of HUVEC were compared with respective controls; in addition, the C. fistula extracts increased the viability of HUVEC damaged by GFBS. A protective effect of C. fistula extracts on HUVEC against GFBS-induced toxicity suggested a potential beneficial effect of the extract in preventing diabetic angiopathies.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  9. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  10. Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Zhang, Huiyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2010-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the antioxidant efficacy of spice extracts in cooked meat. In experiment 1, antioxidant activity of 13 common spice extracts was screened in a liposome system. Six of the extracts (clove, rosemary, cassia bark, liquorice, nutmeg, and round cardamom), identified to have the greatest total phenolic contents, were strongly inhibitory of TBARS formation. In experiment 2, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing power, and metal chelation of these six spice extracts were evaluated. Clove exhibited the greatest reducing power, and all had strong DPPH scavenging activity. In experiment 3, clove, rosemary, and cassia bark extracts were further tested for in situ antioxidant efficacy. Cooked pork patties containing these spice extracts had markedly reduced TBARS formation and off-flavour scores but a more stable red colour, during storage. The results demonstrated strong potential of spice extracts as natural antioxidants in cooked pork products. PMID:20430533

  11. 75 FR 70029 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in Cassia County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Closure of Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in...- Agency Recreation Area that are administered by the Burley Field Office, Bureau of Land Management. DATES... the BLM at Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in Cassia County, Idaho. Lands in the...

  12. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment.

  13. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', associated with witches'-broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Spreng. in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Saady, Nadiya Abubakar; Khan, Akhtar Jamal; Calari, Alberto; Al-Subhi, Ali Masoud; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2008-02-01

    Samples from plants of Cassia italica exhibiting typical witches'-broom symptoms (Cassia witches'-broom; CWB) were examined for the presence of plant pathogenic phytoplasmas by PCR amplification using universal phytoplasma primers. All affected plants yielded positive results. RFLP analyses of rRNA gene products indicated that the phytoplasmas detected were different from those described previously. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that CWB represents a distinct lineage and shares a common ancestor with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. Molecular comparison revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the four CWB strains (IM-1, IM-2, IM-3 and IM-4) identified in symptomatic C. italica samples were nearly identical (99.6-100 % similarity). The closest relatives were members of the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma ribosomal group (16SrIX; 95-97 % sequence similarity). On the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences and biological properties, the phytoplasma associated with witches'-broom of C. italica in Oman represents a coherent but discrete novel phytoplasma, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', with GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL accession number EF666051 representing the reference strain.

  14. Clinical & pathological features of acute toxicity due to Cassia occidentalis in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, V M; John, T J; Kumar, Amod

    2009-07-01

    Cassia occidentalis is an annual shrub found in many countries including India. Although bovines and ovines do not eat it, parts of the plant are used in some traditional herbal medicines. Several animal studies have documented that fresh or dried beans are toxic. Ingestion of large amounts by grazing animals has caused serious illness and death. The toxic effects in large animals, rodents and chicken are on skeletal muscles, liver, kidney and heart. The predominant systems involved depend upon the animal species and the dose of the beans consumed. Brain functions are often affected. Gross lesions at necropsy consist of necrosis of skeletal muscle fibres and hepatic centrilobular necrosis; renal tubular necrosis is less frequent. Muscle and liver cell necrosis is reflected in biochemical abnormalities. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) is 1 g/kg for mice and rats. Toxicity is attributed to various anthraquinones and their derivatives and alkaloids, but the specific toxins have not been identified. Data on human toxicity are extremely scarce. This review summarizes information available on Cassia toxicity in animals and compares it with toxic features reported in children. The clinical spectrum and histopathology of C. occidentalis poisoning in children resemble those of animal toxicity, affecting mainly hepatic, skeletal muscle and brain tissues. The case-fatality rate in acute severe poisoning is 75-80 per cent in children. PMID:19700797

  15. Fractionation, physicochemical property and immunological activity of polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Yin, Junyi; Nie, Shaoping; Wan, Yiqun; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-10-01

    The seeds of Cassia obtusifolia are widely used as a drink in Asia and an additive in food industry. Considerable amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides were found in the whole seeds, while conflicting results on structure characteristics have been reported, and few studies have been reported on physicochemical properties and immunomodulatory activities. In the present study, gradient ethanol precipitation was applied to fractionate the water-soluble polysaccharide (CP), and two sub-fractions CP-30 (30% ethanol precipitate) and CP-40 (40% ethanol precipitate) were obtained. Different rheological properties for CP-30 and CP-40 were found, indicating the differences in structure characteristics between CP-30 and CP-40. Chemical properties, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and glycosidic linkage were investigated. Compared with CP-30, CP-40 had lower molecular weight and higher content of xylose. The immunomodulatory effects of CP, CP-30 and CP-40 were assessed. All of them were found to possess significant immunomodulation activities, while varied effects of them on macrophage functions were observed. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and efficient method to purify cassia polysaccharides, and investigate their physicochemical properties and biological activities, which was meaningful for their potential use in food industry and folk medicine. PMID:27177462

  16. Activity-guided chemo toxic profiling of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds: detection of toxic compounds in body fluids of CO-exposed patients and experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Gati Krushna; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Mudiam, Mohana K R; Vashishtha, Vipin M; Raisuddin, S; Das, Mukul

    2015-06-15

    Our prior studies have shown an association between the deaths of children and consumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds. However, the chemicals responsible for the CO poisoning are not known. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify the key moieties in CO seeds and their cytotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Activity-guided sequential extraction and fractionation of the seeds followed by GC-MS analysis identified the toxic compounds in the CO seeds. These identified compounds were subsequently detected and quantified in blood and urine samples from CO-exposed rats and CO poisoning human study cases. GC-MS analysis of different fractions of methanol extracts of CO seeds revealed the presence of five anthraquinones (AQs), viz. physcion, emodin, rhein, aloe-emodin, and chrysophanol. Interestingly, these AQs were detected in serum and urine samples from the study cases and CO-exposed rats. Cytotoxicity analysis of the above AQs in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells revealed that rhein is the most toxic moiety, followed by emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol. These studies indicate that AQ aglycones are responsible for producing toxicity, which may be associated with symptoms of hepatomyoencephalopathy in CO poisoning cases.

  17. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    PubMed

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon.

  18. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    PubMed

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. PMID:26133665

  19. Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. Methods A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: “Cinnamomum zeylanicum”, “Ceylon cinnamon”, “True cinnamon” and “Sri Lankan cinnamon”. To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. Results The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. Conclusions The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public

  20. Essential oil from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum acts as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and reduces the serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Yang, C W; Liao, J W; Zhen, W W; Chu, F H; Chang, S T

    2008-11-01

    The xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity and anti-hyperuricemia effect in mice of Cinnamomum osmophloeum, which is an endemic tree in Taiwan, were evaluated in this study. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of C. osmophloeum leaves presented the strongest XOD inhibition activity (IC(50)=16.3 μg/ml); however, no significant XOD inhibition activities were found in ethanolic and hot water extracts. Furthermore, among the main compounds of essential oil, the cinnamaldehyde exhibited the potent XOD inhibition activity with an IC(50)=8.4 μg/ml. Besides, the reducing serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice by cinnamaldehyde were further investigated. The hyperuricemic mice were oral administrated cinnamaldehyde at a dosage of 150 mg/kg, the uric acid value in serum was reduced from 5.25±0.63 to 2.10±0.04 mg/dl, the levels of serum uric acid in mice was lowered down by 84.48% as compared to the hyperuricemic control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, cinnamaldehyde may be a potential lead compound for developing the pharmaceutic for anti-hyperuricemia agent. PMID:18693097

  1. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculicidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2005-12-01

    The toxicity of cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, bark essential oil compounds against eggs and adult females of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of their related compounds, benzyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl acetate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, as well as two widely used pediculicides, d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In a filter-paper contact toxicity bioassay with female lice at 0.25 mg/cm(2), benzaldehyde was 29- and 27-fold more toxic than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively, as judged by median lethal time (LT(50)) values. Salicylaldehyde was nine and eight times more active than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively. Pediculicidal activity of linalool was comparable with that of d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. Cinnamomum bark essential oil was slightly less effective than either d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. Benzyl alcohol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde exhibited moderate pediculicidal activity. After 24h of exposure, no hatching was observed with 0.063 mg/cm(2) salicylaldehyde, 0.125 mg/cm(2) benzaldehyde, 0.5mg/cm(2)Cinnamomum bark essential oil, 1.0 mg/cm(2) (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and 1.0 mg/cm(2) benzyl cinnamate. Little or no ovicidal activity was observed with d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. In vapour phase toxicity tests with female lice, benzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde were much more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these compounds was largely due to action in the vapour phase. Neither d-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Cinnamomum bark essential oil and test compounds described merit further study as potential pediculicides or ovicides for the control of P. h. capitis.

  2. Report-The fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil.

    PubMed

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Chivandi, Eliton; Dawood, Sumaya; Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey; Gundidza, Mazuru; Magwa, Michael Libala; Muredzi, Perkins; Samie, Amidou

    2015-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil was determined using gas chromatographic methods. C. abbreviata seeds yielded 9.53% of yellowish-green oil consisting mainly of oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic acid (26.5%), linoleic acid (26.7%), stearic acid (4.1%) and elaidic acid (2.1%). The oil was solid at room temperature, had a saponification value of 376.16 mg KOH/g and an iodine value of 26.48 g I2/100g oil. The fatty acid composition and saponification value of the C. abbreviata seed oil suggest that it may find application in both cosmetic and pharmaceutical natural product formulations.

  3. Structure of a galactomannan from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, M; Kapoor, V P

    2001-06-15

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl (family: Caesalpiniaceae) is a fast growing and spreading Indian shrub of which seeds, pods and leaves are extensively used for pharmaceutical applications. The seeds have been found to be an alternative source of commercial gums. The structural aspects of the galactomannans have been determined for a better understanding of its properties. The purified seed galactomannan contains mannose:galactose in a ratio of 2.90. The average molecular weight (M(w)) is 9.66x10(4) and the intrinsic viscosity (eta) is 209 mL/g. Methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 13C NMR studies confirm that the gum has the basic structure of legume galactomannans with a main chain of (1-->4)-linked beta-D-mannopyranosyl units to which single alpha-(1-->6)-D-linked galactopyranosyl units are attached through block pattern. PMID:11438100

  4. Report-The fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil.

    PubMed

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Chivandi, Eliton; Dawood, Sumaya; Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey; Gundidza, Mazuru; Magwa, Michael Libala; Muredzi, Perkins; Samie, Amidou

    2015-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil was determined using gas chromatographic methods. C. abbreviata seeds yielded 9.53% of yellowish-green oil consisting mainly of oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic acid (26.5%), linoleic acid (26.7%), stearic acid (4.1%) and elaidic acid (2.1%). The oil was solid at room temperature, had a saponification value of 376.16 mg KOH/g and an iodine value of 26.48 g I2/100g oil. The fatty acid composition and saponification value of the C. abbreviata seed oil suggest that it may find application in both cosmetic and pharmaceutical natural product formulations. PMID:26004707

  5. Profile of urinary and fecal proanthocyanidin metabolites from common cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) in rats.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Fuguet, Elisabet; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark is widely used as a spice and in traditional medicine. Its oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins are believed to be partly responsible for the beneficial properties of the plant. We describe here the metabolic fate of cinnamon proanthocyanidins in the urine and feces of rats fed a suspension of the whole bark. The metabolites include ten mono-, di-, and tri- conjugated (epi)catechin phase II metabolites and more than 20 small phenolic acids from intestinal microbial fermentation. Some of these are sulfated conjugates. Feces contain intact (epi)catechin and dimers. This suggests that free radical scavenging species are in contact with the intestinal walls for hours after ingestion of cinnamon. The phenolic metabolite profile of cinnamon bark in urine is consistent with a mixture of proanthocyanidins that are depolymerized into their constitutive (epi)catechin units as well as cleaved into smaller phenolic acids during their transit along the intestinal tract, with subsequent absorption and conjugation into bioavailable metabolites.

  6. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  7. Efficacy of an essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Psoroptes cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Flamini, G; Zaralli, L J; Perrucci, S

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo acaricidal effects of an essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicun leaves on Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite. In vitro, 2.5 ml of the essential oil diluted at different concentrations, from 10% to 0.03%, in paraffin oil were added to Petri dishes containing all motile stages of P. cuniculi. Mites mortality observed in these dishes was compared with that observed in untreated and treated (AcaCerulen R) control plates. In vivo, one group of six P. cuniculi infected rabbits was topically treated two times at seven days interval with two ml of the essential oil at the concentration of 2.5% in paraffin oil and compared with untreated and treated (AcaCerulen R) control groups of six rabbits each. After 24 h of contact, all concentrations of essential oil between 0.10 and 10% showed a good in vitro acaricidal efficacy if compared with the untreated controls (p<0.01), but only the concentrations between 0.16 and 10% turned out as active as the drug. In vivo, the treatment with the essential oil cured all infested rabbits and no statistical differences were observed with the treated control group.

  8. Volatile constituents from Cinnamomum zeylanicum fruit stalks and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Jagan Mohan Rao, Lingamallu; Sakariah, Kunnumpurath K

    2003-07-16

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. The steam-distilled volatile oil from cinnamon fruit stalks was analyzed with GC and GC-MS. It showed the presence of hydrocarbons (44.7%) and oxygenated compounds (52.6%). Twenty-seven compounds constituting ca. 95.98% of the volatile oil were characterized. (E)-Cinnamyl acetate (36.59%) and (E)-caryophyllene (22.36%) are found to be major compounds. The volatile oil was screened for its potential as an antioxidant by using in vitro models, such as the beta-carotene-linoleate and phosphomolybdenum complex method. The volatile oil showed 55.94% and 66.9% antioxidant activity at 100 and 200 ppm concentration, respectively. Also, the volatile oil showed good antioxidant capacity, using the formation of the phosphomolybdenum complex. A comparison of the chemical composition of the volatile oil was made with that of buds, flowers, and fruits. This is the first report on the chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit stalks of this species and its antioxidant activity.

  9. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Unlu, Mehmet; Ergene, Emel; Unlu, Gulhan Vardar; Zeytinoglu, Hulya Sivas; Vural, Nilufer

    2010-11-01

    The essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Nine constituents representing 99.24% of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The major compounds in the oil were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (68.95%), benzaldehyde (9.94%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (7.44%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against 21 bacteria and 4 Candida species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on ras active (5RP7) and normal (F2408) fibroblasts were examined by MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC(50) values less than 20 μg/mL for both cell lines. 5RP7 cells were affected stronger than normal cells. Morphological observation of apoptotic cells indicated the induction of apoptosis at the high level of the oil, especially in 5RP7 cells. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of cinnamon bark, indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections and neoplasms.

  10. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice. PMID:25612221

  11. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2004-07-14

    Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:15237942

  12. Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oils from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Huang, Chin-Gi; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) trees were evaluated against three mosquito species. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against Aedes albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24h were 40.8 microg/ml (LC(90)=81.7 microg/ml) and 46.5 microg/ml (LC(90)=83.3 microg/ml), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were trans-cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. albopictus larvae were below 50 mug/ml. In addition, cinnamaldehyde type leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde have also exhibited great larvicidal performance against Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus larvae. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that alpha-methyl cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited strong mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:18396039

  13. [Effects of nitrogen addition on red soil microbes in the Cinnamomum camphora plantation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Pei-Yi; Zhu, Fan; Su, Shao-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Wen-De

    2013-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen addition on the red soil microbial communities in Cinnamomum camphora plantation, three treatments of nitrogen addition were designated as control (N0: 0 g x m(-2)), low nitrogen (N1: 5 g x m(-2)) and high nitrogen (N2 :15 g x m(-2)). Soil microbial numbers, microbial biomass carbon (C), biomass N and microbial community functional diversity were analyzed using the methods of plate counting, chloroform fumigation and BIOLOG system, respectively. The results showed that the numbers of bacteria in N1 and N2 were significantly higher than the control 1 month after nitrogen addition, but significantly lower than the control 13 months after nitrogen addition, and the number of fungi and actinomycetes were not significantly changed after nitrogen addition. The soil microbial biomass C, N increased with the increase of nitrogen at 1 month, but the soil microbial biomass C increased significantly 13 months after nitrogen addition when compared with 1 month after nitrogen addition. The soil microbial biomass N was lower 13 months after nitrogen addition when compared with 1 month after nitrogen addition, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The variation of the carbon utilization efficiency of soil microbial communities was resulted from the nitrogen addition. The indices of Shannon index, Simpson index and McIntosh index were calculated to show the differences in nitrogen treatments and in times, which turned out to be insignificant.

  14. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) was found to reduce body fat deposition and improve blood lipid in both healthy and obese rats. The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of CCSKO in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. The obese rats were treated with CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil, respectively, for 12 wk. The level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and P65 were compared among CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. Our results showed that the level of T-AOC and activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased and the level of MDA was significantly decreased in CCSKO group. In addition, CCSKO treatment reduced the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6, and P65 through raising the level of PPAR-γ. In conclusion, CCSKO has, for the first time, been found to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27003858

  15. MAPLE fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum antimicrobial surfaces for improved gastrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chirea, Mariana; Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization. PMID:24979402

  16. Combined inhibitory effect against postharvest storage rots and their effects on postharvest quality parameters in cherry tomatoes by cassia oil and calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wu; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Jiaping

    2013-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cassia oil alone or in combination with calcium chloride (CaCl2) against Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo was assessed on cherry tomatoes. The results demonstrated that concentrations of CaCl2 ranging from 0.25 to 3% enhanced the inhibitory effects of 200 μl of cassia oil per liter on the growth of A. alternata in vitro. The combination of 0.25% CaCl2 and 500 μl of cassia oil per liter showed a significant inhibition effect on decay development in both wounded artificially infected and unwounded naturally infected fruit. Importantly, these treatments did not reduce the overall quality of tomatoes. Defense-related enzyme activities were also evaluated. The results indicated that cassia oil alone or in combination with CaCl2 significantly enhanced defense-related enzyme activities, such as peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Together, these data suggest that the combination of cassia oil and CaCl2 may be an efficient method to limit cherry tomato decay caused by fungi.

  17. Combined inhibitory effect against postharvest storage rots and their effects on postharvest quality parameters in cherry tomatoes by cassia oil and calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wu; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Jiaping

    2013-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cassia oil alone or in combination with calcium chloride (CaCl2) against Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo was assessed on cherry tomatoes. The results demonstrated that concentrations of CaCl2 ranging from 0.25 to 3% enhanced the inhibitory effects of 200 μl of cassia oil per liter on the growth of A. alternata in vitro. The combination of 0.25% CaCl2 and 500 μl of cassia oil per liter showed a significant inhibition effect on decay development in both wounded artificially infected and unwounded naturally infected fruit. Importantly, these treatments did not reduce the overall quality of tomatoes. Defense-related enzyme activities were also evaluated. The results indicated that cassia oil alone or in combination with CaCl2 significantly enhanced defense-related enzyme activities, such as peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Together, these data suggest that the combination of cassia oil and CaCl2 may be an efficient method to limit cherry tomato decay caused by fungi. PMID:24215690

  18. Isolation, Purification, and Identification of 2-(p-Hydroxyphenoxy)-5, 7-Dihydroxychromone: A Fungal-Induced Phytoalexin from Cassia obtusifolia 1

    PubMed Central

    Sharon, Amir; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Gressel, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    A single phytoalexin was isolated and purified from 12- to 14-day-old leaves of Cassia obtusifolia L. inoculated with Alternaria cassiae Jurair & Khan. The structure was elucidated by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry as 2-(p-hydroxyphenoxy)-5,7-dihydroxychromone. The compound was shown to be derived in part from phenylalanine. Radial growth of A. cassiae was inhibited 50% by the compound at 0.3 millimolar. This moderate toxicity is compensated for by the relatively high levels (3 millimolar) accumulated. Phenoxychromones have been previously reported only as constitutive secondary metabolites in Artemisia capillaris Thunb., in which their function is unknown. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4Figure 7 PMID:16668628

  19. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  20. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2015-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  1. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica.

  2. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  3. Spaceflight-induced variation on biological traits and effective components of Cassia obtusifolia.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ren-jun; Qi, Zhi-hong; Han, Rui-lian; Liu, Feng-hua; Liu, Yan; Liang, Zong-suo

    2015-07-01

    The dry seeds of Cassia obtusifolia were carried by the "ShenZhou 8" satellite and sowed after landing. Based on our pri- or study on SP1, the characteristics of plants growth, physiological index and content of effective components were examined. The results showed that the QC10, QC29 strains matured 5 d earlier compared with control. The plant height, across diameter and ground diameter of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains was superior to the control at whole growth period. The branch number increased ranging from 4 to 11 and the number of pods reached 321, 313,281, respectively, which was dramatically higher than the control (246). The yield of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains increased noticeably from 31.4 to 63.2 g. The 1000-seed-weight of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains was 25.86, 25.88, 24.06 g, while the control was 23.69 g. Compared to the control, the mass fraction of chlorophyll was enhanced 1.098, 1.016, 0.297 mg. There was no significant difference in aurantio-obtusin and chrysophanol content of seeds. Through two years research, three high-yield mutant strains were obtained. This study indicates that spaceflight-induced mutants could provide new germplasm for C. obtusifolia breeding and offers the theoretical basis for further utilization of spaceflight-induced mutation to breed high-quality C. obtusifolia strains. PMID:26697680

  4. Investigating a galactomannan gel obtained from Cassia grandis seeds as immobilizing matrix for Cramoll lectin.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Silva, Caroline S; Soares, Paulo A G; Barros, Wilson; Correia, Maria T S; Coelho, Luana C B B; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2016-05-01

    Characterization, with emphasis on the rheological properties, of Cassia grandis seeds galactomannan gel containing immobilized Cramoll 1-4 is presented. The gels, with and without immobilized Cramoll 1-4, were evaluated along time by rheometry, pH, color, microbial contamination and lectin hemagglutinating activity (HA). Rheological determinations confirmed the gels to be very stable up to 30 days with variations occurring after this period. Rheological data also showed that the gel/Cramoll 1-4 immobilizing matrix loses its elastic modulus substantially after 60 days. Both gels presented no microbial contamination as well as a pH close to neutral. Colorimetric parameters demonstrated the gels transparency with occasional yellowness. The opacity of the galactomannan gel did not change significantly along the study; the same did not occur for the gel with immobilized Cramoll 1-4 as a statistically significant reduction of its opacity was observed. In what concerns immobilized Cramoll 1-4 HA, up to 90% of its initial HA was maintained after 20 days, with a decrease to 60% after 60 days. These results combined with the thickening and stabilizing characteristics of the galactomannan gel make this gel a promising immobilizing matrix for Cramoll 1-4 that can be further exploited for clinical and cosmetic applications. PMID:26840177

  5. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations.

  6. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  7. Water uptake, priming, drying and storage effects in Cassia excelsa Schrad seeds.

    PubMed

    Jeller, H; Perez, S C; Raizer, J

    2003-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of osmotic potential on the water uptake curve in Cassia excelsa seeds and use the results to analyze the effects of dehydration and storage on primed seed germination. Seeds were imbibed in distilled water and polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000) osmotic solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, at 20 degrees C. The radicle emergence and seed moisture content were evaluated at 6-hour intervals during 240 hours. Afterwards, seeds were primed in distilled water and PEG 6000 solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa for 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours at 20 degrees C, followed by air drying and storage for 15 days at 5 degrees C. The lower the osmotic potential, the higher the time required for priming. The osmoconditioning yields benefits with PEG solutions at 0.0 and -0.2 MPa; seed improvements were maintained during storage for 15 days at 5 degrees C, but were reverted by seed drying.

  8. [Effects of understory removal on soil labile organic carbon pool in a Cinnamomum camphora plantation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Cong; Li, Zheng-Cai; Cheng, Cai-Fang; Liu, Rong-Jie; Wang, Bin; Geri, Le-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Taking a 48-year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the eastern area of our subtropics as test object, this paper studied the labile organic carbon contents and their ratios to the total organic carbon (TOC) in 0-60 cm soil layer under effects of understory removal (UR). As compared with no understory removal (CK), the soil TOC and easily-oxidized carbon (EOC) contents under UR decreased, with a decrement of 4.8% - 34.1% and 27.1% - 36.2%, respectively, and the TOC and EOC contents had a significant difference in 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm layers, respectively. The water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) (except in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm layers) and light fraction organic matter (LFOM) under UR increaesd, but the difference was not significant. The ratio of soil WSOC to soil TOC in UR stand was higher than that in CK stand, while the ratio of soil EOC to soil TOC showed an opposite trend. In the two stands, soil WSOC, EOC, and LFOM had significant or extremely significant correlations with soil TOC, and the correlation coefficients of soil EOC and LFOM with soil TOC were higher in UR stand than in CK, but the correlation coefficient between soil WSOC and TOC was in opposite. The soil EOC, LFOM, and TOC in the two stands were significantly or extremely significantly correlated with soil nutrients, but the soil WSOC in UR stand had no significant correlations with soil hydrolyzable N, available P, exchangeable Ca, and exchangeable Mg.

  9. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and its constituents from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Zheng-Wen; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Jia, Ren-Yong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Zhou, Yi; Du, Yong-Hua; Peng, Lian-Ci; Kang, Shuai; Yu, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis CMCC (B) 50041, were used in the antibacterial tests of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its five chemical constituents. The effect of 1, 8-cineole on the ultrastructural structure of the bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and the five chemical constituents showed variable levels of inhibition. Their MIC ( minimum inhibitory concentration ) and MBC (minimal bacteriocidal concentration) values were all in the range of 0.781 µL/mL~6.25 µL/mL and 0.781 µL/mL~12.5 µL/mL respectively except γ-terpinene. The MIC values of γ-terpinene against E. coli and S. aureus were all higher than 50 µL/mL, but the MIC and MBC values of γ-terpinene against S. enteritidis was only 3.125 µL/mL. Among them, α-terpineol possessed the best antibacterial activity. Under the transmission electron microscope, cell size of treated E. coli decreased, cell wall and cell membrane ruptured, and nucleoplasm was reduced and gathered onto the side. After the S. aureus was treated with 1, 8-cineole, the cell size and shape were damaged and nucleus cytoplasm was concentrated or reduced or agglomerated on the side. These results suggest that C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its constituents have excellent antibacterial activities, the antibacterial mechanism of 1, 8-cineole against E. coli and S. aureus might attributable to its hydrophobicity. PMID:25126170

  10. Differentiation of the four major types (C. Burmannii, C. Verum, C. cassia, And C. Loureiroi) of cinnamons using a flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and efficient flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indon...

  11. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    PubMed Central

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (θ), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

  12. Immunomodulatory potential of Rhein, an anthraquinone moiety of Cassia occidentalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Gati Krushna; Yadav, Ashish; Mandal, Payal; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2016-03-14

    Rhein, the most toxic anthraquinone moiety in Cassia occidentalis seeds, has been associated with hepatomyoencephalopathy (HME) in children. Structural and functional alterations in the lymphoid organs have been reported both in HME patients and experimental animals indicating a possibility of the dysfunction of immune system following exposure to CO seeds or its toxic anthraquinones (Panigrahi et al., 2014a). In the present study the mechanism of immune response of Rhein in splenocytes has been investigated by measuring functional assays of lymphocyte, cell surface receptor expression and analysis of cytokine levels. Results indicate that Rhein at a maximum dose of 10 μM is non cytotoxic up to 72 h in splenocytes. In addition to its potential to decrease the allogenic response of T-cells, Rhein significantly suppresses the proliferation of the concavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated splenocytes. Lymphocyte receptor expression analysis revealed that Rhein exposure significantly down regulate the expression of CD3e, CD4, CD8, CD28, CD69 molecules in T-cells. The expression of CD19, CD28, CD40 in B-cells were also found to be significantly decreased following Rhein exposure. In accordance with the functional responses, Rhein treatment significantly lowered the expression of IL2 and IL6 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes, and IL6, IL10, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes. Over all, the study suggests the immunomodulatory activity of Rhein and that it would be useful in understanding the immune response of CO seeds in human subjects. PMID:26784856

  13. Repellency of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and their major constituents to Leptotrombidium pallidum (Acari: Trombiculidae).

    PubMed

    Shin, E-Hyun; Song, Bong Gu; Lee, Il Hee; Park, Mi Yeoun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Chang, Kyu-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Leptotrombidium pallidum (Nagoya, Miyagawa, Mitamura & Tamiya) is a primary vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hyashi), the causative agent of scrub typhus. An assessment is made of the repellency to L. pallidum larvae (chiggers) of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and major constituents (E)-cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, and (E)-anethole of the corresponding oils. Results were compared with those of conventional repellents DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 [(ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate)], and permethrin. Based on the median repellent concentration (RC50) values, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassia bark oil, and star anise oil (RC50, 0.95-1.52 mg/cm2) exhibited significantly more potent repellency than DEET (3.85 mg/cm2). (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassiabark oil, 1,8-cineole, and star anise oil were approximately 43, 16, 11, 8, and 4 times more effective than IR3535 (CC5, 6.51%) as judged by the median climbing distance-disturbing concentration (CC50) values. The median residual duration time of repellency (RT50) was significantly more pronounced in DEET (RT50, 323 min) than in all essential oils and constituents (108-167 min). In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic repellents, the three essential oils and their major constituents described merit further study as potential biorepellents for the control of L. pallidum populations.

  14. Repellency of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and their major constituents to Leptotrombidium pallidum (Acari: Trombiculidae).

    PubMed

    Shin, E-Hyun; Song, Bong Gu; Lee, Il Hee; Park, Mi Yeoun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Chang, Kyu-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Leptotrombidium pallidum (Nagoya, Miyagawa, Mitamura & Tamiya) is a primary vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hyashi), the causative agent of scrub typhus. An assessment is made of the repellency to L. pallidum larvae (chiggers) of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and major constituents (E)-cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, and (E)-anethole of the corresponding oils. Results were compared with those of conventional repellents DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 [(ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate)], and permethrin. Based on the median repellent concentration (RC50) values, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassia bark oil, and star anise oil (RC50, 0.95-1.52 mg/cm2) exhibited significantly more potent repellency than DEET (3.85 mg/cm2). (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassiabark oil, 1,8-cineole, and star anise oil were approximately 43, 16, 11, 8, and 4 times more effective than IR3535 (CC5, 6.51%) as judged by the median climbing distance-disturbing concentration (CC50) values. The median residual duration time of repellency (RT50) was significantly more pronounced in DEET (RT50, 323 min) than in all essential oils and constituents (108-167 min). In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic repellents, the three essential oils and their major constituents described merit further study as potential biorepellents for the control of L. pallidum populations. PMID:23802452

  15. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis.

  16. Non-Stomatal Limitation to Photosynthesis in Cinnamomum camphora Seedings Exposed to Elevated O3

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junfeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is the most phytotoxic air pollutant for global forests, with decreased photosynthesis widely regarded as one of its most common effects. However, controversy exists concerning the mechanism that underlies the depressing effects of O3 on CO2 assimilation. In the present study, seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora, a subtropical evergreen tree species that has rarely been studied, were exposed to ambient air (AA), ambient air plus 60 [ppb] O3 (AA+60), or ambient air plus 120 [ppb] O3 (AA+120) in open-top chambers (OTCs) for 2 years. Photosynthetic CO2 exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were investigated in the second growing season (2010). We aim to determine whether stomatal or non-stomatal limitation is responsible for the photosynthesis reduction and to explore the potential implications for forest ecosystem functions. Results indicate that elevated O3 (E-O3) reduced the net photosynthetic rates (PN) by 6.0-32.2%, with significant differences between AA+60 and AA+120 and across the four measurement campaigns (MCs). The actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in saturated light (Fv′/Fm′) was also significantly decreased by E-O3, as was the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). Moreover, E-O3 significantly and negatively impacted the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport (Jmax). Although neither the stomatal conductance (gs) nor the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was decreased by E-O3, PN/gs was significantly reduced. Therefore, the observed reduction in PN in the present study should not be attributed to the unavailability of CO2 due to stomatal limitation, but rather to the O3-induced damage to Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and the photochemical apparatus. This suggests that the down-regulation of stomatal conductance could fail to occur, and the biochemical processes in protoplasts would become more susceptible to injuries under long-term O3 exposure, which may

  17. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis. PMID:23835358

  18. Effect of Siamese cassia leaves on the activities of chemical carcinogen metabolizing enzymes and on mammary gland carcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tepsuwan, A; Kupradinun, P; Kusamran, W R

    1999-07-16

    Male Wistar rats were fed AIN-76 semipurified diet or diet containing 5% ground lyophilized Siamese cassia leaves for 2 weeks before sacrifice. Hepatic S9 fractions were prepared and assayed for the level of cytochrome P450 (P450), the activities of monooxygenase, i.e., aniline hydroxylase (ANH), aminopyrine-N-demethylase (AMD) as well as the capacity to metabolically activate the mutagenicities of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). In addition, the activities of detoxificating enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) were also measured. It was found that feeding of Siamese cassia leaves significantly reduced the activities of hepatic ANH and AMD as well as the capacity to activate the mutagenicity of AFB(1) towards Salmonella typhimurium TA100, being 31, 73 and 41% of control group, respectively. It also slightly decreased, but not significantly, the capacity to activate the mutagenicity of B(a)P towards S. typhimurium YG1029. On the other hand, however, the activities of both GST and UGT were markedly increased in those animals, being 250 and 220% of control animals. The anticarcinogenic potential of Siamese cassia leaves was also investigated in female Sprague Dawley rats treated with 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA). The animals were fed control diet or diet containing ground lyophilized Siamese cassia leaves 2 weeks prior to and 1 week after intragastrically administration of DMBA, and then they were placed on a pellet diet for additional 25 weeks. Interestingly, it was found that feeding of diet containing 2.5 and 4% Siamese cassia leaves resulted in a significant decrease in the multiplicity of mammary gland tumors as well as a slight delay of the onset of tumor development. The incidence of tumors in the group fed 4% Siamese cassia leaves, but not in the 2.5% group, was lowered, although not significantly, than that of control group. The results in the present study therefore demonstrated

  19. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Derbalah, Aly S.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides. PMID:22606054

  20. Efficacy of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica and Anopheles pharoensis.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Azza S

    2008-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against the larval maturation and adult emergency of Anopheles pharoensis and Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. A. pharoensis with concentrations (conc.) of 100%, 70%, 50%, 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.7% & 0.5% showed 100% larval mortality. Conc. of 0.3%, 0.2% & 0.1% caused mortality of 77.8%, 44.4% & 33.3% respectively. The fecundity of emerged adults was 0%, 60% & 50%. In M. domestica the conc. from 50%-100% completely killed the larvae. Conc. of 25%, 5%, 2% & 1% caused mortality of 88.9%, 55.6%, 33.3% & 22.2% respectively. Less conc. of C. zeylanicum was not tested. The fecundity of the emerged adults was 0%, 66.7%, 66.7% & 83.3%. Only one control larva died and the nine emerged adults were fertile in the two cases.

  1. In vitro activity of the essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and eugenol in peroxynitrite-induced oxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Chericoni, Silvio; Prieto, José M; Iacopini, Patrizia; Cioni, Pierluigi; Morelli, Ivano

    2005-06-15

    The essential oil obtained from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) and three of its main components, eugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and linalool (representing 82.5% of the total composition), were tested in two in vitro models of peroxynitrite-induced nitration and lipid peroxidation. The essential oil and eugenol showed very powerful activities, decreasing 3-nitrotyrosine formation with IC50 values of 18.4 microg/mL and 46.7 microM, respectively (reference compound, ascorbic acid, 71.3 microg/mL and 405.0 microM) and also inhibiting the peroxynitrite-induced lipid peroxidation showing an IC50 of 2.0 microg/mL and 13.1 microM, respectively, against 59.0 microg/mL (235.5 microM) of the reference compound Trolox. On the contrary, (E)-cinnamaldehyde and linalool were completely inactive.

  2. Bioactivities and compositional analyses of Cinnamomum essential oils from Nepal: C. camphora, C. tamala, and C. glaucescens.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Poudel, Ambika; Dosoky, Noura S; Pokharel, Kiran Kumar; Setzer, William N

    2013-12-01

    This work examines the biological activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum camphora leaves, C. glaucescens fruit, and C. tamala root from Nepal. The oils were screened for phytotoxic activity against lettuce and perennial ryegrass, brine shrimp lethality, and antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, insecticidal, and nematicidal activities. C. camphora leaf essential oil was phytotoxic to lettuce, antifungal to Aspergillus niger, and insecticidal, particularly toward midge and butterfly larvae, fruit flies, and fire ants. C. camphora oil was also toxic to brine shrimp and human breast tumor cells. C. glaucescens fruit essential oil showed notable nematicidal activity, as well as termiticidal and mosquito larvicidal activity. The root essential oil of C. tamala was toxic to mosquito larvae and fire ants. PMID:24555298

  3. Methods for thermal stability enhancement of leaf essential oils and their main constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsin-Fu; Luo, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Ya; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Hsu, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2013-07-01

    The thermal stability of leaf essential oils from various Cinnamomum osmophloeum and their constituents was investigated for the first time. The results indicated that trans-cinnamaldehyde (Cin) content in eugenol-free essential oil from C. osmophloeum was affected by high temperatures. The retention of Cin (RC) decreased to 17.4% after the essential oil was incubated for 8 h at 100 °C. In contrast, essential oils containing eugenol showed greater thermal stability. Seven kinds of antioxidants were added to Cin to improve its thermal stability. Among them, eugenol endowed Cin with the best thermal stability. We also investigated the influence of various amounts of eugenol on the thermal stability of both essential oil and Cin. Both essential oil and Cin showed excellent thermal stability when 0.62 and 2.60% (v/v) eugenol were added. In short, the thermal stability of essential oil and Cin could be effectively improved by adding appropriate amounts of eugenol.

  4. Ameliorative Effects of a Polyphenolic Fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in Animal Models of Inflammation and Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Badal; Bodhankar, Subhash; Mohan, V; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Syn C. verum, family: Lauraceae) is one of the oldest traditional medicines for inflammatory- and pain-related disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (CPP) in animal models of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose-response studies of CPP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) used in a separate set of in vivo experiments were conducted in acute (carrageenan-induced rat paw edema), subacute (cotton pellet-induced granuloma), and sub-chronic (AIA, adjuvant-induced established polyarthrtis) models of inflammation in rats and the acetic acid-induced writhing model of pain in mice. Effects of CPP on cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from Concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated lymphocytes were also evaluated in vitro. CPP showed a strong and dose-dependent reduction in paw volume, weight loss reversal effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats. CPP (200 mg/kg p.o. for 10 days) showed a significant reduction in elevated serum TNF-α concentration without causing gastric ulcerogenicity in the AIA model in rats. CPP also demonstrated mild analgesic effects during acute treatment as evidenced by the reduction in the writhing and paw withdrawal threshold of the inflamed rat paw during the acetic acid-induced writhing model and Randall-Selitto test. CPP was found to inhibit cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from ConA-stimulated lymphocytes in vitro. In conclusion, CPP demonstrated prominent action in animal models of inflammation and arthritis and therefore can be considered as a potential anti-rheumatic agent with disease-modifying action.

  5. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues.

    PubMed

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

  6. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues

    PubMed Central

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

  7. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    PubMed

    Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease.

  8. [Fine root biomass and carbon storage in surface soil of Cinnamomum camphora plantation in rainy area of West China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Li, Xian-Wei; Fan, Chuan; Zhang, Teng-Fei; Liu, Yun-Ke; Su, Yu; Yang, Zheng-Ju

    2013-10-01

    Fine root in forest ecosystems plays an important role in global C cycle. In this study, a measurement was made on the fine root biomass and carbon storage in the surface soil (0-30 cm) of a 31 year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the Rainy Area of West China in November, 2010-December, 2011. The total biomass and carbon storage of the fine roots (living and dead) in the surface soil were 1592.29 kg x hm(-2) and 660.68 kg C x hm(-2), in which, living fine roots accounted for 91.1% and 91.8% respectively. The total biomass and carbon storage of the first five order living roots and dead roots decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, and the living root biomass and carbon storage increased significantly with root order. The sum of the biomass and carbon storage of living and dead fine roots was the largest in autumn and the smallest in winter, but the biomass and carbon storage of the dead fine roots were the largest in winter and the smallest in summer. The biomass and carbon storage of the first two order roots were the largest in summer and the smallest in winter, while those of the last three order roots were the largest in autumn and the smallest in winter. The spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture and nutrients was the main factor affecting the fine root biomass and carbon storage.

  9. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages.

  10. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species.

  11. Trans-cinnamaldehyde from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil reduces the clindamycin resistance of Clostridium difficile in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, A R; Monsef-Esfahani, H R; Tavasoli, F; Zaheri, A; Mirjani, R

    2007-01-01

    Therapy with antimicrobial drugs, such as clindamycin, that perturb the intestinal flora but fail to inhibit growth of other microorganisms can permit the proliferation of Clostridium difficile and the elaboration of exotoxin. Therefore, there has been increasing interest in the use of inhibitors of antibiotic resistance for use in combination therapy. The essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark enhanced the bactericidal activity of clindamycin and decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration of clindamycin required for a toxicogenic strain of C. difficile. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of the essential oil separated a fraction (R(f) = 0.54) that was the most effective at enhancing the clindamycin antimicrobial activity. Using gas liquid chromatography and known standards, the active fraction was identified as trans-cinnamaldehyde (3-phenyl-2-Propenal). Combinations of clindamycin and trans-cinnamaldehyde were tested to determine the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index by conventional checkerboard titration. The FIC index for C. difficile was found to be 0.312, which confirmed the synergistic actions of clindamycin and trans-cinnamaldehyde. The presence of 20 microg/mL of trans-cinnamaldehyde decreased the MIC of clindamycin for C. difficile 16-fold, from 4.0 to 0.25 microg/mL. These results signify that low concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde elevate the antimicrobial action of clindamycin, suggesting a possible clinical benefit for utilizing these natural products for combination therapy against C. difficile.

  12. Increasing antibiotic activity against a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp by essential oils of Citrus limon and Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Mendes, Juliana Moura; Sousa, Janiere Pereira de; Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcante; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The genus Acinetobacter has gained importance in recent years due to involvement in serious infections and antimicrobial resistance. Many plants have been evaluated not only for direct antimicrobial activity, but also as resistance modifying agents. The Essential oil of Citrus limon (EOCL) addition at 156.25 µgmL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentration in the growth medium led to MIC decrease for amikacin, imipenem and meropenem. The Essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (EOCZ) addition at 78.125 µg mL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentrations in the growth medium caused drastic MIC reduction of amikacin. Results of combining antibiotics and essential oils had shown us a synergistic effect with both essential oils/amikacin combinations. An additive effect was observed with the combinations of both essential oils and gentamicin. The results of this study suggest that essential oil of C. limon and C. zeylanicum may suppress the growth of Acinetobacter species and could be a source of metabolites with antibacterial modifying activity.

  13. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, and morphological features of apoptosis. Moreover, cuminaldehyde also led to lysosomal vacuolation with an upregulated volume of acidic compartment and cytotoxicity, together with inhibitions of both topoisomerase I and II activities. Additional study shows that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde was observed in the model of nude mice. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde in vitro involved the suppression of cell proliferative markers, topoisomerase I as well as II, together with increase of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with upregulated lysosomal vacuolation. On the other hand, in vivo, cuminaldehyde diminished the tumor burden that would have a significant clinical impact. Furthermore, similar effects were observed in other tested cell lines. In short, our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a drug for chemopreventive or anticancer therapy. PMID:27231935

  14. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage

    PubMed Central

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages. PMID:25992249

  15. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool ( tǔ ròu guì) is one chemotype of the indigenous cinnamons in Taiwan. This study examined the anxiolytic potency of leaf essential oil (LEO) from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its main constituent on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test (OFT), a light-dark test (LDT) and an elevated plus maze test (EPT). After oral administration of corn oil, LEO (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), S-(+)-linalool (500 mg/kg), R-(-)-linalool (500 mg/kg), and trazodone hydrochloride (75 mg/kg) for 14 days, the anxiolytic effects on mice behavior were evaluated. The results showed that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves and S-(+)-linalool can significantly increase the time mice remained in the center area of the OFT, the illuminated area of the LDT and the open arms of the EPT without any side effects affecting motor activity, indicating excellent anxiolytic responses. Furthermore, results from the measurements of monoamines in mice brain revealed decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are consistent with their anxiolytic effects in animal models. The findings obtained suggest that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its major compound, S-(+)-linalool, possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects and thus support their potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders.

  16. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, and morphological features of apoptosis. Moreover, cuminaldehyde also led to lysosomal vacuolation with an upregulated volume of acidic compartment and cytotoxicity, together with inhibitions of both topoisomerase I and II activities. Additional study shows that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde was observed in the model of nude mice. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde in vitro involved the suppression of cell proliferative markers, topoisomerase I as well as II, together with increase of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with upregulated lysosomal vacuolation. On the other hand, in vivo, cuminaldehyde diminished the tumor burden that would have a significant clinical impact. Furthermore, similar effects were observed in other tested cell lines. In short, our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a drug for chemopreventive or anticancer therapy. PMID:27231935

  17. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species. PMID:24031186

  18. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool (土肉桂 tǔ ròu guì) is one chemotype of the indigenous cinnamons in Taiwan. This study examined the anxiolytic potency of leaf essential oil (LEO) from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its main constituent on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test (OFT), a light–dark test (LDT) and an elevated plus maze test (EPT). After oral administration of corn oil, LEO (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), S-(+)-linalool (500 mg/kg), R-(−)-linalool (500 mg/kg), and trazodone hydrochloride (75 mg/kg) for 14 days, the anxiolytic effects on mice behavior were evaluated. The results showed that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves and S-(+)-linalool can significantly increase the time mice remained in the center area of the OFT, the illuminated area of the LDT and the open arms of the EPT without any side effects affecting motor activity, indicating excellent anxiolytic responses. Furthermore, results from the measurements of monoamines in mice brain revealed decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are consistent with their anxiolytic effects in animal models. The findings obtained suggest that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its major compound, S-(+)-linalool, possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects and thus support their potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:26151006

  19. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M F; Santos, E P; Bizarri, C H; Mattos, H A; Padilha, M R; Duarte, H M

    1996-06-01

    Synopsis The aim of this work was to evaluate several plant extracts with regard to ultraviolet absorption spectra in view of a possible application as antisolar agents. Liquid and dry extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria recutita, Aesculus hippocastanum, Rhamnus purshiana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by repercolation, maceration and microwave oven extraction. UVB absorption spectra (290-320nm) were obtained and the solar protection factors (SPF) of these preparations were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that after incorporation to a 2% solution of the synthetic sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate, the extracts showed an intensification in SPF values, suggesting that this can be an interesting method to intensify SPF. In addition, these extracts can contribute their emollient and moistening properties to the product. These are important characteristics for protecting skin against exposure to the sun. PMID:19245460

  20. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M F; Santos, E P; Bizarri, C H; Mattos, H A; Padilha, M R; Duarte, H M

    1996-06-01

    Synopsis The aim of this work was to evaluate several plant extracts with regard to ultraviolet absorption spectra in view of a possible application as antisolar agents. Liquid and dry extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria recutita, Aesculus hippocastanum, Rhamnus purshiana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by repercolation, maceration and microwave oven extraction. UVB absorption spectra (290-320nm) were obtained and the solar protection factors (SPF) of these preparations were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that after incorporation to a 2% solution of the synthetic sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate, the extracts showed an intensification in SPF values, suggesting that this can be an interesting method to intensify SPF. In addition, these extracts can contribute their emollient and moistening properties to the product. These are important characteristics for protecting skin against exposure to the sun.

  1. In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.-a potential medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Iram; Anis, M; Aref, I M

    2010-11-01

    An effective protocol was developed for in vitro regeneration of the Cassia angustifolia via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants excised from 21-day-old axenic seedlings. Organogenic callus were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.0 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 2.5 µM thidiazuron (TDZ). Adventitious shoot regeneration was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM TDZ as it induced 8.5 ± 0.98 shoots in 85% cultures. The number of shoots and shoot length was significantly enhanced when cultures were subcultured on auxin-cytokinin-containing medium. The highest number of shoots (12.5 ± 1.10) and shoot length (4.3 ± 0.20 cm) was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM TDZ and 1.5 µM indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were rooted best on MS medium supplemented with 10.0 µM indole-3-butyric acid followed by their transfer to liquid MS filter paper bridge medium. The plants were successfully hardened off in sterile soilrite followed by their establishment in garden soil with 70% survival rate. The plants showed normal morphological characteristics similar to the field grown plants. PMID:20461494

  2. Pre-culturing of nodal explants in thidiazuron supplemented liquid medium improves in vitro shoot multiplication of Cassia angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Siddique, I; Abdullwahab Bukhari, N; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Anis, M

    2013-09-01

    An in vitro propagation system for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. has been developed. Due to the presence of sennosides, the demand of this plant has increased manyfold in global market. Multiple shoots were induced by culturing nodal explants excised from mature plants on a liquid Murashige and Skoog [8] medium supplemented with 5-100 μM of thidiazuron (TDZ) for different treatment duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d). The optimal level of TDZ supplemented to the culture medium was 75 μM for 12 d induction period followed by subculturing in MS medium devoid of TDZ as it produced maximum regeneration frequency (87%), mean number of shoots (9.6 ± 0.33) and shoot length (4.4 ± 0.46 cm) per explant. A culture period longer than 12 d with TDZ resulted in the formation of fasciated or distorted shoots. Ex vitro rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of regenerated shoots was dipped in 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for half an hour followed by their transplantation in plastic pots filled with sterile soilrite where 85% plantlets grew well and all exhibited normal development. The present findings describe an efficient and rapid plant regeneration protocol that can further be used for genetic transformation studies. PMID:24013898

  3. Apoptosis mediated anti-proliferative effect of compound isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves against human colon cancer cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esakkirajan, M.; Prabhu, N. M.; Manikandan, R.; Beulaja, M.; Prabhu, D.; Govindaraju, K.; Thiagarajan, R.; Arulvasu, C.; Dhanasekaran, G.; Dinesh, D.; Babu, G.

    2014-06-01

    A compound was isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The in vitro anticancer effect of the compound isolated from C. auriculata was evaluated in human colon cancer cells HCT 15 by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology analysis and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase. The isolated compound 4-(2,5 dichlorobenzyl)-2,3,4,5,6,7 hexahydro7(4 methoxyphenyl)benzo[h][1,4,7] triazecin8(1H)-one showed 50% inhibition of HCT 15 cells when tested at 20 μg/ml after 24 h incubation. Cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and lactate dehydrogenase assays clearly show potent anticancer activity of the isolated compound against colon cancer. Thus, the in vitro findings suggest that the compound isolated from C. auriculata leaves have potent anti-cancer properties with possible clinical applications.

  4. [Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions.

  5. [Transgenic tobacco plants with ribosome inactivating protein gene cassin from Cassia occidentalis and their resistance to tobacco mosaic virus].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Hua-Ping

    2007-12-01

    Cassin, the new gene of ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from Cassia occidentalis, was inserted into expression vector pBI121 to produce plant expression vector pBI121-cassin (Figs.1, 2). pBI121-cassin was introduced into tobacco cultivar 'K326' by the Agrobacteriurm tumefaciens transformation method and more than 100 independent transformants were obtained. Southern blot hybridization analysis showed that a single gene locus was inserted into the chromosome of the transgenic tobacco lines (Fig.5) and PCR analysis of segregation population of progeny indicated that the inheritance of transgene was dominant in transgenic lines (Fig.4, Table 1). Results of RT-PCR and Northern blot hybridization analysis showed that transgene could be transcribed correctly (Figs.5, 6) . Three self-pollination lines of transgenic T(1) and T(2) were challenged with TMV at different concentration titers by mechanical inoculation. The transgenic lines exhibited different levels of resistance to TMV with the nontransgenic plants. After both titers of TMV concentration were inoculated, transgenic lines were considered as the highly resistant type with a delay of 4-13 d in development of symptoms and 10%-25% of test plants were infected, while nontransgenic control plants were susceptible typical symptoms on the newly emerged leaves (Table 2). One T(2) line, T(2)-8-2-1, was regarded as an immune type because it did not show any symptoms during 70 d and all plants were shown to be virus free by ELISA tests.

  6. Polyphenols of Cassia tora leaves prevents lenticular apoptosis and modulates cataract pathology in Sprague-Dawley rat pups.

    PubMed

    Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-07-01

    Cataract is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide with multifactorial etiology and is a significant global health problem with increasing prevalence with age. Currently, no pharmacological measures are discovered to prevent and treat cataract and a significant number of epidemiological studies have suggested the potential role of antioxidants in the prevention of cataract by scavenging free radicals and preventing lens protein derangement and lenticular cell damage. The main goal of the present study is to evaluate Cassia tora leaves; an edible leafy vegetable employed in Ayurvedic and Chinese system of medicine for eye rejuvenation in preventing selenite-induced cataract in rat pups and to identify the active components that produce the effect. ECT pre-treatment effectively restored both enzymatic and metabolic antioxidant levels, membrane integrity and reduced metal accumulation and thus down-regulate epithelial cell death. Gene expression studies also confirmed these findings. ESI-MS analysis of ECT revealed the presence of chrysophanol, emodin, kaemferol, quercetin, stigmasterol and isoquercetin. The study suggests the possible role of C. tora in alleviating cataract pathology and presence of many anthraquinones and flavonoids. As it is an edible plant, the incorporation of these leaves in daily vegetables might prevent or delay the onset and maturation of cataract. PMID:27261615

  7. Anti-oxidant effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) seeds in rats fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Dhuley, J N

    1999-03-01

    In order to gain insight into the antioxidant effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum; Lauraceae) and cardamom (Amomum subulatum; Zingiberaceae) hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) content and lipid conjugated dienes were studied in rats fed high fat diet along with cinnamon or cardamom. The antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be significantly enhanced whereas GSH content was markedly restored in rats fed a fat diet with spices. In addition, these spices partially counteracted increase in lipid conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides, the primary products of lipid peroxidation. Thus, it appears that these spices exert antioxidant protection through their ability to activate the antioxidant enzymes.

  8. Effects of irradiation on natural antioxidants of cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum N.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazuru, E. R.; Moreira, A. V. B.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation to reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms and insects is an ionizing process that induces free radical formation in proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other molecular structures in food. Antioxidants generally decrease the level of oxidation in such systems by transferring hydrogen atoms to the free radical structure. In the present paper, the effect of ionizing radiation on natural cinnamon antioxidants is studied. Cinnamon samples were purchased from retailers and irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed at IPEN (São Paulo, Brazil) using 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 kGy at room temperature. After irradiation 3 kinds of sequential extractions were performed. One was submitted to antioxidant extraction using ethyl ether, the second with ethanol and the last with water. The antioxidant activity was determined by β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation. Irradiation in the dose range applied did not have any effect on the antioxidant potential of the cinnamon compounds. Further studies will be performed to study the possibility to use cinnamon extracts in preserving food from oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation.

  9. Phenolic constituents in the fruits of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Ono, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Jaganmohan Rao, L

    2006-03-01

    Defatted cinnamon fruit powder was successively extracted with benzene ethyl acetate, acetone, MeOH, and water. The concentrated water extract contained the maximum amount of phenolics and showed the highest antioxidant activities. Hence, it was fractionated by Diaion HP-20SS, Diaion HP-20, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. It gave five purified compounds, the purities of which were analyzed by HPLC. Compounds 1-5 were identified as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuic acid), epicatechin-(2beta-->O-7,4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin (cinnamtannin B-1), 4-[2,3-dihydro-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-(methoxy)benzofuranyl]-2-methoxyphenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside (urolignoside), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (rutin), and quercetin-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside by using extensive spectral studies. The antioxidant activities of purified compounds were screened for their antioxidative potential using beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl model systems. All of the compounds showed antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. This is the first report of the isolation and identification of nonvolatile constituents and as well as antioxidant activities from cinnamon fruits.

  10. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT), measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2) in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1) during the placebo treatment (p < 0.001). Number of evacuations per day increased during the use of active tea; significant differences were observed as of the second day of treatment (p < 0.001). Patient perception of bowel function was improved (p < 0.01), but quality of life did not show significant differences among the study periods. Except for a small reduction in serum potassium levels during the active treatment, no significant differences were observed in terms of adverse effects throughout the study period. Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial

  11. Micropropagation and validation of genetic and biochemical fidelity amongst regenerants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl employing RAPD marker and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Siva K; Sardar, Pratima Rani; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-10-01

    In vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Cassia angustifolia Vahl which is an important source of anticancerous bioactive compounds, sennoside A and B. Nodal explants excised from field raised elite plant (showing optimum level of sennoside A and B) of C. angustifolia when reared on Murashige and Skoog's medium augmented with different cytokinins, viz. N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-(2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP) and 6-furfuryl aminopurine (Kn) differentiated multiple shoots in their axils. Of the three cytokinins, BA at 5 μM proved optimum for differentiating multiple shoots in 95 % cultures with an average of 9.14 shoots per explant within 8 weeks of culture. Nearly, 95 % of the excised in vitro shoots rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 10 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The phenotypically similar micropropagated plants were evaluated for their genetic fidelity employing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eleven individuals, randomly chosen amongst a population of 120 regenerants were compared with the donor plant. A total of 36 scorable bands, ranging in size from 100 to 1,000 bp were generated amongst them by the RAPD primers. All banding profiles from micropropagated plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant proving their true to the type nature. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography evaluation of the sennoside A and B content amongst leaves of the mature regenerants and the elite mother plant too revealed consistency in their content.

  12. Micropropagation and validation of genetic and biochemical fidelity amongst regenerants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl employing RAPD marker and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Siva K; Sardar, Pratima Rani; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-10-01

    In vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Cassia angustifolia Vahl which is an important source of anticancerous bioactive compounds, sennoside A and B. Nodal explants excised from field raised elite plant (showing optimum level of sennoside A and B) of C. angustifolia when reared on Murashige and Skoog's medium augmented with different cytokinins, viz. N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-(2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP) and 6-furfuryl aminopurine (Kn) differentiated multiple shoots in their axils. Of the three cytokinins, BA at 5 μM proved optimum for differentiating multiple shoots in 95 % cultures with an average of 9.14 shoots per explant within 8 weeks of culture. Nearly, 95 % of the excised in vitro shoots rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 10 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The phenotypically similar micropropagated plants were evaluated for their genetic fidelity employing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eleven individuals, randomly chosen amongst a population of 120 regenerants were compared with the donor plant. A total of 36 scorable bands, ranging in size from 100 to 1,000 bp were generated amongst them by the RAPD primers. All banding profiles from micropropagated plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant proving their true to the type nature. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography evaluation of the sennoside A and B content amongst leaves of the mature regenerants and the elite mother plant too revealed consistency in their content. PMID:25320475

  13. Increasing sennoside yields in tinnevelly senna (Cassia angustifolia) I: effects of drought, foliar nitrogen spray and crop type.

    PubMed

    Ratnayaka, H; Meurer-Grimes, B; Kincaid, D

    1998-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the promise of Tinnevelly senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl, as an alternative crop for stressful agroecosystems. Effects of drought, foliar nitrogen application and crop type on sennoside yields were studied with simultaneous measurements of net photosynthesis. Short term drought increased sennoside A + B concentration (% dw). After drought-induced morphological changes had occurred, long term drought did not influence sennoside A + B concentration but severe loss of leaf biomass caused 78% reduction of the sennoside yield per plant. Foliar nitrogen application increased the total sennoside A + B content per plant by 140% when the plants were not water stressed, but in severely droughted plants, no effect of foliar nitrogen application was detected. Although foliar nitrogen application increased sennoside A + B per plant, the sennoside concentration (% dw) decreased. The latter effect was still persistent three months after the nitrogen treatments were discontinued. In a comparison among three crop types of Tinnevelly senna, ratoon plants had the highest sennoside A + B concentration in leaves followed by seedlings and cuttings. However, seedlings produced the highest sennoside A + B yield per plant due to the higher leaf biomass. Except in long term drought, sennoside levels were higher in leaves with lower net photosynthesis, and were increased by treatments that induced physiological stress. Lower net photosynthesis occurred in short term and long term drought, and with deprivation of foliar nitrogen supplement. In contrast, sennoside yields per plant are readily increased by treatments that increase the total leaf biomass. Short term drought, nitrogen stress and ratooning are promising component technologies for field and on-farm investigations with the goal of increasing sennoside yields. PMID:17253262

  14. Validation of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic method for analysis of pesticide residues in Cassia angustifolia (senna).

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Vandana; Saha, Ajoy; Patel, Dilipkumar J; Basak, B B; Shah, Paresh G; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-08-01

    A simple multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was established for the determination of 17 organochlorine (OC), 15 organophosphorous (OP) and 7 synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides in an economically important medicinal plant of India, Senna (Cassia angustifolia), by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and flame thermionic detectors (GC/ECD/FTD) and confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The developed method was validated by testing the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, accuracy-precision and measurement uncertainty; the validation study clearly demonstrated the suitability of the method for its intended application. All pesticides showed good linearity in the range 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1) for OCs and OPs and 0.05-2.5 μg mL(-1) for SPs with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. The method gave good recoveries for most of the pesticides (70-120%) with intra-day and inter-day precision < 20% in most of the cases. The limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.03 mg kg(-1), and the LOQs were determined as 0.01-0.049 mg kg(-1). The expanded uncertainties were <30%, which was distinctively less than a maximum default value of ±50%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine pesticide residues in 12 commercial market samples obtained from different locations in India. PMID:27153296

  15. Reproductive allocation and output in herbaceous annuals of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia in elevated CO[sub 2] environments

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, E.J.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the capacity of plants to adapt to rapidly changing global climate, we must elucidate the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on reproduction, fitness and evolution. We investigated how elevated CO[sub 2] influenced reproduction and growth of plants exhibiting a range of floral displays, the implications of shifts in allocation for fitness in these species, and whether related taxa would show similar patterns of response. Three herbaceous, annual species each of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia were grown under 350 or 700 ppm CO[sub 2]. Vegetative growth and reproductive output were non-destructively measured throughout the full life span, and biomass calibrated with a subsample harvest at first flowering. Viability and germination studies of seed progeny were conducted to more precisely characterize fitness. Timecourse and numbers of floral buds, flowers, unripe and abscised fruits differed between CO[sub 2] treatments. Genera differed significantly in their phenological responses to elevated CO[sub 2], Polygonum and Cassia species (but not Ipomoea) showed accelerated, enhanced reproduction. Elevated CO[sub 2] ameliorated trade-offs between vegetative and floral production. However, seed [open quotes]quality[close quotes] and fitness were not always directly correlated with quantity produced. Species within general responded more consistently to CO[sub 2], indicating that phylogeny and life form may be general predictors of performance under global change.

  16. Lipoperoxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory piperidine alkaloids from Cassia spectabilis green fruits.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Cláudio; Silva, Dulce H S; Pivatto, Marcos; de Rezende, Amanda; Castro-Gambôa, Ian; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2007-12-01

    Phytochemical work in the search for bioactive metabolites from the methanolic extract of Senna spectabilis green fruits led to the isolation of a new piperidine alkaloid, (+)-3- O-feruloylcassine ( 1), in addition to the known (-)-spectaline ( 2) and (-)-3- O-acetylspectaline ( 3). The isolates were submitted to in vitro evaluation of lipoperoxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and -2) inhibitory properties and showed moderate antioxidant activities (40-70%) at 100 ppm when compared to commercial standards BHT and vitamin E and moderate inhibition of COX-1 (ca . 40%) and marginal inhibition of COX-2 enzymes (<10%) at 100 ppm when compared to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) aspirin, rofecoxib, and celecoxib, respectively. PMID:18047293

  17. In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Saour, George; Hamou, Razan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×105 cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Results: Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1%) in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. Conclusion: The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella. PMID:23115441

  18. Historical spatial range expansion and a very recent bottleneck of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (Lauraceae) in Taiwan inferred from nuclear genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Species in the varied geographic topology of Taiwan underwent obvious demographic changes during glacial periods. Cinnamomum kanehirae has been exploited for timber and to obtain medicinal fungi for the past 100 years. Understanding anthropogenic factors influencing the demography of this species after the last glacial maximum (LGM) is critically important for the conservation of this species. Results Populations of C. kanehirae were classified into four geographic regions: northwestern (NW), west-central (WC), southwestern (SW), and southeastern (SE). In total, 113 individuals from 19 localities were sampled, and variations in the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) intron and leafy (Lfy) intron-2 sequences of nuclear DNA were examined in order to assess phylogeographic patterns, the timescales of demographic and evolutionary events, and recent anthropogenic effects. In total, 210 Chs and 170 Lfy sequences, which respectively constituted 36 and 35 haplotypes, were used for the analyses. Estimates of the migration rate (M) through time revealed a pattern of frequent gene flow during previous and the present interglacials. The isolation-by-distance test showed that there generally was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The level of among-region genetic differentiation was significant when comparing eastern to western populations. However, no significant among-region genetic differentiation was found in comparisons among the four geographic regions. Moreover, essentially no genetic structuring was found for the three regions west of the CMR. A fit of spatial range expansion was found for pooled and regional samples according to the non-significant values of the sum of squared deviations. Using the Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) method, a recent bottleneck after the LGM expansion was detected in both regional and pooled samples. Conclusions Common haplotype distributions among geographic regions and the relatively shallow genetic

  19. In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays) of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500 μg/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation. PMID:23606883

  20. Comparative chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and Pimenta dioica.

    PubMed

    Padmakumari Amma, K P; Rani, M Priya; Sasidharan, Indu; Sreekumar, M M

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm (tejpat) and Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (pimento) leaves are commonly used for flavouring food and widely used in pharmaceutical preparations because of their hypoglycemic, carminative and stimulant properties. In this study, we compared the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of tejpat and pimento essential oils by employing various in vitro methods. GC and GC-MS analyses were done to find out the chemical composition, and the main constituent identified in tejpat and pimento leaf oils was eugenol. Both the oils showed significant radical scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide radicals with a potent metal chelating activity and were compared with that of standard compound, eugenol. Among the two oils, tejpat oil showed better activity in terms of antioxidative potential.

  1. An Efficient Protocol for Plantlet Regeneration via Direct Organogenesis by Using Nodal Segments from Embryo-Cultured Seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora L.

    PubMed Central

    Du, Li; Li, Yongpeng; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient plantlet regeneration protocol via direct organogenesis was established for camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L.). Stem segments with one node (SN explants) from embryo-cultured seedlings (EC seedlings) were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine was used to induce cotyledonary embryo germination. This medium was also used for EC seedlings propagation and adventitious bud induction from SN explants. Regenerated plantlets were cultured on hormone-free MS medium for elongation and root induction. The regeneration capability of SN explants was compared by using EC seedling lines established in this research. EC seedling line EL6 exhibited the highest adventitious bud induction frequency (91.7%) and the highest number of buds per responding explant (5.2), which was considered as the most efficient EC seedling line for further gene transformation research. PMID:25962170

  2. Differentiation of the Four Major Species of Cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) Using a Flow Injection Mass Spectrometric (FIMS) Fingerprinting Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka were studied using the developed FIMS fingerprinting method. The FIMS fingerprints of the cinnamon samples were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The FIMS technique required only 1 min of analysis time per sample. The representative samples from each of the four major species of cinnamon were further examined using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry system, and the chemical differences between the four species were profiled. The results showed that the 1 min FIMS fingerprinting method successfully differentiated the four cinnamon species studied. PMID:24628250

  3. Differentiation of the four major species of cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) using a flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Sun, Jianghao; Ford, Paul

    2014-03-26

    A simple and efficient flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka were studied using the developed FIMS fingerprinting method. The FIMS fingerprints of the cinnamon samples were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The FIMS technique required only 1 min of analysis time per sample. The representative samples from each of the four major species of cinnamon were further examined using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry system, and the chemical differences between the four species were profiled. The results showed that the 1 min FIMS fingerprinting method successfully differentiated the four cinnamon species studied.

  4. Use of Cassia javahikai seed gum and gum-g-polyacrylamide as coagulant aid for the decolorization of textile dye solutions.

    PubMed

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Bhattacharya, Bani; Singh, Vandana

    2006-07-01

    Investigations were carried out for possible exploitation of Cassia javahikai seeds as potential source of commercial gum for the textile wastewater treatment. Graft copolymerization with acrylamide was done to modify the seed gum for the favorable properties. C. javahikai seed gum, and its copolymer grafted with acrylamide were synthesized in the presence of oxygen using potassium persulphate/ascorbic acid redox system. Both C. javahikai seed gum (CJ) and its grafted-polyacrylamide (CJG), were found to be good working substitutes as coagulant aids in conjunction with PAC, for the decolorization of all the dyes in varying ratios. CJ and CJG alone could effectively decolorize direct dyes (DBR and DO) and in conjunction with a very low dose of PAC could decolorize all the dyes (DBR, DO, ASR, and PBB) to more than 70%. Grafting also increased the decolorizing ability of CJ gum.

  5. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans Materials and Methods Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. Results The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct. PMID:26436036

  6. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry.

  7. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.

  8. Antibacterial Mode of Action of Cinnamomum verum Bark Essential Oil, Alone and in Combination with Piperacillin, Against a Multi-Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strain.

    PubMed

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Krishnan, Thiba; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of the cinnamon bark essential oil (CB), when used singly and also in combination with piperacillin, for its antimicrobial and synergistic activity against beta-lactamase TEM-1 plasmid-conferred Escherichia coli J53 R1. Viable count of this combination showed a complete killing profile at 20 h and further confirmed its synergistic effect by reducing the bacteria cell numbers. Analysis on the stability of treated cultures for cell membrane permeability by CB when tested against sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that the bacterial cell membrane was disrupted by the essential oils. Scanning electron microscopy observation and bacterial surface charge measurement also revealed that CB causes irreversible membrane damage and reduces the bacterial surface charge. In addition, bioluminescence expression of Escherichia coli [pSB1075] and E. coli [pSB401] by CB showed reduction, indicating the possibility of the presence of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry of the essential oil of Cinnamomum verum showed that trans-cinnamaldehyde (72.81%), benzyl alcohol (12.5%), and eugenol (6.57%) were the major components in the essential oil. From this study, CB has the potential to reverse E. coli J53 R1 resistance to piperacillin through two pathways; modification in the permeability of the outer membrane or bacterial QS inhibition.

  9. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-01-01

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids. PMID:27043503

  10. Bioactive phytochemicals of leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum prevent lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Chi-Chang; Ho, Shang-Tse; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lin, Chien-Tsong; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2011-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactive phytochemicals of leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum on lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute hepatitis. The results revealed that post-treatment with 100 μmol/kg trans-cinnamaldehyde, (-)-aromadendrene, T-cadinol, or α-cadinol significantly decreased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in serum. Moreover, both T-cadinol and α-cadinol treatments decreased the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) in the liver tissues when compared with the LPS/D-GalN group. Liver histopathology also showed that silymarin, trans-cinnamaldehyde, (-)-aromadendrene, T-cadinol, or α-cadinol significantly reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by LPS/D-GalN. These results suggest that the above phytochemicals exhibit potent hepatoprotection against LPS/D-GalN-induced liver damage in mice, and their hepatoprotective effects may be due to the modulation of anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21699244

  11. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. PMID:25574178

  12. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Improves Lipid Metabolism and Enhances β3-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Wen, Xuefang; Yu, Ping; Gong, Deming

    2016-06-01

    The effects of dietary Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) containing medium-chain triacylglycerols on lipid metabolism and mRNA and protein expression of β-3 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue were studied in diet-induced obese rats. High fat food-induced obese rats were randomly divided into CCSKO group, Lard group, Soybean oil (SOY) group and naturally restoring group (n = 10). Rats fed with low fat food were used as a normal control group. Significant decreases in body mass and abdominal fat mass/body mass after 12 weeks were found in CCSKO group as compared with Lard and SOY groups (p < 0.05). Levels of blood total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, free fatty acid, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in the CCSKO group were decreased significantly, and noradrenaline level and insulin sensitivity index in the CCSKO group were significantly higher than other groups. Meanwhile liver TC and triglyceride levels in the CCSKO group were also decreased markedly. Expression levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein were higher in CCSKO group than in Lard and SOY groups. These results suggest that CCSKO may contribute to reduction of the body fat mass, promote lipid metabolism and up-regulate β3-adrenergic receptor expression in high fat diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27068065

  13. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression by bioactive fraction DLBS2411 from Cinnamomum burmannii in gastric parietal cells

    PubMed Central

    Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Nailufar, Florensia; Arifin, Poppy F

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the gastric acid antisecretory effect of DLBS2411 fractionated from Cinnamomum burmannii. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+ ATPase) activity and its gene expression were observed, and the antioxidant activity of DLBS2411 was also investigated. Treatment of DLBS2411 decreased the level of H+/K+ ATPase messenger RNA expression on human embryonic kidney 293 cells and rat gastric parietal cells in a dose-dependent manner, in vitro and ex vivo. DLBS2411 also acted as a competitive inhibitor by showing inhibition in gastric H+/K+ ATPase activity at various pHs. In gastric ulcer animal models induced with indomethacin and ethanol, DLBS2411showed a reduction in the number of petechiae, suggesting that the fraction also confers gastroprotective activity. Moreover, DLBS2411 was also found to have potent antioxidant activity. Taken together, DLBS2411 is a promising novel agent for the management of dyspepsia, a condition of hyperacidity and diseases in the stomach requiring gastroprotection. PMID:24101879

  14. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. PMID:26142866

  15. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-03-28

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  16. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties.

    PubMed

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Soni, Palak Harendrabhai; Makasana, Jayanti; Gajbhiye, Narendra Athamaram; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world's natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with 'green plant database (txid 33090)', Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various

  17. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Soni, Palak Harendrabhai; Makasana, Jayanti; Gajbhiye, Narendra Athamaram; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world’s natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with ‘green plant database (txid 33090)’, Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various

  18. Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR), and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy. Results The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 μg/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-β- Naphtylamide (PAβN), a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25 % of the tested bacteria when it was combined with Erythromycin (ERY). Conclusion The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria. PMID:22709668

  19. [Inhibition of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth of Capsicum annu- um and the alleviation effect of nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Ting-xing; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hong-ling; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Guang-liang; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth, physiological and phenological traits of Capsicum annuum, and modification of these effects by nitrogen application were investigated using a pot experiment. C. camphora leaf litter was applied at rate of 0, 25, 50 100 g per pot, resulting into four treatments, i.e., CK (the control), L25, L50, and L100. Nitrogen application was firstly performed on the 39th d of decomposition (3.0 g urea was added to each pot six times). Leaf area, plant height, basal diameter and biomass production of C. annuum were all inhibited sharply by exposure to the leaf litter, and the inhibition effect increased with the increasing leaf litter in terms of both the intensity and the stability. Treated with L25, budding number reduced by 88.7% averagely during 55th-75th d, and the rate of fructification plant decreased by 40% on the 96th d of decomposition, while neither buds nor fruits were observed when exposed to L50 and L100 at that time. Pigment contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were impacted due to leaf litter addition, and malonaldehyde (MDA) was only markedly promoted by L100. Inhibition on growth and development of C. annuum caused by leaf litter decomposition could be alleviated by nitrogen application. Leaf area treated with leaf litter recovered to the control level on the 52nd d after nitrogen application, and similar results appeared on the 83rd d after nitrogen application for other growth traits. Budding and fructification status were also visibly improved.

  20. Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde: a novel antiproliferative drug inducing cell death through targeting both topoisomerase I and II in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kuen-daw; Cherng, Jonathan; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Yang, Shu-mei; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum verum is used to manufacture the spice cinnamon. In addition, the plant has been used as a Chinese herbal medication. Methods We investigated the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the cortex of the plant, and the molecular biomarkers associated with tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and morphological analysis with bright field, acridine orange, and neutral red stainings, as well as comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was determined by assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VACs) were determined by neutral red staining. Results The results demonstrate that 2-MCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis as implicated by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, increase of annexin V+PI+ cells, as well as morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Furthermore, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with elevated VAC, cytotoxicity, and inhibitions of topoisomerase I as well as II activities. Additional study demonstrated the antiproliferative effect of 2-MCA found in a nude mice model. Conclusions Our data implicate that the antiproliferative activity of 2-MCA in vitro involved downregulation of cell growth markers, both topoisomerase I and II, and upregulation of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with increased lysosomal vacuolation. In vivo 2-MCA reduced the tumor burden that could have significant clinical impact. Indeed, similar effects were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 and Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data implicate that 2-MCA could be a

  1. Larvicidal efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Abdul Rahman, A; Bagavan, A; Abduz Zahir, A; Elango, G; Kandan, P; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

    2010-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of ten medicinal plants tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston and lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal activity was assessed by the procedure of WHO with some modification. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone of Adhatoda vasica, bark ethyl acetate of Annona squamosa, methanol leaf and flower of Cassia auriculata, leaf ethyl acetate of Hydrocotyle javanica, methanol leaf and seed of Solanum torvum and leaf hexane extracts of Vitex negundo against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The calculated LC90 for acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane extracts of dried leaf and bark of A. vasica, A. squamosa, S. torvum, and V. negundo were in the range of 70.38-210.68 ppm. Our results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of S.torvum and bark ethyl acetate extract of A. squamosa from Southern India have the potential for use to control mosquitoes. Therefore, this study provides the larvicidal activity against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus of plant extracts. PMID:20962718

  2. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended. PMID:24404976

  3. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended.

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of cinnamon ethanolic extract against CCI4-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Bazargan, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    The inner bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of cinnamon bark extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. Administration with cinnamon extracts (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg) for 28 days significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. In addition, treatment of cinnamon extract resulted in markedly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes in rats. The histopathological studies in the liver of rats also supported that cinnamon extract markedly reduced the toxicity of CCl4 and preserved the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue to near normal. Thus, the results suggest that cinnamon extract acts as a potent hepatoprotective agent against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:27547174

  5. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of seven Cameroonian dietary plants against bacteria expressing MDR phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Seukep, Jackson A; Fankam, Aimé G; Djeussi, Doriane E; Voukeng, Igor K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Noumdem, Jaurès Ak; Kuete, Antoine Hln; Kuete, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality caused by bacterial infections significantly increased with resistance to commonly used antibiotics. This is partially due to the activation of efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. The present work designed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Sesamum indicum, Sesamum radiatum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Corchous olitorius, Cyperus esculentus, Adansonia digitata, Aframomum kayserianum), against multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria over expressing active efflux pumps. The standard phytochemical methods were used to detect the main classes of secondary metabolites in the extracts. The antibacterial activities of the studied extracts in the absence or presence of an efflux pump inhibitor (PAβN) were evaluated using liquid microbroth dilution method. The results obtained indicated that apart from the extract of C. esculentus, all other samples contained alkaloids, phenols and polyphenols meanwhile other classes of chemicals were selectively present. The studied extracts displayed antibacterial activities with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 64 to 1024 μg/mL on the majority of the 27 tested microbial strains. The extract of S. indicum was active against 77.77% of the tested microorganisms whilst the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) was recorded with that of A. kayserianum against E. aerogenes EA294. The results of the present work provide baseline information on the possible used of the tested Cameroonian dietary plants in the treatment of bacterial infections including multi-drug resistant phenotypes. PMID:23961425

  6. Classification of raw and roasted Semen Cassiae samples with the use of Fourier transform infrared fingerprints and least squares support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanhua; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2010-06-01

    Raw and roasted Semen Cassiae seeds, a complex traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), are used as examples to research and develop a method of classification analysis based on measurements of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral fingerprints. Eighty samples of the TCM were measured in the mid-infrared range, 400-2000 cm(-1) (KBr pellets), and the complex overlapping spectra were submitted for interpretation to a principal component analysis least squares support vector machine (PC-LS-SVM), kernel principal component analysis least squares support vector machine (KPC-LS-SVM), and radial basis function artificial neural networks (RBF-ANN). The LS-SVM models were developed with an RBF kernel function and a grid search technique. Training models were constructed with the use of raw and first-derivative spectra and these were then verified by another data set containing both raw and roasted spectral objects. It was demonstrated that the first-derivative data set produced the best separation of the spectral objects. In general, satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with the PC-LS-SVM, KPC-LS-SVM, and RBF-ANN training models and with the classification of the verification spectral objects. With regard to chemometrics modeling, the performance of KPC-LS-SVM was somewhat more economical than that of the PC-LS-SVM model. It would appear that the latter relatively simple model would be sufficient for application to most small to medium sized FT-IR fingerprint data sets, but with larger matrices the more complex models, such as the RBF-ANN and KPC-LS-SVM, may be more advantageous on a computational basis.

  7. Comparison Between the Cassia Fistula`s Emulsion With Polyethylene Glycol (PEG4000) in the Pediatric Functional Constipation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilidooki, Mohammad Reza; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali; Mirzapour, Mohaddese; Shirafkan, Hoda; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Bijani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background There are few effective drugs for pediatric functional constipation (FC). Objectives Comparing the effectiveness of Cassia fistula’s emulsion (CFE) with Polyethylene glycol (PEG4000) in FC; and evaluation of safety of both drugs in the treatment of FC. Materials and Methods A randomized open label, prospective, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was carried on 109 children (M/F: 63/46; mean age ± SD: 59.7 ± 28.8 months) in Amirkola children’s hospital, Babol, Iran. The inclusion criteria were based on diagnosis of FC according to the Rome III criteria and age range between 2 - 15 years. They received CFE or PEG randomly for 4 weeks. Frequencies of defecation, severity of pain, consistency of stool, fecal incontinence and retentive posturing were compared between the two groups and with baselines. Children were counted as improved when they exited from Rome III criteria of FC. Results Fifty seven patients were assigned to receive PEG and 52 patients received CFE. After 4weeks of medication, 86.5% of children in CFE group and 77.1% in PEG group (RR = 1.121, CI95%:0.939 - 1.338) exited from the criteria of FC. All measurable criteria improved in both groups without any significant difference, except in the frequency of defecation that in CFE group (10.96 ± 5.7) was significantly more than PEG group (6.9 ± 3.5) (P < 0.0001). Compliances of PEG were significantly better in the 2 first weeks (P = 0.002, 0.008) but not in third and fourth week (P = 0.061, 0.062). None of these two drugs cause clinically significant side effects. Conclusions CFE can be as effective as PEG in the 4-weeks treatment of children with FC. PMID:27660721

  8. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-04-30

    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.

  9. Leishmanicidal activity of the crude extract, fractions and major piperidine alkaloids from the flowers of Senna spectabilis.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque Melo, Gabriela Muniz; Silva, Marcela Campelo Rodrigues; Guimarães, Thaís Pereira; Pinheiro, Kátia Mantovani; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Pivatto, Marcos; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; Viegas, Claudio

    2014-02-15

    Senna spectabilis (sin. Cassia excelsa, C. spectabilis) is an endemic tree of South America and Africa, very common in Brazil, where it is known as "canafistula-de-besouro" and "cassia-do-nordeste". In folk medicine, this plant is indicated for the treatment of constipation, insomnia, anxiety, epilepsy, malaria, dysentery and headache. Phytopharmacological studies have also confirmed anticonvulsive, sedative, anti-malarial, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of many parts of S. spectabilis. In this communication, we present a comparative study of the leishmanicidal activity of the crude ethanolic extract, its fractions and also the two major alkaloidal metabolites (-)-cassine/(-)-spectaline, trying to establish a relationship between the presence of piperidine alkaloidal constituents and leishmanicidal activity. The growth inhibitory effect of promastigote forms of Leishmania major was determined for the crude extract, fractions of the flowers of S. spectabilis and a mixture of (-)-cassine/(-)-spectaline in comparison to pentamidine used as standard drug. The cytotoxic effects were assessed on macrophage strain J774 by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Fractions dichloromethane (FL-DCM) and n-butanol (FL-Bu) and a mixture of (-)-cassine/(-)-spectaline (∼7:3) exhibited significant activity against the parasite Leishmania major (IC50 values of 0.6±0.1 μg/ml, 1.6±0.9 μg/ml and 24.9±1.4 μg/ml, respectively), without toxic effects on murine macrophages. Due to the promising results elicited, further studies in vivo need to be performed to confirm the therapeutic potential of Senna spectabilis.

  10. Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50) =37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90) =166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50) =26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90) =127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) =69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90) =324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

  11. Repellent, Irritant and Toxic Effects of 20 Plant Extracts on Adults of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  12. Repellent, irritant and toxic effects of 20 plant extracts on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae mosquito.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  13. Extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Dente, M.; Porcari, G.; Robinson, L. F.

    1985-08-06

    Hydrocarbon liquids are recovered from oil shale and other solids containing organic matter by passing a liquid organic solvent downwardly through an extraction zone in contact with said solids at an elevated pressure sufficient to maintain said solvent in the liquid phase and at a temperature below about 900/sup 0/ F., preferably between about 650/sup 0/ F. and about 900/sup 0/ F., in order to extract hydrocarbons from the solids into the solvent. The extracted hydrocarbons are then recovered from the solvent by fractionation. Normally, heat is supplied to the extraction zone by passing a hot, nonoxidizing gas, preferably an oxygen-free gas generated within the process, downwardly through the extraction zone in cocurrent flow with the liquid organic solvent.

  14. Anthelmintic efficacy of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid from cortex cinnamon essential oil against Dactylogyrus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Ling, Fei; Jiang, Chao; Liu, Guanglu; Li, Mingshuang; Wang, Gaoxue

    2015-12-01

    Utilization of chemical pesticide to control monogenean diseases is often restricted in many countries due to the development of pesticide resistance and concerns of chemical residues and environmental contamination. Thus, the use of antiparasitic agents from plants has been explored as a possible way for controlling monogenean infections. Extracts from Cinnamomum cassia were investigated under in vivo conditions against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. The two bioactive compounds, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The 48 h median effective concentrations (EC(50)) for these compounds against D. intermedius were 0·57 and 6·32 mg L(-1), respectively. The LD(50) of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid were 13·34 and 59·66 mg L(-1) to goldfish in 48 h acute toxicity tests, respectively. These data confirm that cinnamaldehyde is effective against D. intermedius, and the cinnamaldehyde exhibits potential for the development of a candidate antiparasitic agent.

  15. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  16. Combined use of high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for investigation of antidiabetic principles in crude plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kongstad, Kenneth T; Özdemir, Ceylan; Barzak, Asmah; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Staerk, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, and new drug leads or functional foods containing selective α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed. Crude extract of 24 plants were assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Methanol extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, Rheum rhabarbarum peel, and Rheum palmatum root and ethyl acetate extracts of C. zeylanicum bark, Allium ascalonicum peel, and R. palmatum root showed IC50 values below 20 μg/mL. Subsequently, high-resolution α-glucosidase profiling was used in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of metabolites responsible for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Quercetin (1) and its dimer (2), trimer (3), and tetramer (4) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in A. ascalonicum peel, whereas (E)-piceatannol 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), (E)-rhapontigenin 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (E)-piceatannol (8), and emodin (12) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in R. palmatum root.

  17. Combined use of high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for investigation of antidiabetic principles in crude plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kongstad, Kenneth T; Özdemir, Ceylan; Barzak, Asmah; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Staerk, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, and new drug leads or functional foods containing selective α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed. Crude extract of 24 plants were assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Methanol extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, Rheum rhabarbarum peel, and Rheum palmatum root and ethyl acetate extracts of C. zeylanicum bark, Allium ascalonicum peel, and R. palmatum root showed IC50 values below 20 μg/mL. Subsequently, high-resolution α-glucosidase profiling was used in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of metabolites responsible for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Quercetin (1) and its dimer (2), trimer (3), and tetramer (4) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in A. ascalonicum peel, whereas (E)-piceatannol 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), (E)-rhapontigenin 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (E)-piceatannol (8), and emodin (12) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in R. palmatum root. PMID:25652946

  18. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, Deise Elizabeth; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Fernanda Santos; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna) is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-⁹⁹m (⁹⁹mTc) and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na⁹⁹mTcO₄)in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na⁹⁹mTcO₄ and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na⁹⁹mTcO₄ in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na⁹⁹mTcO₄ are conducted in patients who are using senna extract. PMID:21552677

  19. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Deise Elizabeth; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Fernanda Santos; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna) is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na99mTcO4 and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na99mTcO4 in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na99mTcO4 are conducted in patients who are using senna extract. PMID:21552677

  20. Prevention Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Mulberry Leaf Extract and its Formulation on Rats with Insulin-Insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xuemei; Xie, Chen; Luo, Xiuzhen; Bao, Yonggang; Wu, Bin; Hu, Yuchi; Zhong, Zhong; Liu, Chang; Li, MinJie

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, mulberry leaf has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. This study aims to test the prevention effects of a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and a formula consisting of MLE, fenugreek seed extract, and cinnamon cassia extract (MLEF) on insulin resistance development in animals. MLE was refined to contain 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin by weight. MLEF was formulated by mixing MLE with cinnamon cassia extract and fenugreek seed extract at a 6:5:3 ratio (by weight). First, the acute toxicity effects of MLE on ICR mice were examined at 5 g/kg BW dose. Second, two groups of normal rats were administrated with water or 150 mg/kg BW MLE per day for 29 days to evaluate MLE's effect on normal animals. Third, to examine the effects of MLE and MLEF on model animals, sixty SD rats were divided into five groups, namely, (1) normal, (2) model, (3) high-dose MLE (75 mg/kg BW) treatment; (4) low-dose MLE (15 mg/kg BW) treatment; and (5) MLEF (35 mg/kg BW) treatment. On the second week, rats in groups (2)-(5) were switched to high-energy diet for three weeks. Afterward, the rats were injected (ip) with a single dose of 105 mg/kg BW alloxan. After four more days, fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Last, liver lysates from animals were screened with 650 antibodies for changes in the expression or phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins. The results were further validated by Western blot analysis. We found that the maximum tolerance dose of MLE was greater than 5 g/kg in mice. The MLE at a 150 mg/kg BW dose showed no effect on fast blood glucose levels in normal rats. The MLE at a 75 mg/kg BW dose and MLEF at a 35 mg/kg BW dose, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fast blood glucose levels in rats with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. In total, 34 proteins with significant changes in expression and phosphorylation levels were identified. The

  1. Prevention Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Mulberry Leaf Extract and its Formulation on Rats with Insulin-Insensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chen; Luo, Xiuzhen; Bao, Yonggang; Wu, Bin; Hu, Yuchi; Zhong, Zhong; Liu, Chang; Li, MinJie

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, mulberry leaf has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. This study aims to test the prevention effects of a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and a formula consisting of MLE, fenugreek seed extract, and cinnamon cassia extract (MLEF) on insulin resistance development in animals. MLE was refined to contain 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin by weight. MLEF was formulated by mixing MLE with cinnamon cassia extract and fenugreek seed extract at a 6:5:3 ratio (by weight). First, the acute toxicity effects of MLE on ICR mice were examined at 5 g/kg BW dose. Second, two groups of normal rats were administrated with water or 150 mg/kg BW MLE per day for 29 days to evaluate MLE’s effect on normal animals. Third, to examine the effects of MLE and MLEF on model animals, sixty SD rats were divided into five groups, namely, (1) normal, (2) model, (3) high-dose MLE (75 mg/kg BW) treatment; (4) low-dose MLE (15 mg/kg BW) treatment; and (5) MLEF (35 mg/kg BW) treatment. On the second week, rats in groups (2)-(5) were switched to high-energy diet for three weeks. Afterward, the rats were injected (ip) with a single dose of 105 mg/kg BW alloxan. After four more days, fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Last, liver lysates from animals were screened with 650 antibodies for changes in the expression or phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins. The results were further validated by Western blot analysis. We found that the maximum tolerance dose of MLE was greater than 5 g/kg in mice. The MLE at a 150 mg/kg BW dose showed no effect on fast blood glucose levels in normal rats. The MLE at a 75 mg/kg BW dose and MLEF at a 35 mg/kg BW dose, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fast blood glucose levels in rats with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. In total, 34 proteins with significant changes in expression and phosphorylation levels were identified. The

  2. Prevention Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Mulberry Leaf Extract and its Formulation on Rats with Insulin-Insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xuemei; Xie, Chen; Luo, Xiuzhen; Bao, Yonggang; Wu, Bin; Hu, Yuchi; Zhong, Zhong; Liu, Chang; Li, MinJie

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, mulberry leaf has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. This study aims to test the prevention effects of a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and a formula consisting of MLE, fenugreek seed extract, and cinnamon cassia extract (MLEF) on insulin resistance development in animals. MLE was refined to contain 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin by weight. MLEF was formulated by mixing MLE with cinnamon cassia extract and fenugreek seed extract at a 6:5:3 ratio (by weight). First, the acute toxicity effects of MLE on ICR mice were examined at 5 g/kg BW dose. Second, two groups of normal rats were administrated with water or 150 mg/kg BW MLE per day for 29 days to evaluate MLE's effect on normal animals. Third, to examine the effects of MLE and MLEF on model animals, sixty SD rats were divided into five groups, namely, (1) normal, (2) model, (3) high-dose MLE (75 mg/kg BW) treatment; (4) low-dose MLE (15 mg/kg BW) treatment; and (5) MLEF (35 mg/kg BW) treatment. On the second week, rats in groups (2)-(5) were switched to high-energy diet for three weeks. Afterward, the rats were injected (ip) with a single dose of 105 mg/kg BW alloxan. After four more days, fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Last, liver lysates from animals were screened with 650 antibodies for changes in the expression or phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins. The results were further validated by Western blot analysis. We found that the maximum tolerance dose of MLE was greater than 5 g/kg in mice. The MLE at a 150 mg/kg BW dose showed no effect on fast blood glucose levels in normal rats. The MLE at a 75 mg/kg BW dose and MLEF at a 35 mg/kg BW dose, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fast blood glucose levels in rats with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. In total, 34 proteins with significant changes in expression and phosphorylation levels were identified. The

  3. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  4. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  5. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-mei; Tsai, Kuen-daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  6. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Mei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  7. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions.

  8. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

  9. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  10. The effect of aqueous cinnamon extract on the apoptotic process in acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Assadollahi, Vahideh; Parivar, Kazem; Roudbari, Nasim Hayati; Khalatbary, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Masoumeh; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Dashti, Gholam Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is an acute leukemia diagnosed by translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17 [T (15,17)] and aggregation of neoplastic promyelocytes which are incapable of being converted into mature cells. Today, many tend to use medicinal herbs in studies and clinical applications for treatment of cancers. Cinnamon with scientific name “cinnamomumzelanicum” is a shrub of Laurales order, lauraceae family with cinnamomum genus. It is a medicinal shrub with anti-proliferation effect on tumor cells. This study was conducted to determine the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on HL-60 cells as a model for APL. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, HL-60 cell line was cultured under the influence of cinnamon extract's concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 2 mg/ml in with intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h. Growth inhibition and toxic effects of cinnamon extract were evaluated through tetrazolium salt reduction. The effect of this herb on the cell cycle was studied by flow cytometry. The Hoechst stain was used to detect apoptotic cell nuclei. Results: Cinnamon extract inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells as correlated with concentration and time. After 72 h of treating HL-60 cells with 0.01 mg/l cinnamon extract, the growth of cells was inhibited by 90.1%. Cinnamon extract stopped the cell cycle in G1 phase and the Hoechst staining verified the apoptotic process in those cells. Conclusion: Considering the inhibitory property of cinnamon extract, we recommend it as a single drug or besides other medications for treating promyelocytic leukemia. PMID:23977653

  11. Development of an ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted method for simultaneous extraction and distillation for determination of proanthocyanidins and essential oil in Cortex cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Wenjie

    2012-12-15

    Cortex cinnamomi is associated with many health benefits and is used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, an efficient ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction and distillation (ILMSED) technique was used to extract cassia oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi; these were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the vanillin-HCl colorimetric method, respectively. 0.5M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid was selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 20.0 g sample were 230 W microwave irradiation power, 15 min microwave extraction time and 10 liquid-solid ratio. The yields of essential oil and proanthocyanidins were 1.24 ± 0.04% and 4.58 ± 0.21% under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. Using the ILMSED method, the energy consumption was reduced and the extraction yields were improved. The proposed method was validated using stability, repeatability, and recovery experiments. The results indicated that the developed ILMSED method provided a good alternative for the extraction of both the essential oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi.

  12. Cinnamomum verum Component 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde: A Novel Anticancer Agent with Both Anti-Topoisomerase I and II Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho-Yiu; Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Yang, Shu-mei; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Chang, Chen-Mei; Yao, Belen T; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and -9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including plasma membrane blebbing and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartment (VAC) and suppressions of nuclear transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and both topoisomerase I and II activities. Further study reveals that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity and proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy.

  13. Cinnamon and its Components Suppress Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Up-Regulating Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeeun; Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Gu, Min Jung; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark has been used in traditional herbal medicine to treat a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the antiproliferative effect of cinnamon extract on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the corresponding restenosis has not been explored. Hence, after examining the effect of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation, we investigated the possible involvement of signal transduction pathways associated with early signal and cell cycle analysis, including regulatory proteins. Besides, to identify the active components, we investigated the components of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation. Cinnamon extract inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and suppressed the PDGF-stimulated early signal transduction. In addition, cinnamon extract arrested the cell cycle and inhibited positive regulatory proteins. Correspondingly, the protein levels of p21 and p27 not only were increased in the presence of cinnamon extract, also the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was inhibited by cinnamon extract. Besides, among the components of cinnamon extract, cinnamic acid (CA), eugenol (EG) and cinnamyl alcohol significantly inhibited the VSMC proliferation. Overall, the present study demonstrates that cinnamon extract inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs through a G0/G1 arrest, which down-regulated the expression of cell cycle positive regulatory proteins by up-regulating p21 and p27 expression.

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of spice extracts on the shelf life extension of raw chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Radha krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sasikala, M; Sabina, K; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2014-02-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of different spice extracts in raw chicken meat during storage for 15 days at 4 °C were studied. Raw chicken meat was treated with BHT (positive control), Syzygium aromaticum (SA), Cinnmomum cassia (CC), Origanum vulgare (OV), and Brassica nigra (BN) extracts and the different combinations as well as the results were compared to raw chicken meat without any additive (negative control). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of spice extracts were determined. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were ranged from 14.09 ± 0.78 to 24.65 ± 0.83 mg of GAE/g and 7.07 ± 0.15 to 12.13 ± 0.24 mg of quercetin/g, respectively. The pH, instrumental color (CIE L*, a*, b*), total viable counts (TVC), Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, Pseudomonas spp. counts and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined at a gap of 3 days interval for a period of 15 days. The bacterial counts of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lower than control samples during storage. T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples maintained significantly (P<0.05) higher L*, a* and b* values while storing. The TBARS values of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lowest among the samples. These results show that spice extracts are very effective against microbial growth, lipid oxidation and has potential as a natural antioxidant in raw chicken meats.

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of spice extracts on the shelf life extension of raw chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Radha krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sasikala, M; Sabina, K; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2014-02-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of different spice extracts in raw chicken meat during storage for 15 days at 4 °C were studied. Raw chicken meat was treated with BHT (positive control), Syzygium aromaticum (SA), Cinnmomum cassia (CC), Origanum vulgare (OV), and Brassica nigra (BN) extracts and the different combinations as well as the results were compared to raw chicken meat without any additive (negative control). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of spice extracts were determined. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were ranged from 14.09 ± 0.78 to 24.65 ± 0.83 mg of GAE/g and 7.07 ± 0.15 to 12.13 ± 0.24 mg of quercetin/g, respectively. The pH, instrumental color (CIE L*, a*, b*), total viable counts (TVC), Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, Pseudomonas spp. counts and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined at a gap of 3 days interval for a period of 15 days. The bacterial counts of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lower than control samples during storage. T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples maintained significantly (P<0.05) higher L*, a* and b* values while storing. The TBARS values of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lowest among the samples. These results show that spice extracts are very effective against microbial growth, lipid oxidation and has potential as a natural antioxidant in raw chicken meats. PMID:24308943

  16. Fumigant, Contact, and Repellent Activities of Essential Oils Against the Darkling Beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

    2014-01-01

    The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)- cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7- dimethyl-,2,6- octadienal, (Z)-3,7- dimethyl- ,2 ,6- octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2- propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr post-treatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus. PMID:25373222

  17. Discovery of a novel anticancer agent with both anti-topoisomerase I and II activities in hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Wang, Jeng-Shing; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Shih, Chia-Wen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for various applications. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cell line. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase in the DNA content in sub-G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments, suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against SK-Hep-1 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB-binding activity, inflammatory responses involving cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549, squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26792981

  18. Discovery of a novel anticancer agent with both anti-topoisomerase I and II activities in hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Wang, Jeng-Shing; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Shih, Chia-Wen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for various applications. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cell line. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase in the DNA content in sub-G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments, suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against SK-Hep-1 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB-binding activity, inflammatory responses involving cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549, squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy.

  19. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  20. Mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity of Senna occidentalis (Cassiae) and Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Maruthamalai hills against Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Aarthi, Narayanan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Nicoletti, Marcello; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Each year, mosquito-borne diseases infect nearly 700 million people, resulting to more than 1 million deaths. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, and smoke toxicity of Senna occidentalis and Ocimum basilicum leaf extracts against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts was evaluated against chloroquine (CQ)-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments, S. occidentalis LC50 ranged from 31.05 (I instar larvae) to 75.15 ppm (pupae), and O. basilicum LC50 ranged from 29.69 (I instar larvae) to 69 ppm (pupae). Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against adults showed that S. occidentalis and O. basilicum coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the pyrethrin-based positive control (38, 52, and 42%, respectively). In antiplasmodial assays, Senna occidentalis 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) were 48.80 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 54.28 μg/ml (CQ-r), while O. basilicum IC50 were 68.14 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 67.27 μg/ml (CQ-r). Overall, these botanicals could be considered as potential sources of metabolites to build newer and safer malaria control tools.

  1. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of Indian bay leaf, Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. -Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm using rat brain synaptosomes as model system.

    PubMed

    Devi, S Lakshmi; Kannappan, S; Anuradha, C V

    2007-09-01

    The study investigated the perturbation of oxidant-antioxidant balance in brain synaptosomes of diabetic rats and determined the antioxidant and free radical-scavenging property of the Indian bay leaf. Brain synaptosomes were isolated from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals and oxidative stress parameters were assayed. A methanolic extract of bay leaf (BLE) was tested for the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity by in vitro assays. A significant increase in the levels of lipids and lipid peroxidation products and a decline in antioxidant potential were observed in diabetic rat brain synaptosomes. The total polyphenolic content of BLE was found to be 6.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g. BLE displayed scavenging activity against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, BLE showed inhibition of Fe(2+)-ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation in both control and diabetic rat brain synaptosomes. Maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation, radical scavenging action and reducing power of BLE were observed at a concentration of 220 microg GAE. These effects of BLE in vitro were comparable with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), a synthetic antioxidant. It can be concluded that synaptosomes from diabetic rats are susceptible to oxidative damage and the positive effects of bay leaf in vitro, could be attributed to the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals.

  2. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS.

  3. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  5. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  6. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  7. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  8. Plant Extracts of the Family Lauraceae: A Potential Resource for Chemopreventive Agents that Activate the Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2/Antioxidant Response Element Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tao; Chen, Xue-Mei; Harder, Bryan; Long, Min; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wondrak, Georg T.; Ren, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Donna D.

    2015-01-01

    Cells and tissues counteract insults from exogenous or endogenous carcinogens through the expression of genes encoding antioxidants and phase II detoxifying enzymes regulated by antioxidant response element promoter regions. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 plays a key role in regulating the antioxidant response elements-target gene expression. Hence, the Nrf2/ARE pathway represents a vital cellular defense mechanism against damage caused by oxidative stress and xenobiotics, and is recognized as a potential molecular target for discovering chemo-preventive agents. Using a stable antioxidant response element luciferase reporter cell line derived from human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells combined with a 96-well high-throughput screening system, we have identified a series of plant extracts from the family Lauraceae that harbor Nrf2-inducing effects. These extracts, including Litsea garrettii (ZK-08), Cinnamomum chartophyllum (ZK-02), C. mollifolium (ZK-04), C. camphora var. linaloolifera (ZK-05), and C. burmannii (ZK-10), promoted nuclear translocation of Nrf2, enhanced protein expression of Nrf2 and its target genes, and augmented intracellular glutathione levels. Cytoprotective activity of these extracts against two electrophilic toxicants, sodium arsenite and H2O2, was investigated. Treatment of human bronchial epithelial cells with extracts of ZK-02, ZK-05, and ZK-10 significantly improved cell survival in response to sodium arsenite and H2O2, while ZK-08 showed a protective effect against only H2O2. Importantly, their protective effects against insults from both sodium arsenite and H2O2 were Nrf2-dependent. Therefore, our data provide evidence that the selected plants from the family Lauraceae are potential sources for chemopreventive agents targeting the Nrf2/ARE pathway. PMID:24585092

  9. Effects of some dietary crude plant extracts on the growth and gonadal maturity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and their resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae infection.

    PubMed

    Kareem, Zana H; Abdelhadi, Yasser M; Christianus, Annie; Karim, Murni; Romano, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    A 90-day feeding trial was conducted on the growth performance, feeding efficacy, body indices, various hematological and plasma biochemical parameters, and histopathological examination of the gonads from male and female Nile tilapia fingerlings when fed different crude plant extracts from Cinnamomum camphora, Euphorbia hirta, Azadirachta indica, or Carica papaya at 2 g kg(-1) compared to a control diet. This was followed by a 14-day challenge to Streptococcus agalactiae. All treatments were triplicated, and each treatment consisted of 30 fish. Results showed that C. papaya extracts were the most effective at delaying gonadal maturation to both male and female tilapia, as well as significantly increasing (P < 0.05) growth performance compared to the control treatment. Similarly, dietary C. camphora and E. hirta extracts also significantly improved growth, while no significant growth effect was detected between the A. indica and control treatments (P > 0.05). Further, crude body lipid was lower in the C. camphora, E. hirta and C. papaya treatments, but was only significantly lower for the E. hirta treatment compared to the control. Meanwhile, none of the hematological or biochemical parameters were significantly affected, although plasma ALT was significantly lower for tilapia fed A. indica compared to the control. After the 14-day bacterial challenge, tilapia fed C. camphora supplementation had significantly higher survival, compared to the control, but was not significantly higher than the other supplemented diets. Results indicate that dietary C. papaya extract can significantly promote growth and delay gonadal maturation to both male and female tilapia, while C. camphora was the most effective prophylactic to S. agalactiae and may be a cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to antibiotics. PMID:26643907

  10. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  11. Evaluation of an Indigenously Prepared Herbal Extract (EndoPam) as an Antimicrobial Endodontic Irrigant: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Jain; Pathrose, Sonia; Kottoor, Jojo; Karaththodiyil, Ranjith; Alani, Mathew; Mathew, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Backgroundg: Root canal irrigation plays a pivotal role in endodontics. Constant increase in antibiotic resistance and side effects caused by synthetic irrigants has shifted the research toward developing herbal alternatives. The current study aims to assess the ex vivo effectiveness of an indigenously prepared herbal extract “EndoPam” and compare it with the conventional endodontic irrigants for disinfection of root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: As a preliminary study of the antimicrobial efficacy of the test irrigants, an Agar diffusion study was conducted, and zone of inhibition measured. Forty extracted mandibular premolars with straight root canals were selected and standardized to 12 ± 1 mm in length. Root canals were prepared using rotary ProTaper system until F3 instrument and were infected with the culture of E. faecalis for three weeks. Specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group 1: EndoPam ( Ingredients: Syzigium aromaticum, Eucalyptus globulus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha piperita), Group 2: 2% chlorhexidine, Group 3: 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite, Group 4: Normal Saline. Irrigation was performed for each group. Samples were inoculated and incubated for 24 h at 37°C for qualitative analysis qualitative analysis. Results: In the preliminary Agar diffusion study, EndoPam exhibited a zone of inhibition comparable to that of sodium hypochrorite. The diameter of the inhibition zone was in the following order: 2% chlorhexidine gluconate > EndoPam > 5.25% NaOCl > Normal Saline. The qualitative assay done by culturing the bacteria after a period of 3 weeks showed no bacterial growth in any of the tested irrigants, except in normal saline. Conclusion: It was found that the experimental product was as effective as conventional irrigants in reducing the microbial count. PMID:26124607

  12. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  13. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  14. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  16. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17β-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy. PMID:21783839

  17. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dheeraj P.; Pancholi, Shyam S.; Patel, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb. PMID:22171315

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  19. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  20. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  2. Magma Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-20

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric. 10 figs., 10 refs.

  3. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

  4. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Starliper, Clifford E; Ketola, Henry G; Noyes, Andrew D; Schill, William B; Henson, Fred G; Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC's) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02-0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  5. The cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells.

    PubMed

    Wondrak, Georg Thomas; Villeneuve, Nicole F; Lamore, Sarah D; Bause, Alexandra S; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D

    2010-05-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.

  6. Synergistic effect of fragrant herbs in Japanese scent sachets.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yumi; Ito, Michiho

    2015-02-01

    The sedative activity of eight aromatic natural medicines that are traditionally used in Japanese scent sachets was examined using an open field test with mice. Galangal (Kaempferia galanga), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), sandalwood (Santalum album), spikenard (Nardostachys chinensis), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), star anise (Illicium verum), and borneol (Dryobalanops aromatica) distilled oils were used. These natural medicines have various pharmacological effects. For example, galangal has insecticidal activity and clove extracts possess strong total antioxidant activity. Aromatherapy, a well-known complementary medicine system that uses inhalation, has recently attracted much attention. The sedative activity of inhaled aromatic compounds or essential oils has been examined by measuring the spontaneous motor activity of mice in an open field test. The galangal, patchouli, sandalwood, spikenard, and borneol oils showed significant sedative effects. The effect was stronger for a mixture of the five oils than for any of the single oils. This suggests that the oil mixture may have synergistic activity. Sedative activity was not observed when inactive oils (cinnamon, clove, and star anise) were added to the mixture of the five active oils. PMID:25671383

  7. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  8. The Cinnamon-derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Georg T.; Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Bause, Alexandra S.; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:20657484

  9. Advanced PDV velocity extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Daniel; Ao, Tommy; Furnish, Michael

    2015-06-01

    While PDV has become a standard diagnostic, reliable velocity extraction remains challenging. Measurements with multiple real/apparent velocities are intrinsically difficult to analyze, and overlapping frequency components invalidate standard extraction methods. This presentation describes an advanced analysis technique where overlapping frequency components are resolved in the complex Fourier spectrum. Practical matters--multiple region of interest selection, component intersection, and shock transitions--will also be discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85.

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  11. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  12. Second premolar serial extraction.

    PubMed

    Joondeph, D R; Riedel, R A

    1976-02-01

    Serial extraction of mandibular second premolars should be considered if they are impacted or in cases with moderate arch length deficiency combined with an absence of dentofacial protrusion. The favorable dental changes associated with this approach greatly minimize future orthodontic treatment complexity and time.

  13. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  14. Extractable Work from Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  15. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  16. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  17. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  18. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  19. Slow extraction at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Resonant slow extraction at the SSC will permit fixed-target operation. Stochastic extraction appears to be a promising technique for achieving spill times of the order of 1000 s. However, systematic sextupole error fields in the SSC dipoles must be reduced a factor of twenty from the design values; otherwise the extraction process will be perturbed or suppressed. In addition, good regulation of the SSC power supplies is essential for smooth extraction over the spill period. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by some Chinese medicinal plants used to treat gout.

    PubMed

    Kong, L D; Cai, Y; Huang, W W; Cheng, C H; Tan, R X

    2000-11-01

    The enzyme xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid, which plays a crucial role in gout. A total of 122 traditional Chinese medicinal plants, selected according to the clinical efficacy and prescription frequency for the treatment of gout and other hyperuricemia-related disorders, have been evaluated for the enzyme inhibitory activity. Among the 122 methanol extracts derived from these species, 69 were shown to be inhibitory at 100 microg/ml, with 29 having greater than 50% inhibition. As to the equal amount of water extracts, 40 were disclosed to be active at 100 microg/ml, with 13 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 58 methanol and 24 water extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 15 of the former and two of the latter showing greater than 50% inhibition. The most active was the methanol extract of the twig of Cinnamomum cassia (Lauraceae) (IC(50), 18 microg/ml), which was followed immediately by those of the flower of Chrysanthemum indicum (Asteraceae) (IC(50), 22 microg/ml) and the leaves of Lycopus europaeus (Lamiatae) (IC(50), 26 microg/ml). Among the water extracts, the strongest inhibition of the enzyme was observed with that of the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae) (IC(50), 38 microg/ml). The IC(50) value of allopurinol used as a positive control was 1.06 microg/ml. The study demonstrated that the effects for these medicinal plants used for the gout treatment were based, at least in part, on the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action.

  1. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  3. Anti-allergic effect of intranasal administration of type-A procyanidin polyphenols based standardized extract of cinnamon bark in ovalbumin sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila M; Kandhare, Amit D; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate anti-allergic effects of intranasal administration of type-A procynidines polyphenols (TAPP) based standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (TAPP-CZ) in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) in BALB/c mice. Sixty male BALB/c mice were divided into six groups of ten each (G1-G6). The mice from G1 were nonsensitized and maintained as normal group. Remaining mice (G2-G6) were sensitized with OVA (500 μL solution, intraperitoneal) on alternate days for 13 days and had twice daily intranasal treatment from day 14-21 as follows: G2 (AR control) received saline, G3 (positive control, XLY) received xylometazoline (0.5 mg/mL, 20 μL/nostril) and G4-G6 received TAPP-CZ (3, 10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril), respectively. On day 21, mice were challenged with OVA (5 μL/nostril, 5% solution) and assessments (nasal signs, biochemical and histopathological) were performed. Treatment with TAPP-CZ (10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril) showed significant attenuation in OVA-induced alterations of the nasal (number of nasal rubbing and sneezing), biochemical markers (serum IgE and histamine), haematological, morphological (relative organ weight of spleen and lung) and histopathological (nasal mucosa and spleen) parameters. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ showed anti-allergic efficacy in animal model of AR.

  4. Anti-allergic effect of intranasal administration of type-A procyanidin polyphenols based standardized extract of cinnamon bark in ovalbumin sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila M; Kandhare, Amit D; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate anti-allergic effects of intranasal administration of type-A procynidines polyphenols (TAPP) based standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (TAPP-CZ) in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) in BALB/c mice. Sixty male BALB/c mice were divided into six groups of ten each (G1-G6). The mice from G1 were nonsensitized and maintained as normal group. Remaining mice (G2-G6) were sensitized with OVA (500 μL solution, intraperitoneal) on alternate days for 13 days and had twice daily intranasal treatment from day 14-21 as follows: G2 (AR control) received saline, G3 (positive control, XLY) received xylometazoline (0.5 mg/mL, 20 μL/nostril) and G4-G6 received TAPP-CZ (3, 10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril), respectively. On day 21, mice were challenged with OVA (5 μL/nostril, 5% solution) and assessments (nasal signs, biochemical and histopathological) were performed. Treatment with TAPP-CZ (10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril) showed significant attenuation in OVA-induced alterations of the nasal (number of nasal rubbing and sneezing), biochemical markers (serum IgE and histamine), haematological, morphological (relative organ weight of spleen and lung) and histopathological (nasal mucosa and spleen) parameters. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ showed anti-allergic efficacy in animal model of AR. PMID:25504814

  5. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  6. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  7. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-04-23

    In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities. PMID:12696930

  8. High-resolution α-amylase assay combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for expedited identification of α-amylase inhibitors: proof of concept and α-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon.

    PubMed

    Okutan, Leyla; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2014-11-26

    Type 2 diabetes affects millions of people worldwide, and new improved drugs or functional foods containing selective α-amylase inhibitors are needed for improved management of blood glucose. In this article the development of a microplate-based high-resolution α-amylase inhibition assay with direct photometric measurement of α-amylase activity is described. The inhibition assay is based on porcine pancreatic α-amylase with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotriose as substrate, which this gives a stable, sensitive, and cheap inhibition assay as requested for high-resolution purposes. In combination with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR, this provides an analytical platform that allows simultaneous chemical and biological profiling of α-amylase inhibitors in plant extracts. Proof-of-concept with an artificial mixture of six compounds-of which three are known α-amylase inhibitors-showed that the high-resolution α-amylase inhibition profiles allowed detection of sub-microgram amounts of the α-amylase inhibitors. Furthermore, the high-resolution α-amylase inhibition assay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR platform allowed identification of cinnamaldehyde as the α-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl.).

  9. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  10. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  11. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  12. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  13. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei.

  14. Feature extraction through LOCOCODE.

    PubMed

    Hochreiter, S; Schmidhuber, J

    1999-04-01

    Low-complexity coding and decoding (LOCOCODE) is a novel approach to sensory coding and unsupervised learning. Unlike previous methods, it explicitly takes into account the information-theoretic complexity of the code generator. It computes lococodes that convey information about the input data and can be computed and decoded by low-complexity mappings. We implement LOCOCODE by training autoassociators with flat minimum search, a recent, general method for discovering low-complexity neural nets. It turns out that this approach can unmix an unknown number of independent data sources by extracting a minimal number of low-complexity features necessary for representing the data. Experiments show that unlike codes obtained with standard autoencoders, lococodes are based on feature detectors, never unstructured, usually sparse, and sometimes factorial or local (depending on statistical properties of the data). Although LOCOCODE is not explicitly designed to enforce sparse or factorial codes, it extracts optimal codes for difficult versions of the "bars" benchmark problem, whereas independent component analysis (ICA) and principal component analysis (PCA) do not. It produces familiar, biologically plausible feature detectors when applied to real-world images and codes with fewer bits per pixel than ICA and PCA. Unlike ICA, it does not need to know the number of independent sources. As a preprocessor for a vowel recognition benchmark problem, it sets the stage for excellent classification performance. Our results reveal an interesting, previously ignored connection between two important fields: regularizer research and ICA-related research. They may represent a first step toward unification of regularization and unsupervised learning.

  15. Extraction of soil organic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Condron, Leo M; Newman, Susan

    2005-04-15

    Organic phosphorus is an important component of soil biogeochemical cycles, but must be extracted from soil prior to analysis. Here we critically review the extraction of soil organic phosphorus, including procedures for quantification, speciation, and assessment of biological availability. Quantitative extraction conventionally requires strong acids and bases, which inevitably alter chemical structure. However, a single-step procedure involving sodium hydroxide and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) is suitable for most soils and facilitates subsequent speciation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of extracts by molybdate colorimetry is a potential source of error in all procedures, because organic phosphorus is overestimated in the presence of inorganic polyphosphates or complexes between inorganic phosphate and humic substances. Sequential extraction schemes fractionate organic phosphorus based on chemical solubility, but the link to potential bioavailability is misleading. Research should be directed urgently towards establishing extractable pools of soil organic phosphorus with ecological relevance.

  16. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  17. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  18. Terminology Extraction from Log Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

    The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

  19. Femoral approach to lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Mulpuru, Siva K; Hayes, David L; Osborn, Michael J; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2015-03-01

    Laser and radiofrequency energy-assisted lead extraction has greatly facilitated this complex procedure. Although success rates are high, in some instances alternate methods of extraction are required. In this review, we discuss techniques for femoral extraction of implanted leads and retained fragments. The major tools available, including commonly used snares and delivery tools, are discussed. We briefly describe combined internal jugular and femoral venous extraction approaches, as well as complimentary utilization of more than one technique via the femoral vein. Animated and procedural sequences are included to help the reader visualize the key components of these techniques. PMID:25311643

  20. Developments in multiple headspace extraction.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Minna

    2007-03-10

    This paper reviews new developments in multiple headspace extraction (MHE), especially its combination with two miniaturized extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME). The combination of the techniques broadens the applicability of SPME and SDME to quantitative determination of analytes in complex liquid and solid matrixes. These new methods offer several advantages over traditional liquid-solid, liquid-liquid and headspace extraction techniques. The potential applications include extraction of volatiles and semivolatiles from environmental and physiological samples and from different polymer products such as medical and biomedical materials, food packaging and building materials. The theoretical principals of the techniques are also briefly reviewed. PMID:17081616

  1. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  2. Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    1998-01-01

    Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency.

  3. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  4. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  5. Nonlocal intracranial cavity extraction.

    PubMed

    Manjón, José V; Eskildsen, Simon F; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E; Collins, D Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  6. The Uses of Film Extracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1967-01-01

    The use of film extracts, either alone or with the whole feature, encourages students to concentrate on a limited number of learning objectives, whereas a full-length film frequently gives rise to confusion and vague generalizations on the part of students. Extracts can be used to illustrate screen language, the style of the director, the history…

  7. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  9. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  10. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  11. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  12. Extracting amplitudes from photoproduction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problems associated with amplitude extraction, from meson photoproduction data, over the first resonance regions. The notion of a complete experiment has motivated the FROST program at Jefferson Lab. Exercises applied to pion photoproduction data illustrate the problems to be confronted in any attempt to extract underlying resonance signals from these data (without introducing a model for the resonant process).

  13. HYPOGLYCAMIC ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FO FICUS GLOMERATA

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, K.; Venkiteshwarlu, V.; Reddy, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum ether (60-80o), chloroform methanol extracts of leaves and root bark of ficus glomerata (Moraceae) were prepared by successive solvent extraction followed by vacuum evaporation and the marc left after successive solvent extraction was extracts with boiling water to get aqueous extracts, all the extracts were subjected to qualitative chemical tests to find out phytoconstituents present in them. All the extracts were screened for their hypoglycaemic activity in normal and fasted rabbits fed with glucose, chloroform and methanolic extracts of leaves and chloroform extract of root bark of R. glomerata exhibited significant hypoglycaemic activity. PMID:22556762

  14. Dental extractions using improvised equipment.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2013-12-01

    Extracting a tooth is the final treatment for multiple dental problems. Persons who are not dentists, however, have little experience with tooth extractions. When a remote setting makes it impossible to send a patient for optimal dental treatment, the clinician may need to extract teeth, sometimes using improvised equipment. The following cases of two patients with three carious, painful molars describe such a situation. The non-dental clinicians had to improvise not only appropriate dental tools, but also personal protective equipment, a functional suction machine, medications for a dental block, a dental chair, and dental consent forms and follow-up instructions in the patients' language. In these cases, they also communicated with their patients through a translator. To prepare to do tooth extractions in remote settings, clinicians should learn and practice dental blocks and review extraction techniques before they deploy. If they must do an extraction, clinicians should use the closest approximation available to the appropriate dental tools. When done correctly, a dental extraction can take some time and should not be rushed. PMID:24076092

  15. Nonvolatile dichloromethane extractives of Gmelina arborea

    SciTech Connect

    Ukkonen, K.

    1982-02-01

    In pulping it is important to know how lipophilic extractives will behave and so avoid pitch problems. Experiments on Gmelina wood delivered from Brazil in 1978 are described, using dichloromethane extractives to give sufficient information about the lipophilic extractives. The behavior of Gmelina extracts in kraft pulping was compared to that of birch extracts and was found to be similar. (Refs. 10).

  16. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is...

  17. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  18. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  20. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    PubMed Central

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V.; Gujjula, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements. PMID:26130934

  1. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  2. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils.

  3. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  4. [Research progress of trans-cinnamaldehyde pharmacological effects].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-qing; Zhang, Zhan-gang; Fu, Yan; Xu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Trans-cinnamaldehyde, the main component of volatile oil from cassia twig or Cinnamomum cassia, which is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a kind olefine aldehyde of organic compounds and has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, and neuroprotection etc. The compound has preventive and therapeutic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Trans-cinnamaldehyde, as a preventive care of nature medicine, has great clinical and market potential. This paper gives a review about the pharmacological effects and mechanism of trans-cinnamaldehyde researched in the latest five years. We hope to provide some basic information for further research on trans-cinnamaldehyde. PMID:27141665

  5. Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Extraction

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cure the infection without completely removing all hardware from the body. This requires removal of the ... Footnotes References Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Article Tools Print Citation Tools Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Extraction ...

  6. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'.

  7. COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-09-07

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  8. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'. PMID:24380143

  9. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  10. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  11. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  12. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  13. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  14. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  15. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  16. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  17. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  18. Comprehensive comparison of classic Soxhlet extraction with Soxtec extraction, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil.

    PubMed

    Sporring, Sune; Bøwadt, Søren; Svensmark, Bo; Björklund, Erland

    2005-10-01

    This paper compares the extraction effectiveness of six different commonly applied extraction techniques for the determination of PCBs in soil. The techniques included are Soxhlet, Soxtec, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction. For none of the techniques were the extraction conditions optimized, but instead the extraction parameters were based on the experience from previous successful investigation published by a number of research groups worldwide. In general, all extraction techniques were capable of producing accurate data for one native PCB contaminated soil diluted with another soil sample to obtain two concentration levels. It could therefore be concluded that any of the investigated techniques can be used with success if the extraction conditions applied are chosen wisely.

  19. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  20. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that

  1. Extraction versus non-extraction: evaluation by digital subtraction radiography.

    PubMed

    Akyalçin, Sercan; Hazar, Serpil; Güneri, Pelin; Gögüs, Selin; Erdinç, Aslihan Mediha Ertan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the facial profile changes of patients treated with and without extractions of four first premolars using novel computer-based digital subtraction software. The pre- and post-treatment radiographic image pairs of 25 extraction (13 girls and 12 boys, mean age = 12.64 +/- 1.82 years) and 24 non-extraction (12 girls and 12 boys, mean age = 12.48 +/- 1.66 years) Class I patients were subtracted by the software. Student's t-tests were used to determine whether the subtraction values for the linear measurements of radiographic differences registered at various anatomical landmark parameters were statistically different between the groups. To further determine whether any variables related to upper and lower lip changes, regression analyses were performed. The main soft tissue differences between the groups were established at labrale superior, labrale inferior, and sulcus inferior points, with extraction patients showing significantly more retruded upper and lower lips. However, the mean differences between the groups did not exceed 1 mm for these variables. Changes at labrale superior and labrale inferior were associated with sagittal movement of the maxillary (r = 0.549) and mandibular (r = 0.630) incisor midpoints. Changes at sulcus inferior were associated with both sagittal and vertical displacement of mandibular incision point (r = 0.676). Some dentofacial alterations were found but in view of the differences between the groups pretreatment, the inter-group differences reflect different treatment intent rather than differences arising from the extraction and non-extraction modalities.

  2. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  3. AGS slow extracted beam improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

  4. NEFI: Network Extraction From Images

    PubMed Central

    Dirnberger, M.; Kehl, T.; Neumann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Networks are amongst the central building blocks of many systems. Given a graph of a network, methods from graph theory enable a precise investigation of its properties. Software for the analysis of graphs is widely available and has been applied to study various types of networks. In some applications, graph acquisition is relatively simple. However, for many networks data collection relies on images where graph extraction requires domain-specific solutions. Here we introduce NEFI, a tool that extracts graphs from images of networks originating in various domains. Regarding previous work on graph extraction, theoretical results are fully accessible only to an expert audience and ready-to-use implementations for non-experts are rarely available or insufficiently documented. NEFI provides a novel platform allowing practitioners to easily extract graphs from images by combining basic tools from image processing, computer vision and graph theory. Thus, NEFI constitutes an alternative to tedious manual graph extraction and special purpose tools. We anticipate NEFI to enable time-efficient collection of large datasets. The analysis of these novel datasets may open up the possibility to gain new insights into the structure and function of various networks. NEFI is open source and available at http://nefi.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:26521675

  5. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  6. Symmetry constraint for foreground extraction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Cao, Xiaochun; Tu, Zhuowen; Lin, Dongdai

    2014-05-01

    Symmetry as an intrinsic shape property is often observed in natural objects. In this paper, we discuss how explicitly taking into account the symmetry constraint can enhance the quality of foreground object extraction. In our method, a symmetry foreground map is used to represent the symmetry structure of the image, which includes the symmetry matching magnitude and the foreground location prior. Then, the symmetry constraint model is built by introducing this symmetry structure into the graph-based segmentation function. Finally, the segmentation result is obtained via graph cuts. Our method encourages objects with symmetric parts to be consistently extracted. Moreover, our symmetry constraint model is applicable to weak symmetric objects under the part-based framework. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the advantages of our approach in extracting the foreground. Our method also shows improved results in segmenting objects with weak, complex symmetry properties.

  7. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  8. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  9. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  10. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  11. Antibacterial activity of Pulicaria dysenterica extracts.

    PubMed

    Nickavar, Bahman; Mojab, Faraz

    2003-06-01

    Aqueous, methanolic and chloroformic extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica aerial parts were tested for their antibacterial activity using the disc-diffusion assay technique. The methanolic extract was found to be the most effective extract against three out of six tested bacteria. All of the extracts were active against Vibrio cholera.

  12. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  13. TOXICITY OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM EXTRACT

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Bhushan; Saraf, M.N.; David, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Toxicity by oral route administration of S. anacardium extract with peanut oil was compared against the same extract emulsified with Tween-80 saline. The traditional way of administration with peanut oil was found to be safe and upto 25 mg/kg/day x9 days, increase in weight, RBCs & haemoglobin % was observed without mortality. Same dose with Tween-80 saline was found to have adverse effects regarding all the pharameters with 16.5% mortality. This study support Ayurvedic method of administration for efficacy without toxicity. PMID:22557639

  14. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction of mercury species.

    PubMed

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2003-12-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction was used to recover organic and inorganic mercury species. Variations in pressure, water, methanol, and chelator create methods that allowed separation of inorganic from organic mercury species. When extracted using a compromised set of extraction conditions, the order of extraction was methyl, phenyl and inorganic mercury. For the individually optimized conditions, quantitative recoveries were observed. Level as low as 20 ppb were extracted and then determined using ICP.

  16. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  17. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  18. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  19. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  20. Ant Ecdysteroid Extraction and Radioimmunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroids are a group of steroid compounds present in many plant and invertebrate species. In arthropods, they function primarily as hormones involved in the regulation of molting. This protocol describes how to extract ecdysteroid hormones from ant specimens and subsequently quantify circulating...

  1. Development of new natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Périchet, Christine; Schnaebele, Nicolas; Humbert, Marina

    2014-11-01

    For over the past 20 years, a remarkable development in the study and search of natural products has been observed. This is linked to a new market trend towards ecology and also due to new regulations. This could be a rupture, but also a real booster for creativity. Usually, in the flavor and fragrance field, creativity was boosted by the arrival of new synthetic molecules. Naturals remained the traditional, century-old products, protected by secrecy and specific know-how from each company. Regulatory restrictions or eco-friendly certification constraints like hexane-free processes triggered an important brainstorming in the industry. As a result, we developed new eco-friendly processes including supercritical CO2 extraction, allowing fresh plants to be used to obtain industrial flower extracts (Jasmine Grandiflorum, Jasmine Sambac, Orange blossom). These extracts are analyzed by GC, GC/MS, GCO, and HPTLC techniques. New or unusual raw materials can also be explored, but the resulting extracts have to be tested for safety reasons. Some examples are described.

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  3. Essential Oils, Silver Nanoparticles and Propolis as Alternative Agents Against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Szweda, Piotr; Gucwa, Katarzyna; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Romanowska, Ewa; Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna; Zielińska Jurek, Anna; Kuś, Piotr Marek; Milewski, Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Development of effective and safe therapeutic treatment of fungal infections remains one of the major challenge for modern medicine. The aim of presented investigation was to analyze the in vitro antifungal activity of selected essential oils, ethanolic extracts of propolis and silver nanoparticles dropped on TiO2 against azole-resistant C. albicans (n = 20), C. glabrata (n = 14) and C. krusei (n = 10) clinical isolates. Among tested essential oils, the highest activity has definitely been found in the case of the oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, with MIC and MFC values for all tested strains in the range of 0.0006-0.0097 % (v/v) and 0.0012-0.019 % (v/v), respectively. High activity was also observed for the Lemon, Basil, Thyme, Geranium and Clove (from buds) essential oils. Significant differences in fungicidal activity have been observed in the case of four tested propolis samples. Only one of them revealed high activity, with MFC values in the range from 0.156 to 1.25 % (v/v). Satisfactory fungicidal activity, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates, was also observed in the case of silver nanoparticles, however C. krusei isolates were mostly resistant. We also revealed that constituents of most of essential oils and propolis as well as silver nanoparticles are not substrates for drug transporters, which belong to the most important factors affecting resistance of Candida spp. clinical isolates to many of conventional antimycotics. To conclude, the results of our investigation revealed that essential oils, propolis and silver nanoparticles represent high potential for controlling and prevention candidiasis. PMID:25805904

  4. Essential Oils, Silver Nanoparticles and Propolis as Alternative Agents Against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Szweda, Piotr; Gucwa, Katarzyna; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Romanowska, Ewa; Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna; Zielińska Jurek, Anna; Kuś, Piotr Marek; Milewski, Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Development of effective and safe therapeutic treatment of fungal infections remains one of the major challenge for modern medicine. The aim of presented investigation was to analyze the in vitro antifungal activity of selected essential oils, ethanolic extracts of propolis and silver nanoparticles dropped on TiO2 against azole-resistant C. albicans (n = 20), C. glabrata (n = 14) and C. krusei (n = 10) clinical isolates. Among tested essential oils, the highest activity has definitely been found in the case of the oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, with MIC and MFC values for all tested strains in the range of 0.0006-0.0097 % (v/v) and 0.0012-0.019 % (v/v), respectively. High activity was also observed for the Lemon, Basil, Thyme, Geranium and Clove (from buds) essential oils. Significant differences in fungicidal activity have been observed in the case of four tested propolis samples. Only one of them revealed high activity, with MFC values in the range from 0.156 to 1.25 % (v/v). Satisfactory fungicidal activity, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates, was also observed in the case of silver nanoparticles, however C. krusei isolates were mostly resistant. We also revealed that constituents of most of essential oils and propolis as well as silver nanoparticles are not substrates for drug transporters, which belong to the most important factors affecting resistance of Candida spp. clinical isolates to many of conventional antimycotics. To conclude, the results of our investigation revealed that essential oils, propolis and silver nanoparticles represent high potential for controlling and prevention candidiasis.

  5. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, N.R.

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-01-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ‘no visible scarring’ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  7. Cell Cytoskeleton and Tether Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, B.; Viana, N.B.; Salgado, L.T.; Farina, M.; Neto, V. Moura; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a detailed investigation of the force × deformation curve in tether extraction from 3T3 cells by optical tweezers. Contrary to conventional wisdom about tethers extracted from cells, we find that actin filaments are present within them, so that a revised theory of tether pulling from cells is called for. We also measure steady and maximum tether force values significantly higher than previously published ones for 3T3 cells. Possible explanations for these differences are investigated. Further experimental support of the theory of force barriers for membrane tube extension is obtained. The potential of studies on tether pulling force × deformation for retrieving information on membrane-cytoskeleton interaction is emphasized. PMID:21723813

  8. Sugars present in tobacco extracts.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S C; Pollack, R L; Hsu, A F; Going, R E

    1980-12-01

    The presence of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose in commercial tobacco products was identified and quantitated. Gas-liquid chromatographic studies showed that these five types of sugar were present in the water-soluble extracts of pouch and plug chewing tobacco, yet only fructose and glucose were found in extracts of snuff and unprocessed natural tobaccos. The amount of sucrose present in pouch chewing tobacco was twice that in plug chewing tobacco. No detectable amount of sucrose was found in snuff or unprocessed natural tobaccos. The content of maltose and isomaltose was much less than the content of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. All unprocessed natural tobacco leaves studied as controls contained low amounts of fructose and glucose, and no detectable amounts of sucrose, maltose, or isomaltose. The larger amounts of fructose and glucose, and the additional sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose present in pouch and plug chewing tobaccos are probably added during the manufacturing process. PMID:6935284

  9. Metals extraction from sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Chryssostomidis, C.; Larue, G.J.; Morgan, D.T.

    1981-10-06

    A method and system for continuously extracting metals from sea water by deploying adsorber sheets in a suitable current of sea water, recovering the adsorber sheets after they become loaded with metal and eluting the metal from the recovered sheets. The system involves the use of hollow, perforated bobbins on which the sheets are rolled as they are recovered and through which elutant is introduced.

  10. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    PubMed

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  11. Extraction treatment using Invisalign Technique.

    PubMed

    Giancotti, Aldo; Greco, Mario; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2006-01-01

    The Invisalign method is gaining an increasing interest as an alternative treatment option in adult patients and in difficult orthodontic cases. The aim of this work is to show a class II malocclusion with severe crowding in the upper and lower arches treated with the extraction of the upper first premolars performed by means of Invisalign. The alignment phase was successfully completed but the space closure achieved with crown tipping and without correct root inclination making a further fixed appliance phase necessary.

  12. Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    At some landfills, hazardous wastes were placed into disposal pits with other waste oils. Volatile organic wastes, such as cleaning solvents, when combined with oil are much more difficult to remove from the soils because the oil makes the volatile organic chemical evaporate much slower. The typical vacuum extraction remediation method could become a lengthy campaign. Since all chemicals evaporate faster when they are heated, if the contaminated soil could be heated, the chemicals would be easier to remove from the soil. By using heating techniques developed by the Oil and Gas Industry to enhance the removal of oil and gas resources from the soil, the problem of removing contamination from the soils could be solved. The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) demonstration will combine vacuum vapor extraction technology with powerline frequency soil heating and radiofrequency soil heating to accelerate the soil decontamination process. The premise that soil heating technology can actually reduce the costs of soil decontamination is complicated by the high capital costs of the soil heating equipment and the cost of electrode installation. By performing this field demonstration, Sandia will be able to collect the information needed to see if this new technology will improve the decontamination of soils.

  13. Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.

    1992-12-31

    At some landfills, hazardous wastes were placed into disposal pits with other waste oils. Volatile organic wastes, such as cleaning solvents, when combined with oil are much more difficult to remove from the soils because the oil makes the volatile organic chemical evaporate much slower. The typical vacuum extraction remediation method could become a lengthy campaign. Since all chemicals evaporate faster when they are heated, if the contaminated soil could be heated, the chemicals would be easier to remove from the soil. By using heating techniques developed by the Oil and Gas Industry to enhance the removal of oil and gas resources from the soil, the problem of removing contamination from the soils could be solved. The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) demonstration will combine vacuum vapor extraction technology with powerline frequency soil heating and radiofrequency soil heating to accelerate the soil decontamination process. The premise that soil heating technology can actually reduce the costs of soil decontamination is complicated by the high capital costs of the soil heating equipment and the cost of electrode installation. By performing this field demonstration, Sandia will be able to collect the information needed to see if this new technology will improve the decontamination of soils.

  14. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.

    PubMed

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP). PMID:24415470

  15. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect

    Gambogi, Joseph; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  16. Contour extraction of Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Kambhamettu, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Contour extraction of Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos is an important step to build a computational system for matching expression pattern of embryonic images to assist the discovery of the nature of genes. Automatic contour extraction of embryos is challenging due to severe image variations, including 1) the size, orientation, shape, and appearance of an embryo of interest; 2) the neighboring context of an embryo of interest (such as nontouching and touching neighboring embryos); and 3) illumination circumstance. In this paper, we propose an automatic framework for contour extraction of the embryo of interest in an embryonic image. The proposed framework contains three components. Its first component applies a mixture model of quadratic curves, with statistical features, to initialize the contour of the embryo of interest. An efficient method based on imbalanced image points is proposed to compute model parameters. The second component applies active contour model to refine embryo contours. The third component applies eigen-shape modeling to smooth jaggy contours caused by blurred embryo boundaries. We test the proposed framework on a data set of 8,000 embryonic images, and achieve promising accuracy (88 percent), that is, substantially higher than the-state-of-the-art results.

  17. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  18. Extraction of hemicelluloses from fiberized spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Shoaib; Henriksson, Gunnar; Theliander, Hans; Lindström, Mikael E

    2015-03-01

    A novel mechanical pre-treatment method was used to separate the wood chips into fiber bundles in order to extract high molecular weight wood polymers. The mechanical pre-treatment involved chip compression in a conical plug-screw followed by defibration in a fiberizer. The fiberized wood was treated with hot water at various combinations of time and temperature in order to analyze the extraction yield of hemicelluloses at different conditions. Nearly 6 mg/g wood of galactoglucomannan was obtained at 90 °C/120 min which was about three times more than what could be extracted from wood chips. The extracted carbohydrates had molecular weight ranging up to 60 kDa. About 10% of each of the extracted material had a molecular weight above 30 kDa. The extraction liquor could also be reused for consecutive extractions with successive increase in the extraction yield of hemicelluloses.

  19. Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-28

      Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction This routine demonstrates extraction of the ... in a CALIPSO Lidar Level 2 Vertical Feature Mask feature classification flag value. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) ...

  20. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples.

  1. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  2. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  3. Antibacterial activity on Citrullus colocynthis Leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    gowri, S. Shyamala; Priyavardhini, S.; Vasantha, K.; Umadevi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude acetone extract exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zones of inhibition measuring 14.0mm. The chloroform leaf extract exhibited no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the chloroform extract was 4.0mm for Escherichia coli. PMID:22557336

  4. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  5. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  6. Supercritical fluid extraction of Beauvericin from maize.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, P; Galvano, F; Fogliano, V; Logrieco, A; Fresa, R; Ritieni, A

    2004-02-27

    Beauvericin (BEA), a supercritical fluid extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from maize was investigated. Extraction efficiencies under several different extraction conditions were examined. Pressure, temperature, extraction time, organic modifier and water matrix content (10%) were investigated. The best extraction conditions were at a temperature of 60 degrees C, 3200psi, for 30min static extraction time and methanol as modifier solvent. Extraction recovery of 36% without modifier by adding water to the matrix in the extraction vessel (reproducibility relative standard deviations (R.S.D.)=3-5%) were recorded. Extraction recovery of 76.9% with methanol as co-solvent (reproducibility R.S.D.=3-5%) was obtained. Data shows that SFE gives a lower BEA recovery compared to conventional extraction protocol with organic solvents while SFE with modifier and conventional extraction yields are comparable. BEA extract contents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) at 205nm and BEA peak confirmed by LC-MS. Acetonitrile-water as mobile phase and column C-18 were both tested. Instrumental and analytical parameters were optimized in the range linear interval from 1 to 500mgkg(-1) and reached a detection limit of 2ng. PMID:18969327

  7. Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X F; Zhang, H X; Lo, R

    2005-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cynara scolymus L. leaves, heads and stems were tested for their antifungal activity using the agar-well diffusion assay technique. The leaves extracts and the ethanol fractions were found to be the most effective extract against all the tested organisms.

  8. PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1958-11-11

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

  9. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  10. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  11. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted.

  12. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted. PMID:26675848

  13. The combined extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.): ultrasound followed by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    PubMed

    Glisic, Sandra B; Ristic, Mihajlo; Skala, Dejan U

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of phytochemicals could be isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using different extraction or distillation technique: the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the volatiles compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) isolation using hydrodistillation or higher molecular compounds with Soxhlet extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by re-extraction of obtained extract with supercritical CO(2) was performed in this study. The goal of performed investigation was to concentrate diterpenes present in sage extract which are generally considered to be responsible for antioxidant activity of extracted compounds. The fractionation using the supercritical CO(2), and different combination of the ultrasound-assisted solvent extractions (water-ethanol mixture or only water) followed by supercritical CO(2) re-extraction of obtained extract or treated plant material were analyzed and compared. Based on the results of these investigations it could be proposed the best extraction procedure: the ultrasound pretreatment of plant material with distilled water and re-extraction of plant material (residue) using supercritical CO(2). That procedure gives two valuable products: the ultrasound extract which is rich in sugars and possess the immunomodulatory activity and supercritical extract which is rich in diterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

  14. Extraction parameters significantly influence the quantity and the profile of PLFAs extracted from soils.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Evagelia S; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2011-10-01

    Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis is a robust method for characterizing soil microbial communities. We determined the effects of extraction solvent (chloroform vs dichloromethane) and buffer (phosphate vs citrate) on the yield and the profile of PLFAs extracted from an acidic (pH 5.5) and an alkaline (pH 8.6) soil following two 2-h sequential extractions. The yield and the profile of the PLFAs obtained separately by the first and the second 2-h extraction were compared to identify the impact of sequential extractions on the PLFA extraction efficiency. Chloroform-citrate and a 2 × 2-h extraction maximized PLFA yields in both soils. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that the choice of the extraction mixture did not significantly influence the profile of the PLFAs obtained by the first 2-h extraction, whereas it had a profound effect on the profile of the PLFAs obtained by the second 2-h extraction. Most PLFAs were extracted during the first extraction except 18:2ω6,9 and 22:0 which were almost equally extracted by the two sequential extractions. The choice of organic solvent significantly influenced the profile of the PLFAs extracted; their yield increased with chloroform with the exception of 18:2ω6,9 and 22:0 which were favored by dichloromethane. Overall, a 2 × 2-h extraction with chloroform/methanol/citrate is expected to provide maximum PLFA yields. PMID:21556882

  15. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  16. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  17. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  18. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  19. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  20. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  1. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  2. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  3. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  4. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  5. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  6. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  7. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  8. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  9. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  10. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  11. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. Guidance in feature extraction to resolve uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalerchuk, Boris; Kovalerchuk, Michael; Streltsov, Simon; Best, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Automated Feature Extraction (AFE) plays a critical role in image understanding. Often the imagery analysts extract features better than AFE algorithms do, because analysts use additional information. The extraction and processing of this information can be more complex than the original AFE task, and that leads to the "complexity trap". This can happen when the shadow from the buildings guides the extraction of buildings and roads. This work proposes an AFE algorithm to extract roads and trails by using the GMTI/GPS tracking information and older inaccurate maps of roads and trails as AFE guides.

  13. RESONANT EXTRACTION PARAMETERS FOR THE AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.; CULLEN,J.; GLENN,J.W.; MAPES,M.; MARNERIS,I.; TSOUPAS,N.; SNYDSTRUP,L.; VAN ASSELT,W.

    2001-06-18

    Brookhaven's AGS Booster is the injector for the AGS. It is being modified to send resonant extracted heavy ions to a new beam line, the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The design of the resonant extraction system for BAF was described in [1]. This note will give a more detailed description of the system and describe the predicted resonant beam time structure. We will describe tune space manipulations necessary to extract the resonant beam at the maximum Booster rigidity, schemes for performing resonant extraction, and describe the modifications required to perform bunched beam extraction to the BAF facility.

  14. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  15. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  16. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Barbara E.

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straight pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.

  17. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, P.

    1989-10-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics.

  18. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straightmore » pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.« less

  19. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  20. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author