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Sample records for cinnamomum cassia extracts

  1. Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Verspohl, Eugen J; Bauer, Katrin; Neddermann, Eckhard

    2005-03-01

    Rats were given Cinnamomum cassia bark or extracts from Cinnamomum cassia and zeylanicum to evaluate blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in rats under various conditions. The cassia extract was superior to the zeylanicum extract. The cassia extract was slightly more efficacious than the equivalent amount of Cassia bark. A decrease in blood glucose levels was observed in a glucose tolerance test (GTT), whereas it was not obvious in rats that were not challenged by a glucose load. The elevation in plasma insulin was direct since a stimulatory in vitro effect of insulin release from INS-1 cells (an insulin secreting cell line) was observed. Thus the cassia extract has a direct antidiabetic potency. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Extraction time and temperature affect the extraction efficiencies of coumarin and phenylpropanoids from Cinnamomum cassia bark using a microwave-assisted extraction method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2017-09-15

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), an efficient extraction tool, was employed to extract a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamadehyde, and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde) from Cinnamomum cassia bark using water as the extraction solvent. Six marker compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector using a validated analytical method. To investigate the influences of temperature and time on the extraction yields of the six marker compounds, the water extracts of C. cassia bark were prepared using a MAE method at six different extraction temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95°C) and times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12min). Their influences were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained demonstrated that higher extraction temperature and longer extraction time positively affected coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol contents, but negatively affected extract contents of cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (all p-<0.05). The extraction of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde was affected by both positively and negatively by increasing temperature and time. These changes during MAE were assumed by the chemical natures of the marker compounds with various functional groups. In conclusion, temperature and times significantly affected the extraction efficiencies of a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids from C. cassia bark when a water-based MAE method was used. This study provides a novel approach to the preparation of the water extract of C. cassia bark using MAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stimulatory Effects of Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum cassia) during the Initiation Stage of 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Gil; Siaw, Joanna A.; Kang, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has an anti-diabetic effect by possibly increasing the lipid storage capacity of white adipocytes; however, this effect remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine which stage of adipogenesis is critical for the stimulatory effect of cinnamon in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 cells. Cells were treated with cinnamon extract during three different stages of adipogenesis. We found that genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis were enhanced when cinnamon extract was administered during the initiation stage of differentiation but not when administered during the preadipocyte and post stages of differentiation. At the same time, genes that were involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation were unexpectedly upregulated. Taken together, cinnamon may boost lipid storage in white adipocytes and increase the fatty acid oxidation capacity throughout the initiation stage of differentiation, which may be beneficial for the prevention of obesity-induced type II diabetes. PMID:28231178

  4. Stimulatory effects of extract prepared from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia blume on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Eun-Mi

    2006-11-01

    The ethanol extract from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume (CCE) was tested for estrogenic activity. CCE (4-60 microg/mL) significantly induced the growth of MCF-7 cells, an ER-positive human breast cancer cell line, over that of untreated control cells (p < 0.05). In the ER competitive binding assay, CCE showed higher affinity with ERbeta compared with ERalpha. To investigate the bioactivities of CCE, which act on bone metabolism, the effects of CCE on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the production of local factors in osteoblasts were studied. CCE (4-60 microg/mL) dose-dependently increased the survival of MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, CCE (10 and 50 microg/mL) increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen synthesis and osteocalcin secretion in MC3T3-E1 cells. Treatment with CCE (10 and 50 microg/mL) prevented apoptosis induced by TNF-alpha (10(-10) m) in osteoblastic cells. In the presence of TNF-alpha, culture with CCE (10-100 microg/mL) for 48 h inhibited the production of IL-6 and nitric oxide in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. These results suggest that Cinnamomum cassia has a direct stimulatory effect on bone formation in vitro and may contribute to the prevention of osteoporosis and inflammatory bone diseases. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Diterpenoids with Immunosuppressive Activities from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Junfen; Xue, Yongbo; Shu, Penghua; Qian, Huiqin; Sa, Rongjian; Xiang, Ming; Li, Xiao-Nian; Luo, Zengwei; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui

    2014-08-22

    Three new diterpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons, cinncassiols F (1) and G (2) and 16-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-19-deoxycinncassiol G (3), a new isoryanodane diterpenoid, 18-hydroxyperseanol (4), six known isoryanodane diterpenoids, 5-10, and a known ryanodane diterpenoid, 11, were isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia. Compound 1 possesses an 11,13:12,13-diepoxy-6,11-epoxy:12,13-disecoisoryanodane diterpenoid skeleton bearing ketal and hemiketal functionalities, whereas compounds 2 and 3 feature an 11,12-secoisoryanodane diterpenoid skeleton with an 11,6-lactone moiety. The structures of the four new diterpenoids, 1-4, and their absolute configurations were established using HRESIMS, NMR, ECD, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and chemical methods. Compounds 2 and 11 significantly inhibited the proliferation of murine T cells induced by ConA.

  6. Cinnamomum cassia: an implication of serotonin reuptake inhibition in animal models of depression.

    PubMed

    Zada, Wahid; Zeeshan, Sara; Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Mahmood, Wajahat; Rauf, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the traditional use of Cinnamomum cassia against depression. The standardised methanolic extract of the bark of C. cassia was evaluated for antidepressant activity using various behavioural tests, i.e. tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test. The serotonergic and noradrenergic modulation was assessed using 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitches and yohimbine potentiation tests, respectively. The fluoxetine and phenelzine were used as positive controls in the study. The C. cassia extract significantly decreased the immobility time in TST (maximum effective dose tested was 50 mg/kg) while no effect was observed in FST and locomotor activity test. The extract significantly increased the 5-HTP-induced head twitches while yohimbine-induced lethality remained unaltered. The aforementioned results are similar to that caused by fluoxetine. The standardised methanolic extract of C. cassia demonstrated antidepressant activity that can be attributed to rise in serotonin levels.

  7. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection.

  8. The standardized BHH10 extract, a combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, reverses bone mass and metabolism in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kang, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Woo; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17β-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity.

  9. [Study on the effects of different compatibility of guizhi decoction on component of volatile oil from Cinnamomum cassia by GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Yan, You-Shao; Zhong, Wei-Jian; Guo, Li-Bing

    2012-03-01

    To study the changes of volatile oil from different compatibility of Guizhi decoction and explore their connection. The volatile oil of Cinnamomum cassia and different compatibility of Guizhi decoction extracted by steam distillation were analyzed by GC-MS. The main components of volatile oil in Cinnamomum cassia were found in different compatibility of Guizhi decoction and they accounted the most amount of total volatile oil,but the contents of the main components were decreased, there were more components existed in different compatibility of Guizhi decoction than those in Cinnamomum cassia, the new components came from Zingiber officinale mostly. GC-MS can be used to reflect the changes of volatile oil from different compatibility of Guizhi decoction, and the result will provide some evidence for the research of regular pattern of compatibility in Guizhi decoction.

  10. The Standardized BHH10 Extract, a Combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, Reverses Bone Mass and Metabolism in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kang, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Woo; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17β-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25230217

  11. Influence of herbal combinations on the extraction efficiencies of chemical compounds from Cinnamomum cassia, Paeonia lactiflora, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the herbal components of Gyeji-tang, evaluated by HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Woo-Ram; Park, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Guemsan; Choi, Goya; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-09-10

    During decoction process, the ingredients of herbal formula interact with each other, such that therapeutic properties and chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Cinnamomum cassia (CC), Paeonia lactiflora (PL), and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU), are the main herbal constituents of Gyeji-tang, a traditional herbal formula. To evaluate the chemical interaction between CC, PL, and GU during the course of decoction, quantification of 16 marker compounds in the herbal decoction, performed using a Box-Behnken experimental design, was carried out by HPLC-diode array detection using validated method. Correlations between the amounts of marker compounds from CC, PL, and GU were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained showed that amounts of single herb marker compounds significantly changed (usually decreased) by decoction in the presence of other herbs and that these changes depended on the chemical natures of the markers and the herbal medicines present. Results also demonstrated that the extraction efficiencies of marker compounds increased when the proportion of the herb containing them was increased and decreased in proportion to amounts of herbs added. In conclusion, chemical interactions between compositional herbal medicines may occur when herbs are co-decocted. This study provides insight of understanding the herbal interactions in herbal formulae.

  12. Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Li, Yaolan; Kam, Sheung-Lau; Wang, Hua; Wong, Elaine Y L; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2006-01-01

    Both Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. and Cinnamomum cassia Blume are collectively called Cortex Cinnamonmi for their medicinal cinnamon bark. Cinnamomum verum is more popular elsewhere in the world, whereas C. cassia is a well known traditional Chinese medicine. An analysis of hydro-distilled Chinese cinnamon oil and pure cinnamaldehyde by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that cinnamaldehyde is the major component comprising 85% in the essential oil and the purity of cinnamaldehyde in use is high (> 98%). Both oil and pure cinnamaldehyde of C. cassia were equally effective in inhibiting the growth of various isolates of bacteria including Gram-positive (1 isolate, Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative (7 isolates, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Samonella typhymurium), and fungi including yeasts (four species of Candida, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei), filamentous molds (4 isolates, three Aspergillus spp. and one Fusarium sp.) and dermatophytes (three isolates, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagraphytes). Their minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) as determined by agar dilution method varied only slightly. The MICs of both oil and cinnamaldehyde for bacteria ranged from 75 microg/ml to 600 microg/ml, for yeasts from 100 microg/ml to 450 microg/ml, for filamentous fungi from 75 microg/ml to 150 microg/ml, and for dermatophytes from 18.8 microg/ml to 37.5 microg/ml. The antimicrobial effectiveness of C. cassia oil and its major constituent is comparable and almost equivalent, which suggests that the broad-spectrum antibiotic activities of C. cassia oil are due to cinnamaldehyde. The relationship between structure and function of the main components of cinnamon oil is also discussed.

  13. Cinnamomum cassia Suppresses Caspase-9 through Stimulation of AKT1 in MCF-7 Cells but Not in MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour Rad, Sima; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Lee, Guan Serm; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is a popular culinary spice used for flavoring and in traditional medicine. C. cassia extract (CE) induces apoptosis in many cell lines. In the present study, particular differences in the mechanism of the anti-proliferative property of C. cassia on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings The hexane extract of C. cassia demonstrated high anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50, 34±3.52 and 32.42 ±0.37 μg/ml, respectively). Oxidative stress due to disruption of antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx and CAT) activity is suggested as the probable cause for apoptosis initiation. Though the main apoptosis pathway in both cell lines was found to be through caspase-8 activation, caspase-9 was also activated in MDA-MB-231 cells but suppressed in MCF-7 cells. Gene expression studies revealed that AKT1, the caspase-9 suppressor, was up-regulated in MCF-7 cells while down-regulated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Although, AKT1 protein expression in both cell lines was down-regulated, a steady increase in MCF-7 cells was observed after a sharp decrease of suppression of AKT1. Trans-cinnamaldehyde and coumarin were isolated and identified and found to be mainly responsible for the observed anti-proliferative activity of CE (Cinnamomum cassia). Conclusion Activation of caspase-8 is reported for the first time to be involved as the main apoptosis pathway in breast cancer cell lines upon treatment with C. cassia. The double effects of C. cassia on AKT1 gene expression in MCF-7 cells is reported for the first time in this study. PMID:26700476

  14. Cinnamomum cassia Suppresses Caspase-9 through Stimulation of AKT1 in MCF-7 Cells but Not in MDA-MB-231 Cells.

    PubMed

    Rad, Sima Kianpour; Kanthimathi, M S; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Lee, Guan Serm; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark is a popular culinary spice used for flavoring and in traditional medicine. C. cassia extract (CE) induces apoptosis in many cell lines. In the present study, particular differences in the mechanism of the anti-proliferative property of C. cassia on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were elucidated. The hexane extract of C. cassia demonstrated high anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50, 34 ± 3.52 and 32.42 ± 0.37 μg/ml, respectively). Oxidative stress due to disruption of antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx and CAT) activity is suggested as the probable cause for apoptosis initiation. Though the main apoptosis pathway in both cell lines was found to be through caspase-8 activation, caspase-9 was also activated in MDA-MB-231 cells but suppressed in MCF-7 cells. Gene expression studies revealed that AKT1, the caspase-9 suppressor, was up-regulated in MCF-7 cells while down-regulated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Although, AKT1 protein expression in both cell lines was down-regulated, a steady increase in MCF-7 cells was observed after a sharp decrease of suppression of AKT1. Trans-cinnamaldehyde and coumarin were isolated and identified and found to be mainly responsible for the observed anti-proliferative activity of CE (Cinnamomum cassia). Activation of caspase-8 is reported for the first time to be involved as the main apoptosis pathway in breast cancer cell lines upon treatment with C. cassia. The double effects of C. cassia on AKT1 gene expression in MCF-7 cells is reported for the first time in this study.

  15. The essential oil from the twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Presl alleviates pain and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lan; Zong, Shao-Bo; Li, Jia-Chun; Lv, Yao-Zhong; Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Zheng-Zhong; Zhou, Jun; Cao, Liang; Kou, Jun-Ping; Xiao, Wei

    2016-12-24

    Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Lauraceae) can be found southern China and its bark is commonly used for centuries as ingredient in food and cosmetic industry. The twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Presl is popularly used in China to treat inflammatory processes, pain, menstrual disorders, hypertension, fever etc. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the essential oil (EO) from the twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Presl. The chemical characterization of the EO was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO doses of 15, 30, and 60mg/kg were employed in the biological assays. The antinociceptive effects of the EO were evaluated using the models of acetic acid-induced writhing, oxytocin-induced writhing, and formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) -induced overt pain tests. we also investigated the effect of the EO in pain intensity to a mechanical stimulus (mechanical hyperalgesia) after carrageenan by using an electronic version of von Frey filaments. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity was based on paw edema induced by carrageenan (300µg/25µL/paw) in mice. The levels of cytokines, NO, and PGE2 in paw skin tissue were determined according to instructions. COX-2 and iNOS proteins in paw skin tissue were assessed by Western Blot. The EO (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) reduced the number of abdominal writhings induced by acetic acid with inhibition of 38.0%, 55.4% and 58.7%, respectively. The EO (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) also reduced the number of abdominal writhings induced by oxytocin with inhibition of 27.3%, 51.7% and 69.0%, respectively. The EO significant inhibited the inflammatory (second phase: 10-30min) phase of the formalin-induced paw flinching and licking at the doses of 15, 30, and 60mg/kg. The EO at the tested doses of 15, 30, and 60mg/kg showed inhibited CFA-induced paw flinching and licking. The EO (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and

  16. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Cinnamomum cassia and Its Nanoparticles Against H7N3 Influenza A Virus.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Munazza; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar Sadaf; Amraiz, Deeba; Afzal, Farhan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have wide-scale applications in various areas, including medicine, chemistry, electronics, and energy generation. Several physical, biological, and chemical methods have been used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants provide advantages over other methods as it is easy, efficient, and eco-friendly. Nanoparticles have been extensively studied as potential antimicrobials to target pathogenic and multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Their applications recently extended to development of antivirals to inhibit viral infections. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) and evaluated their activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H7N3. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UVVis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cinnamon bark extract and its nanoparticles were tested against H7N3 influenza A virus in Vero cells and the viability of cells was determined by tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay. The silver nanoparticles derived from Cinnamon extract enhanced the antiviral activity and were found to be effective in both treatments, when incubated with the virus prior to infection and introduced to cells after infection. In order to establish the safety profile, Cinnamon and its corresponding nanoparticles were tested for their cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. The tested concentrations of extract and nanoparticles (up to 500 μg/ml) were found non-toxic to Vero cells. The biosynthesized nanoparticles may, hence, be a promising approach to provide treatment against influenza virus infections.

  17. Cinnamomum casia Extract Encapsulated Nanochitosan as Antihypercholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadiwiyana; Purbowatiningrum; Fachriyah, Enny; Ismiyarto

    2017-02-01

    Atherosclerosis vascular disease with clinical manifestations such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading cause of death in Indonesia. One solution to these problems is a natural antihypercholesterol medicine by utilizing Cinnamomum casia extract. However, the use of natural extracts to lower blood cholesterol levels do not provide optimal results because it is possible that the active components of extract have been degraded/damaged during the absorption process. So that, we need to do the research to get a combination of chitosan nanoparticles-Cinnamomum casia. extract as a compound which has an antihypercholesterol activity through the in vitro study. Modification of natural extracts encapsulated nanochitosan be a freshness in this study, which were conducted using the method of inclusion. The combination of both has the dual function of protecting the natural extracts from degradation and deliver the natural extracts to the target site. Analysis of nanochitosan using the Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) shows the particle size of synthesis product that is equal to 64.9 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of Cinnamomum casia extract-Chitosan Nanoparticles known through UV-VIS spectrophotometry test and obtained the efficiency encapsulation percentage of 84.93%. Zeta Potential at 193,3 mv that chitosan appropriate for a delivery drug. Antihypercholesterol activity tested in vitro assay that showed the extract-nanoparticle chitosan in concentration 150 ppm gave the highest cholesterol decreasing level in the amount of 49.66% w/v. So it can be concluded that Cinnamomum casia extract can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it has a cholesterol-lowering effect through the in vitro study.

  18. Cinnamomum cassia essential oil inhibits α-MSH-induced melanin production and oxidative stress in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chen-Tien; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Yu-Che; Shih, Ying

    2013-09-18

    Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy.

  19. Protective effects of Cinnamomum cassia Blume in the fibrogenesis of activated HSC-T6 cells and dimethylnitrosamine-induced acute liver injury in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Hyun-Sam; Soh, Yunjo; Sohn, Youngjoo; Kim, Sun Yeou; Sohn, Nak-Won; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Yoon-Bum

    2010-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia Blume (CC) is one of the world's oldest natural spices, and is commonly used in traditional oriental medicine. We investigated the protective effect of ethanol extract from Cinnamomum cassia Blume (CCE) on the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In addition, we examined the effects of CC powder in Sprague-Dawley rats with acute liver injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). In vitro, HSC-T6 cells exhibit an activated phenotype, as reflected in their fibroblast-like morphology. CCE significantly reduced the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). In vivo, the results were significantly protected by CC powder in the serum total protein, albumin, total-bilirubin, direct-bilirubin, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We suggest that CC inhibits fibrogenesis, followed by HSC-T6 cell activation and increased restoration of liver function, ultimately resulting in acute liver injury.

  20. Cinnamomum cassia Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice through the Increase of Muscle Energy.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi Young; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Anna; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Yong-Ki; Jung, Hyo Won

    2017-01-01

    The cortex of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Cinnamomi Cortex: CC) has commonly been used for weight control in traditional medicines, but without a scientific basis. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the anti-obesity effect of CC extract in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model and in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet or a HFD for 16 consecutive weeks, and orally administered CC extract (100 or 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) or metformin (250[Formula: see text]mg/kg; positive control) daily for 16 weeks. CC extract administration significantly decreased body weights, food intakes, and serum levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and ALT levels, prevented oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, inhibited the protein expressions of MyHC and PGC1[Formula: see text] and the phosphorylation of AMPK, suppressed lipid accumulation in liver, decreased adipocyte size and increased muscle mass in obese mice. For this in vitro study, C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into the myotubes for five days, and then treated with CC extract (0.1 or 0.2[Formula: see text]mg/ml) for 24[Formula: see text]h. CC extract significantly increased ATP levels by increasing the mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors, such as, PGC1[Formula: see text], NRF-1, and Tfam, and the phosphorylations of AMPK and ACC. Our results suggest CC extract controls weight gain in obese mice by inhibiting lipid accumulation and increasing energy expenditure, and that its action mechanism involves the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jung-Chun; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Shie, Pei-Hsin; Huang, Guang-Jhong

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE(2) levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jung-Chun; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Shie, Pei-Hsin; Huang, Guang-Jhong

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products. PMID:22536283

  3. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  4. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  5. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pannee, Chinjarernpan; Chandhanee, Itthipanichpong; Wacharee, Limpanasithikul

    2014-10-01

    Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages.

  6. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Pannee, Chinjarernpan; Chandhanee, Itthipanichpong; Wacharee, Limpanasithikul

    2014-01-01

    Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages. PMID:25364694

  7. Superheated water extraction of essential oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.).

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Bimali; Smith, Roger M

    2010-01-01

    Superheated water extraction (SHWE) potentially provides an environmentally friendly and clean extraction technique which uses a minimum or no organic solvent. The scope and limitations of the technique have still to be fully explored. To investigate the application of SHWE to cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark and leaves as typical plant materials to determine if this extraction method can yield a higher quality oil. Samples of cinnamon bark or leaves were extracted at 200°C with water under pressure. The essential oils were obtained from the aqueous solution using a solid phase extraction cartridge and were then examined by GC-MS. Using superheated water extraction, cinnamon bark oil with over 80% cinnamaldehyde and cinnamon leaf oil containing up to 98% eugenol were obtained. Alternative solvent extraction methods were also studied but led to emulsion formation apparently because of the presence of cellulose breakdown products. Superheated water extraction offers a cheap, environmentally friendly technique with a shorter extraction time than hydrodistillation and yielded a higher quality oil with a higher proportion of eugenol than hydrodistillation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Antibacterial Activity of Cassia fistula Organic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Motamedi, Hossein; Vafei, Mouzhan; Bakhtiari, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cassia fistula, is a flowering plant and a member of Fabaceae family. Its leaves are compound of 4 - 8 pairs of opposite leaflets. There are many Cassia species around the world which are used in herbal medicine. Objectives: This study was designed to examine in vitro anti-bacterial activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula native to Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The microbial inhibitory effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula was tested on 3 Gram positive: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis and 5 Gram negative: Salmonella Typhi, Kelebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis bacterial species using disc diffusion method at various concentrations. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) were measured by the tube dilution assay. Results: The extract of C. fistula was effective against B. cereus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The most susceptible microorganisms to ethanolic and methanolic extracts were E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Also B. cereus and S. aureus showed the least sensitivity to ethanolic and methanolic extracts, respectively. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of ethanolic extracts against S. aureus, E. coli, S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae were also determined. Conclusions: With respect to the obtained results and regarding to the daily increase of the resistant microbial strains to the commercial antibiotics, it can be concluded that these extracts can be proper candidates of antibacterial substance against pathogenic bacterial species especially S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis. PMID:25147664

  9. Effect of a Vietnamese Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major component trans-cinnamaldehyde on the cell viability, membrane integrity, membrane fluidity, and proton motive force of Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Dumas, Emilie; Thanh, Mai Le; Degraeve, Pascal; Ben Amara, Chedia; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The antibacterial mechanism of a Cinnamomum cassia essential oil from Vietnam and of its main component (trans-cinnamaldehyde, 90% (m/m) of C. cassia essential oil) against a Listeria innocua strain was investigated to estimate their potential for food preservation. In the presence of C. cassia essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde at their minimal bactericidal concentration (2700 μg·mL(-1)), L. innocua cells fluoresced green after staining with Syto9® and propidium iodide, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy, suggesting that the perturbation of membrane did not cause large pore formation and cell lysis but may have introduced the presence of viable but nonculturable bacteria. Moreover, the fluidity, potential, and intracellular pH of the cytoplasmic membrane were perturbed in the presence of the essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde. However, these membrane perturbations were less severe in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde than in the presence of multicomponent C. cassia essential oil. This indicates that in addition to trans-cinnamaldehyde, other minor C. cassia essential oil components play a major role in its antibacterial activity against L. innocua cells.

  10. Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major constituent cinnamaldehyde induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Lun; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Wang, Shu-Ping; Chou, Su-Tze; Shih, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Cinnamomum cassia essential oil (CC-EO) has various functional properties, such as anti-microbial, hypouricemic, anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenesis activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer activities of CC-EO and its major constituent, cinnamaldehyde, in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells. Determination of the cell viability, apoptotic characteristics, DNA damage, cell cycle analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic Ca(2+) level and intracellular redox status were performed. Our results demonstrated that CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde significantly decreased cell viability and caused morphological changes. The cell cycle analysis revealed that CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in HSC-3 cells. The apoptotic characteristics (DNA laddering and chromatin condensation) and DNA damage were observed in the CC-EO-treated and cinnamaldehyde-treated HSC-3 cells. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde promoted an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, induced mitochondrial dysfunction and activated cytochrome c release. The results of ROS production and intracellular redox status demonstrated that CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde significantly increased the ROS production and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, and the cellular glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly reduced in HSC-3 cells. Our results suggest that CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde may possess anti-oral cancer activity in HSC-3 cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 456-468, 2017.

  11. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  12. Protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against bromobenzene-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Jalali, Mohammadtaha; Jalali, Amir; Mahdavinia, Masood; Salimi, Abobakr; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad; Gesztelyi, Rudolf

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, hepatoprotective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract was investigated in mice. Animals were divided into six groups receiving normal saline (1), bromobenzene (460 mg/kg) alone (2) and together with increasing doses (200, 400, 600, 800 mg/kg) of a crude hydro-alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula fruit (3-6, respectively). All administrations were carried out orally, daily, for 10 days. On the 11th day, animals were sacrificed. Serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT) were determined; serum levels of direct and total bilirubin were measured; furthermore, livers were prepared for histological examination. Our results showed that bromobenzene treatment alone elicited a significant increase in activities of AST, ALT, ALP (but not γGT), and it significantly elevated the levels of direct and total bilirubin. Co-treatment with Cassia fistula fruit extract, however, significantly and dose-dependently decreased the above-mentioned enzyme activities (with exception of γGT) and bilirubin levels, producing a recovery to the naive state. The protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against liver injury evoked by bromobenzene was confirmed by histological examination as well. In conclusion, the Cassia fistula fruit extract has significant hepatoprotective effect in our murine model.

  13. [Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Cinnamomum migao H. W. Li].

    PubMed

    Li, Tianxiang; Wang, Jingkang

    2003-03-01

    Essential oil from Cinnamomum migao H. W. Li. was extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide and a two-stage fractional separation system. The experiment was carried out under 306K-333K and 10-30 MPa. The influence of the process parameters were discussed. The GC-MS method was applied to analyze the components of these oils obtained by SFE. The result by SFE was better than that by stream distillation.

  14. In vitro antibacterial effects of Cinnamomum extracts on common bacteria found in wound infections with emphasis on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Buru, Ayuba Sunday; Pichika, Mallikarjuna Rao; Neela, Vasanthakumari; Mohandas, Kavitha

    2014-05-14

    Cinnamomum species have been widely used in many traditional systems of medicine around the world. In the Malaysian traditional system of medicine, the leaves, stem bark and stem wood of Cinnamomum iners, Cinnamomum porrectum, Cinnamomum altissimum and Cinnamomum impressicostatum have been used to treat wound infections. To study the antibacterial effects of Cinnamomum iners, Cinnamomum porrectum, Cinnamomum altissimum and Cinnamomum impressicostatum against common bacteria found in wound infections with primary focus on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The crude extracts from the leaves, stem-bark and stem-wood of Cinnamomum iners, Cinnamomum porrectum, Cinnamomum altissimum and Cinnamomum impressicostatum were obtained using sequential extraction with hexane, ethylacetate, methanol and water. The volatile oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The antibacterial activities of extracts were investigated using disk diffusion assays and broth microdilution assays. The volatile oils obtained from the stem-bark of Cinnamomum altissimum, Cinnamomum porrectum and Cinnamomum impressicostatum have shown significant antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including MRSA. A few test extracts have shown better activity against MRSA as compared to methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Amongst all the test extracts, Cinnamomum impressicostatum stem-bark water extract produced the largest inhibition zone of 21.0mm against MRSA while its inhibition zone against MSSA was only 8.5mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this extract against MRSA was 19.5 μg mL(-1) and the corresponding minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 39.0 μg mL(-1). This study has scientifically validated the traditional use of Cinnamomum species in treating wound infections. Of high scientific interest was the observation that the antibacterial effect of Cinnamomum impressicostatum stem-bark crude water

  15. [Effects of aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen on activity hepatic microsomal CYP450 isozymes in rats].

    PubMed

    Xu, Long-Long; Tang, Xiang-Lin; Ma, Zeng-Chun; Wang, Yu-Guang; Liang, Qian-de; Tan, Hong-Ling; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Li, Hua; Yuan, Mei; Gao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    To study the effect of aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen on the activity, mRNA and protein expressions of cytochrome P450(CYP450) system in rat liver microsomes, microsomes of rat liver were prepared after the oral administration with aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen for 14 days. The enzyme activity was quantified by Cocktail method. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2C11, CYP2D2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 in the livers were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. The result of this experiment was that aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen obviously induced the enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2C11, CYP2D2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1. Low dose of aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen significantly reduced the activity of CYP2D2, but the activity of CYP2D2 was significantly induced by middle dose and high dose of aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen. These subtypes were increased in a dose-dependent manner except for CYP3A1. The mRNA levels of CYP1A2, CYP2C11, CYP2D2 and CYP2E1 were also induced in rats treated with aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen, but with no significant effect in CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 mRNA expressions. The protein levels of CYP2C11 and CYP2E1 were also induced in rats treated with aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen, but with no significant difference. Since the enzyme activity, mRNA and protein expressions of CYP450, particularly CYP2C11and2E1subtypes, were induced or inhibited by aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen to varing degrees, suggesting the potential drug-drug interactions should be concerned. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., Cinnamomum cassia Blume, and Lonicera japonica Thunb. protect against cognitive dysfunction and energy and glucose dysregulation by reducing neuroinflammation and hippocampal insulin resistance in β-amyloid-infused rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kang, Suna; Kim, Da Sol; Moon, Bo Rerum

    2017-02-01

    The water extracts of Cinnamomum cassia Blume bark (CCB; Lauraceae), Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower (LJT; Caprifoliaceae), and Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. leaves (APL; Rosaceae) prevented amyloid-β (25-35)-induced cell death in PC12 cells in our preliminary study. We evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of CCB, LJT, and APL improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in rats with experimentally induced AD-type dementia. Male rats received hippocampal CA1 infusions of amyloid-β (25-35, AD) or amyloid-β (35-25, non-plaque forming, normal-controls, Non-AD-CON), at a rate of 3.6 nmol/day for 14 days. AD rats were divided into four groups receiving either 2% lyophilized water extracts of CCB, LJT, or APL or 2% dextrin (AD-CON) in high-fat diets (43% energy as fat). Hippocampal amyloid-β deposition, tau phosphorylation, and expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (neruoinflammation markers) were increased, and insulin signaling decreased in AD-CON. CCB, LJT, and APL all prevented hippocampal amyloid-β accumulation and enhanced hippocampal insulin signaling. CCB, LJT, and APL decreased TNF-α and iNOS in the hippocampus and especially APL exhibited the greatest decrease. AD-CON exhibited cognitive dysfunction in passive avoidance and water maze tests, whereas CCB, LJT, and APL protected against cognitive dysfunction, and APL was most effective and was similar to Non-AD-CON. AD-CON had less fat oxidation as an energy fuel, but it was reversed by CCB, LJT, and especially APL. APL-treated rats had less visceral fat than AD-CON rats. AD-CON rats exhibited impaired insulin sensitivity and increased insulin secretion during oral glucose tolerance test compared with Non-AD-CON, but CCB and APL prevented the impairment. These results supported that APL, LJT, and CCB effectively prevent the cognitive dysfunction and the impairment of energy and glucose homeostasis induced by amyloid-β deposition by reducing

  17. Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Shukla, V. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of hydroalcohol extracts of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. (an ethnomedicinal plant) was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/ml) of Cassia fistula were tested against two Gram-positive—Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes; two Gram-negative—Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa human pathogenic bacteria; and three fungal strains—Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of different standards like ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity. The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms. The phytochemical analyses of the plants were carried out. The microbial activity of the Cassia fistula was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities. PMID:22171301

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Nariya, Pankaj B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

  19. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn.

    PubMed

    Bhalodia, Nayan R; Nariya, Pankaj B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J

    2013-04-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  20. Effects of the polyphenol content on the anti-diabetic activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts.

    PubMed

    IM, Krishnakumar; Issac, Abin; NM, Johannah; Ninan, Eapen; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadassan

    2014-09-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a popular kitchen spice widely investigated for insulin potentiating effects. Though a group of water soluble polyphenols belonging to the oligomeric procyanidins has been identified as the bioactive principle, the lack of systematic information on the effect of the polyphenol content on safety and anti-diabetic efficacy remains as a major limitation for the development of optimized and standardized cinnamon extracts for functional use. In the present paper, water soluble extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum containing 45 and 75% gallic acid equivalents (GAE) of polyphenol content were prepared by a novel process and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. The polyphenol enhanced extracts were shown to be safe and offered better antioxidant potential, hypoglycemic effect, hypolipidimic effect, and significant decrease in other biochemical parameters as compared to the standard aqueous extract containing 15% GAE, when administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 200 mg per kg b.w. for 30 days. The efficacy of polyphenol extracts in lowering blood glucose levels and ameliorating oxidative stress was further demonstrated in humans by administrating 'procynZ-45' containing 45% GAE polyphenols at a relatively low dosage of (125 mg × 2) per day for 30 days to 15 volunteers who had elevated fasting blood glucose levels; but not involved in any medication.

  1. Supercritical CO2 extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Sanjust, Enrico; Meli, Massimo; Sollai, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The volatile oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction in different conditions of pressure and temperature. Its chemical composition was characterized by GC-MS analysis. Nineteen compounds, which in the supercritical extract represented >95% of the oil, were identified. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde (77.1%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (6.0%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), and eugenol (3.0%) were found to be the major constituents. The SFE oil of cinnamon was screened for its biological activity about the formation of melanin in vitro. The extract showed antityrosinase activity and was able to reduce the formation of insoluble flakes of melanin from tyrosine. The oil also delayed the browning effect in apple homogenate. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to be mainly responsible of this inhibition effect.

  2. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Yu, Chih-Wen; Chen, Hsiao Ling; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Hung, Shu-Hsien; Lee, Tai-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, an endemic plant to Taiwan, contains compounds that inhibit tyrosinase activity, similar to C. zeylanicum. The cytotoxicity of three sources of C. osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts was measured in B16-F10 cells using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At concentrations greater than 21.25 μg/mL, the ethanol extracts were toxic to the cells; therefore, 21.25 μg/mL was selected to test the tyrosinase activities. At this concentration, all three ethanol extracts decreased the melanin content by 50% in IBMX-induced B16-F10 cells. In addition to the melanin content, greater than 20% of the tyrosinase activity was inhibited by these ethanol extracts. The RT-PCR results showed that tyrosinase and transcription factor MITF mRNAs expression were down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, greater than 40% of the human tyrosinase promoter activity was inhibited based on the reporter assay. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts protect cells from UV exposure. C. osmophloeum Kanehira neutralized the IBMX-induced increase in melanin content in B16-F10 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase gene expression at the level of transcription. Moreover, the ethanol extracts also partially inhibited UV-induced cell damage and prevented cell death. Taken together, we conclude that C. osmophloeum Kanehira is a potential skin-whitening and protective agent.

  3. In vitro assesment of anti-inflammatory activities of coumarin and Indonesian cassia extract in RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line

    PubMed Central

    Sandhiutami, Ni Made Dwi; Moordiani, Moordiani; Laksmitawati, Dian Ratih; Fauziah, Nurul; Maesaroh, Maesaroh; Widowati, Wahyu

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Inflammation is an immune response toward injuries. Although inflammation is healing response, but in some condition it will lead to chronic disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and various cancer. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannil C. Nees & T. Ness) known to contain coumarin, is widely used for alternative medicine especially as an anti-inflammatory. This study was conducted to determine the anti-inflammatory properties of coumarin and Indonesian cassia extract (ICE) in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell line. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic assay of coumarin and ICE against RAW264.7 cells was conducted using MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium). The anti-inflammatory potential was determined using LPS-induced RAW 267.4 macrophages cells to measure inhibitory activity of compound and ISEon production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and also cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and TNF-α. Results: Coumarin 10 µM and ICE 10 µg/ml were nontoxic to the RAW264.7 cells. Both of coumarin and ICE were capable to reduce the PGE2, TNF-α, NO, IL-6, and IL-β level in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Coumarin had higher activity to decrease PGE2 and TNF-α, whilst ICE had higher activity to inhibit NO, IL-6, and IL-β levels. Conclusion: Coumarin and ICE possess anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of PGE2 and NO along with pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β production. PMID:28133531

  4. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, N. R.; Nariya, P. B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity Cassia fistula fruit pulp extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. Hydro alcohol and chloroform extracts of Cassia fistula fruit pulp were evaluated for the potential antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined in both the extracts using the agar disc diffusion method. Extracts were effective on tested microorganisms. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of solvent extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/mL) of C. fistula were tested against two gram positive, two gram negative human pathogenic bacteria and three fungi, respectively. Crude extracts of C. fistula exhibited moderate to strong activity against most of the bacteria tested. The tested bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. clavatus, Candida albicans. The antibacterial potential of the extracts were found to be dose dependent. The antibacterial activities of the C. fistula were due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities. PMID:23049197

  5. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata.

    PubMed

    Murugan, T; Wins, J Albino; Murugan, M

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of phytochemical constituents, which are secondary metabolites and are used either directly or indirectly in the pharmaceutical industry. 'For centuries, man has effectively used various components of plants or their extracts for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. In the present study methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Cassia auriculata leaf were subjected for antimicrobial activity by well-diffusion method against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The results revealed that the methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms (zone of inhibition of 12-20 mm), except Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 10 mm or nil). The aqueous extracts showed moderate activity by 'Zone of inhibition ≤12 or nil). The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents by standard protocols' and were shown to contain carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The antibacterial activity of these extracts is possibly linked to the presence of flavonoids, steroid, saponins and/or tannins. Further studies are needed to determine the precise active principles from Cassia auriculata.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, T.; Wins, J. Albino; Murugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of phytochemical constituents, which are secondary metabolites and are used either directly or indirectly in the pharmaceutical industry. ‘For centuries, man has effectively used various components of plants or their extracts for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. In the present study methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Cassia auriculata leaf were subjected for antimicrobial activity by well-diffusion method against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The results revealed that the methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms (zone of inhibition of 12-20 mm), except Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 10 mm or nil). The aqueous extracts showed moderate activity by ‘Zone of inhibition ≤12 or nil). The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents by standard protocols’ and were shown to contain carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The antibacterial activity of these extracts is possibly linked to the presence of flavonoids, steroid, saponins and/or tannins. Further studies are needed to determine the precise active principles from Cassia auriculata. PMID:23901174

  7. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Extracts on Tyrosinase Suppressor, Wound Repair Promoter, and Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Man-Gang; Kuo, Su-Yu; Yen, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan's endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts had greater wound healing power than the vehicle control group (petroleum jelly with 8% DMSO, w/v). In addition, the antioxidant capacity of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extracts in vitro was evaluated. We measured C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract's free radical scavenging capability, metal chelating, and reduction power, such as biochemical activity analysis. The results showed that a high concentration of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract had a significant scavenging capability of free radical, a minor effect of chelating ability, and moderate reducing power. Further exploration of the possible physiological mechanisms and the ingredient components of skincare product for skin-whitening, wound repair, or antioxidative agents are to be done. PMID:25839053

  8. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark aqueous extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Nyadjeu, Paulin; Dongmo, Alain; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît; Kamanyi, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume stem bark aqueous extract in rats. The in vivo activities of the extract were evaluated on normotensive and three rat models of hypertension while the in vitro tests were assayed on rat isolated aorta rings. Acute intravenous injection of the extract (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) induced a significant reduction in mean arterial blood pressure in anaesthetised normotensive Wistar rats, salt-loaded hypertensive, L-NAME hypertensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pre-treatment of rats with either propranolol or atropine significantly inhibited the hypotensive effects of the plant extract suggesting its possible action through the interferences with both cholinergic and sympathetic transmissions. Moreover, pre-treatment of rats with L-NAME inhibited the sustained plant antihypertensive effects, suggesting a possible active vasodilatation, which might be partly mediated by an endothelial l-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In isolated rat aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (60mM), the extract exhibited cumulative vasodilating effects, which were attenuated with either L-NAME, vascular endothelium removal or both tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide pre-treatments. The vasorelaxant effects may be involved in the extract antihypertensive mechanism, partially by increasing the endothelial nitric oxide and by activating the KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle.

  9. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    PubMed

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

  10. Pharmacologically active flavonoids from the anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial extracts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shabina Ishtiaq; Hayat, Muhammad Qasim; Tahir, Muhammad; Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, Muhammad; Keck, Kristen; Bates, Robert B

    2016-11-11

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (commonly known as senna makkai or cassia senna), native to Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Yemen and also extensively cultivated in Pakistan, is a medicinal herb used traditionally to cure number of diseases like liver diseases, constipation, typhoid, cholera etc. This study was conducted to evaluate the in-vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer assays and phytochemical constituents of aqueous and organic extracts of C. angustifolia leaves. The antimicrobial activities of C. angustifolia aqueous and organic (methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate) extracts were investigated by the disk diffusion method. These extracts were further evaluated for antioxidant potential by the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Anticancer activities of the extracts were determined by the MTT colorimetric assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of C. angustifolia extracts were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, respectively. The structures of the bioactive compounds were elucidated by NMR and ESI-MS spectrometry. Bioactivity-guided screening of C. angustifolia extracts, led to the isolation and identification of three flavonoids quercimeritrin (1), scutellarein (2), and rutin (3) reported for the first time from this plant, showed significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 (IC50, 4.0 μg/μL), HeLa (IC50, 5.45 μg/μL), Hep2 (IC50, 7.28 μg/μL) and low cytotoxicity against HCEC (IC50, 21.09 μg/μL). Significant antioxidant activity was observed with IC50 2.41 μg/mL against DPPH radical. Moreover, C. angustifolia extracts have the potential to inhibit microbial growth of E. cloacae, P. aeruginosa, S. mercescens and S. typhi. C. angustifolia extracts revealed the presence of quercimeritrin (1), scutellarein (2), and rutin (3), all known to have useful bioactivities including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities.

  11. Isolation and structural characterization of the water-extractable polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Shang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Xiaoman; Dong, Qun; Yao, Jian; Liu, Qin; Ding, Kan

    2012-10-01

    The seed of Cassia obtusifolia is a food or herbal medicine used for improving eyesight, treating constipation and other disorders, and polysaccharides have been implicated in these pharmacological activities. The endosperm of the seeds, Cassia gum, is a commercial thickening or gelling agent, composed mainly of galactomannans. However, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia, rather than the endosperm, are used in folk medicine or food, which might contain more complex constituents of polysaccharides. In this study, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia were extracted with boiling water, and from the water extract, three homogeneous fractions were isolated, designated CFAA-1, CFAA-3, and CFBB2, respectively, after treatment with Fehling solution followed by anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Using chemical and spectroscopic methods, CFAA-1, and CFAA-3 were elucidated to be both branched galactomannans with different molecular weights, consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-mannopyranosyl backbone with single-unit α-d-galactopyranosyl branches attached to O-6 of mannose, while CFBB2 was shown to be a linear (1→4)-α-polygalacturonic acid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cassia tora seeds on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. After being fed a HFD for two weeks, rats were orally dosed with Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) (100, 200, or 300mg/kg) once daily for 8weeks. CSEE induced dose-dependent reductions in plasma lipid levels, as well as decreased the over hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CSEE treatment improved HFD-induced hepatic histological lesions. CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the livers of HFD-fed rats. AMPK inhibition by compound C retarded CSEE-induced reduction in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells stimulated by insulin. Our findings suggest that CSEE may regulate hepatic lipid homeostasis related with an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation with CSEE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  13. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Cassia siamea Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2015-01-01

    A traditional Thai medicinal extract from Cassia siamea was evaluated with respect to its larvicidal properties by determining the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h against the fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, which is a carrier of mosquito-borne diseases, by studying the histopathological alterations. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were 394.29, 350.24, 319.17 and 272.42 ppm, respectively. The histopathological lesions after exposure to 25% of the 24-h LC50 were observed primarily in the midgut of the larva. Lesions with edema, swelling, and deformation or elongation of the epithelial cells were observed. Moreover, cells protruding into the lumen and absent microvilli were also found in some areas. The present study reveals that aqueous C. siamea leaf extracts have natural biopesticide properties. PMID:26868707

  14. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Seema; Sangma, Tultul; Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari

    2015-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) is commonly known as cinnamon in traditional system of medicine having antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and other activities. The present study was designed to assess the effect of extract of CZ bark on cognitive performance of scopolamine (SCOP)-treated rats and on associated altered oxidative stress markers in the brain of rats. The extract was administered orally in three doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for a period of 21 days. SCOP was administered in the dose of 1.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance step-down tasks were performed to assess cognitive functions. At the end of the study, oxidative stress parameters namely, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also analyzed in the brain tissue of rats. SCOP-treated group showed significantly impaired acquisition and retention of memory as compared to the saline- and vehicle-treated groups. Pretreatment with CZ extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 21 days significantly reversed SCOP-induced amnesia as evidenced by increased step-down latency in passive avoidance and decreased latency in Morris water maze test compared to the SCOP-treated group. SCOP administration also caused the increase of MDA and reduction of GSH levels. Pretreatment with CZ extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and increase in GSH levels as compared to the SCOP-treated animals. The results suggest that CZ can induce cognitive improvement in SCOP-treated rats and this effect can be attributed to a certain extent to decreased oxidative stress.

  15. [Clinical and experimental study on using Cassia angustifolia extract as enema after abdominal operation].

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Yan, S; Wang, J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the curative effect and mechanism of using Cassia angustifolia extract (CAE) in treating gastrointestinal tract dysfunction after abdominal operations. Enema administration of CAE (Clyster method) was used. The result of 130 patients was very effective in reducing the rate of gastrointestinal decompression, accelerating the restitution of borborygmi and the time of exhaustion. Animal experiment showed the CAE function is very obvious in enhancing the bowel movement of rats (P < 0.05). It can enhance peristalsis and contraction amplitude of vibration in the isolated ileum of rats (P < 0.05). It can push on the charcoal powder in intestinal tract of mice obviously (P < 0.05). CAE could regulate disordered function of gastrointestinal tract after abdominal operations.

  16. Facile green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using leaf extract of antidiabetic potent Cassia auriculata.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Ganesh; Gokavarapu, S Dinesh; Rajeswari, A; Dhas, T Stalin; Karthick, V; Kapadia, Zainab; Shrestha, Tripti; Barathy, I A; Roy, Anindita; Sinha, Sweta

    2011-10-01

    A simple biological method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Cassia auriculata aqueous leaf extract has been carried out in the present study. The reduction of auric chloride led to the formation of AuNPs within 10 min at room temperature (28°C), suggesting a higher reaction rate than chemical methods involved in the synthesis. The size, shape and elemental analysis were carried out using X-ray diffraction, TEM, SEM-EDAX, FT-IR and visible absorption spectroscopy. Stable, triangular and spherical crystalline AuNPs with well-defined dimensions of average size of 15-25 nm were synthesized using C. auriculata. Effect of pH was also studied to check the stability of AuNPs. The main aim of the investigation is to synthesize AuNPs using antidiabetic potent medicinal plant. The stabilizing and reducing molecules of nanoparticles may promote anti-hyperglycemic if tested further.

  17. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests.

  18. Anti-aging and tyrosinase inhibition effects of Cassia fistula flower butanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Yodkeeree, Supachai; Thippraphan, Pilaiporn; Punfa, Wanisa; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2016-12-03

    Natural products made from plant sources have been used in a variety of cosmetic applications as a source of nutrition and as a whitening agent. The flowers of Cassia fistula L, family Fabaceae, have been used as a traditional medicine for skin diseases and wound healing and have been reported to possess anti-oxidant properties. The anti-aging effect of C. fistula flower extract on human skin fibroblast was investigated. The butanolic extraction of C. fistula flowers was completed and the active compounds were classified. The cytotoxicity of fibroblasts was evaluated by SRB assay for the purposes of selecting non-toxic doses for further experiments. The collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis was then measured using the collagen kit and ELISA, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity, including collagenase, matrixmelloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tyrosinase, were also evaluated. It was found that the flower extract did not affect skin fibroblast cell growth (IC50 > 200 μg/mL). The results did show that the flower extract significantly increased collagen and HA synthesis in a dose dependent manner. The flower extract (50-200 μg/mL) also significantly inhibited collagenase and MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, this flower extract could inhibit the tyrosinase activity that causes hyperpigmentation, which induces skin aging. The C. fistula flower extract displayed a preventive effect when used for anti-aging purposes in human skin fibroblasts and may be an appropriate choice for cosmetic products that aim to provide whitening effects, and which are designated as anti-aging facial skin care products.

  19. Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cassia sieberiana is a savannah tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of various stomach disorders including gastric ulcer, stomach pains and indigestion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant, gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins, secretory phospholipase A2, phytochemical and acute toxicity properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract in a bid to justify its phytotherapeutic applications in gastric ulcer. Methods Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of the roots bark extract of Cassia sieberiana were assayed. Serum secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) concentration and activity and the formation of gastric mucosal prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and I2 (PGI2) were also assessed. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Students Standard Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis to determine statistical significance. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The extract was found to possess significant ferric reducing antioxidant power and can scavenge hydroxyl radicals. The extract also possesses DPPH scavenging activity, can chelate ferrous ion and a dose-dependent protective effect against lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. Prostaglandin studies showed that the roots bark extract dose dependently increased gastric mucosal PGE2 and PGI2 levels and also decreased serum sPLA2 activity. Phytochemical analyses suggest that the roots extract contains polyhydroxyl/phenolic substances. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight p.o. Conclusions C. sieberiana roots extract possesses significant antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin properties as well as serum secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity which could be due to its content of polyhydroxy and/or phenolic substances. This may justify its use as an anti-ulcerogenic agent in traditional medicine in

  20. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by leaf extract of Cassia angustifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaladhas, T. Peter; Sivagami, S.; Akkini Devi, T.; Ananthi, N.; Priya Velammal, S.

    2012-12-01

    In this study Cassia angustifolia (senna) is used for the environmentally friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles having symmetric surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centred at 420 nm were obtained within 10 min at room temperature by treating aqueous solutions of silver nitrate with C. angustifolia leaf extract. The water soluble components from the leaves, probably the sennosides, served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles were poly-dispersed, spherical in shape with particle size in the range 9-31 nm, the average size was found to be 21.6 nm at pH 11. The zeta potential was -36.4 mV and the particles were stable for 6 months. The crystalline phase of the nanoparticles was confirmed from the selected area diffraction pattern (SAED). The rate of formation and size of silver nanoparticles were pH dependent. Functional groups responsible for capping of silver nanoparticles were identified from the FTIR spectrum. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata flower extract separated fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, Karuppiah; Priya, Sethuraman

    2017-05-01

    Cassia auriculata L., the flower aqueous extract was fractionated by separating funnel using n-hexane (A1), chloroform (A2), ethyl acetate (A3) and triple distilled water (A4). The A4 fraction was concentrated and determined the presence of preliminary phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates and polyphenolic compounds. These phytochemical compounds acted as reducing as well as a stabilizing agent in the green synthesis of Ag NPs from aqueous silver ions. Initially, the colour change and UV-vis absorbance surface Plasmon resonance strong, wide band located at 435 nm has confirmed the synthesis of Ag NPs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Ag NPs shows a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The observed values were calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation to theoretical confirms the particle size of 18 nm. The surface morphology of Ag NPs was viewed by HRTEM, the particles are spherical and triangle shapes with sizes from 10 to 35 nm. Further, the Ag NPs was effective catalytic activity in the reduction of highly environmental polluted organic compounds of 4-nitrophenol and methyl orange. The green synthesis of Ag NPs seems to eco-friendly, cost-effective, conventional one spot synthesis and greater performance of catalytic degradation of environmentally polluted organic dyes.

  2. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of Cinnamomi cassiae (Lauraceae) bark aqueous extract in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ikram, Huma; Akhtar, Naheed

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor leading to a number of chronic and metabolic disorders. Obesity is the fifth leading cause of global deaths. At least 2.8 million adults are dying each year as being overweight or obese. Cinnamomi cassiae is widely used traditional medicinal plant, used indigenously, to decrease glucose and cholesterol. 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT; Serotonin) is an important neurotransmitter reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia. Present study was designed to investigate the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cinnamon bark aqueous extract (CBAE) in obese rats and to find the possible involvement of 5-HT in reducing the body weight in these experimental animals. CBAE was repeatedly administered orally in the test animals for 5 weeks. A decrease in the food intake along with a concomitant increase in brain 5-HT level was observed in rats administered with CBAE. Findings may help in extending therapeutics in the pathophysiology of obesity and related eating disorders. Decrease activities in behavioral models were also monitored in CBAE treated animals.

  3. Cassia angustifolia extract is not hepatotoxic in an in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Vitalone, A; Di Giacomo, S; Di Sotto, A; Franchitto, A; Mammola, C L; Mariani, P; Mastrangelo, S; Mazzanti, G

    2011-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia L. (senna) is traditionally used as a laxative. Its major components are sennosides that are responsible for the laxative effect. Senna is recommended for the short-term treatment of acute constipation. Nevertheless people use its preparations as self-medication, often for long periods, to treat chronic constipation thus exposing themselves to adverse reactions. Most reactions were associated with hepatotoxicity. The present study was aimed to evaluate the toxicity of a C. angustifolia leafextract (standardized at 60% of sennosides) on rat liver cells and the long-term effects on liver functions, in Wistar rats. Cytotoxicity was assessed in a buffalo normal rat liver cell line (BRL-3A) by the trypan blue assay and the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction test. In vivo effects were observed after oral administration of the extract for 4 or 8 weeks at doses of 12 and 58 mg/kg/day. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed, the postmortem examination was performed and serum was used for biochemical analysis. Liver samples were used for histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination along with the determination of oxidative stress parameters. In BRL-3A cells, the extract was cytotoxic at concentrations that appear largely higher than those attainable in humans. In Wistar rats, the extract did not induce any significant change in all of the parameters tested. In summary, the present study indicates a lack of hepatotoxicity of senna at doses higher than those generally used in humans. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of Cinnamomum javanicum plant extract against Listeria monocytogenes and its application potential with smoked salmon.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenqian; Lee, Hui Wen; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2017-11-02

    Extracts from medicinal plants have been reported to possess good antimicrobial properties, but a majority of them remain unexplored. This study aimed at identifying a novel plant extract with antimicrobial activity, to validate its efficacy in food model, and to elucidate its composition and antimicrobial mechanism. A total of 125 plant extracts were screened, and Cinnamomum javanicum leaf and stem extract showed potential antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (MIC=0.13mg/mL). Total phenolic content of the extract was 78.3mg GAE/g extract and its antioxidant activity was 57.2-326.5mg TE/g extract. When applied on cold smoked salmon, strong strain-dependent antimicrobial effectiveness was observed, with L. monocytogenes LM2 (serotype 4b) and LM8 (serotype 3a) being more resistant compared to SSA81 (serotype 1/2a). High extract concentration (16mg/mL) was needed to inhibit or reduce the growth of L. monocytogenes on smoked salmon, which resulted in surface color change. GC-MS revealed that eucalyptol (25.54 area%) was the most abundant compound in the crude extract. Both crude extract and eucalyptol induced significant membrane damages in treated L. monocytogenes. These results suggest anti-L. monocytogenes activity of C. javanicum plant extract, identified its major volatile components, and elucidated its membrane-damaging antimicrobial mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. HPLC quantitative analysis of rhein and antidermatophytic activity of Cassia fistula pod pulp extracts of various storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Chewchinda, Savita; Wuthi-udomlert, Mansuang; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Cassia fistula is well known for its laxative and antifungal properties due to anthraquinone compounds in the pods. This study quantitatively analyzed rhein in the C. fistula pod pulp decoction extracts kept under various storage conditions using HPLC. The antifungal activity of the extracts and their hydrolyzed mixture was also evaluated against dermatophytes. The contents of rhein in all stored decoction extracts remained more than 95% (95.69-100.66%) of the initial amount (0.0823 ± 0.001% w/w). There was no significant change of the extracts kept in glass vials and in aluminum foil bags. The decoction extract of C. fistula pod pulp and its hydrolyzed mixture containing anthraquinone aglycones were tested against clinical strains of dermatophytes by broth microdilution technique. The results revealed good chemical and antifungal stabilities against dermatophytes of C. fistula pod pulp decoction extracts stored under various accelerated and real time storage conditions.

  6. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of ethanol extract of Cassia fistula fruit in hyperlipidemic mice.

    PubMed

    Abid, Rizwana; Mahmood, Riaz; Santosh Kumar, Hulikal Shivashankara

    2016-12-01

    The plant Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae) fruit was widely used by traditional practitioners to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in India. Hyperlipidemia is a lipid metabolism disorder and the major risk factor for the development of CVDs. Although most of the current hypolipidemic drugs are expensive and have potential side effects, the research focusing on natural alternative medicines is relevant. To investigate the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of ethanol extract of C. fistula fruit (CFE) in high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Oral administration of CFE at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight on HFD induced hyperlipidemia mice for 30 days. The standard drug atorvastatin (20 mg/kg) was used to compare the efficacy of CFE. Hypolipidemic effect was evidenced by the measurement of serum lipid profile and further confirmed by Oil Red O staining of adipose tissue. The hepatic and cardiac melondialdehyde (MDA) level and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with CFE at different doses has significantly restored the levels of serum lipid, MDA and enzymes activities in the liver and heart of hyperlipidemia mice. Oil Red O staining of visceral adipose tissue has shown marked reduction of lipid accumulation in adipocytes; whereas, administration of CFE at 500 mg/kg showed remarkable (p < 0.001) hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in HFD fed mice. C. fistula fruit demonstrated hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties in vivo and the results corroborate the use of this plant in traditional medicine for cardiac ailments.

  7. In vitro antifungal activity of cassia fistula extracts against fluconazole resistant strains of Candida species from HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Sony, P; Kalyani, M; Jeyakumari, D; Kannan, I; Sukumar, R G

    2017-08-21

    Candida species is the fourth common cause of blood stream infections all over the world which is life threatening. Invasive candidiasis leads to increased mortality and morbidity especially in immunosuppressed. The antifungal resistance pattern in high-risk patients is major concern. The present study was to access the anticandidal activity of leaves, bark and seeds of Cassia fistula against fluconazole resistant Candida species, C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. kefyr and C. parapsilosis isolated from HIV patients. The predominant phytochemical component responsible for fungicidal activity was to be accessed. Ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of leaves, bark and seeds of C. fistula linn. was evaluated against Microbial type culture collection (MTCC) Candida strains and 21 fluconazole resistant clinical isolates. Antifungal activity was evaluated by agar diffusion and broth dilution techniques. The active phytochemical component present in the ethanol extract of seeds was accessed by high performance thin layer chromatography. The docking study was done with lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase, the azole drug target with the predominant phytochemical from the extract having antifungal activity. All the extracts of C. fistula showed excellent anticandidal activity. Ethanol extract of C. fistula seed exhibited the most inhibitory activity. C. krusei and C. parapsilosis were the most inhibited and C. kefyr was the least inhibited species. The predominant phytochemical active component of the ethanol extract of seed was gallic acid. Gallic acid showed excellent binding with lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase. The present study reports the antifungal activity of various extracts of Cassia fistula for the first time against fluconazole resistant Candida isolates. We can conclude that the polyphenolic compound gallic acid is a potent natural antifungal agent. Further research is needed to assess the pharmacokinetic

  8. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Extracts from Four Cassia Flowers as Natural Sensitizers: Studies on Dye Ingredient Effect on Photovoltaic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Ishwar Chandra; Singh, Shalini; Neetu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2017-09-01

    Natural dyes extracted from four different flowers, namely, Cassia surattensis, Cassia tora, Cassia alata and Cassia occidentalis were used as sensitizers for TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The dye extracts from flowers were obtained by a simple extraction technique and used without any further purification. Optical characteristics of dye extracts were studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were used to identify the constituents of extracted dyes. The photovoltaic performance of DSSC employing dye-capped TiO2 photoanodes was measured. The sensitization performance related to anchoring groups present and interaction between dyes with TiO2 surface is demonstrated. An attempt has been made to rationalize the observations by light absorption of the dye extracts and their adsorption on TiO2. The short-circuit current density (I SC) values ranged from 0.06 mA/cm2 to 0.20 mA/cm2; open circuit voltage (V OC) from 0.292 V to 0.833 V; fill factor (FF) from 0.7 to 0.9; efficiencies (η) from 0.013% to 0.15% and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency from 13% to 20%, were obtained for DSSC using these natural dye extracts. Cassia occidentalis showed the highest current density of 0.20 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency of 0.15%, which was due to better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl group of the anthocyanin molecule of C. occidentalis and surface of TiO2 film. The red and blue shift of absorption wavelength of C. surattensis and the blue shift of absorption wavelength of the C. tora, C. alata and C. occidentalis extract in ethanol solution compared to that on TiO2 film has been used for the interpretation of obtained results.

  9. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients’ daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level. PMID:27651812

  10. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients' daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level.

  11. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Amita; Kehri, H K; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Abhay K

    2009-03-07

    Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz), against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. The lowest test concentration (50 microg/ml) of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100%) of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 microg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 microg/ml) of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 microg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

  12. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Amita; Kehri, HK; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Abhay K

    2009-01-01

    Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz), against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml) of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100%) of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml) of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata. PMID:19267932

  13. Inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum burmannii Blume stem bark extract and trans-cinnamaldehyde on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells; synergism with cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    DAKER, MAELINDA; LIN, VOON YEE; AKOWUAH, GABRIEL AKYIREM; YAM, MUN FEI; AHMAD, MARIAM

    2013-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy that occurs in the epithelium of the nasopharynx. The standard treatment of NPC patients with locoregionally advanced stages is problematic and is often associated with toxicities. Therefore, it is essential to screen for naturally occurring compounds with strong apoptosis-inducing activity and minimal toxicity. This study investigated the effects of the standardized methanol extract of Cinnamomum burmannii Blume stem bark and its main constituent, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA), on human NPC cell lines. The content of TCA in C. burmannii methanol extract was standardized to be 13.61% w/w by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). NPC cell proliferation was clearly inhibited within 24 h of treatment, with TCA exhibiting greater activity than the methanol extract. TCA was more active against NPC cells compared with cisplatin. There was a pronounced downregulation of the proliferation markers, Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the TCA-treated cells; while morphological observation indicated the induction of apoptosis. Caspase activation and prominent DNA damage, which are markers of apoptosis induction were detected. TCA demonstrated the ability to scavenge nitric oxide. The simultaneous combination of TCA and cisplatin produced synergistic anti-proliferative effects. Collectively, these data indicate the potential use of TCA for the treatment of NPC. PMID:23837058

  14. Inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum burmannii Blume stem bark extract and trans-cinnamaldehyde on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells; synergism with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Daker, Maelinda; Lin, Voon Yee; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Yam, Mun Fei; Ahmad, Mariam

    2013-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy that occurs in the epithelium of the nasopharynx. The standard treatment of NPC patients with locoregionally advanced stages is problematic and is often associated with toxicities. Therefore, it is essential to screen for naturally occurring compounds with strong apoptosis-inducing activity and minimal toxicity. This study investigated the effects of the standardized methanol extract of Cinnamomum burmannii Blume stem bark and its main constituent, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA), on human NPC cell lines. The content of TCA in C. burmannii methanol extract was standardized to be 13.61% w/w by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). NPC cell proliferation was clearly inhibited within 24 h of treatment, with TCA exhibiting greater activity than the methanol extract. TCA was more active against NPC cells compared with cisplatin. There was a pronounced downregulation of the proliferation markers, Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the TCA-treated cells; while morphological observation indicated the induction of apoptosis. Caspase activation and prominent DNA damage, which are markers of apoptosis induction were detected. TCA demonstrated the ability to scavenge nitric oxide. The simultaneous combination of TCA and cisplatin produced synergistic anti-proliferative effects. Collectively, these data indicate the potential use of TCA for the treatment of NPC.

  15. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Benarroz, M O; Fonseca, A S; Rocha, G S; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, V C; Pereira, M O; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2008-02-01

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1 hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  16. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  17. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). Conclusion MECZ possesses

  18. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nyadjeu, Paulin; Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Atsamo, Albert Donatien; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoît; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamanyi, Albert

    2013-01-31

    Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs' weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue's concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). MECZ possesses antihypertensive and organ protective effects that may

  19. Biochemical analysis of Cassia fistula aqueous extract and phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles as hypoglycemic treatment for diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Daisy, P; Saipriya, K

    2012-01-01

    Cassia fistula stem bark was used for the preparation of aqueous extract and synthesis of gold nanoparticles to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of the plant. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy for their absorbance pattern, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to identify possible functional groups, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the size of the nanoparticles. The present investigation reports the efficacy of the gold nanoparticles as promising in the treatment of hyperglycemia. Body weight, serum glucose concentrations, liver function tests, kidney function tests, and lipid profile were analyzed. A significantly larger decrease in serum biochemistry parameters and an increase in body weight, total protein levels, and high-density lipoprotein were observed in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes treated with gold nanoparticles than in the ones treated with the aqueous extract. The results of this study confirm that C. fistula gold nanoparticles have promising antidiabetic properties. PMID:22419867

  20. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-08

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii.

  1. Nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability induced by senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Silva, C R; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Leitão, A C; Pádula, M

    2014-11-27

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (senna) is commonly used in self-medication and is frequently used to treat intestine constipation. A previous study involving bacteria and plasmid DNA suggested the possible toxicity of the aqueous extract of senna (SAE). The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge concerning SAE genotoxicity mechanisms because of its widespread use and its risks to human health. We investigated the impact of SAE on nuclear DNA and on the stability of mitochondrial DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wt, ogg1, msh6, and ogg1msh6) strains, monitoring the formation of petite mutants. Our results demonstrated that SAE specifically increased Can(R) mutagenesis only in the msh6 mutant, supporting the view that SAE can induce misincorporation errors in DNA. We observed a significant increase in the frequency of petite colonies in all studied strains. Our data indicate that SAE has genotoxic activity towards both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  2. Assessment of antimutagenic and genotoxic potential of senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract using in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Silva, C R; Monteiro, M R; Rocha, H M; Ribeiro, A F; Caldeira-de-Araujo, A; Leitão, A C; Bezerra, R J A C; Pádula, M

    2008-02-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is widely used as a laxative, although potential side effects, such as toxicity and genotoxicity, have been reported. This study evaluated genotoxic and mutagenic effects of senna aqueous extract (SAE) by means of four experimental assays: inactivation of Escherichia coli cultures; bacterial growth inhibition; reverse mutation test (Mutoxitest) and DNA strand break analysis in plasmid DNA. Our results demonstrated that SAE produces single and double strand breaks in plasmid DNA in a cell free system. On the other hand, SAE was not cytotoxic or mutagenic to Escherichia coli strains tested. In effect, SAE was able to avoid H(2)O(2)-induced mutagenesis and toxicity in Escherichia coli IC203 (uvrA oxyR) and IC205 (uvrA mutM) strains, pointing to a new antioxidant/antimutagenic action of SAE.

  3. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum, Ocimum sanctum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Duhan, J; Tewari, S; Sangwan, P; Yadav, A; Singh, G; Juneja, R; Saini, H

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis in planktonic suspension and biofilm phenotypes. The antibacterial efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous ethanolic extracts of O. sanctum, C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum against E. faecalis at various time intervals was assessed using the agar well diffusion test, microdilution test and biofilm susceptibility assay (BSA) on cellulose nitrate membrane as well as in a tooth model. NaOCl was used as the positive control. Distilled water was used as negative control for agar diffusion and microdilution tests and phosphate-buffered saline for the BSA. The results of the agar diffusion test were analysed statistically using anova and Tukey's tests. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum and O. sanctum exhibited minimum bactericidal concentration at 10%, 10% and 40%, respectively. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum, O. sanctum and NaOCl showed complete bacterial inhibition in planktonic form after exposure of 30, 15, 35 and 1 min, respectively. In BSA on cellulose nitrate membrane, NaOCl was associated with complete bacterial inhibition after contact of 2 min, whilst 10% C. zeylanicum, 10% S. aromaticum and 40% O. sanctum showed cessation of growth after 12, 12 and 24 h, respectively. The results of BSA on tooth model were similar except for O. sanctum, which was not included in the model. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum and O. sanctum demonstrated antimicrobial activity against planktonic and biofilm forms of E. faecalis with C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum having better antimicrobial efficacy than O. sanctum. NaOCl had superior antimicrobial efficacy amongst all the groups. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Cassia tora extract toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Jyoti; Koley, K. M.; Sahu, B. D.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cassia tora toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: A limit test was conducted for C. tora extract in Wistar albino rats. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of leaves of C. tora was carried out. In-vitro antibacterial activity was measured by disc diffusion method. 1-day-old Ven Cobb broiler birds (n=90) were randomly allocated into three groups consisting of three replicates with 10 birds in each group. The birds of group T1 (Control) received basal diet, whereas birds of group T2 (Standard) received an antibiotic (Lincomycin at 0.05% in feed). The birds of group T3 (Test) received Cassia tora extract (CSE) at 0.4 g/L in drinking water in addition to basal diet. The treatment was given to birds of all the groups for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activity of C. tora was determined in blood of broiler birds. Cumulative body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percent, and organ weight factor were evaluated to determine growth performance in broiler birds. Results: Phytochemicals in C. tora were screened. Sensitivity to Escherichia coli and resistant to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in in-vitro antibacterial activity test. At the end of 6th week, antioxidant activity reflected significantly (p≤0.05) lower level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde and higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH peroxidase in broiler birds of group T2 and T3 as compared to broiler of group T1. Mean cumulative body weight gain of birds of T2 and T3 were significantly (p≤0.05) higher as compared to T1. Mean FCR of birds of group T3 decreased significantly than group T1. Conclusion: Supplementation of C. tora leaves extract at 0.4 g/L in drinking water improved growth performance in broiler birds due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Therefore, it

  5. Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Laxmi; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Rajak, H.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of β-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21808555

  6. Biosynthesis characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cassia roxburghii DC. aqueous extract, and coated on cotton cloth for effective antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Balashanmugam, Pannerselvam; Kalaichelvan, Pudupalayam Thangavelu

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver precursor using a plant biomaterial, Cassia roxburghii DC., aqueous extract. The AgNPs were synthesized from the shade-dried leaf extract and assessed for their stability; they elucidated characteristics under UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited a maximum absorption at 430 nm, and the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that they were crystal in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conversion of Ag+ ions to AgNPs due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. The HR-TEM analysis revealed that they are spherical ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm. The spot EDAX analysis showed the presence of silver atoms. In addition, AgNPs were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against six different pathogenic bacteria: three Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus, and three Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter aerogenes. They were highly sensitive to AgNPs, whereas less sensitive to AgNO3. Furthermore, the green synthesized AgNPs were immobilized on cotton fabrics and screened for antibacterial activity. The immobilized AgNPs on cotton cloth showed high antibacterial activity. Therefore, they could be a feasible alternative source in treating wounds or may help in replacing pharmaceutical band-aids.

  7. Anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress activities of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm in rats

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Gayaprasad; Khoshla, Sarvesh; Kosuru, Ramoji; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress actions of Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaves (aqueous extract) in rats. Materials and Methods: Behavioral procedures of anxiety, depression, and stress were assessed in rats. CT (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was given once a daily for 7 days via oral route and the efficacy was matched by those elicited by lorazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.), imipramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and Withania somnifera (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress studies, respectively. Standard drugs were given 1 time, 30 min preceding the behavioral trials. Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test was employed to analyze the results. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant as compared to control. CT at 400 mg/kg produced an antianxiety effect equivalent to lorazepam, in the elevated plus maze, open field, and social interaction tests among selected doses of the CT. CT at 400 mg/kg also induced an antidepressant activity similar to imipramine, in the behavioral despair, learned helplessness test, and tail suspension among selected doses of the CT. Moreover, CT at 400 mg/kg produced a significant antistress effect comparable to W. somnifera in water immersion-restraint stress by decreasing ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, and by normalizing the plasma levels of corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels when related to stress control. Conclusion: The study shows that among the different CT doses, CT at 400 mg/kg possesses significant anxiolytic, antidepressant, and anti-stress effects and has therapeutic beneficial for the management of psychological ailments. PMID:27721543

  8. Attenuating effect of standardized lyophilized Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark extract against streptozotocin-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    PubMed

    Malik, Jai; Munjal, Kavita; Deshmukh, Rahul

    2015-05-01

    The Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ; family Lauraceae) bark, an important spice, has also been used traditionally for nervous stress, as a nervine tonic, and as a stimulant. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the standardized lyophilized aqueous extract of CZ bark (LCZE) on learning and memory in rodents at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o. dose levels against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory impairment. LCZE was standardized based on the cinnamaldehyde content using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The effect on learning and memory was evaluated using two widely used behavioral models, the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the object recognition test (ORT). The effect of LCZE on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rat brain was also evaluated. LCZE significantly (p<0.05) and dose-dependently attenuated STZ-induced cognitive deficit in both models in comparison to only STZ-treated animals. In the MWM test, LCZE (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the transfer latency and increased the time spent by the animals in target quadrant. Similarly in the ORT, the LCZE-treated animals exhibited an improved discrimination between a familiar object and a novel object, indicating the reversal of STZ-induced memory impairment. LCZE also restored STZ-induced alteration in AChE activity and oxidative stress parameters in both brain parts. The results clearly indicate toward the memory-enhancing effect of LCZE, which could be due to the synergistic effect of anti-AChE and antioxidant activities.

  9. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Cassia alata leaf acetone extract and fractions on Haemonchus contortus: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2011-05-01

    The failure of modern anthelmintics to control nematode parasites of sheep and goats is a reality on many farms in the tropical/subtropical regions of the world. This necessitates chemotherapeutic control alternatives and plant secondary metabolite with activity is one of those potential solutions. This study was design to evaluate the efficacy of solvent: solvent fractions of Cassia alata Gelenggang Besar (Leguminosae) leaf acetone extract against Heamonchus contortus Rudolphi (Trichostrongylidae). C. alata leaf was extracted with 70% acetone and fractions were obtained by solvent: solvent group separation procedures. The acetone extract and the fractions were tested by egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development and viability assay to assess relative bioactivity against H. contortus eggs and larvae. The extracts inhibited egg hatchability and killed infective larvae of H. contortus in a concentration-dependent manner. The best-fit LC(50) values were 0.562, 0.243, 0.490, 0.314, and 0.119 mg/mL for the acetone extract, chloroform, hexane, butanol and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively, when tested against nematode eggs. The best-fit LC(50) values were 0.191, 0.505, 1.444, 0.306, and 0.040 mg/mL for acetone extract, chloroform, hexane, butanol and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively, when tested against larvae. The 35% water in methanol fraction was the most active against the larvae and eggs of H. contortus demonstrating the lowest LC(50) values This study demonstrates that the leaf extracts of C. alata have anthelmintic activity; therefore it could find application in the control of helminths in livestock.

  10. Anti-plasmodial activity of ethanolic extract of root and stem back of Cassia sieberiana DC on mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrazak, Nuhu; Asiya, Umar Imam; Usman, NataaLa Shehu; Unata, Iduh Micheal; Farida, Aminu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed within 4 days of suppressive test in vivo antimalarial activity of Ethanolic extract of root and stem bark of Cassia sieberiana DC against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei NK65 in mice. Methodology: Two sets, each of five groups of four mice per each group were used. The groups of animals were administered with 100, 200, and 300 mg extract/kg body weight respectively, while positive control group were administered with 5 mg chloroquine/kg body weight and the negative control, were administered with 5 m1 distilled water/kg body weight. Oral acute toxicity was evaluated using up and down procedure. Result: Both the root and stem bark extract of C. sieberiana showed antimalarial property for suppressive tests. Chemo suppression of the root extract exerted significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent reduction in the level of parasiteamia of 30.7%, 52.7%, and 55.8%. And from stem extract 17.6%, 38.0%, and 63.9% were recorded on mice when compared with 96.0% suppressive rate obtained from weight of chloroquine. The phytochemical screening of the plants root and stem bark extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, reducing sugars and carbohydrates. The oral median lethal dose was determined to be >3000 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The acute toxicity results of this study showed that the plant parts used are assumed to be safe and has anti-plasmodial activity that can be explored for the management of malaria. PMID:26401393

  11. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  12. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

  13. Assessment of Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Interaction of Aqueous Extract of Cassia auriculata L. and Metformin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elango, Hemnath; Ponnusankar, Sivasankaran; Sundaram, Sankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cassia auriculata L. (CA) leaf extract might increase the body's production of insulin thereby suppressing the elevated blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. CA has been used as dietary supplement in India from ancient times. Objective: The present study was to elucidate the synergistic pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction of metformin (MT) with CA. Materials and Methods: A simple, precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography - UV detection mode method was developed to quantify MT in rat plasma. In PD interaction, streptozotocin (45mg/kg, intraperitoneally) induced diabetic Wistar rats weighing 180–250 g of either sex were randomized to receive MT (90 mg/kg, MT-HD), CA (500 mg/kg) separately and in combination of MT (90 mg/kg, MT-HD) + CA (500 mg/kg), and MT (45 mg/kg, MT-LD) + CA (500 mg/kg) (all oral) along with normal and diabetic control groups for 21 days. PK of MT was carried out in normal rats with preadministration of CA (500 mg/kg) for 14 days. Results: PD data showed reasonable blood glucose lowering effect of CA. The reduction of MT dose with combination of CA achieved a similar blood glucose lowering effect of MT alone. PK data showed enhanced time taken to achieve maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC0-t), and Cmax in combination group of MT (90mg/kg) and CA (500mg/kg), and reduction of MT dose in Group III had a reduced Cmax and AUC0-t compared to MT alone treated groups. Conclusion: Co-administration of CA with MT at varying dose showed a synergistic herb-drug interaction. Thus using the synergistic herb-drug interaction, the dose level of MT may be reduced to produce the same therapeutic effect as when taken alone. SUMMARY Elucidating the synergistic pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction of metformin (MT) with Cassia auriculata L. (CA)PD data showed reasonable blood glucose lowering effect of CA. The reduction of MT dose with combination of CA

  14. Reduction of lipid accumulation in white adipose tissues by Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract is associated with AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2013-01-15

    Natural herbal medications may be one answer to the worldwide epidemic of obesity. This study examines the effects of Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) upon lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT). CSEE exhibited a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the intracellular accumulation of trigycerides in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks, rats were fed CSEE (100, 200 or 300 mg/kg) once daily for 8 weeks. CSEE caused dose-related reductions in body weight gain (as well as plasma lipid levels and epididymal WAT sizes in HFD-fed rats). CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in epididymal WAT of HFD-fed rats. CSEE could attenuate lipid accumulation in WAT via AMPK signaling pathway activation.

  15. Solution properties of the galactomannans extracted from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Cassia javanica: comparison with locust bean gum.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C T; Azero, E G; Luciano, L; Gonçalves, M P

    1999-11-01

    The galactomannans from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Cassia javanica were extracted from the milled seeds in water at room temperature. Both products, as well as a commercial sample of locust bean gum (LBG), were purified by precipitation in isopropyl alcohol. The intrinsic viscosity determined for LBG, [eta] = 15.2 dl/g, was slightly higher than those for the other two galactomannans. The dependence of the specific viscosity at zero shear rate on the coil overlap parameter, C[eta], revealed a similar behaviour for the three galactomannans. A master curve was obtained with a critical concentration, C*, at C*[eta] = 3.3. The slope of the curve in the concentrated regime is higher than the values in the range of 3.9-6.6, obtained for the generalized behaviour of several random coil polysaccharides. Dynamic experiments showed that, at the concentrations studied, the behaviour of the galactomannans was typical of systems with predominant entanglement networks in the region between the terminal and plateau zones of frequency response. The correlation between dynamic and steady shear properties (Cox Merz rule) was satisfactory for the three galactomannans.

  16. ent-Epiafzelechin-(4alpha-->8)-epiafzelechin extracted from Cassia javanica inhibits herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hua-Yew; Yang, Chien-Min; Lin, Ta-Chen; Shieh, Den-En; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2006-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a ubiquitous organism that causes infections in human populations throughout the world. It causes a variety of diseases ranging in severity from mild to life-threatening. In this study, ent-epiafzelechin-(4alpha-->8)-epiafzelechin (EEE) extracted from the fresh leaves of Cassia javanica L. agnes de Wit (Leguminosae) was investigated for its in vitro anti-HSV-2 activity using XTT and plaque reduction assays. Results showed that EEE inhibited HSV-2 replication in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value was 83.8 +/- 10.9 and 166.8 +/- 12.9 microM for XTT and plaque reduction assays, respectively. EEE did not affect the viability and the proliferation of cells at antiviral concentrations. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that EEE prevented HSV-2 from penetrating the cell and also interfered with HSV-2 replication at the late stage of its life cycle. It also disturbed virus attachment but the inhibitory effect was minor. In summary, the conclusion of this study was that EEE exhibits various modes of action in suppressing HSV-2 multiplication.

  17. Cellulose nanocomposite films with in situ generated silver nanoparticles using Cassia alata leaf extract as a reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Sivaranjana, P; Nagarajan, E R; Rajini, N; Jawaid, M; Rajulu, A Varada

    2017-06-01

    Cotton linters were dissolved in aq. (8% LiOH+15% urea) that was pre-cooled to -12.5°C. Using this solution cellulose gel films were prepared by regeneration method with ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. These wet films were diffused with 10wt% Cassia alata leaf extract that acted as a reducing agent. The leaf extract diffused cellulose wet films were used as the matrix. The wet matrix films were dipped individually in lower concentrated 1-5mM aq.AgNO3 source solutions in the presence of sunlight and allowed the solutions to react with the diffused leaf extract reducing agent which in situ generated the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inside the films as well as in the source solution. The AgNPs formed in the source solution were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while those formed in situ the films were observed by SEM and the particle size distribution was determined. The cellulose/AgNP composite films showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli bacteria. These nanocomposite films were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. At temperatures below 300°C, the thermal stability of the nanocomposite films was lower than that of the matrix due to the catalytic effect of AgNPs. The nanocomposite films also possessed good tensile properties. The ecofriendly cellulose/AgNP composite films with good antibacterial activity and tensile properties can be considered for medical applications like dressing materials.

  18. Biosynthesis characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cassia roxburghii DC. aqueous extract, and coated on cotton cloth for effective antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Balashanmugam, Pannerselvam; Kalaichelvan, Pudupalayam Thangavelu

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver precursor using a plant biomaterial, Cassia roxburghii DC., aqueous extract. The AgNPs were synthesized from the shade-dried leaf extract and assessed for their stability; they elucidated characteristics under UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited a maximum absorption at 430 nm, and the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that they were crystal in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conversion of Ag+ ions to AgNPs due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. The HR-TEM analysis revealed that they are spherical ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm. The spot EDAX analysis showed the presence of silver atoms. In addition, AgNPs were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against six different pathogenic bacteria: three Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus, and three Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter aerogenes. They were highly sensitive to AgNPs, whereas less sensitive to AgNO3. Furthermore, the green synthesized AgNPs were immobilized on cotton fabrics and screened for antibacterial activity. The immobilized AgNPs on cotton cloth showed high antibacterial activity. Therefore, they could be a feasible alternative source in treating wounds or may help in replacing pharmaceutical band-aids. PMID:26491310

  19. A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora) is reportedly effective in treatment of skin and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study explores the protease inhibitory activity of the above plant seeds against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Methods The crushed seeds of Cassia tora were washed thoroughly with acetone and hexane for depigmentation and defatting. The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulphate (0-30, 30-60, 60-90%) followed by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The inhibitory potential of crude seed extract and most active dialyzed fraction against trypsin and proteases was established by spot test using unprocessed x-ray film and casein digestion methods, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of most active fraction (30-60%) and SEC elutes were carried employing Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Gelatin SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of fungal spore germination was studied in the presence of dialyzed active inhibitor fraction. Standard deviation (SD) and ANOVA were employed as statistical tools. Results The crude seeds' extract displayed strong antitryptic, bacterial and fungal protease inhibitory activity on x-ray film. The seed protein fraction 30-60% was found most active for trypsin inhibition in caseinolytic assay (P < 0.001). The inhibition of caseinolytic activity of the proteases increased with increasing ratio of seed extract. The residual activity of trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases remained only 4, 7 and 3.1%, respectively when proteases were incubated with 3 mg ml-1 seed protein

  20. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from Semen Cassiae by microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with spectroscopy and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xunyou; Fan, Huajun; Xie, Xiujuan; Wan, Qiang; Wu, Xuehao; Tang, James Z

    2016-06-25

    A novel and rapid method for simultaneous extraction and separation of the different polysaccharides from Semen Cassiae (SC) was developed by microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction (MAATPE) in a one-step procedure. Using ethanol/ammonium sulfate system as a multiphase solvent, the effects of MAATPE on the extraction of polysaccharides from SC such as the composition of the ATPS, extraction time, temperature and solvent-to-material ratio were investigated by UV-vis analysis. Under the optimum conditions, the yields of polysaccharides were 4.49% for the top phase, 8.80% for the bottom phase and 13.29% for total polysaccharides, respectively. Compared with heating solvent extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction, MAATPE exhibited the higher extraction yields in shorter time. Fourier-transform infrared spectra showed that two polysaccharides extracted from SC to the top and bottom phases by MAATPE were different from each other in their chemical structures. Through acid hydrolysis and PMP derivatization prior to HPLC, analytical results by indicated that a polysaccharide of the top phases was a relatively homogeneous homepolysaccharide composed of dominant gucose glucose while that of the bottom phase was a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide with multiple components of glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, mannose and glucuronic acid. Molar ratios of monosaccharides were 95.13:4.27:0.60 of glucose: arabinose: galactose for the polysaccharide from the top phase and 62.96:14.07:6.67: 6.67:5.19:4.44 of glucose: xylose: arabinose: galactose: mannose: glucuronic acid for that from the bottom phase, respectively. The mechanism for MAATPE process was also discussed in detail. MAATPE with the aid of microwave and the selectivity of the ATPS not only improved yields of the extraction, but also obtained a variety of polysaccharides. Hence, it was proved as a green, efficient and promising alternative to simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides from SC. Copyright

  1. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils extracted from cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spices are added into foods mainly for enhancing the organoleptic quality of the food. The application of spices and their derivatives in foods as preservatives has been investigated for years. In this study, we determined the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of three spices, cassia bark...

  2. Isolinderanolide B, a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, inhibits proliferation of T24 human bladder cancer cells by blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Lin, En-Shyh; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chen, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Isolinderanolide B (IOB), a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in T24 human bladder cancer cells. To identity the anticancer mechanism of IOB, its effect on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and levels of p53, p21 Waf1/Cip1, Fas/APO-1 receptor, and Fas ligand was assayed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the G0/G1 phase arrest is because of increase in the expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1. An enhancement in Fas/APO-1 and membrane-bound Fas ligand (mFasL) might be responsible for the apoptotic effect induced by IOB. This study reports the novel finding that the induction of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and activity of the Fas/mFas ligand apoptotic system may participate in the antiproliferative activity of IOB in T24 cells.

  3. Controlling Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens using silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of Cassia fistula fruit pulp and its mode of action.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Hatem; Hongjie, Li; Hosni, Dawood; Wei, Jiqian; Abbas, Ghulam; Ga'al, Hassan; Jianchu, Mo

    2017-05-25

    Mosquitoes act as key vector for transmission of devastating parasites and pathogens which affect millions of people globally. In this research, the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles of Cassia fistula fruit pulp as an innovative and operative tool against vector mosquitoes is presented. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by a series of techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope and confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction. Silver nanoparticles were highly effective against the larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens after 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. Ae. albopictus had LC50 values ranging from 8.3 mg/L (I instar) to 17.3 mg/L (pupae) and LC50 ranging from 1.1 mg/L (I instar) to 19.0 mg/L (pupae) against Cx. pipiens pallens. The systemic effect of AgNPs was further assessed in the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens pallens by measuring the levels of total proteins and activity of two important marker enzymes: Acetylcholinesterase and α- and β-carboxylesterase. Overall, the findings of the study suggest that the use of Cassia fistula-fruit pulp extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles can be used for controlling vector mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of AgNPs synthesized by Cassia fistula fruit pulp and its possible mechanism of action.

  4. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nagappan, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Results 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. Conclusions From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation. PMID:23569999

  5. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Nagappan, Raja

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation.

  6. A potential low-coumarin cinnamon substitute: Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Feng; Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-02-19

    The essential oils from leaves of Taiwan's indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. cinnamaldehyde) have similar constituents as compared to that from commercial bark cinnamons. This indigenous cinnamon has been proven to have excellent bioactivities. To understand whether this indigenous cinnamon contains a high level of the hepatotoxic compound, coumarin, as often seen in Cassia cinnamons, current research focused on determining the coumarin content in this indigenous cinnamon and screening the low-coumarin clones. The results demonstrated that the coumarin contents in all tested indigenous cinnamon clones were much lower than that found in Cassia cinnamons. In addition, this indigenous cinnamon contains about 80% (w/w) of cinnamaldehyde and 0.4-2.7% (w/w) of eugenol in its leaf essential oils. This combination could provide this indigenous cinnamon a better shelf life compared to that of regular commercial cinnamons. These results suggested that leaves of this indigenous cinnamon could be a potential resource for a safer cinnamon substitute.

  7. Anti-Mayaro virus activity of Cassia australis extracts (Fabaceae, Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Spindola, Kassia C W; Simas, Naomi K; Salles, Tiago S; de Meneses, Marcelo D F; Sato, Alice; Ferreira, Davis; Romão, Wanderson; Kuster, Ricardo M

    2014-11-27

    The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes 'Mayaro fever', a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Studies showed that the virus could also be transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. To date, there are no drugs that can treat this illness. Fractions and compounds were obtained by chromatography from leaf extracts of C. australis and chemically identified as flavonoids and condensed tannins using spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques (UV, NMR, and ESI-FT-ICR MS). Cytotoxicity of EtOAc, n-BuOH and EtOAc-Pp fractions were measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. Larvicidal activity was measured by the procedures recommended by the WHO expert committee for determining acute toxicity. The following group of substances was identified from EtOAc, n-BuOH and EtOAc-Pp fractions: flavones, flavonols, and their glycosides and condensed tannins. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production, respectively, by more than 70% and 85% at 25 μg/mL. EtOAc-Pp fraction inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 10 μg/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. This fraction had an excellent antiviral effect (IC90 = 4.7 ± 0.3 μg/mL), while EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions were less active (IC90 = 89.1 ± 4.4 μg/mL and IC90 = 40.9 ± 5.7 μg/mL, respectively). C. australis can be used as a source of compounds with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report on the biological activity of C. australis.

  8. Whitening efficacy of plant extracts including Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula extracts on the skin of Asian patients with melasma

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Hussain, Irshad; Abbas, Khwaja Asad; Rasul, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Melasma/hyperpigmentation and solar damage of the skin remains a difficult problem to treat. Various types of whitening agents are used to treat hyperpigmentation. A change has been observed recently to use plant extracts as skin whitening agents. Aim To compare the effectiveness of emulsion formulations containing plant extracts that include catechins/polyphenols and placebo without plant extracts, on patients with melasma. Material and methods Two groups of 25 patients each (aged 21–35 years), who reported to the outpatient department of BV Hospital and Personal clinic of a dermatologist, were included in the study. Volunteers applied the formulations with plant extracts and placebo to one side of the cheek. Prior to the study, signed consent was obtained from each patient. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the extracts and formulations was tested in vitro. The pigment density of patients was evaluated biometrologically using Mexameter® and subjectively using a visual survey before and after treatment of 12 weeks. The approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee of Faculty of Pharmacy, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur was obtained before the study. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used in the statistical analysis. Results A significant decrease in the level of melanin was determined in all 50 patients who used a plant extract containing catechin (p ≤ 0.05). The difference between pre- and post-treatment levels of melanin was statistically significant (p = 0.05). Formulations prepared with plant extracts containing catechin were found effective on melasma, compared to the placebo. Conclusions Formulations containing plant extracts that are not yet being used widespread commercially on melasma could be an effective alternative treatment of melasma. PMID:24278079

  9. Redox Control of Antioxidant and Antihepatotoxic Activities of Cassia surattensis Seed Extract against Paracetamol Intoxication in Mice: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Herbal Green Antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Uthaya Kumar, U Seeta; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of Cassia surattensis in reducing free radical-induced oxidative stress and inflammation particularly in hepatic diseases was evaluated in this study. The polyphenol rich C. surattensis seed extract showed good in vitro antioxidant. C. surattensis seed extract contained total phenolic content of 100.99 mg GAE/g dry weight and there was a positive correlation (r > 0.9) between total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of the seed extract. C. surattensis seed extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated levels of serum liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) and relative liver weight in paracetamol-induced liver hepatotoxicity in mice. Moreover, the extract significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the antioxidant enzymes and glutathione (GSH) contents in the liver tissues, which led to decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The histopathological examination showed the liver protective effect of C. surattensis seed extract against paracetamol-induced histoarchitectural alterations by maximum recovery in the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue. Furthermore, histopathological observations correspondingly supported the biochemical assay outcome, that is, the significant reduction in elevated levels of serum liver enzymes. In conclusion, C. surattensis seed extract enhanced the in vivo antioxidant status and showed antihepatotoxic activities, which is probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds.

  10. Redox Control of Antioxidant and Antihepatotoxic Activities of Cassia surattensis Seed Extract against Paracetamol Intoxication in Mice: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Herbal Green Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Uthaya Kumar, U. Seeta; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of Cassia surattensis in reducing free radical-induced oxidative stress and inflammation particularly in hepatic diseases was evaluated in this study. The polyphenol rich C. surattensis seed extract showed good in vitro antioxidant. C. surattensis seed extract contained total phenolic content of 100.99 mg GAE/g dry weight and there was a positive correlation (r > 0.9) between total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of the seed extract. C. surattensis seed extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated levels of serum liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) and relative liver weight in paracetamol-induced liver hepatotoxicity in mice. Moreover, the extract significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the antioxidant enzymes and glutathione (GSH) contents in the liver tissues, which led to decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The histopathological examination showed the liver protective effect of C. surattensis seed extract against paracetamol-induced histoarchitectural alterations by maximum recovery in the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue. Furthermore, histopathological observations correspondingly supported the biochemical assay outcome, that is, the significant reduction in elevated levels of serum liver enzymes. In conclusion, C. surattensis seed extract enhanced the in vivo antioxidant status and showed antihepatotoxic activities, which is probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds. PMID:28053693

  11. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    PubMed

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  12. Evaluation of the release profile, stability and antioxidant activity of a proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) extract co-encapsulated with α-tocopherol by spray chilling.

    PubMed

    Tulini, Fabrício L; Souza, Volnei B; Thomazini, Marcelo; Silva, Marluci P; Massarioli, Adna P; Alencar, Severino M; Pallone, Eliria M J A; Genovese, Maria I; Favaro-Trindade, Carmen S

    2017-05-01

    Cinnamon has many health improving compounds such as proanthocyanidins, which also have potential for the prevention of damages caused by diabetes. Similarly, α-tocopherol is a natural antioxidant with important role on protection of fatty acids in membranes and lipoproteins. However, the addition of antioxidants in food may result in interaction with food matrix, low stability and unpleasant taste. In the present study, a proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon extract (PRCE) (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) was co-encapsulated with α-tocopherol into solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) by spray chilling. The microparticles were characterized with regard to the physical and chemical properties, morphology, proanthocyanidin stability and release profile. SLMs were spherical with an average diameter of ca. 80μm. Proanthocyanidins were highly stable in SLMs stored for up to 90days at 5, 25 and 37°C. Moreover, SLMs gradually released proanthocyanidins in simulated gastrointestinal fluids by a diffusional process, following a Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic. Analyses of the antioxidant compounds indicated that PRCE components exhibited a higher scavenging capacity against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Thus, the SLMs produced in the present study have potential for application in the development of new functional foods and nutraceuticals, also providing an alternative for the controlled release of proanthocyanidins and α-tocopherol into the intestine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-10-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine.

  14. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  15. Linalool, derived from Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl leaf extracts, possesses molluscicidal activity against Oncomelania hupensis and inhibits infection of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Long, Erping; Wen, Juhua; Cao, Lei; Zhu, Chengcheng; Hu, Huanxin; Ruan, Ying; Okanurak, Kamolnetr; Hu, Huiling; Wei, Xiaoxia; Yang, Xiangyun; Wang, Chaofan; Zhang, Limei; Wang, Xiaoying; Ji, Pengyu; Zheng, Huanqin; Wu, Zhongdao; Lv, Zhiyue

    2014-08-29

    Schistosomiasis japonicum remains a considerable economic and public health concern in China, the Philippines and Indonesia. Currently available measures to control the unique intermediate host Oncomelania hupensis are frequently associated with severe side effects. Previous studies have demonstrated that linalool-rich extracts from various plants exhibited promising biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-microbial and anti-parasitic properties. We identified the components of leaf extracts from Cinnamomum camphora by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and investigated molluscicidal and larvicidal effects of linalool against O. hupensis and Schistosoma japonicium. The ultrastructural alterations in gills, salivary gland, stomach and hepatopancreas of snails were observed under the light microscope and transmission electron microscope, and lesions to tegument of cercaria were examined under a light microscope and fluorescence microscope. We then evaluated the effects of linalool on skin penetration and migration of schistosomula and adult survival by measurement of worm burden and egg counts in Balb/C mice infected with linalool-treated cercariae. In the present work, 44 components were identified from the leaf extracts of C. camphora, of which linalool was the most abundant constituent. Linalool exhibited the striking molluscicidal and larvicidal effects with LC50 = 0.25 mg/L for O. hupensis and LC50 = 0.07 mg/L for cercaria of S. japonicium. After exposure to linalool, damage to the gills and hepatopancreas of the snails, and to the tegument and body-tail joint of cercariae was apparent. In addition, linalool markedly reduced the recovered schistosomulum from mouse skin after challenge infection, and therefore decreased the worm burden in infected animals, but not fecundity of female adults of the parasite. Our findings indicated that linalool might be a novel chemotherapeutic agent against S. japonicium and the snail

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts from mycelia of Antrodia camphorata cultured with water-soluble fractions from five different Cinnamomum species.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Chou, Cheng-Jen; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Chen, Chieh-Fu; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Mei-Kuang

    2004-02-09

    We have previously reported that polysaccharides extracted from fruiting bodies or cultured mycelia of Antrodia camphorata exhibit an anti-hepatitis B virus effect. In this study, we intended to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potency of six mycelial extracts, namely PDB-ext, CK-ext, CM-ext, CO-ext, CC-ext, and CKO-ext, isolated from mycelia of A. camphorata cultured with six different media including potato dextrose broth (PDB) and five water-soluble fractions from the wood of different Cinnamomum species, i.e. C. kanehirae (CK), C. micranthum (CM), C. osmophloeum (CO), C. camphora (CC), and C. kotoense (CKO), against reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in peripheral human neutrophils (PMN) or mononuclear cells (MNC). ROS produced by PMN or MNC act as inflammatory mediators and also signal immune responses. Pretreatment with these mycelial extracts (1-50 microg ml(-1)) concentration-dependently diminished fMLP- or PMA-induced ROS production in PMN or MNC, as measured by lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC(50)) ranging from 2 to 20 microg ml(-1). Among these extracts evaluated, CM-ext, CO-ext, or CKO-ext exhibited higher potency than the others. Using high performance liquid chromatography, we identified two lanostane-type compounds, i.e. dehydrosulfurenic acid and 15alpha-acetyl-dehydrosulfurenic acid, which could be involved in the anti-inflammatory actions of these extracts. The anti-inflammatory actions of these extracts were not due to cytotoxic effects. In summary, these data suggest that extracts from cultured mycelia of A. camphorata display anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ROS production in human leukocytes at a pharmacologically applicable concentration. The biological activities of these extracts were further promoted when the culture medium was replaced with water-soluble fractions isolated from the

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon (C. zeylanicum and C. cassia) extracts - identification of E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxy cinnamaldehyde as the most potent bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Karunaweera, Niloo; Lee, Samiuela; van Der Kooy, Frank; Harman, David G; Raju, Ritesh; Bennett, Louise; Gyengesi, Erika; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is a contributing factor in many age-related diseases. In a previous study, we have shown that Sri Lankan cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was one of the most potent anti-inflammatory foods out of 115 foods tested. However, knowledge about the exact nature of the anti-inflammatory compounds and their distribution in the two major cinnamon species used for human consumption is limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of C. zeylanicum and C. cassia and elucidate their main phytochemical compounds. When extracts were tested in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, most of the anti-inflammatory activity, measured by down-regulation of nitric oxide and TNF-α production, was observed in the organic extracts. The most abundant compounds in these extracts were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde. The highest concentration of E-cinnamaldehyde was found in the DCM extract of C. zeylanicum or C. cassia (31 and 34 mg g(-1) of cinnamon, respectively). When these and other constituents were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 macrophages, the most potent compounds were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, which exhibited IC₅₀ values for NO with RAW 264.7 cells of 55 ± 9 μM (7.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 35 ± 9 μM (5.7 ± 1.5 μg mL(-1)), respectively; and IC₅₀ values for TNF-α of 63 ± 9 μM (8.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 78 ± 16 μM (12.6 ± 2.6 μg mL(-1)), respectively. If therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in target tissues, cinnamon and its components may be useful in the treatment of age-related inflammatory conditions.

  18. Assessment of cassia gum.

    PubMed

    Hallagan, J B; La Du, B N; Pariza, M W; Putnam, J M; Borzelleca, J F

    1997-06-01

    Cassia gum is approved for use in Europe by the Commission Directive (EEC No. E 499) and is listed in the Annex of the Council Directive (70/524/EEC) as a stabilizer (thickening and gelling agent) in the manufacture of canned pet foods (for cats and dogs). It is also approved for use in Japan and is listed as a food additive in The Ministry of Health and Welfare Announcement No. 160 (10 August 1995). A panel of experts in the areas of toxicology, pharmacology and food science was assembled to review the safety of cassia gum for use as a thickening agent in human and pet foods in the United States. The available data on cassia gum and structurally related gums demonstrate a lack of toxic effects in animals. This review is the basis for the consideration of cassia gum as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of its intended use as a thickening agent in human and pet foods.

  19. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82–87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  20. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rambir; Hussain, Shariq; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-05-13

    To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urtica dioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μ g/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacterium semegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An investigation on cytotoxic effect of bioactive AgNPs synthesized using Cassia fistula flower extract on breast cancer cell MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Remya, R R; Rajasree, S R Radhika; Aranganathan, L; Suman, T Y

    2015-12-01

    A single step protocol to produce biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the aqueous extract of Cassia fistula flower as "natural factory" was investigated. The reaction between silver ions and aqueous flower extract after the bioreduction process has resulted in the formation of reddish brown color colloidal solution. XRD pattern showed the face centered cubic crystalline structure of AgNPs and exhibited spherical morphology as characterized by FE-SEM. FTIR studies identified different functional groups involved in effective capping of AgNPs. The zeta potential affirmed the phytoreduced AgNPs possess good stability and the size of the particle was measured by DLS. The synthesized AgNPs displayed effective cytotoxic potential against MCF7 and the inhibitory concentration (IC50) was recorded at 7.19 μg/mL. The apoptotic effects of the AgNPs were also confirmed by AO/EB staining. The investigation presents preliminary evidence that biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in the development of novel anticancer drugs.

  2. Effect of Fermentation on Compositional Changes of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawati, AD; Huang, TC; Kusnadi, J.

    2017-04-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh is known as “indigenous cinnamon” with the chemical constituents of its leave’s essential oil are similar to the famous C. cassia inner bark oil. Its oil has long been used as a medicinal plant. Fermentation is one of the processes in tea production, which could change the compound’s composition. This research aims to study the compositional changes of C. osmophloeum leaves during fermentation compared to unfermented leaves and commercial tea leaves. The main bioactive secondary metabolites in C. osmophloeum leaves extract are two flavonol glycosides. Both of this glycosides changed into aglycone during fermentation. By using HPLC and LC-MS analysis the major components and their derivative were identified. The retention time of kaempferol aglycone was 35.21 minute and the concentration showed increased from 0.46 to 46.8 µg. mL-1 after fermentation. There are 3 major groups lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented C. osmophloeum Kaneh leaves, Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus, which it plays the key role during the compositional changes of glycosides into aglycone.

  3. Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-01-01

    The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC50 values, two cassia oils (0.084–0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064–0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, α-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114–0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl α-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224–0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

  4. Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and anti-atherosclerogenic effect of aqueous extract leaves of Cassia. occidentalis Linn (Caesalpiniaceae) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Fidèle, Ntchapda; Joseph, Barama; Emmanuel, Talla; Théophile, Dimo

    2017-01-25

    Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress are major risk factors for atherosclerosis, and all three are among the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Cassia occidentalis aqueous extract has been used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases. This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic properties of the aqueous extract of the leaves of C. occidentalis in rats with hypercholesterolemia (HC). Sixty Normocholesterolemic (NC) male rats were divided into six groups (n = 10) and fed a high-cholesterol (HC) diet for 30 days (5 groups), or normal rat chow (normal control group). The plant extract was administered to animals at the increasing dose of 240, 320 and 400 mg/kg. After 4 weeks of treatment 5 rats out of 10 were sacrificed, blood samples, aorta, liver, and fresh faecal were collected and processed for biochemical tests. The experiments were conducted under the same conditions with a group of rat treated with Atorvastatin (1 mg/kg), used positive control. The effects of C. occidentalis on weight gain, water and food consumptions, levels of serum lipids and lipoprotein lipid oxidation and stress markers in blood and liver were also examined. A significant body weight gain was observed in general in all the group of animals without any treatment after 4 weeks. During the treatment period, the C. occidentalis extract induced a significant increase (P < 0.01) in water consumption and food intakes. After 4 weeks of treatment with hypercholesterolemia, the body temperature and organ weights including the liver, kidney, heart and the testis did not present any significant change. The administration of C. occidentalis extract significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the elevation in TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, hepatic and aortic TG and TC. The atherogenic, triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) index were also decreased in the rats treated with the

  5. Polyphenolic enriched extract of Cassia glauca Lamk, improves streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetes linked with partial insulin resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Veerapur, V P; Pratap, V; Thippeswamy, B S; Marietta, P; Bansal, Punit; Kulkarni, P V; Kulkarni, V H

    2017-02-23

    Traditionally Cassia glauca (CG) has been used to treat diabetes. The study was undertaken to evaluate anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of polyphenolic enriched extract of CG in standardized streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The effect of ethanol (CGE) and water (CGW) extracts of CG (200 and 400mg/kg) treatment were evaluated in STZ (50mg/kg, iv) induced diabetic rats. On 10(th) day, oral glucose tolerance test and degree of insulin resistance was calculated. On 13(th) day, insulin tolerance test was performed to know the peripheral utilization of glucose. On 15(th) day, blood glucose, lipid profiles and endogenous antioxidant levels were estimated. In addition, the effects on oral glucose/sucrose tolerance test in normal rats. Further, HPLC fingerprinting profile of CGE and simultaneous quantification of biomarkers were carried out. Supplementation with CGE and CGW significantly reduced STZ-induced deleterious effects and improved glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance. In addition, supplementation also decreased oxidative stress by improving endogenous antioxidant levels. Furthermore, administration significantly improves sucrose tolerance suggesting that extract possess inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme. Further, HPLC studies revealed that CGE contains three bioactive polyphenolic compounds viz., rutin (0.10±0.01mg/g), luteolin-7-glucoside (0.06±0.01mg/g) and isorhoifolin (0.7±0.05mg/g). Observed beneficial outcome of CG might be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds and mediated by interacting with multiple targets of diabetes and oxidative stress. Taken together, this study provided the scientific evidence for the traditional use of CG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-Atherosclerotic Potential of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum Bark against Glucocorticoid Induced Atherosclerosis in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Im Nagendra; Chinta, Rajasekhar; Jetti, Raghu

    2017-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of disability of blood vessels which can result in development of many cardiovascular disorders. There is a strong association between atherosclerosis and insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. To study the anti-atherosclerotic potential of C. zeylanicum bark extract in insulin resistance associated atherosclerosis and worsened Atherogenic Index (AI) associated with dyslipidemia, which are the predominant complications of steroid diabetes in Wistar rats. A sum of 36 rats were categorized into five study groups and one plain control. In a 12 day study period, respective drug treatments were given every day throughout the study period whereas, dexamethasone dosage was started from day seven onwards. On day 12, fasting blood samples were collected and processed for lipid estimation and the determined values were also used to assess AI further. Animals were sacrificed under ether anaesthesia and the aorta was dissected away for its measurement and histopathological findings. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse the data and multiple comparison was done, interpreted based on Post-Hoc Scheffe test. High dose of dexamethasone (8 mg/kg/i.p) in Dexa Control (DC) group produced significant dyslipidemia, increased risk of atherogenicity (p<0.05) and caused severe thickening (78.5% compared to Plain Control (PC) of wall of aorta. Rosiglitazone (ROSI) (8 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg) and C. zelanicum (CZE) extract treatments (500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg) significantly prevented dyslipidemia, well maintained AI compared to dexa control (p<0.05). However, both the CZE treatments protected the aorta from atherosclerosis (40.3% and 30.2% compared to DC) and significantly prevented the dyslipidemia and reduced the risk of atherogenicity compared to ROSI treatment (p<0.05). Although, the CZE did not show difference in significance in maintaining very low density lipoprotein when compared to ROSI (p>0.05). The atherosclerotic changes were completely absent in

  7. Anti-Atherosclerotic Potential of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum Bark against Glucocorticoid Induced Atherosclerosis in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, IM Nagendra; Jetti, Raghu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of disability of blood vessels which can result in development of many cardiovascular disorders. There is a strong association between atherosclerosis and insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Aim To study the anti-atherosclerotic potential of C. zeylanicum bark extract in insulin resistance associated atherosclerosis and worsened Atherogenic Index (AI) associated with dyslipidemia, which are the predominant complications of steroid diabetes in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods A sum of 36 rats were categorized into five study groups and one plain control. In a 12 day study period, respective drug treatments were given every day throughout the study period whereas, dexamethasone dosage was started from day seven onwards. On day 12, fasting blood samples were collected and processed for lipid estimation and the determined values were also used to assess AI further. Animals were sacrificed under ether anaesthesia and the aorta was dissected away for its measurement and histopathological findings. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse the data and multiple comparison was done, interpreted based on Post-Hoc Scheffe test. Results High dose of dexamethasone (8 mg/kg/i.p) in Dexa Control (DC) group produced significant dyslipidemia, increased risk of atherogenicity (p<0.05) and caused severe thickening (78.5% compared to Plain Control (PC) of wall of aorta. Rosiglitazone (ROSI) (8 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg) and C. zelanicum (CZE) extract treatments (500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg) significantly prevented dyslipidemia, well maintained AI compared to dexa control (p<0.05). However, both the CZE treatments protected the aorta from atherosclerosis (40.3% and 30.2% compared to DC) and significantly prevented the dyslipidemia and reduced the risk of atherogenicity compared to ROSI treatment (p<0.05). Although, the CZE did not show difference in significance in maintaining very low density lipoprotein when compared to ROSI (p>0.05). The

  8. Anti-Diabetic Effects of an Ethanol Extract of Cassia Abbreviata Stem Bark on Diabetic Rats and Possible Mechanism of Its Action

    PubMed Central

    Kwape, Tebogo Elvis; Chaturvedi, Padmaja

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of an ethanol extract of Cassia abbreviata (ECA) bark and the possible mechanisms of its action in diabetic albino rats. Methods: ECA was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% ethanol. It was filtered and made solvent-free by evaporation on a rotary evaporator. Type 2 diabetes was induced in albino rats by injecting 35 mg/kg body weight (bw) of streptozotocin after having fed the rats a high-fat diet for 2 weeks. Diabetic rats were divided into ECA-150, ECA-300 and Metformin (MET)-180 groups, where the numbers are the doses in mg.kg.bw administered to the groups. Normal (NC) and diabetic (DC) controls were given distilled water. The animals had their fasting blood glucose levels and body weights determined every 7 days for 21 days. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were carried out in all animals at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Liver and kidney samples were harvested for glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase) and hexokinase activity analyses. Small intestines and diaphragms from normal rats were used for α-glucosidase and glucose uptake studies against the extract. Results: Two doses, 150 and 300 mg/kg bw, significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats and helped them maintain normal body weights. The glucose level in DC rats significantly increased while their body weights decreased. The 150 mg/kg bw dose significantly increased hexokinase and decreased G6Pase activities in the liver and the kidneys. ECA inhibited α-glucosidase activity and promoted glucose uptake in the rats’ hemi-diaphragms. Conclusion: This study revealed that ECA normalized blood glucose levels and body weights in type 2 diabetic rats. The normalization of the glucose levels may possibly be due to inhibition of α-glucosidase, decreased G6Pase activity, increased hexokinase activity and improved glucose uptake by muscle tissues.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of extracts from Chinese chive, cinnamon, and corni fructus.

    PubMed

    Mau, J; Chen, C; Hsieh, P

    2001-01-01

    Extracts were prepared from Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), and corni fructus (Cornus officinalis) and used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity on common foodborne microorganisms, alone and in combination. The mixed extract, consisting of three extracts in equal volumes, showed an entire antimicrobial spectrum and had excellent stability to heat, pH, and storage. The mixed extract exhibited better inhibition on growth of Escherichia coli than potassium sorbate at 2-5 mg/mL. The mixed extract inhibited the growth of Pichia membranaefaciens at levels as low as 2 mg/mL. When the mixed extract was used in foods, the expected antimicrobial effect in orange juice, pork, and milk was observed. After gel filtration chromatography, each extract was partially purified into fractions, and one fraction in each extract showed enhanced antimicrobial activity. Overall, the mixed extract was of promising potential for incorporation into various food products for which a natural antimicrobial additive is desired.

  10. Chemical constituents of Cinnamomum cebuense.

    PubMed

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y; Espineli, Dinah L; Agoo, Esperanza Maribel G; Del Fierro, Ramon S

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Cinnamomum cebuense, an endemic and critically endangered tree found only in Cebu, Philippines. The compounds were isolated by silica gel chromatography. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy. The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of the bark of C. cebuense afforded a new monoterpene natural product 1 and a new sesquiterpene 2, along with the known compounds, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (3), 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (4), α-terpineol (5) and humulene (6). The DCM extract of the leaves of C. cebuense yielded 6, β-caryophyllene (7), squalene (8), and a mixture of α-amyrin (9), β-amyrin (10) and bauerenol (11). The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, while the structures of 8-11 were identified by comparison of their (13)C NMR data with those reported in the literature. The bark of C. cebuense afforded monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenolics, while the leaves yielded sesquiterpenes and triterpenes. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cassiae semen: A review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology (Review).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoxv; Fu, Jing; Yin, Xingbin; Yang, Chunjing; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Wenping; Du, Xueying; Wang, Qingling; Ni, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Cassiae semen (Leguminosae), a well‑known traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for a number of centuries in areas of Southeast Asia, including Korea, Japan and China. The present review aims to provide updated and comprehensive information, on the botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cassiae semen. The available information on Cassiae semen was collected using several different resources, including classic books on Chinese herbal medicine and a number of scientific databases, including the China Academic Journals full‑text database, PubMed, SciFinder, the Web of Science and Science Direct. To date >70 chemical compounds have been isolated from Cassiae semen, and the major components have been determined to be anthraquinones, naphthopyrones and volatile oil. The crude extracts and pure compounds of Cassiae semen have been used as effective agents in preclinical and clinical practice due to their beneficial activities, including antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antioxidant and hypotensive activities. With the body of reported data, it has been suggested that Cassiae semen has convincing medicinal potential. However, the pharmacological mechanisms of the main bioactive compounds and the association between structure and activity require further investigation.

  12. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

  13. Naphthalene glycosides in Cassia senna and Cassia angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Lemli, J; Toppet, S; Cuveele, J; Janssen, G

    1981-09-01

    From leaves and pods of Cassia senna L. and C. angustifolia Vahl. were isolated the naphthalene glycosides 6-hydroxymusizin glycoside and the new tinnevellin glycoside. The structures were established mainly by spectroscopic methods ( (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS).

  14. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Garzia, Giovanna Tropea; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-06-26

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies.

  15. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Tropea Garzia, Giovanna; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  16. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Suman; Roy, Saptarshi; Lyndem, Larisha Mawkhleing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia angustifolia (C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). Methods Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently. Results C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively. Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h. Conclusions This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested. PMID:25183125

  17. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  18. Toxicity of spray and fumigant products containing cassia oil to Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Ii; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Koh, Young-Yull; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2006-08-01

    The toxicity of formulations of oil of cassia, Cinnamomum cassia Blume, (20 and 50 g L(-1) sprays and 100% oil-based fumigant) to adult Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes and D. pteronyssinus Trouessart was examined using contact and vapour-phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with the lethal activity of three commercial acaricides: benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate and diethyl-m-toluamide (deet). The contact toxicity of cassia oil to both dust mite species was comparable with that of benzyl benzoate but was higher than that of the other two acaricides. Sprays containing 20 and 50 g L(-1) cassia oil were effective against both mite species when applied to fabric, glass, paper, plastic, tin or wood substrates. Applications of the 50 g L(-1) spray to different space volumes and surface areas determined that 50-60 mg of cassia oil was needed to control dust mites in 3.4 m(3) or in 1 m(2). In tests with fumigant devices, toxicity varied according to the thickness of non-woven fabric covering the device, the exposure time, the number of fumigant devices used and the volume of the space sprayed. Fumigant toxicity to adult D. pteronyssinus was more pronounced with devices enclosed in thinner (40 microm) versus thicker (45 or 50 microm) non-woven fabric covers. A single fumigant device with a 40 microm thick non-woven fabric cover resulted in substantial control in a space of 0.05 m(3) but exhibited only moderate to weak control in spaces >or= 0.097 m(3) at 4 days after application. Two fumigant devices gave 88% mortality in a space of 1.73 m(3). Cassia oil applied as sprays or in fumigant devices appears to provide effective protection of humans from house dust mites.

  19. Characterization and in vitro studies on anticancer, antioxidant activity against colon cancer cell line of gold nanoparticles capped with Cassia tora SM leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Ezra Elumalai; John Poonga, Preetam Raj; Panicker, Shirly George

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized gold nanoparticles of an ethnobotanically and medicinally important plant species Cassia tora against colon cancer cells and to find its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to improve the bioavailability of C. tora, we synthesized gold nanoparticles through green synthesis, by simple mixing and stirring of C. tora leaf powder and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution which gave a dispersion of gold nanoparticles conjugate with C. tora secondary metabolites (SMs) with characteristic surface plasmon resonance. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta sizer, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity was carried out for gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs, using well-diffusion method. The MTT assay for cell viability and markers such as catalase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was predictable to confirm the cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. The treatment of gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs on Col320 cells showed reduction in the cell viability through MTT assay, and it also significantly suppressed the release of H2O2, LPO and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. C. tora SMs conjugate gold nanoparticles showed enhanced bioavailability, antioxidant and anticancer effect against colon cancer cell line (Col320).

  20. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

    2004-12-01

    In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi.

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  2. Cognition enhancing effect of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on non-transgenic Alzheimer's disease rat model: Biochemical, histological, and behavioural studies.

    PubMed

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2016-06-16

    Several dietary supplements are actively being tested for their dual role of alleviating the metabolic perturbations and restricting the consequent cognitive dysfunctions seen in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of aqueous extract of cinnamon (CE) on the monosodium glutamate-induced non-transgenic rat model of AD (NTAD) established with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, neuronal loss, and cognitive impairment at a very early stage of life. The experimental design included oral administration of CE (50 mg/kg body weight) for 20 weeks to 2-month and 10-month-old NTAD rats. Following the treatments, the animals attained 7 and 15 months of age, respectively. They were then subjected to behavioural testing, biochemical analysis, and stereology experiments. The results demonstrated that CE treatment improved the insulin sensitivity, increased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (pGSK3β), inhibited the cholinesterase activity, and improved the learning ability in NTAD rats. Histological evaluation has shown an increase in neuron count in the DG sub-field of hippocampus upon treatment with CE. These beneficial effects of CE are suggestive of considering cinnamon as a dietary supplement in modulating the metabolic changes and cognitive functions.

  3. Pro-healing effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Jagadish V; Rana, A C; Chowdhury, Anirban Roy

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol extract of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was evaluated for wound healing activity in Wistar rats. The extract was administered by the oral route at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight (1/8 and 1/4 of LD(50), respectively) for all the wound models selected, excision, incision and dead space wounds. The extract significantly enhanced the wound breaking strength in the case of incision wound, the rate of wound contraction and the period of epithelization in the case of excision wound. The granulation tissue weight, its breaking strength and its hydroxyproline content was also increased by the extract in the dead space wound.

  4. Development of an effective and efficient DNA isolation method for Cinnamomum species.

    PubMed

    Bhau, B S; Gogoi, G; Baruah, D; Ahmed, R; Hazarika, G; Ghosh, S; Borah, B; Gogoi, B; Sarmah, D K; Nath, S C; Wann, S B

    2015-12-01

    Different species of Cinnamomum are rich in polysaccharide's and secondary metabolites, which hinder the process of DNA extraction. High quality DNA is the pre-requisite for any molecular biology study. In this paper we report a modified method for high quality and quantity of DNA extraction from both lyophilized and non-lyophilized leaf samples. Protocol reported differs from the CTAB procedure by addition of higher concentration of salt and activated charcoal to remove the polysaccharides and polyphenols. Wide utility of the modified protocol was proved by DNA extraction from different woody species and 4 Cinnamomum species. Therefore, this protocol has also been validated in different species of plants containing high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA showed perfect amplification when subjected to RAPD, restriction digestion and amplification with DNA barcoding primers. The DNA extraction protocol is reproducible and can be applied for any plant molecular biology study.

  5. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon.

  6. Cassia auriculata: Aspects of Safety Pharmacology and Drug Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Amrutesh S.; Halade, Ganesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Mogre, Ranjan; Apte, Kishori; Vaidya, Ashok D. B.; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    Safety pharmacology studies help in identifying preclinical adverse drug reactions. We carried out routine safety pharmacology with focus on cardiovascular variables and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction studies on rats fed with standardized traditional hydro-alcoholic extract and technology-based supercritical extract of Cassia auriculata for 12 weeks. Our studies indicate that both these extracts are pharmacologically safe and did not show any significant adverse reactions at the tested doses. The traditional hydro-alcoholic extract did not show any significant effect on pharmacokinetics; however, the technology-based supercritical extract caused a significant reduction in absorption of metformin. Our results indicate the need to include pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction studies as evidence for safety especially for technology-based extracts. PMID:21785642

  7. [Studies on chemical constituents of leaves of Cassia angustifolia].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-fei; Lu, Jin-cai; Yu, Xiao-min; Ding, You-mei

    2007-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. Solvents extraction and various chromatographic methods were applied to separate and purify its constituents. The structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidence and spectral analysis. Six compounds were obtained and identified as cholesterol (I), kampferol-3-rutinoside (II), calyxanthone (III), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (IV), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (V), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (VI). Six compounds ( I -VI) are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  8. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth.

    PubMed

    Smitha, S L; Philip, Daizy; Gopchandran, K G

    2009-10-15

    Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is an important branch of nanotechnology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth as the reducing agent is reported. The morphology of the particles formed consists of a mixture of gold nanoprisms and spheres with fcc (111) structure of gold. At lower concentrations of the extract, formation of prism shaped Au particles dominates, while at higher concentrations almost spherical particles alone are observed. Good crystallinity of the nanoparticles with fcc phase is evident from XRD patterns, clear lattice fringes in the high resolution TEM image and bright circular rings in the SAED pattern. Au nanoparticles grown are observed to be photoluminescent and the intensity of photoemission is found to increase with increase in leaf broth concentration. The ability to modulate the shape of nanoparticles as observed in this study for gold nanoparticles opens up the exciting possibility of developing further synthetic routes employing ecofriendly sources.

  9. Review on pharmacological activities of Cinnamomum subavenium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Hsing; Kuo, Chien-Neng; Chen, Hsin-Liang; Chen, Chung-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This review describes the morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Cinnamomum subavenium (Lauraceae). The plant grows wild in southern Mainland China, Burma, Cambodia, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia. This plant is recorded as having long been used to treat carcinomatous swelling, stomach ache, chest pain, abdominal pain, hernia, diarrhoea, rheumatism, nausea and vomiting. This article enumerates an overview of phytochemical and pharmacological aspects that is useful to researchers for further exploration for the necessary development of this potential herb.

  10. Comparison on extraction yield of sennoside A and sennoside B from senna (Cassia angustifolia) using conventional and non conventional extraction techniques and their quantification using a validated HPLC-PDA detection method.

    PubMed

    Dhanani, Tushar; Singh, Raghuraj; Reddy, Nagaraja; Trivedi, A; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2017-05-01

    Senna is an important medicinal plant and is used in many Ayurvedic formulations. Dianthraquinone glucosides are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and pods of senna. The extraction efficiency in terms of yield and composition of the extract of senna prepared using both conventional (cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing) and non conventional (ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction as well as supercritical fluid extraction) techniques were compared in the present study. Also a rapid reverse phase HPLC-PDA detection method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sennoside A and sennoside B in the different extracts of senna leaves. Ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction techniques were more effective in terms of yield and composition of the extracts compared to cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing methods of extraction.

  11. Portal vein thrombosis related to Cassia angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Soyuncu, Secgin; Cete, Yildiray; Nokay, Ali E

    2008-09-01

    Cassia angustifolia (Senna), used as a laxative, is a plant from the Fabaceae family. It includes hydroxyanthracene glycosides, also known as Senna Sennoside. These glycosides stimulate the peristalsis of the colon and alter colonic absorption and secretion resulting in fluid accumulation and expulsion. In the literature, there are reports illustrating the hepatotoxic effects of Cassia angustifolia but there is no report of portal vein thrombosis caused by Cassia Angustifolia. A 42-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with a five-day history of worsening epigastric pain, anorexia, episodic vomiting, and intermittent fever. She reported that she had boiled dried senna leaves she had bought from herbalists and drank approximately 200 mL daily for two years. Color Doppler screening found an echogen thrombus obliterating portal vein bifurcation and the right branch. The lumen was obstructed at this level and there was no blood flow through it. Treatment with thrombolytics was unsuccessful. Severe hepatotoxicity senna use is unusual. The cause of senna-related hepatotoxicity is unclear but could be explained by the exposure of the liver to unusual amounts of toxic metabolites of anthraquinone glycosides. Chronic use of Cassia angustifolia may rarely be associated with portal vein thrombosis.

  12. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  13. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Arash

    2015-02-01

    In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals. To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats. In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon by gavage for 28 days, while the controls received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standardized conditions. On day 28, a 5 mL blood sample from each rat was taken from tail area to measure testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Testes were collected and were then prepared for sperm analysis by the WHO method. Sperm quality parameters, total serum testosterone, SOD, CAT, and GPX levels were significantly increased in the cinnamon group in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Also, rats in the cinnamon group showed a significant decrease in the level of plasma MDA (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There were no significant differences between the groups in testis weight (P > 0.05). The administration of 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon significantly increased the sperm population, motility and viability, which supports the theory that in mammalians, cinnamon has a beneficial effect on spermatogenesis.

  14. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals. Objectives: To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon by gavage for 28 days, while the controls received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standardized conditions. On day 28, a 5 mL blood sample from each rat was taken from tail area to measure testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Testes were collected and were then prepared for sperm analysis by the WHO method. Results: Sperm quality parameters, total serum testosterone, SOD, CAT, and GPX levels were significantly increased in the cinnamon group in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Also, rats in the cinnamon group showed a significant decrease in the level of plasma MDA (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There were no significant differences between the groups in testis weight (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The administration of 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon significantly increased the sperm population, motility and viability, which supports the theory that in mammalians, cinnamon has a beneficial effect on spermatogenesis. PMID:25838932

  15. Antidiabetic activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn) in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Laxmi; Khatri, Anirudh; Kaushik, Basant; Patil, Umesh K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of various extracts, petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous extract of Cassia occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous extract of whole plant of Cassia occidentalis were orally tested at the dose of 200 mg/kg for hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract-treated diabetic rats, were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathological observations during 21 days treatment were also evaluated. Results: Aqueous extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Apart from aqueous extract, petroleum ether extract showed activity from day 14 and chloroform extract showed activity from 7 days. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein, and changes in body weight by aqueous extract treated-diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by extract which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. They also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and serum lipid profiles as well as histopathological studies showed regeneration of β-cells of pancreas and so might be of value in diabetes treatment. PMID:20927247

  16. IN VIVO EFFECT OF SOME HOME SPICES EXTRACTS ON THE TOXOPLASMA GONDII TACHYZOITES

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zanbagi, Najia A.

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis drugs have the longest history and are still the first choice for most conditions. Alternative drugs such as Co-trimoxazole and Tetracycline have been tried and acclaimed successful. The lack of general acceptance, however, is an indication that the results are not very convincing. A wide range of antibiotics is urgently needed for patients with drug reaction or resistance problems. The anti-toxoplasmic activity of water and ethanol extracts as well as the oil of some home spices (Piper nigrum, Capsicum frutescens, Cinnamomum cassia and Curcuma longa), were evaluated in murine models of intraperitoneal infection using the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii. Female mice were infected with 2×102 tachyzoites/ml, and then treated intraperitoneally with the home spices at 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for seven days. The tested extracts reduced the mean number of tachyzoites present in the peritoneal fluid of the experimental mice. The most effective extract was Curcuma longa ethanol extract which showed a 98.6% and 99.2% inhibition of the growth of Toxoplasma tachyzoites in 100 and 200 doses respectively compared to the control infected untreated mice. PMID:23012192

  17. Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Javed, Ijaz; Faisal, Imran; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Muhammad, Faqir; Aslam, Bilal; Ahmad, Mahmood; Shahzadi, Andleeb

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits. For this purpose, forty eight albino rabbits were randomly divided into eight equal groups; untreated control on normal routine feed, untreated control on butter and cholesterol, treated control on synthetic cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin (Tablet survive (R) 20 mg), three treated groups on three respective doses of C. zeylanicum bark powder and two treated groups on water and methanol extracts of C. zeylanicum bark powder. Butter ad lib and cholesterol powder 500 mg/kg body weight were used to induce experimental hyperlipidaemia in all groups except untreated control group. The results suggested that C. zeylanicum bark powder at the rate of 0.50 g/kg, 0.75 g/kg and methanol extract equivalent to 0.75 g/kg powder produced respective percent reductions in total lipids by 45, 49 and 64; triglycerides by 38, 53 and 60; total cholesterol by 53, 64 and 69 and LDL-cholesterol by 50, 59 and 62. However, at these dosage levels HDL-cholesterol showed respective percent increase of 42, 48 and 53. Nonetheless, C. zeylanicum bark powder at the level of 0.25g/kg and C. zeylanicum extract in water could not significantly reduce lipid profile indicators. Based on these studies, it can safely be said that C. zeylanicum bark powder methanol extract equivalent to 0.75g/kg bark powder and simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg b. wt.) were equieffective in treating hyperlipidaemia.

  18. Antioxidant activity and structural features of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Tuhin; Basu, Ankita; Adhikari, Dipan; Roy, Debnarayan; Pal, Achintya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidants in food materials have recently attracted researchers' attention because many reports have shown that the oxidative stress is closely related to the aging process of the cells and acts as a trigger to various diseases including cancer. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in initiating and promoting several diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular events, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of pectic polysaccharides extracted from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, locally known as Daruchini. An arabinogalactan (A), one partly methyl esterified galacturonic acid (B) and a neutral glucan (C) were isolated. The glucan is made up of β-(1 → 3)-linked glucopyranosyl residues and has a molecular mass of 7 kDa. The arabinogalactan is highly branched and has an average molecular mass of 40 kDa. The in vitro antioxidant capacity of the fractions was studied by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The arabinogalactan (A) showed the highest potential followed by the uronic acid (B) and glucan (C). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that these polysaccharides could be used as natural antioxidants by the food industry.

  19. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

  20. Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2007-07-11

    Cinnamomum burmannii Blume (cinnamon stick) from Indonesia is a little-investigated spice. In this study, the antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon stick extract were evaluated against five common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Cinnamon stick extract exhibited significant antibacterial properties. Major compounds in cinnamon stick were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS) as a predominant volatile oil component ((E)-cinnamaldehyde) and several polyphenols (mainly proanthocyanidins and (epi)catechins). Both (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of bacteria treated with the crude extract of cinnamon stick and its major components. This study suggests that cinnamon stick and its bioactive components have potential for application as natural food preservatives.

  1. Development and Characterization of Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana Nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Prada, Ariadna L; Bitencourt, Antônio P R; Amado, Jesús R R; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2016-01-01

    Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana are important plant species with folk use and great potential for phytopharmaceuticals. Nanodispersions are disperse systems of insoluble or immiscible substances in a liquid medium that may be prepared with or without coating polymers. To our knowledge, no studies were carried in order to achieve coating-polymer free nanoformulations using B. orellana extract or any C. grandis-based nanoformulations. Thus, on the present study we aimed to develop C. grandis nanoformulations using three different coating polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, PEG 4000 and Kollicoat®), while B. orellana nanodispersions were obtained using different surfactants (polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, polyethylene glycol 400 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 400 dioleate and polyethylene glycol 600 dioleate) as coating polymer-free nanoformulations. Characterization of nanoformulations was performed by different parameters, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential. Our results suggested that some optimal nanoformulations were obtained for both plant species. Moreover, possible stable behavior was observed during storage period for C. grandis (30 days) and B. orellana (21 days). On this context, the present study contributes to nanobiotechnology development of phytopharmaceuticals, allowing achievement of novel nano-delivery systems with two important folk medicinal plant extracts and making them potential products for innovative phytopharmaceuticals.

  2. Cassia tora Linn.: A boon to Alzheimer's disease for its anti-amyloidogenic and cholinergic activities.

    PubMed

    Chethana, K R; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Anilakumar, K R; Keri, Rangappa S

    2017-09-15

    Drug discovery from natural products as alternatives for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a current trend. For which plant is an alternative for searching potential molecule for treating AD. Availability of Cassia tora as weed and abundance in nature makes it as potential source. Many plants group under Leguminosae family has potential medicinal property of which Cassia tora is an appropriate choice, to know potency against AD. Etiology of AD is described by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The Aβ42 has key major role in forming plaques by forming structures like protobirils, oligomers and final fibrilar like structures. Even at in vitro conditions, the peptides have a fibrilar like structure, which was exploited to preliminary screening of natural sources that may be effective in treating AD. The design of the study was to unravel the potential medicinal property of Cassia tora for its antioxidant, cholinergic and aggregation inhibition activity. We evidenced that the methanol (MeOH), n-hexane (n-hex), petroleum ether (PE) and aqueous (aq) extracts from the leaves of Cassia tora (C. tora) were investigated for their inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and anti-amyloidogenic assays. The antioxidant effect using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocaltaeu's and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) reagents, respectively. The methanol extract of C. tora exerted the highest inhibition against AChE (55.38 ± 2.28%) and BChE inhibition (50.02 ± 0.79%) at 100µg/ml concentration. The methanol extract was also found more active in the antioxidant test. The aggregation kinetics was monitored using thioflavin-T (ThT) assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The results showed that C. tora methanol extract is able to inhibit the Aβ42 aggregation from monomers and oligomers and also able to dis

  3. Antifungal activity of bioactive triterpenoid saponin from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Noor Afshan; Srivastava, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    A novel oleanen type triterpenoid glycoside has been isolated from butanolic seed extracts of Cassia angustifolia. Its structure was elucidated as 3-O-{beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl}-2, 16alpha-dihydroxy-4, 20-hydroxy methyl olean-12-ene-28-oic acid on the basis of spectral evidence (i.e. FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and FAB-MS data). The isolated saponin was tested for its antifungal activity, where the maximum inhibition was found in Colletotrichium dematium.

  4. Liquid chromatographic determination of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia leaves.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Alpuna; Pandey, Richa; Verma, Ram K; Gupta, Madan M

    2006-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of sennosides B and A in leaves of Cassia angustifolia. These compounds were extracted from leaves with a mixture of methanol-water (70 + 30, v/v) after defatting with hexane. Analyte separation and quantitation were achieved by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and UV absorbance at 270 nm using a photodiode array detector. The method involves the use of an RP-18 Lichrocart reversed-phase column (5 microm, 125 x 4.0 mm id) and a binary gradient mobile-phase profile. The various other aspects of analysis, namely, peak purity, similarity, recovery, repeatability, and robustness, were validated. Average recoveries of 98.5 and 98.6%, with a coefficient of variation of 0.8 and 0.3%, were obtained by spiking sample solution with 3 different concentration solutions of standards (60, 100, and 200 microg/mL). Detection limits were 10 microg/mL for sennoside B and 35 microg/mL for sennoside A, present in the sample solution. The quantitation limits were 28 and 100 microg/mL. The analytical method was applied to a large number of senna leaf samples. The new method provides a reliable tool for rapid screening of C. angustifolia samples in large numbers, which is needed in breeding/genetic engineering and genetic mapping experiments.

  5. Randomized controlled trial of Cassia alata Linn. for constipation.

    PubMed

    Thamlikitkul, V; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Dechatiwongse, T; Theerapong, S; Chantrakul, C; Thanaveerasuwan, T; Nimitnon, S; Boonroj, P; Punkrut, W; Gingsungneon, V

    1990-04-01

    Cassia alata Linn. is a medical plant. Its leaves have been claimed to be effective as a laxative. The studies done so far have shown no toxicity as a result of consuming Cassia alata Linn. leaves. The plant has been found to contain anthraquinones, presumed to be the active ingredient causing the laxative effect. The objective of the study was to test efficacy of Cassia alata Linn. leaves for treatment of constipation compared with a placebo and mist. alba in a multicenter randomized controlled trial carried out in one provincial and 5 community hospitals. Eighty adult patients admitted to 5 community hospitals and one provincial hospital with at least 72 hours of constipation were included in the study. Twenty-eight patients were in the placebo group, 28 in the mist. alba group, and 24 in Cassia alata Linn. group. Each patient was given 120 ml of fluid with caramel color, mist. alba, or Cassia alata Linn. infusion at bed time. Evaluation was performed after 24 hours whether the patient defecated or not. The characteristics of the patients among the three groups were not different. Eighteen per cent of patients in the placebo group passed stools within 24 hours, whereas, 86 and 83 per cent of patients in mist. alba and Cassia alata Linn. groups respectively, passed stools. The differences observed between placebo and mist. alba, placebo and Cassia alata Linn. were statistically highly significant, P less than 0.001 and clinically important. Minimal self-limited side effects, i.e., nausea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain and diarrhea were noted in 16-25 per cent of the patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Study on Cinnamomum oils: compositional pattern of seven species grown in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Son, Le C; Dai, Do N; Thang, Tran D; Huyen, Duong D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The leaf essential oils of seven Vietnamese species of the genus Cinnamomum were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the species fall into three groups in which one group contains aromatic components, while the second group contains both terpenes and aromatic constituents and the third group contains only terpene constituents. The first group had only Cinnamomum curvifolium as its member and produced oil rich in benzyl cinnamate and benzyl benzoate. The second group producing mixture of phenylpropanoids and oxygenated monoterpene components includes leaves of Cinnamomum kunstleri (methyl eugenol, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole) and Cinnamomum mairei (eugenol, 1, 8-cineole, neryl acetate and eugenol acetate). The third group rich in terpene constituents could also be divided into two classes. The first class produced oils rich in monoterpene components and includes Cinnamomum damhaensis (linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene and 1,8-cineole), Cinnamomum cambodianum (linalool and terpinen-4-ol) and Cinnamomum caryophyllus (1,8-cineole, α-pinene and camphene). The second class contains oil with abundance of sesquiterpene compounds and peculiar to Cinnamomum rigidifolium (α-selinene, β-caryophyllene and α-copaene). This paper discusses further the chemotaxonomic importance of these results and previous data on essential oils of Cinnamomum species analysed from Vietnam.

  7. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linjing; Wu, Hongbing; Qiu, Mingfeng; Sun, Wei; Wei, Runmin; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Yang, Yiting; Xin, Xue; Zou, Haimiao; Chen, Tianlu; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Jing; Ma, Chungwah; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang), a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine), lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol), gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid), biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine), and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH), and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). PMID:24159348

  8. [Chemical constituents from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu-ping; Wang, Zhu-ju; Fu, Mei-hong; Tang, Li-ying; He, Yan; Fang, Jing; Gong, Qiang-feng

    2007-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia. Compounds were isolated and repeatedly purified by chromatographic techniques on silica gel column. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral methods. eight compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia, and identified as tinnevellin glycoside(I), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-gentiobioside(II), apigenin-6,8-di-C-glycoside(III), emodin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(IV), kaempferol(V), aloe emodin(VI), D-3-O-methylinositol(VII), sucrose(VIII). Compounds III, VII and VIII are isolated from the plant for the first time.

  9. Nephroprotective property of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and its antibacterial activity in combination with gantamicin.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Naveed; Khan, Mir Azam; Khan, Salimullah; Roohullah, -; Khan, Abad; Ahmad, Waqar

    2017-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum has strong antioxidant properties and has been presented to have nephroprotective effects. Present work was aimed to study the nephroprotective property of the plant extract through urinary enzymes excretion, to confirm its protective effects and to observe the antibacterial activities of gentamicin in combination with the plant extract. 200mg/kg/day of the plant extracts were administered alone and as co-therapy with gentamicin. Urinary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Urinary alkaline phospatase (ALP) excretions were observed through reagents kits with the help of Power-Lab 300. Antibacterial activities were assessed for gentamicin alone and in combination with the extract. Present study showed that the plant extract have excess quantity of flavonoids, which may responsible for attenuating the excessive excretion of urinary LDH. However, Urinary ALP excretion was found remained same throughout the study period in all experimental groups; might be detected in acute damage. Further, the plant also proved to have no decreasing impact on the antibacterial activities of gentamicin.

  10. Effects of Cassia tora fiber supplement on serum lipids in Korean diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Nan-Hee; Son, Ho-Sang; Cho, Il-Jin; Ha, Tae-Youl

    2005-01-01

    Cassia tora fiber supplement consisting of 2 g of soluble fiber extracted from Cassia semen (C. tora L.), 200 mg of alpha-tocopherol, 500 mg of ascorbic acid, and 300 mg of maltodextrin was formulated in a pack, and given to 15 type II diabetic subjects (seven men and eight women 57.1 +/- 2.9 years old) with instructions to take two packs per day for 2 months. Placebo contained maltodextrin only with a little brown caramel color. Lifestyle factors and dietary intakes of the subjects were not altered during the 2-month period. Serum total cholesterol was moderately (P < .1) decreased in the C. tora group compared with the age- and gender-matched placebo group, as was the ratio of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 (P < .1). Levels of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol tended to decrease more in the C. tora-supplemented group than in the placebo group. Serum alpha-tocopherol was increased (P < .01) but lipid peroxides were not significantly lower in the C. tora group. Fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were not changed by the fiber supplement. We concluded that C. tora supplements can help improve serum lipid status in type II diabetic subjects without serious adverse effects.

  11. Chemical Characteristics, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oil of Egyptian Cinnamomum glanduliferum Bark.

    PubMed

    Taha, AlShaimaa M; Eldahshan, Omayma A

    2017-05-01

    The essential oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall) Meissn grown in Egypt was screened for its composition as well as its biological activity for the first time. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was assessed using agar-well diffusion method toward representatives for each of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. The cytotoxic activity was checked using three human cancer cell lines. Twenty seven compounds were identified, representing 99.07% of the total detected components. The major constituents were eucalyptol (65.87%), terpinen-4-ol (7.57%), α-terpineol (7.39%). The essential oil possessed strong antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, with an activity index of one and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) equaling to 0.49 μg/ml. The essential oil possessed good antimicrobial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Geotrichum candidum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Helicobacter pylori, Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC: 7.81, 1.95, 7.81, 0.98, 31.25, and 32.5 μg/ml, respectively). A considerable activity was reported against S. aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC; 32.5 and 31.25 μg/ml, respectively). The extracted oil was cytotoxic to colon (HCT-116), liver (HepG2), and breast (MCF-7) carcinoma cell lines with IC50 of 9.1, 42.4, and 57.3 μg/ml, respectively. These results revealed that Egyptian Cinnamomum glanduliferum bark oil exerts antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities mainly due to eucalyptol and other major compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Trimer procyanidin oligomers contribute to the protective effects of cinnamon extracts on pancreatic β-cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Lu; Yu, Bang-Wei; Jia, Qi; Chen, Kai-Xian; Fan, Hui-Min; Li, Yi-Ming; Wang, He-Yao

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamon extracts rich in procyanidin oligomers have shown to improve pancreatic β-cell function in diabetic db/db mice. The aim of this study was to identify the active compounds in extracts from two species of cinnamon responsible for the pancreatic β-cell protection in vitro. Cinnamon extracts were prepared from Cinnamomum tamala (CT-E) and Cinnamomum cassia (CC-E). Six compounds procyanidin B2 (cpd1), (-)-epicatechin (cpd2), cinnamtannin B1 (cpd3), procyanidin C1 (cpd4), parameritannin A1 (cpd5) and cinnamtannin D1 (cpd6) were isolated from the extracts. INS-1 pancreatic β-cells were exposed to palmitic acid (PA) or H2O2 to induce lipotoxicity and oxidative stress. Cell viability and apoptosis as well as ROS levels were assessed. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was examined in PA-treated β-cells and murine islets. CT-E, CC-E as well as the compounds, except cpd5, did not cause cytotoxicity in the β-cells up to the maximum dosage using in this experiment. CT-E and CC-E (12.5-50 μg/mL) dose-dependently increased cell viability in both PA- and H2O2-treated β-cells, and decreased ROS accumulation in H2O2-treated β-cells. CT-E caused more prominent β-cell protection than CC-E. Furthermore, CT-E (25 and 50 μg/mL) dose-dependently increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in PA-treated β-cells and murine islets, but CC-E had little effect. Among the 6 compounds, trimer procyanidins cpd3, cpd4 and cpd6 (12.5-50 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased the cell viability and decreased ROS accumulation in H2O2-treated β-cells. The trimer procyanidins also increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in PA-treated β-cells. Trimer procyanidins in the cinnamon extracts contribute to the pancreatic β-cell protection, thus to the anti-diabetic activity.

  13. Simultaneous quantitative determination of cinnamaldehyde and methyl eugenol from stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume using RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Gursale, Atish; Dighe, Vidya; Parekh, Guarang

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and precise reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed, validated and used for simultaneous quantitative determination of cinnamaldehyde and methyl eugenol from the methanolic extract of dried bark powder of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (family Lauraceae). The ultrasonic extraction method was used for the extraction of these compounds. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis was carried out using a Intersil ODS-3V-C(18) (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column and a mobile phase comprising of methanol-acetonitrile-water in the volume ratio of 35:20:45, delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 cm(3)/min. The detection and quantitation of both the compounds was carried out at 221 nm.

  14. A new species of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) from the Bladen Nature Reserve, southern Belize.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Steven W; Stott, Gail L

    2017-01-01

    A new species in the Lauraceae, Cinnamomum bladenense S.W. Brewer & G.L. Stott, is described from the Bladen Nature Reserve in southern Belize. The new species is similar to Cinnamomum brenesii (Standl.) Kosterm., from which it differs by its much smaller, narrowly-campanulate flowers, its inner tepals glabrous abaxially, its shorter petioles, its minutely sericeous younger twigs, and its abaxial leaf surfaces not glaucous and with prominent secondary venation. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, and photographs of the species as well as a key to and notes on the Cinnamomum of Belize are provided.

  15. A new species of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) from the Bladen Nature Reserve, southern Belize

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Steven W.; Stott, Gail L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species in the Lauraceae, Cinnamomum bladenense S.W. Brewer & G.L. Stott, is described from the Bladen Nature Reserve in southern Belize. The new species is similar to Cinnamomum brenesii (Standl.) Kosterm., from which it differs by its much smaller, narrowly-campanulate flowers, its inner tepals glabrous abaxially, its shorter petioles, its minutely sericeous younger twigs, and its abaxial leaf surfaces not glaucous and with prominent secondary venation. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, and photographs of the species as well as a key to and notes on the Cinnamomum of Belize are provided. PMID:28785162

  16. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  17. Phenolic acid allelochemicals induced morphological, ultrastructural, and cytological modification on Cassia sophera L. and Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Aasifa; Siddiqui, M B; Bi, Shazia

    2016-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Calotropis procera on growth behavior, ultrastructural changes on Cassia sophera L., and cytological changes on Allium cepa L. was investigated. LAE at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %) significantly reduced the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of C. sophera. Besides, the ultrastructural changes (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) induced in epidermal cells of 15-day-old seedlings of Cassia leaf were also noticed. The changes induced were shrinking and contraction of epidermal cells along with the formation of major grooves, canals, and cyst-like structures. The treated samples of epidermal cells no longer seem to be smooth as compared to control. LAE at different concentrations induces chromosomal aberrations and variation in shape of the interphase and prophase nucleus in A. cepa root tip cells when compared with control groups. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts. The most frequent aberrations were despiralization at prophase with the formation of micronuclei, sticky anaphase with bridges, sticky telophase, C-metaphase, etc. The results also show the induction of ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and cells with heterochromatic nuclei by extract treatment. Upon HPLC analysis, nine phenolic acids (caffeic acid, gentisic acid, catechol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, resorcinol, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) were identified. Thus, the phenolic acids are mainly responsible for the allelopathic behavior of C. procera.

  18. Effect of hexane fraction of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Linn on macrophage functions.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, J K; Pandey, Nidhi; Tripathi, Yamini Bhushan

    2010-06-01

    The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Linn (Lauraceae), component of Indian spices are associated with hypoglycemic property in Ayurveda; however, no report is available towards its immunomodulation property, which has been explored here. The dried powder of CT leaves was extracted with hexane and solvent free extract (CTH) was given orally to rats for 10 days, in various doses. Its effect was studied on peritoneal macrophage functions, and was compared with ascorbic acid (1,000 mg/kg, immune-stimulant) and cyclophosphamide (10 mg/kg, immune-suppressant). CTH significantly suppressed phagocytosis activity (EC(50) 2,355 +/- 52.45 mg/kg), reduced production of superoxide (EC(50) 275.91 +/- 10.21 microg/ml) and cellular NADPH (EC(50) 384.959 +/- 4.85 microg/ml) content in concentration dependent manner. It also inhibited LPS induced production of nitric oxide (EC(50) 143.75 +/- 3.40 microg/ml) and iNOS protein expression (EC(50) 183.132 microg/ml). Thus, it could be suggested that non-polar hexane fraction of leaves of C. tamala possesses immunosuppressive property, which is mediated through modulation of innate immunity.

  19. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  20. Phytochemical analysis, cytotoxic activity and constituents-activity relationships of the leaves of Cinnamomum iners (Reinw. ex Blume-Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Ghalib, Raza Murad; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Mehdi, Sayed Hasan; Anis, Zurida; Rahman, Syed Ziaur; Ahamed, B M Khadeer; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Cinnamomum iners (Reinw. ex Blume-Lauraceae) have been refluxed successively with chloroform and alcohol to get chloroform extract and alcoholic extract. Both the extracts have been assayed for cytotoxicity against human colorectal tumour cells. The chloroform extract exhibited significant cytotoxicity with IC(50) 31 µg mL(-1) (p < 0.01). However, ethanol extract was found to be much less cytotoxic with IC(50) > 200 µg mL(-1). The chloroform extract has been further proceeded for chemical analysis by GC-TOFMS and 178 components were identified including acids, amines, amides, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, benzene derivatives, bicyclic compounds, terpenes, hydrocarbons, naphthalene derivatives, furan derivatives, azulenes, etc. Nine components representing 51.73% of the total chloroform extract were detected as major components. Caryophyllene (14.41%) and Eicosanoic acid ethyl ester (12.17%) are the most prominent components of the chloroform extract. β-Caryophyllene (14.41%) as most abundant compound supports potent cytotoxicity as shown by chloroform extract.

  1. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis.

    PubMed

    Torey, Angeline; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Yeng, Chen; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2010-05-10

    Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R(2) = 0.8685), rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  2. Antileukemic activity of lignans and phenylpropanoids of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon.

    PubMed

    Adfa, Morina; Rahmad, Rizki; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Yudha S, Salprima; Tanaka, Kaori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity of fractions and isolated constituents from Cinnamomum parthenoxylon woods against human leukemia HL-60 and U937 cells. The n-Hex, EtOAc, and MeOH-H2O fractions of the woods inhibited cell proliferation in both cell lines. Our phytochemical investigation of the n-Hex and EtOAc fractions led to the isolation of lignans and phenylpropanoids, whose chemical structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antileukemic activity; especially, hinokinin and cubebin exhibited strong inhibition toward U937 cell proliferation. Morphological observation indicated that these cytotoxic actions were mediated by apoptosis. Our findings suggested that an oxygenated functional group at the C-9 position in dibenzylfuran skeleton contributed their potency. In addition, these results enhanced the ethnopharmacological value of C. parthenoxylon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of microsatellite markers for Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Y

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamomum camphora is an evergreen tree distributed in southern Japan, Taiwan, and southeastern China. Because of its vast utilization and cultivation, the natural distribution area of this species has been controversial. I isolated and characterized 22 microsatellite loci in C. camphora. Levels of polymorphism were evaluated in 104 adult trees from three populations in Japan: Meiji Jingu (Shinto Shrine), Kajiya Plantation, and Manazuru Peninsula. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 4.1 to 8.0 among populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities per population ranged from 0.53 to 0.60 and 0.55 to 0.68, respectively. All of 22 loci showed a clear and strong single band for each allele, and revealed a useful degree of polymorphism. The microsatellite markers described here will be useful to study the history, population dynamics, mating system, and genetic structure of C. camphora.

  4. Medicinal properties of 'true' cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Pigera, Shehani; Premakumara, G A Sirimal; Galappaththy, Priyadarshani; Constantine, Godwin R; Katulanda, Prasad

    2013-10-22

    In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: "Cinnamomum zeylanicum", "Ceylon cinnamon", "True cinnamon" and "Sri Lankan cinnamon". To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public health implications.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius and Cassia angustifolia as Photosensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Mahfudli Fadli, Ulfa; Bayu Prasada, Ashari

    2016-04-01

    Dye sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) is one of the electric cells photochemical consisting of photoelectrode, dye, counter electrode, and electrolyte. The aims of the research to determine of the optical and electrical characteristic of the extract Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius, and Cassia angustifolia. The study is also aimed to determine the effect of natural dyes extract to increase the efficiency of solar cells based DSSC. Sandwich structures formed in the sample consisted of working electrode pair Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and the counter electrode platinum (Pt). Dye extraction process is performed by stirring for 1 hour and then allowed to stand for 24 hours. Absorbance test is measure by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer Lambda 25, conductivity test by using a two-point probes Elkahfi 100, and characterization of current and voltage (I-V) by using a Keithley 2602A. The results showed that the greatest efficiency of 0.160% at Dye Pandanus amaryllifolius.

  6. New identification of proanthocyanidins in cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Fuguet, Elisabet; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-01-01

    The inner bark of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The positive health effects associated with the consumption of cinnamon could in part be due to its phenolic composition; proanthocyanidins (PA) are the major polyphenolic component in commercial cinnamon. We present a thorough study of the PA profile of cinnamon obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. In addition to the advantages of MALDI-TOF as a sensitive technique for the analysis of high-molecular-weight compounds, the tandem arrangement allows the identification of the compounds through their fragmentation patterns from MS/MS experiments. This is the first time that this technique has been used to analyze polymeric PA. The results show that cinnamon PA are more complex than was previously thought. We show here for the first time that they contain (epi)gallocatechin and (epi)catechingallate units. As gallates (galloyl moieties) and the pyrogallol group in gallocatechins have been related to the biological activity of grape and tea polyphenols, the presence of these substructures may explain some of the properties of cinnamon extracts. MALDI-TOF/TOF reveals that cinnamon bark PA include combinations of (epi)catechin, (epi)catechingallate, (epi)gallocatechin, and (epi)afzelechin, which results in a highly heterogeneous mixture of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, and propelargonidins.

  7. Evaluation of the Bronchorelaxant, Genotoxic, and Antigenotoxic Effects of Cassia alata L.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, M; Da, F L; Fabré, A; Konaté, K; Dibala, C I; Carreyre, H; Thibaudeau, S; Coustard, J-M; Vandebrouck, C; Bescond, J; Belemtougri, R G

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous-ethanolic extract of Cassia alata (AECal) and its derived fractions obtained through liquid-liquid fractionation were evaluated for their bronchorelaxant, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic effects. Contractile activity of rats' tracheas in the presence of tested materials, as well as its modifications with different inhibitors and blockers, was isometrically recorded. The antigenotoxic potential of AECal was evaluated on cyclophosphamide- (CP-) induced genotoxicity in the rat. Animals were pretreated with the extract, then liver comet assay was performed. AECal and its chloroformic fractions (CF-AECal) relaxed the contraction induced by Ach, but both were significantly less potent in inhibiting contraction induced by KCl (30 mM; 80 mM). Propranolol, indomethacin, L-NAME, methylene blue, and glibenclamide did not modify the relaxant effect of CF-AECal. TEA altered the response of trachea to CF-AECal. CF-AECal caused a rightward shift without affecting the E max in cumulative concentration-response curves of Ach only at low concentrations. In animals pretreated with the extract, the percentage of CP-induced DNA damage decreased. Our results suggest that (1) muscarinic receptors contribute at least in part to the relaxant effects of CF-AECal; (2) CF-AECal interferes with membrane polarization; and (3) AECal is not genotoxic in vivo and contains chemopreventive phytoconstituents offering protection against CP-induced genotoxicity.

  8. Evaluation of the Bronchorelaxant, Genotoxic, and Antigenotoxic Effects of Cassia alata L.

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, M.; Da, F. L.; Fabré, A.; Konaté, K.; Dibala, C. I.; Carreyre, H.; Thibaudeau, S.; Coustard, J.-M.; Vandebrouck, C.; Bescond, J.; Belemtougri, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous-ethanolic extract of Cassia alata (AECal) and its derived fractions obtained through liquid-liquid fractionation were evaluated for their bronchorelaxant, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic effects. Contractile activity of rats' tracheas in the presence of tested materials, as well as its modifications with different inhibitors and blockers, was isometrically recorded. The antigenotoxic potential of AECal was evaluated on cyclophosphamide- (CP-) induced genotoxicity in the rat. Animals were pretreated with the extract, then liver comet assay was performed. AECal and its chloroformic fractions (CF-AECal) relaxed the contraction induced by Ach, but both were significantly less potent in inhibiting contraction induced by KCl (30 mM; 80 mM). Propranolol, indomethacin, L-NAME, methylene blue, and glibenclamide did not modify the relaxant effect of CF-AECal. TEA altered the response of trachea to CF-AECal. CF-AECal caused a rightward shift without affecting the E max in cumulative concentration-response curves of Ach only at low concentrations. In animals pretreated with the extract, the percentage of CP-induced DNA damage decreased. Our results suggest that (1) muscarinic receptors contribute at least in part to the relaxant effects of CF-AECal; (2) CF-AECal interferes with membrane polarization; and (3) AECal is not genotoxic in vivo and contains chemopreventive phytoconstituents offering protection against CP-induced genotoxicity. PMID:23710211

  9. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  10. In vitro screening for cestocidal activity of three species of Cassia plants against the tapeworm Raillietina tetragona.

    PubMed

    Kundu, S; Lyndem, L M

    2013-06-01

    Different species of Cassia plant are widely available in India and are commonly used either for their laxative, antimicrobial or antibacterial activity. In the present study the effectiveness in vitro of the crude alcoholic extracts of three species, namely Cassia alata, C. occidentalis and C. angustifolia, in the early paralysis and mortality of the fowl tapeworm Raillietina tetragona at concentrations ranging from 5 to 80 mg/ml was investigated. Time of paralysis and death were monitored frequently. Immediately after paralysis the tapeworms were processed for electron microscopic studies. While the untreated or control parasites survived for 81.93 ± 5.85 h, the parasites treated with C. alata took less time (1.68 ± 0.27 h) to be paralysed, followed by those treated with C. angustifolia (2.95 ± 0.29 h). Although C. occidentalis took more time (4.13 ± 0.31 h) to paralyse, in combination with either C. alata or C. angustifolia the time taken to paralyse became shorter. All the plant-treated parasites showed irrevocable changes in the scolex and proglottids as compared with the control, and these observations are comparable with those obtained with praziquantel. These results indicate that the three plants tested can be claimed to have anthelmintic activity in addition to their known properties, both when used individually and in combination. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their mechanism of action.

  11. Exploration of the anticandidal mechanism of Cassia spectabilis in debilitating candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Torey, Angeline; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Jothy, Subramanion L.; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Dharmaraj, Saravanan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans has become resistant to the commercially available, toxic, and expensive anti-Candida agents that are on the market. These factors force the search for new antifungal agents from natural resources. Cassia spectabilis had been traditionally employed by healers for many generations. The possible mechanisms of the C. spectabilis leaf extract were determined by potassium leakage study and the effect of the extract on the constituents of the cell wall and enzymes as well as the morphological changes on C. albicans cells were studied along with cytotoxicity assays. The cytotoxicity result indicated that the extract is nontoxic as was clearly substantiated by a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 59.10 μg/mL. The treated cells (C. spectabilis extract) demonstrated potassium leakage of 1039 parts per million (ppm) compared to Amphotericin B (AmpB)-treated cells with a released potassium value of 1115 ppm. The effects of the extract on the cell wall proteins illustrated that there were three major types of variations in the expression of treated cell wall proteins: the presence of new proteins, the absence of proteins, and the amount of expressed protein. The activities of two enzymes, α-glucosidase and proteinase, were determined to be significantly high, thereby not fully coinciding with the properties of the antifungal reaction triggered by C. spectabilis. The morphology of C. albicans cells treated with the C. spectabilis extract showed that the cells had abnormalities and were damaged or detached within the microcolonies. Our study verifies C. spectabilis leaf extract as an effective anti-C. albicans agent. PMID:26870686

  12. The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora and its comparison with related Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Caihui; Zheng, Yongjie; Liu, Sian; Zhong, Yongda; Wu, Yanfang; Li, Jiang; Xu, Li-An; Xu, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Cinnamomum camphora, a member of the Lauraceae family, is a valuable aromatic and timber tree that is indigenous to the south of China and Japan. All parts of Cinnamomum camphora have secretory cells containing different volatile chemical compounds that are utilized as herbal medicines and essential oils. Here, we reported the complete sequencing of the chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora using illumina technology. The chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora is 152,570 bp in length and characterized by a relatively conserved quadripartite structure containing a large single copy region of 93,705 bp, a small single copy region of 19,093 bp and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 19,886 bp. Overall, the genome contained 123 coding regions, of which 15 were repeated in the IR regions. An analysis of chloroplast sequence divergence revealed that the small single copy region was highly variable among the different genera in the Lauraceae family. A total of 40 repeat structures and 83 simple sequence repeats were detected in both the coding and non-coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that Calycanthus is most closely related to Lauraceae, both being members of Laurales, which forms a sister group to Magnoliids. The complete sequence of the chloroplast of Cinnamomum camphora will aid in in-depth taxonomical studies of the Lauraceae family in the future. The genetic sequence information will also have valuable applications for chloroplast genetic engineering.

  13. Characterization of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)-enriched seed oil from Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) and its oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhang, Bing; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Li, Jing; Fan, Ya-Wei; Liu, Rong; Tang, Liang; Lee, Ki-Teak; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2011-05-11

    Medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)-enriched oil was extracted by supercritical fluid extraction of carbon dioxide (SFE-CO(2)) from Cinnamomum camphora seeds. The SFE-CO(2) process was optimized using the Box-Behnken design (BBD). The maximum oil yield (42.82%) was obtained under the optimal SFE-CO(2) conditions: extraction pressure, 21.16 MPa; extraction temperature, 45.67 °C; and extraction time, 2.38 h. Subsequently, the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, tocopherol content, and DSC profile as well as oxidative stabilities of C. camphora seed oil (CCSO) were studied. Results showed that CCSO contained two major medium-chain fatty acids, capric acid (53.27%) and lauric acid (39.93%). The predominant TAG species in CCSO was LaCC/CLaC (ECN 32, 79.29%). Meanwhile, it can be found that CCSO had much higher oxidative stabilities than coconut oil due to the higher content of tocopherols in CCSO (α-tocopherol, 8.67 ± 0.51 mg/100 g; γ-tocopherol, 22.6 ± 1.02 mg/100 g; δ-tocopherol, 8.38 ± 0.47 mg/100 g). Conclusively, CCSO with such a high level of MCTs and high oxidative stabilities could be potentially applied in special food for specific persons such as weak patients and overweight persons because oils enriched in MCTs can be rapidly absorbed into body to provide energy without fat accumulation.

  14. Carboxymethylation of Cassia angustifolia seed gum: synthesis and rheological study.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Gaurav; Pandey, I P; Joshi, Gyanesh

    2015-03-06

    The seeds of Cassia angustifolia are a rich source of galactomannan gum. The seed gums possess a wide variety of industrial applications. To utilize C. angustifolia seed gum for broader industrial applications, the carboxymethyl-Cassia angustifolia seed gum (CM-CAG) was synthesized. The gum was etherified with sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) in a methanol-water system in presence of alkali (NaOH) at different reaction conditions. The variables studied includes alkali concentration, SMCA concentration, methanol:water ratio, liquor:gum ratio, reaction temperature and time. The extent of carboxymethylation was determined as degree of substitution (DS). The optimum conditions for preparing CM-CAG (DS=0.474) comprised 0.100 mol of NaOH, 0.05 mol of SMCA, 80% of methanol:water ratio (as % methanol) and liquor:gum ratio (v/w) of 10:1 at 75 °C for 60 min using 0.03 mol (as AGU) of CAG. Rheological studies showed CM-CAG to exhibit non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour, relatively high viscosity, cold water solubility and solution stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Ho, Cheng-Kuen; Chang, Shu-Hwa

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum kanehirae (Hayata), the first to be completely sequenced of Lauraceae family, is presented in this study. The total genome size is 152,700 bp, with a typical circular structure including a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/b) of 20,107 bp of length separated by a large single-copy region (LSC) and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 93,642 bp and 18,844 bp of length, respectively. The overall GC content of the genome is 39.1%. The nucleotide sequence shows 91% identities with Liriodendron tulipifera in the Magnoliaceae. In total, 123 annotated genes consisted of 79 coding genes, eight rRNA genes, and 36 tRNA genes. Among all 79 coding genes, seven genes (rpoC1, atpF, rpl2, ndhB, ndhA, rps16, and rpl2) contain one intron, while two genes (ycf3 and clpP) contain two introns. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that C. kanehirae chloroplast genome is closely related to Calycanthus fertilis within Laurales order.

  16. Efficacy and safety of 'true' cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as a pharmaceutical agent in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, P; Jayawardana, R; Galappaththy, P; Constantine, G R; de Vas Gunawardana, N; Katulanda, P

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies have frequently looked at dietary components beneficial in treatment and prevention. We aim to systematically evaluate the literature on the safety and efficacy of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on diabetes. A comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, Biological Abstracts, SciVerse Scopus, SciVerse ScienceDierect, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library. A meta-analysis of studies examining the effect of C. zeylanicum extracts on clinical and biochemical parameters was conducted. Data were analysed using RevMan v5.1.2. The literature search identified 16 studies on C. zeylanicum (five in-vitro, six in-vivo and five in-vivo/in-vitro). However, there were no human studies. In-vitro C. zeylanicum demonstrated a potential for reducing post-prandial intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase, stimulating cellular glucose uptake by membrane translocation of glucose transporter-4, stimulating glucose metabolism and glycogen synthesis, inhibiting gluconeogenesis and stimulating insulin release and potentiating insulin receptor activity. The beneficial effects of C. zeylanicum in animals include attenuation of diabetes associated weight loss, reduction of fasting blood glucose, LDL and HbA(1c) , increasing HDL cholesterol and increasing circulating insulin levels. Cinnamomum zeylanicum also significantly improved metabolic derangements associated with insulin resistance. It also showed beneficial effects against diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy, with no significant toxic effects on liver and kidney and a significantly high therapeutic window. Cinnamomum zeylanicum demonstrates numerous beneficial effects both in vitro and in vivo as a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes. However, further randomized clinical trials are required to establish therapeutic safety and efficacy. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic

  17. Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant effects of Cassia occidentalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, G; Latha, P G; Shine, V J; Anuja, G I; Suja, S R; Sini, S; Shyama, S; Pradeep, S; Shikha, P; Rajasekharan, S

    2010-05-01

    Cassia occidentalis Linn. mast cell degranulation at a dose of 250 mg/kg, showed dose dependent stabilizing activity towards human RBC, with is widely used in traditional medicine of India to treat a number of clinical conditions including allergy and inflammatory manifestations. In the present study anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of C. occidentalis whole plant ethanolic extract (CO) was investigated. Effects of CO on rat mast cell degranulation inhibition and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization were studied in vitro following standard methods. The anti lipidperoxidant effects of CO were also studied in vitro. Effect of CO on carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema inhibition was also assessed. CO significantly decreased maximum protection of 80.8% at 15 microg/ml. The extract also caused significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of murine hepatic microsomes at 100 microg/ml (56%) and significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in mice at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Results of the present study indicated that CO inhibited mast cell degranulation, stabilized HRBC membrane thereby alleviating immediate hypersensitivity besides showing anti oxidant activity.

  18. Structural characterization and bioactivity of proanthocyanidins from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Min; Lin, Huan-You; Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-11-01

    Barks and twigs of common species of cinnamon with abundant proanthocyanidins are used as a spice, fold medicine or supplement. Cinnamomum osmophloeum is an endemic species in Taiwan and coumarin was not detected in the oil of the C. osmophloeum twig. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the bioactivities and proanthocyanidins of C. osmophloeum twig extracts (CoTE). The n-butanol soluble fraction from CoTE was divided into 10 subfractions (F1-F10) by Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography. The antihyperglycemic activities were examined by α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory assays. Total antioxidant activities were examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating assays. The results revealed that subfractions F6-F10, with high proanthocyanidin contents, showed excellent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities. Subfractions F6-F10 were analyzed further by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry and thiolysis-reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. The results showed that the mean degrees of polymerization of proanthocyanidins in subfractions F6-F10 ranged from 3.5 to 5.1, with the highest degrees of polymerization of proanthocyanidins reaching 8 in subfractions F8-F10. Two compounds in F6 were identified as cinnamtannin B1 and parameritannin A1. These proanthocyanidins contained at least one A-type and major B-type linkages. These results demonstrate that proanthocyanidins are associated with their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities in CoTE. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cassia roxburghii-a most potent power for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Cassia roxburghii plant leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were determined. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extracts (60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 μg/mL) for 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Compare to aqueous extracted synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values that were 26.35, 28.67, 31.27 and 48.81, 53.24, and 58.11 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of C. roxburghii to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach, and the AgNPs formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. Therefore, this study proves that C. roxburghii is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity of the plant extract and AgNPs.

  20. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  1. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-09-30

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

  2. Antiviral chromones from the stem of Cassia siamea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiu-Fen; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Xue-Mei; Yang, Li-Ying; Shu, Li-Dan; Shen, Yanqiong; Li, Gan-Peng; Che, Chun-Tao; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2012-11-26

    Seven new chromones, siamchromones A-G (1-7), and 12 known chromones (8-19) were isolated from the stems of Cassia siamea. Compounds 1-19 were evaluated for their antitobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) and anti-HIV-1 activities. Compound 6 showed antitobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activity with an inhibition rate of 35.3% and IC50 value of 31.2 μM, which is higher than that of the positive control, ningnamycin. Compounds 1, 10, 13, and 16 showed anti-TMV activities with inhibition rates above 10%. Compounds 4, 6, 13, and 19 showed anti-HIV-1 activities with therapeutic index values above 50.

  3. An improved method for the analysis of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bala, S; Uniyal, G C; Dubey, T; Singh, S P

    2001-01-01

    A reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of sennosides A and B present in leaf and pod extracts of Cassia angustifolia has been developed using a Symmetry C18 column and a linear binary gradient profile. The method can be utilised for the quantitative determination of other sennosides as a baseline resolution for most of the constituents was achieved. The method is economical in terms of the time taken and the amount of solvent used (25 mL) for each analysis. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of each peak with those of reference compounds using a photodiode array detector.

  4. A medicinal herb Cassia alata attenuates quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Rekha, P D; Vasavi, H S; Vipin, C; Saptami, K; Arun, A B

    2017-03-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) has been shown to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis in many bacteria, and attenuation of QS is one of the targets of antimicrobial therapy with particular interest in combating drug resistance. This study reports the QS inhibitory activity of metabolites from Cassia alata L. (Ca. alata), an important medicinal herb widely used in the treatment of microbial infections. For investigating the QS inhibition (QSI), the potential of Ca. alata L., initially, metabolites of the leaves extracted using ethanol was tested against biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and C. violaceum wild-type strains. Furthermore, a purified fraction rich in flavonoids (F-AF) was used for establishing QSI activity by studying the inhibition of violacein production in C. violaceum, and QS controlled virulence and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The study results showed 50% inhibition of violacein production in C. violaceum at 0·05 mg ml(-1) concentration of F-AF. In P. aeruginosa PAO1, it inhibited the tested virulence factors and biofilm formation significantly. The F-AF contained major flavonoids namely, quercetin, quercetrin and kaempferol displaying QSI activity individually against the test organisms.

  5. Structure elucidation and DNA binding specificity of natural compounds from Cassia siamea leaves: A biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Mehtab; Ahmad, Faheem; Malla, Ali Mohammed; Khan, Mohd Sohrab; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Tabish, Mohammad; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Silva, P S Pereira

    2016-06-01

    A novel isoflavone, 5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (1) along with a known pyranocoumarin, Seselin (2) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cassia siamea (Family: Fabaceae). Compound 1 has been reported for the first time from any natural source and has not been synthesized so far. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physical evidences viz. elemental analysis, UV, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and mass spectral analysis. Structure of compound (1) was further authenticated by single-crystal X-ray analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A multi-technique approach employing UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence, KI quenching studies, competitive displacement assay, circular dichroism and viscosity studies have been utilized to probe the extent of interaction and possible binding modes of isolated compounds (1-2) with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA). Both the compounds were found to interact with DNA via non-intercalative binding mode with moderate proficiencies. Groove binding was the major interaction mode in the case of compound 2 while compound 1 probably interacts with DNA through electrostatic interactions. These studies provide deeper insight in understanding of DNA-drug (natural products) interaction which could be helpful to improve their bioavailability for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Formation and distribution of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia, as determined by a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Atzorn, R; Weiler, E W; Zenk, M H

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of nanogram-amounts of sennoside B and related compounds in plant extracts is described. The assay makes use of [ (3)H]-8-glucosidorheinanthrone of high specific activity (5.2 Ci/mmol) whose synthesis is reported here. From this material, [ (3)H]-sennoside A and [ (3)H]-sennoside B have also been synthesized. The assay is applied to the analysis of sennoside formation and distribution in CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL. High levels of sennosides in dried leaves and fruits have been observed whereas the seed alone, as well as stems and roots, contain very little sennoside. In flowers, as much as 4-5% of the dry weight consists of sennoside B and other immunoreactive constituents. Sennosides have been found in cotyledons of three day old seedlings in concentrations comparable to that of the mature leaf. Upon dehydration, leaf levels of sennoside B rise steadily, this rise being inversely correlated with the water loss. The absolute levels of sennoside B formed this way are the same as compared to rapid drying at 60 degrees C.

  7. Cassia fistula: A remedy from Traditional Persian Medicine for treatment of cutaneous lesions of pemphigus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Atarzadeh, Fatemeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dastgheib, Ladan; Amin, Gholamreza; Jaladat, Amir Mohammad; Nimrouzi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune disease that may be fatal without proper medical intervention. It is a blistering disease that involves both the skin and mucus membranes, in which the most important causes of death comprise superimposed opportunistic infections and complications of long-term high-dose corticosteroid therapy or prolonged consumption of immune suppressant drugs. Skin lesions are the most important sources of infection, and any local treatment decreasing the healing time of lesions and reducing the total dosage of drugs is favorable. Materials and Methods: Here, we review the probable mechanism of action of a traditional formulary of Cassia fistula (C. fistula) fruit extract in almond oil as a new topical medication for reducing the duration of treatment of pemphigus vulgaris erosions. Results: C. fistula fruit oil has lupeol, anthraquinone compounds as rhein and flavonoids. Previous in vitro and animal studies on C. fistula fruit have demonstrated wound healing, antioxidative, anti-leukotrienes, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal effects of this plant. Conclusion: It is hypothesized that C. fistula L. can be a botanical therapeutic choice for treatment of pemphigus erosions. PMID:28348966

  8. Immobilization of bioactive compounds in Cassia grandis galactomannan-based films: Influence on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2017-03-01

    Galactomannan extracted from Cassia grandis seeds was used for the production of films containing different concentrations of the bioactive compounds lactoferrin (LF), bioactive peptides (BAPs), and phytosterols. SEM, FTIR, mechanical and thermal properties, colour, moisture content (MC), solubility, water vapour permeability (WVP), and contact angle (CA) were performed evaluating the effect of increasing concentrations of bioactive compounds on the films' physicochemical properties. The immobilization of bioactive compounds leads to films with roughness on their surface, as observed by SEM. The thermal events demonstrated that bioactive compounds avoided the establishment of more hydrogen bonds when compared to galactomannan control film; this behaviour was also confirmed by FTIR. All the studied films had a strong whiteness tendency as well as a yellowish appearance. The addition of Lf reduced MC and solubility values and leads to an increase of WVP and CA values, while the addition of BAPs and phytosterols did not changed the filmś solubility. The mechanical properties were affected by the addition of bioactive compounds, which improved the stiffness of the films. Galactomannan-based films from C. grandis showed to be a promising structure for the immobilization of biomolecules, pointing at a significant number of possible applications in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Antioxidant potential and health relevant functionality of traditionally processed Cassia hirsuta L. seeds: an Indian underutilized food legume.

    PubMed

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Nandety, Aruna; Biesalski, Hans Konrad

    2011-09-01

    The methanolic extract of Cassia hirsuta L. seed materials, an underutilized food legume collected from India, was analyzed for antioxidant activity and health relevant functionality. The methanolic extract of raw seeds contained a total free phenolic content of 15.82 ± 1.69 g catechin equivalent/100 g extract DM. Encouraging levels of ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 1,446 mmol Fe[II]/mg extract), inhibition of ß-carotene degradation (48.81%) and scavenging activity against DPPH (64.40%) and superoxide (43.78%) radicals were exhibited by the raw samples. Further, 83.11% of α-amylase and 62.79% of α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition characteristics under in vitro starch digestion bioassay were also recorded. Sprouting + oil-frying caused an apparent increase on the total free phenolic content and a significant improvement in the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of methanolic extract of C. hirsuta seeds, while soaking + cooking as well as open-pan roasting treatments showed diminishing effects. The analysis of the phenolic profile revealed the presence of gallic acid, p-coumaric acid and (+)-catechin in the methanolic extract of these seeds.

  10. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L.) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos, eastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mungai, D N; Stigter, C J; Coulson, C L; Ng'Ang'A, J K; Netondo, G W; Umaya, G O

    2001-07-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped "replacement" agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area "lost" to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  11. The Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Cinnamomum camphora and Their Insecticidal Activity against the Stored Product Pests.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanshan; Geng, Zhufeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Junyu; Wang, Chengfang; Deng, Zhiwei; Du, Shushan

    2016-11-04

    To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of certain Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, the essential oils were extracted from the stem barks, leaves, and fruits of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, which were found to possess strong fumigant toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne adults. The essential oils of the plants were extracted by the method of steam distillation using a Clavenger apparatus. Their composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses (HP-5MS column), and their insecticidal activity was measured by seal-spaced fumigation. D-camphor (51.3%), 1,8-cineole (4.3%), and α-terpineol (3.8%), while D-camphor (28.1%), linalool (22.9%), and 1,8-cineole (5.3%) were the main constituents of its fruits. The essential oils of the C. camphora all showed fumigant and contact toxicity. Other compounds exhibited various levels of bioactivities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora and its individual compounds can be considered a natural resource for the two stored-product insect management.

  12. Chemical characterization of various fractions of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Linn toward their antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory property.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, J K; Tripathi, Yamini B

    2011-09-01

    Cinnamomum tamala (CT) Linn. (Lauraceae) is a component of Indian spices and is also used as antidiabetic agent. Its antioxidant potential was reported by other authors and recently our group has reported its immune-suppressive property. Here, CT leaves were extracted with methanol (CTT) and also with various organic solvents of increasing polarity such as hexane (CTH), ethyl acetate (CTEA), and methanol (CTE) in successive manner by continuous Soxhlet extractor. The active compounds of CTT and CTH were analyzed by GC-MS and most abundant compound (eugenol) was further analyzed by HPLC. These extracts were tested for their free radical (FR) scavenging potential for different FR species, hypoglycemic potential on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia, and anti-inflammatory property in carrageenan-induced paw edema and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in rat peritoneal macrophage culture. Result showed that CTH was the most active fraction toward these parameters, which was parallel to its eugenol and total phenolic content concentration.

  13. The Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Cinnamomum camphora and Their Insecticidal Activity against the Stored Product Pests

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shanshan; Geng, Zhufeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Junyu; Wang, Chengfang; Deng, Zhiwei; Du, Shushan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of certain Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, the essential oils were extracted from the stem barks, leaves, and fruits of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, which were found to possess strong fumigant toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne adults. The essential oils of the plants were extracted by the method of steam distillation using a Clavenger apparatus. Their composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses (HP-5MS column), and their insecticidal activity was measured by seal-spaced fumigation. D-camphor (51.3%), 1,8-cineole (4.3%), and α-terpineol (3.8%), while D-camphor (28.1%), linalool (22.9%), and 1,8-cineole (5.3%) were the main constituents of its fruits. The essential oils of the C. camphora all showed fumigant and contact toxicity. Other compounds exhibited various levels of bioactivities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora and its individual compounds can be considered a natural resource for the two stored-product insect management. PMID:27827929

  14. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Perera, Sanja; Gunatilake, Mangala; Abeywardene, Eranga; Gunapala, Nuwan; Premakumara, Sirimal; Perera, Kamal; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Katulanda, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water) and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts) were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water) and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts) were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05). Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05). Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001). Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001). C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

  15. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Cassia auriculata flowers in triton WR 1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraj, Panneerselvam; Muthukumar, Kannan; Sabarirajan, Jayaraja; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2013-01-01

    The flower extract of Cassia auriculata, herb has been used traditionally in India for medicinal purposes. The plant has been reported to treat hyperglycemia and associated hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress are known to accelerate coronary artery disease and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. The present work was undertaken to investigate the possible antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative effect of C. auriculata flower on hyperlipidemic rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by a single intravenous (iv) injection of Triton WR 1339 (300 mg/kg b.w.) and it showed sustained elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride. Ethanolic extract of C. auriculata flowers (Et-CAF) (150, 300, 450 mg/kg b.w./day) was administered to normal and hyperlipidemic rats for 14 days. Serum and liver tissue were analysed at three different time intervals for lipid profile, lipid peroxidation products, antioxidants enzymes and the activity were compared to the cholesterol-lowering drug, lovastatin (10 mg/kg/b.w.). Parameters were altered during hyperlipidemia and reverted back to near normal values after Et-CAF treatment or standard drug lovastatin. Lipid peroxidation decreased whereas the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase increased in Et-CAF treated rats. Pronounced changes were observed at 450 mg/kg b.w. of Et-CAF for 2 weeks and it was comparable to the standard drug lovastatin. The current study provides a strong evidence that Et-CAF has a beneficial effect in treating hyperlipidemia and ROS without any side effects at the dosage and duration studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene.

  17. Study of algal biomass harvesting through cationic cassia gum, a natural plant based biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Ghosh, Sandipta; Sen, Gautam; Mishra, Sumit; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Bandopadhyay, Rajib

    2014-01-01

    Green unicellular microalgae have a capacity to entrap CO2 to increase their biomass through photosynthesis and are important for the value added product. The presence of COOH and NH2 groups are responsible for imparting negative zeta value. The present work emphasizes on the synthesis of cationic cassia (CCAS) by the insertion of quaternary amine groups onto the backbone of cassia (CAS) from N-3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTAC) which was further characterized via FTIR, SEM, elemental analysis and intrinsic viscosity. The optimal dosage of the synthesized cationic cassia is used to flocculate two different green fresh water algae viz. Chlamydomonas sp. CRP7 and Chlorella sp. CB4 were evaluated. 80 and 35 mg L(-1) was optimized dose for dewatering of above algae, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of heteromorphic stamens in Cassia biscapsularis L.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhonglai; Hu, Jin; Zhao, Zhongtao; Zhang, Dianxiang

    2016-01-01

    Hermaphroditic flowers have evolved primarily under the selection on male function. Evolutionary modification often leads to stamen differentiation within flowers, or “heteranthery”, a phenomenon intrigued scientists since the 18th century until recently. However, the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism has barely been touched. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling in Cassia biscapsularis L., a heterantherous species with representative patterns of stamen differentiation. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the staminodes (the degenerated stamens) and fertile stamens, while much fewer genes differentially expressed among the three sets of fertile stamens. GO term enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis characterized functional properties of DEGs in different stamen types. Transcripts showing close correlation between expression pattern and stamen types were identified. Transcription factors from the bHLH family were suggested to have taken crucial part in the formation of staminodes. This first global transcriptomic analysis focusing on stamen differentiation opens the door toward a more comprehensive understanding on the molecular regulation of floral organ evolution. Especially, the generated unigene resource would be valuable for developing male sterile lines in agronomy. PMID:27527392

  19. Cassia grandis Linn. f. seed galactomannan: structural and crystallographical studies.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Harsha; Kapoor, Virendra P

    2003-09-01

    Cassia grandis is a small or medium sized tree, found in abundance throughout India. The seeds contain about 50% endosperm gum and possess the characteristics of becoming a potential source of seed gum. The purified polysaccharide has been characterized as a pure galactomannan having a mannose-galactose ratio of 3.15; molecular weight (Mw) 80,200; polydispersity (Mw/Mn), 1.35 and intrinsic viscosity [eta], 848 mL/g. Methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 13C NMR studies confirm that the polysaccharide has the basic structure of legume galactomannans consisting of a beta-(1-->4)-linked main mannan backbone to which galactose units are attached at O-6. The orthorhombic lattice constants of the hydrated gum are as follows: a=9.00, b=24.81, c=10.30 A. The crystallographic data establish that the probable space group symmetry of the unit cell is P2(1)2(1)2. The results are in contradiction to earlier reports (Indian J. Chem. 16B (1978) 966; J. Indian Chem. Soc. 55 (1978) 1216) in which a non-galactomannan polysaccharide structure has been assigned having a main chain of (1-->4)-linked galactose and mannose units in the molar ratio 6:3, where 50% of the galactose units branched with two galactose and one mannose through 1-->3 linkage.

  20. Experimental Validation of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Potential of Cassia tora (L.): An Indigenous Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishnu; Singh, Ranjana; Mahdi, Farzana; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2017-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Cassia tora (C. tora) seeds extract against streptozotocin induced diabetes in experimental rats to scientifically validate its use against diabetes. Ethanolic extract of C. tora seeds extract and standard drug (glibenclamide) prepared in aqueous gum acacia (2 %, w/v) suspension and fed orally to streptozotocin induced male adult diabetic rats of Charles Foster strain for 15 days. Biochemical parameters in normal, diabetic control, standard (600 μg/kg bw p.o.) and treated (500 mg/kg bw p.o.) animal groups were quantified and compared. Treatment of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats with ethanolic seeds extract caused significant (p < 0.001) reduction in blood glucose (270-220 mg/dl), total cholesterol (140-104 mg/dl), triglyceride (149-99 mg/dl), phospholipids (100-74 mg/dl), free fatty acid (2.39-2.00 μmol/l), lipid peroxide (9-5.63 nmol MDA/dl) and significantly increased post heparin lipolytic activity (11-14 nmol FFA released/h/l plasma) (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the seeds extract (100-400 μg) when tested for its antioxidant activity in vitro, showed significant (p < 0.001) inhibition in the generation of super oxide anions in enzymic system a (46-37, 33, 23, 21 nmol uric acid formed/min), in enzymic system b (113-91, 77, 60, 51 nmol formazon formed/min), non-enzymic system (324-230, 211, 161, 141 nmol uric acid formed/min) and hydroxyl radicals in enzymic system (544-501, 411, 319, 291 nmol 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate formed/h) and non-enzymic system (28-21, 17, 14, 12). The results of the present study demonstrated antidiabetic, antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activities of C. tora seeds which could help in prevention of diabeticdyslipidemia and related complications.

  1. Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of very long chain alkane derivatives from Cinnamomum obtusifolium, Elaeocarpus lanceifolius and Baccaurea sapida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Saikia, Surovi; Bordoloi, Prasanta K.; Kolita, Bhaskor; Dutta, Partha P.; Bhuyan, Purnajyoti D.; Dutta, Subhas C.; Rao, Paruchuri G.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bioactive secondary metabolites from the flora of the Indo-Burma biodiversity belt for controlling leaf blight disease of Solanum khasianum Clarke (Solanaceae) caused by Alternaria tenuissima and Alternaria alternata during commercial cultivation, the berries of which contains 1.80-3.45% solasodine, a major raw material for steroid drug industries. Three new and two white powdered compounds were extracted from Cinnamomum obtusifolium (Roxb.) Nees (Lauraceae), Elaeocarpus lanceifolius (Roxb.) (Elaeocarpaceae) and Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). New compounds were characterized as Triacontanoic acid (1), octatriacontan-1-ol (2) and dotriacontane (3) isolated from C. obtusfolium and E. lanceofolius by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy respectively. Other two known compounds were palmitic acid (4) and oleic acid (5) and from B. sapida. Complete inhibition of pathogenic fungi A.tenuissima and A. alternata were observed for compound 2 and 3. Further, in-silico molecular binding analysis of these compounds towards endopolygalacturonase, β-isopropyl dehydrogenase, plasma membrane ATPase, calmodulin, ACR-toxin biosynthesis hydroxylase and synthatase peptide (transcription regulator of Amt-gene) of A. tenuissima and A.alternata revealed that they are effective in inhibiting multiple targets. The antifungal potential of three new isolated compounds from C. obtusifolium and E. lanceifolius is reported for the first time. The results indicate the possible use of triacontanoic acid, octatriacontan-1-ol and dotriacontane as potential antifungal agents.

  2. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-08-23

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH.

  3. Verification of the antidiabetic effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) using insulin-uncontrolled type 1 diabetic rats and cultured adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Fukushima, Misato; Ito, Yoshimasa; Muraki, Etsuko; Hosono, Takashi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    It has long been believed that an intake of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) alleviates diabetic pathological conditions. However, it is still controversial whether the beneficial effect is insulin-dependent or insulin-mimetic. This study was aimed at determining the insulin-independent effect of cinnamon. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups and orally administered with an aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) for 22 d. The diabetic rats that had taken CE at a dose of more than 30 mg/kg/d were rescued from their hyperglycemia and nephropathy, and these rats were found to have upregulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in their brown adipose tissues as well as in their muscles. This was verified by using 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which CE upregulates GLUT4 translocation and increases the glucose uptake. CE exhibited its anti-diabetic effect independently from insulin by at least two mechanisms: i) upregulation of mitochondrial UCP-1, and ii) enhanced translocation of GLUT4 in the muscle and adipose tissues.

  4. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH. PMID:27549514

  5. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    PubMed

    Mdoe, France P; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Msangi, Shandala; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2014-05-02

    The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 μg/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 μg/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy observed in this study is attributed to both

  6. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 μg/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 μg/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy

  7. An overview on chemical composition, bioactivity and processing of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vasundhara; Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala, also known as Indian bay leaves, are a lesser-known spice used in the Indian subcontinent. It imparts a warm, peppery, clove-cinnamon like flavor to a variety of food preparations. Besides food applications, the leaves have also been traditionally used for curing a number of ailments and for other perceived health benefits. They find mention in the Aurvedic, Yunani, and other traditional medicinal literature. This review summarizes the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves on biological systems such as immune system, gastro-intestinal tract, liver and its antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial activity. Chemical components that may be responsible for its flavor as well as bioactivity, have also been discussed.

  8. Cassia spectabilis DC seed galactomannan: structural, crystallographical and rheological studies.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, V P; Taravel, F R; Joseleau, J P; Milas, M; Chanzy, H; Rinaudo, M

    1998-01-01

    The seeds of Cassia spectabilis DC (family: Leguminoseae), an Indian fast growing spreading tree, contain about 40% of endosperm and possess the characteristics of becoming a potential source of commercial gum. The purified galactomannan shows Mw 1.1 x 10(6), intrinsic viscosity [eta] 615ml/g with k' = 1.706 x 10(-1), and a mannose to galactose ration of 2.65. The hydrolysis of the fully methylated polysaccharide reveals clearly the expected structure of legume galactomannans. The orthorhombic lattice constants of the hydrated gums are as follows: a = 9.12 A, b = 25.63 A and c = 10.28 A. The results of X-ray fiber studies show that the b dimension of the unit cell is very sensitive to relative humidity (RH), galactose substitution and orientation of the films. The probable space group symmetry of the unit cell is P2(1)2(1)2. Rheological studies of the galactomannan have shown that the transition from semi-dilute to dilute regime occurs at a critical concentration Cc* = 2.75. The slope of the log-log plot of specific viscosity versus C at zero shear rate is 5.87 in the more concentrated regime. The viscoelastic and critical shear rate behavior indicate the characteristics of a coil polymer. The large dependence of the viscosity on the coil overlap parameter is probably due to polymer-polymer interactions and peculiarity of the galactose distribution along the chain. Above 20 g/L concentration, the rheological behavior of the gum is like the one of a weak-gel.

  9. [Study on effect of seed vigor and agronomic characters of Cassia seeds implanted with low energy nitrogen ion beans].

    PubMed

    Song, Mei; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2012-07-01

    To study the effect of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on seed germination and agronomic characters. Different doses of low energy nitrogen ion implantation were implanted into fresh Cassia seed embryos. Seed germination, seedling growth and field agronomic characters were observed. The seeds after ion implantation showed significant reduction in germination energy, germination percentage and germination index, besides the significant decreasement in root length, fresh weight and vigor index of seedling. Plant height decreased despite the increase in grain size and grain weight. The low energy nitrogen ion implantation have significant effect on Cassia seeds, and being of great significance on Cassia artificial cultivation.

  10. In vivo cytokine modulatory effects of cinnamaldehyde, the major constituent of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Shen Chou; Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chao, Pei-Chun; Lai, Ya-Yun; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Chung-Shih; Lee, Yi-Pang; Chen, Shu-Chen; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yang, Chi-Chiang

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the major compound in the leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. and to examine its in vivo toxicity and cytokine-modulatory effects. The HS-GC/MS and quantitative HPLC analyses showed the concentrations of the major compounds, cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde and 3-phenylpropionaldehyde, in the leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum to be 16.88, 1.28 and 1.70 mg/mL, respectively. Acute and sub-acute toxicity tests identified no significant changes in body weight, liver and kidney function indices, and pathology for the mice treated with up to 1 mL/kg body weight of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil or up to 4 mg/kg body weight of cinnamaldehyde. A murine model was established using ovalbumin (OVA)-primed Balb/C mice treated with various concentrations of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil or cinnamaldehyde daily for 4 weeks. The results of tests with commercial ELISA kits indicated no significant cytokine-modulatory effects in mice treated with Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil; however, the serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10, but not IFN-γ, significantly increased in animals treated with 1 mg/kg body weight of cinnamaldehyde during the 4-week period. The possibility that the other constituents act as antagonists of cinnamaldehyde cannot be excluded. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Discrimination of Semen cassiae from two related species based on the multivariate analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liying; Wu, Hongwei; Zhou, Xidan; Xu, Yilong; Zhou, Guohong; Wang, Ting; Kou, Zhenzhen; Wang, Zhuju

    2015-07-01

    A simple and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method was developed to discriminate Semen cassiae from two related species: Cassia obtusifolia L. (CO) and Cassia tora L. (CT), the seeds of which are abbreviated as COS and CTS, respectively. 22 major bioactive ingredients in 42 samples (20 COS and 22 CTS) collected from different provinces of China were identified. The statistical methods included similarity analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The pattern analysis method was specific and could be readily used for the comprehensive evaluation of Semen cassiae samples. Therefore, high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint in combination with pattern analysis provided a simple and reliable method for discriminating between COS and CTS. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Phytochemistry and pharmacological potential of Cassia absus - a review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Saeed; Hassan, Ayesha; Abbasi, Waheed Mumtaz; Rehman, Tayyeba

    2017-09-05

    Cassia absus is a plant of the family fabaceae with Ayurvedic ethnomedical records. It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, cough, conjunctivitis, leucoderma, renal and hepatic diseases, constipation, tumors, venereal ulcer, headache, hemorrhoids and wound healing. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies have provided valuable scientific evidence for its use. This review aims to summarize reported pharmacognosy, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological potential of C. absus while identifying potential areas of further research of plant. The review comprises literature pertaining to the evidence base therapeutic potential, pharmacognosy and phytochemistry of C. absus spanning from 1935 to 2016 using published articles in peer-reviewed journals, ethno botanical text books, and worldwide accepted scientific databases via electronic search (Elsevier, Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Springer, Web of Science, Wiley online library). Kew Botanical Garden databases and the Plant List were used to authenticate the scientific names. Different pharmacological experiments in many in-vitro and in-vivo models have proved the potential of C. absus with antihypertensive, antifertility, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-glycation, antibacterial activity, α- amylase inhibitory activity, antioxidant and reducing activitity etc. chaksine, iso-chaksine, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin and a wide range of chemical compounds have also been reported. Toxicity studies reveal the nontoxic nature of C. absus at a dose of 2000 mg/kg, however, plant possess reproductive toxicity and can be used as birth control or abortifacient. Reported activities suggest that there is sufficient pharmacological potential for developing C. absus as a drug for hypertension, infections, diabetes and its complications. However, heterogeneity in study protocol and conflicting results mask the ability to

  13. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition.

  14. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Perera, Sanja; Gunatilake, Mangala; Abeywardene, Eranga; Gunapala, Nuwan; Premakumara, Sirimal; Perera, Kamal; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Katulanda, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water) and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts) were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water) and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts) were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05). Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05). Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001). Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001). Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats. PMID:22518078

  15. [Volatile metabolites analysis and molecular identification of endophytic fungi bn12 from Cinnamomum camphora chvar. borneol].

    PubMed

    Chen, Meilan; Yang, Li; Li, Qin; Shen, Ye; Shao, Aijuan; Lin, Shufang; Huang, Luqi

    2011-12-01

    To identify endophytic fungi bn12 from Cinnamomum camphora chvar, borneol and analysis its volatile metabolites. The endophytic fungi bn12 was identified by morphological observation. volatile metabolites of endophytic fungi bn12 was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrography (GC-MS). Volatile metabolites of endophytic fungi bn12 contain borneol and much indoles. The ITS sequence of endophytic fungi bnl2 is most similar to the ITS sequence of pleosporaceae fungus, particularly C. nisikadoi. Endophytic fungi bn12 is belong to pleosporaceae fungus. It has the ability of producing broneol.

  16. Optimization and Characterization of Cinnamon Leaves (Cinnamomum burmannii) Oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Prasetyawan, P.; Utami, R.; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Sanjaya, A. P.

    2017-04-01

    This research aimed to determine the optimum yield condition on cinnamon leaves oleoresin production at various temperature and contact time during maceration and to find out the characteristics of cinnamon leaves oleoresin such as active compound, cinnamon leaves oil content, and solvent residue levels at optimum yield. This research used the variations of extraction temperature (70, 75 and 80°C) and extraction time (4, 5 and 6 h). Based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the equation of cinnamon leaves oleoresin sample optimization as follow: Y = 13 - 1.0167X1- 0.2833X2- 0.6833X12- 0.5833X22- 0.3250 X1X2. The optimum yield of cinnamon leaves oleoresin (13.3790%) was obtained at 77.754°C for 4.9185 h. The characteristics of cinnamon leaves oleoresin that showed the optimum yield were 59.56% eugenol level, 9.50% cinnamon leaves oil content and 22700 ppm solvent residue level.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Fistulin: A Protease Inhibitor Purified from the Leaves of Cassia fistula.

    PubMed

    Arulpandi, I; Sangeetha, R

    2012-01-01

    Plant protease inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the important components of a plant's defense machinery. PPIs are active against the insects and microbes which invade the plant. Cassia species possess anti-insecticidal and antimicrobial properties and this study was aimed at investigating the antibacterial efficacy of a PPI present in the leaves of Cassia fistula. A PPI, fistulin, was isolated from the leaves of C. fistula and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The antibacterial activity of the purified fistulin was studied against five bacterial strains, namely, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The PPI was found to be very active against S. aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, and K. pneumonia, and its efficacy was comparable to the standard drug, streptomycin sulphate.

  18. Efficacy of plant extracts against stored-products fungi.

    PubMed

    Magro, Ana; Carolino, Manuela; Bastos, Margarida; Mexia, António

    2006-09-01

    The fungistatic activity of six aqueous extracts of plants were tested against Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium culmorum. The plants were, chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl.), French lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), malva (Malva sylvestris L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). The more concentrated extracts of chamomile and malva inhibited totally the growth of the tested fungi with malva the most effective one.

  19. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Calcium Hydroxide, and Triple Antibiotic Paste as Root Canal Dressing Materials.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Dadolahi, Sahar; Gholami, Ahmad; Moein, Mahmoud Reza; Hamedani, Shahram; Ghasemi, Younes; Abbott, Paul Vincent

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article was (i) to define the chemical constituents of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CEO), (ii) to compare the antimicrobial activity of CEO with triple antibiotic paste (TAP) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] on planktonic and biofilm Enterococcus faecalis; and (iii) to compare the cytotoxicity of these medicaments on L929 fibroblasts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to define the constituents of CEO. Zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and time-kill tests were performed. Further, 108 human teeth were infected with E. faecalis and treated with the medicaments for 1, 7, and 14 days. Cytotoxicity was assessed by exposing L929 fibroblasts to the medicaments. Cinnamaldehyde was the main component of CEO. Triple antibiotic paste had the greatest zone of inhibition and the smallest MIC and MBC. Triple antibiotic paste and CEO eradicated planktonic E. faecalis after 4 and 24 hours, while Ca(OH)2 failed to achieve 100% killing after 24 hours. Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil and TAP eradicated biofilm E. faecalis after 7 and 14 days, but Ca(OH)2 could not eliminate E. faecalis after 14 days. Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil was the most biocompatible medicament. Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil is an efficient antibacterial agent against planktonic and biofilm E. faecalis and it was cytocompatible to L929 fibroblasts. Therefore, CEO has the potential to be used as an antimicrobial agent in root canal treatment.

  20. Cinnamon polyphenol extract regulates tristetraprolin and related gene expression in mouse adipocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been widely used in spices, flavoring agents, and preservatives. Cinnamon polyphenol extract (CPE) may be important in the alleviation of chronic diseases, but the molecular evidence is not substantial. Tristetraprolin (TTP) family proteins have anti-inflammatory ef...

  1. Adulticidal and repellent properties of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Caesalpinaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Amerasan, Duraisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; John William, Samuel; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-11-01

    Mosquitoes have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, chloroform, benzene, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf of Cassia tora were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticidal effects; however, the highest adult mortality observed was found in methanol extract. The LC(50) and LC(90) values of C. tora leaf extracts against adulticidal activity of (hexane, chloroform benzene, acetone, and methanol) C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi were the following: C. quinquefasciatus LC(50) values were 338.81, 315.73, 296.13, 279.23, and 261.03 ppm and LC(90) values were 575.77, 539.31, 513.99, 497.06, and 476.03 ppm; A. aegypti LC(50) values were 329.82, 307.31, 287.15, 269.57, and 252.03 ppm and LC(90) values were 563.24, 528.33, 496.92, 477.61, and 448.05 ppm; and A. stephensi LC(50) values were 317.28, 300.30, 277.51, 263.35, and 251.43 ppm and LC(90) values were 538.22, 512.90, 483.78, 461.08, and 430.70 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, chloroform, benzene, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. tora plant at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, this plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of

  2. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    PubMed

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  3. Wilsonols A-L, megastigmane sesquiterpenoids from the leaves of Cinnamomum wilsonii.

    PubMed

    Shu, Penghua; Wei, Xialan; Xue, Yongbo; Li, Weijie; Zhang, Jinwen; Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Mengke; Luo, Zengwei; Li, Yan; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-07-26

    Twelve new megastigmane sesquiterpenoids, wilsonols A-L (1-12), were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum wilsonii, along with seven known analogues (13-19). The structures of compounds 1-12 were established by spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 1-5 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα irradiation, and the absolute configurations of 6-12 were determined by the modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1-9 and 13-19 were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480, and compared against the Beas-2B immortalized (noncancerous) human bronchial epithelial cell line. Compound 13 exhibited IC50 values ranging from 2.5 to 12 μM and selectivity indices of >10 against SMMC-7721, A-549, and MCF-7 cell lines. Selected compounds were evaluated for in vitro immunomodulatory activity.

  4. Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. Methods A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: “Cinnamomum zeylanicum”, “Ceylon cinnamon”, “True cinnamon” and “Sri Lankan cinnamon”. To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. Results The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. Conclusions The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  6. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  7. Chemical composition and acaricide activity of an essential oil from a rare chemotype of Cinnamomum verum Presl on Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Ildenice Nogueira; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Costa-Junior, Lívio Martins; da Silva Lima, Aldilene; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Mouchrek Filho, Victor Elias

    2017-04-30

    The Essential Oils (EOs) from the leaves of species Cinnamomum verum J. Presl are used in the pharmaceutical industry for their numerous biological activities. Currently, the main compound of C. verum EO is eugenol which has acaricidal activity; however, a rare chemotype with benzyl benzoate as the main component can be found. Benzyl benzoate is recognized as an acaricide; however, studies of the C. verum EOs benzyl benzoate chemotype on Rhipicephalus microplus were not reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricide activity of an EO from a rare chemotype of C. verum, as well as purified benzyl benzoate, against larvae and engorged females of R. microplus resistant to amidines and pyrethroids. The EO was extracted from C. verum leaves and the compounds present were identified using a gas phase chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. Efficacy against R. microplus was assessed by the larval packet and the engorged female immersion tests. A rare chemotype of C. verum was found to produce EOs with benzyl benzoate (65.4%) as the main compound. The C. verum essential oil was 3.3 times more efficient on the R. microplus larvae than was benzyl benzoate. However, no differences were found on the R. microplus engorged females. This is the first report regarding the acaricidal activity of C. verum with chemotype benzyl benzoate, and this compound showed acaricidal activity on R. microplus larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of air pollution on floral morphology of Cassia siamea Lamk.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S V S; Chaurasia, Bharati; Rana, Anita

    2004-07-01

    Cassia siamea plants growing at two different sites (polluted and non-polluted) on two important roads of Agra city exhibited significant differences in their flowering phenology and floral morphology. The flowering in plants growing at polluted site is delayed and there was a marked reduction in flowering density, flowering period, size of floral parts, pollen fertility, fruit and seed-set. SEM observations revealed the presence of well developed glandular structures and reduction in the number and size of large stomata on the anther surface at polluted site. These changes were found to be closely associated with the extent of air pollution caused mainly by significant in the number of automobiles.

  9. Cassia occidentalis L.: a review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile.

    PubMed

    Yadav, J P; Arya, Vedpriya; Yadav, Sanjay; Panghal, Manju; Kumar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema

    2010-06-01

    Cassia occidentalis L. is an annual or perennial Ayurvedic plant which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This weed has been known to possess antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancerous, antimutagenic and hepatoprotective activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including achrosin, aloe-emodin, emodin, anthraquinones, anthrones, apigenin, aurantiobtusin, campesterol, cassiollin, chryso-obtusin, chrysophanic acid, chrysarobin, chrysophanol, chrysoeriol etc. have been isolated from this plant. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the botany, ethnopharmacologyquery, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of the C.occidentalis plant. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fistulains A and B, New Bischromones from the Bark of Cassia fistula, and Their Activities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Zhou, Kun; Gao, Xue-Mei; Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Lv, Jun-Jiang; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Guang-Yu; Miao, Ming-Ming; Che, Chun-Tao; Hu, Qiu-Fen

    2015-06-05

    Fistulains A and B (1 and 2), two novel bischromones with unique coupling patterns, alone with their biosynthetic related compound 3, were isolated from the bark of Cassia fistula. Fistulain A represents a new type of dimeric chromone alkaloid biogenetically derived from a chromone and a tricyclic alkaloid through an unusual C-14-N linkage. Fistulain B has a new carbon skeleton with a C-14-C-5' linkage formed between two different chromone units. Fistulain A displayed anti-TMV activity, and both 1 and 2 showed weak cytotoxicities.

  11. Cassiarins C-E, antiplasmodial alkaloids from the flowers of Cassia siamea.

    PubMed

    Oshimi, Shiori; Deguchi, Jun; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Ekasari, Wiwied; Widyawaruyanti, Aty; Wahyuni, Tutik Sri; Zaini, Noor Cholies; Shirota, Osamu; Morita, Hiroshi

    2009-10-01

    Three new alkaloids, cassiarins C-E (1-3), and a new chromone, 10,11-dihydroanhydrobarakol (4), which showed moderate antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, were isolated from flowers of Cassia siamea, and the structures of 1-4 were elucidated by 2D NMR analysis and chemical transformation. Cassiarin D (2) was a dimeric compound consisting of 5-acetonyl-7-hydroxy-2-methylchromone and cassiarin C (1), and cassiarin E (3) was a dimer of cassiarins A and C (1).

  12. Flavones from Cassia siamea and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Zhou, Kun; Xiang, Neng-Jun; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Cheng-Ming; Wang, Yue-De; Dong, Wei; Lou, Jie; Ji, Bing-Kun; Gao, Xue-Mei; Miao, Ming-Ming; Hu, Qiu-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Two new flavones, siameflavones A and B (1 and 2), together with five known flavones (3-7) were isolated from the stem of Cassia siamea. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (Anti-TMV) activity. The results showed that compounds 1-5 showed weak anti-TMV activity with inhibition rates in the range of 11.6-18.5%.

  13. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculicidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2005-12-01

    The toxicity of cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, bark essential oil compounds against eggs and adult females of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of their related compounds, benzyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl acetate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, as well as two widely used pediculicides, d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In a filter-paper contact toxicity bioassay with female lice at 0.25 mg/cm(2), benzaldehyde was 29- and 27-fold more toxic than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively, as judged by median lethal time (LT(50)) values. Salicylaldehyde was nine and eight times more active than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively. Pediculicidal activity of linalool was comparable with that of d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. Cinnamomum bark essential oil was slightly less effective than either d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. Benzyl alcohol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde exhibited moderate pediculicidal activity. After 24h of exposure, no hatching was observed with 0.063 mg/cm(2) salicylaldehyde, 0.125 mg/cm(2) benzaldehyde, 0.5mg/cm(2)Cinnamomum bark essential oil, 1.0 mg/cm(2) (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and 1.0 mg/cm(2) benzyl cinnamate. Little or no ovicidal activity was observed with d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. In vapour phase toxicity tests with female lice, benzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde were much more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these compounds was largely due to action in the vapour phase. Neither d-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Cinnamomum bark essential oil and test compounds described merit further study as potential pediculicides or ovicides for the control of P. h. capitis.

  14. Exploring drought stress-regulated genes in senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.): a transcriptomic approach.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra; Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy Rama

    2017-01-01

    De novo assembly of reads produced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offers a rapid approach to obtain expressed gene sequences for non-model organisms. Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a drought-tolerant annual undershrub of Caesalpiniaceae, a subfamily of Fabaceae. There are insufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in public databases for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the drought tolerance of senna. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to know the transcriptome profile of senna, with special reference to drought stress. RNA from two different stages of leaf development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina technology. A total of 200 million reads were generated, and a de novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 43,413 transcripts which were further annotated using NCBI BLAST with "green plant database (txid 33090)," Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 42,280 (95.0 %) were annotated by BLASTX against the green plant database of NCBI. Senna transcriptome showed the highest similarity to Glycine max (41 %), followed by Phaseolus vulgaris (16 %), Cicer arietinum (15 %), and Medicago trancatula (5 %). The highest number of GO terms were enriched for the molecular functions category; of these "catalytic activity" (GO: 0003824) (25.10 %) and "binding activity" (GO: 0005488) (20.10 %) were most abundantly represented. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level; a total of 33,256 transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. The transcripts were assigned with various KEGG pathways. Coding DNA sequences (CDS) encoding various drought stress-regulated pathways such as signaling factors, protein-modifying/degrading enzymes, biosynthesis of phytohormone, phytohormone signaling, osmotically active compounds, free radical

  15. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment.

  16. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of a water-dilutable cassia oil microemulsion against Geotrichum citri-aurantii.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shi-Xiang; Li, Yi-Chen; Liu, Xia; Mao, Li-Juan; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Xiao-Dong

    2012-10-01

    Recently, food-grade microemulsions have been of increasing interest to researchers and have shown great potential in industrial applications. In this study a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsion system with cassia oil as oil, ethanol as cosurfactant, Tween 20 as surfactant and water was developed and its antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against Geotrichum citri-aurantii was assessed. The phase diagram results confirmed the feasibility of forming a water-dilutable microemulsion based on cassia oil. One microemulsion formulation, cassia oil/ethanol/Tween 20 = 1:3:6 (w/w/w), was selected with the capability to undergo full dilution with water. The average particle size was 6.3 nm. The in vitro antifungal experiments showed that the microemulsion inhibited fungal growth on solid medium and prevented arthroconidium germination in liquid medium and that cassia oil had stronger activity when encapsulated in the microemulsion. The in vivo antifungal experiments indicated that the water-dilutable microemulsion was effective in preventing postharvest diseases of citrus fruits caused by G. citri-aurantii. The results of this study suggest a promising utilisation of water-dilutable microemulsions based on essential oils for the control of postharvest diseases. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Anti-Oxidative Effect of Cassia auriculata on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, V.

    2010-01-01

    The anti oxidative effect of administration of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw of the flower powder of Cassia auriculata (CFP) for 45 days to normoglycemic and diabetic rats (streptozotocin induced) was studied. Anti oxidative effect was not observed in normoglycemic rats in the experiment. There was significant (P > 0.05) increase in the level of Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), hydroperoxide and conjugated dienes and significant (P > 0.05) decrease in the catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and in the level of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and reduced glutathione in diabetic rats. The flower powder of Cassia auriculata significantly (P > 0.05) decreased the TBARS, hydroperoxide and conjugated dienes and increased the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and non enzymic anti oxidants (ascorbic acid, vitamin E and reduced glutathione). The antioxidatve effect of 200 mg/kg bw CFP was significantly (P > 0.05) better than 100 mg/kg bw CFP and the reference drugs (tolbutamide and metformin). The mode of action of CFP remains to be elicited. PMID:21966119

  18. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', associated with witches'-broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Spreng. in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Saady, Nadiya Abubakar; Khan, Akhtar Jamal; Calari, Alberto; Al-Subhi, Ali Masoud; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2008-02-01

    Samples from plants of Cassia italica exhibiting typical witches'-broom symptoms (Cassia witches'-broom; CWB) were examined for the presence of plant pathogenic phytoplasmas by PCR amplification using universal phytoplasma primers. All affected plants yielded positive results. RFLP analyses of rRNA gene products indicated that the phytoplasmas detected were different from those described previously. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that CWB represents a distinct lineage and shares a common ancestor with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. Molecular comparison revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the four CWB strains (IM-1, IM-2, IM-3 and IM-4) identified in symptomatic C. italica samples were nearly identical (99.6-100 % similarity). The closest relatives were members of the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma ribosomal group (16SrIX; 95-97 % sequence similarity). On the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences and biological properties, the phytoplasma associated with witches'-broom of C. italica in Oman represents a coherent but discrete novel phytoplasma, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', with GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL accession number EF666051 representing the reference strain.

  19. Jueming prescription and its ingredients, semen cassiae and Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, stimulate lipolysis and enhance the phosphorylation of hormone‑sensitive lipase in cultured rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Jiaojiao; Wen, Xiuying

    2017-08-22

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of jueming prescription (JMP) and its ingredients, semen cassiae (SC) and Rhizoma Curcumae Longae (RCL), on lipolysis, and to examine their effect on the phosphorylation of hormone‑sensitive lipase (HSL) in cultured rat white adipose tissue (WAT). Retroperitoneal WAT was aseptically excised from adult male Sprague‑Dawley rats, minced into uniform sections and subjected to ex vivo culture for 24 h. The tissue sections were then distributed into a 24‑well culture plate and treated with normal saline (vehicle), isoproterenol (ISO), JMP, SC and RCL. Non‑esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol release from the intact WAT explants were determined as a measurement of lipolysis, which were measured using NEFA and glycerol assay kits. The phosphorylation of HSL at Ser563 (P‑HSL S563) and 660 residues (P‑HSL S660) were determined using western blot analysis. The size of the adipocytes was visualized using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. It was found that JMP‑, SC‑ and RCL‑stimulated lipolysis was responsible for increasing the release of NEFAs and glycerol from the intact WAT in vitro. In addition, JMP, SC and RCL increased the levels of P‑HSL Ser563: JMP water (JW) extract, 3.52‑fold; JMP ethanol (JE) extract, 3.38‑fold; SC water (SW) extract, 4.60‑fold; SC ethanol (SE) extract, 4.20‑fold; RCL water (RW) extract, 6.98‑fold; RCL ethanol (RE) extract, 6.60‑fold. JMP, SC and RCL also increased the levels of P‑HSL Ser660: JW extract, 3.16‑fold; JE extract, 2.92‑fold; SW extract, 4.57‑fold; SE extract, 4.13‑fold; RW extract, 5.41‑fold; RE 4.96‑fold) in the WAT. The RW extract had the most marked effect. The HE staining revealed that JMP, SC and RCL reduced the size of adipocytes in the WAT. In conclusion, JMP and its ingredients, SC and RC, stimulated lipolysis and reduced the size of adipocytes, possibly via the phosphorylation of HSL in cultured rat WAT.

  20. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  1. Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of Essential Oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

    2015-08-01

    The essential oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. The essential oils of leaf and bark of C. grffithii were characterized by the presence of 30 components, with methyl eugenol (38.5-43.8%) as the major component. A total of 11 components were characterized in.the leaf and bark of C. macrocarpum essential oil with the most abundant component was safrole (54.5-59.5%). The bark oil of C. griffithii demonstrated significant activity on DPPH (IC50 73.4 microg/mL) and a high phenolic content (192.0%), while the leaf oil inhibited oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid with an inhibition value of 65.5 μg/mL. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition were assessed and the results showed that C. macrocarpun bark oil exhibited significant activity with inhibition values of 55.8% and 66.1%, respectively at a concentration of 1 mg/mL.

  2. [Researches on relationship between genetic differentiation and chemical variation of Cinnamomum migao].

    PubMed

    Chen, Meilan; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Weike; Jin, Yanlei; Yang, Zhannan

    2011-06-01

    To study the relationship between the genetic diversity and chemical variation of Cinnamomum migao. ISSR marker technique was used to research the genetic structure of 9 population, GC-MS was used to analyze the main ingredients of the volatile oil in C. migao. The analysis on the main ingredients of the volatile oil showed that there were significant or extremely significant differences in 9 populations. The minimum variation index of population was Yunnan Funing and the maximum variation index of population was Guangxi Yueye. ISSR marker analysis showed that the average of polymorphic loci percentage (P) was 42.41%, expected heterozygosity (H) was 0.181 0, Shannon's information index (I) was 0.293 8, the Nei's genetic diversity (H(s)) in the group was 0.188 9, genetic differentiation index (G(st)) was 2.269 1. The relationship between the genetic diversity and chemical variation showed that there was no significant correlation between the main ingredients of the volatile oil and 4 indexes of genetic structure of C. migao. The genetic diversity of C. migao was relatively high at the population levels, while it is low within the population levels, the relationship between chemical variation and genetic diversity was not obvious, that may indicate that other factors causes the chemical variation of C. migao.

  3. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  4. Anti-inflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) twigs.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Chua, Meng-Thong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2008-06-01

    In this study, chemical compositions of hydrodistilled essential oil and anti-inflammatory activities from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. were investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of the twig essential oil were further analyzed by GC-MS and they were found to be L-bornyl acetate (15.89%), caryophyllene oxide (12.98%), gamma-eudesmol (8.03%), beta-caryophyllene (6.60%), T-cadinol (5.49%), delta-cadinene (4.79%), trans-beta-elemenone (4.25%), cadalene (4.19%), and trans-cinnamaldehyde (4.07%). The effects of essential oil on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. Results of nitric oxide tests indicated that twig essential oil and its major constituents such as trans-cinnamaldehyde, caryophyllene oxide, L-borneol, L-bornyl acetate, eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, E-nerolidol, and cinnamyl acetate have excellent activities. These findings demonstrated that essential oil of C. osmophloeum twigs have excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus have great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

  5. Volatile constituents from Cinnamomum zeylanicum fruit stalks and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Jagan Mohan Rao, Lingamallu; Sakariah, Kunnumpurath K

    2003-07-16

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. The steam-distilled volatile oil from cinnamon fruit stalks was analyzed with GC and GC-MS. It showed the presence of hydrocarbons (44.7%) and oxygenated compounds (52.6%). Twenty-seven compounds constituting ca. 95.98% of the volatile oil were characterized. (E)-Cinnamyl acetate (36.59%) and (E)-caryophyllene (22.36%) are found to be major compounds. The volatile oil was screened for its potential as an antioxidant by using in vitro models, such as the beta-carotene-linoleate and phosphomolybdenum complex method. The volatile oil showed 55.94% and 66.9% antioxidant activity at 100 and 200 ppm concentration, respectively. Also, the volatile oil showed good antioxidant capacity, using the formation of the phosphomolybdenum complex. A comparison of the chemical composition of the volatile oil was made with that of buds, flowers, and fruits. This is the first report on the chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit stalks of this species and its antioxidant activity.

  6. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2004-07-14

    Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity.

  7. Profile of urinary and fecal proanthocyanidin metabolites from common cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) in rats.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Fuguet, Elisabet; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark is widely used as a spice and in traditional medicine. Its oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins are believed to be partly responsible for the beneficial properties of the plant. We describe here the metabolic fate of cinnamon proanthocyanidins in the urine and feces of rats fed a suspension of the whole bark. The metabolites include ten mono-, di-, and tri- conjugated (epi)catechin phase II metabolites and more than 20 small phenolic acids from intestinal microbial fermentation. Some of these are sulfated conjugates. Feces contain intact (epi)catechin and dimers. This suggests that free radical scavenging species are in contact with the intestinal walls for hours after ingestion of cinnamon. The phenolic metabolite profile of cinnamon bark in urine is consistent with a mixture of proanthocyanidins that are depolymerized into their constitutive (epi)catechin units as well as cleaved into smaller phenolic acids during their transit along the intestinal tract, with subsequent absorption and conjugation into bioavailable metabolites. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Antiinflammatory Activity of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Bark Essential Oil in a Human Skin Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuesheng; Parker, Tory L

    2017-07-01

    The effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark essential oil (CBEO) on human skin cells has not been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the activity of a commercially available CBEO in a validated human dermal fibroblast system, a model of chronic inflammation and fibrosis. We first evaluated the impact of CBEO on 17 protein biomarkers that play critical roles in inflammation and tissue remodeling. The impact of CBEO on genome-wide gene expression was also evaluated. CBEO showed strong anti-proliferative effects on skin cells and significantly inhibited the production of several inflammatory biomarkers, including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant, and monokine induced by gamma interferon. In addition, CBEO significantly inhibited the production of several tissue remodeling molecules, including epidermal growth factor receptor, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which is an immunomodulatory protein molecule, was also significantly inhibited by CBEO. Furthermore, CBEO significantly modulated global gene expression and altered signaling pathways, many of which are important in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cancer biology. The study shows that CBEO is a promising antiinflammatory agent; however, further research is required to clarify its clinical efficacy. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    PubMed

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of an essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Psoroptes cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Flamini, G; Zaralli, L J; Perrucci, S

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo acaricidal effects of an essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicun leaves on Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite. In vitro, 2.5 ml of the essential oil diluted at different concentrations, from 10% to 0.03%, in paraffin oil were added to Petri dishes containing all motile stages of P. cuniculi. Mites mortality observed in these dishes was compared with that observed in untreated and treated (AcaCerulen R) control plates. In vivo, one group of six P. cuniculi infected rabbits was topically treated two times at seven days interval with two ml of the essential oil at the concentration of 2.5% in paraffin oil and compared with untreated and treated (AcaCerulen R) control groups of six rabbits each. After 24 h of contact, all concentrations of essential oil between 0.10 and 10% showed a good in vitro acaricidal efficacy if compared with the untreated controls (p<0.01), but only the concentrations between 0.16 and 10% turned out as active as the drug. In vivo, the treatment with the essential oil cured all infested rabbits and no statistical differences were observed with the treated control group.

  11. Antiinflammatory Activity of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Bark Essential Oil in a Human Skin Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Tory L.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark essential oil (CBEO) on human skin cells has not been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the activity of a commercially available CBEO in a validated human dermal fibroblast system, a model of chronic inflammation and fibrosis. We first evaluated the impact of CBEO on 17 protein biomarkers that play critical roles in inflammation and tissue remodeling. The impact of CBEO on genome‐wide gene expression was also evaluated. CBEO showed strong anti‐proliferative effects on skin cells and significantly inhibited the production of several inflammatory biomarkers, including vascular cell adhesion molecule‐1, intercellular cell adhesion molecule‐1, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1, interferon gamma‐induced protein 10, interferon‐inducible T‐cell alpha chemoattractant, and monokine induced by gamma interferon. In addition, CBEO significantly inhibited the production of several tissue remodeling molecules, including epidermal growth factor receptor, matrix metalloproteinase‐1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor‐1. Macrophage colony‐stimulating factor, which is an immunomodulatory protein molecule, was also significantly inhibited by CBEO. Furthermore, CBEO significantly modulated global gene expression and altered signaling pathways, many of which are important in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cancer biology. The study shows that CBEO is a promising antiinflammatory agent; however, further research is required to clarify its clinical efficacy. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28444928

  12. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Unlu, Mehmet; Ergene, Emel; Unlu, Gulhan Vardar; Zeytinoglu, Hulya Sivas; Vural, Nilufer

    2010-11-01

    The essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Nine constituents representing 99.24% of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The major compounds in the oil were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (68.95%), benzaldehyde (9.94%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (7.44%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against 21 bacteria and 4 Candida species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on ras active (5RP7) and normal (F2408) fibroblasts were examined by MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC(50) values less than 20 μg/mL for both cell lines. 5RP7 cells were affected stronger than normal cells. Morphological observation of apoptotic cells indicated the induction of apoptosis at the high level of the oil, especially in 5RP7 cells. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of cinnamon bark, indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections and neoplasms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Determination of five primary chemical constituents in Cassia angustifolia by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu-Ping; Wang, Zhu-Ju; Tang, Li-Ying; Fu, Mei-Hong; He, Yan; Fang, Jing; Gong, Qian-Feng

    2008-02-01

    To establish a method for determining the content of primary chemical constituents in the leaves of Cassia angustifolia. The HPLC with Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column was used , acetonitrile-1% acetic acid (10:90-15: 85-18: 82-20: 80-25: 75) in a gradient manner was used as a mobile phase, with flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1), column temperature at 40 degrees C and detection wavelength at 270 nm. The results showed that 5 effective components all separated well and showed good linearity. The method was proved to be rapid, sensitive, accurate, credible and repeatable. It can be applied to quality control of Folium Sennae.

  14. Volatile constituents of the dried leaves of Cassia angustifolia and C. acutifolia (Sennae folium).

    PubMed

    Schultze, W; Jahn, K; Richter, R

    1996-12-01

    The official drug Sennae folium (obtained from Cassia angustifolia and/or C. acutifolia) was found to contain small amounts of volatiles (0.047% based on dry weight) which were analyzed in detail by GC and GC/MS. More than 200 compounds could be detected, 122 of them were identified, representing about 90.7% of the peak area of the total mixture. The volatile constituents can be classified into monoterpenoids (8.8% for sample A and 34.6% for B), sesquiterpenoids (4.2% and 4.0%, respectively), phenylpropanoids (4.2%/15.2%), fatty acids and esters (54.3%/14.2%), and miscellaneous compounds (19.3%/22.7%). Apart from hexadecanoic acid which was strong in both samples (36.8%/9.7%), the occurrence of menthol, geranylacetone, and (E)-anethole is of interest.

  15. Synthesis of carbamoylethyl Cassia angustifolia seed gum in an aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Gaurav; Pandey, I P; Joshi, H C

    2016-01-20

    The Cassia angustifolia seed gum (CAG), a galactomannan, isolated from the seeds of C. angustifolia was subjected to the carbamoylethylation which involved the reaction of CAG with acrylamide in an aqueous medium (water) in the presence of alkali (NaOH) as a catalyst. Alkali concentration, acrylamide concentration, liquor:gum ratio as well as reaction temperature and time were found to affect the extent of carbamoylethylation of CAG (expressed in terms of nitrogen content) and so, these were optimized. Degree of substitution (DS) and reaction efficiency was also determined. FTIR revealed the successful carbamoylethylation of CAG and rheological study conducted on 1 and 2% (w/w) solutions of the carbamoylethyl-CAG not only brought out the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour, but also high stability of carbamoylethyl-CAG solutions in comparison to solutions of the unmodified CAG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure of a galactomannan from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, M; Kapoor, V P

    2001-06-15

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl (family: Caesalpiniaceae) is a fast growing and spreading Indian shrub of which seeds, pods and leaves are extensively used for pharmaceutical applications. The seeds have been found to be an alternative source of commercial gums. The structural aspects of the galactomannans have been determined for a better understanding of its properties. The purified seed galactomannan contains mannose:galactose in a ratio of 2.90. The average molecular weight (M(w)) is 9.66x10(4) and the intrinsic viscosity (eta) is 209 mL/g. Methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 13C NMR studies confirm that the gum has the basic structure of legume galactomannans with a main chain of (1-->4)-linked beta-D-mannopyranosyl units to which single alpha-(1-->6)-D-linked galactopyranosyl units are attached through block pattern.

  17. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on poriferasterol - A natural phytosterol isolated from Cassia sophera Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mondal, Avijit; Nayek, Nayana; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Poriferasterol, a biologically relevant phytosterol, has been isolated and identified first-time from Cassia sophera Linn. (family: Caesalpiniaceae) based on detailed spectral studies. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces and reactivity descriptor of this plant-derived natural molecule have been performed. The experimentally observed FT-IR spectrum of the title compound has been compared with spectral data obtained by DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G (d,p) method. The UV-visible spectrum of the title compound has also been recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals and band gap energy are measured by TD-DFT approach. The 1H and 13C NMR spectrum has been calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital method and compared with the observed data.

  18. Hepatoencephalopathy syndrome due to Cassia occidentalis (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) seed ingestion in horses.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, J P; Cagnini, D Q; Badial, P R; Pessoa, M A; Del Piero, F; Borges, A S

    2013-03-01

    Cassia occidentalis is a bush from the Leguminosae family, subfamily Caesalpinoideae, and is a toxic plant of veterinary interest due to the occasional contamination of animal rations. This report describes the clinical and histopathological findings of an outbreak of C. occidentalis poisoning in horses. Twenty mares were poisoned after consuming ground corn contaminated with 8% of C. occidentalis seeds. Of the 20 animals affected, 12 died: 8 mares were found dead, 2 died 6 h after the onset of clinical signs compatible with hepatic encephalopathy and the 2 other animals were subjected to euthanasia 12 h after the onset of the clinical signs. The remaining 8 mares presented with mild depression and decreased appetite, but improved with treatment and no clinical sequelae were observed. In 6 animals that underwent a necropsy, an enhanced hepatic lobular pattern was noted and within the large intestine, a large number of seeds were consistently observed. Hepatocellular pericentrolobular necrosis and cerebral oedema were the main histological findings. In one mare, there was mild multifocal semimembranosus rhabdomyocytic necrosis and haemorrhage. Seeds collected from intestinal contents and sifted from the culpable feedstuff were planted. Examination of the leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds of the resultant plants identified C. occidentalis. Horses poisoned by C. occidentalis seeds demonstrate clinical signs associated with hepatoencephalopathy and frequently die suddenly. Lesions primarily involve the liver and secondarily, the central nervous system. Cassia occidentalis poisoning should be considered a differential diagnosis in horses with hepatoencephalopathy and special caution should be taken with horse rations to avoid contamination with seeds of this toxic plant.

  19. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing-zheng; Wang, Gen-xuan; Shen, Zhu-xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-qing

    2006-04-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO(2) concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO(2) concentrations (350 micromol/mol and 500 micromol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO(2) on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO(2) concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO(2) enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO(2) enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO(2) concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO(2) concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO(2) enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO(2) depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO(2) enrichment with sufficient water supply.

  20. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and its constituents from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Zheng-Wen; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Jia, Ren-Yong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Zhou, Yi; Du, Yong-Hua; Peng, Lian-Ci; Kang, Shuai; Yu, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis CMCC (B) 50041, were used in the antibacterial tests of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its five chemical constituents. The effect of 1, 8-cineole on the ultrastructural structure of the bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and the five chemical constituents showed variable levels of inhibition. Their MIC ( minimum inhibitory concentration ) and MBC (minimal bacteriocidal concentration) values were all in the range of 0.781 µL/mL~6.25 µL/mL and 0.781 µL/mL~12.5 µL/mL respectively except γ-terpinene. The MIC values of γ-terpinene against E. coli and S. aureus were all higher than 50 µL/mL, but the MIC and MBC values of γ-terpinene against S. enteritidis was only 3.125 µL/mL. Among them, α-terpineol possessed the best antibacterial activity. Under the transmission electron microscope, cell size of treated E. coli decreased, cell wall and cell membrane ruptured, and nucleoplasm was reduced and gathered onto the side. After the S. aureus was treated with 1, 8-cineole, the cell size and shape were damaged and nucleus cytoplasm was concentrated or reduced or agglomerated on the side. These results suggest that C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its constituents have excellent antibacterial activities, the antibacterial mechanism of 1, 8-cineole against E. coli and S. aureus might attributable to its hydrophobicity.

  1. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora *

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xing-Zheng; Wang, Gen-Xuan; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply. PMID:16532530

  2. Cinnamophilin, a novel thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, isolated from Cinnamomum philippinense.

    PubMed

    Yu, S M; Ko, F N; Wu, T S; Lee, J Y; Teng, C M

    1994-04-11

    The pharmacological activity of cinnamophilin ((8R,8'S)-4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-7-oxo-8,8'-neolignan), isolated from Cinnamomum philippinense, was studied in isolated rat aorta, guinea-pig trachea and rabbit platelets. Cinnamophilin was found to be a thromboxane A2 receptor blocking agent in these tissues as revealed by its competitive antagonism of the U-46619 (9,11-dideoxymethanoepoxy-9 alpha,11 alpha-prostaglandin F2 alpha)-induced contraction of rat aorta and guinea-pig trachea and aggregation of rabbit platelets with pA2 values of 7.3 +/- 0.2, 5.2 +/- 0.1 and 6.3 +/- 0.3, respectively. Protection against the irreversible vasoconstriction of rat aorta caused by U-46619 (0.05 microM) was obtained by cinnamophilin (10 microM) but not by caffeine (25 mM). Cinnamophilin (1-15 microM) also possessed voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blocking action, judging from its antagonism of the high K+ (60 mM)- and Bay K 8644 (0.1 microM)-induced contraction in rat thoracic aorta. Cinnamophilin (30 microM) produced a slight relaxation of noradrenaline (3 microM)-induced tonic contractions, and this relaxing effect was abolished in the presence of nifedipine (1 microM). Nifedipine (10 microM) sufficient to inhibit high K(+)-induced contractions failed to attenuate the contractile response to U-46619. A high concentration of cinnamophilin (100 microM) did not affect the aortic contraction induced by endothelin-1, angiotensin II, carbachol or serotonin. Neither cAMP nor cGMP in rat aorta was increased by cinnamophilin. These results indicate that cinnamophilin is a selective thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist especially in rat aorta, and also possesses voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blocking properties.

  3. Non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis in Cinnamomum camphora seedings exposed to elevated O3.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is the most phytotoxic air pollutant for global forests, with decreased photosynthesis widely regarded as one of its most common effects. However, controversy exists concerning the mechanism that underlies the depressing effects of O3 on CO2 assimilation. In the present study, seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora, a subtropical evergreen tree species that has rarely been studied, were exposed to ambient air (AA), ambient air plus 60 [ppb] O3 (AA+60), or ambient air plus 120 [ppb] O3 (AA+120) in open-top chambers (OTCs) for 2 years. Photosynthetic CO2 exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were investigated in the second growing season (2010). We aim to determine whether stomatal or non-stomatal limitation is responsible for the photosynthesis reduction and to explore the potential implications for forest ecosystem functions. Results indicate that elevated O3 (E-O3) reduced the net photosynthetic rates (PN) by 6.0-32.2%, with significant differences between AA+60 and AA+120 and across the four measurement campaigns (MCs). The actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in saturated light (Fv'/Fm') was also significantly decreased by E-O3, as was the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). Moreover, E-O3 significantly and negatively impacted the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport (Jmax). Although neither the stomatal conductance (gs) nor the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was decreased by E-O3, PN/gs was significantly reduced. Therefore, the observed reduction in PN in the present study should not be attributed to the unavailability of CO2 due to stomatal limitation, but rather to the O3-induced damage to Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and the photochemical apparatus. This suggests that the down-regulation of stomatal conductance could fail to occur, and the biochemical processes in protoplasts would become more susceptible to injuries under long-term O3 exposure, which may have

  4. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  5. Optimization of an aqueous tablet-coating process containing carboxymethylated Cassia fistula gum.

    PubMed

    Rai, Parshu Ram; Tiwary, Ashok Kumar; Rana, Vikas

    2012-06-01

    The present investigation was aimed at developing and optimizing a simple aqueous tablet-coating formulation and its process. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was used to ascertain the relative lipophilic/hydrophilic behavior of the coating system. Optimization was performed by evaluating the adhesive force strength and cohesive force strength of the tablet coat using a texture analyzer. The in vitro release of 5-FU was found to decrease with an increase in (tablet surface-coat) adhesive force strength. The (tablet-tablet) cohesive force strength was reduced by the addition of magnesium silicate to the coating solution. The addition of magnesium silicate (0.2% w/v) to the carboxymethyl Cassia fistula gum-chitosan (CCG-CH) coating surface significantly inhibited the release of 5-FU possibly due to an increase in the hydrophobic character of the coated tablet surface. This was possible by coating cohesive force strength reduction coating compositions (CCG-CH (70:30) and 0.3% magnesium silicate). Further, the FTIR-ATR and DSC analyses suggested the pivotal role of magnesium silicate in modifying the release of 5-FU from CCG-CH-coated tablets due to hydrogen bonding of its Si-O-Si or Mg-O groups with -OH moieties of CCG-CH.

  6. Structure of a water-soluble polysaccharide from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Alam, N; Gupta, P C

    1986-08-01

    A water-soluble galactomannan consisting of D-galactose and D-mannose in the molar ratio 3:2 has been isolated from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia. Hydrolytic fission of the methylated polysaccharide resulted in three methylated sugars: (a) 2, 3-di- O-methyl- D-mannose, (b) 2, 3, 4-tri- O-methyl- D-galactose, and (c) 2, 3, 4, 6-tetra- O-methyl- D-galactose in the molar ratio 2:1:2. Partial acid hydrolysis of the polysaceharide afforded five oligosaccharides: (a) epimelibiose, (b) galactobiosylmannose, (c) mannobiose, (d) mannotriose, and (e) galactobiose. Periodate oxidation of the polysaceharide indicated 59.7% end group while methylation gave 60%. Sodium borohydride reduction of the periodate oxidised polysaceharide and subsequent hydrolysis revealed the presence of (1-->4) and (1-->6)-glycosidic bonds. Thus, the main chain of the galactomannan was found to consist of (1-->4)-linked mannoypyranosyl units having beta-glycosidic bonds while (1-->6)-linked alpha-glycosidically bonded galactopyranosyl units form the branching points.

  7. Chemical structure and biological activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia leaves.

    PubMed

    Müller, B M; Kraus, J; Franz, G

    1989-12-01

    The water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia L. leaves were isolated and fractionated. The acidic polysaccharide fraction was separated into two subfractions S1 and S2 consisting of L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-galacturonic acid. Further fractionation of the predominant S1 by GPC gave two fractions S1A and S1B with an average molecular weight of 2 x 10(6) and 1.5 x 10(5) d, respectively. Methylation analysis of S1A showed the presence of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid (31.0%), 1,2-linked rhamnose (14.5%), 1,2,4-linked rhamnose (15.8%), 1,3,6-linked galactose (15.3%), smaller amounts of 1,3-linked arabinose, 1.5-linked arabinose, and terminal galactose and arabinose residues. Mild acid hydrolysis of S1A indicated that the backbone consists of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid and 1,2-linked rhamnose residues in the ratio of 1:1. Every second rhamnose is connected via C-4 to arabinogalactan sidechains. The antitumor activity of the polysaccharide fractions was tested against the solid Sarcoma-180 in CD1 mice. Only S1A exhibited a significant antitumor activity with an inhibition rate of 51%.

  8. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations.

  9. Determination of the optimal reaction conditions for the preparation of highly substituted carboxymethyl Cassia tora gum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zongwen; Zhou, Peiwen; Yang, Jingru; Li, Junli

    2017-02-10

    Highly substituted carboxymethyl Cassia tora gum (CM-CTG) was prepared from CTG by treatment with monochloroacetic acid (MCA) in ethanolic aqueous solutions after alkalization under different reaction conditions. The influence of the etherification temperature, alkalization and etherification times, molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to MCA (nNaOH/nMCA), theoretical degree of substitution (DSt), and weight percentage of water (WH2O%) in the solution on the degree of substitution (DS) and reaction efficiency (RE) of the reaction were investigated. Optimum preparation conditions for a CM-CTG with DS of 1.05 are: etherification temperature, 60°C; alkalization time, 60min; etherification time, 180min; nNaOH/nMCA, 2.1; DSt, 1.4; and WH2O%, 20%. Fourier-transform infrared analysis of the products indicated that carboxymethylation was successful. Rheological studies show that all the CM-CTG pastes are pseudoplastic fluids, and the shear sensitivity varies with DS. The degree of crystallinity of CM-CTG decreases with increasing DS, as shown by X-ray diffraction measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rheological properties of mixtures of kappa-carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis and galactomannan from Cassia javanica.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C T; Azero, E G; Luciano, L; Gonçalves, M P

    2000-08-28

    Mixed gels of kappa-carrageenan (kappa-car) from Hypnea musciformis and galactomannans (Gal) from Cassia javanica (CJ) and locust bean gum (LBG) were compared using dynamic viscoelastic measurements and compression tests. Mixed gels at 5 g/l of total polymer concentration in 0.1 M KCl showed a synergistic maximum in viscoelastic measurements for kappa-car/CJ and kappa-car/LBG at 2:1 and 4:1 ratios, respectively. The synergistic maximum obtained from compression tests carried out for mixed gels at 10 g/l of total polymer concentration in 0.25 M KCl was the same for both kappa-car/CJ and kappa-car/LBG gels. An enhancement in the storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G") was observed in the mechanical spectra for the mixtures in relation to kappa-car. The proportionally higher increase in G" compared with G', as indicated by the values of the loss tangent (tandelta), suggests that the Gal adhere non-specifically to the kappa-car network.

  11. Interacting effects of CO/sub 2/ and nutrient concentration. [Glycine max; Cassia obtusifolia; Crotalaria spectabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.T.; Flint, E.P.

    1982-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. Tracy) and two associated weeds, sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia L.) and showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis Roth), were grown in controlled-environment chambers with day/night temperatures of 29/23 C, photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 600 ..mu..E m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/, CO/sub 2/ concentrations of 350 or 675 ppm, and one-eighth or one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution applied three times daily. Leaf areas and dry weights of plant parts were determined at 1, 3, and 5 weeks. Stomatal resistances, transpiration rates, leaf water potentials, and leaf chlorophyll contents were measured, and net assimilation rates (NAR) and leaf area durations (LAD) were calculated. In all species, growth in 675 ppm CO/sub 2/ enhanced dry-matter production through increases in both NAR and LAD. The increased dry-matter production with one-half strength compared to one-eighth strength Hoagland's solution was, however, caused by increased LAD. Stomatal conductances and transpiration rates decreased in 675 ppm CO/sub 2/, but were not affected by nutrient level. High CO/sub 2/ concentration or low nutrient level generally decreased leaf chlorophyll content per unit area. Growth enhancement by high CO/sub 2/ was greater in one-half strength than in one-eighth strength Hoagland's solution. 18 references, 5 figures.

  12. Water uptake, priming, drying and storage effects in Cassia excelsa Schrad seeds.

    PubMed

    Jeller, H; Perez, S C; Raizer, J

    2003-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of osmotic potential on the water uptake curve in Cassia excelsa seeds and use the results to analyze the effects of dehydration and storage on primed seed germination. Seeds were imbibed in distilled water and polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000) osmotic solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, at 20 degrees C. The radicle emergence and seed moisture content were evaluated at 6-hour intervals during 240 hours. Afterwards, seeds were primed in distilled water and PEG 6000 solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa for 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours at 20 degrees C, followed by air drying and storage for 15 days at 5 degrees C. The lower the osmotic potential, the higher the time required for priming. The osmoconditioning yields benefits with PEG solutions at 0.0 and -0.2 MPa; seed improvements were maintained during storage for 15 days at 5 degrees C, but were reverted by seed drying.

  13. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2015-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  14. Purification and characterization of an antifungal thaumatin-like protein from Cassia didymobotrya cell culture.

    PubMed

    Vitali, A; Pacini, L; Bordi, E; De Mori, P; Pucillo, L; Maras, B; Botta, B; Brancaccio, A; Giardina, B

    2006-10-01

    A 23-kDa antifungal thaumatin-like protein was isolated and purified from Cassia didymobotrya (Fres.) cell cultures for the first time. The protein was secreted in the culture medium, but it could be also isolated after elution of whole cells with a 0.5 M CaCl(2) solution. Treatment of the cells with laminarin oligosaccharides or salicylic acid, but not with NaCl, resulted in enhancement of expression of the protein. A rapid purification protocol was used based on cationic exchange chromatography. The protein, with a highly basic character (pI 10), has an exact molecular mass of 23034 Da, as determined by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry analysis. N-terminal sequencing of the intact polypeptide and the sequencing of two internal tryptic peptides indicated significant identity with other thaumatin-like proteins (TLP). The protein exerted antifungal activity towards some Candida species showing EC(50) values comparable to those of other antifungal TLPs. The collected data lead to classify this TLP as a new PR-5 protein.

  15. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  16. Chemical constituents of Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter and its allelopathic activity on the growth of maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Hu, Hongling; Hu, Tingxing; Wang, Qian; Ye, Mao; Luo, Jie; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Ruyi

    2017-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of maize. In this study, the morphological traits of maize were significantly inhibited when the leaf litter amount reached or exceeded 40 g per pot; Furthermore, during the early growth stage or with a large amount of litter addition, the pigment contents were inhibited by C. septentrionale leaf litter. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the volatile substances of leaf litter and 34 compounds were identified, several of which were reported to be phytotoxic. In conclusion, the leaf litter of C. septentrionale showed a strong allelopathic effect on the growth of maize. Thus, it is better to avoid the growing of maize under or near the C. septentrionale plantation unless the leaf litter could be eliminated in time or other effective leaf litter processing methods could be implemented.

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of Trophurus wuhuensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Telotylenchinae) from soil associated with Cinnamomum camphora in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Du, J; Wang, Z Y; Wang, K; Li, H L

    2017-10-04

    A new plant nematode species, Trophurus wuhuensis n. sp., was collected from the soil associated with Cinnamomum camphora in Wuhu, Anhui Province, China. The new species is characterized by having a female with a slender body 660.5-801.5 μm in length, stylet 12-14 μm long, knobs directed laterad, lateral field marked by short and scattered grooves, post-vulval uterine sac shorter than vulval body diameter, post-rectal intestinal sac absent, tail cylindroid, terminus with deep wrinkles; and male with a pointed tail terminus and spicules 16-18 μm long. The internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) and partial 18S ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) from T. wuhuensis n. sp. were amplified and sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 18S rDNA fragments is given in this study.

  18. Methods for thermal stability enhancement of leaf essential oils and their main constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsin-Fu; Luo, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Ya; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Hsu, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2013-07-03

    The thermal stability of leaf essential oils from various Cinnamomum osmophloeum and their constituents was investigated for the first time. The results indicated that trans-cinnamaldehyde (Cin) content in eugenol-free essential oil from C. osmophloeum was affected by high temperatures. The retention of Cin (RC) decreased to 17.4% after the essential oil was incubated for 8 h at 100 °C. In contrast, essential oils containing eugenol showed greater thermal stability. Seven kinds of antioxidants were added to Cin to improve its thermal stability. Among them, eugenol endowed Cin with the best thermal stability. We also investigated the influence of various amounts of eugenol on the thermal stability of both essential oil and Cin. Both essential oil and Cin showed excellent thermal stability when 0.62 and 2.60% (v/v) eugenol were added. In short, the thermal stability of essential oil and Cin could be effectively improved by adding appropriate amounts of eugenol.

  19. In vitro activity of the essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and eugenol in peroxynitrite-induced oxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Chericoni, Silvio; Prieto, José M; Iacopini, Patrizia; Cioni, Pierluigi; Morelli, Ivano

    2005-06-15

    The essential oil obtained from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) and three of its main components, eugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and linalool (representing 82.5% of the total composition), were tested in two in vitro models of peroxynitrite-induced nitration and lipid peroxidation. The essential oil and eugenol showed very powerful activities, decreasing 3-nitrotyrosine formation with IC50 values of 18.4 microg/mL and 46.7 microM, respectively (reference compound, ascorbic acid, 71.3 microg/mL and 405.0 microM) and also inhibiting the peroxynitrite-induced lipid peroxidation showing an IC50 of 2.0 microg/mL and 13.1 microM, respectively, against 59.0 microg/mL (235.5 microM) of the reference compound Trolox. On the contrary, (E)-cinnamaldehyde and linalool were completely inactive.

  20. Efficacy of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica and Anopheles pharoensis.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Azza S

    2008-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against the larval maturation and adult emergency of Anopheles pharoensis and Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. A. pharoensis with concentrations (conc.) of 100%, 70%, 50%, 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.7% & 0.5% showed 100% larval mortality. Conc. of 0.3%, 0.2% & 0.1% caused mortality of 77.8%, 44.4% & 33.3% respectively. The fecundity of emerged adults was 0%, 60% & 50%. In M. domestica the conc. from 50%-100% completely killed the larvae. Conc. of 25%, 5%, 2% & 1% caused mortality of 88.9%, 55.6%, 33.3% & 22.2% respectively. Less conc. of C. zeylanicum was not tested. The fecundity of the emerged adults was 0%, 66.7%, 66.7% & 83.3%. Only one control larva died and the nine emerged adults were fertile in the two cases.

  1. Ameliorative Effects of a Polyphenolic Fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in Animal Models of Inflammation and Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Badal; Bodhankar, Subhash; Mohan, V.; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Syn C. verum, family: Lauraceae) is one of the oldest traditional medicines for inflammatory- and pain-related disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (CPP) in animal models of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose-response studies of CPP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) used in a separate set of in vivo experiments were conducted in acute (carrageenan-induced rat paw edema), subacute (cotton pellet-induced granuloma), and sub-chronic (AIA, adjuvant-induced established polyarthrtis) models of inflammation in rats and the acetic acid-induced writhing model of pain in mice. Effects of CPP on cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from Concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated lymphocytes were also evaluated in vitro. CPP showed a strong and dose-dependent reduction in paw volume, weight loss reversal effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats. CPP (200 mg/kg p.o. for 10 days) showed a significant reduction in elevated serum TNF-α concentration without causing gastric ulcerogenicity in the AIA model in rats. CPP also demonstrated mild analgesic effects during acute treatment as evidenced by the reduction in the writhing and paw withdrawal threshold of the inflamed rat paw during the acetic acid-induced writhing model and Randall-Selitto test. CPP was found to inhibit cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from ConA-stimulated lymphocytes in vitro. In conclusion, CPP demonstrated prominent action in animal models of inflammation and arthritis and therefore can be considered as a potential anti-rheumatic agent with disease-modifying action. PMID:23833722

  2. Ameliorative Effects of a Polyphenolic Fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in Animal Models of Inflammation and Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Badal; Bodhankar, Subhash; Mohan, V; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Syn C. verum, family: Lauraceae) is one of the oldest traditional medicines for inflammatory- and pain-related disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (CPP) in animal models of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose-response studies of CPP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) used in a separate set of in vivo experiments were conducted in acute (carrageenan-induced rat paw edema), subacute (cotton pellet-induced granuloma), and sub-chronic (AIA, adjuvant-induced established polyarthrtis) models of inflammation in rats and the acetic acid-induced writhing model of pain in mice. Effects of CPP on cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from Concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated lymphocytes were also evaluated in vitro. CPP showed a strong and dose-dependent reduction in paw volume, weight loss reversal effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats. CPP (200 mg/kg p.o. for 10 days) showed a significant reduction in elevated serum TNF-α concentration without causing gastric ulcerogenicity in the AIA model in rats. CPP also demonstrated mild analgesic effects during acute treatment as evidenced by the reduction in the writhing and paw withdrawal threshold of the inflamed rat paw during the acetic acid-induced writhing model and Randall-Selitto test. CPP was found to inhibit cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from ConA-stimulated lymphocytes in vitro. In conclusion, CPP demonstrated prominent action in animal models of inflammation and arthritis and therefore can be considered as a potential anti-rheumatic agent with disease-modifying action.

  3. Differentiation of the four major types (C. Burmannii, C. Verum, C. cassia, And C. Loureiroi) of cinnamons using a flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple and efficient flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indon...

  4. Tenuifolide B from Cinnamomum tenuifolium Stem Selectively Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells via Apoptosis, ROS Generation, Mitochondrial Depolarization, and DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Wang, Hui-Ru; Yang, Hui-Ping; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-11-05

    The development of drugs that selectively kill oral cancer cells but are less harmful to normal cells still provide several challenges. In this study, the antioral cancer effects of tenuifolide B (TFB), extracted from the stem of the plant Cinnamomum tenuifolium are evaluated in terms of their effects on cancer cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Cell viability of oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) was found to be significantly inhibited by TFB in a dose-responsive manner in terms of ATP assay, yielding IC50 = 4.67 and 7.05 μM (24 h), but are less lethal to normal oral cells (HGF-1). Dose-responsive increases in subG1 populations as well as the intensities of flow cytometry-based annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and pancaspase activity suggested that apoptosis was inducible by TFB in these two types of oral cancer cells. Pretreatment with the apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) reduced the annexin V intensity of these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells, suggesting that TFB induced apoptosis-mediated cell death to oral cancer cells. Cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and cleaved-caspases 3, 8, and 9 were upregulated in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells over time but less harmful for normal oral HGF-1 cells. Dose-responsive and time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP) in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells suggest that TFB may generate oxidative stress as measured by flow cytometry. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment reduced the TFB-induced ROS generation and further validated that ROS was relevant to TFB-induced cell death. Both flow cytometry and Western blotting demonstrated that the DNA double strand marker γH2AX dose-responsively increased in TFB-treated Ca9-22 cells and time-dependently increased in two TFB-treated oral cancer cells. Taken together, we infer that TFB can selectively inhibit cell proliferation of

  5. Tenuifolide B from Cinnamomum tenuifolium Stem Selectively Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells via Apoptosis, ROS Generation, Mitochondrial Depolarization, and DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Wang, Hui-Ru; Yang, Hui-Ping; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The development of drugs that selectively kill oral cancer cells but are less harmful to normal cells still provide several challenges. In this study, the antioral cancer effects of tenuifolide B (TFB), extracted from the stem of the plant Cinnamomum tenuifolium are evaluated in terms of their effects on cancer cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Cell viability of oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) was found to be significantly inhibited by TFB in a dose-responsive manner in terms of ATP assay, yielding IC50 = 4.67 and 7.05 μM (24 h), but are less lethal to normal oral cells (HGF-1). Dose-responsive increases in subG1 populations as well as the intensities of flow cytometry-based annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and pancaspase activity suggested that apoptosis was inducible by TFB in these two types of oral cancer cells. Pretreatment with the apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) reduced the annexin V intensity of these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells, suggesting that TFB induced apoptosis-mediated cell death to oral cancer cells. Cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and cleaved-caspases 3, 8, and 9 were upregulated in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells over time but less harmful for normal oral HGF-1 cells. Dose-responsive and time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP) in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells suggest that TFB may generate oxidative stress as measured by flow cytometry. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment reduced the TFB-induced ROS generation and further validated that ROS was relevant to TFB-induced cell death. Both flow cytometry and Western blotting demonstrated that the DNA double strand marker γH2AX dose-responsively increased in TFB-treated Ca9-22 cells and time-dependently increased in two TFB-treated oral cancer cells. Taken together, we infer that TFB can selectively inhibit cell proliferation of

  6. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    PubMed Central

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (θ), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

  7. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application.

    PubMed

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; More, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-10-01

    Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (θ), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient.

  8. Removal of lead from aqueous solutions using Cassia grandis seed gum-graft-poly(methylmethacrylate).

    PubMed

    Singh, Vandana; Tiwari, Stuti; Sharma, Ajit Kumar; Sanghi, Rashmi

    2007-12-15

    Using persulfate/ascorbic acid redox system, a series of Cassia grandis seed gum-graft-poly(methylmethacrylate) samples were synthesized. The copolymer samples were evaluated for lead(II) removal from the aqueous solutions where the sorption capacities were found proportional to the grafting extent. The conditions for the sorption were optimized using copolymer sample of highest percent grafting. The sorption was found pH and concentration dependent, pH 2.0 being the optimum value. Adsorption of lead by the grafted seed gum followed a pseudo-second-order kinetics with a rate constant of 4.64 x 10(-5) g/mg/min. The equilibrium data followed the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum sorption capacity of 126.58 mg/g. The influence of electrolytes NaCl, Na(2)SO(4) on lead uptake was also studied. Desorption with 2 N HCl could elute 76% of the lead ions from the lead-loaded copolymer. The regeneration experiments revealed that the copolymer could be successfully reused for at least four cycles though there was a successive loss in lead sorption capacity with every cycle. The adsorbent was also evaluated for Pb(II) removal from battery waste-water containing 2166 mg/L Pb(II). From 1000 times diluted waste water, 86.1% Pb(II) could be removed using 0.05 g/20 ml adsorbent dose, while 0.5 g/20 ml adsorbent dose was capable of removing 60.29% Pb from 10 times diluted waste water. Optimum Pb(II) binding under highly acidic conditions indicated that there was a significant contribution of nonelectrostatic interactions in the adsorption process. A possible mechanism for the adsorption has been discussed.

  9. Hypoglycemic activity of Cassia javanica Linn. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumavat, Urmila C.; Shimpi, Shraddha N.; Jagdale, Sandesh P.

    2012-01-01

    In present work, one of the ornamentals and medicinally less known plant Cassia javanica has been explored for hypoglycemic potential. It aimed to check the hypoglycemic effect of C. javanica leaves on normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by acute and sub-acute studies. Prior to the hypoglycemic study, acute oral toxicity testing of drug was performed. Later, the effects of single and multiple doses of test drug were studied using various parameters. Dried powdered leaf material was used as an oral drug. The preliminary phytochemistry of drug was done by standard qualitative tests. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Single and multiple doses of test drug (0.5 g/kg body weight/day) were given to normal and diabetic rats. The parameters studied were blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and serum proteins. The results of test drug were compared with standard hypoglycemic drug-glibenclamide (0.01 g/kg/day). Statistical analysis was done by ‘Student's ‘t’ test’ and one way ANOVA test. In preliminary phytochemistry, antidiabetic compounds were detected. Unlike acute, subacute treatment of test drug showed highly significant reduction (37.62%) in blood glucose level of diabetic rats in ten days. This effect was considerably good in comparison with standard drug (63.51%). The test drug and standard drug exhibited insignificant change in the abnormal levels of serum metabolites of diabetic rats. Preclinically, C. javanica was proved to be effective hypoglycemic agent. PMID:22470893

  10. Plant growth promoting potential of bacteria isolated on N free media from rhizosphere of Cassia occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Arun, B; Gopinath, B; Sharma, Shilpi

    2012-09-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are an attractive eco-friendly alternative to chemicals in agriculture. While the rhizospheres of crop plants have been well studied with the objective of screening PGPR, weeds, which play an important role in maintaining ecological balance, have largely been ignored. The rhizosphere of a luxuriantly growing, medicinal weed, Cassia occidentalis was analysed by enumerating PGPR on N free media from the most diverse stage of plant (determined by profiles obtained on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Each isolate was tested for other plant growth promotion assays including production of cellulase, indole acetic acid (IAA), ammonia, HCN, siderophore and chitinase to select for ones possessing multi-trait plant growth promoting (PGP) properties. Selected isolates were used for bacterization of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo to evaluate their efficacy in promoting plant's growth in seedling germination and axenic pot conditions. Thirty five isolates were analysed further for the array of PGP properties they exhibit. A total of 6 isolates were shortlisted on the basis of maximum traits positive, amount of phosphate solubilized and IAA produced. V. radiata responded well to seed bacterization during seedling germination. A maximum increase of approximately 36 and 60 % was observed for shoot and root length, respectively in V. radiata in axenic pot culture over control plants. Extensive branching of roots was also observed with isolate NL, which produced the maximum amount of IAA. Present study investigated the plant growth promoting isolates obtained on N free media in the rhizosphere of C. occidentalis, which have the potential to be used as inoculants for other crops. This provides a new dimension to the significance of weeds in agricultural ecosystems. The study opens up possibilities for utilization of this property of weeds in plant growth promotion, and subsequent enhancement of yield for agricultural crops.

  11. Repellency of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and their major constituents to Leptotrombidium pallidum (Acari: Trombiculidae).

    PubMed

    Shin, E-Hyun; Song, Bong Gu; Lee, Il Hee; Park, Mi Yeoun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Chang, Kyu-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Leptotrombidium pallidum (Nagoya, Miyagawa, Mitamura & Tamiya) is a primary vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hyashi), the causative agent of scrub typhus. An assessment is made of the repellency to L. pallidum larvae (chiggers) of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and major constituents (E)-cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, and (E)-anethole of the corresponding oils. Results were compared with those of conventional repellents DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 [(ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate)], and permethrin. Based on the median repellent concentration (RC50) values, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassia bark oil, and star anise oil (RC50, 0.95-1.52 mg/cm2) exhibited significantly more potent repellency than DEET (3.85 mg/cm2). (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassiabark oil, 1,8-cineole, and star anise oil were approximately 43, 16, 11, 8, and 4 times more effective than IR3535 (CC5, 6.51%) as judged by the median climbing distance-disturbing concentration (CC50) values. The median residual duration time of repellency (RT50) was significantly more pronounced in DEET (RT50, 323 min) than in all essential oils and constituents (108-167 min). In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic repellents, the three essential oils and their major constituents described merit further study as potential biorepellents for the control of L. pallidum populations.

  12. CASSIA--a dynamic model for predicting intra-annual sink demand and interannual growth variation in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Kulmala, Liisa; Mäkinen, Harri; Nikinmaa, Eero; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2015-04-01

    The control of tree growth vs environment by carbon sources or sinks remains unresolved although it is widely studied. This study investigates growth of tree components and carbon sink-source dynamics at different temporal scales. We constructed a dynamic growth model 'carbon allocation sink source interaction' (CASSIA) that calculates tree-level carbon balance from photosynthesis, respiration, phenology and temperature-driven potential structural growth of tree organs and dynamics of stored nonstructural carbon (NSC) and their modifying influence on growth. With the model, we tested hypotheses that sink demand explains the intra-annual growth dynamics of the meristems, and that the source supply is further needed to explain year-to-year growth variation. The predicted intra-annual dimensional growth of shoots and needles and the number of cells in xylogenesis phases corresponded with measurements, whereas NSC hardly limited the growth, supporting the first hypothesis. Delayed GPP influence on potential growth was necessary for simulating the yearly growth variation, indicating also at least an indirect source limitation. CASSIA combines seasonal growth and carbon balance dynamics with long-term source dynamics affecting growth and thus provides a first step to understanding the complex processes regulating intra- and interannual growth and sink-source dynamics. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, K.; Kumar, L. Sathish; Rajendran, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Bhaskar, K.; Sajit Khan, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii. PMID:21369447

  14. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, K; Kumar, L Sathish; Rajendran, S; Chandrasekaran, M; Bhaskar, K; Sajit Khan, A K

    2008-11-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii.

  15. In vitro biological evaluation of eight different essential oils against Trypanosoma cruzi, with emphasis on Cinnamomum verum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Azeredo, Camila Maria O; Santos, Thalita Gilda; Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha Sales; Soares, Maurilio José

    2014-08-22

    Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of secondary metabolites from various plants. It has been shown that several EOs, or their constituents, have inhibitory activity against trypanosomatid protozoa. Thus, we analyzed the biological activity of different EOs on Trypanosoma cruzi, as well as their cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The following EOs were evaluated on T. cruzi epimastigote forms: Cinnamomum verum, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon nardus, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Eugenia uniflora, Myrocarpus frondosus, and Rosmarinus officinalis. Inhibitory activity against T. cruzi (IC50/24 h) and cytotoxicity against Vero cells (CC50/24 h) were evaluated by the MTT assay. The EO of C. verum was selected for further evaluation against trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, as well as on parasite metacyclogenesis. Constituents of C. verum EO were identified by GC-MS. One-way ANOVA statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad version 5.01. Cinnamomum verum EO was the most effective against T. cruzi epimastigotes (IC50/24 h = 24.13 μg/ml), followed by Myrocarpus frondosus (IC50/24 h = 60.87 μg/ml) and Eugenia uniflora (IC50/24 h = 70 μg/ml). The EOs of C. citriodora, E. globulus, and R. officinalis showed no activity at concentrations up to 300 μg/ml. Incubation of T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with C. verum EO resulted in IC50/24 h values of 5.05 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml, respectively. Therefore, trypomastigotes are more susceptible than epimastigotes, with selectivity index (SI) about 4.7-fold higher (9.78 and 2.05, respectively). Analysis of C. verum EO by GC-MS showed mainly (E)-cinnamaldehyde (81.52%) and eugenol (16.68%). C. verum essential oil is effective against T. cruzi (epimastigotes, trypomastigotes and amastigotes) and interferes with the parasite differentiation process in vitro. Thus, it represents a strong candidate for further studies to improve its activity on pathogenic trypanosomatids.

  16. Effect of polysaccharides of cassiae seeds on the intestinal microflora of piglets.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ze-yuan; Zhang, Jin-wu; Li, Jing; Fan, Ya-wei; Cao, Shu-wen; Huang, Rui-lin; Yin, Yu-long; Zhong, Hua-yi; Li, Tie-jun

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if polysaccharides from Cassiae Seeds (PCS) can be used as prebiotics to improve the intestinal microflora of piglets with an in vitro and an in vivo trial. The in vitro trial was conducted to study the dose-response effect of PCS on the growth of E. coli 09 and Lactobacillus with traditional plate count method. The gradient culture mediums, containing 3.2, 1.6, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025 and 0% PCS, were inoculated with E. coli09, Lactobacillus and cecum content, respectively. PCS had no influence on the growth of E. coli09 from rejuvenation fluid, but inhibited the growth of E. coli09 from cecum content when the concentration of PCS was higher than 0.1%. Lactobacillus counts were significantly increased with 0.1% PCS or higher (p< 0.05); and the largest increase was found with 0.8% PCS. With the inoculum of cecum content in the medium, Lactobacillus counts increased when the concentration of PCS was 0.4% and 0.8%, whilst E. coli 09 counts decreased. The in vivo trial was carried out to investigate the effect of PCS on the growth of E. coli 09 and Lactobacillus in piglets. Thirty six barrows (average initial BW = 6.5 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups with 6 each, fed diets supplemented without or with 0.4% or 0.8% PCS. After 14 days, 3 piglets were slaughtered from each group; digesta samples were collected from the ileum, cecum and colon for detection of E.coli 09 and Lactobacillus with plate count method. Samples of the tissue and content of the cecum were taken for detection of caecal microflora profiles with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. The dietary inclusion of PCS increased Lactobacillus counts, but reduced E. coli 09 counts in digesta of ileum, cecum and colon of piglets. The dietary inclusion of 0.8% PCS significantly increased the number of electrophoresis brands of caecal bacterial microflora in mucosa and content of the cecum (p< 0.05). These results confirmed the dynamic

  17. Effect of butanol fraction from Cassia tora L. seeds on glycemic control and insulin secretion in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jeongsu

    2008-01-01

    Cassia tora L. seeds have previously been reported to reduce blood glucose level in human and animals with diabetes. In the present study, the effects of Cassia tora L. seed butanol fraction (CATO) were studied on postprandial glucose control and insulin secretion from the pancreas of the normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by an i.p. injection of Streptozotocin (55 mg/kg BW) into the male Sprague-Dawley rats. The postprandial glucose control was monitored during a 240 min-period using a maltose loading test. In normal rats, rats fed CATO (20 mg/100 g BW/d) showed lower postprandial glucose levels in all the levels from 30 min up to 180 min than those in the control rats without CATO (p<0.05). In diabetic rats, those levels in the CATO group seemed to be lower during the 30~180 min, but only glucose level at 30 min showed significant difference compared to that in the control group. Moreover, CATO delayed the peak time of the glucose rise in both normal and diabetic rats in the glucose curves. On the other hand, when CATO was administered orally to the diabetic rats for 5 days, 12 hr fasting serum glucose level was decreased in the diabetic rats (p<0.05). Degree of a decrease in 12 hr fasting serum insulin levels was significantly less in the diabetic CATO rats as compared to diabetic control rats. On the last day of feeding, β cells of the pancreas were stimulated by 200 mg/dL glucose through a 40 min-pancreas perfusion. Amounts of the insulin secreted from the pancreas during the first phase (11~20 min) and the second phase (21~40 min) in the CATO fed diabetic rats were significantly greater than those in the diabetic control group (p<0.05). These findings indicated that constituents of Cassia tora L. seeds have beneficial effect on postprandial blood glucose control which may be partially mediated by stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreas of the diabetic rats. PMID:20016725

  18. Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

    2008-10-01

    The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials.

  19. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species. PMID:24031186

  20. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage

    PubMed Central

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages. PMID:25992249

  1. Synthesis of ACNT on quartz substrate with catalytic decomposition reaction from Cinnamomum camphora by using FC-CVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulan, Praswasti P. D. K.; Silaen, Toni Partogi Johannes

    2017-05-01

    Camphor is a renewable carbon source that can be used as raw material for synthesizing Carbon Nanotube (CNT). Camphor is a substance that can be found on the Cinnamomum camphora tree. In this research, the method used to synthesize Aligned Carbon Nanotube (ACNT) from camphor is Floating Catalyst Chemical Vapor Deposition (FC-CVD) with Ferrocene as catalyst at temperature of 800°C, hydrogen gas as the co-reactant and argon gas as carrier gas. This method is the most popular method of synthesizing ACNT which oriented and have a high density. Camphor decomposes into benzene, toluene, and xylene at a temperature of 800°C. By using GC-FID for characterization test, the results showed decomposition at a temperature of 800°C camphor dominated by benzene with a concentration of 92.422 to 97.656%. The research was conducted by varying the flow rate of carrier gas such as argon at 40, 55, 70, 85 and 100 mL / min at a temperature of 800°C for 60 minutes of reaction time. Argon carrier gas flow rate of 70 mL / min producing CNT with the highest yield, but this is not followed by best quality of CNT. CNT with best quality is obtained at a flow rate of argon carrier gas at 55 mL / min based on test results characterization by using SEM, EDX, Mapping, and RAMAN Spectroscopy. This research have not obtained CNT with aligned structured.

  2. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, and morphological features of apoptosis. Moreover, cuminaldehyde also led to lysosomal vacuolation with an upregulated volume of acidic compartment and cytotoxicity, together with inhibitions of both topoisomerase I and II activities. Additional study shows that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde was observed in the model of nude mice. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde in vitro involved the suppression of cell proliferative markers, topoisomerase I as well as II, together with increase of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with upregulated lysosomal vacuolation. On the other hand, in vivo, cuminaldehyde diminished the tumor burden that would have a significant clinical impact. Furthermore, similar effects were observed in other tested cell lines. In short, our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a drug for chemopreventive or anticancer therapy. PMID:27231935

  3. Molecular differentiation of five Cinnamomum camphora chemotypes using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry of raw leaves.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiali; Cui, Meng; Deng, Min; Liu, Xingxing; Huang, Xueyong; Zhang, Xinglei; Luo, Liping

    2017-04-20

    Five chemotypes, the isoborneol-type, camphora-type, cineole-type, linalool-type and borneol-type of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl have been identified at the molecular level based on the multivariate analysis of mass spectral fingerprints recorded from a total of 750 raw leaf samples (i.e., 150 leaves equally collected for each chemotype) using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS). Both volatile and semi-volatile metabolites of the fresh leaves of C. camphora were simultaneously detected by DAPCI-MS without any sample pretreatment, reducing the analysis time from half a day using conventional methods (e.g., GC-MS) down to 30 s. The pattern recognition results obtained using principal component analysis (PCA) was cross-checked by cluster analysis (CA), showing that the difference visualized by the DAPCI-MS spectral fingerprints was validated with 100% accuracy. The study demonstrates that DAPCI-MS meets the challenging requirements for accurate differentiation of all the five chemotypes of C. camphora leaves, motivating more advanced application of DAPCI-MS in plant science and forestry studies.

  4. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool (土肉桂 tǔ ròu guì) is one chemotype of the indigenous cinnamons in Taiwan. This study examined the anxiolytic potency of leaf essential oil (LEO) from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its main constituent on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test (OFT), a light–dark test (LDT) and an elevated plus maze test (EPT). After oral administration of corn oil, LEO (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), S-(+)-linalool (500 mg/kg), R-(−)-linalool (500 mg/kg), and trazodone hydrochloride (75 mg/kg) for 14 days, the anxiolytic effects on mice behavior were evaluated. The results showed that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves and S-(+)-linalool can significantly increase the time mice remained in the center area of the OFT, the illuminated area of the LDT and the open arms of the EPT without any side effects affecting motor activity, indicating excellent anxiolytic responses. Furthermore, results from the measurements of monoamines in mice brain revealed decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are consistent with their anxiolytic effects in animal models. The findings obtained suggest that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its major compound, S-(+)-linalool, possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects and thus support their potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:26151006

  5. [Fine root biomass and carbon storage in surface soil of Cinnamomum camphora plantation in rainy area of West China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Li, Xian-Wei; Fan, Chuan; Zhang, Teng-Fei; Liu, Yun-Ke; Su, Yu; Yang, Zheng-Ju

    2013-10-01

    Fine root in forest ecosystems plays an important role in global C cycle. In this study, a measurement was made on the fine root biomass and carbon storage in the surface soil (0-30 cm) of a 31 year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the Rainy Area of West China in November, 2010-December, 2011. The total biomass and carbon storage of the fine roots (living and dead) in the surface soil were 1592.29 kg x hm(-2) and 660.68 kg C x hm(-2), in which, living fine roots accounted for 91.1% and 91.8% respectively. The total biomass and carbon storage of the first five order living roots and dead roots decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, and the living root biomass and carbon storage increased significantly with root order. The sum of the biomass and carbon storage of living and dead fine roots was the largest in autumn and the smallest in winter, but the biomass and carbon storage of the dead fine roots were the largest in winter and the smallest in summer. The biomass and carbon storage of the first two order roots were the largest in summer and the smallest in winter, while those of the last three order roots were the largest in autumn and the smallest in winter. The spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture and nutrients was the main factor affecting the fine root biomass and carbon storage.

  6. Molecular differentiation of five Cinnamomum camphora chemotypes using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry of raw leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiali; Cui, Meng; Deng, Min; Liu, Xingxing; Huang, Xueyong; Zhang, Xinglei; Luo, Liping

    2017-04-01

    Five chemotypes, the isoborneol-type, camphora-type, cineole-type, linalool-type and borneol-type of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl have been identified at the molecular level based on the multivariate analysis of mass spectral fingerprints recorded from a total of 750 raw leaf samples (i.e., 150 leaves equally collected for each chemotype) using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS). Both volatile and semi-volatile metabolites of the fresh leaves of C. camphora were simultaneously detected by DAPCI-MS without any sample pretreatment, reducing the analysis time from half a day using conventional methods (e.g., GC-MS) down to 30 s. The pattern recognition results obtained using principal component analysis (PCA) was cross-checked by cluster analysis (CA), showing that the difference visualized by the DAPCI-MS spectral fingerprints was validated with 100% accuracy. The study demonstrates that DAPCI-MS meets the challenging requirements for accurate differentiation of all the five chemotypes of C. camphora leaves, motivating more advanced application of DAPCI-MS in plant science and forestry studies.

  7. Trans-cinnamaldehyde from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil reduces the clindamycin resistance of Clostridium difficile in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, A R; Monsef-Esfahani, H R; Tavasoli, F; Zaheri, A; Mirjani, R

    2007-01-01

    Therapy with antimicrobial drugs, such as clindamycin, that perturb the intestinal flora but fail to inhibit growth of other microorganisms can permit the proliferation of Clostridium difficile and the elaboration of exotoxin. Therefore, there has been increasing interest in the use of inhibitors of antibiotic resistance for use in combination therapy. The essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark enhanced the bactericidal activity of clindamycin and decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration of clindamycin required for a toxicogenic strain of C. difficile. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of the essential oil separated a fraction (R(f) = 0.54) that was the most effective at enhancing the clindamycin antimicrobial activity. Using gas liquid chromatography and known standards, the active fraction was identified as trans-cinnamaldehyde (3-phenyl-2-Propenal). Combinations of clindamycin and trans-cinnamaldehyde were tested to determine the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index by conventional checkerboard titration. The FIC index for C. difficile was found to be 0.312, which confirmed the synergistic actions of clindamycin and trans-cinnamaldehyde. The presence of 20 microg/mL of trans-cinnamaldehyde decreased the MIC of clindamycin for C. difficile 16-fold, from 4.0 to 0.25 microg/mL. These results signify that low concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde elevate the antimicrobial action of clindamycin, suggesting a possible clinical benefit for utilizing these natural products for combination therapy against C. difficile.

  8. Increasing antibiotic activity against a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp by essential oils of Citrus limon and Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Mendes, Juliana Moura; Sousa, Janiere Pereira de; Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcante; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The genus Acinetobacter has gained importance in recent years due to involvement in serious infections and antimicrobial resistance. Many plants have been evaluated not only for direct antimicrobial activity, but also as resistance modifying agents. The Essential oil of Citrus limon (EOCL) addition at 156.25 µgmL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentration in the growth medium led to MIC decrease for amikacin, imipenem and meropenem. The Essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (EOCZ) addition at 78.125 µg mL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentrations in the growth medium caused drastic MIC reduction of amikacin. Results of combining antibiotics and essential oils had shown us a synergistic effect with both essential oils/amikacin combinations. An additive effect was observed with the combinations of both essential oils and gentamicin. The results of this study suggest that essential oil of C. limon and C. zeylanicum may suppress the growth of Acinetobacter species and could be a source of metabolites with antibacterial modifying activity.

  9. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species.

  10. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages.

  11. Structural elucidation, modification and characterization of seed gum from Cassia javahikai seeds: A non-traditional source of industrial gums.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vandana; Srivastava, Archana; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2009-10-01

    A water-soluble seed gum was isolated from seed endosperm of Cassia javahikai. The acid-catalyzed fragmentation, methylation, selective enzymatic degradation and periodate oxidation suggested a heteropolymeric structure for the polysaccharide. The polysaccharide was shown to have a linear chain of beta(1-->4) linked d-mannopyranosyls units with side chains of alpha(1-->6) d-galactopyranosyl units. Grafting of polyacrylamide onto the gum was performed using K(2)S(2)O(8)/ascorbic acid redox system in presence of Ag(+) as catalyst at 35+/-2 degrees C. The viscosity of the gum solution increased on grafting and the grafted gum was observed to resist biodegradation for more than 256h. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that grafted gum was more thermally stable than native gum.

  12. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues.

    PubMed

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage).

  13. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues

    PubMed Central

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

  14. Anti-oxidant effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) seeds in rats fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Dhuley, J N

    1999-03-01

    In order to gain insight into the antioxidant effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum; Lauraceae) and cardamom (Amomum subulatum; Zingiberaceae) hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) content and lipid conjugated dienes were studied in rats fed high fat diet along with cinnamon or cardamom. The antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be significantly enhanced whereas GSH content was markedly restored in rats fed a fat diet with spices. In addition, these spices partially counteracted increase in lipid conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides, the primary products of lipid peroxidation. Thus, it appears that these spices exert antioxidant protection through their ability to activate the antioxidant enzymes.

  15. Effects of irradiation on natural antioxidants of cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum N.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazuru, E. R.; Moreira, A. V. B.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation to reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms and insects is an ionizing process that induces free radical formation in proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other molecular structures in food. Antioxidants generally decrease the level of oxidation in such systems by transferring hydrogen atoms to the free radical structure. In the present paper, the effect of ionizing radiation on natural cinnamon antioxidants is studied. Cinnamon samples were purchased from retailers and irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed at IPEN (São Paulo, Brazil) using 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 kGy at room temperature. After irradiation 3 kinds of sequential extractions were performed. One was submitted to antioxidant extraction using ethyl ether, the second with ethanol and the last with water. The antioxidant activity was determined by β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation. Irradiation in the dose range applied did not have any effect on the antioxidant potential of the cinnamon compounds. Further studies will be performed to study the possibility to use cinnamon extracts in preserving food from oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation.

  16. Environmental Impact Research Program. PARTRIDGE PEA (Cassia fasciculata). Section 7.3.3. US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    a tarpaulin or floor and then threshed to obtain seeds . Seed scarification is necessary if good stands of partridge pea are to be quickly established...parts of the Southeast. Other common names for the species include showy partridge pea and large- seeded partridge pea. DESCRIPTION Partridge pea is...distinguishing characteristics of partridge pea (Cassia fasciculata): (a) flowering branch, (b) honey gland, (c) seedpod, and (d) seed . The map shows the

  17. A Comparative Study on the Anatomy and Development of Different Shapes of Domatia in Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    NISHIDA, SACHIKO; TSUKAYA, HIROKAZU; NAGAMASU, HIDETOSHI; NOZAKI, MASUMI

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Domatia are small organs usually found in the axils of major veins on the underside of leaves and, although they have received wide attention from ecologists, few detailed reports exist on their anatomy or development. This study is focused on the domatia of Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) and is the first comparative study on the anatomy and development of the different shapes of domatia within a single plant. • Methods Four types of domatia in C. camphora leaves were observed on paraffin sections under a microscope. • Key Results The domatia consisted of six histological parts: the upper epidermis, the upper mesophyll tissue, spongy tissue, the lower mesophyll tissue, the tissue filling the rim opening, and the lower epidermis. They differed from the non-domatial lamina mainly in the cell structure of the upper and lower mesophyll tissue and the rim tissue. Differences in domatium shapes were mainly associated with differences in the structure of the upper mesophyll and in the number and size of the rim tissue cells. Differences in the development of domatium types were observed in terms of initiation timing, differentiation of the upper mesophyll cells and degree of rim tissue development. • Conclusions In domatia, active anticlinal division in the lower mesophyll cells, as compared with the upper mesophyll cells, was coordinated with dynamic growth of rim tissue cells and resulted in cavity formation. The anatomical or developmental differences among the four types of domatia were related to the positions of the domatia within a leaf. In terms of the ecological implications, the major anatomical difference between the domatia used by herbivorous and carnivorous mites was in the development of the rim tissue. PMID:16446284

  18. Functional and ultrastructural changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus cells induced by Cinnamomum verum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bouhdid, S; Abrini, J; Amensour, M; Zhiri, A; Espuny, M J; Manresa, A

    2010-10-01

    To study cellular damage induced by Cinnamomum verum essential oil in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. The effect of cinnamon bark essential oil on these two strains was evaluated by plate counts, potassium leakage, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Exposure to this oil induced alterations in the bacterial membrane of Ps. aeruginosa, which led to the collapse of membrane potential, as demonstrated by bis-oxonol staining, and loss of membrane-selective permeability, as indicated by efflux of K(+) and propidium iodide accumulation. Thus, respiratory activity was inhibited, leading to cell death. In Staph. aureus, cells treated with the oil entered a viable but noncultivable (VNC) state. The oil initially caused a considerable decrease in the metabolic activity and in the replication capacity of these bacterial cells. The loss of membrane integrity appeared later, as indicated by bis-oxonol and Propidium iodide (PI) staining. Data provided by TEM showed various structural effects in response to cinnamon essential oil. In Ps. aeruginosa cells, coagulated cytoplasmic material was observed, and intracellular material was seen in the surrounding environment, while oil-treated Staph. aureus showed fibres extending from the cell surface. Cinnamon essential oil damages the cellular membrane of Ps. aeruginosa, which leads to cell death. There is evidence of VNC Staph. aureus after exposure to the oil. Cinnamon essential oil shows effective antimicrobial activity and health benefits and is therefore considered a potential food additive. To use this oil as a natural food preservative, especially in combination with other preservation methods, a thorough understanding of the mechanism through which this oil exerts its antibacterial action is required. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Moroccan Government works.

  19. Antifungal mechanism of the combination of Cinnamomum verum and Pelargonium graveolens essential oils with fluconazole against pathogenic Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Essid, Rym; Hammami, Majdi; Gharbi, Dorra; Karkouch, Ines; Hamouda, Thouraya Ben; Elkahoui, Salem; Limam, Ferid; Tabbene, Olfa

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-Candida activity of ten essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate their potential synergism with conventional drugs. The effect on secreted aspartic protease (SAP) activity and the mechanism of action were also explored. The antifungal properties of essential oils were investigated using standard micro-broth dilution assay. Only Cinnamomum verum, Thymus capitatus, Syzygium aromaticum, and Pelargonium graveolens exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against a variety of pathogenic Candida strains. Chemical composition of active essential oils was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Synergistic effect was observed with the combinations C. verum/fluconazole and P. graveolens/fluconazole, with FIC value 0.37. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that C. verum EO reduced the quantity of ergosterol to 83%. A total inhibition was observed for the combination C. verum/fluconazole. However, P. graveolens EO may disturb the permeability barrier of the fungal cell wall. An increase of MIC values of P. graveolens EO and the combination with fluconazole was observed with osmoprotectants (sorbitol and PEG6000). Furthermore, the combination with fluconazole may affect ergosterol biosynthesis and disturb fatty acid homeostasis in C. albicans cells as the quantity of ergosterol and oleic acid was reduced to 52.33 and 72%, respectively. The combination of P. graveolens and C. verum EOs with fluconazole inhibited 78.31 and 64.72% SAP activity, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report underlying the mechanism of action and the inhibitory effect of SAP activity of essential oils in synergy with fluconazole. Naturally occurring phytochemicals C. verum and P. graveolens could be effective candidate to enhance the efficacy of fluconazole-based therapy of C. albicans infections.

  20. Phenolic constituents in the fruits of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Ono, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Jaganmohan Rao, L

    2006-03-08

    Defatted cinnamon fruit powder was successively extracted with benzene ethyl acetate, acetone, MeOH, and water. The concentrated water extract contained the maximum amount of phenolics and showed the highest antioxidant activities. Hence, it was fractionated by Diaion HP-20SS, Diaion HP-20, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. It gave five purified compounds, the purities of which were analyzed by HPLC. Compounds 1-5 were identified as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuic acid), epicatechin-(2beta-->O-7,4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin (cinnamtannin B-1), 4-[2,3-dihydro-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-(methoxy)benzofuranyl]-2-methoxyphenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside (urolignoside), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (rutin), and quercetin-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside by using extensive spectral studies. The antioxidant activities of purified compounds were screened for their antioxidative potential using beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl model systems. All of the compounds showed antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. This is the first report of the isolation and identification of nonvolatile constituents and as well as antioxidant activities from cinnamon fruits.

  1. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cari; Mahfudli Fadli, U.; Bayu Prasada, A.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber, Cinnamomum, Curcuma, and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO2), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm2. Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm2. Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm2. Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm2. Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye.

  2. The effect of cassia fistula emulsion on pediatric functional constipation in comparison with mineral oil: a randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali; Naseri, Mohsen; Esmaeilidooki, Mohammad Reza; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Bijani, Ali

    2012-12-03

    The prevalence of Pediatric Functional Constipation (FC) has been reported between 0.7% to 29.6%. This study was conducted to compare the laxative effect of cassia fistula emulsion (CFE) with mineral oil (MO) on FC. Cassia fistula is named in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) as "Folus". A randomized clinical trial was carried on 81 children (age range: 4-13 years) with FC, according to Rome III criteria in Amirkola Children's Hospital, Babol, Iran. They received CFE or MO randomly for three weeks. CFE was produced according to the order of TIM references. Children were counted as improved when they exited from Rome III criteria of FC. Frequency of defecation, fecal incontinence, retentive posturing, severity of pain, consistency of stool and anal leakage of oily material were compared between the two groups and with baselines. An intent-to-treat analysis was used. Safety of drugs was assessed with the evaluation of clinical adverse effects. 41 children were assigned randomly to receive CFE and 40 children received MO. After three weeks of medication, 84% of children in CFE group and 50% in MO group (p = 0.002) exited from the criteria of FC, so called improved. All measurable criteria improved in both groups. The frequency of defecation in CFE group improved from 1.7 per week (before the study) to 10.6 per week (at the third week) while this parameter differed in MO group from 2 to 6.1 (p < 0.001). The severity of pain during defecation and consistency of stool improved significantly better in CFE group than MO group (p < 0.05), but there were not any significant differences between the two groups in fecal incontinence and retentive posturing. Anal leakage of oily material occurred as an important complication in MO group while the children in CFE group did not complaint it. Drug's compliances were not significantly different in the two groups. CFE and MO did not cause clinically significant side effects. CFE was most effective than MO in the 3-week treatment of

  3. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M F; Santos, E P; Bizarri, C H; Mattos, H A; Padilha, M R; Duarte, H M

    1996-06-01

    Synopsis The aim of this work was to evaluate several plant extracts with regard to ultraviolet absorption spectra in view of a possible application as antisolar agents. Liquid and dry extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria recutita, Aesculus hippocastanum, Rhamnus purshiana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by repercolation, maceration and microwave oven extraction. UVB absorption spectra (290-320nm) were obtained and the solar protection factors (SPF) of these preparations were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that after incorporation to a 2% solution of the synthetic sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate, the extracts showed an intensification in SPF values, suggesting that this can be an interesting method to intensify SPF. In addition, these extracts can contribute their emollient and moistening properties to the product. These are important characteristics for protecting skin against exposure to the sun.

  4. Effects of 60-day NO2 fumigation on growth, oxidative stress and antioxidative response in Cinnamomum camphora seedlings*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo-mei; Chen, Ying-xu; Du, Guo-jian; Wu, Xi-lin; Li, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the oxidative stress and antioxidative response of Cinnamomum camphora seedlings exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) fumigation. Methods: Measurements were made up of the growth, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation of one-year-old C. camphora seedlings exposed to NO2 (0.1, 0.5, and 4 μl/L) fumigation in open top chambers over a period of 60 d. Results: After the first 30 d, 0.5 and 4.0 μl/L NO2 showed insignificant effects on the growth of C. camphora seedlings. However, exposure to 0.5 and 4.0 μl/L NO2 for 15 d significantly reduced their chlorophyll content (P<0.05), enhanced their malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.05), and also significantly reduced the maximal quantum yield of PSII in the dark [the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence (F v/F m)] (P<0.05). In the latter 30 d, 0.5 μl/L NO2 showed a positive effect on the vitality of the seedlings, which was reflected by a recovery in the ratio of F v/F m and chlorophyll content, and obviously enhanced growth, SOD activity, ascorbate (AsA) content and glutathione reductase (GR) activity (P<0.05); 4.0 μl/L NO2 then showed a negative effect, indicated by significant reductions in chlorophyll content and the ratio of F v/F m, and inhibited growth (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest adaptation of C. camphora seedlings to 60-d exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 μl/L NO2, but not to 60-d exposure to 4.0 μl/L NO2. C. camphora seedlings may protect themselves from injury by strengthening their antioxidant system in response to NO2-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20205305

  5. Anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective potential of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum glanduliferum in ethanol-induced rat experimental gastritis.

    PubMed

    Azab, Samar S; Abdel Jaleel, Gehad A; Eldahshan, Omayma A

    2017-12-01

    Nothing could be found in the literature concerning Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall) Meissn (Lauraceae) bark (CG) in Egypt. To investigate CG volatile oil chemically and its anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects. Essential oils were investigated by GC-MS. Leaves oil was assessed at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for its anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced rat oedema model. Serum inflammation markers were measured. The gastro-protective effect of the same doses of the volatile oil was also tested in ethanol-induced non-ulcerative gastritis model in rats. Stomach oxidative stress markers were examined following 1 h after intragastric ethanol administration. Twenty-five and 20 compounds were identified from leaf and branch oils, respectively (98.85 and 99.13%). The major ones were: eucalyptol (59.44%; 55.74%), sabinene (14.99%; 7.12%), α-terpineol (6.44%; 9.81%), α-pinene (5.27%; 4.71%). Following 4 h of treatment leaves volatile oil at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced paw volume to 94, 82 and 69%, respectively. The same doses significantly reduced COX-2 activity to 73.8, 50.7 and 21.4 nmol/min/mL, respectively. A significant reduction of PGE2 concentration was observed (2.95 ± 0.2, 2.45 ± 0.15 and 1.75 ± 0.015 pg/mL). CG oil exhibited a significant modulatory effect on ethanol-induced gastritis in rats as the level of NO reduced to 32, 37 and 41 μM nitrate/g and also a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation was observed via reduction of MDA concentration (1.15, 1.11 and 1.04 nmol/g). CG volatile oil exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect and protected against ethanol-induced non-ulcerative gastritis.

  6. Historical spatial range expansion and a very recent bottleneck of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (Lauraceae) in Taiwan inferred from nuclear genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Species in the varied geographic topology of Taiwan underwent obvious demographic changes during glacial periods. Cinnamomum kanehirae has been exploited for timber and to obtain medicinal fungi for the past 100 years. Understanding anthropogenic factors influencing the demography of this species after the last glacial maximum (LGM) is critically important for the conservation of this species. Results Populations of C. kanehirae were classified into four geographic regions: northwestern (NW), west-central (WC), southwestern (SW), and southeastern (SE). In total, 113 individuals from 19 localities were sampled, and variations in the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) intron and leafy (Lfy) intron-2 sequences of nuclear DNA were examined in order to assess phylogeographic patterns, the timescales of demographic and evolutionary events, and recent anthropogenic effects. In total, 210 Chs and 170 Lfy sequences, which respectively constituted 36 and 35 haplotypes, were used for the analyses. Estimates of the migration rate (M) through time revealed a pattern of frequent gene flow during previous and the present interglacials. The isolation-by-distance test showed that there generally was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The level of among-region genetic differentiation was significant when comparing eastern to western populations. However, no significant among-region genetic differentiation was found in comparisons among the four geographic regions. Moreover, essentially no genetic structuring was found for the three regions west of the CMR. A fit of spatial range expansion was found for pooled and regional samples according to the non-significant values of the sum of squared deviations. Using the Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) method, a recent bottleneck after the LGM expansion was detected in both regional and pooled samples. Conclusions Common haplotype distributions among geographic regions and the relatively shallow genetic

  7. [Study on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund's adjuvant].

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Huang, Luqi; Zhou, Aixiang; Li, Xiaoqin; Sun, Jianhui

    2009-12-01

    To study the antiinflammatory effects of naphtha from different chemotypes of Cinnamomum camphora and natural borneol on the rat arthritis model induced by Freund's adjuvant. The arthritis model was induced by injecting Freund's adjuvant in rat voix pedis dermis and the rats were randomly divided into seven groups: normal control group, model control group, triptergium wilfordii control group, borneol chemotype naphtha group, camphor chemotype naphtha group, isocamphane chemotype naphtha group and natural borneol group. Rats of the triptergium wilfordii control group were given orally 8.1 mg x kg(-1) triptergium wilfordii for 35 days, rats of the normal control group and model control group were given same volume water, and rats of other groups were given 80 mg x kg(-1) corresponding drug. We observed the rat common condition, weighed the rat body weight weekly, measured the degree of swelling of voix pedis every 4 days, weighed the thymus and spleen on the end of life, and measured the contents of cell factor TNF-alpha, IL-2, and IL-6 in rat blood serum. As far as the arthrosis degree of swelling and the contents of cell factor TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-6 were concerned, rats of model control group were higher than normal control group, and rats of other drug groups were lower than the model control group. The order of inhibition ratios of the arthrosis degree of swelling from high to low principle was isocamphane chemotype naphtha group, camphor chemotype naphtha group, borneol chemotype naphtha group and natural borneol group. All medication administration teams evidently reduced the contents of the IL-2 and IL-6, and the inhibition ratios were higher than 38%. In the case of the contents of TNF-alpha and IL-2, all groups were not evidently different. In the case of inhibition of IL-6, camphor chemotype naphtha group was better than borneol chemotype naphtha group and natural borneol group, the latter was better than isocamphane chemotype naphtha group. As far as the

  8. Apoptosis mediated anti-proliferative effect of compound isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves against human colon cancer cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esakkirajan, M.; Prabhu, N. M.; Manikandan, R.; Beulaja, M.; Prabhu, D.; Govindaraju, K.; Thiagarajan, R.; Arulvasu, C.; Dhanasekaran, G.; Dinesh, D.; Babu, G.

    2014-06-01

    A compound was isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The in vitro anticancer effect of the compound isolated from C. auriculata was evaluated in human colon cancer cells HCT 15 by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology analysis and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase. The isolated compound 4-(2,5 dichlorobenzyl)-2,3,4,5,6,7 hexahydro7(4 methoxyphenyl)benzo[h][1,4,7] triazecin8(1H)-one showed 50% inhibition of HCT 15 cells when tested at 20 μg/ml after 24 h incubation. Cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and lactate dehydrogenase assays clearly show potent anticancer activity of the isolated compound against colon cancer. Thus, the in vitro findings suggest that the compound isolated from C. auriculata leaves have potent anti-cancer properties with possible clinical applications.

  9. Polyphenols of Cassia tora leaves prevents lenticular apoptosis and modulates cataract pathology in Sprague-Dawley rat pups.

    PubMed

    Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-07-01

    Cataract is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide with multifactorial etiology and is a significant global health problem with increasing prevalence with age. Currently, no pharmacological measures are discovered to prevent and treat cataract and a significant number of epidemiological studies have suggested the potential role of antioxidants in the prevention of cataract by scavenging free radicals and preventing lens protein derangement and lenticular cell damage. The main goal of the present study is to evaluate Cassia tora leaves; an edible leafy vegetable employed in Ayurvedic and Chinese system of medicine for eye rejuvenation in preventing selenite-induced cataract in rat pups and to identify the active components that produce the effect. ECT pre-treatment effectively restored both enzymatic and metabolic antioxidant levels, membrane integrity and reduced metal accumulation and thus down-regulate epithelial cell death. Gene expression studies also confirmed these findings. ESI-MS analysis of ECT revealed the presence of chrysophanol, emodin, kaemferol, quercetin, stigmasterol and isoquercetin. The study suggests the possible role of C. tora in alleviating cataract pathology and presence of many anthraquinones and flavonoids. As it is an edible plant, the incorporation of these leaves in daily vegetables might prevent or delay the onset and maturation of cataract.

  10. Pre-culturing of nodal explants in thidiazuron supplemented liquid medium improves in vitro shoot multiplication of Cassia angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Siddique, I; Abdullwahab Bukhari, N; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Anis, M

    2013-09-01

    An in vitro propagation system for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. has been developed. Due to the presence of sennosides, the demand of this plant has increased manyfold in global market. Multiple shoots were induced by culturing nodal explants excised from mature plants on a liquid Murashige and Skoog [8] medium supplemented with 5-100 μM of thidiazuron (TDZ) for different treatment duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d). The optimal level of TDZ supplemented to the culture medium was 75 μM for 12 d induction period followed by subculturing in MS medium devoid of TDZ as it produced maximum regeneration frequency (87%), mean number of shoots (9.6 ± 0.33) and shoot length (4.4 ± 0.46 cm) per explant. A culture period longer than 12 d with TDZ resulted in the formation of fasciated or distorted shoots. Ex vitro rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of regenerated shoots was dipped in 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for half an hour followed by their transplantation in plastic pots filled with sterile soilrite where 85% plantlets grew well and all exhibited normal development. The present findings describe an efficient and rapid plant regeneration protocol that can further be used for genetic transformation studies.

  11. In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.-a potential medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Iram; Anis, M; Aref, I M

    2010-11-01

    An effective protocol was developed for in vitro regeneration of the Cassia angustifolia via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants excised from 21-day-old axenic seedlings. Organogenic callus were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.0 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 2.5 µM thidiazuron (TDZ). Adventitious shoot regeneration was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM TDZ as it induced 8.5 ± 0.98 shoots in 85% cultures. The number of shoots and shoot length was significantly enhanced when cultures were subcultured on auxin-cytokinin-containing medium. The highest number of shoots (12.5 ± 1.10) and shoot length (4.3 ± 0.20 cm) was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM TDZ and 1.5 µM indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were rooted best on MS medium supplemented with 10.0 µM indole-3-butyric acid followed by their transfer to liquid MS filter paper bridge medium. The plants were successfully hardened off in sterile soilrite followed by their establishment in garden soil with 70% survival rate. The plants showed normal morphological characteristics similar to the field grown plants.

  12. Chemical composition, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Cassia bakeriana Craib. against aerobic and anaerobic oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Luís C S; de Morais, Sérgio A L; Martins, Carlos H G; Martins, Mário M; Chang, Roberto; de Aquino, Francisco J T; de Oliveira, Alberto; Moraes, Thaís da S; Machado, Fabrício C; da Silva, Cláudio V; do Nascimento, Evandro A

    2013-04-18

    The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves, bark and wood of Cassia bakeriana Craib. was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Alcohols, aldehydes and fatty acids were the major components in leaf and bark oil, while wood essential oil was rich in fatty acids. Terpenes such as linalool, (E)-nerolidol and phytol were present in low concentrations. The antimicrobial activity against aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteria was evaluated using the microdilution method, as was the cell viability test carried out with Vero cells. The oils from leaves and bark showed high antimicrobial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations between 62.5 and 125 µg·mL⁻¹ for most of the tested bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, the main etiological agent of dental caries. Leaves oil displayed the lowest cytotoxic effect (EC₅₀ of 153 µg·mL⁻¹), while wood oil exhibited the highest toxicity to Vero cells. C. bakeriana oils are thus a source of biologically active compounds against aerobic and anaerobic oral microorganisms. This study is the first report on the chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of C. bakeriana.

  13. Healing activity evaluation of the galactomannan film obtained from Cassia grandis seeds with immobilized Cratylia mollis seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Soares, Paulo A G; Aragão-Neto, Adelmo C; Albuquerque, Giwellington S; Silva, Luís C N; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria H M; Silva Neto, Jacinto C; Coelho, Luana C B B; Correia, Maria T S; Teixeira, José A C; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2017-09-01

    Galactomannan films from Cassia grandis seeds, associated or not with Cramoll 1,4, were used on topical wounds of rats for the evaluation of the healing process during 14days. All of the films were evaluated by cytotoxic assay, FTIR and lectin hemagglutinating activity (HA). Forty-five male rats were submitted to aseptic dermal wounds (Ø=0.8cm) and divided in groups (n=15): control, test 1, and test 2, treated respectively with saline, galactomannan film and film with immobilized Cramoll 1,4. Macroscopic evaluations were performed by clinical observations and area measurements, and microscopic analysis by histological criteria. Epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation was immunohistochemically assessed using CK14 and PCNA. The presence of CO peaks in the FTIR spectrum confirmed the immobilization of Cramoll 1,4 in the film, while the residual HA confirmed the stability of the lectin after immobilization with 90.94% of the initial HA. The films presented non-cytotoxicity and cell viability exceeding 80%. All of the animals presented re-epithelization around 10days, furthermore test 2 group showed a diffuse response at the stromal tissue and the basal layer associated with wounds completely closed with 11days of experiment. The results suggest a promising use of the films as topical wound curatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Results of core drilling for uranium-bearing carbonaceous shale and lignite in the Goose Creek district, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mapel, William J.; Hail, William J.

    1954-01-01

    Thirteen core holes, totaling 2,023 feet, were drilled during the fall of 1953 to explore the grade and extent of uranium-bearing beds of carbonaceous shale and lignite in the east-central part of the Goose Creek district, Cassia County, Idaho. The beds tested are interbedded with volcanic ash, bentonite, greenish-gray shale, sandstone, and conglomerate in two fairly well defined zones in the lower part of the Salt Lake formation of lower Pliocene age. Nine holes penetrated carbonaceous shale beds in the Barrett zone, and one hole penetrated carbonaceous shale and lignite beds in zone B, 160 feet stratigraphically below the Barrett zone. The highest concentration of uranium found by drilling is 0.10 percent in the upper part of a 4-foot bed of carbonaceous shale and lignite in zone B. The grade of carbonaceous shale beds in the Barrett zone ranges from 0.044 percent to less than 0.003 percent uranium. Inferred reserves in the district are estimated to be 790,000 tons in beds 1 foot or more thick containing an average of 0.014 percent or 120 tons of uranium.

  15. [Transgenic tobacco plants with ribosome inactivating protein gene cassin from Cassia occidentalis and their resistance to tobacco mosaic virus].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Hua-Ping

    2007-12-01

    Cassin, the new gene of ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from Cassia occidentalis, was inserted into expression vector pBI121 to produce plant expression vector pBI121-cassin (Figs.1, 2). pBI121-cassin was introduced into tobacco cultivar 'K326' by the Agrobacteriurm tumefaciens transformation method and more than 100 independent transformants were obtained. Southern blot hybridization analysis showed that a single gene locus was inserted into the chromosome of the transgenic tobacco lines (Fig.5) and PCR analysis of segregation population of progeny indicated that the inheritance of transgene was dominant in transgenic lines (Fig.4, Table 1). Results of RT-PCR and Northern blot hybridization analysis showed that transgene could be transcribed correctly (Figs.5, 6) . Three self-pollination lines of transgenic T(1) and T(2) were challenged with TMV at different concentration titers by mechanical inoculation. The transgenic lines exhibited different levels of resistance to TMV with the nontransgenic plants. After both titers of TMV concentration were inoculated, transgenic lines were considered as the highly resistant type with a delay of 4-13 d in development of symptoms and 10%-25% of test plants were infected, while nontransgenic control plants were susceptible typical symptoms on the newly emerged leaves (Table 2). One T(2) line, T(2)-8-2-1, was regarded as an immune type because it did not show any symptoms during 70 d and all plants were shown to be virus free by ELISA tests.

  16. Neolignans with a Rare 2-Oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one Motif from the Stem Bark of Cinnamomum subavenium.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yongji; Liu, Tingting; Sa, Rongjian; Wei, Xialan; Xue, Yongbo; Wu, Zhaodi; Luo, Zengwei; Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Yonghui; Yao, Guangmin

    2015-07-24

    Two pairs of racemic spirodienone neolignans with a rare 2-oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one motif, named (±)-subaveniumins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum subavenium. The chiral separation of the (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers was accomplished via high-performance liquid chromatography on a chiral column. Their structures were elucidated using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroic spectra. The (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers exhibited moderate inhibitory effects against NO production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide, with IC50 values of 17.9, 5.6, 15.1, and 4.3 μM, respectively.

  17. Antivirulent Properties of Underexplored Cinnamomum tamala Essential Oil and Its Synergistic Effects with DNase against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms – An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Farisa Banu, Sanaulla; Rubini, Durairajan; Rakshitaa, Sairam; Chandrasekar, Kamaraj; Murugan, Ramar; Wilson, Aruni; Gowrishankar, Shanmugaraj; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Nithyanand, Paramasivam

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nosocomial pathogen colonizing patients with chronic infectious diseases and has gained resistance to all the known broad spectrum antibiotics available today. The present study showcases the antibiofilm potential of an essential oil (EO) from an underexplored Cinnamomum species namely, C. tamala, against P. aeruginosa biofilms. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of the EO along with a commercially available DNase (DNaseI) and a DNase (MBD) isolated from a marine bacterium were explored for its antibiofilm activity. The results showed that the synergized action has maximum efficacy in inhibiting young and preformed biofilms. The synergized effect of EO and DNaseI showed 70% inhibition against matured biofilms of P. aeruginosa. The EO from C. tamala also showed quorum sensing inhibitory potential as it could inhibit the swarming motility behavior of P. aeruginosa. The synergistic action of EO and DNases offers a novel alternate therapeutic strategy for combating P. aeruginosa biofilm associated infections. PMID:28694794

  18. Comparative chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and Pimenta dioica.

    PubMed

    Padmakumari Amma, K P; Rani, M Priya; Sasidharan, Indu; Sreekumar, M M

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm (tejpat) and Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (pimento) leaves are commonly used for flavouring food and widely used in pharmaceutical preparations because of their hypoglycemic, carminative and stimulant properties. In this study, we compared the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of tejpat and pimento essential oils by employing various in vitro methods. GC and GC-MS analyses were done to find out the chemical composition, and the main constituent identified in tejpat and pimento leaf oils was eugenol. Both the oils showed significant radical scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide radicals with a potent metal chelating activity and were compared with that of standard compound, eugenol. Among the two oils, tejpat oil showed better activity in terms of antioxidative potential.

  19. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Picon, Paulo D; Picon, Rafael V; Costa, Andry F; Sander, Guilherme B; Amaral, Karine M; Aboy, Ana L; Henriques, Amélia T

    2010-04-30

    A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT), measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2) in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1) during the placebo treatment (p < 0.001). Number of evacuations per day increased during the use of active tea; significant differences were observed as of the second day of treatment (p < 0.001). Patient perception of bowel function was improved (p < 0.01), but quality of life did not show significant differences among the study periods. Except for a small reduction in serum potassium levels during the active treatment, no significant differences were observed in terms of adverse effects throughout the study period. The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00872430.

  20. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT), measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2) in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1) during the placebo treatment (p < 0.001). Number of evacuations per day increased during the use of active tea; significant differences were observed as of the second day of treatment (p < 0.001). Patient perception of bowel function was improved (p < 0.01), but quality of life did not show significant differences among the study periods. Except for a small reduction in serum potassium levels during the active treatment, no significant differences were observed in terms of adverse effects throughout the study period. Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial

  1. Increasing sennoside yields in tinnevelly senna (Cassia angustifolia) I: effects of drought, foliar nitrogen spray and crop type.

    PubMed

    Ratnayaka, H; Meurer-Grimes, B; Kincaid, D

    1998-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the promise of Tinnevelly senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl, as an alternative crop for stressful agroecosystems. Effects of drought, foliar nitrogen application and crop type on sennoside yields were studied with simultaneous measurements of net photosynthesis. Short term drought increased sennoside A + B concentration (% dw). After drought-induced morphological changes had occurred, long term drought did not influence sennoside A + B concentration but severe loss of leaf biomass caused 78% reduction of the sennoside yield per plant. Foliar nitrogen application increased the total sennoside A + B content per plant by 140% when the plants were not water stressed, but in severely droughted plants, no effect of foliar nitrogen application was detected. Although foliar nitrogen application increased sennoside A + B per plant, the sennoside concentration (% dw) decreased. The latter effect was still persistent three months after the nitrogen treatments were discontinued. In a comparison among three crop types of Tinnevelly senna, ratoon plants had the highest sennoside A + B concentration in leaves followed by seedlings and cuttings. However, seedlings produced the highest sennoside A + B yield per plant due to the higher leaf biomass. Except in long term drought, sennoside levels were higher in leaves with lower net photosynthesis, and were increased by treatments that induced physiological stress. Lower net photosynthesis occurred in short term and long term drought, and with deprivation of foliar nitrogen supplement. In contrast, sennoside yields per plant are readily increased by treatments that increase the total leaf biomass. Short term drought, nitrogen stress and ratooning are promising component technologies for field and on-farm investigations with the goal of increasing sennoside yields.

  2. Validation of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic method for analysis of pesticide residues in Cassia angustifolia (senna).

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Vandana; Saha, Ajoy; Patel, Dilipkumar J; Basak, B B; Shah, Paresh G; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-08-02

    A simple multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was established for the determination of 17 organochlorine (OC), 15 organophosphorous (OP) and 7 synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides in an economically important medicinal plant of India, Senna (Cassia angustifolia), by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and flame thermionic detectors (GC/ECD/FTD) and confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The developed method was validated by testing the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, accuracy-precision and measurement uncertainty; the validation study clearly demonstrated the suitability of the method for its intended application. All pesticides showed good linearity in the range 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1) for OCs and OPs and 0.05-2.5 μg mL(-1) for SPs with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. The method gave good recoveries for most of the pesticides (70-120%) with intra-day and inter-day precision < 20% in most of the cases. The limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.03 mg kg(-1), and the LOQs were determined as 0.01-0.049 mg kg(-1). The expanded uncertainties were <30%, which was distinctively less than a maximum default value of ±50%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine pesticide residues in 12 commercial market samples obtained from different locations in India.

  3. Micropropagation and validation of genetic and biochemical fidelity amongst regenerants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl employing RAPD marker and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Siva K; Sardar, Pratima Rani; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-10-01

    In vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Cassia angustifolia Vahl which is an important source of anticancerous bioactive compounds, sennoside A and B. Nodal explants excised from field raised elite plant (showing optimum level of sennoside A and B) of C. angustifolia when reared on Murashige and Skoog's medium augmented with different cytokinins, viz. N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-(2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP) and 6-furfuryl aminopurine (Kn) differentiated multiple shoots in their axils. Of the three cytokinins, BA at 5 μM proved optimum for differentiating multiple shoots in 95 % cultures with an average of 9.14 shoots per explant within 8 weeks of culture. Nearly, 95 % of the excised in vitro shoots rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 10 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The phenotypically similar micropropagated plants were evaluated for their genetic fidelity employing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eleven individuals, randomly chosen amongst a population of 120 regenerants were compared with the donor plant. A total of 36 scorable bands, ranging in size from 100 to 1,000 bp were generated amongst them by the RAPD primers. All banding profiles from micropropagated plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant proving their true to the type nature. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography evaluation of the sennoside A and B content amongst leaves of the mature regenerants and the elite mother plant too revealed consistency in their content.

  4. In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays) of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500 μg/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation. PMID:23606883

  5. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds.

  6. In vitro antibacterial effects of five volatile oil extracts against intramacrophage Brucella abortus 544.

    PubMed

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Saour, George; Hamou, Razan

    2012-06-01

    Brucellaabortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×10(5) cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1%) in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella.

  7. In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Saour, George; Hamou, Razan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×105 cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Results: Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1%) in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. Conclusion: The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella. PMID:23115441

  8. Reproductive allocation and output in herbaceous annuals of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia in elevated CO[sub 2] environments

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, E.J.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the capacity of plants to adapt to rapidly changing global climate, we must elucidate the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on reproduction, fitness and evolution. We investigated how elevated CO[sub 2] influenced reproduction and growth of plants exhibiting a range of floral displays, the implications of shifts in allocation for fitness in these species, and whether related taxa would show similar patterns of response. Three herbaceous, annual species each of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia were grown under 350 or 700 ppm CO[sub 2]. Vegetative growth and reproductive output were non-destructively measured throughout the full life span, and biomass calibrated with a subsample harvest at first flowering. Viability and germination studies of seed progeny were conducted to more precisely characterize fitness. Timecourse and numbers of floral buds, flowers, unripe and abscised fruits differed between CO[sub 2] treatments. Genera differed significantly in their phenological responses to elevated CO[sub 2], Polygonum and Cassia species (but not Ipomoea) showed accelerated, enhanced reproduction. Elevated CO[sub 2] ameliorated trade-offs between vegetative and floral production. However, seed [open quotes]quality[close quotes] and fitness were not always directly correlated with quantity produced. Species within general responded more consistently to CO[sub 2], indicating that phylogeny and life form may be general predictors of performance under global change.

  9. Comparative study on elemental composition and DNA damage in leaves of a weedy plant species, Cassia occidentalis, growing wild on weathered fly ash and soil.

    PubMed

    Love, Amit; Tandon, Rajesh; Banerjee, B D; Babu, C R

    2009-10-01

    Open dumping of fly ash in fly ash basins has significant adverse environmental impacts due to its elevated trace element content. In situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity is of practical value in realistic hazard identification of fly ash. Genotoxicity of openly disposed fly ash to natural plant populations inhabiting fly ash basins has not been investigated. DNA damage, and concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu and Ni in the leaves of natural populations of Cassia occidentalis growing at two contrasting sites-one having weathered fly ash (fly ash basin) and the other having soil (reference site) as plant growth substrates-were assessed. The foliar concentrations of As, Ni and Cr were two to eight fold higher in plants growing on fly ash as compared to the plants growing on soil, whereas foliar concentrations of Cu and Co were similar. We report, for the first time, based upon comet assay results, higher levels of DNA damage in leaf tissues of Cassia occidentalis growing wild on fly ash basin compared to C. occidentalis growing on soil. Correlation analysis between foliar DNA damage and foliar concentrations of trace elements suggests that DNA damage may perhaps be associated with foliar concentrations of As and Ni. Our observations suggest that (1) fly ash triggers genotoxic responses in plants growing naturally on fly ash basins; and (2) plant comet assay is useful for in situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity of fly ash.

  10. Impact of extraction techniques on antioxidant capacities and phytochemical composition of polyphenol-rich extracts.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, Cecilia; Ventura-Sobrevilla, Janeth M; González-Hernández, María D; Rojas, Romeo; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Martínez-Ávila, Guillermo C G

    2017-12-15

    In this work, impact of extraction methods (maceration, decoction, MAE, and UAE) on TPC, antioxidant activity, and the mass fraction of phenolics in several plant extracts (Punica granatum, Juglans regia, Moringa oleifera, and Cassia fistula) was investigated. The results showed that, despite the nature of matrix, the highest values of TPC in all samples were obtained by MAE as follows: PP (18.92±0.11), ML (15.19±0.11), HL (12.69±0.16), and WS (12.80±0.11) mg GAEg(-1) respectively, and exhibited potent antioxidant activity (from 0.28±0.01 to 5.34±0.02mgGAEg(-1)), representing sources of powerful antioxidants. The LC-MS(2) analysis revealed a wide range of phenolics, highlighting their content in phenolic acids, flavonoids and lignans. The presence of different phenol molecules demonstrated that the extraction method had influence on phytochemical profile. Finally, due to its high extraction efficiency, MAE was the more effective extraction technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drought induced changes in growth, leaf gas exchange and biomass production in Albizia lebbeck and Cassia siamea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, S Gnaana; Paliwal, Kailash

    2011-03-01

    Diurnal trends in net photosynthesis rate (P(N)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), water use efficiency (WUE) and biomass were compared in six-month-old seedlings of Albizia lebbeck and Cassia siamea, under different levels of drought stress. The potted plants were subjected to four varying drought treatment by withholding watering for 7 (D1), 14(D2) and 25 (D3) days. The fourth group (C) was watered daily and treated as unstressed (control). Species differed significantly (p < 0.001) in their physiological performance under varying stress conditions. Higher P(N) of 11.6 +/- 0.05 in control followed by 4.35 +/- 0.4 in D1 and 2.83 +/- 0.18 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in D2 was observed in A. lebbeck. A significant (p < 0.001) reduction in P(N) was observed in C. siamea (C 7.65 +/- 0.5 micromol m(-2) s(-1), D1, 2.56 +/- 0.33 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and D2, 1.4 +/- 0.01 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) at 9 hr. A positive correlation was seen between P(N) and g(s) (A. lebbeck, r2 = 0.84; C. siamea, r2 = 0.82). Higher WUE was observed in C. siamea (D2, 7.1 +/- 0.18 micromol m(-2) s(-1); D3, 8.39 +/- 0.11 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) than A. lebbeck, (control, 7.58 +/- 0.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and D3, 8.12 +/- 0.15 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). The chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC) was more in A. lebbeck than C. siamea. Maximum biomass was produced by A. lebbeckthan C. siamea. From the study, one could conclude that A. lebbeckis better than C. siamea in adopting suitable resource management strategy and be best suited for the plantation programs in the semi-arid dry lands.

  12. Co-Administration of Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics and Anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia L. Ameliorate Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver.

    PubMed

    Mei, Lu; Tang, Youcai; Li, Ming; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Jieli; Zheng, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a common liver disease in recent decades. No effective treatment is currently available. Probiotics and natural functional food may be promising therapeutic approaches to this disease. The present study aims to investigate the efficiency of the anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia L. (AC) together with cholesterol-lowering probiotics (P) to improve high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in rat models and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Cholesterol-lowering probiotics were screened out by MRS-cholesterol broth with ammonium ferric sulfate method. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HFD and subsequently administered with AC and/or P. Lipid metabolism parameters and fat synthesis related genes in rat liver, as well as the diversity of gut microbiota were evaluated. The results demonstrated that, compared with the NAFLD rat, the serum lipid levels of treated rats were reduced effectively. Besides, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) were up-regulated while the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) was reduced. The expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α protein was significantly increased while the expression of PPAR-γ and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) was down-regulated. In addition, compared with HFD group, in AC, P and AC+P group, the expression of intestinal tight-junction protein occludin and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) were up-regulated. Furthermore, altered gut microbiota diversity after the treatment of probiotics and AC were analysed. The combination of cholesterol-lowering probiotics and AC possesses a therapeutic effect on NAFLD in rats by up-regulating CYP7A1, LDL-R, FXR mRNA and PPAR-α protein produced in the process of fat metabolism while down-regulating the expression of HMGCR, PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c, and through normalizing the intestinal

  13. Differentiation of the Four Major Species of Cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) Using a Flow Injection Mass Spectrometric (FIMS) Fingerprinting Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka were studied using the developed FIMS fingerprinting method. The FIMS fingerprints of the cinnamon samples were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The FIMS technique required only 1 min of analysis time per sample. The representative samples from each of the four major species of cinnamon were further examined using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry system, and the chemical differences between the four species were profiled. The results showed that the 1 min FIMS fingerprinting method successfully differentiated the four cinnamon species studied. PMID:24628250

  14. Kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives promote adiponectin production during adipogenesis in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Jongho; Jung, Hyo-Il; Park, Young-Ho; Lee, John Hwan; Shin, Song Seok; Noh, Minsoo

    2014-05-01

    The subcutaneous fat tissue mass gradually decreases with age, and its regulation is a strategy to develop anti-aging compounds to ameliorate the photo-aging of human skin. The adipogenesis of human adipose tissue-mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) can be used as a model to discover novel anti-aging compounds. Cinnamomum cassia methanol extracts were identified as adipogenesis-promoting agents by natural product library screening. Cinnamates, the major chemical components of Cinnamomum cassia extracts, promoted adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. We synthesized kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives to improve the pharmacological activity of cinnamates. Structure-activity studies of kojyl cinnamate derivatives showed that both the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl ester group and the kojic acid moiety play core roles in promoting adiponectin production during adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. We conclude that kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives provide novel pharmacophores that can regulate adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of sodium alginate coating incorporated with nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and rosemary essential oils on microbial quality of chicken meat and fate of Listeria monocytogenes during refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tabaraei, Alijan; Hashemi, Mohammad; Behnampour, Nasser

    2016-12-05

    The present study was conducted to preserve the microbial quality of chicken meat fillets during storage time by using sodium alginate active coating solutions incorporated with different natural antimicrobials including nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and rosemary essential oils (EOs) which were added individually and in combination. The samples were stored in refrigeration condition for 15days and were analyzed for total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, lactic acid bacteria count, Pseudomonas spp. count, psychrotrophic count, and yeast and mold count, as well as fate of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes at 3-day intervals. Results indicated that values of tested microbial indicators in all samples increased during storage. Antimicrobial agents, when used in combination, had stronger effect in preserving the microbial quality of chicken meat samples rather than their individual use and the strongest effect was observed in samples coated with alginate solution containing both cinnamon and rosemary EOs (CEO+REO). However, all treatments significantly inhibited microbial growth when compared to the control (P<0.05). Therefore, based on the results of this study, application of alginate coating solutions containing nisin, cinnamon, and rosemary EOs as natural preservatives is recommended in meat products especially in chicken meats.

  16. In vitro effect of essential oils from Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon and Allium sativum on two intestinal flagellates of poultry, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis.

    PubMed

    Zenner, L; Callait, M P; Granier, C; Chauve, C

    2003-06-01

    Essential oils may be effective preventive or curative treatments against several flagelated poultry parasites and may become primordial either to organic farms, or as more drugs are bannished. The anti-flagellate activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves of Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon pericarps and Allium sativum bulbs was investigated in vitro on Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis. On T. gallinarum, the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) at 24 hours was 0.25 microliter/ml for C. aromaticum oil, and 0.125 microliter/ml for C. limon and A. sativum oils. On H. meleagridis, MLC was 0.5 microliter/ml for C. aromaticum oil and 1 microliter/ml for C. limon and A. sativum oils at 24 and 48 hours. Moreover, no synergistic effects were evidenced in vitro. The essential oil constituents, based on their GC retention times have been also identified. The major component is trans-cinnamaldehyde (79%) for C. aromaticum; limonene for C. limon (71%) and diallyl tri- and disulfide (79%) for A. sativum. Even if concentration and protocol adaptations are required for successful in vivo treatments, it appears that these oils may be useful as chemotherapeutic agents against several poultry parasites.

  17. Safety profile assessment and efficacy of chemically characterized Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil against storage fungi, insect, aflatoxin secretion and as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Shilpee; Singh, S C; Dubey, N K

    2013-03-01

    The study explores the efficacy of Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil (EO) as insecticidal, antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant agent so as to recommend its application as plant based preservatives for food commodities. The study reports the chemical characterization of C. glaucescens oil and its 100% insecticidal activity against insect pest Callosobruchus chinensis on 12 h exposure and 98.74% oviposition deterrency at 0.15 μl/ml. The EO significantly inhibited growth and aflatoxin production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus LHP-10 at 4.5 and 3.5 μl/ml respectively. EO also showed appreciable antioxidant activity (IC(50) value=15.1 μl/ml), non phytotoxic nature on chickpea seed germination and in vivo potential as fumigant in food system providing 71.07% protection of chickpea samples from fungal contamination and 100% antifeedant activity against the insect invasion. The EO exhibited non-mammalian toxicity showing high LD(50) (3971.34 μl/kg) during oral toxicity on mice.

  18. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry analysis and antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum burmanii essential oil to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by gaseous contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chairunnisa, Tamhid, Hady Anshory; Nugraha, Arde Toga

    2017-03-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance becomes a problem that must be resolved. Plant based products are among the alternative agents examined in order to replace conventional antibiotics. Cinnamaldehyde is one of the compound in cinnamon oil that has antibacterial activity. But the other compounds in cinnamon oil has also the potential antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study to conduct GC-MS analysis of cinnamon oil and its antibacterial activity to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by gaseous contact. Cinnamomum burmannii was distilled by water-steam distillation to obtain essential oil. Identification of compounds was analyzed by GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was observed by gaseous contact method in airtight boxes. The GC-MS analyzed showed that there are four major compounds of cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde (56,10%), 1,8-cineole (16,53%), α-pinene (3,44%) and α -terpineol (3,05%). The Minimum Inhibitory Dose (MID) of cinnamon oil to E. coli and S. aureus was 12.5 µL/L and 6.26 µL/L respectively. Gas compounds of cinnamon oil has more effective to gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria.

  20. Antibacterial Mode of Action of Cinnamomum verum Bark Essential Oil, Alone and in Combination with Piperacillin, Against a Multi-Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strain.

    PubMed

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Krishnan, Thiba; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of the cinnamon bark essential oil (CB), when used singly and also in combination with piperacillin, for its antimicrobial and synergistic activity against beta-lactamase TEM-1 plasmid-conferred Escherichia coli J53 R1. Viable count of this combination showed a complete killing profile at 20 h and further confirmed its synergistic effect by reducing the bacteria cell numbers. Analysis on the stability of treated cultures for cell membrane permeability by CB when tested against sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that the bacterial cell membrane was disrupted by the essential oils. Scanning electron microscopy observation and bacterial surface charge measurement also revealed that CB causes irreversible membrane damage and reduces the bacterial surface charge. In addition, bioluminescence expression of Escherichia coli [pSB1075] and E. coli [pSB401] by CB showed reduction, indicating the possibility of the presence of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry of the essential oil of Cinnamomum verum showed that trans-cinnamaldehyde (72.81%), benzyl alcohol (12.5%), and eugenol (6.57%) were the major components in the essential oil. From this study, CB has the potential to reverse E. coli J53 R1 resistance to piperacillin through two pathways; modification in the permeability of the outer membrane or bacterial QS inhibition.

  1. Subamolide B Isolated from Medicinal Plant Cinnamomum subavenium Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells through Mitochondrial and CHOP-Dependent Cell Death Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Hui-Min; Wu, Tai-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shieh, Jeng-Jer; Lin, Ju-Hwa; Ho, Tsing-Fen; Luo, Ren-Jie; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chang, Chia-Che

    2013-01-01

    Subamolide B is a butanolide isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium, a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various ailments including carcinomatous swelling. We herein reported for the first time that subamolide B potently induced cytotoxicity against diverse human skin cancer cell lines while sparing nonmalignant cells. Mechanistic studies on human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line SCC12 highlighted the involvement of apoptosis in subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity, as evidenced by the activation of caspases-8, -9, -4, and -3, the increase in annexin V-positive population, and the partial restoration of cell viability by cotreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Additionally, subamolide B evoked cell death pathways mediated by FasL/Fas, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as supported by subamolide B-induced FasL upregulation, BCL-2 suppression/cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and UPR activation/CHOP upregulation, respectively. Noteworthy, ectopic expression of c-FLIPL or dominant-negative mutant of FADD failed to impair subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity, whereas BCL-2 overexpression or CHOP depletion greatly rescued subamolide B-stimulated cells. Collectively, these results underscored the central role of mitochondrial and CHOP-mediated cell death pathways in subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity. Our findings further implicate the potential of subamolide B for cutaneous SCC therapy or as a lead compound for developing novel chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:23573140

  2. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.

  3. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. PMID:25574178

  4. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-03-28

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  5. Yield of Cassia angustifolia in combination with different tree species in a silvi-herbal trial under hot arid conditions in India.

    PubMed

    Arya, Ranjana

    2003-01-01

    A silvi-herbal trial was conducted in the hot arid region of India to study the performance of a shrub (Cassia angustifolia) in combination with different tree species. The study area was frequented by frost. Leaf yield of C. angustifolia under different treatments was estimated. It was found that the shrubs produced a significantly higher yield of leaves in the vicinity of the tree species as compared to the shrubs at a far distance from the trees. This was perhaps because of more protection of crops near the canopy of the plants during frosts. The yield was not much affected by the variation of tree species indicating that the effect of tree-shrub combination was not profound. C. angustifolia as inter-crop provides support to the farming system by way of conferring stability and generating assured income.

  6. Use of Cassia javahikai seed gum and gum-g-polyacrylamide as coagulant aid for the decolorization of textile dye solutions.

    PubMed

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Bhattacharya, Bani; Singh, Vandana

    2006-07-01

    Investigations were carried out for possible exploitation of Cassia javahikai seeds as potential source of commercial gum for the textile wastewater treatment. Graft copolymerization with acrylamide was done to modify the seed gum for the favorable properties. C. javahikai seed gum, and its copolymer grafted with acrylamide were synthesized in the presence of oxygen using potassium persulphate/ascorbic acid redox system. Both C. javahikai seed gum (CJ) and its grafted-polyacrylamide (CJG), were found to be good working substitutes as coagulant aids in conjunction with PAC, for the decolorization of all the dyes in varying ratios. CJ and CJG alone could effectively decolorize direct dyes (DBR and DO) and in conjunction with a very low dose of PAC could decolorize all the dyes (DBR, DO, ASR, and PBB) to more than 70%. Grafting also increased the decolorizing ability of CJ gum.

  7. Bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts from 4 spices medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sharififar, Fariba; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan; Dehghan-Nudehe, Gholamreza; Ameri, Alieh; Alishahi, Fahimeh; Pourhemati, Amin

    2009-07-01

    Four commonly used spices plants in Iran were evaluated for cytotoxicity effect using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) assay. Essential oils and various extracts of Heracleum persicum, Nigella arvensis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Zingiber officinale were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. All of the tested fractions have exhibited more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Essential oils of H. persicum and C. zeylanicum have shown the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 0.007 and 0.03 microg/ml respectively. None of aqueous extracts showed significant cytotoxicity. The analysis of the essential oil of H. persicum showed the hexyl butyrate and octyl acetate as the main compounds. These results suggest some limitation for using of these spices in diet. Furthermore, these plants could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which might be studied in more details.

  8. Comparative effect of propolis of honey bee and some herbal extracts on Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz

    2017-03-01

    To determine the effect of propolis on Candida albicans and to compare it with the effects of some other herbal extracts and antibiotics on this pathogenic fungi. The extracts of propolis, Thymus vulgaris, Caryophillium aromaticus, Echinophora platyloba, Allium cepa and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared and the antifungi effects of the extracts were examined on Candida albicans ATCC10231 using disc-diffusion assay and micro-broth dilution. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) as well as inhibition zone were evaluated and the anti fungi effects of herbal extracts were compared with amphotricin B and nystatin at the times of 24, 48 and 72 h. Data analysis was performed using t test. Obtained results showed that propolis extract with MIC90 and MFC equal to 39 and 65 μg/mL, respectively, possess the highest antifungal activity when compared with other studied extracts. The extracts of Allium cepa and Thymus vulgaris, with MFC of 169 and 137 μg/mL, respectively, showed the lowest effects on the fungi. Also nystatin and amphotricin B yielded better effects on the tested fungi compared with the effects of all studied extracts on Candida albicans. Propolis extract is effective in controlling Candida albicans. However, the issue requires further investigation on samples in animals and performing toxicological examinations.

  9. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans Materials and Methods Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. Results The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct. PMID:26436036

  10. Effects of supplementing a basal diet of Chloris gayana hay with one of three protein-rich legume hays of Cassia rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus and Macroptilium atropurpureum forage on some nutritional parameters in goats.

    PubMed

    Mupangwa, J F; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2000-08-01

    Growth and digestibility experiments were conducted on growing East African type goats offered Chloris gayana hay supplemented with one of three high-protein (119-128 g CP/kg DM) legume hays, Cassia rotundifolia (cassia), Lablab purpureus (lablab) or Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro), and crushed maize to investigate the feed intake, digestibility, growth and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Goats in the supplemented groups had higher total dry matter and nitrogen intakes and higher N retention and body mass gains than unsupplemented counterparts. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were increased by protein supplementation. Animals on supplemented diets had higher fractional outflow rates of particulate matter from the rumen. The production of protein by ruminal microbes and the efficiency of microbial N production were increased by supplementation. It was concluded that a mixture of low-quality grass hay (61.9 CP/kg DM) and either cassia, lablab or siratro hay, and maize grain can provide a productive balanced diet for growing goats.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of selected Pakistani medicinal plants in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal; Muhammad, Jibran Sualeh; Shahryar, Saeeda; Usmanghani, Khan; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Jafri, Wasim; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2012-05-07

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Due to its high global prevalence and uprising resistance to available antibiotics, efforts are now directed to identify alternative source to treat and prevent associated disorders. In the present study, effect of selected indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan was evaluated on the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a bid to rationalize their medicinal use and to examine the anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects in gastric epithelial cells. AGS cells and clinically isolated Helicobacter pylori strain (193C) were employed for co-culture experiments. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and cytotoxic effects of the selected plants were determined by serial dilution method and DNA fragmentation assay respectively. ELISA and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate the effect on IL-8 secretion and ROS generation in Helicobacter pylori-infected cells. At 100μg/ml, extracts of Alpinia galangal, Cinnamomum cassia, Cinnamomum tamala, Mentha arvensis, Myrtus communis, Oligochaeta ramose, Polygonum bistorta, Rosa damascena, Ruta graveolens, Syzygium aromaticum, Tamarix dioica, and Terminalia chebula exhibited strong inhibitory activity against IL-8 secretion. Of these, four extracts of Cinnamomum cassia, Myrtus communis, Syzygium aromaticum, and Terminalia chebula markedly inhibited IL-8 secretion at both 50 and 100μg/ml. Cinnamomum cassia was further assessed at different concentrations against Helicobacter pylori and TNF-α stimulated IL-8 secretion, which displayed significant suppression of IL-8 in a concentration-dependent-manner. Among the plants examined against ROS generation, Achillea millefolium, Berberis aristata, Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Matricaria chamomilla and Prunus domestica demonstrated significant suppression of ROS from Helicobacter pylori-infected cells (p<0.01). Results of the study

  12. Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Activities of Extracts from Edible Plants against Soft Drink Spoilage by Asaia spp.

    PubMed

    Antolak, Hubert; Czyzowska, Agata; Kregiel, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza radix ), nettle leaves ( Urtica dioica ), green tea leaves ( Camellia sinensis ), and elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra ). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks.

  13. Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin with Cinnamomum camphora seed oil to produce zero-trans medium-chain triacylglycerols-enriched plastic fat.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Zhu, Xue-mei; Luo, Li-ping; Lei, Lin; Deng, Ze-yuan; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2012-04-01

    It is known that Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) is rich in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) or medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs). The purpose of the present study was to produce zero-trans MCTs-enriched plastic fat from a lipid mixture (500 g) of palm stearin (PS) and CCSO at 3 weight ratios (PS:CCSO 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, wt/wt) by using lipase (Lipozyme TL IM, 10% of total substrate) as a catalyst at 65 °C for 8 h. The major fatty acids of the products were palmitic acid (C16:0, 42.68% to 53.42%), oleic acid (C18:1, 22.41% to 23.46%), and MCFAs (8.67% to 18.73%). Alpha-tocopherol (0.48 to 2.51 mg/100 g), γ-tocopherol (1.70 to 3.88 mg/100 g), and δ-tocopherol (2.08 to 3.95 mg/100 g) were detected in the interesterified products. The physical properties including solid fat content (SFC), slip melting point (SMP), and crystal polymorphism of the products were evaluated for possible application in shortening or margarine. Results showed that the SFCs of interesterified products at 25 °C were 9% (60:40, PS:CCSO), 18.50% (70:30, PS:CCSO), and 29.2% (80:20, PS:CCSO), respectively. The β' crystal form was found in most of the interesterified products. Furthermore, no trans fatty acids were detected in the products. Such zero-trans MCT-enriched fats may have a potential functionality for shortenings and margarines which may become a new type of nutritional plastic fat for daily diet. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2011-12-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate effects of certain essential oils namely Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini and their major components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, citral and geraniol respectively, on growth, hyphal ultrastructure and virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal activity of essential oils and their major constituents was in the order of cinnamaldehyde>eugenol>geraniol=C. verum>citral>S. aromaticum>C. citratus>C. martini, both in liquid and solid media against T. rubrum and A. fumigatus. Based on promising antifungal activity of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, these oils were further tested for their inhibitory activity against ungerminated and germinated conidia in test fungi. Cinnamaldehyde was found to be more active than eugenol. To assess the possible mode of action of cinnamaldehyde, electron microscopic studies were conducted. The observations revealed multiple sites of action of cinnamaldehyde mainly on cell membranes and endomembranous structures of the fungal cell. Further, test oils were also tested for their anti-virulence activity. More than 70% reduction in elastase activity was recorded in A. fumigatus by the oils of C. verum, C. martini, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and geraniol. Similar reduction in keratinase activity in A. niger was recorded for the oils of C. martini and geraniol. Maximum reduction (96.56%) in elastase activity was produced by cinnamaldehyde whereas; geraniol caused maximum inhibition (97.31%) of keratinase activity. Our findings highlight anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of above mentioned essential oils as a novel property to be exploited in controlling invasive and superficial mycoses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties.

    PubMed

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Soni, Palak Harendrabhai; Makasana, Jayanti; Gajbhiye, Narendra Athamaram; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world's natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with 'green plant database (txid 33090)', Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various

  16. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Soni, Palak Harendrabhai; Makasana, Jayanti; Gajbhiye, Narendra Athamaram; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world’s natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with ‘green plant database (txid 33090)’, Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various

  17. Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Voukeng, Igor K; Kuete, Victor; Dzoyem, Jean P; Fankam, Aimé G; Noumedem, Jaures A K; Kuiate, Jules R; Pages, Jean-Marie

    2012-06-15

    The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR), and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy. The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 μg/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-β- Naphtylamide (PAβN), a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25 % of the tested bacteria when it was combined with erythromycin (ERY). The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria.

  18. Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR), and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy. Results The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 μg/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-β- Naphtylamide (PAβN), a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25 % of the tested bacteria when it was combined with Erythromycin (ERY). Conclusion The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria. PMID:22709668

  19. Structure elucidation of a sodium salified anthraquinone from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia by NMR technique assisted with acid-alkali titration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Rufeng; Liu, Bin; Tu, Guangzhong

    2011-08-01

    A new sodium salt of anthraquinone named sodium emodin-1-O-β-gentiobioside, together with nine known compounds, viz. rubrofusarin-6-O-β-D-gentiobioside, chrysophanol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-β-D-glucopyranoside, obtusifolin-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, aurantio-obtusin-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, physcion-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 1-hydroxyl-2-acetyl-3,8-dimethoxy-6-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-2)-β-D-glucosylnaphthalene, toralactone-9-O-β-D-gentiobioside, aurantio-obtusin, rubrofusarin-6-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia and its structure was elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR technique assisted with acid-alkali titration. The change of chemical shifts of sodium emodin-1-O-β-gentiobioside before and after acid-alkali titration was also characterized. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Hepatic transcriptional analysis in rats treated with Cassia occidentalis seed: involvement of oxidative stress and impairment in xenobiotic metabolism as a putative mechanism of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Gati Krushna; Yadav, Ashish; Yadav, Anuradha; Ansari, Kausar M; Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Vashistha, Vipin M; Raisuddin, S; Das, Mukul

    2014-08-17

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds on the transcriptional expression patterns of mRNAs in rat liver by microarray analysis. The results indicated that exposure of CO (0.5%) seeds in diet to rats differentially regulated 60 transcripts belonging to various metabolic pathways including, oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cell cycle, apoptosis etc. The expression of AKT1, CAT, SOD1, CYP1A1, CYP2B1, TGF-β, BAX, CREB1, JNK1 and IL-6 were validated by the qRT-PCR. In addition, involvement of oxidative stress was observed due to marked depletion of glutathione, increase in lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissue of rats treated with 0.5-2.0% CO in diet. Furthermore, significant decrease in the levels of Phase 1 (EROD, MROD and PROD) and Phase 2 (QR and GST) enzymes following 0.5-2.0% CO exposure indicates the impairment of xenobiotic metabolism and possible accumulation of toxic ingredients of the seeds in liver. Overall, the study predicts the involvement of multiple pathways and related biomolecules in CO induced hepatotoxicity and the data may be useful in formulating strategies for therapeutic interventions of suspected CO poisoning study cases.

  1. Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis of Cinnamomum camphora seed oil with oleic acid to produce human milk fat substitutes enriched in medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xian-Guo; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhao, Man-Li; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Rong; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2014-10-29

    In the present study, a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) enriched in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction from Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) with oleic acid in a solvent-free system. A commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, from Rhizomucor miehei, was facilitated as a biocatalyst. Effects of different reaction conditions, including substrate molar ratio, enzyme concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the optimal oleic acid incorporation. After optimization, results showed that the maximal incorporation of oleic acid into HMFS was 59.68%. Compared with CCSO, medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-2 position of HMFS accounted for >70%, whereas oleic acid was occupied predominantly at the sn-1,3 position (78.69%). Meanwhile, triacylglycerol (TAG) components of OCO (23.93%), CCO (14.94%), LaCO (13.58%), OLaO (12.66%), and OOO (11.13%) were determined as the major TAG species in HMFS. The final optimal reaction conditions were carried out as follows: substrate molar ratio (oleic acid/CCSO), 5:1; enzyme concentration, 12.5% (w/w total reactants); reaction temperature, 60 °C; and reaction time, 28 h. The reusability of Lipozyme RM IM in the acidolysis reaction was also evaluated, and it was found that it could be reused up to 9 times without significant loss of activities. Urea inclusion method was used to separate and purify the synthetic product. As the ratio of HMFS/urea increased to 1:2, the acid value lowered to the minimum. In a scale-up experiment, the contents of TAG and total tocopherols in HMFS (modified CCSO) were 77.28% and 12.27 mg/100 g, respectively. All of the physicochemical indices of purified product were within food standards. Therefore, such a MCFA-enriched HMFS produced by using the acidolysis method might have potential application in the infant formula industry.

  2. Nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen isotopic compositions in leaves of Cinnamomum Camphora and Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) for indicating atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Guiyang (SW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yu; Xiao, Huayun; Qu, Linglu

    2017-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) concentrations and δ15N signatures in soil and camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) leaves collected along an urban-rural gradient in Guiyang (SW China) were investigated systematically. N concentrations in camphor (1.01-2.37%) and Masson pine (0.99-2.42%) leaves showed a significant decrease from central Guiyang (0-6 km) to suburban areas (18-24 km), while slightly increased leaf N concentrations reemerged at areas more than 24 km from the city center. The δ15N values in camphor and Masson pine leaves also decreased from central Guiyang to the rural area, with more positive leaf δ15N in the urban area and 15N-depleted leaf δ15N in the rural area. No significant differences were observed for soil N concentrations and soil δ15N in these areas, which suggested that the decrease in leaf N concentrations was due to decreased atmospheric N deposition along the urban-rural gradient and that there were two isotopically different atmospheric N sources in Guiyang city: foliar δ15N values in urban areas were mainly influenced by 15N-enriched atmospheric NOx-N from traffic emissions, while those in rural areas were primarily affected by 15N-depleted atmospheric NHx-N from agricultural activities. However, the pattern of moss (collected ten years prior, with lower traffic density and wastewater treatment rate in the urban area) δ15N variation in the urban area (0-12 km) was contrary to that of the camphor and Masson pine leaves, indicating that the δ15N values in previously collected urban mosses were mainly controlled by isotopically light NHx-N from untreated wastes and sewage, but were much less affected by traffic. For the trees in the urban area, N concentrations in camphor and Masson pine leaves varied in parallel with their δ15N values (P < 0.0001), and we thus applied a mass balance equation to estimate the δ15N value (about 7‰) in the atmospheric N deposition in the urban area. This indicated that the greater

  3. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended.

  4. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. Results: The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. PMID:28512603

  5. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  6. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of cinnamon ethanolic extract against CCI4-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Bazargan, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    The inner bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of cinnamon bark extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. Administration with cinnamon extracts (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg) for 28 days significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. In addition, treatment of cinnamon extract resulted in markedly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes in rats. The histopathological studies in the liver of rats also supported that cinnamon extract markedly reduced the toxicity of CCl4 and preserved the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue to near normal. Thus, the results suggest that cinnamon extract acts as a potent hepatoprotective agent against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:27547174

  8. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Mei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  9. Classification of raw and roasted Semen Cassiae samples with the use of Fourier transform infrared fingerprints and least squares support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanhua; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2010-06-01

    Raw and roasted Semen Cassiae seeds, a complex traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), are used as examples to research and develop a method of classification analysis based on measurements of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral fingerprints. Eighty samples of the TCM were measured in the mid-infrared range, 400-2000 cm(-1) (KBr pellets), and the complex overlapping spectra were submitted for interpretation to a principal component analysis least squares support vector machine (PC-LS-SVM), kernel principal component analysis least squares support vector machine (KPC-LS-SVM), and radial basis function artificial neural networks (RBF-ANN). The LS-SVM models were developed with an RBF kernel function and a grid search technique. Training models were constructed with the use of raw and first-derivative spectra and these were then verified by another data set containing both raw and roasted spectral objects. It was demonstrated that the first-derivative data set produced the best separation of the spectral objects. In general, satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with the PC-LS-SVM, KPC-LS-SVM, and RBF-ANN training models and with the classification of the verification spectral objects. With regard to chemometrics modeling, the performance of KPC-LS-SVM was somewhat more economical than that of the PC-LS-SVM model. It would appear that the latter relatively simple model would be sufficient for application to most small to medium sized FT-IR fingerprint data sets, but with larger matrices the more complex models, such as the RBF-ANN and KPC-LS-SVM, may be more advantageous on a computational basis.

  10. Comparison Between the Cassia Fistula`s Emulsion With Polyethylene Glycol (PEG4000) in the Pediatric Functional Constipation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilidooki, Mohammad Reza; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali; Mirzapour, Mohaddese; Shirafkan, Hoda; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Bijani, Ali

    2016-07-01

    There are few effective drugs for pediatric functional constipation (FC). Comparing the effectiveness of Cassia fistula's emulsion (CFE) with Polyethylene glycol (PEG4000) in FC; and evaluation of safety of both drugs in the treatment of FC. A randomized open label, prospective, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was carried on 109 children (M/F: 63/46; mean age ± SD: 59.7 ± 28.8 months) in Amirkola children's hospital, Babol, Iran. The inclusion criteria were based on diagnosis of FC according to the Rome III criteria and age range between 2 - 15 years. They received CFE or PEG randomly for 4 weeks. Frequencies of defecation, severity of pain, consistency of stool, fecal incontinence and retentive posturing were compared between the two groups and with baselines. Children were counted as improved when they exited from Rome III criteria of FC. Fifty seven patients were assigned to receive PEG and 52 patients received CFE. After 4weeks of medication, 86.5% of children in CFE group and 77.1% in PEG group (RR = 1.121, CI95%:0.939 - 1.338) exited from the criteria of FC. All measurable criteria improved in both groups without any significant difference, except in the frequency of defecation that in CFE group (10.96 ± 5.7) was significantly more than PEG group (6.9 ± 3.5) (P < 0.0001). Compliances of PEG were significantly better in the 2 first weeks (P = 0.002, 0.008) but not in third and fourth week (P = 0.061, 0.062). None of these two drugs cause clinically significant side effects. CFE can be as effective as PEG in the 4-weeks treatment of children with FC.

  11. An efficient in vitro process for cyclic clonal production of shoots from adult tree of Cassia alata L. and evaluation of genetic stability using DNA-based markers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Rafique; Anis, Mohammad; Al-Etta, Hashim A

    2014-12-01

    An efficient, cyclic, two-step protocol for clonal in vitro regeneration system of an antiallergenic plant, Cassia alata, has been successfully developed. Nodal explants from a 5-year-old tree were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 μM) of thidiazuron (TDZ). TDZ (5.0 μM) was found to be optimal for the formation of maximum shoot induction. Shoot proliferation and elongation increased when the regenerated shoots were subcultured on hormone-free MS medium after 4 weeks of exposure to TDZ. Nodal explants from in vitro regenerated microshoots to developed shoots, thus making the process recurrent. In 6 months duration, owing to the recurring nature of the protocol, large number of shoots could be produced from a single nodal explant from an adult tree. Shoots rooted best on MS supplemented medium with 0.5 μM IBA. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to the garden soil, where they grew well without any morphological and genetic variations. To confirm the uniformity, the genetic fidelity of in vitro raised C. alata clones was also assessed by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The present regeneration process not only favored the clonal multiplication but also expressed the regeneration capability of in vitro regenerated microshoots and can be subjugated for catering enough raw materials to various pharma industries by continuous cyclic shoot production.

  12. Effects of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on reduction of microbial load and antioxidant properties of Chum-Hed-Thet (Cassia alata (L.) Roxb.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakhongsil, P.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.; Chookaew, S.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the growing demands of herbal medicines, Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. has been reported to have various phytochemical activities. It has also been called in Thai as Chum-Hed-Thet. In this study, C. alata (L.) Roxb. powder were exposed to gamma and electron beam irradiation at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. At the dose of 10 kGy, both of gamma and electron beam irradiation were sufficient in reducing microbial load of irradiated samples as specified in Thai pharmacopoeia (2005). These include the total aerobic microbial count of < 5.0x105 CFU/g, total fungi count of < 5.0x104 CFU/g, bile tolerant gram negative bacteria of < 104 (per g). In addition, pathogenic Clostridium spp. (per 10 g), Salmonella spp. (per 10 g), S. aureus (per 1g) and E.coli (per 1g) were absence. In terms of the bioactive molecules, the total phenolic content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential of unirradiated and irradiated samples were 19.32-22.44 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, 5.20-7.82 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g and 69.46-82.06 μmol FeSO4/g, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated samples (p>0.05). Therefore, both of radiation by gamma ray or electron beam at 10 kGy was sufficient in elimination of microbial flora and did not significantly affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of C. alata (L.) Roxb.

  13. Comparison Between the Cassia Fistula`s Emulsion With Polyethylene Glycol (PEG4000) in the Pediatric Functional Constipation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilidooki, Mohammad Reza; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali; Mirzapour, Mohaddese; Shirafkan, Hoda; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Bijani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background There are few effective drugs for pediatric functional constipation (FC). Objectives Comparing the effectiveness of Cassia fistula’s emulsion (CFE) with Polyethylene glycol (PEG4000) in FC; and evaluation of safety of both drugs in the treatment of FC. Materials and Methods A randomized open label, prospective, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was carried on 109 children (M/F: 63/46; mean age ± SD: 59.7 ± 28.8 months) in Amirkola children’s hospital, Babol, Iran. The inclusion criteria were based on diagnosis of FC according to the Rome III criteria and age range between 2 - 15 years. They received CFE or PEG randomly for 4 weeks. Frequencies of defecation, severity of pain, consistency of stool, fecal incontinence and retentive posturing were compared between the two groups and with baselines. Children were counted as improved when they exited from Rome III criteria of FC. Results Fifty seven patients were assigned to receive PEG and 52 patients received CFE. After 4weeks of medication, 86.5% of children in CFE group and 77.1% in PEG group (RR = 1.121, CI95%:0.939 - 1.338) exited from the criteria of FC. All measurable criteria improved in both groups without any significant difference, except in the frequency of defecation that in CFE group (10.96 ± 5.7) was significantly more than PEG group (6.9 ± 3.5) (P < 0.0001). Compliances of PEG were significantly better in the 2 first weeks (P = 0.002, 0.008) but not in third and fourth week (P = 0.061, 0.062). None of these two drugs cause clinically significant side effects. Conclusions CFE can be as effective as PEG in the 4-weeks treatment of children with FC. PMID:27660721

  14. HPLC method for measurement of human salivary α-amylase inhibition by aqueous plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Takács, István; Takács, Ákos; Pósa, Anikó; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi

    2017-06-01

    Control of hyperglycemia is an important treatment in metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity. α-Amylase, as the first enzyme of glucose release from dietary polysaccharides, is a potential target to identify new sources of novel anti-obesity and anti-diabetic drugs. In this work, different herbal extracts as α-amylase inhibitors were studied by measuring the rate of the cleavage of a maltooligomer substrate 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-β-D-maltoheptoside. Measurement of chromophore containing products after reversed phase HPLC separation was used for α-amylase activity measurement. Rates of hydrolysis catalysed by human salivary α-amylase were determined in the presence and absence of lyophilised water extracts of eleven herbs. Remarkable bioactivities were found for extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (bark), Camellia sinensis L. (leaf), Ribes nigrum L. (leaf), Laurus nobilis L. (leaf), Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton (fruit) and Syzygium aromaticum L. (bud). Determined IC50 values were in 0.017-41 μg/ml range for these six selected plant extracts. Our results confirm the applicability of this HPLC-based method for the quick and reliable comparison of plants as α-amylase inhibitors.

  15. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-04-30

    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.

  16. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.

  17. Anthelmintic efficacy of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid from cortex cinnamon essential oil against Dactylogyrus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Ling, Fei; Jiang, Chao; Liu, Guanglu; Li, Mingshuang; Wang, Gaoxue

    2015-12-01

    Utilization of chemical pesticide to control monogenean diseases is often restricted in many countries due to the development of pesticide resistance and concerns of chemical residues and environmental contamination. Thus, the use of antiparasitic agents from plants has been explored as a possible way for controlling monogenean infections. Extracts from Cinnamomum cassia were investigated under in vivo conditions against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. The two bioactive compounds, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The 48 h median effective concentrations (EC(50)) for these compounds against D. intermedius were 0·57 and 6·32 mg L(-1), respectively. The LD(50) of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid were 13·34 and 59·66 mg L(-1) to goldfish in 48 h acute toxicity tests, respectively. These data confirm that cinnamaldehyde is effective against D. intermedius, and the cinnamaldehyde exhibits potential for the development of a candidate antiparasitic agent.

  18. Repellent, Irritant and Toxic Effects of 20 Plant Extracts on Adults of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  19. Repellent, irritant and toxic effects of 20 plant extracts on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae mosquito.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged.

  20. Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50) =37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90) =166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50) =26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90) =127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) =69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90) =324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  1. Combined use of high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for investigation of antidiabetic principles in crude plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kongstad, Kenneth T; Özdemir, Ceylan; Barzak, Asmah; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Staerk, Dan

    2015-03-04

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, and new drug leads or functional foods containing selective α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed. Crude extract of 24 plants were assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Methanol extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, Rheum rhabarbarum peel, and Rheum palmatum root and ethyl acetate extracts of C. zeylanicum bark, Allium ascalonicum peel, and R. palmatum root showed IC50 values below 20 μg/mL. Subsequently, high-resolution α-glucosidase profiling was used in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of metabolites responsible for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Quercetin (1) and its dimer (2), trimer (3), and tetramer (4) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in A. ascalonicum peel, whereas (E)-piceatannol 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), (E)-rhapontigenin 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (E)-piceatannol (8), and emodin (12) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in R. palmatum root.

  2. Protective Effect of Leaf Essential Oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira on Endotoxin-Induced Intestinal Injury in Mice Associated with Suppressed Local Expression of Molecules in the Signaling Pathways of TLR4 and NLRP3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chien-Chun; Chen, Ke-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2015-01-01

    Endotoxin is a potent microbial mediator implicated in sepsis. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira (CO) of the linalool chemotype on endotoxin-injected mice. Mice were administered CO or vehicle by gavage before endotoxin injection and were killed 12 h after injection. Neither growth nor the organ weight or tissue weight to body weight ratio was affected by CO treatment. CO significantly lowered peripheral levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, interferon-γ, and nitric oxide and inhibited the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88), myeloid differentiation factor 2, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, and Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). CO also inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-ĸB, inhibited the activity of caspase-1 in small intestine, and ameliorated intestinal edema. Our data provide strong evidence for a protective effect of CO of the linalool chemotype in the endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response in close association with suppression of the TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in intestine. PMID:25794175

  3. Electrophysiological and behavioral characterization of bioactive compounds of the Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cuminum cyminum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils against Anopheles gambiae and prospects for their use as bednet treatments.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Chandre, Fabrice; Williams, Livy; Duménil, Claire; Menut, Chantal; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-06-11

    Laboratory and field studies showed that repellent, irritant and toxic actions of common public health insecticides reduce human-vector contact and thereby interrupt disease transmission. One of the more effective strategies to reduce disease risk involves the use of long-lasting treated bednets. However, development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations makes it imperative to find alternatives to these insecticides. Our previous study identified four essential oils as alternatives to pyrethroids: Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cuminum cyminum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The objectives of this study were to identify active compounds of these essential oils, to characterize their biological activity, and to examine their potential as a treatment for bednets. We evaluated the electrophysiological, behavioural (repellency, irritancy) and toxic effects of the major compounds of these oils against Anopheles gambiae strain 'Kisumu'. Aldehydes elicited the strongest responses and monoterpenes the weakest responses in electroantennogram (EAG) trials. However, EAG responses did not correlate consistently with results of behavioral assays. In behavioral and toxicity studies, several of the single compounds did exhibit repellency, irritancy or toxicity in An. gambiae; however, the activity of essential oils did not always correlate with activity expected from the major components. On the contrary, the biological activity of essential oils appeared complex, suggesting interactions between individual compounds and the insect under study. Data also indicated that the three effects appeared independent, suggesting that repellency mechanism(s) may differ from mechanisms of irritancy and toxicity. Based on the bioassays reported here, some of the compounds merit consideration as alternative bednet treatments.

  4. Cinnamon Extract Improves Insulin Sensitivity in the Brain and Lowers Liver Fat in Mouse Models of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Tina; Peter, Andreas; Schulz, Nadja; Drescher, Andrea; Bergheim, Ina; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Siegel-Axel, Dorothea; Schürmann, Annette; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. Methods Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde) were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. Results Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. Conclusions Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis. PMID:24643026

  5. Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Tina; Peter, Andreas; Schulz, Nadja; Drescher, Andrea; Bergheim, Ina; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Siegel-Axel, Dorothea; Schürmann, Annette; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde) were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis.

  6. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose

  7. MEMS Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-03

    5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University,Department of Electrical and...aspects of the work . I would like to thank Mr. Sitaraman Iyer and Ms. Qi Jing who helped by providing necessary models for the lumped parameter simulator...extraction of functional elements such as springs, and electromechanical comb sensors and actuators. Comb drives are extracted using similarity in shape

  8. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  9. Prevention Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Mulberry Leaf Extract and its Formulation on Rats with Insulin-Insensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chen; Luo, Xiuzhen; Bao, Yonggang; Wu, Bin; Hu, Yuchi; Zhong, Zhong; Liu, Chang; Li, MinJie

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, mulberry leaf has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. This study aims to test the prevention effects of a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and a formula consisting of MLE, fenugreek seed extract, and cinnamon cassia extract (MLEF) on insulin resistance development in animals. MLE was refined to contain 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin by weight. MLEF was formulated by mixing MLE with cinnamon cassia extract and fenugreek seed extract at a 6:5:3 ratio (by weight). First, the acute toxicity effects of MLE on ICR mice were examined at 5 g/kg BW dose. Second, two groups of normal rats were administrated with water or 150 mg/kg BW MLE per day for 29 days to evaluate MLE’s effect on normal animals. Third, to examine the effects of MLE and MLEF on model animals, sixty SD rats were divided into five groups, namely, (1) normal, (2) model, (3) high-dose MLE (75 mg/kg BW) treatment; (4) low-dose MLE (15 mg/kg BW) treatment; and (5) MLEF (35 mg/kg BW) treatment. On the second week, rats in groups (2)-(5) were switched to high-energy diet for three weeks. Afterward, the rats were injected (ip) with a single dose of 105 mg/kg BW alloxan. After four more days, fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Last, liver lysates from animals were screened with 650 antibodies for changes in the expression or phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins. The results were further validated by Western blot analysis. We found that the maximum tolerance dose of MLE was greater than 5 g/kg in mice. The MLE at a 150 mg/kg BW dose showed no effect on fast blood glucose levels in normal rats. The MLE at a 75 mg/kg BW dose and MLEF at a 35 mg/kg BW dose, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fast blood glucose levels in rats with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. In total, 34 proteins with significant changes in expression and phosphorylation levels were identified. The

  10. Prevention Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Mulberry Leaf Extract and its Formulation on Rats with Insulin-Insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xuemei; Xie, Chen; Luo, Xiuzhen; Bao, Yonggang; Wu, Bin; Hu, Yuchi; Zhong, Zhong; Liu, Chang; Li, MinJie

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, mulberry leaf has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. This study aims to test the prevention effects of a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and a formula consisting of MLE, fenugreek seed extract, and cinnamon cassia extract (MLEF) on insulin resistance development in animals. MLE was refined to contain 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin by weight. MLEF was formulated by mixing MLE with cinnamon cassia extract and fenugreek seed extract at a 6:5:3 ratio (by weight). First, the acute toxicity effects of MLE on ICR mice were examined at 5 g/kg BW dose. Second, two groups of normal rats were administrated with water or 150 mg/kg BW MLE per day for 29 days to evaluate MLE's effect on normal animals. Third, to examine the effects of MLE and MLEF on model animals, sixty SD rats were divided into five groups, namely, (1) normal, (2) model, (3) high-dose MLE (75 mg/kg BW) treatment; (4) low-dose MLE (15 mg/kg BW) treatment; and (5) MLEF (35 mg/kg BW) treatment. On the second week, rats in groups (2)-(5) were switched to high-energy diet for three weeks. Afterward, the rats were injected (ip) with a single dose of 105 mg/kg BW alloxan. After four more days, fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Last, liver lysates from animals were screened with 650 antibodies for changes in the expression or phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins. The results were further validated by Western blot analysis. We found that the maximum tolerance dose of MLE was greater than 5 g/kg in mice. The MLE at a 150 mg/kg BW dose showed no effect on fast blood glucose levels in normal rats. The MLE at a 75 mg/kg BW dose and MLEF at a 35 mg/kg BW dose, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fast blood glucose levels in rats with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. In total, 34 proteins with significant changes in expression and phosphorylation levels were identified. The

  11. Anti-giardia activity and acute toxicity of a methanol extract of Senna racemosa bark.

    PubMed

    Caamal-Fuentes, Edgar E; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-12-04

    Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) is a plant used in traditional Mayamedicinal practices to treat diarrhea. A methanol extract of S. racemosa bark has been shown to have in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis. No studies of its efficacy and toxicity in in vivo models have been done. The present study objective was to analyze the activity of this methanol extract of S. racemosa bark against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites in experimentally infected mice, and evaluate its toxicological effects in rats. S. racemosa was collected in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico (21°58'N, 89°36'W) in June 2005. The bark methanol extract was obtained and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) was used to generate a constituent profile. In vivo anti-giardia activity was assayed with an experimental model of G. intestinalis infection in neonatal CD-1 mice. Nine doses ranging from 0.25-15mg extract/kg body weight were tested to determine the dose required to kill 50% of the trophozoites (ED50). An acute toxicity assay was run in which one of four single doses (200, 1000, 2000 and3000mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to adult Wistar rats. Animal weight, death rates, toxic effects and behavioral parameters were observed over a 14-d period. They were then euthanized and a necropsy performed. The S. racemosa bark extract inhibited growth of G. intestinalis (ED50=1.14mg/Kg) in neonatal CD-1 mice. No toxic or lethal effects were observed even at the highest dosage (3000mg/Kg), and neither were signs of toxicity observed in internal organs. The active compounds chrysophanol and physcion were present in the extract at a 1.76 ratio. The results strongly support traditional use of S. racemosa bark for treatment of diarrhea caused by Giardia intestinalis infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions.

  13. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  14. Discovery of a novel anticancer agent with both anti-topoisomerase I and II activities in hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Wang, Jeng-Shing; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Shih, Chia-Wen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for various applications. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cell line. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase in the DNA content in sub-G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments, suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against SK-Hep-1 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB-binding activity, inflammatory responses involving cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549, squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26792981

  15. Enzymatic production of zero-trans plastic fat rich in α-linolenic acid and medium-chain fatty acids from highly hydrogenated soybean oil, Cinnamomum camphora seed oil, and perilla oil by lipozyme TL IM.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man-Li; Tang, Liang; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Li, Hong-Yan; Luo, Li-Ping; Lei, Lin; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2013-02-13

    In the present study, zero-trans α-linolenic acid (ALA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA)-enriched plastic fats were synthesized through enzymatic interesterification reactions from highly hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO), Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO), and perilla oil (PO). The reactions were performed by incubating the blending mixtures of HSO, CCSO, and PO at different weight ratios (60:40:100, 70:30:100, 80:20:100) using 10% (total weight of substrate) of Lipozyme TL IM at 65 °C for 8 h. After reaction, the physical properties (fatty acids profile, TAG composition, solid fat content, slip melting point, contents of tocopherol, polymorphic forms, and microstructures) of the interesterified products and their physical blends were determined, respectively. Results showed that the fatty acid compositions of the interesterified products and physical blends had no significant changes, while the content of MCFA in both interesterified products and physical blends increased to 8.58-18.72%. Several new types of TAG species were observed in interesterified products (SSL/SLS, PLO/LLS, and OLLn/LnLO/LOLn). It should be mentioned that no trans fatty acids (TFA) were detected in all products. As the temperature increased, the solid fat content (SFC) of interesterified products was obviously lower than that of physical blends. The SFCs of interesterified products (60:40:100, 70:30:100, and 80:20:100, HSO:CCSO:PO) at 25 °C were 6.5%, 14.6%, and 16.5%, respectively, whereas the counterparts of physical blends were 32.5%, 38.5%, and 43.5%, respectively. Meanwhile, interesterified products showed more β' polymorphs than physical blends, in which β' polymorph is a favorite form for production of margarine and shortening. Such zero-trans ALA and MCFA-enriched fats may have desirable physical and nutritional properties for shortenings and margarines.

  16. Discovery of a novel anticancer agent with both anti-topoisomerase I and II activities in hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Wang, Jeng-Shing; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Shih, Chia-Wen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for various applications. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cell line. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase in the DNA content in sub-G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments, suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against SK-Hep-1 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB-binding activity, inflammatory responses involving cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549, squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy.

  17. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  18. Development of an ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted method for simultaneous extraction and distillation for determination of proanthocyanidins and essential oil in Cortex cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Wenjie

    2012-12-15

    Cortex cinnamomi is associated with many health benefits and is used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, an efficient ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction and distillation (ILMSED) technique was used to extract cassia oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi; these were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the vanillin-HCl colorimetric method, respectively. 0.5M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid was selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 20.0 g sample were 230 W microwave irradiation power, 15 min microwave extraction time and 10 liquid-solid ratio. The yields of essential oil and proanthocyanidins were 1.24 ± 0.04% and 4.58 ± 0.21% under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. Using the ILMSED method, the energy consumption was reduced and the extraction yields were improved. The proposed method was validated using stability, repeatability, and recovery experiments. The results indicated that the developed ILMSED method provided a good alternative for the extraction of both the essential oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Library-based discovery of DYRK1A/CLK1 inhibitors from natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    Grabher, Patrick; Durieu, Emilie; Kouloura, Eirini; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Leandros A; Meijer, Laurent; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    The dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase DYRK1A possesses diverse roles in neuronal development and adult brain physiology, and increased activity has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Very few inhibitors of this kinase have been reported up to now. Screening of a library of > 900 plant and fungal extracts afforded 25 extracts with IC₅₀s < 10 µg/mL against DYRK1A. To identify the active constituents, the extracts were submitted to a process integrating physicochemical data with biological information, referred to as HPLC-based activity profiling. Follow-up investigation of four extracts led to the targeted isolation of harmine (1, IC₅₀ 0.022 µM) from Peganum harmala, emodin (3, IC₅₀ 4.2 µM) from Cassia nigricans, kaempferol (4, IC₅₀ 0.91 µM) from Cuscuta chinensis, and 3,8-di-O-methylherbacetin (11, IC₅₀ 8.6 µM), 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylmyricetin (12, IC₅₀ 7.1 µM) and ombuin (15, IC₅₀ 1.7 µM) from Larrea tridentata as the active constituents. Active extracts and compounds were also tested on the closely related cdc2-like kinase CLK1. Finally, the selectivity profile of compounds was evaluated by including other members of the DYRKs and CLKs families. While the flavonoids and emodin did not show significant differences in the potency of their activities, harmine (1) was most active against DYRK1A, CLK1, and CLK4, and less potent against the other kinases, with selectivity ranging from 2- to 20-fold.

  20. Cinnamon and its Components Suppress Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Up-Regulating Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeeun; Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Gu, Min Jung; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark has been used in traditional herbal medicine to treat a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the antiproliferative effect of cinnamon extract on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the corresponding restenosis has not been explored. Hence, after examining the effect of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation, we investigated the possible involvement of signal transduction pathways associated with early signal and cell cycle analysis, including regulatory proteins. Besides, to identify the active components, we investigated the components of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation. Cinnamon extract inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and suppressed the PDGF-stimulated early signal transduction. In addition, cinnamon extract arrested the cell cycle and inhibited positive regulatory proteins. Correspondingly, the protein levels of p21 and p27 not only were increased in the presence of cinnamon extract, also the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was inhibited by cinnamon extract. Besides, among the components of cinnamon extract, cinnamic acid (CA), eugenol (EG) and cinnamyl alcohol significantly inhibited the VSMC proliferation. Overall, the present study demonstrates that cinnamon extract inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs through a G0/G1 arrest, which down-regulated the expression of cell cycle positive regulatory proteins by up-regulating p21 and p27 expression.

  1. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Safi, Mazen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 ) to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157). Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24453392

  2. Use of asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control columnaris in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, P; Phumkhachorn, P

    2010-03-01

    To develop antibiotic-free and chemical-free aquaculture, it is necessary to have natural substances to control diseases of aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to find an herb having therapeutic effect against columnaris, a fish disease caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Of all tested herbs (including kalmegh Andrographis paniculata, candle bush Cassia alata, Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica, mangosteen Garcinia mangostana, pomegranate Punica granatum, and guava Psidium guajava), the aqueous extract of Asiatic pennywort exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against F. columnare; the minimal inhibitory concentration was 31.25 lg/mL. It was also found to have a bactericidal effect on F. columnare. When experimental bath exposures of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to F. columnare were performed, the median lethal dose was determined to be 2.37 x 10(5) colony forming units/mL. For in vivo trials, six different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) of Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract were used as bath treatments to control experimentally induced columnaris in Nile tilapia. The decrease in fish mortality was dose dependent, and at a concentration of 100 mg/L no mortality or adverse effects were noted in the infected fish. This study suggests that Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract has the potential to control disease caused by F. columnare.

  3. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  4. Fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of essential oils against the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

    2014-05-30

    The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-,2,6-octadienal, (Z)-3,7-dimethyl,2 ,6-octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2-propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr posttreatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus.

  5. Fumigant, Contact, and Repellent Activities of Essential Oils Against the Darkling Beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

    2014-01-01

    The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)- cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7- dimethyl-,2,6- octadienal, (Z)-3,7- dimethyl- ,2 ,6- octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2- propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr post-treatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus. PMID:25373222

  6. Activity of essential oil-based microemulsions against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms developed on stainless steel surface in different culture media and growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Raffaella, Campana; Casettari, Luca; Fagioli, Laura; Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Baffone, Wally

    2017-01-16

    Food safety is a fundamental concern for both consumers and the food industry, especially as the numbers of reported cases of food-associated infections continue to increase. Industrial surfaces can provide a suitable substrate for the development and persistence of bacterial organized in biofilms that represent a potential source of food contamination. The negative consumer perception of chemical disinfectants has shifted the attention to natural substances, such as plant extracts. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the essential oils (EOs) in the fight against S. aureus biofilms. First, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), Minimum Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration (MBIC), Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) of eleven EOs against S. aureus were determined. Cinnamomum cassia and Salvia officinalis EOs showed the greatest antibacterial properties with 1.25% MIC and MBC, 1.25% MBIC and 2.5% MBEC respectively. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed cinnamaldehyde (82.66%) and methoxy cinnamaldehyde (10.12%) as the most abundant substances of C. cassia, while cis-thujone (23.90%), camphor (19.22%) and 1.8-cineole (10.62%) of S. officinalis. Three different microemulsions, formulated with C. cassia, S. officinalis or both, were finally tested against S. aureus biofilms in different culture media and growth conditions, causing a >3 logarithmic reductions in S. aureus 24h-old biofilms and desiccated biofilms, and up to 68% of biofilm removal after 90min of exposure. The obtained data suggest the potential use of EOs, alone or in combination, for the formulation of sanitizers as alternative or in support in the disinfection of contaminated surfaces.

  7. Antiplasmodial potential of medicinal plant extracts from Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Sahal, Dinkar

    2012-08-01

    The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials. The present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinal plants from the Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India against blood stage CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Sorbitol-synchronized parasites were incubated under normal culture conditions at 2% hematocrit and 1% parasitemia in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of plant extracts. CQ and artemisinin were used as positive controls, while 0.4% DMSO was used as the negative control. The cytotoxic effects of extracts on host cells were assessed by functional assay using HeLa cells cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.21% sodium bicarbonate and 50 μg/mL gentamycin (complete medium). Plant extracts (bark methanol extracts of Annona squamosa (IC(50), 30 μg/mL), leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (IC(50), 32 μg/mL), Ocimum tenuiflorum (IC(50), 31 μg/mL), Solanum torvum (IC(50), 31 μg/mL) and Justicia procumbens (IC(50), 63 μg/mL), showed moderate activity. The leaf extracts of Aristolochia indica (IC(50), 10 μg/mL), Cassia auriculata (IC(50), 14 μg/mL), Chrysanthemum indicum (IC(50), 20 μg/mL) and Dolichos biflorus (IC(50), 20 μg/mL) showed promising activity and low activity was observed in the flower methanol extracts of A. indica , leaf methanol extract of Catharanthus roseus, and Gymnema sylvestre (IC(50), >100 μg/mL). These four extracts exhibited promising IC(50) (μg/mL) of 17, 24, 19 and 24 respectively also against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. The high TC(50) in mammalian cell cytotoxicity assay and

  8. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  9. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  10. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of Indian bay leaf, Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. -Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm using rat brain synaptosomes as model system.

    PubMed

    Devi, S Lakshmi; Kannappan, S; Anuradha, C V

    2007-09-01

    The study investigated the perturbation of oxidant-antioxidant balance in brain synaptosomes of diabetic rats and determined the antioxidant and free radical-scavenging property of the Indian bay leaf. Brain synaptosomes were isolated from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals and oxidative stress parameters were assayed. A methanolic extract of bay leaf (BLE) was tested for the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity by in vitro assays. A significant increase in the levels of lipids and lipid peroxidation products and a decline in antioxidant potential were observed in diabetic rat brain synaptosomes. The total polyphenolic content of BLE was found to be 6.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g. BLE displayed scavenging activity against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, BLE showed inhibition of Fe(2+)-ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation in both control and diabetic rat brain synaptosomes. Maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation, radical scavenging action and reducing power of BLE were observed at a concentration of 220 microg GAE. These effects of BLE in vitro were comparable with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), a synthetic antioxidant. It can be concluded that synaptosomes from diabetic rats are susceptible to oxidative damage and the positive effects of bay leaf in vitro, could be attributed to the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals.

  11. Extractant composition

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Jarvihen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes an organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. It comprises: primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoly-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of spice extracts on the shelf life extension of raw chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Radha krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sasikala, M; Sabina, K; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2014-02-03

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of different spice extracts in raw chicken meat during storage for 15 days at 4 °C were studied. Raw chicken meat was treated with BHT (positive control), Syzygium aromaticum (SA), Cinnmomum cassia (CC), Origanum vulgare (OV), and Brassica nigra (BN) extracts and the different combinations as well as the results were compared to raw chicken meat without any additive (negative control). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of spice extracts were determined. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were ranged from 14.09 ± 0.78 to 24.65 ± 0.83 mg of GAE/g and 7.07 ± 0.15 to 12.13 ± 0.24 mg of quercetin/g, respectively. The pH, instrumental color (CIE L*, a*, b*), total viable counts (TVC), Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, Pseudomonas spp. counts and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined at a gap of 3 days interval for a period of 15 days. The bacterial counts of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lower than control samples during storage. T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples maintained significantly (P<0.05) higher L*, a* and b* values while storing. The TBARS values of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lowest among the samples. These results show that spice extracts are very effective against microbial growth, lipid oxidation and has potential as a natural antioxidant in raw chicken meats.

  13. Antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of eleven edible plants.

    PubMed

    Boğa, Mehmet; Hacıbekiroğlu, Işıl; Kolak, Ufuk

    2011-03-01

    Consumers have become more interested in beneficial effects of vegetables, fruits, and tea to protect their health. The antioxidant potential and anticholinesterase activity of eleven edible plants were investigated. The dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts prepared from celery [Apium graveolens L. (Umbelliferae)], Jerusalem artichoke [Helianthus tuberosus L. (Compositae)], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L. (Chenopodiaceae)], chard [Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae)], purslane [Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae)], ispit, or bo