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Sample records for cinnamon bark extract

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cinnamon Bark, Honey, and Their Combination Effects against Acne-Causing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Julianti, Elin; Rajah, Kasturi K.; Fidrianny, Irda

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were attained using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction between cinnamon bark extract and honey was determined using a checkerboards method. The results showed that the MICs of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while those against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of cinnamon bark extract against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis showed additive activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of 0.625. Therefore, the combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey has potential activity against acne-causing bacteria. PMID:28398231

  2. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic action of Cinnamomi Cassiae (Cinnamon bark) extract in C57BL/Ks db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hee; Choung, Se Young

    2010-02-01

    In previous study, the anti-diabetic effect of Cinnamomi Cassiae extract (Cinnamon bark: Lauraceae) in a type II diabetic animal model (C57BIKsj db/db) has been reported. To explore their mechanism of action, in present study, the effect of cinnamon extract on anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hyperlipidemia was evaluated by measuring the blood glucose levels, serum insulin, and adiponectin levels, serum and hepatic lipids, PPARalpha mRNA expression in liver and PPARgamma mRNA expression in adipose tissue, respectively. Male C57BIKs db/db mice were divided into a diabetic group and cinnamon extract treated group and examined for a period of 12 weeks (200 mg/kg, p.o). The fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2 h blood glucose levels in the cinnamon treated group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.01), whereas the serum insulin and adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the cinnamon treated group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The serum lipids and hepatic lipids were improved in the cinnamon administered group. Also the PPARalpha mRNA (liver) and PPARgamma mRNA (adipose tissue) expression levels were increased significantly in the cinnamon treated group (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that cinnamon extract significantly increases insulin sensitivity, reduces serum, and hepatic lipids, and improves hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia possibly by regulating the PPAR-medicated glucose and lipid metabolism.

  3. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  4. Cinnamon Bark, Water Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-14

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 6...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the...Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Paul Crawford, MD Clinical Investigation

  5. Hypoglycemic activities of A- and B-type procyanidin oligomer-rich extracts from different Cinnamon barks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaolian; Jia, Qi; Wang, Rui; Wu, Ximin; Wu, Yingchun; Huang, Caiguo; Li, Yiming

    2011-02-15

    Procyanidin oligomers in Cinnamon are thought to be responsible for the biological activity in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To clarify types of procyanidin oligomers in different Cinnamon species and investigate their different effects, the present study investigated procyanidin oligomers in polyphenolic oligomer-rich extracts of three Cinnamon samples by LC-MS methods, and their hypoglycemic activities were detected in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that two of the three samples from Cinnamomum cassia were rich in B-type procyanidin oligomers, and the other sample was rich in A-type procyanidin oligomers. The Cinnamon extracts were administered at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt. in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice for 14 days. The results showed that blood glucose concentrations were significantly decreased in all Cinnamon extract groups compared with the control group (p<0.05). Administration of the Cinnamon extracts significantly increased the consumption of extracellular glucose in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and normal HepG2 cells compared with the control group. These results suggest that both A- and B-type procyanidin oligomers in different Cinnamon species have hypoglycemic activities and may improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 DM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Cinnamon bark proanthocyanidins as reactive carbonyl scavengers to prevent the formation of advanced glycation endproducts.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaofang; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Ma, Jinyu; Chen, Bo; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lo, Clive; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2008-03-26

    Cinnamon bark has been reported to be effective in the alleviation of diabetes through its antioxidant and insulin-potentiating activities. In this study, the inhibitory effect of cinnamon bark on the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) was investigated in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose model. Several phenolic compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2, and phenol polymers were identified from the subfractions of aqueous cinnamon extract. These compounds showed significant inhibitory effects on the formation of AGEs. Their antiglycation activities were not only brought about by their antioxidant activities but also related to their trapping abilities of reactive carbonyl species such as methylglyoxal (MGO), an intermediate reactive carbonyl of AGE formation. Preliminary study on the reaction between MGO and procyanidin B2 revealed that MGO-procyanidin B2 adducts are primary products which are supposed to be stereoisomers. This is the first report that proanthocyanidins can effectively scavenge reactive carbonyl species and thus inhibit the formation of AGEs. As proanthocyanidins behave in a similar fashion as aminoguanidine (AG), the first AGE inhibitor explored in clinical trials, they show great potential to be developed as agents to alleviate diabetic complications.

  7. Inhibitory activity of cinnamon bark species and their combination effect with acarbose against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Lerdsuwankij, Orathai; Poputtachai, Ubonwan; Minipun, Aukkrapon; Suparpprom, Chaturong

    2011-06-01

    Inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase is one of the therapeutic approaches for delaying carbohydrate digestion, resulting in reduced postprandial glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical analysis and the inhibitory effect of various cinnamon bark species against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The results showed that the content of total phenolic, flavonoid, and condensed tannin ranged from 0.17 to 0.21 g gallic acid equivalent/g extract, from 48.85 to 65.52 mg quercetin equivalent/g extract, and from 0.12 to 0.15 g catechin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The HPLC fingerprints of each cinnamon species were established. Among cinnamon species, Thai cinnamon extract was the most potent inhibitor against the intestinal maltase with the IC(50) values of 0.58 ± 0.01 mg/ml. The findings also showed that Ceylon cinnamon was the most effective intestinal sucrase and pancreatic α-amylase inhibitor with the IC(50) values of 0.42 ± 0.02 and 1.23 ± 0.02 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, cinnamon extracts produced additive inhibition against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase when combined with acarbose. These results suggest that cinnamon bark extracts may be potentially useful for the control of postprandial glucose in diabetic patients through inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.

  8. Pegagan and cinnamon bark flours as a feed supplement for quail growth rate (Coturnix coturnix)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falasifah; Sunarno, Sunarno; Djaelani, Muhammad Anwar; Rahadian, Rully

    2018-05-01

    Quail (Coturnix coturnix) is one of the poultry that developed continuously to meet the needs of animal protein as well as to improve the quality of public health. Aside from meat, quail also produces egg productively. Meanwhile, excessive consumption of quail eggs is known to cause the health problem. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp) and (Centella asiatica) are believed to improve health quality but has not known their impact on quail especially on its growth rate. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of cinnamon bark flour and Pegagan leaf to the growth rate of Australia quail. This study used experimental design consisted of 8 treatments with 4 replications, i.e., controls, feeds supplemented with cinnamon bark flour 5%, 10%, pegagan 5%, 10%, cinnamon bark flour: pegagan leaf powder, among others 5 %: 5%, 5%: 10%, and 10%: 5%. The results showed that the combination of cinnamon bark flour: pegagan flour: 5%: 10% produced the highest growth rate of quail. To conclude, the combination of cinnamon bark flour: pegagan with concentration 5%: 10% could increase the growth rate of quail.

  9. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose

  10. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  11. Anti-diabetic effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hee; Hyun, Sun Hee; Choung, Se Young

    2006-03-08

    The anti-diabetic effect of Cinnamomi cassiae extract (Cinnamon bark: Lauraceae) in a type II diabetic animal model (C57BIKsj db/db) was studied. Cinnamon extract was administered at different dosages (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. It was found that blood glucose concentration is significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.001) with the most in the 200 mg/kg group compared with the control. In addition, serum insulin levels and HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) and the concentration of triglyceride, total cholesterol and intestinal alpha-glycosidase activity were significantly lower after 6 weeks of the administration. These results suggest that cinnamon extract has a regulatory role in blood glucose level and lipids and it may also exert a blood glucose-suppressing effect by improving insulin sensitivity or slowing absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine.

  12. Antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract (cinnamomum burmannii) and its application as a mouthwash to inhibit streptococcus growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waty, Syahdiana; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Cinnamon bark has been commonly used as spicy and traditional medicine. It contains several antibacterial compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, and cinnamaldehyde. Several studies have been done to know the antibacterial effect on bacteria such as Streptococcus in vitro. This study aimed to examine the antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract against Streptococcus and its application as mouthwash to inhibit the bacteria. The cinnamon bark was macerated followed by extracted in 80% ethanol. Bacterial samples were isolated from dental plaque of patients visiting dental clinic drg. Syahdiana Waty in Medan, North Sumatra. The isolates were identified using Vitek 2 compact. Secondary metabolites were detected using previously described method. Antibacterial assay was done at extract concentration of 6.25%, 12.5%, and 25%. The result showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and glycoside were detected in the extract. Nine bacterial species were identified as Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius, S. pluranimalium, S. pneumoniae, S. alactolyticus, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, and Spingomonas paucimolis. It showed that the extract of Cinnamon bark significantly inhibited Streptococcus growth, and it was effective as mouthwash.

  13. Cinnamon

    MedlinePlus

    ... cinnamon marketed in Italy: a natural chemical hazard? Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. 2008;25(11):1297-1305. Wainstein J, Stern N, Heller S, et al. ... Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011;14(12):1505-1510. Woehrlin F, Fry ...

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activities of cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene against Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Sleha, Radek; Mosio, Petra; Vydrzalova, Marketa; Jantovska, Alexandra; Bostikova, Vanda; Mazurova, Jaroslava

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of five natural substances against 50 clinical isolates of Mycoplasma hominis. The in vitro activity of selected natural compounds, cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene, was investigated against 50 M. hominis isolates cultivated from cervical swabs by the broth dilution method. All showed valuable antimicrobial activity against the tested isolates. Oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (MBC90 = 500 µg/mL) however was found to be the most effective. Carvacrol (MBC90 = 600 µg/mL) and eugenol (MBC90 = 1000 µg/mL) also possessed strong antimycoplasmal activity. The results indicate that cinnamon bark oil, carvacrol and eugenol have strong antimycoplasmal activity and the potential for use as antimicrobial agents in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections.

  15. Comparison of Cinnamon Essential Oils from Leaf and Bark with Respect to Antimicrobial Activity and Sensory Acceptability in Strawberry Shake.

    PubMed

    Brnawi, Wafaa I; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Horax, Ronny; Kumar-Phillips, Geetha; Seo, Han-Seok; Marcy, John

    2018-02-01

    Cinnamon leaf and bark essential oils have long been used as natural preservatives and flavoring agents in foods. This study determined antimicrobial effects of leaf and bark of cinnamon essential oils (CEOs) against 2 foodborne pathogens, Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.) and Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), at 2 initial bacterial levels (4- and 9-log CFU/mL) in strawberry shakes. The antimicrobial study of CEOs at 0.1% and 0.5% in strawberry shakes against S.T. and L.M. showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in log reductions of both bacterial growth at low (4-log CFU/mL) and high (9-log CFU/mL) initial bacterial levels. Addition of 0.5% CEOs into strawberry shakes at 4 °C completely inhibited both bacteria after a period of 8 d storage. Shelf-life study showed that acidity and total solid content were not affected during storage. The strawberry shakes containing bark CEO had higher ratings of sensory acceptability compared to leaf CEO, with or without the addition of 1% masking agent. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CEO derived from bark was better than that from leaf in terms of their antimicrobial activity and sensory aspect. This study demonstrates that essential oils derived from cinnamon bark and leaf have the potential to be used as natural antimicrobial ingredient in milk beverages with respect to sensory aspect. This finding promotes the acceptance of natural antimicrobials among consumers, while providing enhanced safer products to the food industry application. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark essential oil on the halitosis-associated bacterium Solobacterium moorei and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    LeBel, Geneviève; Haas, Bruno; Adam, Andrée-Ann; Veilleux, Marie-Pier; Lagha, Amel Ben; Grenier, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Halitosis, also known as bad breath or oral malodour, is a condition affecting a large proportion of the population. Solobacterium moorei is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that has been specifically associated with halitosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of essential oils, more particularly cinnamon bark oil, on growth, biofilm formation, eradication and killing, as well as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) production by S. moorei. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils. Biofilm formation was assessed by a crystal violet staining assay and scanning electron microscopy. The biofilm of S. moorei was characterized by enzymatic treatments. Biofilm killing was determined by a luminescence assay monitoring ATP production. H 2 S production was quantified with a colorimetric assay. The biocompatibility of cinnamon oil was investigated using a gingival keratinocyte cell line. Among the ten essential oils tested, cinnamon oil was found to be the most powerful against S. moorei with MIC and MBC values of 0.039% and 0.156%, respectively. The biofilm formed by S. moorei was then characterized. The fact that DNase I and to a lesser extent proteinase K significantly reduced biofilm formation by S. moorei and induced its eradication suggests that the extracellular matrix of S. moorei biofilm may be mainly containing a DNA backbone associated with proteins. At concentrations below the MIC, cinnamon oil reduced S. moorei biofilm formation that resulted from an attenuation of bacterial growth. It was also found that treatment of a pre-formed biofilm of S. moorei with cinnamon oil significantly decreased its viability although it did not cause its eradication. Cinnamon oil had an inhibitory effect on the production of H 2 S by S. moorei. Lastly, it was found that at concentrations effective against S. moorei, no significant loss of viability in gingival keratinocytes occurred after a 1-h exposure. Our study brought

  17. The effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on heart function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise in male rats.

    PubMed

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab

    2014-12-01

    Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (P<0.05). Both regular training and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, pre-treatment with cinnamon extract and/or regular training significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (P<0.01). Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  18. Whole cinnamon and aqueous extracts ameliorate sucrose-induced blood pressure elevations in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Polansky, Marilyn M; Anderson, Richard

    2006-04-01

    Many agents (nutrients, nutraceuticals, and drugs) that enhance insulin sensitivity and/or reduce circulating insulin concentrations lower blood pressure (BP). Recently, it was reported that cinnamon has the potential to favorably influence the glucose/insulin system. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary cinnamon on systolic BP (SBP), and various glucose- and insulin-related parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In a series of three experiments, treated SHR eating sucrose and non sucrose containing diets were given various amounts of cinnamon, cinnamon extracts, or chromium. Then various parameters such as: body weight, systolic blood pressure, hematology and blood chemistries were followed for three to four weeks. Diets high in sucrose content are associated with insulin resistance and the elevation of SBP. Addition to diets of cinnamon (8% w/w) reduced the SBP of rats eating sucrose containing diets to virtually the same levels as SHR consuming non sucrose containing (only starch) diets. The presence of cinnamon in the diet also decreased the SBP of SHR consuming a non sucrose-containing diet, suggesting that cinnamon reduces more than just sucrose-induced SBP elevations--perhaps a genetic component(s) of the elevated BP as well. The effects of cinnamon on SBP tended to be dose-dependent. Cinnamon did not decrease the levels of blood glucose, but did lower circulating insulin concentrations. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon also decreased SBP and lowered the circulating levels of fructosamine. Cinnamon is used for flavor and taste in food preparation, but cinnamon may have additional roles in glucose metabolism and BP regulation. Therefore, BP regulation may not only be influenced favorably by limiting the amounts of dietary substances that have negative effects on BP and insulin function but also by the addition of beneficial ones, such as cinnamon, that have positive effects.

  19. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul A; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-09-01

    Cinnamon, the dry bark and twig of Cinnamomum spp., is a rich botanical source of polyphenolics that has been used for centuries in Chinese medicine and has been shown to affect blood glucose and insulin signaling. Cinnamon's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies; however, the issue of cinnamon intake's effect on fasting blood glucose (FBG) in people with type 2 diabetes and/or prediabetes still remains unclear. A meta-analysis of clinical studies of the effect of cinnamon intake on people with type 2 diabetes and/or prediabetes that included three new clinical trials along with five trials used in previous meta-analyses was done to assess cinnamon's effectiveness in lowering FBG. The eight clinical studies were identified using a literature search (Pub Med and Biosis through May 2010) of randomized, placebo-controlled trials reporting data on cinnamon and/or cinnamon extract and FBG. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA) was performed on the identified data for both cinnamon and cinnamon extract intake using a random-effects model that determined the standardized mean difference ([i.e., Change 1(control) - Change 2(cinnamon)] divided by the pooled SD of the post scores). Cinnamon intake, either as whole cinnamon or as cinnamon extract, results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG (-0.49±0.2 mmol/L; n=8, P=.025) and intake of cinnamon extract only also lowered FBG (-0.48 mmol/L±0.17; n=5, P=.008). Thus cinnamon extract and/or cinnamon improves FBG in people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes.

  20. Cinnamon polyphenol extract regulates tristetraprolin and related gene expression in mouse adipocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been widely used in spices, flavoring agents, and preservatives. Cinnamon polyphenol extract (CPE) may be important in the alleviation of chronic diseases, but the molecular evidence is not substantial. Tristetraprolin (TTP) family proteins have anti-inflammatory ef...

  1. Cinnamon extract suppresses experimental colitis through modulation of antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Hwang, Ji-Sun; Lee, Choong-Gu; So, Jae-Seon; Sahoo, Anupama; Im, Chang-Rok; Jeon, Won Kyung; Ko, Byoung Seob; Lee, Sung Haeng; Park, Zee Yong; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2011-02-28

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamon extract and elucidate its mechanisms for targeting the function of antigen presenting cells. Cinnamon extract was used to treat murine macrophage cell line (Raw 264.7), mouse primary antigen-presenting cells (APCs, MHCII(+)) and CD11c(+) dendritic cells to analyze the effects of cinnamon extract on APC function. The mechanisms of action of cinnamon extract on APCs were investigated by analyzing cytokine production, and expression of MHC antigens and co-stimulatory molecules by quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry. In addition, the effect of cinnamon extract on antigen presentation capacity and APC-dependent T-cell differentiation were analyzed by [H(3)]-thymidine incorporation and cytokine analysis, respectively. To confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamon extract in vivo, cinnamon or PBS was orally administered to mice for 20 d followed by induction of experimental colitis with 2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. The protective effects of cinnamon extract against experimental colitis were measured by checking clinical symptoms, histological analysis and cytokine expression profiles in inflamed tissue. Treatment with cinnamon extract inhibited maturation of MHCII(+) APCs or CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) by suppressing expression of co-stimulatory molecules (B7.1, B7.2, ICOS-L), MHCII and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Cinnamon extract induced regulatory DCs (rDCs) that produce low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] while expressing high levels of immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β). In addition, rDCs generated by cinnamon extract inhibited APC-dependent T-cell proliferation, and converted CD4(+) T cells into IL-10(high) CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, oral administration of cinnamon extract inhibited development and progression of intestinal colitis by inhibiting expression

  2. A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Maurya, Sumitra; DeLampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2007-09-01

    The antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial potentials of volatile oils and oleoresin of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (leaf and bark) were investigated in the present study. The oleoresins have shown excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products in mustard oil added at the concentration of 0.02% which were evaluated using peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, p-anisidine and carbonyl values. Moreover, it was further supported by other complementary antioxidant assays such as ferric thiocyanate method in linoleic acid system, reducing power, chelating and scavenging effects on 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. In antimicrobial investigations, using inverted petriplate and food poison techniques, the leaf and bark volatile oils has been found to be highly effective against all the tested fungi except Aspergillus ochraceus. However, leaf oleoresin has shown inhibition only for Penicillium citrinum whereas bark oleoresin has caused complete mycelial zone inhibition for Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus along with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, P. citrinum and Penicillium viridicatum at 6 microL. Using agar well diffusion method, leaf volatile oil and oleoresin have shown better results in comparison with bark volatile oil, oleoresin and commercial bactericide, i.e., ampicillin. Gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy studies on leaf volatile oil and oleoresin resulted in the identification of 19 and 25 components, which accounts for the 99.4% and 97.1%, respectively of the total amount and the major component was eugenol with 87.3% and 87.2%, respectively. The analysis of cinnamon bark volatile oil showed the presence of 13 components accounting for 100% of the total amount. (E)-cinnamaldehyde was found as the major component along with delta-cadinene (0.9%), whereas its bark oleoresin showed the presence of 17 components accounting for 92.3% of the total amount. The major components were (E

  3. Antioxidant capacity of cinnamon extract for palm oil stability.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad Zia; Saima, Hafiza; Yasmin, Adeela; Nadeem, Muhammad Tahir; Imran, Muhammad; Afzaal, Muhammad

    2018-05-16

    Spices and their bioactive components are more promising attractions for their inclusion in diet-based regimes to improve human health. These are sources of natural antioxidants and play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases and aging. The aim of the current study was to explore the antioxidant potential of cinnamon; a widely used spice throughout the world. The current research was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of cinnamon extract. For the purpose, cinnamon sticks were procured from local super market, while palm oil was obtained from local oil industry. The resultant extract was analyzed for its antioxidant activity through total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay), and total antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) test. The shelf life of palm oil was checked by adding cinnamon extract in oil at different levels i.e. , 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25%, to compare the antioxidant potential of the extract whereas, T o acted as control and T BHA @ 0.1% was used as synthetic antioxidant in the oil samples. The oil samples were analyzed for rancidity check during storage (after every seven days for a storage period of four weeks). The results indicated that total phenolic contents (TPC); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values of cinnamon extract were as 355.01 ± 8.34 gallic acid equivalent per gram (mg GAE/g), 90.18 ± 2.12 (%) and 132.82 ± 3.12 (μmol/g), respectively. The oxidative parameters for treatments i.e., T o , T BHA , T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 were recorded as peroxide value (2.61 ± 0.07, 2.42 ± 0.08, 2.57 ± 0.05, 2.56 ± 0.03, 2.54 ± 0.02, 2.54 ± 0.01, 2.46 ± 0.06 meq/kg, respectively), free fatty acids (0.601 ± 0.05, 0.522 ± 0.02, 0.580 ± 0.07, 0.572 ± 0.03, 0.56 ± 00.07, 0.552 ± 0.03, 0.536 ± 0.05%, respectively), TBA

  4. The evaluation of long-term effects of cinnamon bark and olive leaf on toxicity induced by streptozotocin administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Onderoglu, S; Sozer, S; Erbil, K M; Ortac, R; Lermioglu, F

    1999-11-01

    The effects of cinnamon bark and olive leaf have been investigated on streptozotocin-induced tissue injury, and some biochemical and haematological changes in rats. The effects on glycaemia were also evaluated. Long-term administration of olive leaf caused significant improvement in tissue injury induced by streptozotocin treatment; the effect of cinnamon bark was less extent. No effects on blood glucose levels were detected. However, significant decreases in some increased biochemical and haematological parameters of streptozotocin-treated rats were observed. Aspartate aminotransferase, urea and cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by treatment with both plant materials, and alanine aminotransferase by treatment with olive leaf. Cinnamon bark also caused a significant decrease in platelet counts. In addition, any visible toxicity, except decrease in body weight gain, attributable to the long-term use of plant materials was not established in normal rats. The data indicate that long-term use of olive leaf and cinnamon bark may provide benefit against diabetic conditions. Determination of underlying mechanism(s) of beneficial effects, toxicity to other systems and clinical assessments of related plant materials are major topics requiring further studies.

  5. Cinnamon extract ameliorates ionizing radiation-induced cellular injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Azab, Khaled Sh; Mostafa, Abdel-Halem A; Ali, Ehab M M; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed A S

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of cinnamon extract against inflammatory and oxidative injuries in gamma irradiated rats. Rats were subjected to fractionated doses of gamma radiation. Cinnamon extract were daily administrated before starting irradiation and continued after radiation exposure. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cinnamon extract to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in liver antioxidant system; catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. The liver's lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation indices were significantly decreased when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. Furthermore, the changes induces in xanthine oxidoreductase system were significantly diminished. In addition, the changes in liver nitric oxide contents, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and C-reactive protein levels were markedly improved. In conclusion, the administration of cinnamon extract might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced oxidative and inflammatory damages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of aqueous cinnamon extract and cinnamon polyphenol-enhanced food matrix

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Diana M.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet-induced obese hyperglycemic mice at 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. To determine mechanisms of action, rat hepatoma cells were treated with CE and eluates of CDSF at a range of 1–25 µg/ml. CE and eluates of CDSF demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic glucose production with significant levels of inhibition at 25 µg/ml. Furthermore, CE decreased the gene expression of two major regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The hypoglycemic and insulin-like effects of CE and CDSF may help to ameliorate type 2 diabetes conditions. PMID:22980902

  7. In vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of aqueous cinnamon extract and cinnamon polyphenol-enhanced food matrix.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Diana M; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Rojo, Leonel E; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-12-15

    Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet induced obese hyperglycemic mice at 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. To determine mechanisms of action, rat hepatoma cells were treated with CE and eluates of CDSF at a range of 1-25 μg/ml. CE and eluates of CDSF demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic glucose production with significant levels of inhibition at 25 μg/ml. Furthermore, CE decreased the gene expression of two major regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The hypoglycemic and insulin-like effects of CE and CDSF may help to ameliorate type 2 diabetes conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An aqueous extract of Ceylon cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was found to inhibit tau aggregation and filament formation, hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in vitro using brain cells taken from patients who died with AD. The extract also promoted complete disassembly of recombinant tau filaments, and ...

  9. Cinnamon polyphenol extract exerts neuroprotective activity in traumatic brain injury through modulation of Nfr2 and cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Yulug, Burak; Kilic, Ertugrul; Altunay, Serdar; Ersavas, Cenk; Orhan, Cemal; Dalay, Arman; Sahin, Nurhan; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Juturu, Vijaya; Sahin, Kazim

    2018-04-30

    Cinnamon cinnamon polyphenol extract is a traditional spice commonly used in different areas of the world for treatment of different disease conditions which are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Despite many preclinical studies showing the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of CN, the underlying mechanisms in signaling pathways via which cinnamon protects the brain after brain trauma remained largely unknown. However, there is still no preclinical study delineating the possible molecular mechanism of neuroprotective effects cinnamon polyphenol extractin TBI.The primary aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that cinnamon polyphenol extract administration would improve the histopathological outcomes and exert neuroprotective activity through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties following TBI. To investigate the effects of cinnamon, we induced brain injury using a cold trauma model in mice that were treated with cinnamon polyphenol extract (10 mg/kg BW) or vehicle via intraperitoneal administration just after TBI. Mice were divided into two groups: TBI+vehicle group and TBI + cinnamon polyphenol extract group. Brain samples were collected 24 h later for analysis. We have shown that cinnamon polyphenol extract effectively reduced infarct and edema formation which were associated with significant alterations in inflammatory and oxidative parameters, including NF-κB, IL-1, IL-6, GFAP, NCAM and Nfr2 expressions. Our results identify an important neuroprotective role of cinnamon polyphenol extract in TBI which is mediated by its capability to suppress the inflammation and oxidative injury. Further, specially designed experimental studies to understand the molecular cross-talk between signaling pathways would provide valuable evidence for the therapeutic role of cinnamon in TBI and other TBI related conditions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Additivity vs Synergism: Investigation of the Additive Interaction of Cinnamon Bark Oil and Meropenem in Combinatory Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun-Kai; Yusoff, Khatijah; Mai, Chun-Wai; Lim, Wei-Meng; Yap, Wai-Sum; Lim, Swee-Hua Erin; Lai, Kok-Song

    2017-11-04

    Combinatory therapies have been commonly applied in the clinical setting to tackle multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and these have frequently proven to be effective. Specifically, combinatory therapies resulting in synergistic interactions between antibiotics and adjuvant have been the main focus due to their effectiveness, sidelining the effects of additivity, which also lowers the minimal effective dosage of either antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was undertaken to look at the effects of additivity between essential oils and antibiotic, via the use of cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and meropenem as a model for additivity. Comparisons between synergistic and additive interaction of CBO were performed in terms of the ability of CBO to disrupt bacterial membrane, via zeta potential measurement, outer membrane permeability assay and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the additivity interaction between CBO and meropenem showed similar membrane disruption ability when compared to those synergistic combinations which was previously reported. Hence, results based on our studies strongly suggest that additive interaction acts on a par with synergistic interaction. Therefore, further investigation in additive interaction between antibiotics and adjuvant should be performed for a more in depth understanding of the mechanism and the impacts of such interaction.

  11. Cinnamon Extract Improves TNF-a Induced Overproduction of Intestinal ApolipoproteinB-48 Lipoproteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TNF-alpha stimulates the overproduction of intestinal apolipoproteins. We evaluated whether a water extract of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) improved the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339 treated hamsters, and whether Cinnulin PF® inhibits the TNF-alpha-induced over the secretion of apoB...

  12. Preservation Effect of Two-Stage Cinnamon Bark (Cinnamomum Burmanii) Oleoresin Microcapsules On Vacuum-Packed Ground Beef During Refrigerated Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfiana, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules (0%, 0.5% and 1%) on the TPC (Total Plate Count), TBA (thiobarbituric acid), pH, and RGB color (Red, Green, and Blue) of vacuum-packed ground beef during refrigerated storage (at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 days). This study showed that the addition of two stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules affected the quality of vacuum-packed ground beef during 16 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that the TPC value of the vacuum-packed ground beef sample with the addition 0.5% and 1% microcapsules was lower than the value of control sample. The TPC value of the control sample, sample with additional 0.5% and 1% microcapsules were 5.94; 5.46; and 5.16 log CFU/g respectively. The TBA value of vacuum-packed ground beef were 0.055; 0.041; and 0.044 mg malonaldehyde/kg, resepectively on the 16th day of storage. The addition of two-stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules could inhibit the growth of microbia and decrease the oxidation process of vacuum-packed ground beef. Moreover, the change of vacuum-packed ground beef pH and RGB color with the addition 0.5% and 1% microcapsules were less than those of the control sample. The addition of 1% microcapsules showed the best effect in preserving the vacuum-packed ground beef.

  13. Cinnamon Polyphenol Extract Inhibits Hyperlipidemia and Inflammation by Modulation of Transcription Factors in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Tuzcu, Zeynep; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Juturu, Vijaya; Sahin, Kazim

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cinnamon polyphenol extract on hepatic transcription factors expressions including SREBP-1c and LXR- α in rats fed high fat diet (HFD). Twenty-eight Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: (i) normal control: animals fed with normal chow; (ii) cinnamon: animals supplemented with cinnamon polyphenol; (iii) HFD: animals fed a high-fat diet; and (iv) HFD + cinnamon: animals fed a high-fat diet and treated with cinnamon polyphenol. Obesity was linked to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress as imitated by elevated serum glucose, lipid profile, and serum and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Cinnamon polyphenol decreased body weight, visceral fat, liver weight and serum glucose and insulin concentrations, liver antioxidant enzymes, and lipid profile ( P < 0.05) and reduced serum and liver MDA concentration compared to HFD rats ( P < 0.05). Cinnamon polyphenol also suppressed the hepatic SREBP-1c, LXR- α , ACLY, FAS, and NF- κ B p65 expressions and enhanced the PPAR- α , IRS-1, Nrf2, and HO-1 expressions in the HFD rat livers ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, cinnamon polyphenol reduces the hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress through activating transcription factors and antioxidative defense signaling pathway in HFD rat liver.

  14. Cinnamon Polyphenol Extract Inhibits Hyperlipidemia and Inflammation by Modulation of Transcription Factors in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tuzcu, Zeynep; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Juturu, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cinnamon polyphenol extract on hepatic transcription factors expressions including SREBP-1c and LXR-α in rats fed high fat diet (HFD). Twenty-eight Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: (i) normal control: animals fed with normal chow; (ii) cinnamon: animals supplemented with cinnamon polyphenol; (iii) HFD: animals fed a high-fat diet; and (iv) HFD + cinnamon: animals fed a high-fat diet and treated with cinnamon polyphenol. Obesity was linked to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress as imitated by elevated serum glucose, lipid profile, and serum and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Cinnamon polyphenol decreased body weight, visceral fat, liver weight and serum glucose and insulin concentrations, liver antioxidant enzymes, and lipid profile (P < 0.05) and reduced serum and liver MDA concentration compared to HFD rats (P < 0.05). Cinnamon polyphenol also suppressed the hepatic SREBP-1c, LXR-α, ACLY, FAS, and NF-κB p65 expressions and enhanced the PPAR-α, IRS-1, Nrf2, and HO-1 expressions in the HFD rat livers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, cinnamon polyphenol reduces the hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress through activating transcription factors and antioxidative defense signaling pathway in HFD rat liver. PMID:28396714

  15. Effects of a cinnamon extract on plasma glucose, HbA, and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus type 2.

    PubMed

    Mang, B; Wolters, M; Schmitt, B; Kelb, K; Lichtinghagen, R; Stichtenoth, D O; Hahn, A

    2006-05-01

    According to previous studies, cinnamon may have a positive effect on the glycaemic control and the lipid profile in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. The aim of this trial was to determine whether an aqueous cinnamon purified extract improves glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triacylglycerol concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 79 patients with diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 not on insulin therapy but treated with oral antidiabetics or diet were randomly assigned to take either a cinnamon extract or a placebo capsule three times a day for 4 months in a double-blind study. The amount of aqueous cinnamon extract corresponded to 3 g of cinnamon powder per day. The mean absolute and percentage differences between the pre- and post-intervention fasting plasma glucose level of the cinnamon and placebo groups were significantly different. There was a significantly higher reduction in the cinnamon group (10.3%) than in the placebo group (3.4%). No significant intragroup or intergroup differences were observed regarding HbA1c, lipid profiles or differences between the pre- and postintervention levels of these variables. The decrease in plasma glucose correlated significantly with the baseline concentrations, indicating that subjects with a higher initial plasma glucose level may benefit more from cinnamon intake. No adverse effects were observed. The cinnamon extract seems to have a moderate effect in reducing fasting plasma glucose concentrations in diabetic patients with poor glycaemic control.

  16. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Sheng, Hongguang; Wu, Johnna; Cheng, Yuan; Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Yan

    2012-06-01

    For thousands of years, cinnamon has been used as a traditional treatment in China. However, there are no studies to date that investigate whether cinnamon supplements are able to aid in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. We hypothesized cinnamon should be effective in improving blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-blinded clinical study to analyze the effect of cinnamon extract on glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 66 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: placebo and low-dose and high-dose supplementation with cinnamon extract at 120 and 360 mg/d, respectively. Patients in all 3 groups took gliclazide during the entire 3 months of the study. Both hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in patients in the low- and high-dose groups, whereas they were not changed in the placebo group. The blood triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced in the low-dose group. The blood levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver transaminase remained unchanged in the 3 groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that cinnamon supplementation is able to significantly improve blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cinnamon extract (traditional herb) potentiates in vivo insulin-regulated glucose utilization via enhancing insulin signaling in rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bolin; Nagasaki, Masaru; Ren, Ming; Bajotto, Gustavo; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Sato, Yuzo

    2003-12-01

    Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the insulin effect through upregulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the cinnamon extract on the insulin action in awaked rats by the euglycemic clamp and further analyzed possible changes in insulin signaling occurred in skeletal muscle. The rats were divided into saline and cinnamon extract (30 and 300 mg/kg BW-doses: C30 and C300) oral administration groups. After 3-weeks, cinnamon extract treated rats showed a significantly higher glucose infusion rate (GIR) at 3 mU/kg per min insulin infusions compared with controls (118 and 146% of controls for C30 and C300, respectively). At 30 mU/kg per min insulin infusions, the GIR in C300 rats was increased 17% over controls. There were no significant differences in insulin receptor (IR)-beta, IR substrate (IRS)-1, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase protein content between C300 rats and controls. However, the skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated IR-beta and the IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation levels in C300 rats were 18 and 33% higher, respectively, added to 41% higher IRS-1/PI 3-kinase association. These results suggest that the cinnamon extract would improve insulin action via increasing glucose uptake in vivo, at least in part through enhancing the insulin-signaling pathway in skeletal muscle.

  18. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized vanilla cream pudding as affected by storage temperature and the presence of cinnamon extract.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Moschonas, Galatios; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study was the assessment and quantitative description of the growth behavior of Listeria monocytogenes as a function of temperature in vanilla cream pudding, formulated with or without cinnamon extract. Commercially prepared pasteurized vanilla cream pudding, formulated with (0.1% w/w) or without cinnamon extract, was inoculated with a five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes (ca. 2logCFU/g) and stored aerobically at 4, 8, 12 and 16°C. At appropriate time intervals, L. monocytogenes populations were determined, and the primary model of Baranyi and Roberts was fitted to the derived microbiological data for the estimation of the pathogen's growth kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature on maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) was then modeled for each product type using a square-root-type model, and the developed models were validated using independent growth data generated during storage of inoculated vanilla cream samples under dynamic temperature conditions. Although the kinetic behavior of the pathogen was similar in cream with and without cinnamon extract during storage at higher temperatures, significant (P<0.05) differences were observed between the two product types at 4°C. With regard to secondary modelling, the estimated values of T min for cream with and without cinnamon extract were 0.39°C and -2.54°C, respectively, while the dynamic models exhibited satisfactory performance. Finally, as demonstrated by the findings of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, both temperature and cinnamon extract affected the pathogen's strains dominating during storage. According to the collected data, cinnamon extract exhibits an important potential of enhancing the microbiological safety of vanilla cream pudding, provided that efficient temperature control is in place. The developed models should be useful in quantitative microbial risk assessment regarding the studied cream products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Willow bark extract has been used for thousands of years as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic. In spite of its long history of use, relatively few human and animal studies have been published that confirm anecdotal observations. A small number of clinical studies have been conducted that support the use of willow bark extracts in chronic lower back and joint pain and osteoarthritis. Willow bark extracts also are widely used in sports performance and weight loss products presumably because of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, although no human studies have been published that specifically and directly document beneficial effects. In recent years, various in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of willow bark extract is associated with down regulation of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-kappa B. Although willow bark extracts are generally standardized to salicin, other ingredients in the extracts including other salicylates as well as polyphenols, and flavonoids may also play prominent roles in the therapeutic actions. Adverse effects appear to be minimal as compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin. The primary cause for concern may relate to allergic reactions in salicylate-sensitive individuals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cinnamon extract regulates glucose transporter and insulin-signaling gene expression in mouse adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Heping; Graves, Donald J; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    Cinnamon extracts (CE) are reported to have beneficial effects on people with normal and impaired glucose tolerance, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. However, clinical results are controversial. Molecular characterization of CE effects is limited. This study investigated the effects of CE on gene expression in cultured mouse adipocytes. Water-soluble CE was prepared from ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate CE effects on the expression of genes coding for adipokines, glucose transporter (GLUT) family, and insulin-signaling components in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CE (100 μg/ml) increased GLUT1 mRNA levels 1.91±0.15, 4.39±0.78, and 6.98±2.18-fold of the control after 2-, 4-, and 16-h treatments, respectively. CE decreased the expression of further genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins including GSK3B, IGF1R, IGF2R, and PIK3R1. This study indicates that CE regulates the expression of multiple genes in adipocytes and this regulation could contribute to the potential health benefits of CE. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. DNA extraction and amplification from contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials.

  2. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  3. Creatine co-ingestion with carbohydrate or cinnamon extract provides no added benefit to anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Islam, Hashim; Yorgason, Nick J; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-09-01

    The insulin response following carbohydrate ingestion enhances creatine transport into muscle. Cinnamon extract is promoted to have insulin-like effects, therefore this study examined if creatine co-ingestion with carbohydrates or cinnamon extract improved anaerobic capacity, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. Active young males (n = 25; 23.7 ± 2.5 y) were stratified into 3 groups: (1) creatine only (CRE); (2) creatine+ 70 g carbohydrate (CHO); or (3) creatine+ 500 mg cinnamon extract (CIN), based on anaerobic capacity (peak power·kg(-1)) and muscular strength at baseline. Three weeks of supplementation consisted of a 5 d loading phase (20 g/d) and a 16 d maintenance phase (5 g/d). Pre- and post-supplementation measures included a 30-s Wingate and a 30-s maximal running test (on a self-propelled treadmill) for anaerobic capacity. Muscular strength was measured as the one-repetition maximum 1-RM for chest, back, quadriceps, hamstrings, and leg press. Additional sets of the number of repetitions performed at 60% 1-RM until fatigue measured muscular endurance. All three groups significantly improved Wingate relative peak power (CRE: 15.4% P = .004; CHO: 14.6% P = .004; CIN: 15.7%, P = .003), and muscular strength for chest (CRE: 6.6% P < .001; CHO: 6.7% P < .001; CIN: 6.4% P < .001), back (CRE: 5.8% P < .001; CHO: 6.4% P < .001; CIN: 8.1% P < .001), and leg press (CRE: 11.7% P = .013; CHO: 10.0% P = .007; CIN: 17.3% P < .001). Only the CRE (10.4%, P = .021) and CIN (15.5%, P < .001) group improved total muscular endurance. No differences existed between groups post-supplementation. These findings demonstrate that three different methods of creatine ingestion lead to similar changes in anaerobic power, strength, and endurance.

  4. Antioxidant effects of a cinnamon extract in people with impaired fasting glucose that are overweight or obese.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Anne-Marie; Hininger, Isabelle; Benaraba, Rachida; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Anderson, Richard A

    2009-02-01

    To determine the effects of a dried aqueous extract of cinnamon on antioxidant status of people with impaired fasting glucose that are overweight or obese. Twenty-two subjects, with impaired fasting blood glucose with BMI ranging from 25 to 45, were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were given capsules containing either a placebo or 250 mg of an aqueous extract of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF) two times per day for 12 weeks. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography and plasma antioxidant status was evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Erythrocyte Cu-Zn superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD) activity was measured after hemoglobin precipitation by monitoring the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity by established methods. FRAP and plasma thiol (SH) groups increased, while plasma MDA levels decreased in subjects receiving the cinnamon extract. Effects were larger after 12 than 6 weeks. There was also a positive correlation (r = 0.74; p = 0.014) between MDA and plasma glucose. This study supports the hypothesis that the inclusion of water soluble cinnamon compounds in the diet could reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Biological screening of Bangladeshi mango mistletoe bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Islam, R; Khurshid Alam, A H M; Hossain, M A; Mosaddik, M A; Sadik, G

    2004-06-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the Bangladeshi mango mistletoe (Loranthus globosus) bark was found to be most effective against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria and it also showed good cytotoxicity with a LC50 10.83 microg/ml. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  7. Valorisation of softwood bark through extraction of utilizable chemicals. A review.

    PubMed

    Jablonsky, M; Nosalova, J; Sladkova, A; Haz, A; Kreps, F; Valka, J; Miertus, S; Frecer, V; Ondrejovic, M; Sima, J; Surina, I

    2017-11-01

    Softwood bark is an important source for producing chemicals and materials as well as bioenergy. Extraction is regarded as a key technology for obtaining chemicals in general, and valorizing bark as a source of such chemicals in particular. In this paper, properties of 237 compounds identified in various studies dealing with extraction of softwood bark were described. Finally, some challenges and perspectives on the production of chemicals from bark are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cinnamon extract prevents the insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Qin, B; Nagasaki, M; Ren, M; Bajotto, G; Oshida, Y; Sato, Y

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether cinnamon extract (CE) would improve the glucose utilization in normal male Wistar rats fed a high-fructose diet (HFD) for three weeks with or without CE added to the drinking water (300 mg/kg/day). In vivo glucose utilization was measured by the euglycemic clamp technique. Further analyses on the possible changes in insulin signaling occurring in skeletal muscle were performed afterwards by Western blotting. At 3 mU/kg/min insulin infusions, the decreased glucose infusion rate (GIR) in HFD-fed rats (60 % of controls, p < 0.01) was improved by CE administration to the same level of controls (normal chow diet) and the improving effect of CE on the GIR of HFD-fed rats was blocked by approximately 50 % by N-monometyl-L-arginine. The same tendency was found during the 30 mU/kg/min insulin infusions. There were no differences in skeletal muscle insulin receptor (IR)-beta, IR substrate (IRS)-1, or phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase protein content in any groups. However, the muscular insulin-stimulated IR-beta and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation levels and IRS-1 associated with PI 3-kinase in HFD-fed rats were only 70 +/- 9 %, 76 +/- 5 %, and 72 +/- 6 % of controls (p < 0.05), respectively, and these decreases were significantly improved by CE treatment. These results suggest that early CE administration to HFD-fed rats would prevent the development of insulin resistance at least in part by enhancing insulin signaling and possibly via the NO pathway in skeletal muscle.

  9. Trimer procyanidin oligomers contribute to the protective effects of cinnamon extracts on pancreatic β-cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Lu; Yu, Bang-wei; Jia, Qi; Chen, Kai-xian; Fan, Hui-min; Li, Yi-ming; Wang, He-yao

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cinnamon extracts rich in procyanidin oligomers have shown to improve pancreatic β-cell function in diabetic db/db mice. The aim of this study was to identify the active compounds in extracts from two species of cinnamon responsible for the pancreatic β-cell protection in vitro. Methods: Cinnamon extracts were prepared from Cinnamomum tamala (CT-E) and Cinnamomum cassia (CC-E). Six compounds procyanidin B2 (cpd1), (−)-epicatechin (cpd2), cinnamtannin B1 (cpd3), procyanidin C1 (cpd4), parameritannin A1 (cpd5) and cinnamtannin D1 (cpd6) were isolated from the extracts. INS-1 pancreatic β-cells were exposed to palmitic acid (PA) or H2O2 to induce lipotoxicity and oxidative stress. Cell viability and apoptosis as well as ROS levels were assessed. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was examined in PA-treated β-cells and murine islets. Results: CT-E, CC-E as well as the compounds, except cpd5, did not cause cytotoxicity in the β-cells up to the maximum dosage using in this experiment. CT-E and CC-E (12.5–50 μg/mL) dose-dependently increased cell viability in both PA- and H2O2-treated β-cells, and decreased ROS accumulation in H2O2-treated β-cells. CT-E caused more prominent β-cell protection than CC-E. Furthermore, CT-E (25 and 50 μg/mL) dose-dependently increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in PA-treated β-cells and murine islets, but CC-E had little effect. Among the 6 compounds, trimer procyanidins cpd3, cpd4 and cpd6 (12.5–50 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased the cell viability and decreased ROS accumulation in H2O2-treated β-cells. The trimer procyanidins also increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in PA-treated β-cells. Conclusion: Trimer procyanidins in the cinnamon extracts contribute to the pancreatic β-cell protection, thus to the anti-diabetic activity. PMID:27238208

  10. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  11. Acute and subacute toxicity of Schinus terebinthifolius bark extract.

    PubMed

    Lima, L B; Vasconcelos, C F B; Maranhão, H M L; Leite, V R; Ferreira, P A; Andrade, B A; Araújo, E L; Xavier, H S; Lafayette, S S L; Wanderley, A G

    2009-12-10

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) has long been used in traditional Brazilian medicine, especially to treat inflammatory and haemostatic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity (45 days) of Schinus terebinthifolius via the oral route in Wistar rats of both sexes. For the acute toxicity test, the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark was administered in doses from 0.625 to 5.0 g/kg (n=5/group/sex) and in the subacute toxicity test the following doses were used: 0.25, 0.625 and 1.5625 g/kg/day (n=13/group/sex), for 45 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity test, Schinus terebinthifolius did not produce any toxic signs or deaths. The subacute treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. The hematological and biochemical analysis did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, except in two male groups, in which the treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius (0.25 and 0.625 g/kg) induced an increase of mean corpuscular volume values (2.9 and 2.6%, respectively). These variations are within the physiological limits described for the specie and does not have clinical relevance. The acute and subacute administration of the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark did not produced toxic effects in Wistar rats.

  12. Cinnamon for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Leach, Matthew J; Kumar, Saravana

    2012-09-12

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, sexual dysfunction and periodontal disease. Improvements in glycaemic control may help to reduce the risk of these complications. Several animal studies show that cinnamon may be effective in improving glycaemic control. While these effects have been explored in humans also, findings from these studies have not yet been systematically reviewed. To evaluate the effects of cinnamon in patients with diabetes mellitus. Pertinent randomised controlled trials were identified through AARP Ageline, AMED, AMI, BioMed Central gateway, CAM on PubMed, CINAHL, Dissertations Abstracts International, EMBASE, Health Source Nursing/Academic edition, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Natural medicines comprehensive database, The Cochrane Library and TRIP database. Clinical trial registers and the reference lists of included trials were searched also (all up to January 2012). Content experts and manufacturers of cinnamon extracts were also contacted. All randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of orally administered monopreparations of cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) to placebo, active medication or no treatment in persons with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias and trial quality, and extracted data. We contacted study authors for missing information. Ten prospective, parallel-group design, randomised controlled trials, involving a total of 577 participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, were identified. Risk of bias was high or unclear in all but two trials, which were assessed as having moderate risk of bias. Risk of bias in some domains was high in 50% of trials. Oral monopreparations of cinnamon (predominantly Cinnamomum cassia) were administered at a mean dose of 2 g daily, for a period ranging from 4 to 16 weeks

  13. Removal of Water-Soluble Extractives Improves the Enzymatic Digestibility of Steam-Pretreated Softwood Barks.

    PubMed

    Frankó, Balázs; Carlqvist, Karin; Galbe, Mats; Lidén, Gunnar; Wallberg, Ola

    2018-02-01

    Softwood bark contains a large amounts of extractives-i.e., soluble lipophilic (such as resin acids) and hydrophilic components (phenolic compounds, stilbenes). The effects of the partial removal of water-soluble extractives before acid-catalyzed steam pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility were assessed for two softwood barks-Norway spruce and Scots pine. A simple hot water extraction step removed more than half of the water-soluble extractives from the barks, which improved the enzymatic digestibility of both steam-pretreated materials. This effect was more pronounced for the spruce than the pine bark, as evidenced by the 30 and 11% glucose yield improvement, respectively, in the enzymatic digestibility. Furthermore, analysis of the chemical composition showed that the acid-insoluble lignin content of the pretreated materials decreased when water-soluble extractives were removed prior to steam pretreatment. This can be explained by a decreased formation of water-insoluble "pseudo-lignin" from water-soluble bark phenolics during the acid-catalyzed pretreatment, which otherwise results in distorted lignin analysis and may also contribute to the impaired enzymatic digestibility of the barks. Thus, this study advocates the removal of extractives as the first step in the processing of bark or bark-rich materials in a sugar platform biorefinery.

  14. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana: identification of proanthocyanidins and hamamelitannin quantification in leaf, bark, and stem extracts.

    PubMed

    Vennat, B; Pourrat, H; Pouget, M P; Gross, D; Pourrat, A

    1988-10-01

    The tannins in leaf, bark, and stem extracts of HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA were analyzed. Four proanthocyanidins were isolated by HPLC. One was a procyanidin polymer containing only one type of flavanol unit; the other three were polymers of procyanidin and prodelphinidin containing two types of flavanol units. A method of assay of hamamelitannin showed the bark extract to be 31 times richer in hamamelitannin than the leaf extract and 87 times richer than the stem extract.

  15. Cinnamon extract attenuates TNF-alpha-induced intestinal lipoprotein ApoB48 overproduction by regulating inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein pathways in enterocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated whether a water extract of cinnamon (CE = Cinnulin PF®) attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339-treated hamsters, and whether CE inhibited the over-secretion of apoB48-induced by TNF-alpha in enterocytes in a 35S-labelling study. In vivo, oral treatment with C...

  16. Effects of a blended garlic and cinnamon essential oil extract with and without monensin sodium on the performance of grazing steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing calf diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts (GCOE) in promoting growth on cool-season annuals in Arkansas (SWREC) and Oklahoma (SPRRS), or native rangelan...

  17. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Alberto; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; Fimognari, Carmela; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Comandini, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM) in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect. PMID:23533692

  18. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the wood and bark of Port OrFord cedar

    Treesearch

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    Heartwood, sapwood, and inner and outer bark of Port Orford cedar were extracted with methanol, and the extracts evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenol content (TPC) of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as a positive control in the free-radical-...

  19. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom.

    PubMed

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents.

  20. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  1. Assessment of antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark in mice model.

    PubMed

    Rouf, Razina; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal; Shilpi, Jamil Ahmad; Alamgir, Mahiuddin

    2007-02-12

    The methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark was studied for its antidiarrhoeal properties in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per oral, the methanol extract showed significant and dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity in both models. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg; i.m.). The results showed that the extracts of Xylocarpus granatum bark have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  2. Extraction and quantitation of coumarin from cinnamon and its effect on enzymatic browning in fresh apple juice: a bioinformatics approach to illuminate its antibrowning activity.

    PubMed

    Thada, Rajarajeshwari; Chockalingam, Shivashri; Dhandapani, Ramesh Kumar; Panchamoorthy, Rajasekar

    2013-06-05

    Enzymatic browning by polyphenoloxidase (PPO) affects food quality and taste in fruits and vegetables. Thus, the study was designed to reduce browning in apple juice by coumarin. The ethanolic extract of cinnamon was prepared and its coumarin content was quantitated by HPLC, using authentic coumarin (AC) as standard. The effect of cinnamon extract (CE) and AC on enzymatic browning, its time dependent effects, and the specific activity of PPO and peroxidase (POD) were studied in apple juice. The docking of coumarin with PPO and POD was also performed to elucidate its antibrowning mechanism. The CE (73%) and AC (82%) showed better reduction in browning, maintained its antibrowning effect at all time points, and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the specific activity of PPO and POD when compared with controls. Coumarin showed strong interaction with binding pockets of PPO and POD, suggesting its potential use as inhibitor to enzyme mediated browning in apple juice.

  3. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations.

  4. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations. PMID:27051433

  5. Comparative evaluation of successive extracts of leaf and stem bark of Albizzia lebbeck for mast cell stabilization activity.

    PubMed

    Shashidhara, S; Bhandarkar, Anant V; Deepak, M

    2008-06-01

    Successive chloroform, methanol and water extracts of bark and leaves of Albizzia lebbeck were tested for its in vitro mast cell stabilizing effect against compound 48/80. Methanolic extract of leaf and methanolic and water extracts of bark have shown maximum activity comparable to that of disodium chromoglycate.

  6. Separation and structural analysis of saponins in a bark extract from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    PubMed

    Nord, L I; Kenne, L

    1999-07-20

    Six major saponins were isolated from a bark extract from Quillaja saponaria Molina. Solid-phase extraction, followed by a two-step reversed-phase HPLC separation procedure with phosphate and ammonium acetate buffers of different pH values, was used. The compounds were characterised using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods.

  7. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murrary) Parl.

    Treesearch

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    The bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl. was extracted with methanol and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and deionized water. The antioxidant activities of the four extracts were evaluated using the DPPH• and ABTS+• methods. The total phenolic...

  8. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Sun, Xiaowei; Yang, Fengjian; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) was successfully applied to the extraction of proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini bark. In this work, in order to evaluate the performance of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction process, a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated for extraction yield, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the ILMAE procedure for the proanthocyanidins was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the proanthocyanidins was obtained. Relative to other methods, the proposed approach provided higher extraction yield and lower energy consumption. The Larix gmelini bark samples before and after extraction were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ILMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22606036

  9. High-efficient extraction of principal medicinal components from fresh Phellodendron bark (cortex phellodendri).

    PubMed

    Xu, Keqin; He, Gongxiu; Qin, Jieming; Cheng, Xuexiang; He, Hanjie; Zhang, Dangquan; Peng, Wanxi

    2018-05-01

    There are three key medicinal components (phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine) in the extracts of Phellodendron bark, as one of the fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine. Different extraction methods and solvent combinations were investigated to obtain the optimal technologies for high-efficient extraction of these medicinal components. The results showed that combined solvents have higher extracting effect of phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine than single solvent, and the effect of ultrasonic extraction is distinctly better than those of distillation and soxhlet extraction. The hydrochloric acid/methanol-ultrasonic extraction has the best effect for three medicinal components of fresh Phellodendron bark, providing an extraction yield of 103.12 mg/g berberine, 24.41 mg/g phellodendrine, 1.25 mg/g palmatine.

  10. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Adeleke Ojo, Oluwafemi; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin; Emmanuel Oyinloye, Babatunji; Ogunmodede, Oluwafemi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p<0.05) weight reduction, abnormal haematological parameters, high serum lipids (except high density lipoprotein) concentrations, increased creatinine, bilirubin and urea levels with decreased in albumin level when compared with non-diabetic control rats. All these alterations were reverted to normal after administered with different doses of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark most especially at 150 mg/kg body weight which exhibited no significant (p>0.05) different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:29670849

  11. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Adeleke Ojo, Oluwafemi; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin; Emmanuel Oyinloye, Babatunji; Ogunmodede, Oluwafemi

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p<0.05) weight reduction, abnormal haematological parameters, high serum lipids (except high density lipoprotein) concentrations, increased creatinine, bilirubin and urea levels with decreased in albumin level when compared with non-diabetic control rats. All these alterations were reverted to normal after administered with different doses of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark most especially at 150 mg/kg body weight which exhibited no significant (p>0.05) different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.

  12. Mimusops elengi bark extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Bag, Braja Gopal; Ghosh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    The bark extract of Mimusops elengi is rich in different types of plant secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and saponins. The present study shows the usefulness of the bark extract of Mimusops elengi for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was complete within a few minutes without any extra stabilizing or capping agents and the polyphenols present in the bark extract acted as both reducing as well as stabilizing agents. The synthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of 3-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to their corresponding aminophenols in water at room temperature.

  13. Bark anatomy, chemical composition and ethanol-water extract composition of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Caroline J.; Miranda, Isabel; Quilhó, Teresa; Mori, Fábio Akira; Pereira, Helena

    2017-01-01

    The bark of Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan were characterized in relation to anatomical and chemical features. The barks were similar and included a thin conducting phloem, a largely dilated and sclerified non-conducting phloem, and a rhyridome with periderms with thin phellem interspersed by cortical tissues. Only small differences between species were observed that cannot be used alone for taxonomic purposes. The summative chemical composition of A. peregrina and A. colubrina was respectively: 8.2% and 7.7% ash; 28.8% and 29.3% extractives; 2.4% and 2.6% suberin; and 18.9% lignin. The monosaccharide composition showed the predominance of glucose (on average 82% of total neutral sugars) and of xylose (9%). The ethanol-water extracts of A. peregrina and A. colubrina barks included a high content of phenolics, respectively: total phenolics 583 and 682 mg GAE/g extract; 148 and 445 mg CE/g extract; tannins 587 and 98 mg CE/g extract. The antioxidant activity was 238 and 269 mg Trolox/g extract. The barks of the Anadenanthera species are a potential source of polar extractives that will represent an important valorization and therefore contribute to improve the overall economic potential and sustainability of A. peregrina and A. colubrina PMID:29281656

  14. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS.

  15. Antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity of stem bark extracts of Cephalotaxus griffithii Hook. f.

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Kasoju, Naresh; Bora, Utpal

    2012-04-03

    Cephalotaxus spp. are known to possess various therapeutic potentials. Cephalotaxus griffithii, however, has not been evaluated for its biological potential. The reason may be the remoteness and inaccessibility of the habitat where it is distributed. The main aim of this study was to: (1) evaluate multiple biological potentials of stem bark of C. griffithii, and (2) identify solvent extract of stem bark of C. griffithii to find the one with the highest specific biological activity. Dried powder of stem bark of C. griffithii was exhaustively extracted serially by soaking in petroleum ether, acetone and methanol to fractionate the chemical constituents into individual fractions or extracts. The extracts were tested for total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant (DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, and reducing power models), antibacterial (disc diffusion assay on six bacterial strains), cytotoxic (MTT assay on HeLa cells), and apoptotic activity (fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and flow cytometry on HeLa cells). Among the three extracts of stem bark of C. griffithii, the acetone extract contained the highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids and showed maximum antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic (IC50 of 35.5 ± 0.6 μg/ml; P < 0.05), and apoptotic (46.3 ± 3.6% sub-G0/G1 population; P < 0.05) activity, followed by the methanol and petroleum ether extracts. However, there was no significant difference observed in IC50 values (DPPH scavenging assay) of the acetone and methanol extracts and the positive control (ascorbic acid). In contrast, superoxide radical scavenging assay-based antioxidant activity (IC50) of the acetone and methanol extracts was significantly lower than the positive control (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis suggested that phenolic and flavonoid content present in stem bark of C. griffithii extracts was responsible for the high antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity (P < 0.05). Stem bark

  16. Guarea kunthiana Bark Extract Enhances the Antimicrobial Activities of Human and Bovine Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Jerjomiceva, Natalja; Seri, Hisham; Yaseen, Ragheda; de Buhr, Nicole; Setzer, William N; Naim, Hassan Y; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren

    2016-06-01

    Guarea kunthiana is used in folk remedies for the treatment of several diseases including microbial infections. The mechanism behind this phenomenon still needs to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of G. kunthiana bark extract on antimicrobial functions of human and bovine neutrophils as the first line of defense against infections. For this aim, neutrophils were isolated from either human or bovine blood and treated with G. kunthiana bark extract. The antimicrobial activity of the neutrophils against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Escherichia (E.) coli was tested in a bacterial survival assay and a fluorescence-based phagocytosis assay. Furthermore, the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. We show that neutrophils treated with G. kunthiana extract distinctly increased phagocytosis of S. aureus or E. coli. Interestingly, we demonstrate that G. kunthiana bark extract induces the formation of NETs in both cell types. This effect was abolished when treating the cells with diphenyleniodonium chloride (DPI) pointing to a direct implication of the NADPH oxidase-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species in this process. In summary, our data strongly suggest that G. kunthiana bark extract boosts the antimicrobial activities of neutrophils as the first line of defense against invading pathogens.

  17. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan-li; Gan, Xiao-qing; Fan, Qing-fei; Yang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-bin; Song, Qi-shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark. PMID:28383530

  18. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-giardia activity and acute toxicity of a methanol extract of Senna racemosa bark.

    PubMed

    Caamal-Fuentes, Edgar E; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-12-04

    Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) is a plant used in traditional Mayamedicinal practices to treat diarrhea. A methanol extract of S. racemosa bark has been shown to have in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis. No studies of its efficacy and toxicity in in vivo models have been done. The present study objective was to analyze the activity of this methanol extract of S. racemosa bark against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites in experimentally infected mice, and evaluate its toxicological effects in rats. S. racemosa was collected in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico (21°58'N, 89°36'W) in June 2005. The bark methanol extract was obtained and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) was used to generate a constituent profile. In vivo anti-giardia activity was assayed with an experimental model of G. intestinalis infection in neonatal CD-1 mice. Nine doses ranging from 0.25-15mg extract/kg body weight were tested to determine the dose required to kill 50% of the trophozoites (ED 50 ). An acute toxicity assay was run in which one of four single doses (200, 1000, 2000 and3000mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to adult Wistar rats. Animal weight, death rates, toxic effects and behavioral parameters were observed over a 14-d period. They were then euthanized and a necropsy performed. The S. racemosa bark extract inhibited growth of G. intestinalis (ED 50 =1.14mg/Kg) in neonatal CD-1 mice. No toxic or lethal effects were observed even at the highest dosage (3000mg/Kg), and neither were signs of toxicity observed in internal organs. The active compounds chrysophanol and physcion were present in the extract at a 1.76 ratio. The results strongly support traditional use of S. racemosa bark for treatment of diarrhea caused by Giardia intestinalis infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibition of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum by Juglans species bark extracts

    Treesearch

    M.J. Moore; M.E. Ostry; A.D. Hegeman; A.C. Martin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and reliable technique is needed for identifying butternut trees (Juglans cinerea) with resistance to butternut canker. We investigated the potential of a bark extract bioassay to detect levels of resistance to Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Oc-j), the causal agent of butternut canker....

  1. Inhibition of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum by Juglans species bark extracts

    Treesearch

    M.E. Ostry; M. Moore

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and reliable screening technique is needed for selecting trees with resistance to butternut canker. In a laboratory assay, reagent grade naphthoquinones and crude bark extracts of Juglans species variously inhibited spore germination and growth of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, the causal fungus of butternut...

  2. Cinnamon water extracts increase glucose uptake but inhibit adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipose cells.

    PubMed

    Roffey, Benjamin; Atwal, Avtar; Kubow, Stan

    2006-08-01

    The effects of three concentrations (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/mL) of a cinnamon extract (CE) (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were examined in the presence and absence of 0.5 nM and 50 nM insulin. In the absence of insulin, adipocytes exposed to 0.2 mg/mL CE showed an approximate two-fold increase in glucose uptake relative to controls although glucose uptake was unaffected by the two higher concentrations of CE. No effect of CE on glucose uptake was noted in the presence of 0.5 nM insulin whereas the two highest concentrations (0.3 and 0.4 mg/mL) of CE showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in glucose uptake in the presence of 50 nM insulin. Treatment of the adipocytes with 50 nM wortmannin, an irreversible inhibitor of the p110 isoform of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase, was associated with complete inhibition of the stimulated glucose uptake induced by 0.2 mg/mL CE. Treatment of the adipocytes with 0.2 mg/mL CE was associated with an inhibition of adiponectin secretion to levels that were nondetectable. The present study indicates that although 0.2 mg/mL CE has insulin-mimetic action in 3T3-adipocytes in terms of glucose uptake, secretion of the antidiabetic hormone adiponectin is adversely affected.

  3. Cinnamon extract inhibits the postprandial overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in fructose-fed animals.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bolin; Polansky, Marilyn M; Sato, Yuzo; Adeli, Khosrow; Anderson, Richard A

    2009-11-01

    We have reported previously that a cinnamon extract (CE), high in type A polyphenols, prevents fructose feeding-induced decreases in insulin sensitivity and suggested that improvements of insulin sensitivity by CE were attributable, in part, to enhanced insulin signaling. In this study, we examined the effects of CE on postprandial apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 increase in fructose-fed rats, and the secretion of apoB48 in freshly isolated intestinal enterocytes of fructose-fed hamsters. In an olive oil loading study, a water-soluble CE (Cinnulin PF, 50 mg/kg body weight, orally) decreased serum triglyceride (TG) levels and the over production of total- and TG-rich lipoprotein-apoB48. In ex vivo (35)S labeling study, significant decreases were also observed in apoB48 secretion into the media in enterocytes isolated from fructose-fed hamsters. We also investigated the molecular mechanisms of the effects of CE on the expression of genes of the insulin signaling pathway [insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate (IRS)1, IRS2 and Akt1], and lipoprotein metabolism [microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c) in isolated primary enterocytes of fructose-fed hamsters, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The CE reversed the expression of the impaired IR, IRS1, IRS2 and Akt1 mRNA levels and inhibited the overexpression of MTP and SREBP1c mRNA levels of enterocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that the postprandial hypertriglycerides and the overproduction of apoB48 can be acutely inhibited by a CE by a mechanism involving improvements of insulin sensitivity of intestinal enterocytes and regulation of MTP and SREBP1c levels. We present both in vivo and ex vivo evidence that a CE improves the postprandial overproduction of intestinal apoB48-containing lipoproteins by ameliorating intestinal insulin resistance and may be beneficial in the control of lipid metabolism.

  4. Anticonvulsant effects of ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri (Anacardiaceae) in mice and chicks.

    PubMed

    Garba, K; Yaro, A H; Ya'u, J

    2015-08-22

    Preparation of Lannea barteri is used in the treatment of epilepsy, gastritis, childhood convulsions among other uses in northern Nigeria for many years. The popularity of its efficacy is well established among the Traditional Medical Practitioners. The present study aimed at screening the ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri for possible anticonvulsant action. Anticonvulsant screening was carried out using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), strychnine (STN) and picrotoxin (PTC) induced seizures in mice while Maximal electroshock (MES) test was carried out in day old chicks. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was performed on the extract. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) was carried out in mice. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) LD50 of the extract was estimated to be 567.70 mg/kg in mice. Lannea barteri (160 mg/kg) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) delayed the mean onset of seizures induced by PTZ when compared with normal saline treated group. Similarly, the extract at 160 mg/kg significantly (p ≤ 0.05) prolonged the latency of convulsion induced by STN. Lannea barteri (40 mg/kg) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) delayed the mean onset of seizures induced by picrotoxin in mice. The extracts at all the doses tested showed no observable effect in decreasing the mean recovery time of convulsed chicks in MEST. Flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and glycosides were found present in the stem bark extract. Our findings revealed that the ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri contained bioactive constituents that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and supports the ethnomedical claim for the use of its stem bark in the management of epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty and Waxy Components of Southern Pine Bark-Amounts Present As Free Extractives

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1975-01-01

    Whole bark from six mature trees of each of the four major southern pines was extracted with petroleum ether and with toluene. Trees were 20 to 58 years old and 8.0 to 11.8 inches in d.b.h. Percentages of petroleum ether-solubles were: slash pine, 1.94; loblolly, 2.29; longleaf, 2.64; and shortleaf 3.05. Percentages obtained by toluene extraction were: loblolly, 3.04;...

  6. Willow Bark

    MedlinePlus

    ... from several varieties of the willow tree, including white willow or European willow, black willow or pussy willow, ... taking a specific product containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, boswellia extract, turmeric ...

  7. In Vitro Dermo-Cosmetic Evaluation of Bark Extracts from Common Temperate Trees.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jane; Angelis, Apostolis; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Rosalia, Michalea; Abedini, Amin; Bakiri, Ali; Reynaud, Romain; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Gangloff, Sophie C; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2016-10-01

    Wood residues produced from forestry activities represent an interesting source of biologically active, high value-added secondary metabolites. In this study, 30 extracts from 10 barks of deciduous and coniferous tree species were investigated for their potential dermo-cosmetic use. The extracts were obtained from Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Prunus avium, Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, Populus robusta, Larix decidua, Picea abies , and Populus tremula after three successive solid/liquid extractions of the barks with n- heptane, methanol, and methanol/water. All extracts were evaluated for their radical scavenging capacity, for their elastase, collagenase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, as well as for their antibacterial activity against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus . In parallel, the global metabolite profiles of all extracts were established by 1D and 2D NMR and related to their biological activity. The results showed that the methanol extracts of Q. robur, A. glutinosa, L. decidua , and P. abies barks exhibit particularly high activities on most bioassays, suggesting their promising use as active ingredients in the dermo-cosmetic industry. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Activities and Total Polyphenol Contents of the Extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum Bark

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Nicholas M.; Wawer, Iwona; Paradowska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Geissospermum species are medically important plants due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant ability and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of infusions, tinctures, and ethanolic extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum barks in relation to the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Seven samples of barks were collected in various regions of Peruvian Amazonia. We found that the amount of total phenolics in the studied products varied from 212.40 ± 0.69 to 1253.92 ± 11.20 mg GAE/kg. In our study there is a correlation (R 2 = 0.7947) between the results of antioxidants assays: FRAP and ORAC for tinctures, infusions, and ethanolic extracts of G. reticulatum barks. We have also observed antiproliferative activities of the ethanolic extracts on normal T-cells. These extracts have caused death on malignant cell lines (THP-1 and HL-60) and this data correlates well with their antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method. Interestingly, the highest concentration of the ethanolic extract was not toxic in the zebrafish embryo developmental assay. Our results indicate that G. reticulatum is rich in antioxidants and have cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties. The data suggests potential immunosuppressive role of the extracts. This is the first study presenting the results of chemical and biological analysis of multiple preparations from G. reticulatum. PMID:27446507

  9. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nariya, Pankaj B.; Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, R. N.

    2011-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested. PMID:22661859

  10. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, V J; Acharya, R N

    2011-10-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested.

  11. Cinnamon, a promising prospect towards Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Saeideh; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Khan, Fazlullah; Ziaee, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Over the last decades, an exponential increase of efforts concerning the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been practiced. Phytochemicals preparations have a millenary background to combat various pathological conditions. Various cinnamon species and their biologically active ingredients have renewed the interest towards the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate AD through the inhibition of tau protein aggregation and prevention of the formation and accumulation of amyloid-β peptides into the neurotoxic oligomeric inclusions, both of which are considered to be the AD trademarks. In this review, we presented comprehensive data on the interactions of a number of cinnamon polyphenols (PPs) with oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain. In addition, we discussed the potential association between AD and diabetes mellitus (DM), vis-à-vis the effluence of cinnamon PPs. Further, an upcoming prospect of AD epigenetic pathophysiological conditions and cinnamon has been sighted. Data was retrieved from the scientific databases such as PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine, Scopus and Google Scholar without any time limitation. The extract of cinnamon efficiently inhibits tau accumulations, Aβ aggregation and toxicity in vivo and in vitro models. Indeed, cinnamon possesses neuroprotective effects interfering multiple oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory pathways. Besides, cinnamon modulates endothelial functions and attenuates the vascular cell adhesion molecules. Cinnamon PPs may induce AD epigenetic modifications. Cinnamon and in particular, cinnamaldehyde seem to be effective and safe approaches for treatment and prevention of AD onset and/or progression. However, further molecular and translational research studies as well as prolonged clinical trials are required to establish the therapeutic safety and efficacy in different cinnamon spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentiation of the four major types (C. Burmannii, C. Verum, C. cassia, And C. Loureiroi) of cinnamons using a flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple and efficient flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indon...

  13. Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC) and the hot aqueous extract (FRH) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher (P extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200-1000 mug ml(-1)). The IC(50) values of 1813 and 1331 mug ml(-1) were deduced for FRC and FRH, respectively (calculated by extrapolation using Boltzmann's dose response analysis).

  14. Chitosan-Coated Cinnamon/Oregano-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles to Augment 5-Fluorouracil Cytotoxicity for Colorectal Cancer: Extract Standardization, Nanoparticle Optimization, and Cytotoxicity Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Kamel M; Khalil, Islam A; Rateb, Mostafa E; Elgendy, Hosieny; Elhawary, Seham

    2017-09-13

    This study aimed to coat lipid-based nanocarriers with chitosan to encapsulate nutraceuticals, minimize opsonization, and facilitate passive-targeting. Phase one was concerned with standardization according to the World Health Organization. Qualitative analysis using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) investigated the active constituents, especially reported cytotoxic agents. Cinnamaldehyde and rosmarinic acid were selected to be quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Phase two was aimed to encapsulate both extracts in solid lipid nanoparticles (core) and chitosan (shell) to gain the advantages of both materials properties. The developed experimental model suggested an optimum formulation with 2% lipid, 2.3% surfactant, and 0.4% chitosan to achieve a particle size of 254.77 nm, polydispersity index of 0.28, zeta potential of +15.26, and entrapment efficiency percentage of 77.3% and 69.1% for cinnamon and oregano, respectively. Phase three was focused on the evaluation of cytotoxic activity unencapsulated/encapsulated cinnamon and oregano extracts with/without 5-fluorouracil on HCT-116 cells. This study confirmed the success of the suggested combination with 5-fluorouracil for treating human colon carcinoma with a low dose leading to decreasing side effects and allowing uninterrupted therapy.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus koraiensis Cone Bark Extracts Prepared by Micro-Wave Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sun-Ae; Kim, Dong-Hee; Hong, Shin-Hyub; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Hyun; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; An, Bong-Jeun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Cho, Young-Je

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the anti-inflammatory activity of Pinus koraiensis cone bark extracts prepared by conventional extraction and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts prepared using MAE were applied to RAW 264.7 cell at 5, 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL of concentrations, and tested for cytoxicity. The group treated with 50 μg/mL of 50% ethanol extracts showed toxicity. In order to investigate the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, extracts of water and ethanol were treated with 5, 10, and 25 μg/mL concentrations. The inhibitory activity of water and 50% ethanol extracts groups were determined as 40% and 60% at 25 μg/mL concentration, respectively. We found concentration dependent decreases on inducible NO synthase. The inhibitory effect against forming inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, was also superior in the 25 μg/mL treated group than the control group. According to these results, the water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts both inhibited inflammatory mediators by reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, The MAE extracts of P. koraiensis cone bark can be developed as a functional ingredient with anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27752500

  16. Senna singueana: Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Antiapoptotic Properties and Phytochemical Profiling of a Methanol Bark Extract.

    PubMed

    Sobeh, Mansour; Mahmoud, Mona F; Hasan, Rehab A; Cheng, Haroan; El-Shazly, Assem M; Wink, Michael

    2017-09-08

    Natural products are considered as an important source for the discovery of new drugs to treat aging-related degenerative diseases and liver injury. The present study profiled the chemical constituents of a methanol extract from Senna singueana bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and 36 secondary metabolites were identified. Proanthocyanidins dominated the extract. Monomers, dimers, trimers of (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)guibourtinidol, (ent)cassiaflavan, and (epi)afzelechin represented the major constituents. The extract demonstrated notable antioxidant activities in vitro: In DPPH (EC 50 of 20.8 µg/mL), FRAP (18.16 mM FeSO₄/mg extract) assays, and total phenolic content amounted 474 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Also, in an in vivo model, the extract increased the survival rate of Caenorhabditis elegans worms pretreated with the pro-oxidant juglone from 43 to 64%, decreased intracellular ROS inside the wild-type nematodes by 47.90%, and induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor DAF-16 in the transgenic strain TJ356. Additionally, the extract showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against d-galactosamine (d-GalN) induced hepatic injury in rats. It significantly reduced elevated AST (aspartate aminotransferase), and total bilirubin. Moreover, the extract induced a strong cytoplasmic Bcl-2 expression indicating suppression of apoptosis. In conclusion, the bark extract of S. sengueana represents an interesting candidate for further research in antioxidants and liver protection.

  17. Chemical composition of barks from Quercus faginea trees and characterization of their lipophilic and polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joana P A; Miranda, Isabel; Sousa, Vicelina B; Pereira, Helena

    2018-01-01

    The bark from Quercus faginea mature trees from two sites was chemically characterized for the first time. The barks showed the following composition: ash 14.6%, total extractives 13.2%, suberin 2.9% and lignin 28.2%. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of glucose and xylose (50.3% and 35.1% of all monosaccharides respectively) with 4.8% of uronic acids. The suberin composition was: ω-hydroxyacids 46.3% of total compounds, ɑ,ω-alkanoic diacids 22.3%, alkanoic acids 5.9%, alkanols 6.7% and aromatics 6.9% (ferulic acid 4.0%). Polar extracts (ethanol-water) had a high phenolic content of 630.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract, condensed tannins 220.7 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, and flavonoids 207.7 mg CE/g of extract. The antioxidant activity was very high corresponding to 1567 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract, and an IC50 of 2.63 μg extract/ml. The lipophilic extracts were constituted mainly by glycerol and its derivatives (12.3% of all compounds), alkanoic acids (27.8%), sterols (11.5%) and triterpenes (17.8%). In view of an integrated valorization, Quercus faginea barks are interesting sources of polar compounds including phenols and polyphenols with possible interesting bioactivities, while the sterols and triterpenes contained in the lipophilic extracts are also valuable bioactive compounds or chemical intermediates for specific high-value market niches, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomedicine.

  18. Chemical composition of barks from Quercus faginea trees and characterization of their lipophilic and polar extracts

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The bark from Quercus faginea mature trees from two sites was chemically characterized for the first time. The barks showed the following composition: ash 14.6%, total extractives 13.2%, suberin 2.9% and lignin 28.2%. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of glucose and xylose (50.3% and 35.1% of all monosaccharides respectively) with 4.8% of uronic acids. The suberin composition was: ω-hydroxyacids 46.3% of total compounds, ɑ,ω-alkanoic diacids 22.3%, alkanoic acids 5.9%, alkanols 6.7% and aromatics 6.9% (ferulic acid 4.0%). Polar extracts (ethanol-water) had a high phenolic content of 630.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract, condensed tannins 220.7 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, and flavonoids 207.7 mg CE/g of extract. The antioxidant activity was very high corresponding to 1567 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract, and an IC50 of 2.63 μg extract/ml. The lipophilic extracts were constituted mainly by glycerol and its derivatives (12.3% of all compounds), alkanoic acids (27.8%), sterols (11.5%) and triterpenes (17.8%). In view of an integrated valorization, Quercus faginea barks are interesting sources of polar compounds including phenols and polyphenols with possible interesting bioactivities, while the sterols and triterpenes contained in the lipophilic extracts are also valuable bioactive compounds or chemical intermediates for specific high-value market niches, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomedicine. PMID:29763441

  19. Acute effect of Ceylon cinnamon extract on postprandial glycemia: alpha-amylase inhibition, starch tolerance test in rats, and randomized crossover clinical trial in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Beejmohun, Vickram; Peytavy-Izard, Marie; Mignon, Cyril; Muscente-Paque, Delphine; Deplanque, Xavier; Ripoll, Christophe; Chapal, Nicolas

    2014-09-23

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is a known risk factor for the development of several health disorders including type 2 diabetes, obesity, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases. One encouraging approach for a better control of postprandial glycemia is to reduce carbohydrate digestion. Cinnamon extracts have been known for managing blood glucose. However, their effects on inhibiting digestion of carbohydrate have been poorly analyzed to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a specific Ceylon cinnamon hydro-alcoholic extract (CCE) on carbohydrate digestion and post-meal blood glucose reduction. In vitro enzymatic assays and in vivo starch tolerance tests in rats were designed as preclinical assays. Then, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial was conducted in 18 healthy female and male volunteers. Following the intake of 1 g of CCE, the subjects ate a standardized meal. Blood samples were collected during the 2 hours following the meal to measure glucose and insulin concentrations. Areas under the curves were calculated and statistical differences between the CCE and placebo groups were analyzed using the Mann Whitney-Wilcoxon test. CCE has demonstrated in the in vitro study that it inhibited pancreatic alpha-amylase activity with an IC50 of 25 μg/mL. In the in vivo study, CCE was shown to acutely reduce the glycemic response to starch in a dose-dependent manner in rats. This effect was significant from the dose of 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. In both, the in vitro and in vivo studies, the hydro-alcoholic extract has shown to be more efficacious than the aqueous extract. In the human clinical trial, 1 g of CCE lowered the area under the curve of glycemia between 0 and 120 min by 14.8% (P = 0.15) and between 0 and 60 min by 21.2% (P < 0.05) compared to the placebo. This effect occurred without stimulating insulin secretion. No adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Ceylon cinnamon

  20. Proanthocyanidin-rich Pinus radiata bark extract inhibits mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Ho; Song, Chang Ho; Mun, Sung Phil

    2018-02-01

    Mast cells play a critical role in the effector phase of immediate hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. Pinus radiata bark extract exerts multiple biological effects and exhibits immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. However, its role in mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of proanthocyanidin-rich water extract (PAWE) isolated from P. radiata bark on compound 48/80-induced or antidinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions in vivo. In addition, we evaluated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of PAWE on mast cell activation, with a specific focus on histamine release, using rat peritoneal mast cells. PAWE attenuated compound 48/80-induced or anti-DNP IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-like reactions in mice, and it inhibited histamine release triggered by compound 48/80, ionophore A23187, or anti-DNP IgE in rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. Moreover, PAWE suppressed compound 48/80-elicited calcium uptake in a concentration-dependent manner and promoted a transient increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate levels. Together, these results suggest that proanthocyanidin-rich P. radiata bark extract effectively inhibits anaphylaxis-like reactions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Vitamin E Supplementation with Rauwolfia Vomitoria Root Bark Extract Improves Hematological Indices

    PubMed Central

    Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. Aim: In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats weighing 200 – 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Results: Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Conclusion: Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant. PMID:22408754

  2. Vitamin e supplementation with rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract improves hematological indices.

    PubMed

    Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong

    2012-02-01

    Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Forty two rats weighing 200 - 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant.

  3. Cinnamon extract regulates plasma levels of adipose-derived factors and expression of multiple genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of fructose-fed rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We reported previously that a dietary cinnamon extract (CE) improves systemic insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia by enhancing insulin signaling. In the present study, we examined the effects of CE on several biomarkers including plasma levels of adipose-derived adipokines, and the potential molec...

  4. Anti-biofilm activity of Marula - a study with the standardized bark extract.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Ratul; Chaudhary, Sushil K; Sharma, Amrita; Yadav, Kirendra K; Nema, Neelesh K; Sekhoacha, Mamello; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Braga, Fernão C; Matsabisa, Motlalepula Gilbert; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2014-05-28

    Marula (Sclerocarya birrea; family - Anacardiaceae) is an African plant, which enjoys wide socio-economic importance particularly in southern part of Africa. The fruits are consumed as food and also as alcoholic beverage (cream liquor). In different parts of Africa, the decoction of the bark is traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea, and various other infectious conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-biofilm properties of the methanol extract of Marula bark (stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea), with a view towards combating the emergence of antimicrobial resistance often associated with bacterial biofilms. The standardized methanol extract was initially tested for its antimicrobial property. The crystal violet assay was used for evaluating anti-biofilm (biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeuginosa) activity. Further in order to study the mechanism of anti-biofilm activity, the same was evaluated for understanding its role on various quorums sensing mediated phenomenon (swarming motility assay, protease and pyoverdin assay) that are known to be associated with the formation of biofilms and pathogenicity. The methanol extract showed no inhibition of bacterial growth up to a concentration of 200 µg/ml. Interestingly, the sample produced anti-biofilm activity (around 75% decrease; 100 µg/ml) at sub-lethal concentration. Further it also significantly reduced the QS mediated swarming motility. The release of various virulent factors (protease and pyoverdin) was found to be lowered when pre-treated with the extract. The present study illustrates the anti-biofilm property Sclerocarya birrea. The standardized extract significantly disrupted the quorum sensing mediated production of biofilm formation and also inhibited swarming ability of the cells. The extract displayed a regulatory role on the secretion of protease and pyoverdin, two QS dependent pathogenic factors found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study also validates the

  5. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp.) Bark Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study. PMID:25013777

  6. An Empire's Extract: Chemical Manipulations of Cinchona Bark in the Eighteenth-Century Spanish Atlantic World.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Matthew James

    2014-01-01

    In 1790, the Spanish Crown sent a "botanist-chemist" to South America to implement production of a chemical extract made from cinchona bark, a botanical medicament from the Andes used throughout the Atlantic World to treat malarial fevers. Even though the botanist-chemist's efforts to produce the extract failed, this episode offers important insight into the role of chemistry in the early modern Atlantic World. Well before the Spanish Crown tried to make it a tool of empire, chemistry provided a vital set of techniques that circulated among a variety of healers, who used such techniques to make botanical medicaments useful and intelligible in new ways.

  7. The paradox of natural products as pharmaceuticals. Experimental evidences of a mango stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Garrido, Gabino; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Guevara-García, Mariela; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L

    2007-05-01

    Recent findings regarding basic, pre-clinical and clinical studies on a mango stem bark extract (MSBE) developed in Cuba (Vimang) on an industrial scale are summarized. Ethnomedical studies, extract reproducibility, biological effects and clinical evaluations in terms of patient quality of life are described as experimental evidences to support the statement that natural products, even being a mixture of compounds, could be as effective as "monoceuticals" for medical uses. Discussion about the use of "monoceuticals" versus "natureceuticals" in health care and medicine is based on effectiveness and availability, taking Vimang as an example of a natural product with supported scientific evidence to be used as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulator.

  8. Stimulant Paste Preparation and Bark Streak Tapping Technique for Pine Oleoresin Extraction.

    PubMed

    Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Lima, Júlio César; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    Tapping technique comprises the extraction of pine oleoresin, a non-wood forest product consisting of a complex mixture of mono, sesqui, and diterpenes biosynthesized and exuded as a defense response to wounding. Oleoresin is used to produce gum rosin, turpentine, and their multiple derivatives. Oleoresin yield and quality are objects of interest in pine tree biotechnology, both in terms of environmental and genetic control. Monitoring these parameters in individual trees grown in the field provides a means to examine the control of terpene production in resin canals, as well as the identification of genetic-based differences in resinosis. A typical method of tapping involves the removal of bark and application of a chemical stimulant on the wounded area. Here we describe the methods for preparing the resin-stimulant paste with different adjuvants, as well as the bark streaking process in adult pine trees.

  9. Magnolia officinalis (Hou Po) bark extract stimulates the Nrf2-pathway in hepatocytes and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rajgopal, Arun; Missler, Stephen R; Scholten, Jeffery D

    2016-12-04

    The highly aromatic bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehder and EH Wilson, (magnolia bark) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine where it is known as Hou Po. Historically the bark of the tree has been used for treating variety of disorders the most common use of magnolia bark in traditional prescription has been to treat stress and anxiety disorders. Till date it is not clear regarding the fundamental cellular pathway it modulates. NRF2 signaling has emerged as the central pathway that protects cells from variety of stressors this led us to hypothesize that basis for magnolia bark's effects could be via activating NRF2 pathway. We utilized variety of biochemical procedures like luciferase reporter assay, enzyme induction, gene expression to determine NRF2 inducing activity by magnolia bark extract and its significance. Further we identified the phytochemicals inducing this activity using bio-directed fractionation procedure. In this study, we demonstrate that magnolia bark extract activates Nrf2-dependent gene expression and protects against hydrogen peroxide mediated oxidative stress in hepatocytes. We further identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy that magnolol, 4-methoxy honokiol and honokiol are the active phytochemicals inducing the Nrf2-mediated activity. This could be the molecular basis for its numerous beneficial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Piscicidal activity of leaf and bark extract of Thevetia peruviana plant and their biochemical stress response on fish metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Yadav, R P; Singh, A

    2010-11-01

    The leaf and bark of Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae) plant was administered for 24 h to the freshwater fish Catla catla (Hamilton) to evaluate their piscicidal activity in laboratory and cemented pond condition. The LC0 values of lef and bark extracts of different solvents (i.e., acetone, diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) of this plant to fish Catla catla were determined. The LC50 values of acetone leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana plant is 88.80 mg/L (24h) in laboratory condition and 529.38 mg/L (24h) in cemented pond condition; acetone bark extract of this plant is 99.43 mg/L (24h) in laboratory condition and 591.78 mg/L (24h) in cemented pond condition against freshwater fish Catla catla. Similar trend was also observed in case of other solvent (i.e., diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) of leaf and bark extracts of Thevetia peruviana plant against freshwater fish Catla catla in laboratory and cemented pond conditions. The acetone leaf and bark extract of this plant was very effective in comparison to other solvent extract in both the conditions. So, the biochemical analysis is taken only acetone leaf and bark extract of Thevetia peruviana plant in laboratory condition. Exposure of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC,) of acetone leaf and bark extract of this plant over 24 h caused significant (P < 0.05) alterations in total protein, free amino acids, DNA & RNA, protease and acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in muscle, liver and gonadal tissues of fish Catla catla in laboratory condition.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Syzygium jambos (L.) alston (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Djipa, C D; Delmée, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J

    2000-07-01

    Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae) is a widespread medicinal plant traditionally used in sub-Saharan Africa to treat infectious diseases. Acetone and aqueous extracts from the bark of S. jambos were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro by the agar dilution method in petri dishes. Both extracts showed some activity against the tested micro-organisms. They proved to be particularly effective on Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and coagulase negative staphylococci among which Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus warneri. These properties seem to be related to the high tannin content of S. jambos extracts (77 and 83% for the aqueous and acetone extracts, respectively, determined according to the European Pharmacopoeia method) which were generally more active than Hamamelis virginiana, Krameria triandra, Alchemilla vulgaris and Rubus fruticosus extracts containing 48, 44, 46 and 28% tannins, respectively. Furthermore, elimination of tannins totally suppressed these antimicrobial activities.

  12. Toxicological studies of stem bark extract from Schefflera barteri Harms (Araliaceae).

    PubMed

    Atsafack, Serge Secco; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Koanga Mogtomo, Martin Luther; Tchinda, Alembert Tiabou; De Dieu, Tamokou Jean; Magnifouet Nana, Huguette; Ebelle Etame, Rébecca Madeleine; Biyiti, Lucie; Ngono Ngane, Rosalie Annie

    2015-03-07

    The use of herbal medicines as complements or alternatives to orthodox medicines has been on the increase. There has been the erroneous belief that these medicines are free from adverse effects. Schefflera barteri is popularly used in the West region of Cameroon for the treatment of various diseases such as diarrhea, spasm, pneumonia and animals bite. Considering the ethnopharmacological relevance of this plant, this study was designed to investigate the possible toxic effects of the stem bark extract of S. barteri. The extract was prepared by maceration of stem bark dry powder in methylene chloride/methanol mixture. Phytochemical analysis was performed by chemical reaction method. Oral acute toxicity study was carried out by administering single geometric increasing doses (2 to 16 g/kg body weight) of plant extract to Swiss albino mice. For sub-acute toxicity study, repeated doses (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw) of plant extract were given to Wistar albino rats for 28 consecutive days by oral route. At the end of the treatment period, hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed, as well as histopathological studies. Phytochemical analysis of stem bark extract of S. barteri revealed the presence of anthocyanins, anthraquinons and saponins. Acute toxicity results showed that the LD50 was greater than 16000 mg/kg. Sub-acute treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the level of serum transaminase, proteins and HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, the extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the level of leucocytes as well as neutrophils, basophils and monocytes in female. No significant variation of serum creatinine, LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides as well as liver, spleen, testicles and ovaries proteins was noted. Histopathological analysis of organs showed vascular congestion, inflammation of peri-portal and vacuolization of hepatocytes at the level of the liver. Leucocytes infiltration of peri-portal veins were noticed on lungs and liver cells

  13. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, T. J. N.; Okorie, O.; Okonta, J. M.; Okonkwo, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD50of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05). Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats. PMID:21188045

  14. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p<0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management

  15. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QWToF-MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and 'avouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as ‘cinnamon’. ‘True cinnamon’ refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other ‘cinnamon’ species, C....

  16. Antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic activities of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark extract in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Chaudhary, R

    2006-03-01

    Methanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck bark when administered orally at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day to male rats of proven fertility for 60 days did not cause any significant loss in their body weights but the weights of reproductive organs, i.e. testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased in a significant manner when compared to controls. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Marked decline in the germ cell population was noticed. Population of preleptotene, pachytene, secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatid were declined by 60.86%, 65.81%, 71.56% and 66.55%, respectively. Cross-sectional surface area of sertoli cells as well as the cells counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cells nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 60.03% and 51.56%, respectively. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after A. lebbeck extract feeding. Oral administration of the extract did not affect red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. In conclusion, A. lebbeck bark extract administration arrests spermatogenesis in male rats without noticeable side effects.

  17. [Inflammatory ointment from shea butter and hydro-alcoholic extract of Khaya senegalensis barks (Cailcederat)].

    PubMed

    Thioune, O; Ahodikpe, D; Dieng, M; Diop, A B; Ngom, S; Lo, I

    2000-01-01

    In a former study, it was proved that the alcoholic solution of hydro-alcoholic extract of Khaya senegalensis barks had an anti-inflammatory activity on animals after a local application. In this work, ointments made from the same extract and three different excipients (vaseline, lanoline and shea butter (crude and refined)) have been prepared and tested by the method of the croton oil inhibited ear oedema. Results showed inhibition percentages of the ear oedema of 58.8%, 66.7% and 75.4% when the hydro-alcoholic extract was tested at respective doses of 1%, 2% and 3% in shea butter. The two other excipients, (vaceline and Lanoline) tested at the dose of 3% showed between 52% and 58% of inhibitions. The interest of this study was to demonstrate the possibility to maintain the anti-inflammatory activity of Khaya senegalensis barks by using them in a galenic form, easy to prepare and which is, in addition, more adapted than the extract to possible clinical trials.

  18. Comparison between several techniques of olive tree bark extraction (Tunisian Chemlali variety).

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Aimen; Ksibi, Hatem; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the chemical composition of the olive tree bark of Tunisian chemlali variety (Olea europaea cv. 'Chemlali'), this material was extracted by different ways. Compositions of extracts were used at best-selected conditions for each technique, and characterised using HPLC, LC/MS and GC-MS techniques. Analyses are conducted to an important variety of high carbon number compounds such as aliphatic compounds as nanocosane and heptacosane, and molecules with high value added tax (VAT) which can be classified as follows: diterpenes as phytol, triterpenes as squalene and also esters as Benzyl cinnamate. Hydrodistillation at high pressure seems to be a very common method to get a wide variety of compounds, the results are better than the ones obtained using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

  19. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  20. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Genotoxic Effect of Polyphenolic Bark Extract from Quercus sideroxyla

    PubMed Central

    Soto-García, Marcela; Rosales-Castro, Martha; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.

    2016-01-01

    Quercus sideroxyla is a wood species whose bark has phenolic compound and should be considered to be bioactive; the hypoglycemic and genotoxic properties of Q. sideroxyla bark were evaluated in this study. Total phenolic compound was determined in crude extract (CE) and organic extract (OE). The OE has the highest amount of phenols (724.1 ± 12.0 GAE/g). Besides, both CE and OE demonstrated effect over the inhibition of α-amylase in vitro. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by glucose tolerance curve and the area under curve (UAC); OE showed the highest hypoglycemic activity. In addition, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and the extracts (50 mg/kg) were administered for 10 days; OE showed hypoglycemic effect compared with diabetic control and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CE; results of acute toxicity did not show any mortality. Besides, the comet assay showed that CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg did not show any genotoxic effect when evaluated at 24 h, whereas it induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 1 comets. PMID:27867402

  1. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    PubMed Central

    Mbaebie, BO; Edeoga, HO; Afolayan, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:23569880

  2. Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Cordia africana

    PubMed Central

    Asrie, Assefa Belay; Abdelwuhab, Mohammedbrhan; Shewamene, Zewdneh; Gelayee, Desalegn Asmelashe; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint; Birru, Eshetie Melese

    2016-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23–25 g) of either sex. Number of diarrheic defecations, intestinal length traveled by the charcoal meal, and weight of intestinal fluid were taken as important parameters to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extract. In preliminary phytochemical screening tests, the methanolic extract of C. africana was found to contain phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Reduction in the number of diarrheic drops was observed in groups of mice that received 200 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 400 mg/kg (P<0.01) of the extract compared to the negative controls. The percent inhibition of intestinal fluid accumulation was 26.83%, 46.34%, and 53.66% at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Relative to the negative control group, the mean percent of intestinal length moved by the charcoal meal was decreased by 24.41%, 39.89%, and 51.66% in groups of mice given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract, respectively. To iterate the finding, the root bark extract of C. africana was found to be effective in preventing castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal motility in a dose-dependent manner. This reveals that the plant material has promising antidiarrheal activity as it is claimed in traditional medical practice. PMID:27799833

  3. Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Cordia africana.

    PubMed

    Asrie, Assefa Belay; Abdelwuhab, Mohammedbrhan; Shewamene, Zewdneh; Gelayee, Desalegn Asmelashe; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint; Birru, Eshetie Melese

    2016-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23-25 g) of either sex. Number of diarrheic defecations, intestinal length traveled by the charcoal meal, and weight of intestinal fluid were taken as important parameters to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extract. In preliminary phytochemical screening tests, the methanolic extract of C. africana was found to contain phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Reduction in the number of diarrheic drops was observed in groups of mice that received 200 mg/kg ( P <0.05) and 400 mg/kg ( P <0.01) of the extract compared to the negative controls. The percent inhibition of intestinal fluid accumulation was 26.83%, 46.34%, and 53.66% at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Relative to the negative control group, the mean percent of intestinal length moved by the charcoal meal was decreased by 24.41%, 39.89%, and 51.66% in groups of mice given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract, respectively. To iterate the finding, the root bark extract of C. africana was found to be effective in preventing castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal motility in a dose-dependent manner. This reveals that the plant material has promising antidiarrheal activity as it is claimed in traditional medical practice.

  4. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2015-10-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  5. Activity of hawthorn leaf and bark extracts in relation to biological membrane.

    PubMed

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Bielecki, Krzysztof; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and determine the percent content of polyphenols in extracts from leaves and hawthorn bark, to examine the effect of the extracts on the properties of the biological membrane as well as to determine their antioxidant activity toward membrane lipids. In particular, a biophysical investigation was conducted on the effect of hawthorn extracts on the osmotic resistance and morphology of erythrocyte cells and on the packing of the heads of membrane lipids. Analysis of the polyphenol content of extracts used the HPLC method. Analysis of the polyphenol composition has shown a dominant share of procyanidins and epicatechin in both extracts. The research showed that the polyphenolic compounds contained in hawthorn extracts are incorporated mainly into the hydrophilic part of the erythrocyte membrane, inducing echinocyte shapes. They also diminish the packing order of the lipid polar heads of the membrane, as evidenced by the lowered generalized polarization values of Laurdan. The substances used induced increased osmotic pressure of erythrocytes, making them less sensitive to changes in osmotic pressure. The presence of the extract compounds in the outer hydrophilic part of the erythrocyte membrane, evidenced by examination of the shapes and packing in the hydrophilic part of membrane, indicates that the substances constitute a kind of barrier that protects the erythrocyte membrane against free radicals, while the membrane-bound extracts do not disturb the membrane structure and, thus, do not cause any side effects.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk.

    PubMed

    Cava, R; Nowak, E; Taboada, A; Marin-Iniesta, F

    2007-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon bark, cinnamon leaf, and clove against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A were studied in semiskimmed milk incubated at 7 degrees C for 14 days and at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The MIC was 500 ppm for cinnamon bark EO and 3,000 ppm for the cinnamon leaf and clove EOs. These effective concentrations increased to 1,000 ppm for cinnamon bark EO, 3,500 ppm for clove EO, and 4,000 ppm for cinnamon leaf EO when the semiskimmed milk was incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Partial inhibitory concentrations and partial bactericidal concentrations were obtained for all the assayed EOs. The MBC was 3,000 ppm for the cinnamon bark EO, 10,500 ppm for clove EO, and 11,000 ppm for cinnamon leaf EO. The incubation temperature did not affect the MBC of the EOs but slightly increased the MIC at 35 degrees C. The increased activity at the lower temperature could be attributed to the increased membrane fluidity and to the membrane-perturbing action of EOs. The influence of the fat content of milk on the antimicrobial activity of EOs was tested in whole and skimmed milk. In milk samples with higher fat content, the antimicrobial activity of the EOs was reduced. These results indicate the possibility of using these three EOs in milk beverages as natural antimicrobials, especially because milk beverages flavored with cinnamon and clove are consumed worldwide and have been increasing in popularity in recent years.

  7. In vivo antioxidant effect of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana in CCl4 induced liver damage rats.

    PubMed

    Adetoro, Kadejo Olubukola; Bolanle, James Dorcas; Abdullahi, Sallau Balarebe; Ahmed, Ozigi Abdulrahaman

    2013-05-01

    The antioxidant effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves of Vitex doniana (V. doniana) were evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage albino rats. A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (148 mg·ml(-1)·kg(-1) body weight) as a 1:1 (v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of V. doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weighy per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of three weeks. The liver of CCl4 induced not treated group showed that the induction with CCl4, significantly (P<0.05) increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). However there was no significant (P>0.05) difference between TBARS, SOD and CAT in the liver of the induced treated groups and normal control group. In the kidney, TBARS showed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the normal and the induced groups, SOD was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the CCl4 group compared to standard drug and normal control groups, CAT was significantly (P<0.05) increased in root and vitamin E groups when compared to induced not treated group. The studies also showed that when the extracts were administered to normal animals, there was no significant (P>0.05) change in the liver and kidney level of TBARS, SOD and CAT compared with the normal control except in the kidney of animals treated with stem extract where TBARS was significantly

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prosopis juliflora bark extract: reaction optimization, antimicrobial and catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Arya, Geeta; Kumari, R Mankamna; Gupta, Nidhi; Kumar, Ajeet; Chandra, Ramesh; Nimesh, Surendra

    2018-08-01

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles (PJB-AgNPs) have been biosynthesized employing Prosopis juliflora bark extract. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was monitored on UV-vis spectrophotometer. The size, charge and polydispersity index (PDI) of PJB-AgNPs were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Different parameters dictating the size of PJB-AgNPs were explored. Nanoparticles biosynthesis optimization studies suggested efficient synthesis of highly dispersed PJB-AgNPs at 25 °C when 9.5 ml of 1 mM AgNO 3 was reduced with 0.5 ml of bark extract for 40 min. Characterization of PJB-AgNPs by SEM showed spherical-shaped nanoparticles with a size range ∼10-50 nm along with a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼55 nm as evaluated by DLS. Further, characterizations were done by FTIR and EDS to evaluate the functional groups and purity of PJB-AgNPs. The antibacterial potential of PJB-AgNPs was tested against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The PJB-AgNPs remarkably exhibited anticancer activity against A549 cell line as evidenced by Alamar blue assay. The dye degradation activity was also evaluated against 4-nitrophenol that has carcinogenic effect. The results thus obtained suggest application of PJB-AgNPs as antimicrobial, anticancer and catalytic agents.

  9. Antimicrobial kinetics of Alstonia scholaris bark extract-mediated AgNPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supraja, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; David, E.; Giridhara Krishna, T.

    2016-06-01

    Nanobiotechnology is considered as one of the important branches of nanotechnology, and research on synthesis of nanoscale materials, silver in particular, using plant and plant parts has been progressing rapidly. Herein, we used bark extract of Alstonia scholaris one of the most important medicinal plants to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which exhibited excellent antimicrobial properties against biofilm formed in drinking water PVC pipes. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was done by treating 90 mL of 1 mM AgNO3 aqueous solution with 10 mL of 5 % bark extract. As-prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized using the biophysical techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering for the measurement of hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential. The kinetics of the antimicrobial activity against PVC biofilm of prepared silver nanoparticles were done using comparative solution suspension time-killing assessments and which are evidenced in Epi-fluorescent microscopic observations.

  10. Pinus densiflora bark extract prevents selenite-induced cataract formation in the lens of Sprague Dawley rat pups.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun; Choung, Se-Young

    2017-01-01

    Rat pups treated with sodium selenite are typically used as an in vivo model to mimic age-related nuclear cataract. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, reduction of antioxidant enzymes, crystalline proteolysis, and apoptosis are considered factors that contribute to pathogenesis of age-related nuclear cataract. In the present study, we investigated whether Pinus densiflora bark extract has potential to prevent cataract formation and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=10). Group 1 rat pups (the control) were treated with only normal saline. The rat pups in groups 2 to 6 were given a subcutaneous injection with sodium selenite (18 μmol/kg bodyweight) on postnatal (P) day 10. Group 3 rat pups (the positive control) were given gastric intubation with curcumin (80 mg/kg bodyweight) on P9, P10, and P11. The rat pups in groups 4 to 6 were given gastric intubation with P. densiflora bark extract 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, and 120 mg/kg, respectively, on P9, P10, and P11. This study showed that P. densiflora bark extract dose-dependently prevented cataract formation. Water-soluble protein, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activity levels were found to be high, and conversely, water-insoluble protein, malondialdehyde, and Ca 2+ -ATPase were found to be low in the groups treated with P. densiflora bark extract compared to group 2. Real-time PCR analysis showed αA-crystalline, lens-specific m-calpain ( Lp84 ), lens-specific intermediates (filensin and phakinin), and antiapoptotic factor ( Bcl-2 ) were downregulated, and the apoptotic factors (caspase-3 and Bax) and plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase ( PMCA-1 ) were upregulated in group 2 compared to group 1. P. densiflora bark extract regulated the imbalance of these genes. The increased cleavage form of caspase-3 was lowered in the groups treated with P. densiflora bark extract. In conclusion, P. densiflora bark

  11. Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on blood glucose level in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Giri, R; Kesavulu, M M; Apparao, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide.

  12. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction conditions for preparing lignan-rich extract from Saraca asoca bark using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu

    2016-07-01

    Lyoniside is the major constituent of Saraca asoca Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) bark. There is an immediate need to develop an efficient method to isolate its chemical constituents, since it is a therapeutically important plant. A rapid extraction method for lyoniside based on microwave-assisted extraction of S. asoca bark was developed and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Lyoniside was analyzed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction solvent ratio (%), material solvent ratio (g/ml) and extraction time (min) were optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of 1:30 material solvent ratio with 70:30 mixture of methanol:water for 10 min duration. The optimized microwave-assisted extraction yielded 9.4 mg/g of lyoniside content in comparison to reflux extraction under identical conditions which yielded 4.2 mg/g of lyoniside content. Under optimum conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a high goodness-of-fit model and the success of the RSM method for optimizing lyoniside extraction from the bark of S. asoca. All the three variables significantly affected the lyoniside content. Increased polarity of solvent medium enhances the lyoniside yield. The present study shows the applicability of microwave-assisted extraction in extraction of lyoniside from S. asoca bark.

  13. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. in mice and on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Heroor, Sanjeev; Beknal, Arun Kumar; Mahurkar, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. on cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in mice and the phagocytic effect on human neutrophils. Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. at two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 13 days to albino mice and cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg i.p.) was administered on 11th, 12th, and 13th days, 1 hour after the administration of the respective treatment. On 14th day blood was collected and the hematological parameters were evaluated. The two extracts in the concentration range 100, 50, 25, 12 and 6.25 μg were also tested for phagocytic effect on human neutrophils using the in vitro models-nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye test, phagocytosis of Candida albicans, and chemotaxis assay. Methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. showed significant counteracting effect (P < 0.01) to cyclophosphamide-induced reduction in total WBC, differential leucocyte count, platelet counts, RBC counts, and hemoglobin levels. The extracts of the plant in the concentration range 100, 50, 25, 12, and 6.25 μg also showed significant (P < 0.01) phagocytic effect on human neutrophils in the parameters studied. Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. exhibited immunomodulatory property in both in vivo and in vitro models.

  14. Assessment of the effeCt of lIfestyle iNtervention plus water-soluble ciNnAMon extract On loweriNg blood glucose in pre-diabetics, a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo controlled trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Paul; Thai, Chuong; Obholz, Joshua; Schievenin, Jeffrey; True, Mark; Shah, Sachin A; Hallgren, John; Clark, Jill; Sharon, Danny

    2016-01-05

    The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death in the world. Multiple studies have tried to determine if cinnamon is an effective treatment for diabetes. Cinnamon extract is an insulin sensitizer, protects mesangial cells, decreases inflammatory markers, and lowers glucose, lipids, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes, so we developed a protocol to study whether ingestion of water-soluble cinnamon extract prevents progression from pre-diabetes to diabetes. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing cinnamon extract versus placebo in subjects with pre-diabetes who have committed to participate in a lifestyle change program. The trial will be conducted at five sites and will include 428 subjects who take cinnamon extract or placebo for 1 year. Follow-up for these subjects will be for a total of 2 years (nine study visits). The primary outcomes to be assessed are 1) conversion of patients from pre-diabetes to diabetes and 2) impact of water-soluble cinnamon extract on hepatic transaminases, renal function, and QT interval on electrocardiogram. Secondary outcomes include changes in HbA1c, lipids, waist circumference, weight, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. The trial protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the US Air Force 59th Medical Wing, Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center (Protocol FWH20110035H). Investigator-sponsored Investigational New Drug status (114078) was granted by the US Food and Drug Administration. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of water-soluble cinnamon extract in conjunction with lifestyle intervention for preventing patients with pre-diabetes from converting to diabetes. Additionally, it will provide important safety information about water-soluble cinnamon extract. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01301521 , 18 February 2011.

  15. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Methods Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Results Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly

  16. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  17. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p < 0.05-0.001) of the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw. However, the antiinflammatory effect of the plant extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p < 0.05-0.001) the antiinflammatory effects of the crude plant extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  18. Histopathological alterations in mice under sub-acute treatment with Hintonia latiflora methanolic stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Flores-Jiménez, Nancy G; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; Fortoul, Teresa I; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; López-Camacho, Perla Y; Anacleto-Santos, Jhony; Gutiérrez, Filiberto Malagón; Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Rivera-Fernández, Norma

    2018-06-20

    The indiscriminate use of herbal products is increasingly growing worldwide; nonetheless consumers are not warned about the potential health risks that these products may cause. Hintonia latiflora (Hl) is a tree native to the American continent belonging to the Rubiaceae family and its stem bark is empirically used mainly to treat diabetes and malaria; supplements containing Hl are sold in America and Europe without medical prescription, thus scientific information regarding its toxicity as a consequence of a regular consumption is needed. In the present study, the histopathological effect of 200 and 1000 mg/kg of Hintonia latiflora methanolic stem bark extract (HlMeOHe) was evaluated in the small bowel, liver, pancreas, kidneys and brain of CD-1 male mice after oral sub-acute treatment for 28 days. No histopathological alterations were observed in the brain and small bowel of the treated animals; however, mice presented diarrhea from day 2 of treatment with both doses. No histological changes were observed in the tissues collected from the animals treated with 200 mg /kg, except for the liver that depicted periportal hepatitis. Animals treated with the higher dose showed in the liver sections hydropic degeneration, hepatitis and necrosis, kidney sections depicted tubular necrosis and in pancreas sections, hydropic degeneration of the pancreatic islets was observed. In conclusion, HlMeOHe damaged the liver with an oral dose of 200 mg/kg, and at 1000 mg/kg injured the kidneys and pancreas of the CD-1 male mice.

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Korean Red Pine(Pinus densiflora) Bark Extract and Its Phenolics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Im, Sungbin; Jeong, Ha-Ram; Jung, Young-Seung; Lee, Inil; Kim, Kwan Joong; Park, Seung Kook; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2018-03-15

    Korean red pine ( Pinus densiflora ) is one of the major Pinus species in Korea. Red pine barkis removed prior to the chipping process in the wood industry and discarded aswaste. However, red pine bark contains a considerable amount of naturally occurring phenolics including flavonoids and therefore may have a variety of biological effects. In this study, we investigated if Korean red pine bark extract (KRPBE) could protect neuronal PC-12 cells from oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.Analysis of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography results revealed four phenolics in KRPBE:vanillin, protocatechuic acid, catechin and taxifolin.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of KRPBE were 397.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 248.7 mg catechin equivalents/g DW, respectively. Antioxidant capacities of KRPBE measured using ABTS, DPPH, and ORAC assays were 697.3, 521.8, and 2,627.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/g DW, respectively. KRPBE and its identified phenolics protected against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, which degrade the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to terminate neurotransmission in synaptic clefts, were inhibited by treatment with KRPBE and its identified phenolics. Taken together, these results suggest that KRPBE and its constituent antioxidative phenolics are potent neuroprotective agents that can maintain cell viability in the context of oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.

  20. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  1. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-12-01

    To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. PMID:24093787

  3. Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae) Root Bark Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kasangana, Pierre Betu; Haddad, Pierre Selim; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc) and hexane (Hex). The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g) and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g) were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG) assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin®, but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin® by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r < 0.6) was found between different classes of polyphenols and the results of the phosphomolybdenum method, ORACFl as well as ORACPRG, except for the DPPH assay, for which a negative correlation was indicated (r < 0.62). Interestingly, it seems that the content in hydroxycinnamic acids played a big role in all assays with r < 0.9. According to the present study, EAc fraction and EtOH extract should be further studied for the potential use in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:26783713

  4. Protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract through the inhibition of aldose reductase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, YanLi; Zhao, Yongxia; Sui, YaNan; Lei, XiaoJun

    2018-04-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats. Aldose reductase is a key enzyme in the intracellular polyol pathway, which plays a major role in the development of diabetic cataract. Rats were divided into five groups as normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic control treated with different concentrations of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts. Presence of major constituents in Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract was performed by qualitative analysis. Body weight changes, blood glucose, blood insulin, and reduced glutathione (GSH) and aldose reductase mRNA and protein expression were determined. Rat body weight gain was noted following treatment with bark extracts. The blood glucose was reduced up to 36% following treatment with bark extracts. The blood insulin and tissue GSH contents were substantially increased more than 100% in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. Aldose reductase activity was reduced up to 79.3% in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. V max , K m , and K i of aldose reductase were reduced in the lens tissue homogenate compared to the diabetic control. Aldose reductase mRNA and protein expression were reduced more than 50% following treatment with extracts. Treatment with Pterocarpus marsupium bark was able to normalize these levels. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that the use of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts could be the potential therapeutic approach for the reduction of aldose reductase against diabetic cataract.

  5. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is wide spread interest in drugs derived from plants as green medicine is believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects. Methods We have attempted to evaluate the antioxidant, In vitro thrombolytic, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Clausena heptaphylla (Rutaceae) stem bark extract ethanol extract. Results Ethanolic stem bark extract of Clausena heptaphylla (CHET) contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids but it lacks tannins, anthraquinones and resins. Phenol content of the extract was 13.42 mg/g and flavonoid content was 68.9 mg/g. CHET exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.11 μg/ml. Reducing power of CHET was also moderately stronger. In the cytotoxicity assay, LC50 and Chi-square value of the ethanolic extract against brine shrimp nauplii were 144.1461 μg/ml and 0.8533 demonstrating potent cytotoxic effect of the extract. In vitro thrombolytic activity of CHET is significant with 45.38% clot lysis capability compared to that of Streptokinase (65.78%). In antibacterial screening, moderate zone of inhibition (6.5-9.0 mm in diameter) was observed against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842 and Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13578 and less promising zone of inhibition (3.0-4.5 mm in diameter) against gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC 65154, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Shigella sonnei ATCC 8992 did not show any sensitivity. The MIC values against these bacteria were ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 μg/ml. The extract showed significant zone of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae DSM 2200, Aspergillus niger DSM 737 and Aspergillus ochraceus DSM 824 in antifungal assay. Conclusions Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the chemical components

  6. Abortifacient potential of methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark in mice.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Muhammad Vaseem; Kala, Manika; Ravat, Nirav; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2015-09-15

    Medicinal plants possessing abortifacient activity have been used traditionally for a long time in folk medicine. Anthocephalus cadamba, is one such herb that has been known to possess abortifacient potential in ethnobotanical literature, but has not been validated scientifically. The methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark (MEAC) was prepared and tested for abortifacient, estrogenic and uterotrophic activity. Pregnant Swiss albino mice were randomized into 5 groups (1-5). Group 1 (negative control) received 0.2% w/v agar, group 2-4 (received extract at the dose of 500, 1000 and 1500mg/kg b.w.) and group 5 received mifepristone at a dose of 5.86mg/kg b.w. respectively, by oral route from 10(th) to 18(th) day post-coitum daily, and various parameters recorded. The uterotrophic bioassay was performed in bilaterally ovariectomized mice dosed from 9(th) to 15(th) day of ovariectomy and change in uterotrophic parameters was observed. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. No signs of clinical toxicity were observed at any time during the period of treatment. The extract significantly reduced (P<0.05) the number of live fetus, weight and survival ratio of the fetus, number of corpora lutea, progesterone, estradiol and luteinizing hormone whereas the number of dead fetus, number of mice that aborted, percentage vaginal opening and post-implantation loss increased significantly (P<0.05). The estrogenicity experiments showed increase in uterine weight (P<0.05), ballooning of uterus, uterine glucose (P<0.05) and ALP (P<0.001) in extract treated group dose dependently. In addition, the extract also induced vaginal bleeding preceding parturition. This study has substantiated the abortifacient potential of the methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark. The activity was more marked in 1000 and 1500mg/kg b.w. of the extract and was comparable to that of

  7. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles.

  8. Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Thangavelu; Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Vijayaragavan, Rajagopal; Bhullar, Sukhwinder Kaur; Rajendran, Ramasamy

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB) against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25). Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. A. catechu treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC 50 of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Anti-spermatogenic activity of ethanol extract of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Neeru; Vats, Manisha

    2011-06-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-spermatogenic efficacy of ethanol extract of stem bark of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. For the in vitro study, semen samples were obtained from 15 healthy fertile men aged 25-35 years. Sperm motility was examined by the Sander-Cramer method. A dose-dependent and time-dependent effect of ethanol extract on sperm motility and sperm viability were observed. Various concentrations affected the motility of sperm. Ethanol extract at a concentration of 20 mg/mL caused complete immobilization within 3 minutes. Sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling was significantly reduced at this concentration. The in vivo studies were carried out on Swiss male albino mice. Ethanol extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in a significant decrease (p<0.001) in weight of the testis and epididymis. A significant decrease (p<0.01) in sperm motility and sperm count in the epididymis were observed. Histological changes in the epididymis and testis were also investigated. Copyright © 2011 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  10. Fortified extract of red berry, Ginkgo biloba, and white willow bark in experimental early diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, Claudio; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Drago, Filippo; Leggio, Gian Marco; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control) rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats.

  11. Cinnamon Extract Enhances Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C2C12 Myocytes by Inducing LKB1-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK. PMID:24551069

  12. Cinnamon extract enhances glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myocytes by inducing LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK.

  13. In vitro antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Tharaphan, Pattamon; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tarning, Joel; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-18

    The emergence of drug resistant malaria is threatening our ability to treat and control malaria in the Southeast Asian region. There is an urgent need to develop novel and chemically diverse antimalarial drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimalarial and antioxidant potentials of Acacia nilotica plant extracts. The antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts were determined by standard antioxidant assays; reducing power capacity, % lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. The antimalarial activities of plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum parasites were determined by the 48 h schizont maturation inhibition assay. Further confirmation of schizonticide activity of extracts was made by extending the incubation period up to 96 h after removing the plant extract residues from parasites culture. Inhibition assays were analyzed by dose-response modelling. In all antioxidant assays, leaves of A. nilotica showed higher antioxidant activity than pods and bark. Antimalarial IC 50 values of leaves, pods and bark extracts were 1.29, 4.16 and 4.28 μg/ml respectively, in the 48 h maturation assay. The IC 50 values determined for leaves, pods and bark extracts were 3.72, 5.41 and 5.32 μg/ml respectively, after 96 h of incubation. All extracts inhibited the development of mature schizont, indicating schizonticide activity against P. falciparum. A. nilotica extracts showed promising antimalarial and antioxidant effects. However, further investigation is needed to isolate and identify the active components responsible for the antimalarial and antioxidant effects.

  14. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana bark extract: characterization and improvement of the antiviral efficacy against influenza A virus and human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Linda L; Erdelmeier, Clemens A J; Spoden, Gilles A; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant

  15. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana Bark Extract: Characterization and Improvement of the Antiviral Efficacy against Influenza A Virus and Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Linda L.; Erdelmeier, Clemens A. J.; Spoden, Gilles A.; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P.

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant

  16. Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities and determination of the total tannin content of bark extracts Endopleura uchi.

    PubMed

    Politi, Flávio A S; de Mello, João C P; Migliato, Ketylin F; Nepomuceno, Andréa L A; Moreira, Raquel R D; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2011-01-01

    Endopleura uchi is a typical Amazonian tree and its bark is popularly employed in the preparation of teas against myomas, arthritis, influenza, diarrhea and cancer. In this study, the antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of five different extracts of the bark, selected by their total tannin content, were assessed. The potential antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and the values found were very similar among the extracts and to the standards antioxidants used in the tests. Cytotoxicity analysis in mammalian cells indicated that all the tested extracts exhibited IC(50) values higher than the highest concentration used, showing that they do not present a risk when consumed under these conditions. Extract tested against five bacterial strains and one yeast strain did not show satisfactory growth inhibitory activity, and even the extracts that showed some antimicrobial activity were not effective at any dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results may serve as a reference for subsequent works, since such reference values described in the literature for the bark of E. uchi.

  17. Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities and Determination of the Total Tannin Content of Bark Extracts Endopleura uchi

    PubMed Central

    Politi, Flávio A. S.; de Mello, João C. P.; Migliato, Ketylin F.; Nepomuceno, Andréa L. A.; Moreira, Raquel R. D.; Pietro, Rosemeire C. L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Endopleura uchi is a typical Amazonian tree and its bark is popularly employed in the preparation of teas against myomas, arthritis, influenza, diarrhea and cancer. In this study, the antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of five different extracts of the bark, selected by their total tannin content, were assessed. The potential antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and the values found were very similar among the extracts and to the standards antioxidants used in the tests. Cytotoxicity analysis in mammalian cells indicated that all the tested extracts exhibited IC50 values higher than the highest concentration used, showing that they do not present a risk when consumed under these conditions. Extract tested against five bacterial strains and one yeast strain did not show satisfactory growth inhibitory activity, and even the extracts that showed some antimicrobial activity were not effective at any dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results may serve as a reference for subsequent works, since such reference values described in the literature for the bark of E. uchi. PMID:21731469

  18. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Uncaria tomentosa Bark and Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Corella, Diego; Moreira-Gonzalez, Ileana; Arnaez-Serrano, Elizabeth; Monagas-Juan, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa, using a multi-step process involving organic solvents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity on aerial bacteria, and cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines. These promising results prompted the present study using food grade solvents suitable for the elaboration of commercial extracts. We report a detailed study on the polyphenolic composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa bark and leaves (n = 16), using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TQ-ESI-MS). A total of 32 compounds were identified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, procyanidin dimers and trimers, flavalignans–cinchonains and propelargonidin dimers. Our findings showed that the leaves were the richest source of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins, in particular propelargonidin dimers. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that the contents of procyanidin and propelargonidin dimers were significantly different (p < 0.05) in function of the plant part, and leaves extracts showed higher contents. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) values indicated higher antioxidant capacity for the leaves (p < 0.05). Further, correlation between both methods and procyanidin dimers was found, particularly between ORAC and propelargonidin dimers. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis results clearly indicated that the leaves are the richest plant part in proanthocyanidins and a very homogenous material, regardless of their origin. Therefore, our findings revealed that both ethanol and water extraction processes are adequate for the elaboration of potential

  19. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Dialium Guineense (Wild)

    PubMed Central

    Ezeja, MI; Omeh, YS; Ezeigbo, II; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. Objectives: The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Method: Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) of the extract were administered orally by gastric gavage. The activity was compared with a standard reference drug, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (400 mg/kg) and negative control. The results were analysed by SPSS version 17 using ANOVA and Post Hoc Duncan. Result: In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex model, D. guineense extract and the reference drug significantly (P =0.014 - 0.002) decreased the mean total number of abdominal constriction in the mice in a dose dependent fashion. The percentage inhibition of the abdominal constriction reflex was increased dose dependently from 0% in the negative control group to 71% at the highest dose of the extract (1000mg/kg). In the tail immersion model the extract at the dose of 1000 mg/kg significantly (P = 0. 048) increased the pain reaction time (PRT) while in hot plate model the extract and drug also significantly (P = 0.048 - 0.05) increased the mean PRT at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The dose of 250 mg/kg showed no analgesic activity in tail immersion and hot plate models. Conclusion: Dialium guineense demonstrated significant analgesic activity that may be mediated through peripheral pain mechanism. PMID:23209955

  20. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of dialium guineense (wild).

    PubMed

    Ezeja, Mi; Omeh, Ys; Ezeigbo, Ii; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) of the extract were administered orally by gastric gavage. The activity was compared with a standard reference drug, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (400 mg/kg) and negative control. The results were analysed by SPSS version 17 using ANOVA and Post Hoc Duncan. In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex model, D. guineense extract and the reference drug significantly (P =0.014 - 0.002) decreased the mean total number of abdominal constriction in the mice in a dose dependent fashion. The percentage inhibition of the abdominal constriction reflex was increased dose dependently from 0% in the negative control group to 71% at the highest dose of the extract (1000mg/kg). In the tail immersion model the extract at the dose of 1000 mg/kg significantly (P = 0. 048) increased the pain reaction time (PRT) while in hot plate model the extract and drug also significantly (P = 0.048 - 0.05) increased the mean PRT at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The dose of 250 mg/kg showed no analgesic activity in tail immersion and hot plate models. Dialium guineense demonstrated significant analgesic activity that may be mediated through peripheral pain mechanism.

  1. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Uncaria tomentosa Bark and Leaves.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Hoyos, Mirtha; Alvarado-Corella, Diego; Moreira-Gonzalez, Ileana; Arnaez-Serrano, Elizabeth; Monagas-Juan, Maria

    2018-05-11

    Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa , using a multi-step process involving organic solvents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity on aerial bacteria, and cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines. These promising results prompted the present study using food grade solvents suitable for the elaboration of commercial extracts. We report a detailed study on the polyphenolic composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa bark and leaves ( n = 16), using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TQ-ESI-MS). A total of 32 compounds were identified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, procyanidin dimers and trimers, flavalignans⁻cinchonains and propelargonidin dimers. Our findings showed that the leaves were the richest source of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins, in particular propelargonidin dimers. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that the contents of procyanidin and propelargonidin dimers were significantly different ( p < 0.05) in function of the plant part, and leaves extracts showed higher contents. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) values indicated higher antioxidant capacity for the leaves ( p < 0.05). Further, correlation between both methods and procyanidin dimers was found, particularly between ORAC and propelargonidin dimers. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis results clearly indicated that the leaves are the richest plant part in proanthocyanidins and a very homogenous material, regardless of their origin. Therefore, our findings revealed that both ethanol and water extraction processes are adequate for the elaboration of potential

  2. Effect of a total extract from Fraxinus ornus stem bark and esculin on zymosan- and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Z; Neychev, H; Ivanovska, N; Kostova, I

    1995-05-01

    This study investigates the total ethanol extract (TE) of the stem bark of Fraxinus ornus and its constituent esculin (EN). They inhibited classical pathway (CP) and alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation in mouse serum. After intraperitoneal administration the total extract displayed antiinflammatory activity in both zymosan- and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. The results suggest that the traditional use of Fraxinus ornus stem bark extracts in the treatment of inflammatory disorders is at least partially due to its coumarin constituents.

  3. Utilization of Tahongai stem bark (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) extract as corrosion inhibitor on API 5L steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizky, Yoel; Novita, Eli; Rinda, Shaimah; Sulistijono, Triana, Yunita

    2018-04-01

    Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is one of herbal plant cultivated in Kalimantan. Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is known containing antioxidant to prevent cancer cell growing, therefore it is expected to become a good organic corrosion inhibitor. Tests conducted in this study were: DPPH to prove the content of antioxidant compounds in Tahongai woods (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) from which IC50 number is found to be 153.78 µg/mL, indicating intermediate power, Fourier Transform Infrared Specroscopy (FTIR) to determine the functional groups and compounds in Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) and suspected that flavonoid compound contained in extract, Open Circuit Potential (OCP) to obtain corrosion rate data and found that the slowest corrosion occurred on 400 ppm (30 days) with corrosion rate 8,74 × 10-4 mm/year. The most efficient inhibitor found in 400 ppm (30 days) with 92,063%.

  4. In vitro study on the antioxidant activity of a polyphenol-rich extract from Pinus brutia bark and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Elena; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Mircea, Cornelia; Trifan, Adriana; Charalambous, Christiana; Constantinou, Andreas I; Miron, Anca

    2013-11-01

    A crude hydromethanolic extract from Pinus brutia bark and its fractions (diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions) were studied with regard to their phenolic content and antioxidant activities. The total phenolics and proanthocyanidins in each extract were quantified by spectrophotometric methods; the polyphenolic profile was analyzed by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. All extracts were tested with regard to their ability to scavenge free radicals (ABTS radical cation, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals), reduce ferric ions, and inhibit 15-lipoxygenase. P. brutia bark extracts had high phenolic contents (303.79±7.34-448.90±1.39 mg/g). Except diethyl ether extract, all other extracts contained proanthocyanidins ranging from 225.79±3.94 to 250.40±1.44 mg/g. Several polyphenols were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS: taxifolin in diethyl ether extract, a taxifolin-O-hexoside, catechin, procyanidin dimers, and trimers in ethyl acetate extract. Except diethyl ether extract, all other extracts were effective scavengers of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals (EC₅₀=33.5±1.1-54.93±2.85 μg/mL and 0.47±0.06-0.6±0.0 mg/mL, respectively). All extracts had noticeable 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects (EC₅₀=22.47±0.75-34.43±2.25 μg/mL). We conclude that P. brutia bark is very promising for the dietary supplements industry due to its high free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects.

  5. Gastroprotective activity of the ethanol extract from the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Roseli S; Diniz, Polyana B F; Estevam, Charles S; Pinheiro, Malone S; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Thomazzi, Sara M

    2013-05-20

    Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), known as "catingueira", has been used in folk medicine in the treatment of various disorders such as gastritis, heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ache. However, the gastroprotective properties of this species have not yet been studied. The ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis inner bark was used in rats via oral route, at the doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg. The antiulcer assays were performed using the ethanol- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcer models. Gastric secretion parameters (volume, pH, and total acidity) were also evaluated by the pylorus ligated model, and the mucus in the gastric content was determined. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was performed using the agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The ethanol extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) produced dose dependent inhibition (P<0.01) on the ulcer lesion index, the total lesion area, and the percentage of lesion area in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The ethanol extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) also reduced (P<0.001) the ulcer index in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model. In the model ligature pylorus, the treatment with Caesalpinia pyramidalis ethanol extract failed to significantly change the gastric secretion parameters. However, after treatment with the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg), there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in mucus production. The ethanol extract showed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, with inhibition halos of 12.0 ± 1.7 mm at 10,000 μg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the ethanol extract were of 625 and 10,000 μg/mL, respectively. Collectively, the present results suggest that the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis displays gastroprotective actions, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various

  6. Analgesic effects of stem bark extracts of Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn.) JJ De Wilde.

    PubMed

    Woode, Eric; Amoh-Barimah, Ama Kyeraa; Abotsi, Wonder Kofi Mensah; Ainooson, George Kwaw; Owusu, George

    2012-01-01

    Various parts of Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Fam. Meliaceae) are used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions. The present study examined the analgesic properties of the petroleum ether (PEE), ethyl acetate (EAE), and the hydro-ethanolic (HAE) extract of the stem bark of the plant in murine models. PEE, EAE, and HAE were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (hot plate test), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. The possible mechanisms of the antinociceptive action were also examined with various antagonists in the formalin test. HAE, EAE, and PEE, each at doses of 10-100 mg/kg orally, and the positive controls (morphine and diclofenac) elicited significant dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in the chemical (acetic acid abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (hot plate test), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models in rodents. The antinociceptive effect of HAE was partly or wholly reversed by systemic administration of atropine, naloxone, and glibenclamide. The antinociceptive effects of EAE and PEE were inhibited by atropine. The extracts HAE, EAE, and PEE caused dose-related antinociception in chemical, thermal, and mechanical models of pain in animals. The mechanism of action of HAE involves an interaction with muscarinic cholinergic, adenosinergic, opioidergic pathways, and ATP-sensitive K+ channels while that of EAE and PEE involve the muscarinic cholinergic system.

  7. Behavioral and anticonvulsant effects of the standardized extract of Ficus platyphylla stem bark.

    PubMed

    Chindo, Ben A; Ya'U, Jamilu; Danjuma, Nuhu M; Okhale, Samuel E; Gamaniel, Karniyus S; Becker, Axel

    2014-06-11

    Decoctions of Ficus platyphylla Del.-Holl (Family: Moraceae) are used in Nigeria׳s folk medicine for the management of epilepsy and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of northern Nigeria. The aim of the study is to examine the behavioral and anticonvulsant properties of the standardized methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla (FP) stem bark, in order to scientifically describe its potential values in the management of convulsive disorders. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and preliminary phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract were utilized and the intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) determined in mice. The effects of FP were investigated on some murine models of behavior and its anticonvulsant effects studied on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, strychnine (STN)-, picrotoxin (PCT)-, isoniazid (INH)-, aminophylline (AMI)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. The intraperitoneal oral LD50 of FP was estimated to be 5000mg/kg. FP significantly reduced the locomotor activities including the total distance covered, speed, active time and rearing counts. It shortened the onset and prolonged the duration of diazepam-induced sleep, but had no effect on motor coordination on the rota-rod treadmill or beam-walking assay in mice at the doses tested. The extract protected the mice against PTZ- and STN-induced seizures and significantly delayed the latencies of myoclonic jerks and tonic seizures induced by all the standard convulsant agents (PTZ, PCT, INH, STN and AMI) used in this study, but failed to protect the mice against MES seizures at the doses tested. The HPLC fingerprint of the extract shows a spectrum profile characteristic of Ficus platyphylla, while the preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids and tannins. Our study provides scientific evidence that FP may contain psychoactive principles with potential anticonvulsant properties, thus supporting further

  8. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

  9. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of psidium guajava in albino rats and albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, N Chandra; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms.

  10. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  11. A procyanidin type A trimer from cinnamon extract attenuates glial cell swelling and the reduction in glutamate uptake following ischemia-like injury in vitro.

    PubMed

    Panickar, K S; Polansky, M M; Graves, D J; Urban, J F; Anderson, R A

    2012-01-27

    Dietary polyphenols exert neuroprotective effects in ischemic injury. The protective effects of a procyanidin type A trimer (trimer 1) isolated from a water soluble cinnamon extract (CE) were investigated on key features of ischemic injury, including cell swelling, increased free radical production, increased intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), mitochondrial dysfunction, and the reduction in glutamate uptake. Astrocyte (glial) swelling is a major component of cytotoxic brain edema in ischemia and, along with vasogenic edema, may contribute to increased intracranial pressure, brain herniation, and additional ischemic injuries. C6 glial cultures were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 5 h, and cell swelling was determined at 90 min after the end of OGD. OGD-induced increases in glial swelling were significantly blocked by trimer 1, but not by the major nonpolyphenol fractions of CE including cinnamaldehyde and coumarin. Increased free radical production, a contributing factor in cell swelling following ischemic injury, was also significantly reduced by trimer 1. Mitochondrial dysfunction, another key feature of ischemic injury, is hypothesized to contribute to glial swelling. Depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) was assessed using a fluorescent dye (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester [TMRE]), and was significantly attenuated by trimer 1 as was OGD-induced increased [Ca(2+)](i). Taken together with our previous observation that blockers of [Ca(2+)](i) reduce cell swelling, our results indicate that trimer 1 may attenuate cell swelling by regulating [Ca(2+)](i). Trimer 1 also significantly attenuated the OGD-induced decrease in glutamate uptake. In addition, cyclosporin A, a blocker of the mitochondrial permeability pore (mPT), but not FK506 (that does not block the mPT), reduced the OGD-induced decline in glutamate uptake indicating a role of the mPT in such effects. Thus, the effects of trimer 1 in attenuating the

  12. Evaluation of the systemic toxicity and mutagenicity of OLIGOPIN®, procyanidolic oligomers (OPC) extracted from French Maritime Pine Bark extract.

    PubMed

    Segal, L; Penman, M G; Piriou, Y

    2018-01-01

    The potential systemic toxicity of Oligopin®, a French Maritime Pine Bark extract (FMPBE) rich in procyanidolic oligomers, was evaluated in an acute oral limit test and a 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study with Sprague Dawley rats. The potential mutagenicity was assessed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes. The results indicate that Oligopin® was nongenotoxic in both bacterial and human cell assays, was not acutely toxic via oral administration at up to 2000 mg/kg and was well tolerated following 90 days of oral administration to SD rats, with a no observed adverse effect level of 1000 mg/kg/day. The lack of significant adverse systemic effects in the 90 day study is concordant with findings from several human clinical trials. The acute toxicity and mutagenicity data are consistent with data reported by AFSSA in a summary of FMPBE safety, in which a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg/day was established. In contrast, the NOAEL derived from the 90-day study with Oligopin® was 1000 mg/kg/day, suggesting that it is less systemically toxic than other FMPBE previously evaluated in subchronic studies, and comparable to proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds, which are widely used as nutritional supplement ingredients.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao L. stem bark ethanol extract and its fractions in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Oyeleke, Sabitiu A; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Umukoro, Solomon; Aderibigbe, A O; Ademowo, Olusegun George

    2018-08-10

    The stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. have been used for the treatment of inflammation, toothache, measles and malaria in ethnomedicine. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao stem bark has not been fully elucidated. The anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao stem bark ethanol extract and its fractions was investigated in this study. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extract of Theobroma cacao stem bark (EETc) and its dichloromethane (DCMF), ethylacetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) fractions was investigated in erythrocytes membrane stabilizing assay and carrageenan-induced paw oedema. The anti-inflammatory activity of the EAF and EETc was investigated in carrageenan induced-granuloma air pouch models. The extract and fractions showed significant membrane stabilizing action on rat erythrocytes cell membrane. The oral administration of DCMF, EAF and AQF (250 mg/kg) significantly inhibited paw oedema induced by carrageenan (41.3%, 55.0% and 45.0%, respectively) compared to control group. The EAF (62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg) and EETc (250 mg/kg) significantly inhibited exudates formation in carrageenan air pouch by (63.8, 71.5, 74.5, 64.3%) at 24 h and by (69.4%, 75.7%, 77.1% and 68.4%) at 72 h respectively. The EETc and EAF significantly reduced neutrophil counts, protein, nitrite, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) but increased reduced glutathione (GSH) levels compared to control in pouch exudates. The HPLC fingerprint of EAF revealed presence of caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid and morin. Ethanol extract of Theobroma cacao and its ethylacetate fraction demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity partly by reducing neutrophil migration and inflammatory mediator production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Chul; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, Na-Rae; Shin, In-Sik; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the dose-response effects of pine bark extract (PBE, pycnogenol ® ) on oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes induced by cisplatin (Csp) in rats. The ameliorating potential of PBE was evaluated after orally administering PBE at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg for 10 days. Acute kidney injury was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Csp at 7 mg/kg on test day 5. Csp treatment caused acute kidney injury manifested by elevated levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) with corresponding histopathological changes, including degeneration of tubular epithelial cells, hyaline casts in the tubular lumen, and inflammatory cell infiltration (interstitial nephritis). Csp also induced significant apoptotic changes in renal tubular cells. In addition, Csp treatment induced high levels of oxidative stress, as evidenced by an increased level of malondialdehyde, depletion of the reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in kidney tissues. On the contrary, PBE treatment lowered BUN and CRE levels and effectively attenuated histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes induced by Csp. Additionally, treatment with PBE suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented depletion of GSH, and enhanced activities of the antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissue. These results indicate that PBE has a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes caused by Csp in the rat kidney, which may be attributed to both increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  15. Controllable biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles from a Eucommia ulmoides bark aqueous extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingxia; Li, Wei; Yang, Feng; Liu, Huihong

    2015-05-01

    The present work reports the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by water extract of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) bark. The effects of various parameters such as the concentration of reactants, pH of the reaction mixture, temperature and the time of incubation were explored to the controlled formation of gold nanoparticles. The characterization through high resolution-transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) infer that the as-synthesized AuNPs were spherical in shape with a face cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The results from zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest the good stability and narrow size distribution of the AuNPs. This method for synthesis of AuNPs is simple, economic, nontoxic and efficient. The as-synthesized AuNPs show excellent catalytic activity for the catalytic reducing decoloration of model compounds of azo-dye: reactive yellow 179 and Congo red.

  16. Antinociceptive effects of the extracts of Xylopia parviflora bark and its alkaloidal components in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yumi; Moriyasu, Masataka; Ichimaru, Momoyo; Iwasa, Kinuko; Kato, Atsushi; Mathenge, Simon G; Chalo Mutiso, Patrick B; Juma, Francis D

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the antinociceptive activity of Xylopia parviflora bark using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, and formalin test in mice. The MeOH extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.)) had an antinociceptive effect demonstrated by its inhibitory effects on writhing number induced by acetic acid. Three alkaloidal fractions exhibited significant antinociceptive effects in three animal models; the chloroform-soluble fraction, including secondary and tertiary alkaloids, exhibited the strongest effect. This result supported its use in folk medicine as an analgesic agent. We tested the main alkaloids of these fractions for their antinociceptive effects to clarify the active components. (+)-Corytuberine (6.3 and 12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) showed very strong activity, had a significant antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing test (with 49.4 and 98.9% reduction of writhes), in the hot plate test, and in the formalin test (with 55.4 and 90.6% inhibition during the first phase, and 73.9 and 99.9% during the second phase, respectively). (+)-Glaucine (12.5 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.) showed strong activity in three animal models, too. The activity of these compounds was also observed following oral administration in the acetic acid-induced writhing test.

  17. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on spermatotoxicity by α-chlorohydrin in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ho; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®, PYC, Horphag Research Ltd., Route de Belis, France) against α-chlorohydrin (ACH)-induced spermatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally administered ACH (30 mg/kg/day) with or without PYC (20 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Administration of ACH significantly decreased sperm motility. α-Chlorohydrin also caused histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes in caput epididymides. An increased malondialdehyde concentration and decreased glutathione content, as well as catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were also found. In contrast, PYC treatment significantly prevented ACH-induced spermatotoxicity, including decreased sperm motility, histopathological lesions, and apoptotic changes in the caput epididymis. Pycnogenol® also had an antioxidant benefit by decreasing malondialdehyde and increasing levels of the antioxidant glutathione and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase in epididymal tissues. These results indicate that PYC treatment attenuated ACH-induced spermatotoxicity through antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent.

    PubMed

    Nartey, Edmund T; Ofosuhene, Mark; Kudzi, William; Agbale, Caleb M

    2012-05-20

    Cassia sieberiana is a savannah tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of various stomach disorders including gastric ulcer, stomach pains and indigestion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant, gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins, secretory phospholipase A2, phytochemical and acute toxicity properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract in a bid to justify its phytotherapeutic applications in gastric ulcer. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of the roots bark extract of Cassia sieberiana were assayed. Serum secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) concentration and activity and the formation of gastric mucosal prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and I2 (PGI2) were also assessed. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Students Standard Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis to determine statistical significance. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The extract was found to possess significant ferric reducing antioxidant power and can scavenge hydroxyl radicals. The extract also possesses DPPH scavenging activity, can chelate ferrous ion and a dose-dependent protective effect against lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. Prostaglandin studies showed that the roots bark extract dose dependently increased gastric mucosal PGE2 and PGI2 levels and also decreased serum sPLA2 activity. Phytochemical analyses suggest that the roots extract contains polyhydroxyl/phenolic substances. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight p.o. C. sieberiana roots extract possesses significant antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin properties as well as serum secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity which could be due to its content of polyhydroxy and/or phenolic substances. This may justify its use as an anti-ulcerogenic agent in traditional medicine in West Africa.

  19. Innate catalytic and free radical scavenging activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Dillenia indica bark extract.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Alfa S; Jena, Bhabani S

    2017-06-15

    A green approach was envisaged for the rapid synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles in an aqueous medium using phenolic rich ethanolic bark extract from D. indica with marked free radical scavenging and reducing ability. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed and characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Bio-reduction of Ag+ was confirmed with the appearance of golden yellow coloration within 5-10min at 45°C with maximum absorbance at 421nm. XRD analysis of AgNPs indicated the crystalline nature of metallic Ag. As analyzed by TEM, AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape, well dispersed and size varied from 15 to 35nm and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average particle size of 29nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.280. Synthesized AgNPs were showing surface functionalization as revealed through FTIR studies. These AgNPs were observed to be highly stable at room temperature (28±2°C) for more than 3months, thereby indicating the ethanolic extract of D. indica was a reducing as well as a capping agent for stabilization of AgNPs. Moreover, these green synthesized AgNPs showed enhanced free radical scavenging and excellent catalytic activities when used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and methylene blue dye, at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Guu, Shih-Yun; Tsai, Chan-Chuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Viswaraman, Mohan; Chen, Hsing-Bao; Chang, Chuan-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-α-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC), and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids. PMID:26076445

  1. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Walter, Abigail J; Kells, Stephen A; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus accepts hosts on the basis of gustatory cues, we prepared bark and phloem extracts from logs of four North American tree species that we had used in previous host acceptance experiments. Water, methanol, and hexane extracts of red pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and paper birch were presented alone and in combination on a neutral filter paper substrate in a section of a plastic drinking straw. Boring behavior in response to the three-extract combinations differed from the pattern of acceptance previously observed among species when the beetles were in contact with the bark surface. Only the aqueous extracts of tamarack, Larix laricina, increased the initiation and the extent of boring by O. erosus on the filter paper substrate. We conclude that the effects of extracted chemicals do not match the behavior of the beetles observed when penetrating excised bark and phloem discs, indicating that host selection by O. erosus may not be predictable from bark and phloem chemistry alone. Instead, host acceptance may be determined by nongustatory stimuli or by a combination of stimuli including gustatory and nongustatory cues.

  2. Effect of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) stem bark methylene chloride/methanol extract on streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dimo, Théophile; Rakotonirina, Silvere V; Tan, Paul V; Azay, Jacqueline; Dongo, Etienne; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Cros, Gérard

    2007-04-04

    Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) is used as a traditional treatment of diabetes in Cameroon. In this study, we investigated the possible antidiabetic effect of the stem bark extract in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg) to male Wistar rats. Experimental animals (six per group), were treated by oral administration of plant extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and metformin (500 mg/kg; reference drug) for comparison, during 21 days. The stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract of Sclerocarya birrea exhibited at termination, a significant reduction in blood glucose and increased plasma insulin levels in diabetic rats. The extract also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. The effective dose of the plant extract (300 mg/kg) tended to reduce plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and urea levels toward the normal levels. Four days after diabetes induction, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in experimental diabetic rats. The results showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in rats treated with Sclerocarya birrea extract. Metformin, a known antidiabetic drug (500 mg/kg), significantly decreased the integrated area under the glucose curve. These data indicate that Sclerocarya birrea treatment may improve glucose homeostasis in STZ-induced diabetes which could be associated with stimulation of insulin secretion.

  3. [Studies on extraction process of the main saponin constituents from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus in Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Yang, Xin-ping; Liu, Xiao-fu; Jiang, Xiao-jun

    2009-09-01

    Using orthogonal experiment design, the total saponin constituents were obtained by refluxing extraction with alcohol and separated by macroporous adsorption resin and n-Butyl alcohol from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus. According to the purity analysis and the yield, the extraction process was optimized. The results showed that the main saponin constituents were gained with a yield of 1.32% by using macroporous adsorption resin but 1.05% by using n-Butyl alcohol. The former was more efficient than the latter on both yield and color. The optimal process with isolation by macroporous adsorption resin is cheap, simple and practical.

  4. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    SciTech Connect

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  5. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  6. Chromium and polyphenols from cinnamon improve insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Naturally-occurring compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenols found in cinnamon (Cinnamomon cassia). These compounds also have similar effects on insulin signalling and glucose control. The signs of Cr deficiency are similar to those for the metabolic syndrome and supplemental Cr has been shown to improve all these signs in human subjects. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study it has been demonstrated that glucose, insulin, cholesterol and HbA1c are all improved in patients with type 2 diabetes following Cr supplementation. It has also been shown that cinnamon polyphenols improve insulin sensitivity in in vitro, animal and human studies. Cinnamon reduces mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), TAG (23-30%), total cholesterol (12-26%) and LDL-cholesterol (7-27%) in subjects with type 2 diabetes after 40 d of daily consumption of 1-6 g cinnamon. Subjects with the metabolic syndrome who consume an aqueous extract of cinnamon have been shown to have improved fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, percentage body fat and increased lean body mass compared with the placebo group. Studies utilizing an aqueous extract of cinnamon, high in type A polyphenols, have also demonstrated improvements in fasting glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in women with insulin resistance associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome. For both supplemental Cr and cinnamon not all studies have reported beneficial effects and the responses are related to the duration of the study, form of Cr or cinnamon used and the extent of obesity and glucose intolerance of the subjects.

  7. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bark extracts of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. and study of their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Manoja; Smita, Soumya Shuvra

    2018-03-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved using bark extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., a native plant of Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia. The plant parts are familiar for ailment of different diseases. The bioactive compounds present in bark of the plant were extracted with Soxhlet extractor. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as a raw material for preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The ratio of bark extract and silver nitrate solution for synthesis of AgNPs was standardized as 3:5. The change in colour of the solution from pale yellow to deep brown can be correlated to reduction reaction catalyzed by plant bioactive compounds. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) maxima, λmax, were recorded at 452 nm. SPR indicates the nature and type of particles present in the solution. The suitable concentration of AgNO3 was found to be 10 mM to carry out reduction reaction with the bark extract. Alkaline environment (pH 9) suitably promotes the reaction. FTIR graph of synthesized AgNPs shows the shifting peak of 3265.0 wavelength/cm and 1635.40 wavelength/cm indicates that AgNPs were coated with plant biomolecules, which is attributed to the stabilization of AgNPs. XRD and SEM photograph of the AgNPs showed that they were spherical in shape and capped with bioactive compounds. Thus, the synthesized AgNPs are more stable, less toxic and homogenous in shape. The average diameter of the nanoparticles was 81 nm. The synthesized AgNPs had efficacy against a Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), a Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), and a mold (Aspergillus niger). The maximum conversion was 66%. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that the bioactive compounds present in the bark of Butea have the capacity to reduce silver ion into silver nanoparticles in aqueous condition and the synthesized AgNPs are stabilized and loss toxic. Moreover, they also possess

  8. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  9. Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2011-11-01

    The root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic of Congo to treat several debilitating conditions, such as hernia, female sterility, sexual asthenia, and parasitic infections. However, little is known about the composition of the secondary plant substances, which may contribute to these traditional medicinal effects. We conducted an ethnobotanical study and then evaluated the composition of the secondary plant substances in extracts of the root bark by using spectroscopic methods. After delipidation, the root bark was lixiviated in methanol, and components in the extract were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS and nano-electrospray ionization-MS-MS. These methods identified 13 secondary plant substances (almost exclusively phenolic compounds): p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (I), vanillin (II), tyrosol (III), 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (IV), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (V), vanillyl alcohol (VI), syringaldehyde (VII), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (VIII), vanillic acid (IX), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (X), syringic acid (XI), and ferulic acid (XII), along with the phytosterol squalene (XIII). In the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, the methanolic extract exhibited potent antioxidant capacity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 72 μL, equivalent to 1.38 mg/mL of raw extract. Thus, a methanol extract of A. cuneata Oliv. contained a range of polyphenolic compounds, which may be partly responsible for its known traditional medicinal effects. More detailed studies on the phytochemistry of this important plant species are therefore warranted.

  10. [Studies on technology optimization for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styracifolius].

    PubMed

    Ren, Gang; Liu, Rong-hua; Shao, Feng; Huang, Hui-lian; Wen, Li-rong

    2010-08-01

    To study the technology optimization for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styracifolius. The optimum extraction conditions were investigated by the contents of the total flavones, using orthogonal test; Static adsorption capacity and desorption rate were employed as examine items for the screening of optimum macroporous resin and optimum technology for the purification of total flavones with selected macroporous were also investigated. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: using 60% alcohol of seven times than amounts of original material soaking 12 hours,extracting once with hot reflux method at 50 degrees C. HPD-500 type macroporous resin showed better adsorption and desorption property. The optimum purification conditions were as follows: the sample solution was prepared at the concentration of 50.0 mg/mL, subjected to HPD-500 type macroporous resin column chromatography with a load ratio of 22.0 mg total flavones per gram of resin. After standing for 1 hour, the column was eluted with 4 BV water before being eluted with 4 BV 80% alcohol. The purity of the product was 86.4%, which enhanced the content of total flavones by 533%. The optimum conditions for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styractifolius are convenient and practical, and could be used as a reference for industrial production.

  11. Unstable simple volatiles and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of essential oil from the roots bark of Oplopanax horridus extracted by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Li; Bao, Mei-Hua; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2014-11-27

    Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), τ-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g) was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E)-nerolidol (2 g), τ-cadinol (62 mg) and S-falcarinol (21 mg), were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  12. COMPARISON OF MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF WATER SOLUBLE EXTRACTS OF EUGENIA JAMBOLANA LAM. (FAM. MYRTACEAE) BARKS OF DIFFERENT AGES ON DYSENTERY AND DIARRHOEA FORMING MICRO – ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Asis Prosun; Pal, Subodh Chandra; Chattopadhyay, Debaprasad; De, Samar; Nandy, Anutosh

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary investigations was carried out to study the antibacterial activity of the water soluble extracts of five and ten years old barks of Eugenia Jambolana Lam. (fam. Myrtaceae) on dysentery and diarrhoea forming micro organisms. It was observed that the barks of young plants have a better inhibitory effect on micro – organisms like Salmonella viballerup, Shigella dysenteriae 10, Shigella boydii 5, Sgigella dysenteriae 2. PMID:22557509

  13. High Performance Thin layer Chromatography: Densitometry Method for Determination of Rubraxanthone in the Stem Bark Extract of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Dachriyanus; Aulia, Hilyatul; Susanti, Meri

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia cowa is a medicinal plant widely grown in Southeast Asia and tropical countries. Various parts of this plant have been used in traditional folk medicine. The bark, latex, and root have been used as an antipyretic agent, while fruit and leaves have been used as an expectorant, for indigestion and improvement of blood circulation. This study aims to determine the concentration of rubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa by the high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). HPTLC method was performed on precoated silica gel G 60 F254 plates using an HPTLC system with a developed mobile-phase system of chloroform: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (86:6:3:5). A volume of 5 μL of standard and sample solutions was applied to the chromatographic plates. The plates were developed in saturated mode of twin trough chamber at room temperature. The method was validated based on linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and specificity. The spots were observed at ultraviolet 243 nm. The linearity of rubraxanthone was obtained between 52.5 and 157.5 ppm/spot. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 4.03 and 13.42 ppm/spot, respectively. The proposed method showed good linearity, precision, accuracy, and high sensitivity. Therefore, it may be applied for the quantification of rubraxanthone in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa . High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provides rapid qualitative and quantitative estimation of rubraxanthone as a marker com¬pound in G. cowa extract used for commercial productRubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extracts of G. cowa was successfully quantified using HPTLC method. Abbreviations Used : TLC: Thin-layer chromatography, HPTLC: High-performance thin-layer chromatography, LOD: Limit of detection, LOQ: Limit of quantification, ICH: International Conference on Harmonization.

  14. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dimo, Théophile; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoit; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Kamanyi, Albert

    2010-08-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.

  15. Antihyperalgesic effects of an aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.: role of mangiferin isolated from the extract.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B; Garrido, Gabino; García, Mary Elena; Delgado-Hernández, René

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of a Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) and mangiferin (MG) on pain-related acute behaviors in the formalin 5% test. Rats received repeated oral MSBE (125-500 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days before formalin injection. Other four groups with the same treatments were performed in order to study the effect of MSBE on the formalin-induced long-term secondary mechano-hyperalgesia at 7 days after the injury by means of the pin-prick method. Additional groups received a single oral MSBE dose (250 mg/kg) plus ascorbic acid (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, repeated oral MG doses (12.5-50 mg/kg) during 7 days were administered. MSBE decreased licking/biting and flinching behaviors only in phase II and reduced the long-term formalin injury-induced secondary chronic mechano-hyperalgesia. The combination of MSBE plus ascorbic acid produced a reinforcement of this effect for flinching behavior, advising that antioxidant mechanisms are involved, at least in part, in these actions. Chronic administration of MG reproduced the effects of MSBE. For the first time, the antihyperalgesic effects of MSBE and MG in formalin 5% test, a recommended concentration for studying the antinociceptive activity of nitric oxide-related and N-methyl-d-aspartate-related compounds, were reported. These results could represent an important contribution to explain the analgesic ethnobotanical effects recognized to M. indica and other species containing MG. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. An aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (Vimang) inhibits T cell proliferation and TNF-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Gabino; Blanco-Molina, Magdalena; Sancho, Rocío; Macho, Antonio; Delgado, René; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2005-03-01

    A commercial aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) has been reported to have antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. The molecular basis for these diverse properties is still unknown. This study shows that a stem bark extract of M. indica inhibits early and late events in T cell activation, including CD25 cell surface expression, progression to the S-phase of the cell cycle and proliferation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Moreover, the extract prevented TNFalpha-induced IkappaBalpha degradation and the binding of NF-kappaB to the DNA. This study may help to explain at the molecular level some of the biological activities attributed to the aqueous stem bark extract of M. indica (Vimang).

  17. Phenolic composition, anitproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties of conventional and organic cinnamon and peppermint

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional and organic cinnamon and peppermint were investigated for their phenolic profile, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 75% acetone was a better method than Soxhlet and overnight extraction for phenolic content and a...

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Tamokou, Jean de Dieu; Simo Mpetga, Deke James; Keilah Lunga, Paul; Tene, Mathieu; Tane, Pierre; Kuiate, Jules Roger

    2012-07-18

    Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B₁); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B₂). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R² = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R² = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms.

  19. Antihyperglycemic activity of Albizzia lebbeck bark extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes mellitus rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyank A.; Parikh, Mihir P.; Johari, Sarika; Gandhi, Tejal R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family - Leguminosae) extract is a proven mast cell stabilizing agent. Mast cells are involved in the inflammatory processes leading to the diabetes mellitus. Aim: To evaluate the effect of A. lebbeck against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Method: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 6). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) given after 15 min of nicotinamide administration (110 mg/kg). Treatment with methanolic extract of A. lebbeck bark (MEAL) and metformin drug as standard was given for 21 days. Serum glucose (GLU) levels were measured on the 0 day and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day after diabetes induction. After completion of study period, various biochemical parameters in serum such as - GLU, lipid profile, urea and creatinine were estimated. One-way analysis of variance followed with post-hoc Dunnett's test was used to analyse the data. Statistical significance for the values was set at P< 0.05. Results: MEAL significantly decreased the level of serum GLU, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: A. lebbeck bark extract showed antihyperglycaemic activity along with antihyperlipidemic effect. PMID:27313423

  20. Antihyperglycemic activity of Albizzia lebbeck bark extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes mellitus rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priyank A; Parikh, Mihir P; Johari, Sarika; Gandhi, Tejal R

    2015-01-01

    Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family - Leguminosae) extract is a proven mast cell stabilizing agent. Mast cells are involved in the inflammatory processes leading to the diabetes mellitus. To evaluate the effect of A. lebbeck against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 6). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) given after 15 min of nicotinamide administration (110 mg/kg). Treatment with methanolic extract of A. lebbeck bark (MEAL) and metformin drug as standard was given for 21 days. Serum glucose (GLU) levels were measured on the 0 day and on 1(st), 7(th), 14(th) and 21(st) day after diabetes induction. After completion of study period, various biochemical parameters in serum such as - GLU, lipid profile, urea and creatinine were estimated. One-way analysis of variance followed with post-hoc Dunnett's test was used to analyse the data. Statistical significance for the values was set at P< 0.05. MEAL significantly decreased the level of serum GLU, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein levels. A. lebbeck bark extract showed antihyperglycaemic activity along with antihyperlipidemic effect.

  1. Cinnamon: Potential Role in the Prevention of Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bolin; Panickar, Kiran S.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, elevated glucose and lipids, inflammation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased weight gain, and increased glycation of proteins. Cinnamon has been shown to improve all of these variables in in vitro, animal, and/or human studies. In addition, cinnamon has been shown to alleviate factors associated with Alzheimer's disease by blocking and reversing tau formation in vitro and in ischemic stroke by blocking cell swelling. In vitro studies also show that components of cinnamon control angiogenesis associated with the proliferation of cancer cells. Human studies involving control subjects and subjects with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovary syndrome all show beneficial effects of whole cinnamon and/or aqueous extracts of cinnamon on glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, lipids, antioxidant status, blood pressure, lean body mass, and gastric emptying. However, not all studies have shown positive effects of cinnamon, and type and amount of cinnamon, as well as the type of subjects and drugs subjects are taking, are likely to affect the response to cinnamon. In summary, components of cinnamon may be important in the alleviation and prevention of the signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and related diseases. PMID:20513336

  2. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    PubMed Central

    Ganga Rao, B.; Umamaheswara Rao, P.; Sambasiva Rao, E.; Mallikarjuna Rao, T.; Praneeth. D, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. Results All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. Conclusions In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats. PMID:23569853

  3. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark.

    PubMed

    Ganga Rao, B; Umamaheswara Rao, P; Sambasiva Rao, E; Mallikarjuna Rao, T; Praneeth D, V S

    2012-10-01

    To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  4. Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shirwaikar, Annie; Rajendran, K; Barik, Rakesh

    2006-09-19

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of bark of Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae). The various parameters studied included fasting blood sugar levels, serum lipid levels, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level and glycated hemoglobin in diabetic and normal rats. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide was used to induce type-II diabetes mellitus. Treatment with the extract at two dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the HDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased upon treatment with the extract thus proving the potent antidiabetic property of the plant.

  5. Nutrients, Antioxidant Capacity and Safety of Hot Water Extract from Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum M.) and Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Bark.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Sagar; Ratti, Cristina; Poubelle, Patrice E; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2018-03-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum M.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) barks were treated with hot water to extract nutrients in order to explore, for the first time, its potential as safe dietary antioxidants. The organic and inorganic nutrients of these extracts, as well as their safety on human PLB-985 cells differentiated into neutrophils-like cells, were determined. Proximate analysis showed that both bark extracts were low in moisture and fat. Sugar maple bark extract (SM-BX) showed crude protein and ash content higher than those found in red maple bark extract (RM-BX). In addition, SM-BX had total sugars higher than those evaluated in RM-BX, while complex sugars (oligo- and/or poly-saccharides) were similarly abundant in both bark extracts. Furthermore, SM-BX demonstrated a wide array of vital minerals (K, Ca, Mg, P, Na, Fe and Cu) in quantity larger than that evaluated in RM-BX, whereas RM-BX have Zn and Mn levels higher than those found in SM-BX. Phytochemical analyses showed that RM-BX exhibited total phenolic and flavonoid contents higher than those measured in SM-BX. Consequently, RM-BX presented an antioxidant activity higher than that of SM-BX: 2.85-fold ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity and 1.9-fold oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Finally, RM-BX and SM-BX were greatly safe since, at concentration up to 100 μg/ml, they did not modify the viability of neutrophils as determined by flow-cytometry assay using Annexin V-FITC/Propidum Iodide as markers. In conclusion, our in vitro studies indicate that both red and sugar maple bark extracts have a real potential as food additives.

  6. Pharmacological and Genotoxic Properties of Polyphenolic Extracts of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. Barks in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Almonte-Flores, Dulce Carolina; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo; Rosales-Castro, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. bark extracts was performed in vitro. Juglans regia showed greater extract concentration and higher antioxidant activity. Hypoglycemic activity in rats was assessed by generating a glucose tolerance curve and determining the area under the curve (AUC). Diabetes was later induced by an injection with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg of b.w.) and confirmed after 24 hours. The extract was administered (200 mg/kg b.w.) over 10 days, and blood glucose was monitored and compared with a control group. The glucose AUC showed a hypoglycemic effect of J. regia and C. odorata in normal rats. Both extracts reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. Polyphenolic extracts reduced cholesterol levels in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Polyphenolic extract doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. were administered alone or with cyclophosphamide (CPA) 50 mg/kg ip, which was used as a positive control. Analyses were performed using leukocytes in a comet assay after 4 and 24 h of treatment. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by the comet assay, which showed that while J. regia extract had no effect, C. odorata extract induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 0 and 1 comets. PMID:25945104

  7. The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Neto, Paulo Alexandre; Peixoto-Sobrinho, Tadeu José da Silva; da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; Leopoldina da Silva, Jamilka; Rodrigo da Silva Oliveira, Alisson; Pupo, André Sampaio; Araújo, Alice Valença; da Costa-Silva, João Henrique; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St) bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000  µ g/mL) reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1 ± 1.8, 50.2 ± 2.0, and 68.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500  µ g/mL) with hydroxyzine, an H 1 -antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250  µ M), increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0 ± 3.2 and 85.1 ± 2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg) inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H 1 ).

  8. The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Neto, Paulo Alexandre; da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; Leopoldina da Silva, Jamilka; Rodrigo da Silva Oliveira, Alisson; Pupo, André Sampaio; Araújo, Alice Valença

    2017-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St) bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000 µg/mL) reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1 ± 1.8, 50.2 ± 2.0, and 68.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500 µg/mL) with hydroxyzine, an H1-antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250 µM), increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0 ± 3.2 and 85.1 ± 2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg) inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H1). PMID:28928787

  9. Influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract on intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen

    2014-08-15

    The selective antimicrobial effect of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract (PBE) (0.5 g/L) has been studied before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. PBE (a concentrate of water-soluble bioflavonoids, mainly including phenolic compounds) has been proven to have high stability to the digestion process. Pure phenolic compounds such as gallic acid had a high antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, maintaining the lactic acid bacteria population (≈100%). Otherwise, E. coli O157:H7 only growth 50% when PBE was added to the culture media, while a slight increase on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was observed after exposition to the bark extract. Fresh fruit juices enriched with PBE showed the highest inhibitory effect on pathogenic intestinal bacterial growth, mainly E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The in vitro digestion process reduced the antibacterial effect of juices against most pathogenic bacteria in approximately 10%. However, the beneficial effect of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g/L) on gut microbiota is still considerable after digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  11. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles and bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ratola, Nuno; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià; Alves, Arminda

    2009-01-15

    Two different extraction strategies (microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic extraction (USE)) were tested in the extraction of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pine trees. Extraction of needles and bark from two pine species common in the Iberian Peninsula (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) was optimized using two amounts of sample (1g and 5 g) and two PAHs spiking levels (20 ng/g and 100 ng/g). In all cases, the clean-up procedure following extraction consisted in solid-phase extraction (SPE) with alumina cartridges. Quantification was done by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS), using five deuterated PAH surrogate standards as internal standards. Limits of detection were globally below 0.2 ng/g. The method was robust for the matrices studied regardless of the extraction procedures. Recovery values between 70 and 130% were reached in most cases, except for high molecular weight PAHs (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene). A field study with naturally contaminated samples from eight sites (four in Portugal and four in Catalonia, Spain) showed that needles are more suitable biomonitors for PAHs, yielding concentrations from 2 to 17 times higher than those found in bark. The levels varied according to the sampling site, with the sum of the individual PAH concentrations between 213 and 1773 ng/g (dry weight). Phenanthrene was the most abundant PAH, followed by fluoranthene, naphthalene and pyrene.

  12. Long-lasting endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated arteries caused by an extract from the bark of Combretum leprosum

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Francisco das Chagas; Cavalcanti, Paulo Marques da Silva; Passaglia, Rita de Cassia Aleixo Tostes; Ballejo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and to characterize the relaxing effect of an extract of the bark of Combretum leprosum on isolated arterial rings from different animals. Methods Rings (3 to 4mm) from rabbit, rat, or porcine arteries rings were suspended in an organ bath (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) to record isometric contractions. After the stabilization period (2 to 3 hours) contractions were induced by the addition of phenylephrine (0.1 to 0.3µM) or U46619 (10 to 100nM), and Combretum leprosum extract was added on the plateau of the contractions. Experiments were performed to determine the potency, duration, reversibility, and to get insights on the potential mechanism involved in extract-induced relaxations. Results In all rings tested, Combretumleprosum extract (1.5μg/mL) was able to cause relaxations, which were strictly endothelium-dependent. In rabbit or rat thoracic aorta rings, the relaxations were reversed by vitamin B12a or L-NG-nitroarginine. In porcine right coronary arteries and rabbit abdominal aorta, extract caused both L-NG-nitroarginine-sensitive and L-NG-nitroarginine-resistant relaxations. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the extract was relatively potent (EC50=0.20µg/mL) and caused relaxations; intriguingly the endothelium continued to produce relaxing factors for a long period after removing the extract. The magnitude of extract-induced relaxations was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; in addition, the TRPs channels blocker ruthenium red (10µM) was able to revert extract-induced relaxations. Phytochemical analyses indicated that the extract was rich in polyphenol-like reacting substances. Conclusions Combretum leprosum extract contains bioactive compounds capable of promoting Ca2+-dependent stimulation of endothelial cells which results in a prolonged production of relaxing factors. PMID:26466063

  13. In vitro multimodal-effect of Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (Meliaceae) bark aqueous extract in CNS targets.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, João; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel; Videira, Romeu António; Valentão, Patrícia; Veiga, Francisco; Andrade, Paula B

    2018-01-30

    The bark of Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (Meliaceae), popularly known as "big catuaba", is traditionally used in Brazilian folk medicine for its neuroactive potential as memory stimulant, and antinociceptive and antidepressant effects. To study the aqueous extract of T. catigua bark as dual inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). To explore its antioxidant potential through interaction with xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) pathway, and to attempt a relationship between its phenolic profile and effects displayed. Phenolic profiling was achieved by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analyses. The capacity to inhibit hMAO-A was assessed in vitro, as was that for AChE, evaluated in rat brain homogenates. The direct inhibition of the X/XO pathway and the scavenging of superoxide anion radical were the selected in vitro models to explore the antioxidant potential. The cytotoxic effects were assayed in the human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells by MTT reduction, after direct exposure (24h). Twenty-six compounds were identified and quantified (551.02 ± 37.61mg/g of lyophilized extract). The phenylpropanoid substituted flavan-3-ols were the most representative compounds (~81% of quantified mass). The extract inhibited hMAO activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC 50 = 121.06 ± 2.13μg/mL). A mixed model of inhibition of AChE activity was observed, reflected by the pronounced increase of Km values and a more discreet effect over the Vmax parameters, calculated from Michaelis-Menten fitted equations. In addition, it was demonstrated that the extract directly inhibits the X/XO pathway (IC 50 = 121.06 ± 2.13μg/mL) and also imbalances the oxidative stress acting as superoxide anion radical scavenger (EC 50 = 104.42 ± 10.67μg/mL), an oxidative by-product of this reaction. All these neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects were displayed within the non-toxic range of concentrations (0.063-0.500μg/mL) in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results validate

  14. Maerua angolensis stem bark extract reverses anxiety and related behaviours in zebrafish-Involvement of GABAergic and 5-HT systems.

    PubMed

    Benneh, Charles Kwaku; Biney, Robert Peter; Mante, Priscilla Kolibea; Tandoh, Augustine; Adongo, Donatus Wewura; Woode, Eric

    2017-07-31

    Maerua angolensis DC (Capparaceae) has been employed in the management of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders including anxiety. This study evaluated the anxiolytic effects of the petroleum ether/ethyl acetate fraction stem bark extract and its possible mechanism(s) using zebrafish anxiety models. Adult zebrafish, tested in the novel tank and light dark tests, have shown by previous authors to be sensitive to the anxiolytic effects of known anxiolytic drugs. Adult zebrafish were treated with M. angolensis extract, fluoxetine, desipramine, and diazepam followed by testing in the novel tank and light dark tests. We further assessed the effect of the extract on anxiety after inducing an anxiogenic phenotype using the ethanol-withdrawal and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) tests. The anxiolytic effect was further investigated after pretreatment with flumazenil, granisetron, cyproheptadine, methysergide and pizotifen. M. angolensis extract, similar to fluoxetine and desipramine, demonstrated significant anxiolytic behaviour at doses that did not reduce locomotor activity significantly. Similar anxiolytic effects were recorded in the ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety test. Furthermore, the anxiogenic effects induced by the CUS paradigm were significantly reversed by treatment M. angolensis extract and fluoxetine. The anxiolytic effects of M. angolensis extract were however reversed after pre-treatment with flumazenil, granisetron, cyproheptadine, methysergide and pizotifen. Taken together, this suggests that the petroleum ether/ ethyl acetate fraction of M. angolensis possesses significant anxiolytic activity, which could partly be accounted for by an interaction with the serotoninergic system and the GABA A receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of Rhizophora mangle aqueous bark extract (RMABE) in the treatment of aphthous ulcers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Armas, Elizabeth; Sarracent, Yamina; Marrero, Eva; Fernández, Octavio; Branford-White, Christopher

    2005-11-01

    Rhizophora mangle aqueous bark extract (RMABE) (CIKRON-H), has been used as antiseptic and skin wound healing promoter. The present study was a randomised, single-blinded, placebo control trial conducted to asses the efficacy of RMABE in treating oral aphthous ulcers. Patients (n = 32) with aphthous ulcers were randomised to received placebo solution or RMABE topically, once a day, from Monday to Friday, until they healed. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by physician clinical observations (time to heal, change in condition), the quality of the patient's life and the tolerability through recording adverse effects. No demographic differences were noted between the two groups at base-line. Seven days after treatment, 12 of the 17 patients in the RMABE group (71%) were completely healed of their aphthous ulcers, with repaired mucosa and no symptoms of ulcers, compared with one in 15 patients in the placebo group (7%) (p < 0.0001). The time taken for the signs and symptoms of ulcers to diminish was also higher in the placebo than in RMABE-treatment group (erythema: placebo 10.54 +/- 1.24, RMABE 4.94 +/- 0.72 days, p = 0.0003; ardour: placebo 7.00 +/- 0.76, RMABE 2.93 +/- 0.49 days, p = 0.0001; and pain: placebo 7.43 +/- 1.21, RMABE 2.92 +/- 0.23 days, p = 0.0011). No subject showed any sign of adverse effects. These observations demonstrate that the R. mangle aqueous bark extract reduced the time to repair mucosal tissue, erythema, ardour and pain persistence. There was no evidence any adverse effects. This is the first time that the R. mangle extract has been reported to have mouth mucosa healing properties.

  16. The Ethanolic Stem-Bark Extract of Antrocaryon micraster Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Pleurisy and Pedal Oedema in Murine Models of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Essel, Leslie B.; Duduyemi, Babatunde M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a 70% v/v ethanol extract of the stem bark of Antrocaryon micraster on murine models of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw oedema. Rat pleural fluid was analysed for volume, protein content, and leucocytes, while lung histology was assessed for damage. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the stem bark. Acute toxicity studies were conducted in rats. In the pleurisy model the extract (30–300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the volume and amount of proteins and leucocytes in the exudate and also protected against lung injury. Tissue level of GSH and SOD and CAT expression were increased while MDA level and MPO activity were reduced. The peak and total oedema responses were significantly suppressed when given both preemptively and curatively in the mice paw oedema test. Saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, and tannins were present in the stem bark. A. micraster extract exhibited no apparent acute toxicity. We conclude that the ethanolic stem-bark extract of A. micraster has antioxidant action and exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity through suppression of pleurisy and paw oedema induced with carrageenan. PMID:28798953

  17. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and prophylactic potentials of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis (Linn.) stem bark.

    PubMed

    Olanlokun, John Oludele; David, Oluwole Moses; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-08-15

    Trema orientalis (T. orientalis Linn) has been used in the management of malaria in the western part of Nigeria and despite its application in ethnomedicine, there is dearth of scientific evidence to justify the acclaimed prophylactic antimalarial usage of the plant. The aim of this study is to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial cell-free assay and chemopreventive efficacy of the methanol extract of the stem bark of T. orientalis and its fractions as a prophylactic regimen for malaria prevention. Also, the antimicrobial activities of the extract and the fractions were investigated. Vacuum liquid chromatography was used to obtain dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol fractions from the methanol extract of T. orientalis. The fractions were tested for their prophylactic and cell-free antimalarial activity using murine models and β-hematin formation assay respectively. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extract and its fractions against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the prophylactic experiment, dichloromethane (DCMF), methanol fraction (MF) and extract (ME) (in this order) showed significant chemopreventive effects against P. berghei invasion of the red blood cells when compared with both Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) and untreated controls. Results of the in vitro study showed that the DCMF had the highest effect in preventing the formation of β-hematin when compared with other fractions. The DCMF also had the highest percentage inhibition of β-hematin formation when compared with chloroquine. The extract and fractions showed a concentration dependent antibacterial activity. Methanol extract had a pronounced inhibitory effect on Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Serratia mercescens ATCC 9986 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 19582 were the most susceptible bacteria. The results obtained showed that both extract and fractions of T. orientalis possessed

  18. Chemopreventive and remediation effect of Adansonia digitata L. Baobab (Bombacaceae) stem bark extracts in mouse model malaria.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, A O; Bewaji, C O

    2018-01-10

    Adansonia digitata L. Baobab (Bombacaceae) solvent extracts have been reported to possess medicinal properties and are currently been used traditionally for the treatment of malaria and several other diseases and infection; however few reports exist in literature that provides supportive scientific evidence in favour of its medicinal use. This study investigated the efficacy of Adansonia digitata stem bark extract in offering protection against experimental malaria and also examined its remediation effect when administered after established infection. Weanling albino mice were used in the study. The mice were transfected intraperitonially with an inoculums size of 1× 10 7 of chloroquine susceptible strain of plasmodium berghei infected erythrocytes. Mechanisms of action of the extract were investigated by measuring the degree of tissue peroxidation and tissue antioxidant status. Severity of malaria was determined by measuring the serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and serum and tissue Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. There was a significant increase in serum CRP, TNF-α concentrations and serum and tissue ALP activity in the control mice following Plasmodium berghei infection. All the treatment had effect on the growth of Plasmodium berghei parasites in mice. The extracts showed a significant dose dependent increase packed cell volume (PCV), percentage chemosupression/clearance and a significant decrease in percentage parasitemia at the two doses when administered after established infection. Methanolic extract (MEAD) at 400mg/kg exhibited the highest chemosupressive activity. The extract significantly reduced the degree of tissue peroxidation, increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. Administration of the extract after established infection reduced serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations and serum and tissue ALP activity. Our study suggests that Adansonia digitata protects

  19. [Cinnamon in type 2 diabetics].

    PubMed

    Ammon, Hermann P T

    2008-05-01

    At present numerous preparations containing cinnamon are in the market. And it is claimed that they are suitable as dietetic food or food additive to regulate glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. Background for this proposition are the results of some pharmacological and clinical studies, showing improvement of glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-diabetic animals, stimulation of insulin secretion in vitro and lowering blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients during simultaneous treatment with oral antidiabetics. This led to a controversy between producers of food additives on the one side and scientists in the field of pharmacology and diabetology on the other. In this connection in a scientific statement the German Diabetes Association (DDG) and the German Pharmaceutical Society (DPhG) kept on distance from the use of cinnamon as a dietetic food/food supplement. The point is the interpretation of what is considered to be a food and what is a drug for medical purposes. Since cinnamon has been used for long as a spice, the nutrition site claims cinnamon as a food. In contrary the medical site in this case claims cinnamon as a drug because of its pharmacological effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, insulin release and blood-sugar. In the meantime this is a case of jurisdiction.

  20. Pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts: antioxidant activity and comprehensive characterization of bioactive compounds by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, María; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-06

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents.

  1. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  2. Phytochemical Screening and Antinociceptive and Antidiarrheal Activities of Hydromethanol and Petroleum Benzene Extract of Microcos paniculata Barks

    PubMed Central

    Moushome, Rafath Ara; Akter, Mst. Irin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Microcos paniculata is traditionally used for treating diarrhea, wounds, cold, fever, hepatitis, dyspepsia, and heat stroke. Objective. To investigate the qualitative phytochemical constituents of hydromethanol (HMPB) and petroleum benzene extract of Microcos paniculata barks (PBMPB) and to evaluate their antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. Methods. Phytochemical constituents and antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities were determined and evaluated by different tests such as Molisch's, Fehling's, Mayer's, Wagner's, Dragendorff's, frothing, FeCl3, alkali, Pew's, and Salkowski's test, general test of glycosides, Baljet and NH4OH test, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion, and hot plate tests, and castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrheal tests. Results. These extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids and significantly (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) reduced paw licking and abdominal writhing of mice. At 30 min after their administration, PBMPB revealed significant increase in latency (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) in tail immersion test. In hot plate test, HMPB and PBMPB 200 mg/kg showed significant increase in response latency (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) at 30 min after their administration. Moreover, both extracts significantly (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) inhibited percentage of diarrhea in antidiarrheal models. Conclusion. Study results indicate that M. paniculata may provide a source of plant compounds with antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. PMID:27777944

  3. Antigenotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Napoleona Vogelii Hook & Planch (Lecythidaceae) In Cyclophosphamide-Induced Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ikumawoyi, Victor; Agbaje, Esther; Awodele, Olufunsho

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Napoleona vogelii is used in traditional medicine for cancer management. AIM: The study was conducted to evaluate the antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol stem bark extract of N. vogelii in male Sprague Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into group 1 (control) administered 10 mL/kg distilled water, groups 2 and 3 were co-administered 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg of N. vogelli and 5 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CPA) respectively for 7 days p.o. Groups 4 and 5 were administered only 5 mg/kg CPA and 200 mg/kg NV respectively. RESULTS: The LD50 oral was greater than 4 g/kg. There were significant (p < 0.0001) increases in plasma enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes and significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in percentage micronuclei in bone marrow of extract treated rats compared to rats administered 5 mg/kg CPA alone. There was steatosis pointing to cytotoxic injury in the liver of rats co-administered 200 mg/kg NV and 5 mg/kg CPA. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the extract showed the presence of phytol and unsaturated fatty acids. CONCLUSION: N. vogelii possesses antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities associated with the presence of phytochemicals, phytol and unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:29362611

  4. Antioxidants of Phyllanthus emblica L. Bark Extract Provide Hepatoprotection against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Damage: A Comparison with Silymarin

    PubMed Central

    Chaphalkar, Renuka; Apte, Kishori G.; Talekar, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. (amla) has been used in Ayurveda as a potent rasayan for treatment of hepatic disorders. Most of the pharmacological studies, however, are largely focused on PE fruit, while the rest of the parts of PE, particularly, bark, remain underinvestigated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus emblica bark (PEE) in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content and in vitro antioxidant activities were determined by using H2O2 scavenging and ABTS decolorization assays. Our results showed that PEE was rich in total phenols (99.523 ± 1.91 mg GAE/g), total flavonoids (389.33 ± 1.25 mg quercetin hydrate/g), and total tannins (310 ± 0.21 mg catechin/g), which clearly support its strong antioxidant potential. HPTLC-based quantitative analysis revealed the presence of the potent antioxidants gallic acid (25.05 mg/g) and ellagic acid (13.31 mg/g). Moreover, one-month PEE treatment (500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) followed by 30-day 70% ethanol (10 mL/kg) administration showed hepatoprotection as evidenced by significant restoration of ALT (p < 0.01), AST (p < 0.001), ALP (p < 0.05), and TP (p < 0.001) and further confirmed by liver histopathology. PEE-mediated hepatoprotection could be due to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity that may be ascribed to its antioxidant components, namely, ellagic acid and gallic acid. Thus, the results of the present study support the therapeutic claims made in Ayurveda about Phyllanthus emblica. PMID:28168009

  5. Improving Indonesian cinnamon (c. burmannii (Nees & t. nees) Blume) value chains for Greater Farmers Incomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menggala, S. R.; Damme, P. V.

    2018-03-01

    Genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) regroups some species whose stem bark are harvested, conditioned and traded as cinnamon in an international market. Over the centuries, the species have been domesticated so that now at least six different ones are grown in Southeast Asia countries. One of the species is Cinnamomum burmannii, also known as Korintje Cinnamon, which generates income for most smallholder farmers in Kerinci district, Jambi, Indonesia. Most cinnamon consumed in the world originates from this Korintje Cinnamon products. It is recognized for its unparalleled quality that comes with its sharp and sweet flavor, with a slightly bitter edge. However, international market requirements for product certification and quality standards make it difficult for a farmer to comply. Our research will address issues related to (improvement of) productivity, sustainability and value chains faced by cinnamon producers in Kerinci, to strengthen their product’s value chains. Smallholder farmers are very vulnerable to climate change impacts, and thus empowering the value chains of agricultural products will increase farmers resilience to climate change. The research will analyze the development of agricultural value chains, certification & standards on trade mechanism to help farmers earn a better income and future prospects.

  6. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrenner, Isabel; Houdek, Pia; Pollok, Simone; Brandner, Johanna M.; Daniels, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH). A birch bark dry extract (TE) obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion) influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold), while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold) or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold) significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold). These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method) the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications where drugs

  7. Lack of in vivo embryotoxic and genotoxic activities of orally administered stem bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang).

    PubMed

    González, J E; Rodríguez, M D; Rodeiro, I; Morffi, J; Guerra, E; Leal, F; García, H; Goicochea, E; Guerrero, S; Garrido, G; Delgado, R; Nuñez-Selles, A J

    2007-12-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) is a new natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects known by the brand name of its formulations as Vimang. Previously, the oral toxicity studies of the extract showed a low toxicity potential up to 2000 mg/kg. This work reports the results about teratogenic and genotoxicologic studies of MSBE. For embryotoxicity study, MSBE (20, 200, or 2000 mg/kg/day) was given to Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage on days 6-15 of gestation. For genotoxicity, MSBE was administered three times during 48 h to NMRI mice. Cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. No maternal or developmental toxicities were observed when the rats were killed on day 20th. The maternal body-weight gain was not affected. No dose-related effects were observed in implantations, fetal viability or external fetal development. Skeletal and visceral development was similar among fetuses from all groups. No genotoxicity was observed in bone marrow erythrocytes and liver cells after administration. MSBE appears to be neither embryotoxic nor genotoxic as measured by bone marrow cytogenetics in rodents.

  8. Antimutagenic properties of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and evaluation of its effects on hepatic CYP1A1.

    PubMed

    Morffi, Janet; Rodeiro, Idania; Hernández, Sandra Luz; González, Leonora; Herrera, Jose; Espinosa-Aguirre, J Javier

    2012-09-01

    Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) is a Cuban natural product which has shown strong antioxidant properties. In this work, the antimutagenic effect of MSBE was tested against 10 well-known mutagens/carcinogens in the Ames test in the absence or presence of metabolic fraction (S9). The chemical mutagens tested included: cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, bleomycin, cisplatin, dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA), benzo[a]pyrene (BP), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), sodium azide, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and picrolonic acid. Protective effects of the extract were also evaluated by comparing the efficiency of S9 fraction obtained from rats treated during 28 days with oral doses of MSBE (50-500 mg/kg) with that obtained from rats treated with vehicle (control) to activate bleomycin and cyclophosphamide in the Ames test. MSBE concentrations between 50 and 500 μg/plate significantly reduced the mutagenicity mediated by all the chemicals tested with the exception of sodium azide. Higher mutagenicity was found when bleomycin and cyclophosphamide (CP) were activated by control S9 than by MSBE S9. In addition, inhibition of CYP1A1 microsomal activity was observed in the presence of MSBE (10-20 μg/ml). We can conclude that besides its potent antioxidant activity previously reported, MSBE may also exert a chemoprotective effect due to its capacity to inhibit CYP activity.

  9. Gastroprotective activity of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora Krause (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Francielle; Gandolfi, Renan Becker; Lemos, Marivane; Ticona, Juan Carlos; Gimenez, Alberto; Clasen, Bruna Kurz; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2009-07-15

    As part of our continuing search for bioactive natural products from plants, the present study was carried out in order to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora (Rutaceae). Anti-ulcer assays were performed using the following protocols in mice: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)/bethanecol-induced ulcer, ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer, and stress-induced ulcer. The effects of the extract on gastric content volume, pH and total acidity were also evaluated, using the pylorus ligated model. Treatment using doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg of G. longiflora alkaloid extract and positive controls (omeprazol or cimetidine) significantly diminished the lesion index, total lesion area, and percentage of lesion, in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. The main alkaloid of the plant, 2-phenylquinoline, was also evaluated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg, it significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions. However, this effect was less than that of the alkaloid extract. All these results taken together show that G. longiflora displays gastroprotective activity, as evidenced by its significant inhibition of the formation of ulcers induced by different models. There are indications that mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in gastric secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence of involvement of NO in the gastroprotector mechanisms. These effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of some alkaloids, particularly 2-phenylquinoline.

  10. Antioxidant activity and phenol content of extracts of bark, stems, and young and mature leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg.

    PubMed

    Habermann, E; Imatomi, M; Pontes, F C; Gualtieri, S C J

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a group of plant secondary metabolites known to have a variety of bioactivities, including the ability to function as antioxidants. Because of the side effects of the use of synthetic substances, the search for natural and less toxic compounds has increased significantly. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenol content of hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the bark (suber) and stems as well as the young and mature leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius. The extracts were obtained by extraction with organic solvents and subsequent fractionation by chromatographic partition coefficient. Preliminary tests for the presence of antioxidants were performed using bioautography in thin-layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, and the phenol content of the extracts was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The results showed that 9 of the 12 extracts evaluated displayed very strong antioxidant activity and three displayed moderate activity. Aqueous extracts of the young leaves and bark and the ethyl acetate extract of the young leaves showed the highest levels of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC). A correlation was observed between TPC and antioxidant activity index (AAI) with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.7999. Thus, the high phenol content of B. salicifolius extracts and its correlation with antioxidant activity provide substrates for further studies.

  11. BIOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF EXTRACTS FROM PTEROCARPUS ERINACEUS POIR (FABACEAE) ROOT BARKS

    PubMed Central

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Anne-Emmanuelle, Hay; Claude W, Ouédraogo Jean; Richard, Sawadogo W; André, Tibiri; Marius, Lompo; Jean-baptiste, Nikiema; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Genevieve, Dijoux-Franca; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. belonging to Fabacae familly is used as medicinal plant in Burkina Faso’s folk medicine. Roots of P. erinaceus are used to treat ulcer, stomach ache and inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to carry out phytochemical composition of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from Pterocarpus erinaceus roots, to isolate pure compounds, and to evaluate their pharmacological activities. Methods: Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of active components of the extracts. The structures were established by NMR analysis and comparison with data from literature. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using croton oil-induced edema of mice ear as well as the effect of extracts against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation was evaluated. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Results: Friedelin (1), 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one (2), a-sophoradiol (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from DCM extract and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) isolated from MeOH. DCM extract and friedelin, 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one, a-sophoradiol showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect against ear edema. Friedelin (1), α-sophoradiol (3) and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited lipoxygenase inhibition. MeOH extract (100 μg/mL) inhibited lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities at 45.1 ± 3% and 30.7 ± 0.5% respectively. MeOH extract, ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction exhibited antioxidant property with both two methods used. Conclusion: The results suggested that the extracts and compounds from roots of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed local anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant properties and inhibitor effect against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities. PMID:28480397

  12. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Properties, and Phytochemical Characterization of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista nobilis

    PubMed Central

    Ngwoke, Kenneth Gerald; Akwagbulam, Amaka Godsaveus; Erhirhie, Ernest Oghenesuvwe; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2018-01-01

    Background: Anthocleista nobilis (Loganiaceae) is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. nobilis. Materials and Methods: The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the components were identified by dereplication. Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. Results: A total of five compounds isovitexin (Rt = 18.77 min), isovitexin-2''-O-xyl (Rt = 19.68 min), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (Rt = 11.88 min), Sarasinoside L (Rt = 19.64 min), isovitexin (Rt = 18.77), and apigenin monoglycoside (Rt = 19.64 min) were identified by HPLC analysis and dereplication. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate subfraction also inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 79% and 85.0% at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, which was better than 71.1% and 81.3% observed for diclofenac at similar doses. Conclusion: A. nobilis could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic lead compounds. SUMMARY The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models. Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and

  14. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Properties, and Phytochemical Characterization of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista nobilis.

    PubMed

    Ngwoke, Kenneth Gerald; Akwagbulam, Amaka Godsaveus; Erhirhie, Ernest Oghenesuvwe; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2018-01-01

    Anthocleista nobilis ( Loganiaceae ) is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. nobilis . The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the components were identified by dereplication. Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. A total of five compounds isovitexin ( R t = 18.77 min), isovitexin-2''-O-xyl ( R t = 19.68 min), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid ( R t = 11.88 min), Sarasinoside L ( R t = 19.64 min), isovitexin ( R t = 18.77), and apigenin monoglycoside ( R t = 19.64 min) were identified by HPLC analysis and dereplication. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate subfraction also inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 79% and 85.0% at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, which was better than 71.1% and 81.3% observed for diclofenac at similar doses. A. nobilis could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic lead compounds. The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models. Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and fractions. The dereplication analysis also identified vitexin and

  15. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    PubMed

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles.

  16. Induction of apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells by an extract from Erythrina suberosa stem bark.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Satyam Kumar; Agrawal, Madhunika; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Gupta, Bishan Datt; Arora, Saroj; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the apoptosis-inducing effect of an alcoholic extract from Erythrina suberosa stem bark (ESB) was investigated using human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells. Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. We found that the ESB inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A series of well-documented morphological changes, such as cell shrinkage, condensation of nuclear chromatin, and nuclear fragmentation, were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The gold standard scanning electron micrographs showed apoptotic bodies and formation of blebs. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in Sub G(0) population of cells above 50 μg/ml. ESB treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in annexin V positive cells. Increase in intracellular ROS production up to sixfold was detected in ESB-treated HL60 cells by DCFH-DA assay. Dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential of intact cells accompanied by increase in cytosolic cytochrome c was observed, which was followed by activation of caspase-9 and -3 but not caspase-8. DNA fragmentation analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 18 h indicative of caspase-3 role in the apoptotic pathway. The overall results suggest that ESB induces mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway in HL60 cells and might have therapeutic value against human leukemia.

  17. Bark extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and antiproliferative response against osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Kumari, Manisha; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-01-01

    In the current investigation we report the biosynthesis potentials of bark extracts of Ficus benghalensis and Azadirachta indica for production of silver nanoparticle without use of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of dark brown color indicated the complete nanoparticle synthesis which was further validated by absorbance peak by UV-vis spectroscopy. The morphology of the synthesized particles was characterized by Field emission- scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrated the crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the role of various functional groups in the nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles showed promising antimicrobial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae) and Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. The synthesized nano Ag also showed antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line in a dose dependent manner. Thus, these synthesized Ag nanoparticles can be used as a broad spectrum therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma and microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant and orofacial anti-nociceptive activities of the stem bark aqueous extract of Anadenanthera colubrina (Velloso) Brenan (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Damascena, N P; Souza, M T S; Almeida, A F; Cunha, R S; Damascena, N P; Curvello, R L; Lima, A C B; Almeida, E C V; Santos, C C S; Dias, A S; Paixão, M S; Souza, L M A; Quintans Júnior, L J; Estevam, C S; Araujo, B S

    2014-01-01

    The anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of the Anadenantheracolubrina stem bark aqueous extract (AEAC) were investigated. AEAC (30 μg/mL) reduced 94.8% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and prevented 64% (200 μg/mL) of lipid peroxidation caused by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride-induced peroxyl radicals. AEAC treatment (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) reduced mice orofacial nociception in the first (61.4% and 62.6%, respectively) and second (48.9% and 61.9%, respectively) phases of the formalin test. Nociception caused by glutamate was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by up to 79% at 400 mg/kg, while 56-60% of the nociceptive behaviour induced by capsaicin was significantly inhibited by AEAC (100-400 mg/kg). Mice treated with AEAC did not show changes in motor performance in the Rota-rod apparatus. It appears that AEAC is of pharmacological importance in treating pain due to its anti-nociceptive effects, which were shown to be mediated by central and peripheral mechanisms.

  19. Inhibitory effects of Pycnogenol® (French maritime pine bark extract) on airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Hahn, Kyu-Woung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a standardized extracts from the bark of the French maritime pine (Pinus maritime) and used as a herbal remedy for various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PYC on airway inflammation using a model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells. PYC decreased nitric oxide production and reduced the interleukine (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PYC also reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and enhanced the expression of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In the in vivo experiment, PYC decreased the inflammatory cell count and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in BALF or serum. These results are consistent with the histological analysis findings, which showed that PYC attenuated the airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion induced by OVA challenge. In addition, PYC enhanced the expression of HO-1. In contrast, PYC inhibited the elevated expression of iNOS and MMP-9 proteins induced by OVA challenge. In conclusion, PYC exhibits protective effects against OVA-induced asthma and LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that PYC has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol(®)) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin.

    PubMed

    Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2012-01-01

    French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.

  1. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of Rhus tripartitum root bark extract against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Mbarki, Sakhria; Barka, Zeineb B; Feriani, Anwer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaeidh, Najla; Sakly, Mohsen; Tebourbi, Olfa; Rhouma, Khémais B

    2013-03-01

    Rhus tripartitum (sumac) is an Anacardiaceae tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of gastric ulcer. In the present study the Rhus tripartitum root barks extract (RTE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The RTE was rich in phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide contents and exhibited a low but not weak in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin. Pre-treatment with RTE at oral doses 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced ulcer by averting the deep ulcer lesions of the gastric epithelium, by reducing gastric juice and acid output, by enhancing gastric mucus production by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The antiulcerogenic activity of RTE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antisecretory effects.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of Terminalia paniculata bark extract and its protective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rodents.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Sahil; Jagani, Hitesh V; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Kishore, Anoop; Bansal, Punit; Shenoy, Rekha R; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

    2013-06-06

    Based on the reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Terminalia paniculata, the bark aqueous extract (TPW) was investigated against liver damage. Intrinsic cytotoxicity was tested on normal human liver (Chang) cell lines, followed by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice. TPW was then evaluated against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and antioxidant markers were assessed. The effect of TPW on isolated hepatic cells, post-CCl4 administration, was assessed by isolated mitochondrial membrane staining. The actions of TPW on apoptotic pathway in CCl4-treated Chang cells were also elucidated. TPW was found to be safe at all doses tested in both in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. TPW (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (*p <0.05) improved liver enzyme activity as compared to CCl4. Also, it improved antioxidant status (GSH, GST, MDA and total thiol) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. TPW pre-treatment significantly attenuated the levels of phospho-p53, p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Bad, Bad and cleaved PARP in CCl4-treated Chang cells, improving the viability considerably. The findings support a protective role for Terminalia paniculata in pathologies involving oxidative stress.

  3. Extract of Rhus verniciflua Bark Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ki; Lee, Yang Gi; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RV) has traditionally been used as a food supplement and a traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea. Recent studies suggest that RV has potent antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of RV from mice sensitized with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and activated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that RV reduced ear swelling and hyperplasia of ear tissue as well as an increase in vascular permeability, which are characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) with evident histomorphological changes in epidermis and dermis. Decreased numbers of infiltrated mast cells were seen in RV extract treated group, using toluidine blue staining. RV extract significantly regulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the translational level in activated macrophages. Furthermore, RV extract and its active compound, fisetin, attenuated the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Anti-ACD effect of RV extract may be due to the suppression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines which might be mediated via the NFκB signaling pathways. Collectively, RV extract has potential for alleviating ACD-like symptoms induced by DNFB in the mouse. PMID:23710240

  4. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-01-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. (芒果 Máng Guǒ) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125–500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125–500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated

  5. A Comparative Study on Phytochemical Profiles and Biological Activities of Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst Leaf and Bark Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Daniela; Miglionico, Rocchina; Carmosino, Monica; Bisaccia, Faustino; Armentano, Maria Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) is a savannah tree that has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa as a medicinal remedy for numerous ailments. The purpose of this study was to increase the scientific knowledge about this plant by evaluating the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the methanol extracts of the leaves and bark (MLE and MBE, respectively), as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity and biological activities of these extracts. Reported results show that MLE is rich in flavonoids (132.7 ± 10.4 mg of quercetin equivalents/g), whereas MBE has the highest content of tannins (949.5 ± 29.7 mg of tannic acid equivalents/g). The antioxidant activity was measured using four different in vitro tests: β-carotene bleaching (BCB), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), O2−•, and nitric oxide (NO•) assays. In all cases, MBE was the most active compared to MLE and the standards used (Trolox and ascorbic acid). Furthermore, MBE and MLE were tested to evaluate their activity in HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. A higher cytotoxic activity of MBE was evidenced and confirmed by more pronounced alterations in cell morphology. MBE induced cell death, triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Moreover, MBE showed lower cytotoxicity in normal human dermal fibroblasts, suggesting its potential as a selective anticancer agent. PMID:29316691

  6. A Comparative Study on Phytochemical Profiles and Biological Activities of Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst Leaf and Bark Extracts.

    PubMed

    Russo, Daniela; Miglionico, Rocchina; Carmosino, Monica; Bisaccia, Faustino; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Milella, Luigi; Armentano, Maria Francesca

    2018-01-08

    Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) is a savannah tree that has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa as a medicinal remedy for numerous ailments. The purpose of this study was to increase the scientific knowledge about this plant by evaluating the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the methanol extracts of the leaves and bark (MLE and MBE, respectively), as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity and biological activities of these extracts. Reported results show that MLE is rich in flavonoids (132.7 ± 10.4 mg of quercetin equivalents/g), whereas MBE has the highest content of tannins (949.5 ± 29.7 mg of tannic acid equivalents/g). The antioxidant activity was measured using four different in vitro tests: β-carotene bleaching (BCB), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), O₂ -• , and nitric oxide (NO • ) assays. In all cases, MBE was the most active compared to MLE and the standards used (Trolox and ascorbic acid). Furthermore, MBE and MLE were tested to evaluate their activity in HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. A higher cytotoxic activity of MBE was evidenced and confirmed by more pronounced alterations in cell morphology. MBE induced cell death, triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Moreover, MBE showed lower cytotoxicity in normal human dermal fibroblasts, suggesting its potential as a selective anticancer agent.

  7. Suitability of DPPH spiking for antioxidant screening in natural products: the example of galloyl derivatives from red maple bark extract.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Thibaud R; Meda, Naamwin R; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the antioxidant potential in natural products, radical scavenging tests (ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, etc.) are usually considered as the first approach. In addition to the standard colorimetric assays, methods using separation techniques (on-line and pre-column assays) have been developed in the past decades. Based on the peak area (PA) reductions of compounds monitored by HPLC, the pre-column spiking method allows rapid characterisation of natural matrices avoiding laborious isolation steps. However, available information about the significance of the results produced remains scarce. Here, we report, for the first time, a discussion of the potential of the pre-column DPPH spiking method to pinpoint antioxidant compounds using red maple bark extract (RMBE). First, DPPH spiking was conventionally applied to the galloyl compounds in the extract showing the inadequacy of assessing results by PA reductions. The method was then applied to pure galloyl derivatives, evaluating their molar amount reacted (MAR) for more significance. The comparison with the standard DPPH-HPLC/AE method directly monitoring DPPH • inhibition highlighted the inability to retrieve the respective antioxidant efficiencies (AE) of each compound by using DPPH spiking. Despite its limitations, the DPPH spiking method brought to light an autoxidation phenomenon and a matrix/mixture effect investigated through tertiary mixtures of galloyl compounds. Although restricted to the compounds from one natural matrix, this study questions the validity of the spiking method as usually performed and could serve as a basis for further investigations (explorations of other natural products, kinetics considerations). Graphical abstract Investigation of the pre-column DPPH spiking method through the case of galloyl derivatives.

  8. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous and Dichloromethane/Methanol Stem Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tchamadeu, Marie Claire; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Blaes, Nelly; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Théophile

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The aim is to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and normal adult Wistar rats were orally administered with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH plant extracts of P. soyauxii at various doses (38–300 mg/kg) in a single administration. In addition, STZ-induced diabetic rats received prolonged daily administration for 14 days. Glibenclamide (GB) (10 mg/kg) was used as reference treatment. In acute test, fasting blood glucose was followed for 5 h. In subacute test, body weight, food and water intakes, and blood glucose were followed weekly and serum biochemical parameters evaluated after 14 days treatment. Results: Acute administration of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts moderately decreased fasting blood glucose compared to GB, significantly in normal rats (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) but, as GB, not significantly in diabetic rats. Prolonged treatments in diabetic rats with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent, respectively, superior or similar to GB. Moreover, P. soyauxii also significantly (P < 0.01) reduced weight loss, and diabetes increased serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and transaminases (alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase) elevations. Conclusion: P. soyauxii Taub stem bark extracts have possible value for antidiabetic oral medication. SUMMARY Aqueous and Dichloromethane/Methanol stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub have potent (compared to Glibenclamide) antidiabetic effects in STZ-diabetic rats, with specific kinetics and dose-responses.Moderate hypoglycemia effects upon acute P. soyauxii administration.Potent anti-hyperglycemic effects of sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats.Potent anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats

  9. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Shivalingaiah, Sudharshan

    2016-03-01

    The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml), it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanol Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Basiru O.; Ojo, Oluwafemi A.; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin D.; Fadaka, Adewale O.; Osukoya, Adetutu O.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the ameliorative effects of ethanol extract Artocarpus heterophyllus (EAH) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups, with groups 1 and 2 serving as nondiabetic and diabetic control, respectively; group 3 serving as diabetic rats treated with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide; and groups 4 to 6 were diabetic rats treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of EAH, respectively. Assays determined were serum insulin, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. EAH stem bark reduced fasting blood glucose and lipid peroxidation levels and increased serum insulin levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Data obtained demonstrated the ability of EAH stem bark to ameliorate pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:29279019

  11. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanol Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Basiru O; Ojo, Oluwafemi A; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin D; Fadaka, Adewale O; Osukoya, Adetutu O

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the ameliorative effects of ethanol extract Artocarpus heterophyllus (EAH) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups, with groups 1 and 2 serving as nondiabetic and diabetic control, respectively; group 3 serving as diabetic rats treated with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide; and groups 4 to 6 were diabetic rats treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of EAH, respectively. Assays determined were serum insulin, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. EAH stem bark reduced fasting blood glucose and lipid peroxidation levels and increased serum insulin levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Data obtained demonstrated the ability of EAH stem bark to ameliorate pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  12. The high-performance liquid chromatography/multistage electrospray mass spectrometric investigation and extraction optimization of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) bark polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tamás; Nebehaj, Esztella; Albert, Levente

    2015-05-08

    The aim of the present work was the high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and multistage mass spectrometric characterization of the polyphenolic compounds of beech bark, as well as the extraction optimization of the identified compounds. Beech is a common and widely used material in the wood industry, yet its bark is regarded as a by-product. Using appropriate extraction methods these compounds could be extracted and utilized in the future. Different extraction methods (stirring, sonication, microwave assisted extraction) using different solvents (water, methanol:water 80:20 v/v, ethanol:water 80:20 v/v) and time/temperature schedules have been compared basing on total phenol contents (Folin-Ciocâlteu) and MRM peak areas of the identified compounds to investigate optimum extraction efficiency. Altogether 37 compounds, including (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, quercetin-O-hexoside, taxifolin-O-hexosides (3), taxifolin-O-pentosides (4), B-type (6) and C-type (6) procyanidins, syringic acid- and coumaric acid-di-O-glycosides, coniferyl alcohol- and sinapyl alcohol-glycosides, as well as other unknown compounds with defined [M-H](-) m/z values and MS/MS spectra have been tentatively identified. The choice of the method, solvent system and time/temperature parameters favors the extraction of different types of compounds. Pure water can extract compounds as efficiently as mixtures containing organic solvents under high-pressure and high temperature conditions. This supports the implementation of green extraction methods in the future. Extraction times that are too long and high temperatures can result in the decrease of the concentrations. Future investigations will focus on the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and utilization possibilities of the prepared extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of methanolic crude extract of Lophopetalum javanicum (bark).

    PubMed

    Ansari, Prawej; Badhan, Sanjeeda Sarmin; Azam, Shofiul; Sultana, Nasrin; Anwar, Sabbir; Mohamed Abdurahman, Mohamed Sheikh; Hannan, J M A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the scientific basis of the traditional application of Lophopetalum javanicum for measuring anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity and phytochemical screening. Present study includes the preliminary screening of the phytochemical composition and in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of L. javanicum (MELJ). Hot-plate test and tail immersion method were used to investigate acute analgesic effects of L. javanicum, and the potency in inhibition of chronic inflammation in mice was tested by carrageenan-induced paw edema and formalin-induced edema method. One hour after the administration of carrageenan, rat's paw was inflamed, and after treating it with 500 mg/kg dose, increase in the significant inhibitory effect on paw was observed. At the third hour after carrageenan injection, extreme inhibition (55.61%±0.015%; p<0.001) resulted by methanolic extract. By using hot plate method, it was found that L. javanicum increases pain tolerance time up to 17.89±0.079 min, whereas the compared standard's interval was 21.48±0.397 min. In tail immersion method, the pain threshold was 3.02±0.074 (p<0.001) at 400 mg/kg by L. javanicum at 90 min of experiment. This study manifested that the methanolic extract of L. javanicum is efficient in inhibiting pain mediators to release, and conceivably, this report should get priority while searching for a new analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  14. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-12-30

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  15. Investigation of hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Manisenthilkumar, KT

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity was studied in rats after the oral administration of AETPB to determine the dose to assess hypoglycemic activity. In rats, diabetes was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and diabetes was confirmed 72 h after induction, and then allowed for 14 days to stabilize blood glucose level. In diabetic rats, AETPB was orally given for 28 days and its effect on blood glucose and body weight was determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the experimental day, fasting blood sample was collected to estimate the haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, urea, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and insulin levels. The liver and kidney were collected to determine antioxidants levels in diabetic rats. Results Oral administration of AETPB did not exhibit toxicity and death at a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. AETPB treated diabetic rats significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) reduced elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, urea, SGPT and SGOT levels when compared with diabetic control rats. The body weight, Hb, insulin and total protein levels were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) increased in diabetic rats treated with AETPB compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, AETPB treatment significantly reversed abnormal status of antioxidants and lipid profile levels towards near normal levels compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusions Present study results confirm that AETPB possesses significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in diabetic condition. PMID:23569911

  16. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid contents of the stem bark ethanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus.

    PubMed

    Olugbami, J O; Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2014-09-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants with free radical scavenging activities can be relevant as chemopreventive agents against the numerous diseases associated with free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Some phytoconstituents possess antioxidant activities in biological systems. On this basis, we evaluated the antioxidant potential, and determined the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the e thanol e xtract of the s tem bark of A nogeissus l eiocarpus [ EESAL ]. Antioxidant assays carried out include: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, phosphomolybdate, β-carotene bleaching, ferric reducing, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Results of DPPH assay showed no significant difference ( p < 0.001) between EESAL and butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], while EESAL exhibited a significantly ( p < 0.001) higher activity than BHT [butylated hydroxytoluene]. Phosphomolybdate method recorded a total antioxidant capacity of 190.00 ± 70.53 µg butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg dry extract, while β-carotene bleaching assay gave percent antioxidant activities of both EESAL and BHT as 81.46±1.62 and 80.90±1.39 respectively. Ferric reducing abilities of both EESAL and ascorbic acid increased in a concentration-dependent manner with EESAL displaying a significantly ( p < 0.001) higher reductive activity than vitamin C. EESAL displayed a significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as compared with BHT at the lowest concentration with no significant difference at the highest concentration. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of EESAL were obtained as 608.10 ± 2.12 µg GAE/mg and 78.96 ± 3.37 µg QE/mg respectively. Taken together, the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of EESAL is likely due to its high phenolic content with complementary effects of the flavonoid components.

  17. Antinociceptive properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Wandji, Bibiane Aimee; Piegang, Basile Nganmegne; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit

    2015-11-04

    Aqueous maceration from the stem barks of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) is taken orally in the central Africa for the management of various ailments, including pain. This work was carried out to evaluate in mice, the antinociceptive effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of P. macrocarpus. The chemical composition of the aqueous and methanol extracts prepared as cold macerations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS). The antinociceptive effects of these extracts administered orally at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were evaluated using behavioral pain model induced by acetic acid, formalin, hot-plate, capsaicin and glutamate. The rotarod test was also performed at the same doses. The oral acute toxicity of both extracts was studied at the doses of 800, 1600, 3200 and 6400 mg/kg in mice. The LCMS analysis revealed the presence of ellagic acid as the major constituent in the methanol extract. Both extracts of P. macrocarpus significantly and dose dependently reduced the time and number of writhing induced by acetic acid. They also significantly inhibited the two phases of formalin-induced pain. These effects were significantly inhibited by a pretreatment with naloxone, except for the analgesic activity of the methanol extract at the earlier phase. In addition, nociception induced by hot plate, intraplantar injection of capsaicin or glutamate was significantly inhibited by both extracts. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity. These results demonstrate that aqueous and methanol extracts of P. macrocarpus are none toxic substances with good central and peripheral antinociceptive effects that are at least partially due to the presence of ellagic acid. These extracts may induce their antinociceptive effect by interfering with opioid, capsaicin and excitatory amino acid pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cinnamon extract regulates plasma levels of adipose-derived factors and expression of multiple genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, B; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2010-03-01

    We reported earlier that dietary cinnamon extract (CE) improves systemic insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia by enhancing insulin signaling. In the present study, we have examined the effects of CE on several biomarkers including plasma levels of adipose-derived adipokines, and the potential molecular mechanisms of CE in epididymal adipose tissue (EAT). In Wistar rats fed a high-fructose diet (HFD) to induce insulin resistance, supplementation with a CE (Cinnulin PF, 50 mg/kg daily) for 8 weeks reduced blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, chylomicron-apoB48, VLDL-apoB100, and soluble CD36. CE also inhibited plasma retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) levels. CE-induced increases in plasma adiponectin were not significant. CE did not affect food intake, bodyweight, and EAT weight. In EAT, there were increases in the insulin receptor ( IR) and IR substrate 2 ( IRS2) mRNA, but CE-induced increases in mRNA expression of IRS1, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, AKT1, glucose transporters 1 and 4 , and glycogen synthase 1 expression and decreased trends in mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta were not statistically significant. CE also enhanced the mRNA levels of ADIPOQ, and inhibited sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c mRNA levels. mRNA and protein levels of fatty acid synthase and FABP4 were inhibited by CE and RBP4, and CD36 protein levels were also decreased by CE. These results suggest that CE effectively ameliorates circulating levels of adipokines partially mediated via regulation of the expression of multiple genes involved in insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in the EAT.

  19. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM BARK OF BURSERA APTERA.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Yañez, O J; Resendiz-Albor, A A; Ruiz-Hurtado, P A; Rivera-Yañez, N; Rodriguez-Canales, M; Rodriguez-Sosa, M; Juarez-Avelar, I; Rodriguez-Lopez, M G; Canales-Martinez, M M; Rodriguez-Monroy, M A

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis lacks effective and well-tolerated treatments. The current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy. Traditional medicine offers a complementary alternative for the treatment of various diseases. Additionally, several plants have shown success as anti-leishmanial agents. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of MEBA against Leishmania mexicana . Methanolic extract of B. aptera was obtained by macetration, after we determined in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of MEBA by MTT assay and the induced apoptosis in promastigotes by flow cytometry. To analyze the in vivo anti-leishmanial activity, we used infected mice that were treated and not treated with MEBA and we determined the levels of cytokines using ELISA. The phytochemical properties were determined by CG-MS and DPPH assay. We determined of LC 50 of 0.408 mg/mL of MEBA for in vitro anti-leishmanial activity. MEBA induced apoptosis in promastigotes (15.3% ± 0.86). Treated mice exhibited smaller lesions and contained significantly fewer parasites than did untreated mice; in addition, we found that IFN-γ and TNF-α increased in the sera of MEBA-treated mice. GC-MS analysis showed that podophyllotoxin was the most abundant compound. Evaluation of the activity by DPPH assay demonstrated an SC 50 of 11.72 μg/mL. Based on the above data, it was concluded that MEBA is a good candidate in the search for new anti-leishmanial agents.

  20. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM BARK OF BURSERA APTERA

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Yañez, O. J.; Resendiz-Albor, A. A.; Ruiz-Hurtado, P. A.; Rivera-Yañez, N.; Rodriguez-Canales, M.; Rodriguez-Sosa, M.; Juarez-Avelar, I.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M. G.; Canales-Martinez, M. M.; Rodriguez-Monroy, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis lacks effective and well-tolerated treatments. The current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy. Traditional medicine offers a complementary alternative for the treatment of various diseases. Additionally, several plants have shown success as anti-leishmanial agents. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of MEBA against Leishmania mexicana. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of B. aptera was obtained by macetration, after we determined in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of MEBA by MTT assay and the induced apoptosis in promastigotes by flow cytometry. To analyze the in vivo anti-leishmanial activity, we used infected mice that were treated and not treated with MEBA and we determined the levels of cytokines using ELISA. The phytochemical properties were determined by CG-MS and DPPH assay. Results: We determined of LC50 of 0.408 mg/mL of MEBA for in vitro anti-leishmanial activity. MEBA induced apoptosis in promastigotes (15.3% ± 0.86). Treated mice exhibited smaller lesions and contained significantly fewer parasites than did untreated mice; in addition, we found that IFN-γ and TNF-α increased in the sera of MEBA-treated mice. GC-MS analysis showed that podophyllotoxin was the most abundant compound. Evaluation of the activity by DPPH assay demonstrated an SC50 of 11.72 μg/mL. Conclusion: Based on the above data, it was concluded that MEBA is a good candidate in the search for new anti-leishmanial agents. PMID:28573235

  1. A fraction of stem bark extract of Entada africana suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ayissi Owona, Brice; Njayou, Nico Frederic; Laufer, Stefan; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2013-08-26

    Entada africana is a plant used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of stomachache, fever, liver related diseases, wound healing, cataract and dysentery. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of fractions of the stem bark extract of the plant using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages model. The crude extract was prepared using the mixture CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1, v/v) and fractionated by flash chromatography using solvents of increasing polarity to obtain five different fractions. The effects of the fractions on the cells viability were studied by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and their inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production screened by Griess test. The most active fraction was further investigated for its effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production using flux cytometry, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, TNFα, IL6, IL10 and IL13) by RT-PCR, and the activity of the enzyme p38 MAPK kinase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The fractions presented no significant effect on the viability of macrophages at 100 μg/ml after 24h incubation. The CH2Cl2/MeOH 5% (Ea5) fraction was found to be the most potent in inhibiting NO production with a half inhibition concentration (IC50)=18.36 μg/ml, and showed the highest inhibition percentage (89.068%) in comparison with Baicalin (63.34%), an external standard at 50 μg/ml. Ea5, as well as Baicalin significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL1β mRNA, attenuated mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase in a concentration-dependent manner, stimulated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 and IL13), and showed a 30% inhibition of the activity of p38 MAPK kinase. The results of the present study indicate that the fraction Ea5 of Entada africana possesses most potent in

  2. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  3. The effect of zinc lactate and magnolia bark extract added tablets on volatile sulfur-containing compounds in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Porciani, Pier Francesco; Grandini, Simone; Chazine, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    A controlled, clinical, double-blind study was conducted to assess the efficacy of sugar-free tablets containing zinc lactate and magnolia bark extract (MBE) on oral volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC) versus placebo tablets for two hours. In order to join the study, subjects had to have at least 24 teeth, no report of oral and systemic diseases, and no removable dentures. All 128 eligible participants had to avoid any professional oral hygiene, refrain from taking medicines for two weeks, be not menstruating, and not brush their teeth and tongue, smoke, drink alcohol, coffee or tea, eat onion, garlic, or licorice for a six-hour period before the visit and during the test. Moreover, to join the protocol, they had to show a VSC score of ≥ 75 ppb at the baseline measurement. Each qualified subject was placed in the test or the control group using a table of random numbers. The test tablet (0.7 g) contained 0.17 mg of zinc, in the form of zinc lactate, and 0.84 mg magnolia bark extract; the control tablet was identical, but without these active agents. The OralChroma2 device was utilized to evaluate total oral VSC. Their levels were recorded at baseline, after eight minutes of sucking two tablets in succession, after one hour, and after two hours. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. One hundred subjects completed the trial (50 in the control group and 50 in the test group); 52 men and 48 women, mean age 38. None reported problems linked to zinc lactate or magnolia bark extract. The mean percentage reduction from baseline at the end of eight minutes of tablet sucking was 39% in the control group (p < 0.001) and 62% in the test group (p < 0.001); one hour later it was 6% in the control group and 30% in the test group (p < 0.001), and two hours later it was 2% in the control group and 18% in the test group (p < 0.001). The comparisons between the two groups after baseline adjustment showed a statistically

  4. In vitro antibacterial and time-kill assessment of crude methanolic stem bark extract of Acacia mearnsii de wild against bacteria in shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso Olusola; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-02-21

    Shigellosis is an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality among young children and old people for which treatment with antimicrobial agents is limited. Hence, the need for curative potentials obtainable from medicinal plants becomes inevitable. This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial potentials of crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Acacia mearnsii against some selected bacteria of clinical importance in shigellosis. The bacteria were inhibited by the extract to produce concentration dependent inhibition zones. The extract exhibited a varied degree of antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. The MIC values for Gram negative (0.0391-0.3125) mg/mL and those of Gram positive bacteria (0.0781-0.625) mg/mL indicated that the Gram negative bacteria were more inhibited by the extract than the Gram positive bacteria. Average log reduction in viable cell count in time-kill assay ranged between -2.456 Log₁₀ to 2.230 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 4 h of interaction, and between -2.921 Log₁₀ and 1.447 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 8 h interaction in 1× MIC and 2× MIC of the extract. The study provided scientific justification for the use of the crude methanolic extract from the stem bark of A. mearnsii in shigellosis. The degree of the antibacterial activity indicated that the crude extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that could be useful for the development of new antimicrobial agents capable of decreasing the burden of drug resistance and cost of management of diseases of clinical and public health importance in South Africa.

  5. Green synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata Linn and their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezealisiji, K. M.; Noundou, X. S.; Ukwueze, S. E.

    2017-11-01

    In recent time, various phytosynthetic methods have been employed for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles; these unique metal nanoparticles are used in several applications which include pharmaceuticals and material engineering. The current research reports a rapid and simple synthetic partway for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata and the evaluation of its antimicrobial efficacy against pathogenic microorganisms. The root bark extract was treated with aqueous silver nitrate solution. Silver ions were reduced to silver atoms which on aggregation gave Silver nanoparticles; the biosynthesized AgNPs were characteristically spherical, discreet and stabilized by phytochemical entities and were characterized using ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photon correlation microscopy. The aqueous plant extract-AgNPs suspension was subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM result for the average particle size is 22 ± 2 nm. The polydispersity index and zeta-potential were found to be 0.44 ± 0.02 and - 27.90 ± 0.01 mV, respectively (Zeta-Sizer). The antimicrobial evaluation result showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles at different concentration were very active against the Gram-positive bacteria ( B. subtilis, S. aureous) and Gram-negative bacteria ( K. Pneumonia, E. Coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), P. aeruginosa being most susceptible to the anti microbial effect of the silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity were obtained through biosynthesis.

  6. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils extracted from cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spices are added into foods mainly for enhancing the organoleptic quality of the food. The application of spices and their derivatives in foods as preservatives has been investigated for years. In this study, we determined the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of three spices, cassia bark...

  7. Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events.

    PubMed

    Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie; Ostovar, Mohadeseh; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Mayer, Johannes Gottfried; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2018-04-05

    Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event. Databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed Central and Google scholar were searched using the key words "cinnamon" or "cinnamomum" for clinical trials, case reports and case series. Also spontaneous reports about adverse effects of cinnamon were collected from five national and international spontaneous reporting schemes. Thirty eight clinical trials were found, five of them reported adverse events. Twenty case reports and seven case series, as well as, spontaneous reports including 160 adverse events were also included. The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions which were self-limiting in the majority of cases. The available data suggests that despite the safety of cinnamon use as a spice and/or flavoring agent, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects in medicinal uses with larger doses or longer duration of use and should be clinically monitored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro and in vivo cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated flavanone from the bark of Prunus serotina: A bio-guided study.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; Jiménez-Arellanes, María Adelina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; Castro, Nelly; González-Hernández, Iliana; Rufino-González, Yadira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2017-06-01

    Currently, neurocysticercosis treatment involves two drugs: albendazole and praziquantel; however, their efficacy is suboptimal and new cysticidal drugs are needed. The present paper reports the cysticidal activity of extracts of the bark from Prunus serotina against Taenia crassiceps cysts and the isolation and identification of the main components of the most active extract. Results showed that all extracts displayed in vitro cysticidal activity (EC 50 =17.9-88.5μg/mL), being the methanolic the most active and selective. Also, methanolic extract exhibited in vivo efficacy at 300mg/kg which was similar to that obtained with albendazole. Bio-guided fractionation of methanolic extract led the isolation of 2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (naringenin, NGN), 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. NGN exhibited in vitro activity, in a time-concentration-dependent manner (EC 50 =89.3μM]. Furthermore, NGN at a dose of 376.1μmol/kg displayed similar in vivo efficacy than those obtained with albendazole at 188.4μmol/kg. NGN also caused a high level of damage in all parasite tissue in a similar manner than that observed with the methanolic extract. This study represents the first report of the cysticidal properties of the bark of P. serotina. NGN was identified as the main active compound of this specie and other studies are required to explore the potential of this flavanone as cysticidal agent. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Anti-diabetic activity of methanol/methylene chloride stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kamtchouing, P; Kahpui, S M; Dzeufiet, P-D Djomeni; Tédong, L; Asongalem, E A; Dimo, T

    2006-04-06

    Stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba Engl. and Diels and Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. are used in Africa for the treatment of various ailments, including diabetes mellitus. The anti-diabetic effects of the methanol/methylene chloride extracts of the stem barks on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were evaluated on male rats. Through the subcutaneous route, diabetes was induced using 60 mg/mL of streptozotocin. After 2 days, the rats received, by gavage, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of extract daily for 14 days. At 300 mg/kg, the two extracts (Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii), significantly showed at least 67.1% and 69.9% reduction in blood glucose level, respectively, while insulin (three units) given subcutaneously and once daily, had 76.8% reduction compared to diabetic untreated control rats. Similarly, the weight gains were 6.6% and 4.9%, respectively, and were comparable to the normal rats, whereas, diabetic untreated rats lost 14.1% body weight. Still with the same dose, there was 68.5% and 58.5% (p < 0.001) significant decrease in food consumption and 79.7% and 64.0% (p < 0.001) in fluid intake by diabetic rats treated with the respective plant extracts. The insulin-treated rats showed 56.4% and 75.8% decrease in food and fluid intake compared to an augmentation for diabetic control rats, 43.0% and 383.8%, respectively, at the end of the second week of experimentation. These results showed that the plant extracts can reverse hyperglycemia, polyphagia and polydipsia provoked by streptozotocin, and thus, they have anti-diabetic properties.

  10. Assessment of the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anti-tumor activity of the alcoholic stem bark extract/fractions of Mimusops elengi Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Savaliya, Mihir; Biswas, Subhankar; Nayak, Pawan G; Maliyakkal, Naseer; Manjunath Setty, M; Gourishetti, Karthik; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2016-08-01

    Various parts of Mimusops elengi Linn. (Sapotaceae) have been used widely in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammation and wounds. The study was conducted to explore the use of stem bark of M. elengi on pharmacological grounds and to evaluate the scientific basis of cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity. Extract/fractions were prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using SRB assay. Most effective fractions were subjected to fluorescence microscopy based acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Hoechst 33342 staining to determine apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation assay. Comet and micronuclei assay were performed to assess genotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis was also performed. In vivo anti-tumor potential was evaluated by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in mice. The alcoholic stem bark extract of M. elengi along with four fractions showed potential in vitro cytotoxicity in SRB assay. Of these, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were selected for further studies. The fractions revealed apoptosis inducing potential in AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining, which was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay. Genotoxic potential was revealed by comet and micronuclei assay. Fractions also exhibited specific cell cycle inhibition in G0/G1 phase. In EAC model, ethyl acetate fraction along with the standard (cisplatin) effectively reduced the increase in body weight compared to control and improved mean survival time. Both fractions were able to restore the altered hematological and biochemical parameters. Hence, M. elengi stem bark may be a possible therapeutic candidate having cytotoxic and anti-tumor potential.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of commercial willow bark extracts by new technology platform: combined use of metabolomics, high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution radical scavenging assay.

    PubMed

    Agnolet, Sara; Wiese, Stefanie; Verpoorte, Robert; Staerk, Dan

    2012-11-02

    Here, proof-of-concept of a new analytical platform used for the comprehensive analysis of a small set of commercial willow bark products is presented, and compared with a traditional standardization solely based on analysis of salicin and salicin derivatives. The platform combines principal component analysis (PCA) of two chemical fingerprints, i.e., HPLC and (1)H NMR data, and a pharmacological fingerprint, i.e., high-resolution 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(+)) reduction profile, with targeted identification of constituents of interest by hyphenated HPLC-solid-phase extraction-tube transfer NMR, i.e., HPLC-SPE-ttNMR. Score plots from PCA of HPLC and (1)H NMR fingerprints showed the same distinct grouping of preparations formulated as capsules of Salix alba bark and separation of S. alba cortex. Loading plots revealed this to be due to high amount of salicin in capsules and ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba cortex, respectively. PCA of high-resolution radical scavenging profiles revealed clear separation of preparations along principal component 1 due to the major radical scavengers (+)-catechin and ampelopsin. The new analytical platform allowed identification of 16 compounds in commercial willow bark extracts, and identification of ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba bark extract is reported for the first time. The detection of the novel compound, ethyl 1-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-2-enecarboxylate, is also described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Methanol Extract from Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae) Stem Bark Quenches the Quorum Sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Vincent; Kiendrebeogo, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to its extensive arsenal of virulence factors and inherent resistance to antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threat particularly in immunocompromised patients. Considering the central role of quorum sensing in the production of virulence factors, inhibition of bacterial communication mechanism constitute an opportunity to attenuate pathogenicity of bacteria resistant to available antibiotics. Our study aimed to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, traditionally used in Burkina Faso, for the treatment of infected burn wounds. Methods: Investigations were carried out on methanol extract from A. leiocarpus stem bark. The reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 derivatives were used to evidence any interference with the bacterial quorum sensing and expression of related genes. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was used to measure the impact on pyocyanin production. Results: At a sub-inhibitory concentration (100 µg/mL), A. leiocarpus methanol extract quenched the quorum sensing mechanism of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by down-streaming the rhlR gene, with a subsequent reduction of pyocyanin production. Moreover, the antioxidant polyphenols evidenced are able to reduce the oxidative stress induced by pyocyanin. Conclusion: The antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of A. leiocarpus stem bark could justify its traditional use in the treatment of infected burn wounds. PMID:28930136

  13. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of acetone and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Njume, Collise; Afolayan, Anthony J; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance and other problems associated with combination therapy have generated a considerable interest in the search for alternative therapeutic agents. In order to identify novel sources of such agents, the antimicrobial activity of five solvent extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea was investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori and a reference strain NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. The active phytocomponents were detected by TLC and indirect bioautography. All the extracts exhibited anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 21 mm. The acetone and aqueous extracts showed potent anti-H. pylori activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 0.06-2.50 mg/mL, whereas those for the control antibiotics ranged from 0.001-5.0 mg/mL. The acetone extract was highly bactericidal at 1.2 mg/mL with complete elimination of the organisms within 18 h. The activity of both acetone and aqueous extracts was better than metronidazole (p<0.05). Most of the active phytocomponents were located in the acetone extract; R(f)≤0.62 with >90% inhibition. These results demonstrate that the acetone and aqueous extracts of S. birrea may contain compounds with therapeutic activity; therefore, they may represent potential sources of new anti-H. pylori regimen. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-hypertensive effects of the methanol/methylene chloride stem bark extract of Mammea africana in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo, P E; Nguelefack, T B; Dongmo, A B; Afkir, S; Azebaze, A G B; Dimo, T; Legssyer, A; Kamanyi, A; Ziyyat, A

    2008-05-22

    The methanol/methylene chloride (CH(3)OH/CH(2)Cl(2)) extract from the stem bark of Mammea africana was showed to possess vasodilating effect in the presence and the absence of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the methanol/methylene chloride from the stem bark of Mammea africana. The extract (200 mg/(kg day)) was administered orally in rats treated concurrently with l-NAME (40 mg/(kg day)). l-Arginine (100 mg/(kg day)) and captopril (20 mg/(kg day))were used as positive controls. Bodyweight, systolic arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured weekly throughout the experiment period (28 days). At the end of treatment, animals were killed and the cardiac mass index evaluated. The aorta was used to evaluate the endothelium-dependant relaxation to carbachol. The aorta contraction induced by noradrenalin was also examined and expressed as a percentage of that induced by KCl. The extract neither affected the body weight nor the heart rate. The extract as captopril completely prevented the development of arterial hypertension. Both the substances failed to restore the endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and increased the vascular contraction to norepinephrine in relation to KCl contraction. They also significantly reduced the left ventricular hypertrophy induced by l-NAME. These findings are in agreement with the traditional use of Mammea africana in the treatment of arterial hypertension and indicate that it may have a beneficial effect in patients with NO deficiency but will be unable to improve their endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

  15. Effects of the aqueous extract of Pittosporum mannii Hook. f. (Pittosporaceae) stem barks on spontaneous and spasmogen-induced contractile activity of isolated rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Njiaza; Tom Esther, Ngo Lemba; Télesphore Benoît, Nguelefack; Paul Désiré, Dzeufiet Djomeni; Oumarou Bibi-Farouck, Aboubakar; Théophile, Dimo; Pierre, Kamtchouing

    2015-08-22

    Pittosporum mannii Hook. f. (Pittosporaceae) is a plant widely used in traditional medicine in Cameroon for the treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea. To date, no pharmacological study on the antidiarrheal and the antispasmodic properties of this plant has been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of stem barks of P. mannii (PMAE) on rat duodenum. Different concentrations of PMAE were tested separately (10-80 µg/mL) or cumulatively (5-80 µg/mL) on spontaneous and spasmogen (carbachol, histamine and KCl)-induced contractions of isolated rat duodenum strips. At concentrations ranging from 10 to 80 µg/mL, PMAE significantly decreased the tonus and the amplitude of spontaneous contractions. However, at high concentration (80 µg/mL), the extract elicited a transient relaxation was followed by a slight increase of tonus, while the amplitude remained lower compared to the normal spontaneous activity. The relaxant effect of the extract was not significantly affected in the presence of atropine (0.713 µg/mL) and promethazine (0.5 µg/mL). In addition, PMAE (20, 40, and 80 µg/mL) partially but significantly inhibited in a concentration related manner the contractions induced by carbachol (10(-9)-10(-4)M) and histamine (10(-9)-10(-4)M) on rat duodenum. PMAE (10-80 µg/mL) also significantly induced a concentration-dependent relaxation on KCl (20mM, 50mM, 10(-3)-6.10(-3)M)-induced contraction of rat duodenum. These results show that the aqueous extract of P. mannii stem barks possesses antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects at lower concentrations; therefore, supporting the use of the stem barks of this plant in the folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. However, caution should be paid while using higher concentrations that instead might produce spasmogenic effect and might worsen the diarrheal condition. The relaxant effect of PMAE appears to be non-specific of

  16. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Danish; Kumar, Vikas; Verma, Amita; Gupta, Pushpraj S; Kumar, Hemant; Dhingra, Vishal; Mishra, Vatsala; Sharma, Manju

    2014-07-16

    Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the level of TC, TG, and LDL-c, VLDL-c. While it increases the level of HDL-c to a significant (p < 0.05) level. The treatment also resulted in a marked increase in reduced glutathione, glutathione Peroxidase, catalase and superoxide

  17. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Results Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the level of TC, TG, and LDL-c, VLDL-c. While it increases the level of HDL-c to a significant (p < 0.05) level. The treatment also resulted in a marked increase in reduced glutathione

  18. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Tomczak, Anna; Erler, Joachim; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the anti-platelet action of extracts from three different plants: bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). Anti-platelet action of tested extracts was compared with action of well characterized antioxidative and anti-platelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The effects of extracts on platelet adhesion to collagen, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and on the production of O2-* in resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong platelet agonist-thrombin were studied. The in vitro experiments have shown that all three tested extracts (5-50 microg/ml) rich in polyphenols reduce platelet adhesion, aggregation and generation of O2-* in blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that all three plant extracts were found to be more reactive in reduction of platelet processes than the solution of pure resveratrol. The tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved.

  19. Preliminary Study of the Potential Extracts from Selected Plants to Improve Surface Cleaning

    PubMed Central

    Vong, Ai Ting

    2018-01-01

    Environment hygiene is important for preventing infection and promoting a healthier environment in which to live or work. The goal of this study was to examine the antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia (key lime) juice and aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum iners (cinnamon) bark and Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime) leaves on the kinetic growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Antimicrobial activity was quantitatively evaluated using spectrophotometry and viable cell counts versus bacterial growth time. The fomite surface samples that were used in the second experiment were chosen randomly from the laboratories. They were assessed both before and after intervention using a mixture of commercial disinfectant detergent and lime juice. In the kinetic growth study, the lime juice effectively eliminated P. aeruginosa and MRSA. The cinnamon bark extract was more effective at inhibiting P. aeruginosa than MRSA. The kaffir lime leaf extract demonstrated bacteriostatic activity for the first 60 min, which then weakened after 90 min for both bacteria. The lime juice extract and commercial disinfectant mixture effectively disinfected the fomites. Further studies of the use of key lime juice as a disinfectant in the hospital environment should be conducted, as C. aurantifolia exhibits antibacterial activities against endemic microbes. PMID:29509658

  20. Inhibition of secretary PLA₂--VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

    2015-03-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Simarouba amara Aublet (Simaroubaceae) stem bark against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Hélida M L; Vasconcelos, Carlos F B; Rolim, Larissa A; Neto, Pedro J Rolim; Neto, Jacinto da C Silva; Filho, Reginaldo C da Silva; Fernandes, Mariana P; Costa-Silva, João H; Araújo, Alice V; Wanderley, Almir G

    2014-10-31

    Simarouba amara stem bark decoction has been traditionally used in Brazil to treat malaria, inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds and as a tonic. In this study, we investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of S. amara stem bark (SAAE) on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. SAAE was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). Groups I (vehicle-corn oil), II (control-CCl4), III, IV, V and VI were pretreated during 10 consecutive days, once a day p.o, with Legalon® 50 mg/kg b.w, SAAE at doses 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The hepatotoxicity was induced on 11th day with 2 mL/kg of 20% CCl4 solution. 24 h after injury, the blood samples were collected and their livers were removed to biochemical and immunohistochemical analyzes. The SAAE decreased the levels of liver markers and lipid peroxidation in all doses and increased the catalase levels at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical results suggested hepatocyte proliferation in all doses. These results may be related to catechins present in SAAE. Thus, SAAE prevented the oxidative damage at the same time that increased regenerative and reparative capacities of the liver.

  2. Cytoprotective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Pinus eldarica Bark against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Babaee, Fatemeh; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Haghjoo Javanmard, Shaghayegh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pinus eldarica is a widely growing pine in Iran consisting of biologically active constituents with antioxidant properties. This study investigates the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods: The total phenolic content of P. eldarica extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of P. eldarica extract (25-1000 µg/ml) on HUVECs was assessed using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Cytoprotective effect of P. eldarica extract (25-500 µg/ml) on H2O2-induced oxidative stress was also evaluated by MTT assay. The intra- and extra-cellular hydroperoxides concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in pretreated cells. Results: The total phenolic content of P. eldarica extract was estimated as 37.04±1.8% gallic acid equivalent. P. eldarica extract (25-1000 µg/ml) had no cytotoxic effect on HUVECs viability. The pretreatment of HUVECs with P. eldarica extract at the concentrations of 50-500 µg/ml significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of H2O2. P. eldarica extract decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in intra-cellular fluid at the concentration range of 100-500 µg/ml and in extra-cellular fluid at the concentration range of 25-500 µg/ml. Conclusions: This study revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of P. eldarica extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Concerning the high content of phenolic compounds in P. eldarica, more research is needed to evaluate its clinical value in endothelial dysfunction and in other oxidative conditions. PMID:26931383

  3. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (apocynaceae) on the fetal heart

    PubMed Central

    Eluwa, Mokutima A.; Udoaffah, Matilda T.; Vulley, Moses B. G.; Ekanem, Theresa B.; Akpantah, Amabe O.; Asuquo, Olaitan A.; Ekong, Moses B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. Aim: This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Material and Methods: Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days) with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. Results: There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. Conclusion: This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may be

  4. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (apocynaceae) on the fetal heart.

    PubMed

    Eluwa, Mokutima A; Udoaffah, Matilda T; Vulley, Moses B G; Ekanem, Theresa B; Akpantah, Amabe O; Asuquo, Olaitan A; Ekong, Moses B

    2010-12-01

    Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days) with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may be cardiotoxic to the developing rat's heart.

  5. Gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil to maintain fish quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai

    2017-12-01

    Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.

  6. Cationized milled pine bark as an adsorbent for orthophosphate anions

    Treesearch

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; K.G. Karthikeyan; D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    More efficient adsorption media are needed for removing dissolved phosphorus in surface water runoff. We studied the use of cationized pine bark as a sorbent for dissolved phosphorus in water. Cationized pine bark was prepared by treating extracted milled pine bark with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAA HCl) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) in aqueous medium. Attachment of...

  7. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%).

  8. Effects of the Methanolic Extract of Vitellaria paradoxa Stem Bark Against Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Asongalem, Acha Emmanuel; Oben, Eyong Kenneth; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-10-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn (Sapotaceae) is a perennial three which naturally grows in the northern part of Cameroon. It has been traditionally used in the Cameroonian folk medicine for treating inflammation and pain. In the present study, we evaluate the possible anti-amnesic and antioxidative effects of the methanolic extract of V. paradoxa stem bark in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model of scopolamine. Rats received a single injection of scopolamine (1.5 mg/kg) before behavioral testing and were treated with the methanolic extract (25 and 50 mg/kg), daily, for eight continuous days. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using the total content of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. The scopolamine-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of exploratory time and discrimination index within the novel object recognition test, decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task, and increase of working memory errors, reference memory errors, and time taken to consume all five baits within radial arm-maze task. Administration of the methanolic extract significantly improved these parameters, suggesting positive effects on memory formation processes and antioxidant potential. Our results suggest that the methanolic extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

  9. Green and Efficient Processing of Cinnamomum cassia Bark by Using Ionic Liquids: Extraction of Essential Oil and Construction of UV-Resistant Composite Films from Residual Biomass.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Mohit J; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-12-14

    There is significant interest in the development of a sustainable and integrated process for the extraction of essential oils and separation of biopolymers by using novel and efficient solvent systems. Herein, cassia essential oil enriched in coumarin is extracted from Cinnamomum cassia bark by using a protic ionic liquid (IL), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), through dissolution and the creation of a biphasic system with the help of diethyl ether. The process has been perfected, in terms of higher biomass dissolution ability and essential oil yield through the addition of aprotic ILs (based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (C 4 mim) cation and chloride or acetate anions) to EAN. After extraction of oil, cellulose-rich material and free lignin were regenerated from biomass-IL solutions by using a 1:1 mixture of acetone-water. The purity of the extracted essential oil and biopolymers were ascertained by means of FTIR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and GC-MS techniques. Because lignin contains UV-blocking chromophores, the oil-free residual lignocellulosic material has been directly utilized to construct UV-light-resistant composite materials in conjunction with the biopolymer chitosan. Composite material thus obtained was processed to form biodegradable films, which were characterized for mechanical and optical properties. The films showed excellent UV-light resistance and mechanical properties, thereby making it a material suitable for packaging and light-sensitive applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. From plant extract to molecular panacea: a commentary on Stone (1763) ‘An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of the agues’

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John N.

    2015-01-01

    The application of aspirin-like drugs in modern medicine is very broad, encompassing the treatment of inflammation, pain and a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Although anecdotal accounts of willow bark extract as an anti-inflammatory drug have occurred since written records began (for example by Hippocrates), the first convincing demonstration of a potent anti-pyretic effect of willow bark containing salicylates was made by the English cleric Edward Stone in the late eighteenth century. Here, we discuss the route to optimizing and understanding the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs that have their origins in Stone's seminal study, ‘An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of agues’. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750237

  11. Antidepressant-like synergism of extracts from magnolia bark and ginger rhizome alone and in combination in mice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li-Tao; Xu, Qun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Lei; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2009-06-15

    Magnolia bark and ginger rhizome is a drug pair in many prescriptions for treatment of mental disorders in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, compatibility and synergism mechanism of two herbs on antidepressant actions have not been reported. The aim of this study was to approach the rationale of the drug pair in TCM. We evaluated antidepressant-like effects of mixture of honokiol and magnolol (HMM), polysaccharides (PMB) from magnolia bark, essential oil (OGR) and polysaccharides (PGR) from ginger rhizome alone, and the possibility of synergistic interactions in their combinations in the mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) levels in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum were also examined. 30 mg/kg HMM decreased immobility in the FST and TST in mice after one- and two-week treatment. OGR (19.5 or 39 mg/kg) alone was ineffective. The combination of an ineffective dose of 39 mg/kg OGR with 15 mg/kg HMM was the most effective and produced a synergistic action on behaviors after two-week treatment. Significant increase in 5-HT and synergistic increase in NE in prefrontal cortex were observed after co-administration of HMM with OGR. These results demonstrated that HMM was the principal component of this drug pair, whereas OGR served as adjuvant fraction. Compatibility of HMM with OGR was suggested to exert synergistic antidepressant actions by attenuating abnormalities in serotonergic and noradrenergic system functions. Therefore, we confirmed the rationality of drug pair in clinical application and provided a novel perspective in drug pair of TCM researches.

  12. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigations of the Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and Effect on Ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus Induced by Hydroalcoholic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Dimech, Gustavo Santiago; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Assunção; de Oliveira, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Maria da Conceição; Ximenes, Eulália Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE), hydroalcoholic (HE), and aqueous fraction (AF) showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24396311

  13. Effects of sub-acute methanol extract treatment of Calliandra portoricensis root bark on antioxidant defence capacity in an experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Siemuri, Ese O; Akintunde, Jacob K; Salemcity, Anuoluwapo J

    2015-07-01

    The attendant side effects associated with some synthetic drugs used in the management of diseases have led to the search for safer alternative therapies that are relatively cheaper with minimal side effects. The methanol extract of Calliandra portoricensis root bark (CPRB) was orally administered at the doses of 5, 10, 20, and 25 mg/kg body weight for 14 consecutive days of 5 rats in each group. The control rats were given distilled water. The 95% methanol extract of CPRB significantly (p<0.05) scavenged NO• and OH• radicals compared to vitamin C. The level of lipid peroxidative products (malondialdehyde, MDA) was significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. Antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) exercabated in both liver and kidney in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, serum AST, alanine aminotransaminase and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity depicted non-significant (p>0.05) increase in the treated animals. The histological examination showed mild vacuolar, portal congestion and cell infiltration by mononuclear of the hepatic tissues. The study then concluded that a therapeutic dose of the methanol extract of CPRB triggered the antioxidant defence systems in male rats. It is, therefore, recommended that the doses should be carefully and clinically chosen because higher doses may cause some health risks.

  14. Effects of a Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and mangiferin on radiation-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, I; Delgado, R; Garrido, G

    2014-02-01

    Mangifera indica L. (mango) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, can be obtained in Cuba. It is rich in polyphenols, where mangiferin is the main component. In this study, we have tested DNA damage and protection effects of MSBE and mangiferin on primary human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells. Cell suspensions were incubated with the products (50-1000 μg/ml) for experiments on damage induction, and evaluation of any potential protective effects (5-100 μg/ml) for 60 min at 37 °C. Irradiation was performed using a γ-ray source, absorbed dose 5 Gy. At the end of exposure, DNA damage, protection and repair processes were evaluated using the comet assay. MSBE (100-1000 μg/ml) induced DNA damage in a concentration dependent manner in both cell types tested, primary cells being more sensitive. Mangiferin (200 μg/ml) only induced light DNA damage at higher concentrations. DNA repair capacity was not affected after MSBE or mangiferin exposure. On the other hand, MSBE (25 and 50 μg/ml) and mangiferin (5-25 ug/ml) protected against gamma radiation-induced DNA damage. These results show MSBE has protector or harmful effects on DNA in vitro depending on the experimental conditions, which suggest that the extract could be acting as an antioxidant or pro-oxidant product. Mangiferin was involved in protective effects of the extract. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. In vitro modulation of Drimys winteri bark extract and the active compound polygodial on Salmo salar immune genes after exposure to Saprolegnia parasitica.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Torres, D; Gonçalves, A T; Ulloa, V; Martínez, R; Carrasco, H; Olea, A F; Espinoza, L; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Astuya, A

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of the aquaculture industry has global concerns with health management and control strategies to prevent and/or treat diseases and increase sustainability standards. Saprolegniosis is a disease caused by Saprolegnia parasitica, and is characterized by promoting an immunosuppression in the host. This study evaluated in vitro the extract and one active compound (polygodial) of Drimys winteri, a Chilean medicinal tree as a potential early immunostimulatory aid in Saprolegniosis control. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) head kidney cells (ASK-1) were incubated with both extract and pure polygodial before exposure to S. parasitica mycelium, and the expression of the immune-related genes interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interferon α (IFNα), and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) was evaluated. Both evidenced immunomodulatory capacities by increasing gene expressions. This immunomodulation related to a mitigatory action counteracting the immunosuppressing effects of S. parasitica. Despite that most immune-related genes were up-regulated, the down-regulation of MHCII, characteristic of S. parasitica infection, was lessened by pre-incubation with the compounds. This study provides the first insight on the potential of D. winteri bark extract as a possible immunomodulatory and defensive strategy against this oomycete infection in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic analysis of the protective effects of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) on isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Jahangir Alam, Md; Prabhakar, Pankaj; Ahmad, Sayeed; Maulik, Subir K; Sharma, Manish; Goswami, Shyamal K

    2017-02-23

    Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been in use as an ethnomedicine for cardiovascular ailments in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Studies using hemodynamic, ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory parameters in animal models have shown its anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. However, details analysis on its effects on established molecular and cell biological markers are a prerequisite for its wider acceptance to the medical community. To test the efficacy of TA extract in ameliorating cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO in rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by ISO (5mg/kg/day s.c. for 14 days) in rats and a standardized aqueous extract of TA stem bark was orally administered by gavage. Total RNA and protein were isolated from control, ISO, ISO plus TA and TA treated rat hearts and analyzed for the transcripts for the markers of hypertrophy, signaling kinases, transcription factors and total protein profile. TA extract reversed the induction of fetal genes like β-myosin heavy chain, skeletal α-actin and brain natriuretic peptide in hypertrophic rat hearts. While ISO slightly increased the level of phospho-ERK, TA repressed it to about one third of the base line level. Survival kinase Akt, ER stress marker Grp78 and epigenetic regulator HDAC5 were augmented by ISO and TA restored them by various extents. ISO administration moderately increased the transcription factor NFκB binding activity, while coadministration of TA further increased it. AP-1 binding activity was largely unchanged by ISO treatment but it was upregulated when administered along with TA. MEF2D binding activity was increased by ISO and TA restored it to the baseline level. Global proteomic analysis revealed that TA treatment restored a subset of proteins up- and down-regulated in the hypertrophied hearts. Amongst those restored by TA were purinergic receptor X, myosin light chain 3, tropomyosin, and kininogen; suggesting a nodal role of TA in

  17. Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Activities of Extracts from Edible Plants against Soft Drink Spoilage by Asaia spp.

    PubMed

    Antolak, Hubert; Czyzowska, Agata; Kregiel, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza radix ), nettle leaves ( Urtica dioica ), green tea leaves ( Camellia sinensis ), and elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra ). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks.

  18. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro anti-helicobacter pylori activity of extracts of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Okeleye, Benjamin I; Bessong, Pascal O; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-07-25

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638) of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics) and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0-23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0-35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100%) was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05), followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%). The MIC₅₀ values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC₉₀ values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to > 0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05). Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC) and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC) at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC) in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.

  19. The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Pablo-Pérez, Saudy Saret; Parada-Cruz, Benjamín; Barbier, Olivier Christophe; Meléndez-Camargo, María Estela

    2018-01-01

    Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. The EE was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, and its fractions at 25 mg/kg/day in all animal models. Anti-arthritic activity was evaluated using a complete Freund´s adjuvant (CFA)-induced rheumatoid arthritis model in rats. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by changes in paw oedema, body weight, arthritic index, radiological scores, histological assessment of synovial joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, serum rheumatoid factor, serum C-reactive protein and serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using an acetic acid-induced abdominal contraction test and a hot-plate test in mice. EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management. PMID:29755555

  20. The standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. inhibits toxic PLA2 - NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Sudarshan, Shivalingaiah; Dongol, Yashad; More, Sunil S

    2016-05-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess diverse medicinal properties, which also includes anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic snake venom phospholipases A2s are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom. The in vitro sPLA2, in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema inhibition effect were carried out as described. Also the effect of substrate and calcium concentration was carried out. M. indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIb-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 7.6 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ∼40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of M. indica extract on the NN-XIb-PLA2. Further, the inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inhibiting activities of M. indica. As the inhibition is independent of substrate and calcium and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extract mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with the PLA2 enzyme. The aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate their anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies on the role and mechanism of the principal constituents present in the extract, responsible for the anti-PLA2 activity will be interesting to develop them into potent antisnake component and also as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  1. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Carlson, Thomas J S; King, Steven R; Chow, John W S; Illek, Beate

    2004-08-01

    An oligomeric proanthocyanidin (SP-303) extracted from the bark latex of the tree Croton lechleri (family Euphorbiaceae) is a potent inhibitor of cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation and chloride secretion. The manufacturing process for SP-303 was optimized and simplified to produce an increased yield of the herbal extract. The novel extract (named SB-300) contained on average 70.6+/-7.2% SP-303 by weight (mean +/- S.D.; n=56 lots). Here, we describe the effectiveness of SB-300 on cAMP-regulated chloride secretion, which is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) in human colonic T84 cells. Exposure of the apical surface to SB-300 blocked forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion by 92.2+/-3.0% with a half-maximal inhibition constant (KB) of 4.8+/-0.8 microM. For SP-303, stimulated Cl- currents were decreased by 98.0+/-7.2 % and KB averaged 4.1+/-1.3 microM. There was no significant difference between the blocking kinetics of SP-303 and SB-300. Forskolin-stimulated whole cell Cl- currents were effectively blocked by extracellular addition of SB-300 (63+/-8.5%; n=3) and to a similar extent by SP-303 (83 +/- 0.6%; n=2; at 50 microM each). Both extracts inhibited a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance, which indicated the involvement of CFTR Cl- channels. We conclude that both SP-303 (used in Provir) and SB-300 (used in NSF Normal Stool Formula) are novel natural products that target the CFTR Cl- channel. SB-300 is a low cost herbal extract and may present a complementary and alternative medicine approach for the treatment of fluid loss in watery diarrhea.

  2. [Cinnamon: not suitable for the treatment of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Kleefstra, N; Logtenberg, S J J; Houweling, S T; Verhoeven, S; Bilo, H J G

    2007-12-22

    To identify published studies evaluating the effects of cinnamon on glycaemic control. Literature search. The Medline database was searched using all possible combinations of the words and medical subject headings (MeSH) 'cinnamon', 'diabetes mellitus', 'HbA1C' and 'glucose'. All human or animal studies in which cinnamon was administered as intervention were included. Several animal studies and 5 randomized placebo-controlled trials in humans were found. Most of the animal studies described beneficial effects of cinnamon on glycaemic control. One placebo-controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes found that cinnamon intake was associated with favourable effects on fasting plasma glucose. None of the studies reported an improvement in HbA1C. A study in patients with type 1 diabetes found that cinnamon had no effect. Based on the currently available evidence, cinnamon should not be recommended for the improvement ofglycaemic control.

  3. The effect of zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract added to chewing gum on volatile sulfur-containing compounds in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Porciani, Pier Francesco; Grandini, Simone

    2012-01-01

    A controlled, clinical, double-blind study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a sugar-free chewing gum containing zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract (MBE) on oral volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC) versus a placebo sugar-free chewing gum for two hours. To participate in the study, subjects had to have at least 24 of their teeth, no report of oral and systemic diseases, and no removable dentures. All 168 eligible participants had to avoid any professional oral hygiene, refrain from taking medicine for two weeks, and not be menstruating. They were also instructed not to brush their teeth and tongue, smoke, drink alcohol, or eat onion, garlic, or licorice for the six-hour period before the visit and during the test. Moreover, to join the protocol, they had to show a VSC score of > or = 75 ppb at the baseline measurement. One-hundred and twenty-three subjects (67 men and 56 women, mean age 37) met the criteria at baseline and were entered into either the test or control group by assignment from a table of randomized numbers. The test chewing gum (2.23 g) contained zinc acetate 0.012% and magnolia bark extract 0.15% in weight; the control gum was equivalent without these active agents. The OralChroma device was utilized to evaluate total oral VSC. Their levels were recorded at baseline, after ten minutes of mastication, after one hour, and after two hours. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and the level of significance was set at alpha = 0.05. One-hundred and twenty-three subjects completed the trial (62 in the control group and 61 in the test group); none reported problems linked to zinc acetate or magnolia bark extract. The mean percentage reductions from baseline at the end of the 10-minute chewing were 31.2% in the control group (p < 0.05) and 50.9% in the test group (p < 0.05). One hour later the reductions were 6.9% in the control group and 27.6% in the test group (p < 0.05); two hours later the reductions were 2.3% in the control group and 13

  4. Hydroethanolic extract of the inner stem bark of Cedrela odorata has low toxicity and reduces hyperglycemia induced by an overload of sucrose and glucose.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Morenna Alana; Collicchio, Thiago Carvalho Mamede; Ascêncio, Sergio Donizeti; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; de Souza, Roberto Lopes; de Souza, Damiana Luiza Pereira; de França, Suélem Aparecida; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2015-03-13

    Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae) is a native plant of the Amazon region and its inner stem bark is used in the treatment of diabetes in the form of maceration in Brazilian popular medicine. Until now, there is no scientific study on this activity. The present study was aimed at evaluating the anti-hyperglycemic activity, anti-diabetic, toxicity, antioxidant and potential mechanism of action of hydroethanolic extract of the inner stem bark of Cedrela odorata. The inner stem bark extract of Cedrela odorata was prepared by maceration in 70% ethanol for 7 days to obtain hydroethanolic extract of Cedrela odorata (HeECo). The preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed according to procedures described in the literature. Selected secondary metabolites detected were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Acute toxicity of HeECo was investigated in male and female mice with oral administration of graded doses of HeECo from 10 to 5000 mg/kg. Subchronic oral toxicity study was done by oral administration of HeECo (500 mg/kg) and vehicle for 30 days to both sexes of Wistar rats. Clinical observations and toxicological related parameters were determined. Blood was collected for biochemical and hematological analyses, while histological examinations were performed on selected organs. Anti-hiperglycemic and antidiabetic effects were evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In acute evaluation, the animals received pretreatment with 250 and 500 mg/kg of HeECo, before carbohydrate overload. For subchronic effect, the antidiabetic activity of HeECo was evaluated using the same doses for 21 days. At the end of the treatments, the levels of triacylglycerols, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant status, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were evaluated in the plasma. The extract showed low acute toxicity. HeECo exhibited inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and caused a lowering in the peak levels of blood glucose in

  5. Hydroalcoholic extract from bark of Persea major (Meisn.) L.E. Kopp (Lauraceae) exerts antiulcer effects in rodents by the strengthening of the gastric protective factors.

    PubMed

    Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Boeing, Thaise; Cury, Benhur Judah; Steimbach, Viviane Miranda Bispo; Niero, Rivaldo; de Souza, Lauro Mera; da Silva, Luisa Mota; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2017-09-14

    The Persea major (Meisn.) L.E. Kopp (Lauraceae) (botanical synonym: Persea pyrifolia (D. Don) Spreng, Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart., Persea cordata var. major (Meisn.) Mez and Persea willdenovii Kosterm) is a medicinal plant native in the south of Brazil, where is popularly known as Pau de Andrade, Maçaranduba or Abacate-do-Mato. Its barks are commonly used to prepare an infusion which is administered orally or topically to treat ulcers and wounds, respectively. Thus, this study has been undertaken to contribute to the validation of the popular use of P. major to treat of ulcerative disorders from gastrointestinal system, using different experimental models in rodents. Firstly, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrophotometer has been performed. Next, the potential gastroprotective of hydroalcoholic extract of P. major barks (HEPM) (30-300mg/kg) has been evaluated in ulcer models acute as: ethanol, ethanol/HCl and indomethacin-induced ulcer. The extract (300mg/kg) has been also tested in acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model. Histological, toxicological, histochemical, oxidative stress and gastric secretion parameters were analyzed. The main compounds found in HEPM were polyphenols as condensed tannins, flavonoids heterosides derivatives from quercetin and kaempferol. HEPM (300mg/kg, p.o) prevented gastric lesions induced by ethanol or indomethacin in rats by 58.98% and 97.48%, respectively, compared to vehicle group (148.00±14.83mm 2 and 12.07±1.61mm 2 , respectively). In acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model the HEPM (300mg/kg, p.o) reduced the ulcer are by 40.58%, compared to vehicle group (127.90±12.04mm 2 ). The healing effect was confirmed histologically, by an increase in mucin content and by the reduction in oxidative and inflammatory parameters at the ulcer site. Neither significant effect on gastric acid secretion nor toxicological effects and cytotoxicity were provoked by administration of HEPM. The results allows to

  6. Evaluation of genotoxicity and DNA protective effects of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, I; Hernandez, S; Morffi, J; Herrera, J A; Gómez-Lechón, M J; Delgado, R; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J

    2012-09-01

    Mangiferin is a glucosylxantone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark. Several studies have shown its pharmacological properties which make it a promising candidate for putative therapeutic use. This study was focused to investigate the in vitro genotoxic effects of mangiferin in the Ames test, SOS Chromotest and Comet assay. The genotoxic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes from NMRI mice orally treated with mangiferin (2000 mg/kg) were also evaluated. Additionally, its potential antimutagenic activity against several mutagens in the Ames test and its effects on CYP1A1 activity were assessed. Mangiferin (50-5000 μg/plate) did not increased the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, nor induced primary DNA damage (5-1000 μg/mL) to Escherichia coli PQ37 cells under the SOS Chromotest. It was observed neither single strand breaks nor alkali-labile sites in blood peripheral lymphocytes or hepatocytes after 1h exposition to 10-500 μg/mL of mangiferin under the Comet assay. Furthermore, micronucleus studies showed mangiferin neither induced cytotoxic activity nor increased the frequency of micronucleated/binucleated cells in mice bone marrow. In short, mangiferin did not induce cytotoxic or genotoxic effects but it protect against DNA damage which would be associated with its antioxidant properties and its capacity to inhibit CYP enzymes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S.; Heather, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-α induced IκBα and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  8. Multiparametric evaluation of the cytoprotective effect of the Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and mangiferin in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Laia; Rodeiro, Idania; Donato, M Teresa; Herrera, José A; Delgado, René; Castell, José V; Gómez-Lechón, M José

    2013-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark extract (MSBE) is a natural product with biological properties and mangiferin is the major component. This paper reported the evaluation of the protective effects of MSBE and mangiferin against the toxicity induced in HepG2 cells by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or amiodarone. Nuclear morphology, cell viability, intracellular calcium concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured by using a high-content screening multiparametric assay. MSBE and mangiferin produced no toxicity below 500 mg/ml doses. A marked recovery in cell viability, which was reduced by the toxicants, was observed in cells pre-exposed to MSBE or mangiferin at 5-100 mg/ml doses. We also explored the possible interaction of both products over P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MSBE and mangiferin above 100 mg/ml inhibited the activity of P-gp in HepG2 cells. MSBE and mangiferin showed cytoprotective effects of against oxidative damage and mitochondrial toxicity induced by xenobiotics to human hepatic cells but it seemed that other constituents of the extract could contribute to MSBE protective properties. In addition, the drug efflux should be taken into account because of the inhibition of the P-gp function observed in those cells exposed to both natural products. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Direct assessment by electron spin resonance spectroscopy of the antioxidant effects of French maritime pine bark extract in the maxillofacial region of hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Nakamura, Takeshi; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il

    2011-01-01

    Flavangenol, one of extract of French maritime pine bark, is a complex mixture of bioflavonoids with oligometric proanthocyanidins as the major constituents. These constituents, catechin and procyanidin B1, are water-soluble derivatives of flavangenol. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of flavangenol on reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and singlet oxygen using electron spin resonance and spin trapping. The effect of flavangenol on oxidative stress in the skin from the maxillofacial region of hairless mice was investigated using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance imaging system. Flavangenol attenuated oxidative stress in the maxillofacial skin by acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo electron spin resonance imaging analysis. The absorption and metabolism of flavangenol were also examined. After oral administration of flavangenol in human and rat, most of the catechin in plasma was in the conjugated form, while 45% to 78% of procyanidin B1 was unconjugated, indicating that non-conjugated procyanidin B1 would be active in the circulation. The ability of flavangenol to reduce reactive oxygen species levels in the circulation of the maxillofacial region suggests that this extract may be beneficial for skin protection from exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. PMID:21980222

  10. The traditional use of Vachellia nilotica for sexually transmitted diseases is substantiated by the antiviral activity of its bark extract against sexually transmitted viruses.

    PubMed

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Gibellini, Davide; Musumeci, Giuseppina; Rittà, Massimo; Ghosh, Manik; Lembo, David

    2018-03-01

    Vachellia (Acacia) nilotica and other plants of this genus have been used in traditional medicine of Asian and African countries to treat many disorders, including sexually transmitted diseases, but few studies were performed to validate their anti-microbial and anti-viral activity against sexually transmitted infections. The present study was undertaken to explore whether the ethnomedical use of V.nilotica to treat genital lesions is substantiated by its antiviral activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV). The antiviral activity of V.nilotica was tested in vitro by virus-specific inhibition assays using HSV-2 strains, sensible or resistant to acyclovir, HIV-1IIIb strain and HPV-16 pseudovirion (PsV). The potential mode of action of extract against HSV-2 and HPV-16 was further investigated by virus inactivation and time-of-addition assays on cell cultures. V.nilotica chloroform, methanolic and water bark extracts exerted antiviral activity against HSV-2 and HPV-16 PsV infections; among these, methanolic extract showed the best EC50s with values of 4.71 and 1.80µg/ml against HSV-2 and HPV-16, respectively, and it was also active against an acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strain with an EC50 of 6.71µg/ml. By contrast, no suppression of HIV infection was observed. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that the methanolic extract directly inactivated the infectivity of the HPV-16 particles, whereas a partial virus inactivation and interference with virus attachment (EC50 of 2.74µg/ml) were both found to contribute to the anti-HSV-2 activity. These results support the traditional use of V.nilotica applied externally for the treatment of genital lesions. Further work remains to be done in order to identify the bioactive components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antihypernociceptive and antioxidant effects of Petersianthus macrocarpus stem bark extracts in rats with complete Freund's adjuvant-induced persistent inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Wandji, Bibiane Aimée; Fofié, Christian Kuete; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoit

    2017-03-14

    Background Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) is a plant used in Cameroonian folk medicine to cure ailments such as inflammation and pain. Previous work showed that aqueous (AEPM) and methanol (MEPM) extracts from the stem bark of P. macrocarpus possess acute analgesic activities. The present study evaluates whether the same extracts could inhibit persistent hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Methods Inflammatory pain was induced by intraplantar injection of CFA into the left hind paw of Wistar rats. AEPM and MEPM were administered either acutely or chronically by the oral route at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. The mechanical hyperalgesia was tested using an analgesimeter, while the locomotion activity at the end of experiment was evaluated with an open-field device. Nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents were assayed in the brain and spinal cord of rats subjected to 14 days chronic treatment. Results AEPM and MEPM at both doses significantly (p<0.001) inhibited the acute and chronic mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CFA. Although not significant, both extracts increased the mobility of CFA-injected animals. AEPM significantly (p<0.01) reduced the level of nitrate at 100 mg/kg, MDA at 200 mg/kg and significantly (p<0.05) increased the SOD in the spinal cord. MEPM significantly increased the SOD content and reduced the MDA concentration in the brain but had no effect on the nitrate. Conclusions AEPM and MEPM exhibit acute and chronic antihyperalgesic activities. In addition, both extracts possess antioxidant properties that might strengthen their chronic antihyperalgesic effects.

  12. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Abigail J. Walter; Stephen A. Kells; Robert C. Venette; Steven J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus...

  13. Study of pharmacological properties of the methanolic extract of Dichrostachys cinerea bark (L.) Wight et Arn (Leguminosae) in isolated myometrium from pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Aworet Samseny, Reine Rr; Angone, Sophie Aboughe; Madingou, Noreen Koumba; Mounanga, Marlaine Boukandou; Datté, Jacques Y

    2015-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in Gabon contributes widely to the primary health care of the people of this area of Central Africa. This paper investigates the pharmacological properties of Dichrostachys cinerea, the plant barks are traditionally used by Gabonese and Ivorian populations to treat bronchial asthma, rheumatism, and other various diseases. Although D. cinerea barks have been reported to be used by population to facilitate childbirth, to the best of our knowledge no scientific evidence has been published. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological properties of D. cinerea methanolic extract, on isolated uterine smooth muscle and compared its effects to those of oxytocin, which is used by obstetricians to facilitate childbirth. We also explored the possible mechanism pathways of the in vitro uterine contraction induced by D. cinerea. The effects of different concentrations (3.2µg/ml, 16µg/ml, 80µg/ml, 400µg/ml, and 2mg/ml) of the methanolic extract of D. cinerea on isolated strips of the uteri of pregnant rats were studied. These effects were compared to those of oxytocin (8.4×10(-5)µg/ml, 8.4×10(-4)µg/ml, 8.4×10(-3)µg/ml, 8.4×10(-2)µg/ml). The EC (50) and E (max) was determined graphically and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc test. Cumulative concentrations of D. cinerea have caused rise in the contractile force of the uterine fragments that were isolated from the pregnant rats, as seen with oxytocin concentrations. We observed contractions amplitude of 30.41mN (12%) at 80µg/ml and amplitude of 39.68mN (14.17%) at 400µg/ml for D. cinerea. In parallel, oxytocin concentration of 8.4×10(-3)µg/ml induced contractions of 45.82mN with the highest concentration (8.4×10(-2)µg/ml) that induced contractions of 55.82mN. Our results revealed that D. cinerea increased the contractile force and the frequency of muscle contractions. These findings support the use of D. cinerea to facilitate childbirth, as it

  14. Supercritical CO2 extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Sanjust, Enrico; Meli, Massimo; Sollai, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The volatile oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction in different conditions of pressure and temperature. Its chemical composition was characterized by GC-MS analysis. Nineteen compounds, which in the supercritical extract represented >95% of the oil, were identified. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde (77.1%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (6.0%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), and eugenol (3.0%) were found to be the major constituents. The SFE oil of cinnamon was screened for its biological activity about the formation of melanin in vitro. The extract showed antityrosinase activity and was able to reduce the formation of insoluble flakes of melanin from tyrosine. The oil also delayed the browning effect in apple homogenate. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to be mainly responsible of this inhibition effect.

  15. In vitro effects of aqueous extract from Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell stem bark on egg hatching, larval migration and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Zangueu, Calvin Bogning; Olounlade, Abiodoun Pascal; Ossokomack, Marlyse; Djouatsa, Yolande Noelle Nangue; Alowanou, Goue Géorcelin; Azebaze, Anatole Guy Blaise; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio José; de Córdova, Maria Luisa Fernández; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Hounzangbe-Adote, Mawulé Sylvie

    2018-05-02

    Maytenus senegalensis is a common shrub which is scattered in tropical Africa. Different parts of this plant have been reported to be useful in traditional medicine against gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal worms. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of M. senegalensis using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and adult worms' motility inhibition assay (AMIA). On EHA, the extract concentrations tested resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of egg hatching in concentration-dependent manner and ranged between 31.86% at 75 μg.mL - 1 to 54.92% at 2400 μg.mL - 1 after a 48 h post-exposure with eggs. For the LMI assays, the aqueous extract of M. senegalensis showed a significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of larval migration in a concentration-dependent manner. The highest concentration used (2400 μg.mL - 1 ) showed a 37.77% inhibition. The use of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) indicated that tannins and flavonoids were partly involved in the effect since the larval migration was inhibited by 15.5%, but other biochemical compounds were also implicated. On AMIA, M. senegalensis was associated with a reduced worm motility after a 24 h post exposure compared to phosphate buffered saline as control (p < 0.05). By this time 66.66% of the worms' were found immotile or dead in the wells containing plant extract at 2400 μg.mL - 1 . The Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of M. senegalensis by HPLC-ESI-MS n detected the presence of proanthocyanidins (20%) and flavonoids (> 50%). These in vitro results suggest the presence of some anthelmintic properties in M. senegalensis extract, which is traditionally used by small farmers in west and central Africa. These effects may be due to the flavonoids and proanthocyanidins present in the extract and need to be studied under in vivo conditions.

  16. Characterisation of the antioxidant effects of Aesculus hippocastanum L. bark extract on the basis of radical scavenging activity, the chemiluminescence of human neutrophil bursts and lipoperoxidation assay.

    PubMed

    Braga, P C; Marabini, L; Wang, Y Y; Lattuada, N; Calò, R; Bertelli, A; Falchi, M; Dal Sasso, M; Bianchi, T

    2012-07-01

    Oxidative stress is increasingly recognised as a pivotal factor that plays a number of roles in the inflammatory response to environmental signals. It has been claimed that Aesculus hippocastanum extracts have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but these claims are mainly based on the results of chemical reactions and folk-medicine. The aim of this study was to examine whether a bark extract of Aesculus hippocastanum interferes with reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) during the course of human neutrophil respiratory bursts, and to establish the lowest concentration at which it still has antioxidant activity by means of luminol amplified chemiluminescence (LACL). We also studied its ability to counteract lipid peroxidation (LPO) in human cells. Before investigating its antioxidant effects on human cells, we analysed its scavenging activity against ABTS*+, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and Fremy's salt (those last three by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry). The extract of Aesculus hippocastanum exerted its anti-ROS/RNS activity in a concentration-dependent manner with significant effects being observed for even very low concentrations: 10 microg/ml without L-Arg, and 5 microg/ml when L-Arg was added to the fMLP test. The LPO assay confirmed these results, which were paralleled by the EPR study. These findings are interesting for improving the antioxidant network and restoring redox balance in human cells, and extend the possibility of using plant-derived molecules to antagonise the oxidative stress generated in living organisms when the balance is in favour of free radicals as a result of the depletion of cell antioxidants.

  17. In vitro antioxidant and anti-lipoperoxidative activities of bark extracts of Xylopia aethiopica against ion-mediated toxicity on liver homogenates.

    PubMed

    Moukette Moukette, Bruno; Pieme, Constant Anatole; Nya Biapa, Prosper Cabral; Ngogang, Jeanne Yonkeu

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), products of normal cell metabolism may cause damage to biological macromolecules leading to severe health threats when they are present in high concentrations. Aromatic plants contain phytochemicals rich of antioxidants that prevent oxidant formation or scavenge oxidants produced under oxidative stress conditions. In the present study, we investigated the free radical scavenging effects, the antioxidant and ion toxicity preventive effect of Xylopia aethiopica (X. aethiopica), a plant of the family of Annonaceae used as spice in Cameroon. The scavenging properties of extracts of X. aethiopica were tested on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The total antioxidant capacity was assayed by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), phosphomolybdenum antioxidant power (PAP), reduction assays. The protective potential was carried on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidases. The results showed that both the ethanolic (BEE) and the hydroethanolic (BEH) extracts from the barks of X. aethiopica scavenged all the tested radicals. The sample BEH showed the highest total antioxidant capacity both in the FRAP and the PAP. This result was positively correlated to its higher phenolic content (30.74±0.44 CAE/g dried extract). The higher protective capacity of BEH on SOD, catalase and peroxidase activities was comparable to that of the vitamin C used as standard. In conclusion, X. aethiopica has a higher antioxidant and protective potential against ion-mediated oxidative damage and may be considered as a potential drug against metal-mediated toxicity.

  18. Characterization and quantitation of yohimbine and its analogs in botanicals and dietary supplements using LC/QTOF-MS and LC/QQQ-MS for determination of the presence of bark extract and yohimbine adulteration.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Derick; Neal-Kababick, James; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    The compound yohimbine HCl has been restricted in Australia and categorized as a scheduled prescription drug in other parts of the world, including the United States where it is monographed as a drug in the U. S. Pharmacopeia. However, the bark of the yohimbe plant and its extract is considered a botanical that can be used as a dietary supplement in some parts of the world. For these reasons, methods to characterize the indole alkaloids of the bark and quantify yohimbine and its analogs are presented using accurate mass LC/quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF)-MS and triple quadrupole LC/MS, respectively. Samples were extracted with a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method to characterize and quantify the indole alkaloids. With the LC/QTOF-MS in auto MS/MS mode the indole alkaloids were identified, and the isomeric response of each could be used to determine whether the actual bark or extract was in samples of dietary supplements and not adulteration with yohimbine HCl. Analogs were identified and include yohimbic acid, methyl yohimbine, and hydroxyl yohimbine. Many isomers of each were also detected, but identified only by the number of chromatographic peaks. Quantification of yohimbine and ajmalicine spiked extracts showed recoveries of 99 to 103% with RSD of 3.6% or lower and LODs of less than 100 ppt. Calibration of the two standards gave r(2) = 0.9999 in a range from 0.1 to 100 ppb. Dietary supplements quantified for these two compounds showed a range from not detected to 3x the amounts found in the bark.

  19. Phytochemicals Analysis and Medicinal Potentials of Hydroalcoholic Extract from Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm Stem Bark

    PubMed Central

    Oyedemi, Sunday Oyewole; Oyedemi, Blessing Ogochukwuamaka; Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-01-01

    Curtisia dentata (CD) is a vulnerable medicinal plant used for the treatment of stomach ailments in South Africa. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. The phytochemical analysis of the extract was estimated using standard assay methods while its antibacterial activity was determined by the agar dilution method against selected bacteria. The antioxidant activity of the extract was done using ferric reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The cytotoxicity assay of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality test with LC50 value of 0.302 mg/mL. The antibacterial activity of the extract demonstrated an appreciable broad spectrum activity against the tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges between 5000 and 0.5 mg/L. Both phenol and flavonoid concentrations were 14.86 mg tannic acid equivalent/g and 13.64 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. The percentage composition of saponins (13.26) was highest, followed by steroids (1.42), while alkaloids and tannins had the same value of 0.51. Similarly, IC50 values of the extract against DPPH, ABTS, H2O2, LPO and NO were 0.017, 0.018, 0.159, 0.06 and 0.052 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Our data suggest that the 70% ethanol extract from the CD extract has antibacterial and antioxidant properties due to the presence of bio-active compounds and thus support its folkloric use in the treatment of diseases. PMID:22754358

  20. Bark And Its Possible Uses

    Treesearch

    J. M. Harkin; J. W. Rowe

    1971-01-01

    What to do with bark is a major question facing the wood conversion industries. Optimum utilization of bark residues demands appreciation of the complexity of bark and the extreme variation in chemical and physical properties between barks of different wood species. This report discusses bark structure, past and present utilization, and methods of upgrading bark both...

  1. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Janaína P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx − were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx − induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  2. alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica bark.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, D; Amit, A; Samiulla, D S; Asha, M K; Padmaja, R

    2001-08-01

    The ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves, Holarrhena antidysenterica bark, Swertia chirata whole plant and Mangifera indica bark were tested (in-vitro) for alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. M. indica extract was found to be the most potent, with an IC(50) value of 314 microg/ml.

  3. Coffee with cinnamon - impact of phytochemicals interactions on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in vitro activity.

    PubMed

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Pecio, Lukasz

    2014-11-01

    This paper evaluates the potential bioaccessibility and interactions between antiradical and anti-inflammatory compounds from coffee and cinnamon. Results obtained for whole plant material extracts were compared with those for chlorogenic and cinnamic acids (the main bioactive constituents of the study material). All samples, coffee, cinnamon and a mixture of the two showed abilities to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Both activities increased after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. In the mixture antiradical phytochemicals acted antagonistically - isoboles adopted the convex form. The same interactions were determined for chemical standards. The water-extractable LOX inhibitors acted synergistically - the isobole curve was "concave". The same type of interaction was determined for standard compounds. Interestingly, after digestion in vitro a slight antagonism in the action of LOX inhibitors was observed. The results show that the food matrix and/or its changes during digestion may play an important role in creating the biological properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  5. A standardized bark extract of Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pycnogenol®) attenuated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via Erk-sp1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shin, Na-Rae; Ryu, Hyung-Won; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Ji-Won; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, In-Sik; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2016-12-24

    A standardized bark extract of Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pycnogenol ® ; PYC) used as an herbal medicine to treat various diseases in Europe and North America. This study evaluates the ability of PYC to inhibit chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-stimulated human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and in a cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model. To induce COPD, the mice intranasally received LPS on day 4 and were exposed to CS for 1h per day (total eight cigarettes per day) from days 1-7. The mice were administered PYC at a dose of 15mg/kg and 30mg/kg 1h before CS exposure. In the CSE-stimulated NCI-H292 cells, PYC significantly inhibited Erk phosphorylation, sp1 expression, MUC5AC, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a concentration-dependent manner, as evidenced by a reduction in their mRNA levels. Co-treatment with PYC and Erk inhibitors markedly reduced the levels inflammatory mediators compared to only PYC-treatment. In the COPD mice model, PYC decreased the inflammatory cell count and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid compared with COPD mice. PYC attenuated the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the airways and decreased the expression levels of Erk phosphorylation and sp1. PYC also inhibited the expression of myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinases-9 in lung tissue. Our results indicate that PYC inhibited the reduction in the inflammatory response in CSE-stimulated NCI-H292 cells and the COPD mouse model via the Erk-sp1 pathway. Therefore, we suggest that PYC has the potential to treat COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Autoclave mediated one-pot-one-minute synthesis of AgNPs and Au-Ag nanocomposite from Melia azedarach bark extract with antimicrobial activity against food pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pani, Alok; Lee, Joong Hee; Yun, Soon-Ii

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles and nanocomposite in pharmaceutical and processed food industry have increased the demand for nontoxic and inert metallic nanostructures. Chemical and physical method of synthesis of nanostructures is most popular in industrial production, despite the fact that these methods are labor intensive and/or generate toxic effluents. There has been an increasing demand for rapid, ecofriendly and relatively cheaper synthesis of nanostructures. Here, we propose a strategy, for one-minute green synthesis of AgNPs and a one-pot one-minute green synthesis of Au-Ag nanocomposite, using Melia azedarach bark aqueous extract as reducing agent. The hydrothermal mechanism of the autoclave technology has been successfully used in this study to accelerate the nucleation and growth of nano-crystals. The study also presents high antimicrobial potential of the synthesized nano solutions against common food and water born pathogens. The multistep characterization and analysis of the synthesized nanomaterial samples, using UV-visible spectroscopy, ICP-MS, FT-IR, EDX, XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM, also reveal the reaction dynamics of AgNO3, AuCl3 and plant extract in synthesis of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the synthesized Au-Ag nanocomposite, with high gold to silver ratio, reduces the dependency on the AgNPs, which is considered to be environmentally more toxic than the gold counterpart. We hope that this new strategy will change the present course of green synthesis. The rapidity of synthesis will also help in industrial scale green production of nanostructures using Melia azedarach.

  7. Antifungal Properties of Crude Extracts, Fractions, and Purified Compounds from Bark of Curatella americana L. (Dilleniaceae) against Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Mendes de Toledo, Cleyton Eduardo; Santos, Patrícia Regina; Palazzo de Mello, João Carlos; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2015-01-01

    The ethnomedicinal plant Curatella americana L. (Dilleniaceae) is a common shrub in the Brazilian cerrado, in which crude extract showed antifungal activity in a preliminary study. In this work, the antifungal and cytotoxic properties of the crude extract, fractions, and isolated compounds from C. americana were evaluated against the standard yeast strains Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, clinical isolates, and fluconazole-resistant strains. The combinatory effects between subfractions and isolated compounds and effects on cell morphology, virulence factors, and exogenous ergosterol were also evaluated. The MIC obtained against the Candida species including fluconazole-resistant strain ranged from 15.3 to 31.3 µg/mL for crude extract, 3.9 to 15.6 µg/mL for ethyl acetate fraction, and 7.8 to 31.3 µg/mL for subfractions. The isolated compounds identified as 4′-O-methyl-catechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate, and 4′-O-methyl-catechin-3-O-gallate showed lower antifungal activity than the crude extract and fractions (MIC ranging from 31.3 to 125.0 µg/mL). The addition of exogenous ergosterol to yeast culture did not interfere in the antifungal activity of the extract and its fractions. Synergistic antifungal activity was observed between subfractions and isolated compounds. The effects on virulence factors and the different mechanisms of action compared to fluconazole and nystatin suggest that this ethnomedicinal plant may be an effective alternative treatment for candidiasis. PMID:26347790

  8. Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Adelina; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Morona, Domenica; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-09-06

    Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification. Probit regression analysis was used for LC 50 and LC 95 calculations while a t-test was used to test for significant differences between laboratory-reared and wild larvae populations in each concentration of plant extract. Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by their LC 50 and LC 95 values. The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage-dependent and were higher for cinnamon than for clove essential oils. The mortality effect following exposure to a blend of the two essential oils was higher for blends containing a greater proportion of cinnamon oil. In the chemical analysis of the active ingredients of cinnamon essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol, and the rarest was β-Linalool while for clove essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol and the rarest was Bicyclo. The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. The active ingredient compositions triggered different responses in mortality. Further research in small-scale should be conducted with concentrated extracted compounds.

  9. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    PubMed Central

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus–host interaction was conducted by the same assay. Results: CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. Conclusion: The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. SUMMARY Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes

  10. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi.

    PubMed

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus-host interaction was conducted by the same assay. CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes with viral entry process in the host cell and acts directly on the viral

  11. Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.) bark extract regulates antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated enzyme expression via Nrf2 pathway activation in normal hepatocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Paluszczak, Jarosław; Oszmiański, Jan; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2014-04-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), a plant used in traditional medicine, is a rich source of procyanidins which have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activity. In this study, we assessed the effect of hawthorn bark extract (HBE) on Nrf2 pathway activation in THLE-2 and HepG2 cells. Treatment with 1.1 µg/mL, 5.5 µg/mL and 11 µg/mL of HBE resulted in the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus in both cell lines; however, the accumulation of phosphorylated Nrf2 was observed only in THLE-2. Accordingly, treatment of cells with HBE was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein level of such Nrf2-dependent genes as glutathione S-transferases (GSTA, GSTP, GSTM, GSTT), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (0.2-1.1-fold change, p < 0.05), however, only in normal THLE-2 hepatocytes. The induction of NQO1 correlated with an increased level of p53 (0.21-0.42-fold change, p < 0.05). These effects may be related to induction of phosphorylation of upstream ERK and JNK kinases. Collectively, the results suggest that the Nrf2/ARE pathway may play an important role in the regulation of procyanidin-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying effects in hepatocytes, and this may explain the hepatoprotective and chemopreventive properties of these phytochemicals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Activities of Stem-Bark Extracts and Fractions of Carpolobia Lutea (Polygalaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nwidu, Lucky Legbosi; Airhihen, Blessing; Ahmadu, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Niger Delta, ethnomedicine hydroalcoholic extract of Carpolobia lutea (CL) (Polygalaceae) is used to relieve inflammatory pains. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic stem extract (ESE) and to fractionate the ESE for the elucidation of bioactive molecules. Materials and Methods: The antinociceptive effects for ESE were tested against two noxious stimuli; chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced pain) and thermal (hot plate) stimuli. The effects of paracetamol (130 mg/kg), indomethacin (10 mg/kg), and morphine (5 mg/kg) pretreatment were investigated. To isolate the bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory effect, two doses (86.6 and 173.2 mg/kg) of four fractions (methanol fraction MTF, ethyl acetate fraction EAF, chloroform fraction CHF, and n-hexane fraction n-HF) obtained from fractionating ESE were utilized. Carrageenan, egg albumin, and capsaicin-induced edema of the hind paw of the rats were the models adopted. Paw volume was measured by a digital vernier caliper from 0 to 6 h after injection. This was compared to standard drugs. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The ESE decreased significantly (P < 0.001) the writhing of acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions and licking of formalin-induced pains but does not have any effects on the hot plate test. Of the four fractions obtained, the EAFs demonstrated a significant (P < 0.001) inflammatory inhibition of 98.97% and 41.91% at 86.6 and 173.2 mg/kg, respectively, compared to 65.75% inhibition demonstrated by the reference drug, acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) on the carrageenan model while 36.36% and 29.87% inhibition of inflammation at 86.6 and 173.2 mg/kg, respectively, on the egg albumin models; there was no significant effect on the capsaicin model. Conclusion: The isolation of quercetin and kaemferol from CL gave credence to its anti-inflammatory and

  13. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  14. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-11

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided.

  15. Synergistic effect of green tea, cinnamon and ginger combination on enhancing postprandial blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Azzeh, Firas Sultan

    2013-01-15

    This study was maintained to determine the immediate effect of green tea, cinnamon, ginger and combination of them on postprandial glucose levels. The Glycemic Index (GI) for previous treatments was measured as an indicator for postprandial glucose pattern. Twenty-two healthy volunteers from both genders were enrolled in this study. Mean age was 21.3 years and mean BMI was 24.6 kg m(-2). For each herb and combination treatment, a concentration of 2.5% aqueous tea extract was prepared. The GI of green tea, cinnamon and ginger were 79, 63 and 72 respectively. Herbs combination exerted GI of 60, which was the lowest. Combination of these herbs showed the best lowering effect on postprandial glucose levels as compared with each herb alone. A potential synergism from the active ingredients of blended herbs was determined.

  16. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Perera, Sanja; Gunatilake, Mangala; Abeywardene, Eranga; Gunapala, Nuwan; Premakumara, Sirimal; Perera, Kamal; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Katulanda, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water) and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts) were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water) and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts) were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05). Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05). Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001). Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001). Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats. PMID:22518078

  17. Pinus densiflora bark extract ameliorates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice by regulating Th1/Th2 balance and skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Woo; Wu, Qianwen; Jang, Young Pyo; Choung, Se Young

    2018-06-01

    Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) bark has been traditionally used in Korea and other parts of East Asia to relieve inflammatory diseases. Although many studies using P. densiflora bark have been reported, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been elucidated. Thus, we investigated whether the P. densiflora bark extract (PBE) has potential to attenuate AD symptoms and elucidated the molecular mechanism. Oral administration of PBE to mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD lessened dermatitis scores and scratching behavior and significantly reduced measures of epidermal thickness, infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils, levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), and IgG 1 /IgG 2a ratio in serum. PBE not only inhibited IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 but also increased IFN-γ in splenic production. Furthermore, PBE significantly suppressed mRNA expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and further downregulated the mRNA expression of Th2 and Th17 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-31, and TNF-α. In addition, the protein expressions of filaggrin, involucrin, and loricrin in lesional skin were recovered by PBE. These results suggest that PBE attenuates DNCB-induced AD via regulating Th1/Th2 balance and skin barrier function. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Severe exacerbation of rosacea induced by cinnamon supplements.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Tracy M; Neems, Rachel; Moore, Julie

    2008-06-01

    The authors report a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian female with type 2 diabetes mellitus who experienced an acute exacerbation of her rosacea 2 weeks after self-initiating cinnamon oil pills to lower her blood sugar levels. Historically, cinnamon oil has been used for a variety of medicinal purposes, but recently the use of cinnamon oil in lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes is being investigated and gaining popularity amongst the general population. The use of cinnamon has commonly produced cutaneous side effects of irritant or allergic contact dermatitis and been reported to have vasodilatory effects. Yet, there are no reports of cinnamon use triggering a rosacea exacerbation in the literature.

  19. In vivo estrogenic-like activities of Gouania longipetala Hemsl. (Rhamnaceae) bark extracts in a post-menopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Paul Désiré, Dzeufiet Djomeni; Yolande Sandrine, Mengue Ngadena; Danielle Claude, Bilanda; Mireille, Kameni; Oumarou Bibi-Farouck, Aboubakar; Théophile, Dimo; Pierre, Kamtchouing

    2015-06-20

    Gouania longipetala is commonly used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to manage women fertility and menopausal complaints. However, despite this use, the estrogenic properties of G. longipetala have not been studied until now. The present study was aimed to assess estrogenic activities of the stem bark aqueous (GLA) and ethanolic (GLE) extracts of G. longipetala in post-menopause-like model of ovariectomized (Ovx) Wistar rats. Animals were either sham-operated or Ovx. 84 days after ovariectomy, animals were divided into seven groups of five animals and were daily treated for 28 days with distilled water (10 mL/kg) for group 1, 2% solution of Tween 80 (10 mL/kg) for group 2, estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg) for group 3, GLA (45 or 180 mg/kg) and GLE (40 or 160 mg/kg) for groups 4 to 7 respectively. Sham-operated animals daily received distilled water (10 mL/kg). During the experimental period, the body weight was registered every week. At the day 29, blood pressure was registered by invasive method while uterine and vagina morphometry as well as body, uterine and abdominal fat weights changes were analyzed. Serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were determined. Moreover, oxidative stress markers such as nitrites, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in homogenized liver and aorta. Compared with the sham control, vagina and uterine dystrophy and elevated blood pressure were observed in Ovx rats treated with vehicles. Biochemical parameters showed a significant increase of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and MDA as well as a significant decrease of nitrites and GSH in Ovx animals treated with vehicle as compared to sham group. GLA and GLE displayed estrogen-like effects on vagina and did not affect uterine wet weight and epithelial height compared with vehicle groups. Both extracts displayed anti-atherogenic properties by reducing AI, AIP and LDL-cholesterol level as compared

  20. High-resolution α-amylase assay combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for expedited identification of α-amylase inhibitors: proof of concept and α-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon.

    PubMed

    Okutan, Leyla; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2014-11-26

    Type 2 diabetes affects millions of people worldwide, and new improved drugs or functional foods containing selective α-amylase inhibitors are needed for improved management of blood glucose. In this article the development of a microplate-based high-resolution α-amylase inhibition assay with direct photometric measurement of α-amylase activity is described. The inhibition assay is based on porcine pancreatic α-amylase with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotriose as substrate, which this gives a stable, sensitive, and cheap inhibition assay as requested for high-resolution purposes. In combination with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR, this provides an analytical platform that allows simultaneous chemical and biological profiling of α-amylase inhibitors in plant extracts. Proof-of-concept with an artificial mixture of six compounds-of which three are known α-amylase inhibitors-showed that the high-resolution α-amylase inhibition profiles allowed detection of sub-microgram amounts of the α-amylase inhibitors. Furthermore, the high-resolution α-amylase inhibition assay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR platform allowed identification of cinnamaldehyde as the α-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl.).

  1. In Vitro Ion Chelating, Antioxidative Mechanism of Extracts from Fruits and Barks of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Their Protective Effects against Fenton Mediated Toxicity of Metal Ions on Liver Homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Moukette, Bruno Moukette; Pieme, Anatole Constant; Biapa, Prosper Cabral Nya; Njimou, Jacques Romain; Bravi, Marco; Yonkeu Ngogang, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and protective potential of T. tetraptera extracts against ion toxicity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was investigated spectrophotometrically against several radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•), hydroxyl radical (HO•), and nitric oxide (NO•)), followed by the ferric reducing power, total phenols, flavonoid, and flavonol contents. The effects of the extracts on catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase activities were also determined using the standard methods as well as the polyphenol profile using HPLC. The results showed that the hydroethanolic extract of T. tetraptera (CFH) has the lowest IC50 value with the DPPH, ABTS, OH, and NO radicals. The same extract also exhibited the significantly higher level of total phenols (37.24 ± 2.00 CAE/g dried extract); flavonoids (11.36 ± 1.88 QE/g dried extract); and flavonols contents (3.95 ± 0.39 QE/g dried extract). The HPLC profile of T. tetraptera revealed that eugenol (958.81 ± 00 mg/g DW), quercetin (353.78 ± 00 mg/g DW), and rutin (210.54 ± 00 mg/g DW) were higher in the fruit than the bark extracts. In conclusion, extracts from T. tetraptera may act as a protector against oxidative mediated ion toxicity. PMID:26356679

  2. Partitioning of pine bark components to obtain a value-added product for plywood manufacture

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed; Chi-Leung So

    2009-01-01

    Southern yellow pine (SYP) bark particles and bark extracts have been used only to a limited extent in wood-based composites due to poor performance relative to existing products and/or economic barriers. Our efforts to identify alternative applications for this biomass resource require the development of an improved understanding of the interrelationships between bark...

  3. Grinding and classification of pine bark for use as plywood adhesive filler

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed

    2005-01-01

    Prior efforts to incorporate bark or bark extracts into composites have met with only limited success because of poor performance relative to existing products and/or economic barriers stemming from high levels of processing. We are currently investigating applications for southern yellow pine (SYP) bark that require intermediate levels of processing, one being the use...

  4. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of condensed tannins with potent antioxidant activity from the leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming; Liao, Meng-Meng; Chai, Wei-Ming

    2010-06-15

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  5. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Maria Leonor; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Brito, José; Proença, Luis; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii) on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period.

  6. Cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pham, Antony Q; Kourlas, Helen; Pham, David Q

    2007-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and most patients with the disease have type 2 diabetes. The effectiveness of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes has received a great deal of media attention after a study was published in 2003. Although the efficacy of cinnamon in patients with diabetes has not been established, many patients seek other therapies and supplement their prescribed pharmacologic therapy with cinnamon. We conducted a literature search, limited to English-language human studies, using MEDLINE (1966-August 2006), EMBASE (1980-August 2006), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-August 2006), and Iowa Drug Information Service (1966-August 2006). References from articles and clinical trials were reviewed for additional sources; no abstracts were reviewed. We found two prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trials and one prospective, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trial that evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes; a total of 164 patients were involved in these trials. Two of the studies reported modest improvements in lowering blood glucose levels with cinnamon supplementation in small patient samples. One trial showed no significant difference between cinnamon and placebo in lowering blood glucose levels. Overall, cinnamon was well tolerated. These data suggest that cinnamon has a possible modest effect in lowering plasma glucose levels in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. However, clinicians are strongly urged to refrain from recommending cinnamon supplementation in place of the proven standard of care, which includes lifestyle modifications, oral antidiabetic agents, and insulin therapy.

  7. Beech Bark Disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston; James T. O' Brien

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease causes significant mortality and defect in American beech, Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.). The disease results when bark, attacked and altered by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., is invaded and killed by fungi, primarily Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers, and sometimes N. galligena Bres.

  8. Loblolly pine bark flavanoids

    Treesearch

    J.J. Karchesy; R.W. Hemingway

    1980-01-01

    The inner bark of Pinus taeda L. contains (+)-catechin, the procyanidin 8.1 (a C-4 to C-8 linked (-)-epicatechin to (+)-catechin dimer), and three polymeric procyanidins that have distinctly different solubility and chromatographic properties. An ethyl acetate soluble polymer (0.20% of bark, Mn = 1200) was purified by chromatography on LH-20 Sephadex. A water-soluble...

  9. Beech bark disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1998-01-01

    In forests of North America the beech bark disease (BBD) complex affects American beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. BBD begins when bark tissues, attacked by the exotic beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind. are rendered susceptible to killing attacks by fungi of the genus Nectria. The principal fungus,...

  10. Inhibition of protein glycation by procyanidin-B2 enriched fraction of cinnamon: delay of diabetic cataract in rats.

    PubMed

    Muthenna, Puppala; Raghu, Ganugula; Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Sinha, Sukesh Narayana; Suryanarayana, Palla; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) from nonenzymatic glycation of proteins has been implicated in several diabetic complications including diabetic cataract. Previously, we have reported that extracts of dietary agents such as cinnamon have the potential to inhibit AGE formation. In this study, we have shown procyanidin-B2 as the active component of cinnamon that is involved in AGE inhibition using bioassay-guided fractionation of eye lens proteins under in vitro conditions. The data indicate that procyanidin-B2 enriched fraction scavenges dicarbonyls. Further, procyanidin-B2 fraction of cinnamon inhibited the formation of glycosylated hemoglobin in human blood under ex vivo conditions. We have also demonstrated the physiological significance of procyanidin-B2 fraction in terms of delay of diabetic cataract through inhibition of AGE in diabetic rats. These findings establish the antiglycating potential of procyanidin-B2 fraction of cinnamon which suggests a scope for controlling AGE-mediated diabetic complications by food sources that are rich in proanthocyanidins like procyanidin-B2. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-08-01

    Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans. Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct.

  12. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  13. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  14. Effect of cinnamon on glucose control and lipid parameters.

    PubMed

    Baker, William L; Gutierrez-Williams, Gabriela; White, C Michael; Kluger, Jeffrey; Coleman, Craig I

    2008-01-01

    To perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cinnamon to better characterize its impact on glucose and plasma lipids. A systematic literature search through July 2007 was conducted to identify randomized placebo-controlled trials of cinnamon that reported data on A1C, fasting blood glucose (FBG), or lipid parameters. The mean change in each study end point from baseline was treated as a continuous variable, and the weighted mean difference was calculated as the difference between the mean value in the treatment and control groups. A random-effects model was used. Five prospective randomized controlled trials (n = 282) were identified. Upon meta-analysis, the use of cinnamon did not significantly alter A1C, FBG, or lipid parameters. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses did not significantly change the results. Cinnamon does not appear to improve A1C, FBG, or lipid parameters in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

  15. In Vitro Anti-Cariogenic Plaque Effects of Essential Oils Extracted from Culinary Herbs.

    PubMed

    Wiwattanarattanabut, Kornsit; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2017-09-01

    Cariogenic bacteria including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are partly but significantly involved in dental caries development. An effective prevention strategy against dental caries is to decrease the accumulation of this microbiota either in planktonic or in biofilm form. To examine the antimicrobial and anti-plaque effects of some culinary herbs (spices), so the herbs are plausibly used as alternative and effective herbal plaque control supplements to promote good oral health. Essential oils extracted from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) , cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) , sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) , kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) , black pepper (Piper nigrum) , peppermint (Mentha piperita) , and spearmint (Mentha spicata) were primarily examined for their antimicrobial activities against the cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans KPSK2 and Lactobacillus casei) using the agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. These essential oils were then analysed for anti-plaque effects (retardation of S. mutans biofilm formation and reduction of the in vitro established biofilm). This experimental study was performed at the Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University during June 2015 till August 2016. All selected essential oils showed different degrees of antimicrobial activity against the planktonic form of both cariogenic bacteria. Cinnamon bark essential oil expressed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. mutans {MIC of 0.08% (v/v)} and L. casei {MIC of 0.16% (v/v)}, whereas the weakest effect was found in kaffir lime essential oil {MIC values of 2.5% and 5.0% (v/v) for S. mutans and L. casei , respectively}. Up to 80% of S. mutans biofilm was retarded to form on the substratum primed with these spice essential oils, especially cinnamon oil. The preventive effect of these oils was in dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. For reductive effect against the 24-hour pre-established S

  16. In Vitro Anti-Cariogenic Plaque Effects of Essential Oils Extracted from Culinary Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Wiwattanarattanabut, Kornsit; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cariogenic bacteria including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are partly but significantly involved in dental caries development. An effective prevention strategy against dental caries is to decrease the accumulation of this microbiota either in planktonic or in biofilm form. Aim To examine the antimicrobial and anti-plaque effects of some culinary herbs (spices), so the herbs are plausibly used as alternative and effective herbal plaque control supplements to promote good oral health. Materials and Methods Essential oils extracted from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), black pepper (Piper nigrum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), and spearmint (Mentha spicata) were primarily examined for their antimicrobial activities against the cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans KPSK2 and Lactobacillus casei) using the agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. These essential oils were then analysed for anti-plaque effects (retardation of S. mutans biofilm formation and reduction of the in vitro established biofilm). This experimental study was performed at the Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University during June 2015 till August 2016. Results All selected essential oils showed different degrees of antimicrobial activity against the planktonic form of both cariogenic bacteria. Cinnamon bark essential oil expressed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. mutans {MIC of 0.08% (v/v)} and L. casei {MIC of 0.16% (v/v)}, whereas the weakest effect was found in kaffir lime essential oil {MIC values of 2.5% and 5.0% (v/v) for S. mutans and L. casei, respectively}. Up to 80% of S. mutans biofilm was retarded to form on the substratum primed with these spice essential oils, especially cinnamon oil. The preventive effect of these oils was in dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. For reductive effect

  17. Barking and mobbing.

    PubMed

    Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Coppinger, Raymond

    2009-07-01

    Barking is most often associated with the domestic dog Canis familiaris, but it is a common mammalian and avian vocalization. Like any vocalization, the acoustic character of the bark is likely to be a product of adaptation as well as an expression of the signaler's internal motivational state. While most authors recognize that the bark is a distinct signal type, no consistent description of its acoustic definition or function is apparent. The bark exhibits considerable variability in its acoustic form and occurs in a wide range of behavioral contexts, particularly in dogs. This has led some authors to suggest that dog barking might be a form of referential signaling, or an adaptation for heightened capability to communicate with humans. In this paper we propose a general 'canonical' acoustic description of the bark. Surveying relevant literature on dogs, wild canids, other mammals and birds, we explore an alternative functional hypothesis, first suggested by [Morton, E.S., 1977. On the occurrence and significance of motivation-structural rules in some bird and mammal sounds. Am. Nat. 111, 855-869] and consistent with his motivational-structural rules theory: that barking in many animals, including the domestic dog, is associated with mobbing behavior and the motivational states that accompany mobbing.

  18. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim on human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Cui, Yuqiang; Zhu, Jiayong; Li, Hongzhi; Mao, Jianwen; Jin, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiangsheng; Du, Yifan; Lu, Jiazheng

    2013-01-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extracted compound JMM6 were studied in BEL-7402 cells by MTT, Cell cycle analysis, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay and Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). After treatment with the JMM6, the growth of BEL-7402 cells was inhibited and cells displayed typical morphological apoptotic characteristics. Further investigations revealed that treatment with JMM6 mainly caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells. To evaluate the alteration of mitochondria in JMM6 induced apoptosis. The data showed that JMM6 decreased significantly the ΔΨm, causing the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Our results show that the JMM6 will have a potential advantage of anti-tumor, less harmful to normal cells. This paper not only summarized the JMM6 pick-up technology from Juglans mandshurica Maxim and biological characteristic, but also may provide further evidence to exploit the potential medicine compounds from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

  19. Gastroprotective Effect of Combination of Hot Water Extracts of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari Stem Bark (Alyxia reinwardtii), and Sembung Leaf (Blumea balsamifera) Against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Model Rats.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Wijayanti, Agustin; Mutmainah, Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning

    2016-10-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) are traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate gastroprotective effect of hot water extracts combination of those herbal against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The combination consisted of fixed doses of Licorice 273 mg/kg BW and Sembung leaf 457.5 mg/kg BW, and also consisted of Pulasari stem in various doses i.e. 100 mg/kg BW (first group), 200 mg/kg BW (second and sixth group) and 300 mg/kg BW (third group). The fourth grup rats received sucralfate 360 mg/kg BW. Ten minute after seven consecutive days of drug administration, the rats were induced with aspirin 450 mg/kg BW except sixth group rats. The fifth group rats only received aspirin without any protective agents. The number and area of gastric ulcers were evaluated macroscopically. Whereas, histopatological observation was used for evaluation of mucosal damage score, and the number of eosinophils and mast cells. In the study, herbal extracts combination markedly exhibited protective effects indicated by less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers in comparison to those of aspirin group (P < 0.05). The score of mucosal damages were also decreased in herbal extracts combination groups. The number of eosinophils and mast cells of herbal combination groups were observed to be smaller than those of aspirin group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, herbal combination of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) is potential to develop as a gastroprotective agent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. The Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Activity of Cress Seed and Cinnamon on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Qusti, Safaa; El Rabey, Haddad A; Balashram, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the stimulation of pancreas of rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes using 20% (w/w) garden cress seed (Lepidium sativum) and cinnamon methanol extracts. The positive control diabetic group showed a significant increase in fasting blood sugar, lipid peroxide, interleukin-6, carboxymethyl lysine, serum uric acid, urea, creatinine, immunoglobulins, and urine albumin and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes, sodium ions, potassium ions, and urine creatinine. Severe histopathological changes in the kidney and pancreas tissues in hyperglycemic rats were also shown in the positive control diabetic group. Meanwhile, the groups that were treated with 20% garden cress seed and cinnamon methanol extracts showed a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar and all elevated abovementioned biochemical parameters and an increase in the lowered ones restoring them nearly to the normal levels of G1. Kidney and pancreas tissues were also ameliorated and restored nearly to the normal status. Both garden cress seed and cinnamon methanol extracts succeeded in controlling hyperglycemia in rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes and ameliorated the biochemical and histopathological changes because of their antioxidant activity acquired by their possession of phenolic phytochemicals.

  1. Clinical efficacy of water extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. in patients of chronic heart failure: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Subir K; Wilson, Vinu; Seth, Sandeep; Bhargava, Balram; Dua, Pamila; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Katiyar, Chandra K

    2016-10-15

    The stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight and Arn. (Arjuna) is used in Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) for treatment of various cardiac diseases, including heart failure. However, well designed clinical trials exploring its efficacy and safety in chronic heart failure (CHF) are lacking. To ascertain the add-on efficacy and safety of a standardized water extract of stem bark of Arjuna (Arjuna extract) in CHF patients on standard pharmacotherapy. Double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled add-on clinical trial. After approval of institutional ethics committee, 100 patients of CHF of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II on standard pharmacotherapy having an echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% were consecutively recruited with informed consent and randomized 1:1 to Arjuna extract 750 mg or matching placebo twice daily. The primary outcome measure was change in LVEF at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in (i) NYHA functional class, (ii) distance covered in 6 min walk test (6MWT), (iii) quality of life (QoL), as determined by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), (iv) plasma brain natriuretic peptide, (v) plasma cytokines (interleukin-6, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α) and (vi) oxidative stress markers [serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), red blood cell (RBC) superoxide dismutase (SOD), RBC catalase and RBC glutathione (GSH)] at 6 and 12 weeks. Safety assessment was done by adverse event monitoring and laboratory investigations. Results were expressed as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) and analysed with intention-to- treat principle using appropriate two-sided statistical tests. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Arjuna extract was well-tolerated, but did not change LVEF (24.3 ± 7.1 versus 25.5 ± 7.7%; p = 0.4) or secondary outcome measures except preservation of RBC catalase

  2. Cinnamon in glycaemic control: Systematic review and meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Akilen, Rajadurai; Tsiami, Amalia; Devendra, Devasenan; Robinson, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Cinnamon seems to be highly bioactive, appearing to mimic the effect of insulin through increased glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles. This systematic review and Meta analysis examined the effect of cinnamon on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. A systematic literature search was conducted from the earliest possible date through to 01 August 2011. Search terms included free text terms, MeSH and Medline medical index terms such as: "cinnamon", "cinnamomum", "cinnamomum cassia", "cinnamomum zeylanicum", "type 2 diabetes mellitus". Each was crossed with the term "diabetes mellitus". In addition, references of key articles were hand searched. A total of 6 clinical trials met the strict inclusion criteria and considered a total of 435 patients; follow up between 40 days-4 months, doses ranging from 1 g to 6 g per day. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed a significant decrease in mean HbA1c [0.09%; 95% CI was 0.04-0.14] and mean FPG [0.84 mmol/l; 95% CI was 0.66-1.02]. Use of cinnamon showed a beneficial effect on glycaemic control (both HbA1c and FPG) and the short term (<4 months) effects of the use of cinnamon on glycaemic control looks promising. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Longleaf pine inner bark and outer bark thicknesses: Measurement and relevance

    Treesearch

    Thomas Eberhardt

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of bark thickness generally ignore the fact that bark is comprised of both living inner bark (phloem) and essentially dead outer bark (rhytidome).Discerning between them has ramifications for the utility of bark as a byproduct of timber harvesting and its functionality on a living tree. Inner bark and outer bark thicknesses for longleaf pine (Pinus...

  4. Cassia Cinnamon Supplementation Reduces Peak Blood Glucose Responses but Does Not Improve Insulin Resistance and Sensitivity in Young, Sedentary, Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jean L; Bowden, Rodney G; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-01-01

    Cassia cinnamon has been suggested to lower blood glucose (BG) and serum insulin (SI) due to an improvement in insulin resistance (IR) and sensitivity (IS). This study compared the effects Cassia cinnamon had on calculated IR and IS values and BG and SI in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young, sedentary, and obese women. On three separate days, 10 women had a fasted venous blood sample obtained. Participants were given 5 g of encapsulated placebo (PLC) or 5 g of encapsulated Cassia cinnamon bark (CASS). Three hours after the initial blood sample, another blood sample was obtained to calculate values for IS and IR. The participants then completed an OGTT by consuming a 75 g glucose solution. Blood was obtained 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following glucose ingestion. IS and IR were not significantly different between placebo and Cassia (p > .05). The peak BG concentration in response to the OGTT was significantly lower at the 30 min time point for CASS, as compared to PLC (140 ± 5.8 and 156 ± 5.2 mg/dL, p = .025); however, there was no significant difference between treatments for SI (p > .05). The area-under-the-curve responses for BG and SI were not significantly different between PLC and CASS (p > .05). This study suggests that a 5 g dose of Cassia cinnamon may reduce the peak BG response and improve glucose tolerance following an OGTT, but with no improvement in IS and IR in young, sedentary, obese women.

  5. Naphthalenemethyl ester derivative of dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, a component of cinnamon, increases glucose disposal by enhancing translocation of glucose transporter 4.

    PubMed

    Kim, W; Khil, L Y; Clark, R; Bok, S H; Kim, E E; Lee, S; Jun, H S; Yoon, J W

    2006-10-01

    Cinnamon extracts have anti-diabetic effects. Phenolic acids, including hydrocinnamic acids, were identified as major components of cinnamon extracts. Against this background we sought to develop a new anti-diabetic compound using derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acids purified from cinnamon. We purified hydroxycinnamic acids from cinnamon, synthesised a series of derivatives, and screened them for glucose transport activity in vitro. We then selected the compound with the highest glucose transport activity in epididymal adipocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats in vitro, tested it for glucose-lowering activity in vivo, and studied the mechanisms involved. A naphthalenemethyl ester of 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid (DHH105) showed the highest glucose transport activity in vitro. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice and spontaneously diabetic ob/ob mice with DHH105 decreased blood glucose levels to near normoglycaemia. Further studies revealed that DHH105 increased the maximum speed of glucose transport and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, now known as solute carrier family 2 [facilitated glucose transporter], member 4 [SLC2A4]) in adipocytes, resulting in increased glucose uptake. In addition, DHH105 enhanced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-beta subunit and insulin receptor substrate-1 in adipocytes, both in vitro and in vivo. This resulted in the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt/protein kinase B, contributing to the translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. We conclude that DHH105 lowers blood glucose levels through the enhancement of glucose transport, mediated by an increase in insulin-receptor signalling. DHH105 may be a valuable candidate for a new anti-diabetic drug.

  6. Bioaccessibility in vitro of nutraceuticals from bark of selected Salix species.

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Sugier, Danuta; Dziki, Dariusz; Sugier, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study.

  7. Bioaccessibility In Vitro of Nutraceuticals from Bark of Selected Salix Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  8. The involvement of cyclin D1 degradation through GSK3β-mediated threonine-286 phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export in anti-cancer activity of mulberry root bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-02-15

    Mulberry root bark was shown to induce cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation in the human colorectal cancer cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms whereby mulberry root bark induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation remain largely unknown. In this study, the inhibitory effect of mulberry root bark (MRB) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and the mechanism of action were examined to evaluate its anti-cancer activity. Anti-proliferative effect was determined by MTT assay. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to assess the mRNA and protein expression of related proteins. MRB inhibited markedly the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116, SW480 and LoVo). In addition, the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) was suppressed by MRB treatment. However, MRB did not affect the growth of HepG-2 cells as a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. MRB effectively decreased cyclin D1 protein level in human colorectal cancer cells and breast cancer cells, but not in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Contrast to protein levels, cyclin D1 mRNA level did not be changed by MRB treatment. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated MRB-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with MRB. In addition, MRB increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated MRB-mediated cyclin D1 degradation. Inhibition of GSK3β by LiCl suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by MRB. MRB decreased the nuclear level of cyclin D1 and the inhibition of nuclear export by LMB attenuated MRB-mediated cyclin D1 degradation. MRB has anti-cancer activity by inducing cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation through cyclin D1 nuclear export via GSK3β-dependent threonine-286 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that possibly its extract could be used for treating colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  9. Amate Bark Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a beautiful bookmark one of the author's students made for him as a gift, he began a lesson exploring the vibrant bark paintings popular all over Mexico. The majority of his students have Mexican ancestry, so exploring the arts of Mexico is always popular and well received. Amate paintings can also be a great way to introduce the…

  10. Verification of the antidiabetic effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) using insulin-uncontrolled type 1 diabetic rats and cultured adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Fukushima, Misato; Ito, Yoshimasa; Muraki, Etsuko; Hosono, Takashi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    It has long been believed that an intake of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) alleviates diabetic pathological conditions. However, it is still controversial whether the beneficial effect is insulin-dependent or insulin-mimetic. This study was aimed at determining the insulin-independent effect of cinnamon. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups and orally administered with an aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) for 22 d. The diabetic rats that had taken CE at a dose of more than 30 mg/kg/d were rescued from their hyperglycemia and nephropathy, and these rats were found to have upregulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in their brown adipose tissues as well as in their muscles. This was verified by using 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which CE upregulates GLUT4 translocation and increases the glucose uptake. CE exhibited its anti-diabetic effect independently from insulin by at least two mechanisms: i) upregulation of mitochondrial UCP-1, and ii) enhanced translocation of GLUT4 in the muscle and adipose tissues.

  11. Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark and its active component emodin.

    PubMed

    Brkanac, Sandra Radić; Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Vujčić, Valerija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Kremer, Dario; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2015-12-01

    In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol content of bark extract and antioxidant activity of the extract and emodin measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were examined. The bark extract (500 μg/ml) produced cell death and DNA damage, while level of ROS changed at 250 μg/ml. Emodin induced cell death and DNA damage at 150 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml, respectively, and the increase of ROS was observed at 25 μg/ml. These results suggest that both, bark extract and emodin, are cyto/genotoxic to HPBLs and that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of their toxicity. The results on antioxidant activity showed that, unlike emodin, bark extract possess moderate antioxidant capacity (44.6%, 46.8% and 2.25 mmol Fe(2+)/g measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) that can be related to relatively high phenolic content (116.07 mg/g). However, due to toxicological properties use of F. alnus bark as well as emodin-containing preparations should be taken with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diverse mechanisms of antidiabetic effects of the different procyanidin oligomer types of two different cinnamon species on db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Peng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Kaixian; Jia, Qi; Wang, Heyao; Li, Yiming

    2012-09-12

    The procyanidin oligomers are thought to be responsible for the antidiabetic activity of cinnamon. To investigate the hypoglycemic effects of different procyanidin oligomer types, the procyanidin oligomer-rich extracts were prepared from two different cinnamon species. Using high-performance liquid chromatography with purified procyanidin oligomers as reference compounds, we found that the Cinnamomum cassia extract (CC-E) and Cinnamomum tamala extract (CT-E) were rich in B- and A-type procyanidin oligomers, respectively. In the experiment, 8-week-old diabetic (db/db) mice were gavaged with CC-E and CT-E (both 200 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks. Both CC-E and CT-E exhibited antidiabetic effects. Moreover, histopathological studies of the pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue showed that CC-E promoted lipid accumulation in the adipose tissue and liver, whereas CT-E mainly improved the insulin concentration in the blood and pancreas.

  13. Bark factors for Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Floyd. Johnson

    1966-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the measurement of upper stem tree diameters with optical dendrometers has directed attention to procedures for converting these outside-bark diameters to inside-bark diameters. One procedure that has been used requires an assumption that the ratio of diameter inside bark to diameter outside bark (henceforth called bark factor) remains the same up...

  14. Anti-ulcer polysaccharides from Cola cordifolia bark and leaves.

    PubMed

    Austarheim, Ingvild; Mahamane, Haidara; Sanogo, Rokia; Togola, Adiaratou; Khaledabadi, Mehdi; Vestrheim, Anne C; Inngjerdingen, Kari T; Michaelsen, Terje E; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit S

    2012-08-30

    Aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of C. cordifolia are traditionally used in Mali (West Africa) in the treatment of wounds and gastric ailments like abdominal pain, gastritis and gastric ulcers. To evaluate and compare the anti-ulcer and immunological activities, as well as the toxicity of polysaccharide rich water extracts from the bark and leaves of C. cordifolia. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats and the inhibition of ulcer formation was calculated based on lesion index. Immunological activities were measured by complement fixation and macrophage activation. Toxicity was tested on brine shrimps. The two extracts were characterised by GC, Yariv-precipitation and quantification of phenolic compounds. An ethnomedical survey on C. cordifolia was carried out in Siby (Mali, West-Africa) to generate more knowledge about the traditional use. Bark and leaf extracts from C. cordifolia significantly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions in rodents in a dose depending manner. CCbark50 showed a high complement fixation activity in vitro. No toxicity was found. The ethnomedical survey showed that C. cordifolia was mainly used for treating pain and wounds. Our results shows that the bark and the leaves comprise a dose dependant anti-ulcer activity in an experimental rat model (no statistical difference between the plant parts). Clinical studies should be performed to evaluate the effect of both bark and leaves of C. cordifolia as a remedy against gastric ulcer in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal barks used in Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kloucek, P; Svobodova, B; Polesny, Z; Langrova, I; Smrcek, S; Kokoska, L

    2007-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six barks traditionally used in Callería District (Ucayali Department, Peru) for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. Ethanol extracts of stem barks of Abuta grandifolia (Menispermaceae), Dipteryx micrantha (Leguminosae), Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), Naucleopsis glabra (Moraceae), Pterocarpus rohrii (Leguminosae), and root bark of Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae) were tested against nine bacteria and one yeast using the broth microdilution method. All plants possessed significant antimicrobial effect, however, the extract of Naucleopsis glabra exhibited the strongest activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MICs ranging from 62.5 to 125 microg/ml), while the broadest spectrum of action was shown by the extract of Maytenus macrocarpa, which inhibited all the strains tested with MICs ranging from 125 to 250 microg/ml.

  16. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic stem bark extract of Antrocaryon klaineanum Pierre (Anacardiaceae) in mice and rat.

    PubMed

    Fongang, Annie Laure Magne; Laure Nguemfo, Edwige; Djouatsa Nangue, Yolande; Bogning Zangueu, Calvin; Fouokeng, Yannick; Azebaze, Anatole Guy Blaise; José Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio; Córdova, Maria Luisa Fernández-de; Bertrand Dongmo, Alain; Vierling, Wolfgang

    2017-05-05

    Antrocaryon klaineanum is used by traditional healers to treat many disorders including pain and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of methanol extract of A. klaineanum in mice and rats. Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was performed to establish the chromatographic fingerprint and to identify various chemical components of the plant extract. The anti-nociceptive activity of methanol extract of A. klaineanum was assessed using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction model, formalin test, capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde induced-neurogenic pain and hot plate test. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed on carrageenan-induced inflammation. Extract was administrated orally at 200, 400 and 600mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids and flavonoids. The results of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities showed that methanol extract significantly (p<0.01) reduced the pain induced by acetic acid with an inhibition percentage of 45.49% (600mg/kg). In the formalin test, the extract also significantly (p<0.01) reduced linking time in both phase (neurogenic and inflammatory) of the test with inhibition percentage of 56.28% and 60.73% respectively at the dose of 600mg/kg. The methanol extract of A. klaineanum significantly (P<0.001) reduced neurogenic pain linking time induced by capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde by 82.54% and 75.94% at the highest dose (600mg/kg) respectively. More over the extract significantly increase the reaction time in hot plate test. In the inflammatory test, the plant extract significantly reduced the carrageen induced rat paw oedema from 30min to 6h with a maximum percentage inhibition of 89.88% (6h) at the dose of 600mg/kg. These results demonstrate that the methanol extract of A. klaineanum may possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and provide support of the traditional use of this plant in

  17. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Saifan, Hamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was designed to assess some pharmacological effects of cinnamon (CAE) and ginger (GAE) aqueous extracts in obese diabetic rats, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group 1 was a negative control and the other groups were rendered obese by feeding rats on high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The obese rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan for 5*days to induce diabetes. Group 2 was a positive control, and Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were orally given CAE in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg and GAE in the same doses, respectively for 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected for serum biochemical analyses. Kidneys were dissected out to assay activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Results: CAE and GAE significantly reduced body weight and body fat mass; normalized serum levels of liver enzymes; improved lipid profile; decreased blood glucose and leptin and increased insulin serum levels in obese diabetic rats. Both extracts also increased activity of kidney antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: CAE and GAE exhibit anti-obesity, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic and anti-oxidant effects in obese diabetic rats. These results confirm the previous reports on both extracts. The potential mechanisms underlying these effects are fully discussed and clarified. Our results affirm the traditional use of cinnamon and ginger for treating patients suffering from obesity and diabetes. The obese diabetic rat model used in this study is a novel animal model used in pharmacology researches. PMID:26401364

  18. Simultaneous ultrasound-assisted water extraction and β-cyclodextrin encapsulation of polyphenols from Mangifera indica stem bark in counteracting TNFα-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mura, Marzia; Palmieri, Daniela; Garella, Davide; Di Stilo, Antonella; Perego, Patrizia; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Palombo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an alternative technique to prevent heat degradation induced by classic procedures of bioactive compound extraction, comparing classical maceration/decoction in hot water of polyphenols from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) (MI) with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in a water solution of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at room temperature and testing their biological activity on TNFα-induced endothelial dysfunction. Both extracts counteracted TNFα effects on EAhy926 cells, down-modulating interleukin-6, interleukin-8, cyclooxygenase-2 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1, while increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels. β-CD extract showed higher efficacy in improving endothelial function. These effects were abolished after pre-treatment with the oestrogen receptor inhibitor ICI1182,780. Moreover, the β-CD extract induced Akt activation and completely abolished the TNFα-induced p38MAPK phosphorylation. UAE and β-CD encapsulation provide an efficient extraction protocol that increases polyphenol bioavailability. Polyphenols from MI play a protective role on endothelial cells and may be further considered as oestrogen-like molecules with vascular protective properties.

  19. Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Hadi, A. Hamid A.

    2014-01-01

    Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development. PMID:24808916

  20. Antileishmanial Potential of Tropical Rainforest Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Monzote, Lianet; Piñón, Abel; Setzer, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess a selectivity index. Crude extracts that showed a selectivity index (CC50 for macrophage / IC50 for promastigotes) ≥ 5 or with IC50 < 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes, a total of 28 extracts, were further screened for anti-amastigote activity. A total of 25 extracts showed promising activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes with low cytotoxic activity. Ten of these extracts showed selectivity indices, (CC50 for macrophages / IC50 for amastigotes) greater than 10 and are considered “hits”, worthy candidates for further phytochemical exploration: Conostegia xalapensis methanol bark extract, Endiandra palmerstonii bark extract, Eugenia monteverdensis acetone bark extract, Eugenia sp. “fine leaf” acetone bark extract, Exothea paniculata chloroform bark extract, Mallotus paniculatus ethanol bark extract, Matelea pseudobarbata ethanol extract, Quercus insignis ethanol bark extract, Sassafras albidum dichloromethane bark extract, and Stemmadenia donnell-smithii acetone bark extract. PMID:28933376

  1. Cognitive-enhancing and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract from Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. stem bark in a rat model of scopolamine.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Radu; Postu, Paula Alexandra; Beppe, Galba Jean; Mihasan, Marius; Petre, Brindusa Alina; Hancianu, Monica; Cioanca, Oana; Hritcu, Lucian

    2017-03-28

    Plants of the genus Markhamia have been traditionally used by different tribes in various parts of West African countries, including Cameroun. Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) is used as an antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer agent. The current study was undertaken in order to investigate its anti-amnesic and antioxidant potential on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and to determine its possible mechanism of action. Rats were pretreated with the aqueous extract (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), for 10 days, and received a single injection of scopolamine (0.7 mg/kg, i.p.) before training in Y-maze and radial arm-maze tests. The biochemical parameters in the rat hippocampus were also assessed to explore oxidative status. Statistical analyses were performed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. F values for which p < 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. In the scopolamine-treated rats, the aqueous extract improved memory in behavioral tests and decreased the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus. Also, the aqueous extract exhibited anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that the aqueous extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

  2. The meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens fed diet with cinnamon powder.

    PubMed

    Sang-Oh, Park; Chae-Min, Ryu; Byung-Sung, Park; Jong, Hwangbo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feeding effect of diets containing 3, 5 and 7% of cinnamon powder on meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens. The chicken meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens fed diets containing cinnamon powder increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to the control group. However, the TBARS of the meat of chickens fed diets containing cinnamon powder decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the cinnamon powder can improve the shelf life and quality of chicken meat with maximize the productivity of broiler chickens.

  3. Fire and bark beetle interactions

    Treesearch

    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  4. Forest health and bark beetles

    Treesearch

    C. J. Fettig

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bark beetles have caused significant tree mortality in the Sierra Nevada, rivaling mortality caused by wildfire in some locations. This chapter addresses two important questions: How can managers prepare for and influence levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality given current forest conditions and future climate uncertainties? and How would the...

  5. Nrf2-dependent suppression of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis by the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Long, Min; Tao, Shasha; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Jiang, Tao; Wen, Qing; Park, Sophia L; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2015-05-01

    The progressive nature of colorectal cancer and poor prognosis associated with the metastatic phase of the disease create an urgent need for the development of more efficacious strategies targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. Cumulative evidence suggests that the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defence, represents a promising molecular target for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Recently, we have identified cinnamon, the ground bark of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cassia cinnamon) and Cinnamomum verum (Ceylon cinnamon), as a rich dietary source of the Nrf2 inducer cinnamaldehyde (CA) eliciting the Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells, conferring cytoprotection against electrophilic and genotoxic insult. Here, we have explored the molecular mechanism underlying CA-induced Nrf2 activation in colorectal epithelial cells and have examined the chemopreventive potential of CA in a murine colorectal cancer model comparing Nrf2(+/+) with Nrf2(-/-) mice. In HCT116 cells, CA caused a Keap1-C151-dependent increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination with upregulation of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes and elevation of cellular glutathione. After optimizing colorectal Nrf2 activation and target gene expression by dietary CA-supplementation regimens, we demonstrated that CA suppresses AOM/DSS-induced inflammatory colon carcinogenesis with modulation of molecular markers of colorectal carcinogenesis. Dietary suppression of colorectal cancer using CA supplementation was achieved in Nrf2(+/+) but not in Nrf2(-/-) mice confirming the Nrf2 dependence of CA-induced chemopreventive effects. Taken together, our data suggest feasibility of colorectal cancer suppression by dietary CA, an FDA-approved food additive derived from the third most consumed spice in the world. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Antimicrobial properties of the stem bark of Saraca indica (Caesalpiniaceae).

    PubMed

    Sainath, R Shilpakala; Prathiba, J; Malathi, R

    2009-01-01

    Chloroform, methanol, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of Saraca indica were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pneumoniae and the fungi: Candida albicans and Cryptococcus albidus. Methanolic and aqueous extract exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 0.5-2% and 1-3% respectively. Methanolic extract exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi.

  7. Beneficial effects of cinnamon proanthocyanidins on the formation of specific advanced glycation endproducts and methylglyoxal-induced impairment on glucose consumption.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaofang; Ma, Jinyu; Chao, Jianfei; Sun, Zheng; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Tse, Iris; Li, Edmund T S; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2010-06-09

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds formed from nonenzymatic reactions. The accumulation of AGEs in vivo has been implicated as a major pathogenic process in diabetic complications and other health disorders, such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and normal aging. In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effects of cinnamon bark proanthocyanidins, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 on the formation of specific AGE representatives including pentosidine, N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and methylglyoxal (MGO) derived AGEs. These compounds displayed obvious inhibitory effects on these specific AGEs, which are largely attributed to both their antioxidant activities and carbonyl scavenging capacities. Meanwhile, in terms of their potent MGO scavenging capacities, effects of these proanthocyanidins on insulin signaling pathways interfered by MGO were evaluated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. According to the results, proanthocyanidins exerted protective effects on glucose consumption impaired by MGO in 3T3-L1 fat cells.

  8. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%). PMID:25657795

  9. Rapid analysis of inner and outer bark composition of southern yellow pine bark from industrial sources

    Treesearch

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    Differences in bark chemistry between inner and outer bark are well known and may affect the suitability of various bark supplies for a particular application. Accordingly, there is a need for quality control protocols to assess variability and predict product yields. Southern yellow pine bark samples from two industrial sources were separated into inner and outer bark...

  10. Processing hardwood bark residues by screening

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1978-01-01

    Most of the hardwood bark residues removed by floating-cutterhead or rosserhead debarkers can be processed into acceptable bark products by screening alone. And by prescreening bark residues, operators of bark processing plants can use smaller hammermills than otherwise are required, thus lowering investment and energy costs.

  11. Estimating bark thicknesses of common Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the thickness of bark along the stem of a tree is critical to accurately estimate residue and, more importantly, estimate the volume of solid wood available. Determining the volume or weight of bark for a log is important because bark and wood mass are typically separated while processing logs, and accurate determination of volume is problematic. Bark thickness...

  12. Phytochemical characterization and biological activity evaluation of ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Husain, Ishrat; Ahmad, Rumana; Chandra, Anu; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Mahdi, Farzana

    2018-06-12

    India being a multicultural nation, every region of the country offers a distinct culinary flavor and taste. These flavors are attributed to spices and condiments which form the mainstay of Indian cuisine. Most of these spices and condiments are derived from various biodiversity hotspots in India and form the crux of India's multidiverse and multicultural cuisine. Apart from their varying aromas, flavors and tastes, these spices and condiments are known to possess several medicinal properties also. Most of these spices find considerable mention in Ayurveda, the indigenous system of medicine, as panaceas for several aliments. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ), belonging to family Lauraceae and commonly known as cinnamon is one such spice known to have diverse medicinal properties since time immemorial. In the present study, apoptotic and anti-microbial activity of ethanolic extract of CZ was evaluated against human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and compared for its effect on normal kidney epithelial cell line Vero. Ethanolic extract of tree bark of CZ was used to determine the cytotoxic effect on MDA-MB-231 using Trypan blue dye exclusion method and cytometry. The tested dose of the extract was 10-100 µg/mL. Antibacterial activity was determined using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the range 2-10 mg/mL. Apoptotic activity was determined using DNA fragmentation assay. Ethanolic extract of CZ was found to have an IC 50 value of 25 µg/mL against MDA cell line. On the other hand, CZ extract did not have any significant effect on Vero cells even at 100 µg/mL (IC 50 > 100 µg/mL). The ethanolic extract of CZ bark showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 10 mg/mL while no appreciable activity was detected against E. coli. DNA isolated from extract treated cancer cells showed a fragmentation pattern characteristic of apoptosis. However, no DNA fragmentation was observed in DNA isolated from

  13. Cork Containing Barks - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Carla; Pereira, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Tree barks are among the less studied forest products notwithstanding their relevant physiological and protective role in tree functioning. The large diversity in structure and chemical composition of barks makes them a particularly interesting potential source of chemicals and bio-products, at present valued in the context of biorefineries. One of the valuable components of barks is cork (phellem in anatomy) due to a rather unique set of properties and composition. Cork from the cork oak (Quercus suber) has been extensively studied, mostly because of its economic importance and worldwide utilization of cork products. However, several other species have barks with substantial cork amounts that may constitute additional resources for cork-based bioproducts. This paper makes a review of the tree species that have barks with significant proportion of cork and on the available information regarding their bark structural and chemical characterization. A general integrative appraisal of the formation and types of barks and of cork development is also given. The knowledge gaps and the potential interesting research lines are identified and discussed, as well as the utilization perspectives.

  14. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans Materials and Methods Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. Results The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct. PMID:26436036

  15. Additive postprandial blood glucose-attenuating and satiety-enhancing effect of cinnamon and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Samuel; Schwarz, Isaline; Colombani, Paolo C

    2009-10-01

    Cinnamon and vinegar or acetic acid were reported to reduce the postprandial blood glucose response. We hypothesized that the combination of these substances might result in an additive effect. Therefore, we determined the 2-hour postprandial blood glucose and satiety response to a milk rice meal supplemented with either cinnamon or acetic acid on their own or in combination. Subjects (n = 27) consumed the meal on 4 occasions as either pure (control trial), with 4 g cinnamon, 28 mmol acetic acid, or the combination of cinnamon + acetic acid. Blood glucose and satiety were assessed before eating and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes postprandially. At 15 minutes, the combination of cinnamon + acetic acid resulted in a significantly reduced blood glucose concentration compared with the control meal (P = .021). The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve over 120 minutes did, however, not differ between the trials (P = .539). The satiety score of the cinnamon + acetic acid trial was significantly higher than that in the control trial at 15 (P = .024) and 30 minutes (P = .024), but the incremental area under the curve of the satiety response did not differ (P = .116) between the trials. In conclusion, the significant effect of the combination of cinnamon and acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety immediately after meal intake indicated an additive effect of the 2 substances. Whether larger doses of cinnamon and acetic acid may result in a more substantial additive effect on blood glucose or satiety remains to be investigated.

  16. Assessment of the short-term safety and tolerability of a quantified 80 % ethanol extract from the stem bark of Nauclea pobeguinii (PR 259 CT1) in healthy volunteers: a clinical phase I study.

    PubMed

    Mesia, Kahunu; Cimanga, Kanyanga; Tona, Lutete; Mampunza, Ma Miezi; Ntamabyaliro, Nsengi; Muanda, Tsobo; Muyembe, Tamfum; Totté, Jozef; Mets, Tony; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of an antimalarial herbal medicinal product (PR 259 CT1) consisting of a quantified 80 % ethanol extract from the stem bark of Nauclea pobeguinii when given orally to healthy adult male volunteers. The amount of the major alkaloid strictosamide in the extract was determined by a validated HPLC method and was shown to be 5.6 %. The herbal preparation was formulated in a gelatine capsule form containing 500 mg of PCR 259 CT1. A sample of 15 healthy male volunteers, selected using the Lot Quality Assurance of Sampling (LQAS) method, was eligible for inclusion after fulfillment of the inclusion criteria and clinical examination by a physician. The volunteers were treated in an outpatient clinic with a drug regimen of two 500 mg capsules three times daily (each eight hours) for seven days, during meals. Safety and tolerability were monitored clinically, haematologically, biochemically and by electrocardiographic (ECG) examination at days 0, 1, 3, 7 and 14. Adverse effects were recorded by self-reporting of the participants or by detection of abnormalities in clinical examinations by a physician. The oral administration of PR 259 CT1 at high doses of 2 × 500 mg/capsule/day for 7 days was found to induce no significant changes in the concentration levels of all investigated haematological, biochemical, electrocardiogram and vital sign parameters and physical characteristics after 14 days of treatment compared to those seen in the baseline data. The concentration levels of all evaluated parameters were within the normal limits as reported in the literature. All adverse events noted were mild and self-resolving including increase of appetite (33 %), headache (20 %) and nausea (20 %). Other minor side effects were insomnia, somnolence and asthenia (7 %). Thus, PR 259 CT1 presented a significant safety and tolerability in healthy volunteers to allow its further development by starting a phase II

  17. Steaming Chips Facilitates Bark Removal

    Treesearch

    John R. Erickson

    1976-01-01

    Whole tree chipping is a productive and economical harvesting system. The resultant product, however, is barky chips. THis paper outlines a promising method for removing the bark particles from whole tree chips.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Cinnamon on the Metabolic Syndrome, Inflammation, and Pain, and Mechanisms Underlying These Effects – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Jia, Liu-Nan; Honma, Natsumi; Hosono, Takashi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon is one of the most important herbal drugs and has been widely used in Asia for more than 4000 years. As a folk medicine, cinnamon has been traditionally applied to the treatment of inflammatory disorders and gastric diseases. After chemical profiling of cinnamon's components, their biological activities including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertension, antilipemic, antidiabetes, gastroprotective and immunomodulatory were reported by many investigators. As a result, current studies have been performed mostly focusing on the bioactivity of cinnamon toward the recently generalized metabolic syndrome involving diabetes. In this review article, we provide an overview of the recent literature describing cinnamon's potential for preventing the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24716111

  19. Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2007-06-01

    Previous studies of patients with type 2 diabetes showed that cinnamon lowers fasting serum glucose, triacylglycerol, and LDL- and total cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to study the effect of cinnamon on the rate of gastric emptying, the postprandial blood glucose response, and satiety in healthy subjects. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured by using standardized real-time ultrasonography. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed by using a crossover trial. The subjects were examined after an 8-h fast if they had normal fasting blood glucose concentrations. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding (GER1) or 300 g rice pudding and 6 g cinnamon (GER2). The median value of GER1 was 37%, and that of GER2 was 34.5%. The addition of cinnamon to the rice pudding significantly delayed gastric emptying and lowered the postprandial glucose response (P < 0.05 for both). The reduction in the postprandial blood glucose concentration was much more noticeable and pronounced than was the lowering of the GER. The effect of cinnamon on satiety was not significant. The intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduces postprandial blood glucose and delays gastric emptying without affecting satiety. Inclusion of cinnamon in the diet lowers the postprandial glucose response, a change that is at least partially explained by a delayed GER.

  20. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Alam; Safdar, Mahpara; Ali Khan, Mohammad Muzaffar; Khattak, Khan Nawaz; Anderson, Richard A

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cinnamon improves blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes. A total of 60 people with type 2 diabetes, 30 men and 30 women aged 52.2 +/- 6.32 years, were divided randomly into six groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 consumed 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon daily, respectively, and groups 4, 5, and 6 were given placebo capsules corresponding to the number of capsules consumed for the three levels of cinnamon. The cinnamon was consumed for 40 days followed by a 20-day washout period. After 40 days, all three levels of cinnamon reduced the mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), triglyceride (23-30%), LDL cholesterol (7-27%), and total cholesterol (12-26%) levels; no significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. Changes in HDL cholesterol were not significant. The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions.

    PubMed

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J J; Appa Rao, V; Babu, R Narendra

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  2. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J. J.; Appa Rao, V.; Babu, R. Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Materials and Methods: Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application. PMID:27051203

  3. (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a new gastrointestinal smooth muscle L-type calcium channel inhibitor, which underlies the spasmolytic properties of Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Balemba, Onesmo B.; Stark, Timo D.; Lösch, Sofie; Patterson, Savannah; McMillan, John S.; Mawe, Gary M.; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia buchananii Baker stem bark extract (GBB) is a traditional medication of diarrhea and dysentery in sub-Saharan Africa. It is believed that GBB causes gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine whether GBB has spasmolytic actions and identify compounds underlying these actions. Calcium (Ca2+) imaging was used to analyze the effect of GBB on Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves in guinea pig gallbladder and distal colon smooth muscle. Intracellular microelectrode recording was used to determine the effect of GBB, six fractions of GBB, M1–5 and M7, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a compound isolated from M3 on action potentials in gallbladder smooth muscle. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of GBB, M3, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on action potentials in the circular muscle of mouse and guinea pig distal colons, and the effect of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on slow waves in porcine ileum. GBB inhibited Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves. GBB, M3 and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials. L-type Ca2+ channel activator Bay K 8644 increased the discharge of action potentials in mouse colon but did not trigger or increase action potentials in the presence of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials in the presence of Bay K 8644. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone reduced the amplitude but did not alter the frequency of slow waves in the porcine ileum. In conclusion, GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone relax smooth muscle by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels, thus have potential for use as therapies of gastrointestinal smooth muscle spasms, and arrhythmias. PMID:26081368

  4. Potential of Cinnamon Oil Emulsions as Alternative Washing Solutions of Carrots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Chen, Huaiqiong; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of cinnamon oil emulsions as alternative washing solutions to improve the microbial safety of carrots. Whey protein concentrate (WPC), gum arabic (GA), lecithin, and their combinations were used to prepare cinnamon oil emulsions. The emulsions were characterized for their hydrodynamic diameter (D h ) during 7 days of storage and their antimicrobial activity against cocktails of Salmonella enterica , Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes . The D h of the emulsion prepared with the GA+WPC blend did not change significantly (195.0 to 184.1 nm), whereas all other emulsions showed varying degrees of increases in D h . Compared with free cinnamon oil dissolved in 5% ethanol, all emulsions showed similar or lower MICs and MBCs. Emulsions prepared with GA and equal masses of GA and WPC were chosen and diluted to 0.2 and 0.5% cinnamon oil to wash carrots that were surface inoculated with bacterial cocktails because of their lower MICs and MBCs than free oil. Emulsions resulted in significantly higher reductions of pathogens on carrots than free cinnamon oil, 3.0 to 3.7 versus 2.1 to 2.3 log CFU/g at 0.5% cinnamon oil and 2.0 to 3.0 versus 1.0 to 1.7 log CFU/g at 0.2% cinnamon oil. No transfer of bacteria from inoculated carrots to wash solutions and no effects of organic load on log reductions were only observed for wash treatments with 0.5% emulsified cinnamon oil. Thus, the cinnamon oil emulsions are potential alternative postharvest washing solutions for fresh produce production.

  5. Cinnamon Ameliorates Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Mice via Regulatory T Cells: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach. PMID:25569428

  6. Controversies surrounding the clinical potential of cinnamon for the management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rafehi, H; Ververis, K; Karagiannis, T C

    2012-06-01

    Obesity levels have increased significantly in the past five decades and are predicted to continue rising, resulting in important health implications. In particular, this has translated to an increase in the occurrence of type II diabetes mellitus (T2D). To alleviate associated problems, certain nutraceuticals have been considered as potential adjuncts or alternatives to conventional prescription drugs. Cinnamon, a commonly consumed spice originating from South East Asia, is currently being investigated as a potential preventative supplement and treatment for insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and T2D. Extensive in vitro evidence has shown that cinnamon may improve insulin resistance by preventing and reversing impairments in insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. In adipose tissue, it has been shown that cinnamon increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors including, PPARγ. This is comparable to the action of commonly used thiazolinediones, which are PPAR agonists. Studies have also shown that cinnamon has potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, numerous human clinical trials with cinnamon have been conducted with varying findings. While some studies have showed no beneficial effect, others have indicated improvements in cholesterol levels, systolic blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and postprandial glucose levels with cinnamon. However, the only measurement consistently improved by cinnamon consumption is fasting glucose levels. While it is still premature to suggest the use of cinnamon supplementation based on the evidence, further investigation into mechanisms of action is warranted. Apart from further characterization of genetic and epigenetic changes in model systems, systematic large-scale clinical trials are required. In this study, we discuss the mechanisms of action of cinnamon in the context of T2D and we highlight some of the associated controversies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methods Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Results Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R2=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Conclusions Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data. PMID:25116365

  8. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks.

    PubMed

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-07-17

    This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R(2)=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data.

  9. An Efficient, Robust, and Inexpensive Grinding Device for Herbal Samples like Cinchona Bark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steen Honoré; Holmfred, Else; Cornett, Claus; Maldonado, Carla; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-01-01

    An effective, robust, and inexpensive grinding device for the grinding of herb samples like bark and roots was developed by rebuilding a commercially available coffee grinder. The grinder was constructed to be able to provide various particle sizes, to be easy to clean, and to have a minimum of dead volume. The recovery of the sample when grinding as little as 50 mg of crude Cinchona bark was about 60%. Grinding is performed in seconds with no rise in temperature, and the grinder is easily disassembled to be cleaned. The influence of the particle size of the obtained powders on the recovery of analytes in extracts of Cinchona bark was investigated using HPLC.

  10. Bark structure of southern upland oaks

    Treesearch

    E.T. Howard

    1977-01-01

    Bark structure of eleven oak species commonly found on southern pine sites was examined and described. In inner bark (phloem), groups of thick-walled lignified fibers and sclereids are interspersed among thin-walled cellulosic elements (parenchyma, sieve tube members, and companion cells). These fibers and sclereids greatly influence the bark's density, hardness,...

  11. Power mulchers can apply hardwood bark mulch

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1971-01-01

    Two makes of power mulchers were evaluated for their ability to apply raw or processed hardwood bark mulch for use in revegetating disturbed soils. Tests were made to determine the uniformity of bark coverage and distance to which coverage was obtained. Moisture content and particle-size distribution of the barks used were also tested to determine whether or not these...

  12. Estimating sugar maple bark thickness and volume.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Stayton; Michael Hoffman

    1970-01-01

    Sugar maple bark thickness and volume were estimated using first a published method, then equations developed by the authors. Both methods gave estimates that compared closely with measured values. Information is also presented on variation in bark thickness and on weight and volume of bark as a percentage of total merchantable stem weight and volume.

  13. Segregating wood and bark chips by photosorting.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos; Douglas B. Brumm

    1978-01-01

    Spectral transmittance measurements on aspen, sugar maple, and loblolly pine wood and bark chips resulted in peak wood-to-bark transmission ratio ranges from 10 to 50. Preliminary segregation results from an experimental photosorter indicate than 70 to 80% of the wood fiber can be recovered with less than a 2% bark content.

  14. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark

    PubMed Central

    Nariya, Pankaj B.; Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B.

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl–2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity. PMID:24049418

  15. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark.

    PubMed

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, Vinay J; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl-2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.

  16. Comparative study of cinnamon oil and clove oil on some oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Kumari, Archana; Garg, A Pankaj; Catanzaro, R; Marotta, F

    2011-12-01

    A comparative study was carried out between cinnamon oil and clove oil on the oral micro-biota causing dental caries. Cinnamon oil was found to be more effective than clove oil exhibiting broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting all the ten test bacterial species involved in dental caries. Cinnamon oil produced maximum inhibition zone of diameter (IZD) of 24.0 mm against Streptococcus mutans (major causative bacteria of dental plaque) as compared to clove oil (IZD = 13.0mm). This is contrary to the popular belief that clove oil is effective in tooth decay and dental plaque. This study shows the potential of cinnamon oil over clove oil in the treatment of dental caries. (www.actabiomedica.it).

  17. The antiplasmodial agents of the stem bark of Entandrophragma angolense (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Bickii, Jean; Tchouya, Guy Raymond Feuya; Tchouankeu, Jean Claude; Tsamo, Etienne

    2006-11-13

    In the search of active principles from the stem bark of Entandrophragma angolense, we submitted the compounds isolated from the dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the stem bark to antimalarial test against chloroquine resistant strain W2 of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. Only 7alpha-obacunyl acetate and a cycloartane derivative exhibited a good activity, with IC(50)s of 2 and 5.4 microg/ml respectively. Other compounds were moderately active.

  18. Quadruple high-resolution α-glucosidase/α-amylase/PTP1B/radical scavenging profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of antidiabetic constituents in crude root bark of Morus alba L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Nielsen, John; Staerk, Dan

    2018-06-29

    In this paper, quadruple high-resolution α-glucosidase/α-amylase/PTP1B/radical scavenging profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR were used for studying the polypharmacological properties of crude root bark extract of Morus alba L. This species is used as an anti-diabetic principle in many traditional treatment systems around the world, and the crude ethyl acetate extract of M. alba root bark was found to inhibit α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC 50 values of 1.70 ± 0.72, 5.16 ± 0.69, and 5.07 ± 0.68 μg/mL as well as showing radical scavenging activity equaling a TEAC value of (3.82 ± 0.14) × 10 4  mM per gram extract. Subsequent investigation of the crude extract using quadruple high-resolution α-glucosidase/α-amylase/PTP1B/radical scavenging profiling provided a quadruple biochromatogram that allowed direct correlation of the HPLC peaks with one or more of the tested bioactivities. This was used to target subsequent HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis towards peaks representing bioactive analytes, and led to identification of a new Diels-Alder adduct named Moracenin E as well as a series of Diels-Alder adducts and isoprenylated flavonoids as potent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors with IC 50 values in the range of 0.60-27.15 μM and 1.22-69.38 μM, respectively. In addition, these compounds and two 2-arylbenzofurans were found to be potent PTP1B inhibitors with IC 50 values ranging from 4.04 to 21.67 μM. The high-resolution radical scavenging profile also revealed that almost all of the compounds possess radical scavenging activity. In conclusion the quadruple high-resolution profiling method presented here allowed a detailed profiling of individual constituents in crude root bark extract of M. alba, and the method provides a general tool for detailed mapping of bioactive constituents in polypharmacological herbal remedies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Cinnamon on Glucose of Type II Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Hasanzade, Farzaneh; Toliat, Maryam; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Emamimoghaadam, Zahra

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of type II diabetes is increasing across the world. Dietary modifications help the patients to control blood glucose. Traditional herbs and spices are commonly used for control of glucose among which cinnamon (Ròu Guì; Cinnamomum cassia) has the greatest effect. Research has shown that adding cinnamon to diet can help to lower the glucose level. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon on the glucose level in blood. This was a Randomized clinical trial in which 70 Patients with type II diabetes were assigned randomly two groups (35 in cinnamon and 35 in placebo group). The groups were matched in terms of body mass index (BMI), HbAlc and fasting blood sugar (FBS). Patients were treated with cinnamon and the placebo group was treated with placebo in addition to their routine treatment for 60 days. FBG levels and glycosylated hemoglobin of patients on the first day, and 1 and 2 months after treatment were measured. Data were analyzed using t-test and paired t-test in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).16 software. The mean levels of FBS before, and 1 and 2 months after the intervention were 174 ± 59, 169 ± 43 and 177 ± 45; respectively. The levels of HbAlc before and after the intervention in the cinnamon group were (8.9 ± 1.7 and 8.9 ± 1.6). There was no significant difference in FBS and glycosylated hemoglobin levels between the two groups (P = 0.738 and P = 0.87, respectively). Results showed that using certain amount of cinnamon for 60 days did not change the glucose level of diabetic patients. So, using cinnamon to type II diabetes patients cannot be recommended and more studies are needed in future.

  20. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) as a potential pharmaceutical agent for type-2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Galappaththy, Priyadarshani; Constantine, Godwin Roger; Jayawardena, Ranil; Weeratunga, Hasitha Dhananjaya; Premakumara, Sirimal; Katulanda, Prasad

    2017-09-29

    Previous studies have explored the anti-diabetic effects of Cinnamomum cassia extract in vivo and in vitro. However, there are no studies at present exploring the effects of the indigenous species of Sri Lankan cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study aims to evaluate the potential effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract as a pharmaceutical agent in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The study will be conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial for a period of 4 months at the Medical Clinic, University Medical Unit, National Hospital of Sri Lanka. A total of 210 subjects with diabetes, in three equal groups, will be recruited for the study. The patients will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio according to the method of block randomization and the subjects will be randomly and equally assigned into two test groups (n = 70 each) and one placebo group (n = 70). The population will be stratified at randomization based on age, gender and disease severity. The treatment drug is a capsule containing Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract as the active ingredient and the placebo capsule will contain lactose monohydrate. Two doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts (250 mg and 500 mg of the cinnamon extract) will be used. The study drugs will be double blinded to both investigators and participants. The visits and the evaluations will be done as follows: screening (visit 0), 1 month (visit 1), 2 months (visit 2), 3 months (visit 3) and 4 months (visit 4). The following primary outcome measures will be evaluated: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1 c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum insulin. Secondary outcome measures include: Body Mass Index (BMI) and other anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides (TAG). Data will be analyzed using SPSS version 14. We describe the

  1. Enhance the anti-microorganism activity of cinnamon oil by xanthan gum as emulsifying agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieu, Dong M.; Dang, Thuy T. K.; Nguyen, Huong T.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of emulsifying agents (tween 20, DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) and xanthan gum) to inhibit Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus; Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger by cinnamon oil (Cinnamomum Cassia). Cinnamon oil was added in the emulsifying agents independently: tween 20 (0.3% v/v). DMSO (0.3% v/v) and xanthan gum (0.3% w/v) at different concentrations and evaluated their anti-microorganism activity by agar disk diffusion, mycelial growth inhibition and growth inhibition in liquid phase. The result indicated that, cinnamon oil diluted in different emulsifying agents showed the difference of the anti-microorganism activity, in which DMSO showed the lowest result. Xanthan gum and tween 20 show good stable emulsion. The anti-microorganism effect of cinnamon oil in tween 20 and xanthan gum was not significant difference. However, cinnamon oil in xanthan gum showed anti-microorganism activity better than tween 20 at low concentration in agar disk diffusion. This suggests that, cinnamon oil could be encapsulated by xanthan gum to enhance the anti-microorganism activity.

  2. Predation and bark beetle dynamics

    Treesearch

    John D. Reeve

    1997-01-01

    Bark beetle populations may undergo dramatic fluctuations and are often important pests in coniferous forests.Their dynamics are thought to be primarily driven by factors affecting the resistance of the host tree to attack, i.e., bottom-up forces, while natural enemies are usually assigned a minor role in these systems.I present behavioral experiments that suggest that...

  3. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  4. Southern Pine Bark Beetle Guild

    Treesearch

    T. Evan Nebeker

    2011-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle), D. terebrans (black turpentine beetle), Ips avulsus (small southern pine engraver or four-spined engraver), I. grandicollis (five-spined engraver), and I. calligraphus (six-spined engraver) comprise the southern pine bark beetle guild. Often they are found sharing the same hosts in the Southeastern United States. They...

  5. Effect of cinnamon powder addition during conching on the flavor of dark chocolate mass.

    PubMed

    Albak, F; Tekin, A R

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, refined dark chocolate mix was conched with the addition of finely powdered cinnamon in a laboratory-style conching machine to evaluate its aroma profile both analytically and sensorially. The analytical determinations were carried out by a combination of solid phase micro extraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectroscopy (MS) and-olfactometry(O), while the sensory evaluation was made with trained panelists. The optimum conditions for the SPME were found to be CAR/PDMS as the fiber, 60 °C as the temperature, and 60 min as the time. SPME analyses were carried out at 60 °C for 60 min with toluene as an internal standard. 26 compounds were monitored before and after conching. The unconched sample had a significantly higher fruity odor value than the conched sample. This new product was highly acceptable according to the overall inclination test. However some of textural properties, such as coarseness, and hardness were below the general preference.

  6. Postharvest Processing and Benefits of Black Pepper, Coriander, Cinnamon, Fenugreek, and Turmeric Spices.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Roselin, P; Singh, K K; Zachariah, John; Saxena, S N

    2016-07-26

    Spices are prime source for flavor, aroma, and taste in cuisines and play an active role as medicines due to their high antioxidant properties. As medicine or food, the importance of spices cannot be overemphasized. The medicinal values of spices are very well established in treating various ailments like cancer, fever, malaria, stomach offset, nausea, and many more. A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried which requires further processing to be utilized in the form of value-added product. This review paper deals with the cultivation, postharvesting, chemical composition, uses, health, and medicinal benefits of the selected spice viz., black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek, turmeric, and technological advances in processing of spices viz., super critical fluid extraction, cryogenic grinding, and microencapsulation etc. This paper also focuses on issues related to utilization of spices toward its high end-product development and characterization in pharmaceuticals and other medicinal purposes. The availability of different spices and their varietal differences and location have their pertinent characters, which are much demanding to refine postharvest and processing to assure its quality in the international market.

  7. The action of Saraca asoca Roxb. de Wilde bark on the PGH2 synthetase enzyme complex of the sheep vesicular gland.

    PubMed

    Middelkoop, T B; Labadie, R P

    1985-01-01

    Extracts of S. asoca bark and pure compounds isolated from the bark were tested for properties that might inhibit the conversion of arachidonic acid by the PGH2 synthetase. They were assayed spectrophotometrically with adrenaline as cofactor. Methanol- and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the conversion. The observed inhibition was confirmed in an oxygraphic assay. Two procyanidin dimers from the ethyl acetate extract showed enzyme catalyzed oxidation in our assay. The ether extract of the bark was also found to contain yet unknown substances which were capable of being oxidised by the PGH2 synthetase. The combined action of the components of the bark may explain the mode of action of the drug Asoka Aristha, the main ingredient of which is the bark of S. asoca. The drug is traditionally used in Sri Lanka to treat menorrhagia.

  8. Screening of polyphenolic plant extracts for anti-obesity properties in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Boqué, Noemi; Campión, Javier; de la Iglesia, Rocío; de la Garza, Ana L; Milagro, Fermín I; San Román, Belén; Bañuelos, Óscar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-03-30

    Polyphenols have been reported to prevent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the study was to conduct a screening for potential anti-obesity polyphenolic plant extracts using a diet-induced animal model. Rats were fed a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet with or without supplementation of different polyphenolic plant extracts (almond, apple, cinnamon, orange blossom, hamamelis, lime blossom, grape vine, and birch) for 56-64 days. Body weight gain was lower in rats supplemented with apple, cinnamon, hamamelis and birch extracts as compared to HFS non-supplemented group. Moreover, apple and cinnamon extracts prevented the increase in fat mass promoted by the HFS diet. Insulin resistance, estimated by the homostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, was reduced in rats fed apple, cinnamon, hamamelis and birch extracts. Apple extract also prevented the HFS-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperleptinaemia. Only apple and cinnamon extracts were finally considered as potentially important anti-obesogenic extracts, due to their body fat-lowering effects, while the improvement of obesity-related metabolic complications by apple polyphenols highlights this extract as a promising functional food ingredient for the management of obesity and its metabolic complications. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The Mobile Bark Blower: An Evaluation of Performance and Costs

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Sarles; David M. Emanuel

    1977-01-01

    A custom-built bark blower truck (MOBLOW) developed in Oregon was tested for its effectiveness in applying bark mulches, sawdust, and shavings in the eastern United States. Tests determined the bark blower's performance and cost in mulching grass-legume seedings and shrub beds with 10 bark products or wood residues. Bark blower trucks built to MOBLOW...

  10. Condensed Tannins from Longan Bark as Inhibitor of Tyrosinase: Structure, Activity, and Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Huang, Qian; Lin, Mei-Zhen; Ou-Yang, Chong; Huang, Wen-Yang; Wang, Ying-Xia; Xu, Kai-Li; Feng, Hui-Ling

    2018-01-31

    In this study, the content, structure, antityrosinase activity, and mechanism of longan bark condensed tannins were evaluated. The findings obtained from mass spectrometry demonstrated that longan bark condensed tannins were mixtures of procyanidins, propelargonidins, prodelphinidins, and their acyl derivatives (galloyl and p-hydroxybenzoate). The enzyme analysis indicated that these mixtures were efficient, reversible, and mixed (competitive is dominant) inhibitor of tyrosinase. What's more, the mixtures showed good inhibitions on proliferation, intracellular enzyme activity and melanogenesis of mouse melanoma cells (B 16 ). From molecular docking, the results showed the interactions between inhibitors and tyrosinase were driven by hydrogen bond, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, high levels of total phenolic and extractable condensed tannins suggested that longan bark might be a good source of tyrosinase inhibitor. This study would offer theoretical basis for the development of longan bark condensed tannins as novel food preservatives and medicines of skin diseases.

  11. The effect of cinnamon on menstrual bleeding and systemic symptoms with primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Hatefi, Masoud; Najafi, Fatemeh; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Khani, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea with interferes in daily activities can have adverse effects on quality of life of women. Regarding the use of herbal medicine, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of cinnamon on primary dysmenorrhea in a sample of Iranian female college students from Ilam University of Medical Sciences (west of Iran) during 2013-2014. In a randomized double-blind trial, 76 female student received placebo (n = 38, capsules containing starch, three times a day (TDS)) or cinnamon (n = 38, capsules containing 420 mg cinnamon, TDS) in 24 hours. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the severity of pain and nausea. Vomiting and menstrual bleeding were assessed by counting the number of saturated pads. The parameters were recorded in the group during the first 72 hours of the cycle. The mean amount of menstrual bleeding in the cinnamon group was significantly lower than the placebo group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). The mean pain severity score in the cinnamon group was less than the placebo group at various intervals (4.1 ± 0.5 vs. 6.1 ± 0.4 at 24 hours, 3.2 ± 0.6 vs. 6.1 ± 0.4 at 48 hours, and 1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 4.0 ± 0.3 at 72 hours, respectively) (P < 0.001). The mean severity of nausea and the frequencies of vomiting significantly decreased in the cinnamon group compared with the placebo group at various intervals (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). Regarding the significant effect of cinnamon on reduction of pain, menstrual bleeding, nausea and vomiting with primary dysmenorrhea without side effects, it can be regarded as a safe and effective treatment for dysmenorrhea in young women.

  12. The Effect of Cinnamon on Menstrual Bleeding and Systemic Symptoms With Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Hatefi, Masoud; Najafi, Fatemeh; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Khani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea with interferes in daily activities can have adverse effects on quality of life of women. Objectives: Regarding the use of herbal medicine, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of cinnamon on primary dysmenorrhea in a sample of Iranian female college students from Ilam University of Medical Sciences (west of Iran) during 2013-2014. Patients and Methods: In a randomized double-blind trial, 76 female student received placebo (n = 38, capsules containing starch, three times a day (TDS)) or cinnamon (n = 38, capsules containing 420 mg cinnamon, TDS) in 24 hours. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the severity of pain and nausea. Vomiting and menstrual bleeding were assessed by counting the number of saturated pads. The parameters were recorded in the group during the first 72 hours of the cycle. Results: The mean amount of menstrual bleeding in the cinnamon group was significantly lower than the placebo group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). The mean pain severity score in the cinnamon group was less than the placebo group at various intervals (4.1 ± 0.5 vs. 6.1 ± 0.4 at 24 hours, 3.2 ± 0.6 vs. 6.1 ± 0.4 at 48 hours, and 1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 4.0 ± 0.3 at 72 hours, respectively) (P < 0.001). The mean severity of nausea and the frequencies of vomiting significantly decreased in the cinnamon group compared with the placebo group at various intervals (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Regarding the significant effect of cinnamon on reduction of pain, menstrual bleeding, nausea and vomiting with primary dysmenorrhea without side effects, it can be regarded as a safe and effective treatment for dysmenorrhea in young women. PMID:26023350

  13. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

  14. Cinnamon supplementation does not improve glycemic control in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Thomassen, Bregje J W; Senden, Joan M; Wodzig, Will K W H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2006-04-01

    In vitro and in vivo animal studies have reported strong insulin-like or insulin-potentiating effects after cinnamon administration. Recently, a human intervention study showed that cinnamon supplementation (1 g/d) strongly reduced fasting blood glucose concentration (30%) and improved the blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon supplementation on insulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance and blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, a total of 25 postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes (aged 62.9 +/- 1.5 y, BMI 30.4 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) participated in a 6-wk intervention during which they were supplemented with either cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, 1.5 g/d) or a placebo. Before and after 2 and 6 wk of supplementation, arterialized blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Blood lipid profiles and multiple indices of whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined. There were no time x treatment interactions for whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance. The blood lipid profile of fasting subjects did not change after cinnamon supplementation. We conclude that cinnamon supplementation (1.5 g/d) does not improve whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance and does not modulate blood lipid profile in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes. More research on the proposed health benefits of cinnamon supplementation is warranted before health claims should be made.

  15. Effect of Ginger and Cinnamon Intake on Oxidative Stress and Exercise Performance and Body Composition in Iranian Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra; Askari, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat; Darvishi, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Barani, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Asia. Cinnamon (containing cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde) is used as spices and as a pharmacological agent in ancient medicine. Intense exercise can result in oxidative damage to cellular compounds and also muscle soreness. Efficacy of dietary ginger and cinnamon as antioxidant agents and their effectiveness in exercise performance and reducing muscle soreness have been investigated in limited studies on humans. So we studied the effects of dietary ginger and cinnamon on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in Iranian female taekwondo players. Methods: Sixty healthy trained women, aged 13-25 years, were enrolled in the 6 week investigation and randomly categorized in three groups (cinnamon, ginger, or placebo) and received three grams of ginger, cinnamon, or placebo powder each day depending on the group they belonged. Human malondialdehyde (MDA) level, exercise performance, and body composition were evaluated in the beginning and at the end of the study and compared among the groups. Results: Forty-nine of the participants completed the 6 weeks intervention. There was minor decrease in MDA in cinnamon and ginger group compared with the placebo group and significant increase in exercise performance in ginger group (P < 0.01), and considerable increase in skin fold in cinnamon groups (P < 0.01), whereas there were significant accretion in BMI for ginger group (P < 0.1) and cinnamon group (P < 0.05). No significant changes in MDA, EP, and BMI were observed between groups over time. But there were specific changes in skin fold between cinnamon and placebo group (P < 0.05) and cinnamon and ginger groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Six weeks administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women did not show any significant change in MDA level, body composition, and exercise performance as compared with

  16. Fraxinus paxiana bark mediated photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their size modulation using swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Hemant; Vendamani, V. S.; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is presented using bark extracts of Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterised by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the bark samples are irradiated with 100 MeV silver ions and the subsequent structural modifications are analyzed. The swift heavy ion irradiated Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis bark is also used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It is illustrated that the irradiated bark assists in synthesizing smaller nanoparticles of homogenous size distribution as compared to when the pristine bark is used. The newly synthesized silver nanoparticles are also used to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli bacteria.

  17. Leishmanicidal evaluation of extracts from native plants of the Yucatan peninsula.

    PubMed

    Peraza-Sánchez, S R; Cen-Pacheco, F; Noh-Chimal, A; May-Pat, F; Simá-Polanco, P; Dumonteil, E; García-Miss, M R; Mut-Martín, M

    2007-06-01

    Methanol extracts were prepared from different parts of 18 plants collected in the Yucatan peninsula and evaluated in an in vitro bioassay for leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. The ten most potent plant extracts (IC(50)<50 microg/ml) were Aphelandra scabra leaves, Byrsonima bucidaefolia bark, Byrsonima crassifolia bark, Clusia flava leaves, Cupania dentata bark, Diphysa carthagenensis leaves, Dorstenia contrajerva whole plant, Milleria quinqueflora roots, Tridax procumbens whole plant, and Vitex gaumeri bark.

  18. SPE-HPTLC of procyanidins from the barks of different species and clones of Salix.

    PubMed

    Pobłocka-Olech, Loretta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2008-11-04

    A SPE-HPTLC method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of procyanidin B(1) in willow barks. The chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel layer with the mobile phase chloroform-ethanol-formic acid (50:40:6 v/v/v), in the Automatic Developing Chamber-ADC 2. The methanol extracts from willow barks were purified by SPE method on RP-18 silica gel columns with methanol-water (7:93 v/v) as the eluent. The presence of procyanidin B(1) was revealed in the majority of investigated willow barks. The content of procyanidin B(1) varied from 0.26 mg/g in the extract of Salix purpurea clone 1067-2.24 mg/g in the extract of Salix alba clone 1100. The method was validated for linearity, precision, LOD, LOQ and repeatability.

  19. Barking up the Right Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    There is a childhood saying about a confused dog who thinks he sees a possum in a tree. The problem is that the possum is actually in a different tree so the dog barks up the wrong tree. American education is constantly playing both dog and possum. Sometimes they are the prey, and sometimes they are just confused about what and where the prey is.…

  20. Sensory Attributes and Preliminary Characterization of Milk Chocolate Bar Enriched with Cinnamon Essential Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmi, A.; Praseptiangga, D.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of Indonesia's main commodities with annually increasing production. Chocolates are semi-solid suspensions of fine solid particles in a continuous fat phase. Primary chocolate categories are dark, milk, and white that differs in content of cocoa solid, milk fat, and cocoa butter. Milk chocolate bar is one of the most popular processed cocoa products in Indonesia. Widely cultivated in Indonesia, cinnamon is potential to be developed and is expected to add flavor and taste as well as enhance functional properties of milk chocolate, since it is well-known of its high antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon essential oil addition on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of milk chocolate bar. Three formulas of milk chocolate bar with an addition of cinnamon essential oil (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) were evaluated in this study. Panelists acceptance level decreased with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil added, while moisture content and color analysis results did not show any significantly different for each formula, suggesting that milk chocolate bar with the addition of 0.1% of cinnamon essential oil had the highest level of acceptance and preferences for some of properties evaluated.

  1. Cinnamon Consumption Improves Clinical Symptoms and Inflammatory Markers in Women With Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shishehbor, Farideh; Rezaeyan Safar, Mahnaz; Rajaei, Elham; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hosein

    2018-05-03

    This study evaluated the effect of cinnamon on disease activity, serum levels of some inflammatory markers, and cardiovascular risk factors in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, 36 women with RA were randomly divided to 2 groups, receiving 4 capsules of either 500 mg cinnamon powder or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, liver enzymes, serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), blood pressure, and clinical symptoms were determined at baseline and end of the week 8. At the end of the study, there was a significant decrease of serum levels of CRP (p < 0.001) and TNF-α (p < 0.001) in the cinnamon group as compared to the placebo group. Diastolic blood pressure was also significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group (p = 0.017). Compared with placebo, cinnamon intake significantly reduced the Disease Activity Score (DAS-28) (p < 0.001), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (p < 0.001), and tender (TJC) (p < 0.001) and swollen joints (SJC) (p < 0.001) counts. No significant changes were observed for FBS, lipid profile, liver enzymes, or ESR. Cinnamon supplementation can be a safe and potential adjunct treatment to improve inflammation and clinical symptoms in patients with RA.

  2. Barks Essential Oil, Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of Four Organs of Tunisian Calligonum azel Maire.

    PubMed

    Bannour, Marwa; Aouadhi, Chedia; Khalfaoui, Houssem; Aschi-Smiti, Samira; Khadhri, Ayda

    2016-11-01

    This study is the first to investigate the chemical composition of barks essential oil (EO), secondary metabolites and biological activities of the MeOH and infusions extracts of seeds, leaves, barks and roots of Calligonum azel Maire (Polygonaceae) harvested from Tunisian desert. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) results showed the presence of fifty-four compounds in barks EO. The major components were: viridiflorol (14.6%), α-eudesmol (8.65%), trans-caryophyllene (6.72%), elemol (6.63%), β-eudesmol (6.21%). The obtained results showed that C. azel is a very rich plant in secondary metabolites. High contents in polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins were observed in both extracts of all studied organs. Significant differences were found between both extracts of the four organs. Thus, polyphenols and tannins were more abundant in leaves infusion extract, while, flavonoids showed a high level in barks extract. The antioxidant activity data demonstrated that all extracts showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. The MeOH extracts presented potential for antibacterial and antifungal activities against all tested microorganisms. The inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitrice concentration values were in the range of 9 - 15 mm and 2.5 - 20 μg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that C. azel can be regarded as an excellent plant source for natural antimicrobial agents. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase and amylase by extracts of different spices and plants.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Mohamed; Louati, Hanen; Kamoun, Jannet; Kchaou, Ali; Damak, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to search new anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agents from plant and spices crude extracts as alternative to synthetic drugs. The inhibitory effect of 72 extracts was evaluated, in vitro, on lipase and amylase activities. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and black tea exhibited an appreciable inhibitory effect on pancreatic amylase with IC 50 values of 18 and 87 μg, respectively. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and mint showed strong inhibitory effects against pancreatic lipase with IC 50 of 45 and 62 μg, respectively. The presence of bile salts and colipase or an excess of interface failed to restore the lipase activity. Therefore, the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, by extracts of spices and plants, belongs to an irreversible inhibition. Crude extract of cinnamon showed the strongest anti-lipase and anti-amylase activities which offer a prospective therapeutic approach for the management of diabetes and obesity.

  4. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by cinnamon through a sex-specific dependence on the insulin receptor substrate chico

    PubMed Central

    Schriner, Samuel E.; Kuramada, Steven; Lopez, Terry E.; Truong, Stephanie; Pham, Andrew; Jafari, Mahtab

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon is a spice commonly used worldwide to flavor desserts, fruits, cereals, breads, and meats. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to its consumption, including the recent suggestion that it may decrease blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. Insulin signaling is an integral pathway regulating the lifespan of laboratory organisms, such as worms, flies, and mice. We posited that if cinnamon truly improved the clinical signs of diabetes in people that it would also act on insulin signaling in laboratory organisms and increase lifespan. We found that cinnamon did extend lifespan in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. However, it had no effect on the expression levels of the 3 aging-related Drosophila insulin-like peptides nor did it alter sugar, fat, or soluble protein levels, as would be predicted. In addition, cinnamon exhibited no protective effects in males against oxidative challenges. However, in females it did confer a protective effect against paraquat, but sensitized them to iron. Cinnamon provided no protective effect against desiccation and starvation in females, but sensitized males to both. Interestingly, cinnamon protected both sexes against cold, sensitized both to heat, and elevated HSP70 expression levels. We also found that cinnamon required the insulin receptor substrate to extend lifespan in males, but not females. We conclude that cinnamon does not extend lifespan by improving stress tolerance in general, though it does act, at least in part, through insulin signaling. PMID:25456850

  5. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by cinnamon through a sex-specific dependence on the insulin receptor substrate chico.

    PubMed

    Schriner, Samuel E; Kuramada, Steven; Lopez, Terry E; Truong, Stephanie; Pham, Andrew; Jafari, Mahtab

    2014-12-01

    Cinnamon is a spice commonly used worldwide to flavor desserts, fruits, cereals, breads, and meats. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to its consumption, including the recent suggestion that it may decrease blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. Insulin signaling is an integral pathway regulating the lifespan of laboratory organisms, such as worms, flies, and mice. We posited that if cinnamon truly improved the clinical signs of diabetes in people that it would also act on insulin signaling in laboratory organisms and increase lifespan. We found that cinnamon did extend lifespan in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. However, it had no effect on the expression levels of the 3 aging-related Drosophila insulin-like peptides nor did it alter sugar, fat, or soluble protein levels, as would be predicted. In addition, cinnamon exhibited no protective effects in males against oxidative challenges. However, in females it did confer a protective effect against paraquat, but sensitized them to iron. Cinnamon provided no protective effect against desiccation and starvation in females, but sensitized males to both. Interestingly, cinnamon protected both sexes against cold, sensitized both to heat, and elevated HSP70 expression levels. We also found that cinnamon required the insulin receptor substrate to extend lifespan in males, but not females. We conclude that cinnamon does not extend lifespan by improving stress tolerance in general, though it does act, at least in part, through insulin signaling. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Aporphine alkaloids and feruloylamides from the bark of Xylopia benthamii R.E. Fries (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Pimenta, L P S; Mendonça, D D

    2012-01-01

    The bark of Xylopia benthamii R.E. Fries was investigated in a search for new bioactive compounds. The ethanolic extract of the air-dried bark of X. benthamii was obtained and submitted to an acidic extraction procedure to obtain an alkaloid mixture. Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of two aporphine alkaloids, nornantenine and laurotetanine, and a mixture of trans- and cis-feruloyltyramine, isolated for the first time in this genus. Structures were established by spectroscopic methods as NMR (1D and 2D) and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  7. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    PubMed Central

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Dicko, Mamoudou H.; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine. PMID:25767723

  8. Comparative Effect of Cinnamon and Ibuprofen for Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Hatefi, Masoud; Khajavikhan, Javaher

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Primary dysmenorrheal has a negative impact on women's quality of life. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Cinnamon and Ibuprofen for treatment of primary dysmenorrheal in a sample of Iranian female college students from Ilam University of Medical Sciences (western Iran). Materials and Methods In a randomized, double-blind trial, out of 114, control group received placebo (empty capsules contain starch, TDS, n= 38) a test group received Ibuprofen (capsule containing 400mg Ibuprofen, TDS, n=38), or another test group received Cinnamon (capsule containing 420 mg Cinnamon, TDS, n= 38) in 24 h. To determine severity of pain, we used the VAS scale. Pain intensity and duration of pain were monitored in the group during first 72 h of cycle. Results The mean pain severity score and mean duration of pain in Ibuprofen and Cinnamon were less than placebo group respectively (p< 0.001). Of 4 hours after the interven