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Sample records for cinnamon essential oil

  1. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

  2. Sensory Attributes and Preliminary Characterization of Milk Chocolate Bar Enriched with Cinnamon Essential Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmi, A.; Praseptiangga, D.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of Indonesia's main commodities with annually increasing production. Chocolates are semi-solid suspensions of fine solid particles in a continuous fat phase. Primary chocolate categories are dark, milk, and white that differs in content of cocoa solid, milk fat, and cocoa butter. Milk chocolate bar is one of the most popular processed cocoa products in Indonesia. Widely cultivated in Indonesia, cinnamon is potential to be developed and is expected to add flavor and taste as well as enhance functional properties of milk chocolate, since it is well-known of its high antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon essential oil addition on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of milk chocolate bar. Three formulas of milk chocolate bar with an addition of cinnamon essential oil (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) were evaluated in this study. Panelists acceptance level decreased with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil added, while moisture content and color analysis results did not show any significantly different for each formula, suggesting that milk chocolate bar with the addition of 0.1% of cinnamon essential oil had the highest level of acceptance and preferences for some of properties evaluated.

  3. Inhibitory effects of cinnamon and clove essential oils on mold growth on baked foods.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jian; Xu, Xiaomiao; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of cinnamon and clove essential oils against mold growth on green bean cake and finger citron crisp cake, and also examined the effects of these two essential oils and their application methods on the shelf life of the baked products in normal and vacuum packages by accelerated storage test. The results showed that the MIC of cinnamon and clove essential oils against molds were 0.21-0.83 and 0.21-1.67μL/mL, respectively and the MLC were 0.42-0.83 and 0.83-1.67μL/mL, respectively. In normal package cinnamon and clove essential oils could prolong the shelf life of green bean cake 9-10 and 3-4days, respectively and could prolong the shelf life of finger citron crisp cake 5-6 and 2-3days, respectively. And in vacuum package they were 15-16, 8-9, 10-12 and 7-9days, respectively in turn. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Adelina; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Morona, Domenica; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-09-06

    Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification. Probit regression analysis was used for LC 50 and LC 95 calculations while a t-test was used to test for significant differences between laboratory-reared and wild larvae populations in each concentration of plant extract. Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by their LC 50 and LC 95 values. The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage-dependent and were higher for cinnamon than for clove essential oils. The mortality effect following exposure to a blend of the two essential oils was higher for blends containing a greater proportion of cinnamon oil. In the chemical analysis of the active ingredients of cinnamon essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol, and the rarest was β-Linalool while for clove essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol and the rarest was Bicyclo. The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. The active ingredient compositions triggered different responses in mortality. Further research in small-scale should be conducted with concentrated extracted compounds.

  5. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  6. Repeated systemic administration of the cinnamon essential oil possesses anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activities in mice.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Reyhaneh; Pazgoohan, Nasim; Seresht, Hasan Rezaei; Amin, Bahareh

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the putative antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects of the cinnamon essential oil when administered acute (for 3 doses) and sub-acute (for 14 days) to mice. In an acute experimental study, forced swim test (FST) was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like behavior of animals treated with the intraperitoneal (IP) essential oil of cinnamon in triple doses (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg). In a sub-acute study (14 days in 24-hr intervals) antidepressant-like effects of essential oil (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with the same route were assessed in FST and tail suspension test (TST). Anti-anxiety and motor activities were evaluated using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open field tests, respectively. Determination of different constituents within the sample oil was via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Repetitive administration of cinnamon essential oil (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg) during 14 days significantly decreased the time of immobility in both FST and TST as compared to the control group. Mice treated with oil at the dose of 2 mg/kg spent a longer time and had more entries into the open arms of EPM as compared with the vehicle-treated ones. According to GC-MS analysis, 46 chemical compounds were identified in the studied cinnamon essential oil with the main constituent being trans-cinnamaldehyde (87.32%). Cinnamon essential oil might be used as an adjunctive therapy in improving symptoms of depressive and anxiety disorders. However, dose-response effects need further evaluation. Trans-cinnamaldehyde might be responsible for the beneficial effect observed.

  7. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark essential oil on the halitosis-associated bacterium Solobacterium moorei and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    LeBel, Geneviève; Haas, Bruno; Adam, Andrée-Ann; Veilleux, Marie-Pier; Lagha, Amel Ben; Grenier, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Halitosis, also known as bad breath or oral malodour, is a condition affecting a large proportion of the population. Solobacterium moorei is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that has been specifically associated with halitosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of essential oils, more particularly cinnamon bark oil, on growth, biofilm formation, eradication and killing, as well as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) production by S. moorei. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils. Biofilm formation was assessed by a crystal violet staining assay and scanning electron microscopy. The biofilm of S. moorei was characterized by enzymatic treatments. Biofilm killing was determined by a luminescence assay monitoring ATP production. H 2 S production was quantified with a colorimetric assay. The biocompatibility of cinnamon oil was investigated using a gingival keratinocyte cell line. Among the ten essential oils tested, cinnamon oil was found to be the most powerful against S. moorei with MIC and MBC values of 0.039% and 0.156%, respectively. The biofilm formed by S. moorei was then characterized. The fact that DNase I and to a lesser extent proteinase K significantly reduced biofilm formation by S. moorei and induced its eradication suggests that the extracellular matrix of S. moorei biofilm may be mainly containing a DNA backbone associated with proteins. At concentrations below the MIC, cinnamon oil reduced S. moorei biofilm formation that resulted from an attenuation of bacterial growth. It was also found that treatment of a pre-formed biofilm of S. moorei with cinnamon oil significantly decreased its viability although it did not cause its eradication. Cinnamon oil had an inhibitory effect on the production of H 2 S by S. moorei. Lastly, it was found that at concentrations effective against S. moorei, no significant loss of viability in gingival keratinocytes occurred after a 1-h exposure. Our study brought

  8. Terpenoid constituents of cinnamon and clove essential oils cause toxic effects and behavior repellency response on granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius.

    PubMed

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Campos, Juliana Mendonça; da Silva Rolim, Gabriela; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2018-07-30

    This study evaluated toxic effects, repellency and respiration rate caused by terpenoid constituents of cinnamon and clove essential oils and against Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 ), repellent effect, and behavior repellency response on adults of S. granarius after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and terpenoids were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.5%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (10.2%), benzyl benzoate (9.99%), caryophyllene (9.34%), eugenyl acetate (7.71%), α-phellandrene (7.41%), and α-pinene (7.14%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (27.1%), caryophyllene (24.5%), caryophyllene oxide (18.3%), 2-propenoic acid (12.2%), α-humulene (10.8%), γ-cadinene (5.01%), and humulene oxide (4.84%). Cinnamon and clove essential oil was toxic to S. granarius. In toxic terpenoids compounds, eugenol has stronger contact toxicity in S. granarius than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-humulene, and α-phellandrene. Insects reduced their respiratory rates after being exposed to essential oil terpenoids and avoided or reduced their mobility on terpenoid-treated surfaces. Cinnamon and clove essential oil, and their terpenoid constituents were toxic and repellent to adult S. granarius and, therefore, have the potential to prevent or retard the development of insecticide resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of cinnamon essential oil on bacterial diversity and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dongping; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Kong, Chunli; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-16

    The present study investigated the effect of cinnamon essential oil on the quality of vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4±1°C in terms of sensory scores, physicochemical characteristics (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), biogenic amines, and color), and presence of spoilage microbiota. A total of 290,753 bacterial sequences and 162 different genera belonging to 14 phyla were observed by a high-throughput sequencing technique targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA, which showed a more comprehensive estimate of microbial diversity in carp samples compared with microbial enumeration. Before storage, Macrococcus and Aeromonas were the prevalent populations in the control samples, but cinnamon essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Macrococcus in the treated samples. Variability in the predominant microbiota in different samples during chilled storage was observed. Aeromonas followed by Lactococcus were the major contaminants in the spoiled control samples. Microbial enumeration also observed relatively higher counts of Aeromonas than other spoilage microorganisms. Compared with the control samples, cinnamon essential oil inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Lactococcus were the predominant components in the treated samples on day 10; plate counts also revealed a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the composition of dominant microbiota between these two treatments at the end of the shelf-life. Furthermore, cinnamon essential oil treatment was more effective in inhibiting the increase of TVB-N and the accumulation of biogenic amines (especially for putrescine and cadaverine levels). Based primarily on sensory analysis, the use of cinnamon essential oil extended the shelf-life of vacuum-packaged common carp fillets by about 2days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk.

    PubMed

    Cava, R; Nowak, E; Taboada, A; Marin-Iniesta, F

    2007-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon bark, cinnamon leaf, and clove against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A were studied in semiskimmed milk incubated at 7 degrees C for 14 days and at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The MIC was 500 ppm for cinnamon bark EO and 3,000 ppm for the cinnamon leaf and clove EOs. These effective concentrations increased to 1,000 ppm for cinnamon bark EO, 3,500 ppm for clove EO, and 4,000 ppm for cinnamon leaf EO when the semiskimmed milk was incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Partial inhibitory concentrations and partial bactericidal concentrations were obtained for all the assayed EOs. The MBC was 3,000 ppm for the cinnamon bark EO, 10,500 ppm for clove EO, and 11,000 ppm for cinnamon leaf EO. The incubation temperature did not affect the MBC of the EOs but slightly increased the MIC at 35 degrees C. The increased activity at the lower temperature could be attributed to the increased membrane fluidity and to the membrane-perturbing action of EOs. The influence of the fat content of milk on the antimicrobial activity of EOs was tested in whole and skimmed milk. In milk samples with higher fat content, the antimicrobial activity of the EOs was reduced. These results indicate the possibility of using these three EOs in milk beverages as natural antimicrobials, especially because milk beverages flavored with cinnamon and clove are consumed worldwide and have been increasing in popularity in recent years.

  11. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2015-11-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud essential oils in edible apple films on physical properties and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) derived from plants are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on contact and in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. EOs from cinnamon, allspice, and clove bud plants are compatible with the sensory characteristics of apple-based edible films. These films could extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. This study evaluated physical properties (water vapor permeability, color, tensile properties) and antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud oils in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: cinnamon oil > clove bud oil > allspice oil. The antimicrobial films were more effective against L. monocytogenes than against the S. enterica. The oils reduced the viscosity of the apple solutions and increased elongation and darkened the colors of the films. They did not affect water vapor permeability. The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon, or clove bud oils were active against 3 foodborne pathogens by both direct contact with the bacteria and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.

  13. Properties of cassava starch-based edible coating containing essential oils.

    PubMed

    Oriani, Vivian Boesso; Molina, Gustavo; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Pastore, Gláucia Maria; Hubinger, Miriam Dupas

    2014-02-01

    Edible coatings were produced using cassava starch (2% and 3% w/v) containing cinnamon bark (0.05% to 0.30% v/v) or fennel (0.05% to 0.30% v/v) essential oils. Edible cassava starch coating at 2% and 3% (w/v) containing or not containing 0.30% (v/v) of each essential oils conferred increased in water vapor resistance and decreased in the respiration rates of coated apple slices when compared with uncoated fruit. Cassava starch coatings (2% w/v) added 0.10% or 0.30% (v/v) fennel or cinnamon bark essential oils showed antioxidant capacity, and the addition of 0.30% (v/v) of each essential oil demonstrated antimicrobial properties. The coating containing cinnamon bark essential oil showed a significant antioxidant capacity, comparing to fennel essential oil. Antimicrobial tests showed that the addition of 0.30% (v/v) cinnamon bark essential oil to the edible coating inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella choleraesuis, and 0.30% fennel essential oil inhibited just S. aureus. Treatment with 2% (w/v) of cassava starch containing 0.30% (v/v) of the cinnamon bark essential oil showed barrier properties, an antioxidant capacity and microbial inhibition. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake.

    PubMed

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.

  15. Gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil to maintain fish quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai

    2017-12-01

    Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.

  16. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    PubMed Central

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280

  17. Comparative study of cinnamon oil and clove oil on some oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Kumari, Archana; Garg, A Pankaj; Catanzaro, R; Marotta, F

    2011-12-01

    A comparative study was carried out between cinnamon oil and clove oil on the oral micro-biota causing dental caries. Cinnamon oil was found to be more effective than clove oil exhibiting broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting all the ten test bacterial species involved in dental caries. Cinnamon oil produced maximum inhibition zone of diameter (IZD) of 24.0 mm against Streptococcus mutans (major causative bacteria of dental plaque) as compared to clove oil (IZD = 13.0mm). This is contrary to the popular belief that clove oil is effective in tooth decay and dental plaque. This study shows the potential of cinnamon oil over clove oil in the treatment of dental caries. (www.actabiomedica.it).

  18. Comparison of Cinnamon Essential Oils from Leaf and Bark with Respect to Antimicrobial Activity and Sensory Acceptability in Strawberry Shake.

    PubMed

    Brnawi, Wafaa I; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Horax, Ronny; Kumar-Phillips, Geetha; Seo, Han-Seok; Marcy, John

    2018-02-01

    Cinnamon leaf and bark essential oils have long been used as natural preservatives and flavoring agents in foods. This study determined antimicrobial effects of leaf and bark of cinnamon essential oils (CEOs) against 2 foodborne pathogens, Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.) and Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), at 2 initial bacterial levels (4- and 9-log CFU/mL) in strawberry shakes. The antimicrobial study of CEOs at 0.1% and 0.5% in strawberry shakes against S.T. and L.M. showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in log reductions of both bacterial growth at low (4-log CFU/mL) and high (9-log CFU/mL) initial bacterial levels. Addition of 0.5% CEOs into strawberry shakes at 4 °C completely inhibited both bacteria after a period of 8 d storage. Shelf-life study showed that acidity and total solid content were not affected during storage. The strawberry shakes containing bark CEO had higher ratings of sensory acceptability compared to leaf CEO, with or without the addition of 1% masking agent. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CEO derived from bark was better than that from leaf in terms of their antimicrobial activity and sensory aspect. This study demonstrates that essential oils derived from cinnamon bark and leaf have the potential to be used as natural antimicrobial ingredient in milk beverages with respect to sensory aspect. This finding promotes the acceptance of natural antimicrobials among consumers, while providing enhanced safer products to the food industry application. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Effects of a blended garlic and cinnamon essential oil extract with and without monensin sodium on the performance of grazing steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing calf diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts (GCOE) in promoting growth on cool-season annuals in Arkansas (SWREC) and Oklahoma (SPRRS), or native rangelan...

  20. Antimicrobial effects of essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate.

    PubMed

    Filoche, S K; Soma, K; Sissons, C H

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare antimicrobial effects of essential oils alone and in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus plantarum. The essential oils included cinnamon, tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifola), manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), Leptospermum morrisonii, arnica, eucalyptus, grapefruit, the essential oil mouthrinse Cool Mint Listerine and two of its components, menthol and thymol. Cinnamon exhibited the greatest antimicrobial potency (1.25-2.5 mg/ml). Manuka, L. morrisonii, tea-tree oils, and thymol also showed antimicrobial potency but to a lesser extent. The combination effect of the essential oil-chlorhexidine was greater against biofilm cultures of both S. mutans and L. plantarum than against planktonic cultures. The amount of chlorhexidine required to achieve an equivalent growth inhibition against the biofilm cultures was reduced 4-10-fold in combination with cinnamon, manuka, L. morrisonii, thymol, and Listerine. We conclude that there may be a role for essential oils in the development of novel anticaries treatments.

  1. Sublethal Exposure to Clove and Cinnamon Essential Oils Induces Hormetic-Like Responses and Disturbs Behavioral and Respiratory Responses in Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Faroni, Lêda R A; Guedes, Daniela C; Miranda, Natalie N S

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils have been suggested as suitable alternatives for controlling insect pests. However, the potential adaptive responses elicited in insects for mitigating the actions of these compounds have not received adequate attention. Furthermore, as is widely reported with traditional insecticides, sublethal exposure to essential oils might induce stimulatory responses or contribute to the development of resistance strategies that can compromise the management of insect pests. The current study evaluated the locomotory and respiratory responses as well as the number of larvae per grain produced by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, after being sublethally exposed to the essential oils of clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. The essential oils showed similar insecticidal toxicity (exposure route: contact with dried residues; Clove LC95 = 3.96 [2.78-6.75] µl/cm(2); Cinnamon LC95 = 3.47 [2.75-4.73] µl/cm(2)). A stimulatory effect on the median survival time (TL50) was observed when insects were exposed to low concentrations of each oil. Moreover, a higher number of larvae per grain was produced under sublethal exposure to clove essential oil. S. zeamais avoided the treated areas (in free-choice experiments) and altered their mobility when sublethally exposed to both essential oils. The respiratory rates of S. zeamais (i.e., CO2 production) were significantly reduced under low concentrations of the essential oils. We recommend the consideration of the potential sublethal effects elicited by botanical pesticides during the development of integrated pest management programs aiming to control S. zeamais. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Lalit Kumar D; Jawale, Bhushan Arun; Sharma, Sheeba; Sharma, Hemant; Kumar, C D Mounesh; Kulkarni, Pooja Adwait

    2012-01-01

    Many essential oils have been advocated for use in complementary medicine for bacterial and fungal infections. However, few of the many claims of therapeutic efficacy have been validated adequately by either in vitro testing or in vivo clinical trials. To study the antibacterial activity of nine commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans in vitro and to compare the antibacterial activity between each material. Nine pure essential oils; wintergreen oil, lime oil, cinnamon oil, spearmint oil, peppermint oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil were selected for the study. Streptococcus mutans was inoculated at 37ºC and seeded on blood agar medium. Agar well diffusion assay was used to measure antibacterial activity. Zone of inhibition was measured around the filter paper in millimeters with vernier caliper. Cinnamon oil showed highest activity against Streptococcus mutans followed by lemongrass oil and cedarwood oil. Wintergreen oil, lime oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil showed no antibacterial activity. Cinnamon oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil exhibit antibacterial property against S. mutans. The use of these essential oils against S. mutans can be a viable alternative to other antibacterial agents as these are an effective module used in the control of both bacteria and yeasts responsible for oral infections.

  3. Potential of Cinnamon Oil Emulsions as Alternative Washing Solutions of Carrots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Chen, Huaiqiong; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of cinnamon oil emulsions as alternative washing solutions to improve the microbial safety of carrots. Whey protein concentrate (WPC), gum arabic (GA), lecithin, and their combinations were used to prepare cinnamon oil emulsions. The emulsions were characterized for their hydrodynamic diameter (D h ) during 7 days of storage and their antimicrobial activity against cocktails of Salmonella enterica , Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes . The D h of the emulsion prepared with the GA+WPC blend did not change significantly (195.0 to 184.1 nm), whereas all other emulsions showed varying degrees of increases in D h . Compared with free cinnamon oil dissolved in 5% ethanol, all emulsions showed similar or lower MICs and MBCs. Emulsions prepared with GA and equal masses of GA and WPC were chosen and diluted to 0.2 and 0.5% cinnamon oil to wash carrots that were surface inoculated with bacterial cocktails because of their lower MICs and MBCs than free oil. Emulsions resulted in significantly higher reductions of pathogens on carrots than free cinnamon oil, 3.0 to 3.7 versus 2.1 to 2.3 log CFU/g at 0.5% cinnamon oil and 2.0 to 3.0 versus 1.0 to 1.7 log CFU/g at 0.2% cinnamon oil. No transfer of bacteria from inoculated carrots to wash solutions and no effects of organic load on log reductions were only observed for wash treatments with 0.5% emulsified cinnamon oil. Thus, the cinnamon oil emulsions are potential alternative postharvest washing solutions for fresh produce production.

  4. Combined effect of ultrasound and essential oils to reduce Listeria monocytogenes on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Gülçin; Demirel Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer

    2016-06-01

    Salads prepared from contaminated fresh produce have a high risk of causing food-borne illnesses. Essential oils obtained from plants have antimicrobial activity and may provide a natural approach to reduce the pathogens on fresh produce. Additionally, ultrasound treatments have been shown to reduce the microbial counts on different foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of cinnamon and lemon essential oils in vitro and in food applications. Mixtures of lettuce, parsley and dill were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and then dip-treated for 5 min in one of the following treatments: sterile tap water, chlorinated water, 1% lemon essential oil, 2% cinnamon essential oil or 2% cinnamon essential oil + ultrasound. The samples were stored at 4 ℃ and collected at d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post inoculation. The 1% lemon (4 log) and 2% cinnamon (2 log) essential oil washes provided partial inhibition against L. monocytogenes by d 1. The combined application of 2% cinnamon oil and ultrasound resulted in only 0.85 log inhibition by d 1; however, the number of L. monocytogenes increased during storage and became nearly equal to the control at d 9. Therefore, different combinations of essential oils with other antimicrobials or novel technologies are required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Toxic effects of two essential oils and their constituents on the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Martínez, L C; Plata-Rueda, A; Colares, H C; Campos, J M; Dos Santos, M H; Fernandes, F L; Serrão, J E; Zanuncio, J C

    2017-12-14

    The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9.05%), eugenyl acetate (7.47%), α-phellandrene (7.18%), and α-pinene (6.92%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (26.64%), caryophyllene (23.73%), caryophyllene oxide (17.74%), 2-propenoic acid (11.84%), α-humulene (10.48%), γ-cadinene (4.85%), and humulene oxide (4.69%). Cinnamon and clove essential oils were toxic to T. molitor. In toxic chemical compounds, eugenol have stronger contact toxicity in larvae, pupae, and adult than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-humulene. In general, the two essential oils were toxic and repellent to adult T. molitor. Cinnamon and clove essential oils and their compounds caused higher mortality and repellency on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for integrated management programs of this insect.

  6. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  7. Enhance the anti-microorganism activity of cinnamon oil by xanthan gum as emulsifying agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieu, Dong M.; Dang, Thuy T. K.; Nguyen, Huong T.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of emulsifying agents (tween 20, DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) and xanthan gum) to inhibit Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus; Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger by cinnamon oil (Cinnamomum Cassia). Cinnamon oil was added in the emulsifying agents independently: tween 20 (0.3% v/v). DMSO (0.3% v/v) and xanthan gum (0.3% w/v) at different concentrations and evaluated their anti-microorganism activity by agar disk diffusion, mycelial growth inhibition and growth inhibition in liquid phase. The result indicated that, cinnamon oil diluted in different emulsifying agents showed the difference of the anti-microorganism activity, in which DMSO showed the lowest result. Xanthan gum and tween 20 show good stable emulsion. The anti-microorganism effect of cinnamon oil in tween 20 and xanthan gum was not significant difference. However, cinnamon oil in xanthan gum showed anti-microorganism activity better than tween 20 at low concentration in agar disk diffusion. This suggests that, cinnamon oil could be encapsulated by xanthan gum to enhance the anti-microorganism activity.

  8. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Inhibitory effects of some plant essential oils against Arcobacter butzleri and potential for rosemary oil as a natural food preservative.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Abay, Secil; Aydin, Fuat

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method to determine the inhibitory activities of these plant essential oils against strains of Arcobacter, we found that those of rosemary, bay, cinnamon, and clove had strong inhibitory activity against these organisms, whereas the essential oils of cumin, mint, and sage failed to show inhibitory activity against most of the Arcobacter strains tested. The 0.5% (vol/wt) essential oil of rosemary was completely inhibitory against A. butzleri in the cooked minced beef system at 4°C. These essential oils may be further investigated as a natural solution to the food industry by creating an additional barrier (hurdle technology) to inhibit the growth of Arcobacter strains.

  10. In Vitro Anti-Cariogenic Plaque Effects of Essential Oils Extracted from Culinary Herbs.

    PubMed

    Wiwattanarattanabut, Kornsit; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2017-09-01

    Cariogenic bacteria including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are partly but significantly involved in dental caries development. An effective prevention strategy against dental caries is to decrease the accumulation of this microbiota either in planktonic or in biofilm form. To examine the antimicrobial and anti-plaque effects of some culinary herbs (spices), so the herbs are plausibly used as alternative and effective herbal plaque control supplements to promote good oral health. Essential oils extracted from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) , cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) , sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) , kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) , black pepper (Piper nigrum) , peppermint (Mentha piperita) , and spearmint (Mentha spicata) were primarily examined for their antimicrobial activities against the cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans KPSK2 and Lactobacillus casei) using the agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. These essential oils were then analysed for anti-plaque effects (retardation of S. mutans biofilm formation and reduction of the in vitro established biofilm). This experimental study was performed at the Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University during June 2015 till August 2016. All selected essential oils showed different degrees of antimicrobial activity against the planktonic form of both cariogenic bacteria. Cinnamon bark essential oil expressed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. mutans {MIC of 0.08% (v/v)} and L. casei {MIC of 0.16% (v/v)}, whereas the weakest effect was found in kaffir lime essential oil {MIC values of 2.5% and 5.0% (v/v) for S. mutans and L. casei , respectively}. Up to 80% of S. mutans biofilm was retarded to form on the substratum primed with these spice essential oils, especially cinnamon oil. The preventive effect of these oils was in dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. For reductive effect against the 24-hour pre-established S

  11. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 108CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus. PMID:24031939

  12. Development of sodium alginate/PVA antibacterial nanofibers by the incorporation of essential oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, M.; Hussain, T.; Abid, S.; Nazir, A.; Masood, R.

    2018-03-01

    Electrospinning is a well known method for the manufacturing of nanoscale fibers. Electrospun nanofibers have higher surface area to volume ratio and can be used for the incorporation of different materials. Essential oils are well known for their antimicrobial and healing properties since ancient times. The main objective of this study was to develop antibacterial nanofibers by the incorporation of essential oils in sodium alginate/PVA solution. Sodium alginate and PVA have excellent biocompatible properties which are the base of their use in wound care applications. Three different essential oils (cinnamon, clove, and lavender) at three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were used to optimize the fiber forming conditions during electrospinning and then the desired antibacterial properties were evaluated. Addition of oils in PVA/SA solutions increased the viscosity but reduced the surface tension and conductivity as compared to pure PVA/sodium alginate solution. FTIR Spectra of composite fibers verified the successful incorporation of essential oils in nanofibers through electrospinning. All oil containing samples showed good antibacterial properties against staphylococcus aureus which make them a good replacement of antibiotics. Cinnamon oil loaded nanofibers showed the best results among selected oils regarding the antibacterial properties. Nanofibers with 1.5% cinnamon oil exhibited highest zone of inhabitation of 2.7 cm. Nanofibrous coated cotton gauze showed higher liquid absorptions as compared to simple cotton gauze and potential to be used as wound dressings for its improved liquid absorption and antibacterial activity.

  13. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  14. In Vitro Anti-Cariogenic Plaque Effects of Essential Oils Extracted from Culinary Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Wiwattanarattanabut, Kornsit; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cariogenic bacteria including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are partly but significantly involved in dental caries development. An effective prevention strategy against dental caries is to decrease the accumulation of this microbiota either in planktonic or in biofilm form. Aim To examine the antimicrobial and anti-plaque effects of some culinary herbs (spices), so the herbs are plausibly used as alternative and effective herbal plaque control supplements to promote good oral health. Materials and Methods Essential oils extracted from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), black pepper (Piper nigrum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), and spearmint (Mentha spicata) were primarily examined for their antimicrobial activities against the cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans KPSK2 and Lactobacillus casei) using the agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. These essential oils were then analysed for anti-plaque effects (retardation of S. mutans biofilm formation and reduction of the in vitro established biofilm). This experimental study was performed at the Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University during June 2015 till August 2016. Results All selected essential oils showed different degrees of antimicrobial activity against the planktonic form of both cariogenic bacteria. Cinnamon bark essential oil expressed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. mutans {MIC of 0.08% (v/v)} and L. casei {MIC of 0.16% (v/v)}, whereas the weakest effect was found in kaffir lime essential oil {MIC values of 2.5% and 5.0% (v/v) for S. mutans and L. casei, respectively}. Up to 80% of S. mutans biofilm was retarded to form on the substratum primed with these spice essential oils, especially cinnamon oil. The preventive effect of these oils was in dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. For reductive effect

  15. Degradation of Zearalenone by Essential Oils under In vitro Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Perczak, Adam; Juś, Krzysztof; Marchwińska, Katarzyna; Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Goliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations. The degree of ZEA reduction was determined by HPLC method. It was found that the kind of essential oil influences the effectiveness of toxin level reduction, the highest being observed for lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils, while lavender, thymic and rosemary oils did not degrade the toxin. In addition, the decrease in ZEA content was temperature, pH as well as toxin and essential oil concentration dependent. Generally, higher reduction was observed at higher temperature in a wide range of pH, with clear evidence that the degradation rate increased gradually with time. In some combinations (e.g., palmarosa oil at pH 6 and 4 or 20°C) a toxin degradation rate higher than 99% was observed. It was concluded that some of the tested essential oils may be effective in detoxification of ZEA. We suggested that essential oils should be recognized as an interesting and effective means of ZEA decontamination and/or detoxification. PMID:27563298

  16. Reinforced cassava starch based edible film incorporated with essential oil and sodium bentonite nanoclay as food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Iamareerat, Butsadee; Singh, Manisha; Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable packaging in food materials is a green technology based novel approach to replace the synthetic and conventional packaging systems. This study is aimed to formulate the biodegradable cassava starch based films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil and sodium bentonite clay nanoparticles. The films were characterized for their application as a packaging material for meatballs. The cassava starch films incorporated with sodium bentonite and cinnamon oil showed significant antibacterial potential against all test bacteria; Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial effect of films increased significantly when the concentration of cinnamon oil was increased. The cassava starch film incorporated with 0.75% (w/w) sodium bentonite, 2% (w/w) glycerol and 2.5% (w/w) cinnamon oil was selected based on physical, mechanical and antibacterial potential to evaluate shelf life of meatballs. The meatballs stored at ambient temperature in cassava starch film incorporated with cinnamon oil and nanoclay, significantly inhibited the microbial growth till 96 h below the FDA limits (10 6  CFU/g) in foods compared to control films that exceeded above the limit within 48 h. Hence cassava starch based film incorporated with essential oils and clay nanoparticles can be an alternate approach as a packaging material for food industries to prolong the shelf life of products.

  17. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production. PMID:26361475

  18. Formulation of vitamin D encapsulated cinnamon oil nanoemulsion: Its potential anti-cancerous activity in human alveolar carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meghani, Nikita; Patel, Pal; Kansara, Krupa; Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2018-06-01

    Cinnamon oil is used for medicinal purpose since ancient time because of its antioxidant activity. Oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) of cinnamon oil was formulated using cinnamon oil, nonionic surfactant Tween 80 and water by ultrasonication technique. Phase diagram was constructed to investigate the influence of oil, water and surfactant concentration. Vitamin D encapsulated cinnamon oil NE was fabricated by wash out method followed by ultrasonication in similar fashion. The hydrodynamic size of cinnamon oil NE and vitamin D encapsulated cinnamon oil NE was observed as 40.52 and 48.96 nm in complete DMEM F12 media respectively. We focused on the cytotoxic and genotoxic responses of NEs in A549 cells in concentration dependent manner. We observed that both NEs induce DNA damage along with corresponding increase in micronucleus frequency that is evident from the comet and CBMN assay. Both the NEs arrested the cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase, showed increased expression of Bax, capase-3 and caspase-9 and decrease expression of BcL2 proteins along with significant (p < 0.05) increase in apoptotic cell population and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. NEs were also evaluated for bactericidal efficacy against E. coli. Thus, both NEs have cytotoxic, genotoxic and antibacterial potential and hence can also be used in food industry with cinnamon oil as carrier for lipophilic nutraceutical like vitamin D. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of Cinnamon oil Nanoemulsion to Control Foodborne Bacteria such as Listeria Sp. and Salmonella Sp. On Melons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sumit Kumar

    Listeria and Salmonella related recalls and outbreaks are of major concern to the melon industry. Cinnamon oil has shown its usefulness in food treatment due to strong antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial activities. However, its applications are limited due to poor solubility of cinnamon oil in water. Utilization of Cinnamon oil nanoemulsion may offer effective antimicrobial washing treatment to melon industry. The purpose of this study was to test the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion on melons against major food borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Different formulations of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion were made by ultrasonication using Tween 80 as an emulsifier. Nanoemulsion exhibiting the smallest oil droplets was applied. Oil droplets were characterized for particle size by dynamic light scattering. Microbroth dilution assay was performed on three strains each of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica to find out the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion. Honeydew and cantaloupe were artificially inoculated with the strains mentioned above followed by treatment in nanoemulsion (control, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5%) for one minute. Samples were dried and enumerated after one hour of treatment on selective media (PALCAM and XLD agar). The average diameter of nanoemulsion was 9.63+/-0.3nm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion for both Listeria and Salmonella strains was 0.078% v/v and 0.039% v/v, respectively and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 0.078125% v/v for both. Compared to the water control, 0.5% nanoemulsion showed up to 7.7 and 5.5 log CFU/gm reductions in L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, respectively. The data suggests that cinnamon oil nanoemulsion can be used as an effective natural microbial control agent for melons. Keywords: Nanoemulsion, ultrasonication, antimicrobial.

  20. Synergistic effects of some essential oils against fungal spoilage on pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Hashemi, Maryam; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Farhoosh, Reza

    2017-09-18

    The development of natural protective agents as alternatives to chemical fungicides is currently in the spotlight. In the present investigation, chemical composition and antifungal activities of thyme, cinnamon, rosemary and marjoram essential oils (EO), as well as synergism of their possible double and triple combinations were investigated. The compositions of the oils were determined by GC/MS. For determination of antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea, a broth microdilution method was used. The possible interactions of some essential oil combinations were performed by the two and three-dimensional checkerboard assay and isobologram construction. An in vivo antifungal assay was performed by artificial wounding of pear fruits. The maximum antifungal activity was demonstrated by thyme and cinnamon oils which displayed lower MIC values whereas rosemary and marjoram oils with MIC range between 2500 and 10,000μg/mL exhibited weak antifungal activities against tested fungi. In synergy testing, some double combinations (thyme/cinnamon, thyme/rosemary, cinnamon/rosemary) were found to be synergistic (FICi≤0.5). The triple combination of thyme, cinnamon and rosemary was synergistic for B. cinerea and P. expansum (FICi values of 0.5 and 0.375, respectively); while combination of cinnamon, marjoram and thyme exhibited additive and synergistic effect against P. expansum (FIC=0.625) and B. cinerea (FIC=0.375) respectively. The usage of a mathematical Gompertz model in relation to fungal kinetics, showed that the model could be used to predict growth curves (R 2 =0.993±0.05). For B. cinerea, Gompertz parameters for double and triple combination treatments showed significant increase in lag phase (1.92 and 2.92days, respectively) compared to single treatments. Increase lag time up to 2.82days (P<0.05) also observed in P. expansum treated by triple combination of EOs. Base on the results, the lowest maximum growth rate (0.37mm/day) was observed

  1. Antioxidant capacity of cinnamon extract for palm oil stability.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad Zia; Saima, Hafiza; Yasmin, Adeela; Nadeem, Muhammad Tahir; Imran, Muhammad; Afzaal, Muhammad

    2018-05-16

    Spices and their bioactive components are more promising attractions for their inclusion in diet-based regimes to improve human health. These are sources of natural antioxidants and play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases and aging. The aim of the current study was to explore the antioxidant potential of cinnamon; a widely used spice throughout the world. The current research was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of cinnamon extract. For the purpose, cinnamon sticks were procured from local super market, while palm oil was obtained from local oil industry. The resultant extract was analyzed for its antioxidant activity through total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay), and total antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) test. The shelf life of palm oil was checked by adding cinnamon extract in oil at different levels i.e. , 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25%, to compare the antioxidant potential of the extract whereas, T o acted as control and T BHA @ 0.1% was used as synthetic antioxidant in the oil samples. The oil samples were analyzed for rancidity check during storage (after every seven days for a storage period of four weeks). The results indicated that total phenolic contents (TPC); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values of cinnamon extract were as 355.01 ± 8.34 gallic acid equivalent per gram (mg GAE/g), 90.18 ± 2.12 (%) and 132.82 ± 3.12 (μmol/g), respectively. The oxidative parameters for treatments i.e., T o , T BHA , T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 were recorded as peroxide value (2.61 ± 0.07, 2.42 ± 0.08, 2.57 ± 0.05, 2.56 ± 0.03, 2.54 ± 0.02, 2.54 ± 0.01, 2.46 ± 0.06 meq/kg, respectively), free fatty acids (0.601 ± 0.05, 0.522 ± 0.02, 0.580 ± 0.07, 0.572 ± 0.03, 0.56 ± 00.07, 0.552 ± 0.03, 0.536 ± 0.05%, respectively), TBA

  2. Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.

    PubMed

    Fraňková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, Věra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klouček, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0 mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp.

  3. Differential Inhibitory Activities of Four Plant Essential Oils on In Vitro Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae Causing Fusarium Wilt in Strawberry Plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Young; Kim, Su Hyeon; Kim, Na Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Jeun, Yong-Chull; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine inhibitory activities of four volatile plant essential oils (cinnamon oil, fennel oil, origanum oil and thyme oil) on in vitro growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae causing Fusarium wilt of strawberry plants. Results showed that these essential oils inhibited in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in a dose-dependent manner. Cinnamon oil was found to be most effective one in suppressing conidial germination while fennel oil, origanum oil and thyme oil showed moderate inhibition of conidial germination at similar levels. Cinnamon oil, origanum oil and thyme oil showed moderate antifungal activities against mycelial growth at similar levels while fennel oil had relatively lower antifungal activity against mycelial growth. Antifungal effects of these four plant essential oils in different combinations on in vitro fungal growth were also evaluated. These essential oils demonstrated synergistic antifungal activities against conidial germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in vitro. Simultaneous application of origanum oil and thyme oil enhanced their antimicrobial activities against conidial germination and fungal mycelial growth. These results underpin that volatile plant essential oils could be used in eco-friendly integrated disease management of Fusarium wilt in strawberry fields.

  4. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao; Li, Andrew Y; Costa Junior, Livio M; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Liu, Jingze

    2016-02-01

    DEET and Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration-repellency response was established using the vertical paper bioassay technique for each essential oil and compared with that of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET), a standard repellent compound present in many commercial repellent formulations. The effective concentration of DEET that repels 50% of ticks (EC50) was estimated at 0.02 mg/cm(2), while EC50s of the essential oils fall between 0.113 and 0.297 mg/cm(2). Based on EC50 estimates, oregano essential oil was the most effective among all essential oils tested, followed by clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint oils. None of the tested essential oils demonstrated a level of tick repellency found with DEET. Results from this study illustrated the challenge in search for more effective natural tick repellents.

  5. Role of direct bioautographic method for detection of antistaphylococcal activity of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Györgyi; Jámbor, Noémi; Kocsis, Erika; Böszörményi, Andrea; Lemberkovics, Eva; Héthelyi, Eva; Kovács, Krisztina; Kocsis, Béla

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was the chemical characterization of some traditionally used and therapeutically relevant essential oils (thyme, eucalyptus, cinnamon bark, clove, and tea tree) and the optimized microbiological investigation of the effect of these oils on clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by TLC, and controlled by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antibacterial effect was investigated using a TLC-bioautographic method. Antibacterial activity of thyme, clove and cinnamon oils, as well as their main components (thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and cinnamic aldehyde) was observed against all the bacterial strains used in this study. The essential oils of eucalyptus and tea tree showed weak activity in the bioautographic system. On the whole, the antibacterial activity of the essential oils could be related to their most abundant components, but the effect of the minor components should also be taken into consideration. Direct bioautography is more cost-effective and better in comparison with traditional microbiological laboratory methods (e.g. disc-diffusion, agar-plate technique).

  6. In-vitro and in-vivo anti-Trichophyton activity of essential oils by vapour contact.

    PubMed

    Inouye, S; Uchida, K; Yamaguchi, H

    2001-05-01

    The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of essential oils by vapour contact to inhibit the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum on agar medium were determined using airtight boxes. Among seven essential oils examined, cinnamon bark oil showed the least MID, followed by lemongrass, thyme and perilla oils. Lavender and tea tree oils showed moderate MID, and citron oil showed the highest MID, being 320 times higher than that of cinnamon bark oil. The MID values were less than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values determined by agar dilution assay. Furthermore, the minimum agar concentration (MAC) of essential oils absorbed from vapour was determined at the time of MID determination as the second antifungal measure. The MAC value by vapour contact was 1.4 to 4.7 times less than the MAC remaining in the agar at the time of MIC determination by agar dilution assay. Using selected essential oils, the anti-Trichophyton activity by vapour contact was examined in more detail. Lemongrass, thyme and perilla oils killed the conidia, inhibited germination and hyphal elongation at 1-4 micrograms ml-1 air, whereas lavender oil was effective at 40-160 micrograms ml-1 air. The in-vivo efficacy of thyme and perilla oils by vapour contact was shown against an experimental tinea pedis in guinea pigs infected with T. mentagrophytes. These results indicated potent anti-Trichophyton action of essential oils by vapour contact.

  7. Gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry analysis and antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum burmanii essential oil to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by gaseous contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chairunnisa, Tamhid, Hady Anshory; Nugraha, Arde Toga

    2017-03-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance becomes a problem that must be resolved. Plant based products are among the alternative agents examined in order to replace conventional antibiotics. Cinnamaldehyde is one of the compound in cinnamon oil that has antibacterial activity. But the other compounds in cinnamon oil has also the potential antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study to conduct GC-MS analysis of cinnamon oil and its antibacterial activity to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by gaseous contact. Cinnamomum burmannii was distilled by water-steam distillation to obtain essential oil. Identification of compounds was analyzed by GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was observed by gaseous contact method in airtight boxes. The GC-MS analyzed showed that there are four major compounds of cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde (56,10%), 1,8-cineole (16,53%), α-pinene (3,44%) and α -terpineol (3,05%). The Minimum Inhibitory Dose (MID) of cinnamon oil to E. coli and S. aureus was 12.5 µL/L and 6.26 µL/L respectively. Gas compounds of cinnamon oil has more effective to gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Antifungal activity of volatile compounds generated by essential oils against fungi commonly causing deterioration of bakery products.

    PubMed

    Guynot, M E; Ramos, A J; Setó, L; Purroy, P; Sanchis, V; Marín, S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the volatile fractions of 16 essential oils for activity against the more common fungi causing spoilage of bakery products, Eurotium amstelodami, E. herbariorum, E. repens, E. rubrum, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium corylophilum. The study applied 50 microl of pure essential oils in a sterilized filter paper, were carried out at pH 6 and at different water activity levels (0.80-0.90). First, a wheat flour based agar medium was used, where cinnamon leaf, clove, bay, lemongrass and thyme essential oils where found to totally inhibit all microorganisms tested. These five essential oils were then tested in sponge cake analogues, but the antifungal activity detected was much more limited. Five essential oils showed potential antifungal capacity against all species tested, over a wide range of water availability. Their activity, however, seems to be substrate-dependent. More research is needed to make them work in real bakery products, as in the preliminary study limited effectiveness was found. The potential of the cinnamon leaf, clove, bay, lemongrass and thyme essential oils against species belonging to Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genus has been demonstrated.

  9. Fungicidal activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr et L.M. Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, L; Jayawardena, B; Abeywickrama, K

    2002-01-01

    To develop a post-harvest treatment system against post-harvest fungal pathogens of banana using natural products. Colletotrichum musae was isolated and identified as the causative agent responsible for anthracnose peel blemishes while three fungi, namely Lasiodiplodia theobromae, C. musae and Fusarium proliferatum, were identified as causative agents responsible for crown rot. During the liquid bioassay, cinnamon [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.)] leaf, bark and clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.)] oils were tested against the anthracnose and crown rot pathogens. The test oils were fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogens within a range of 0.03-0.11% (v/v). Cinnamon and clove essential oils could be used as antifungal agents to manage post harvest fungal diseases of banana. Cinnamon and clove essential oil could be used as alternative post-harvest treatments on banana. Banana treated with essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers. Benomyl (Benlate), which is currently used to manage fungal pathogens, can cause adverse health effects and could be replaced with volatile essential oils.

  10. Essential oils showing in vitro anti MRSA and synergistic activity with penicillin group of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Uzair, Bushra; Niaz, Naheed; Bano, Asma; Khan, Barkat Ali; Zafar, Naheed; Iqbal, Muhammad; Tahira, Riffat; Fasim, Fehmida

    2017-09-01

    This study was planned in order to investigate effective essential oils to inhibit in-vitro growth of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study using disc diffusion method anti MRSA activity of ten diverse essential oils extracted from traditional plants namely Thymus vulgaris L, Mentha pulegium, Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon citratus, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cortex cinnamom, Citrus nobilis x Citrus deliciosa, Origanum vulgare and Mentha sp. was examined. All the essential oils inhibited growth of S. aureus to different extent, by exhibiting moderate to elevated zones of inhibitions. Essential oils of cinnamon (Cortex cinnamomi) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L) were observed to be the most powerful against MRSA strains used in this study. At lowest concentration of 25μl/ml essential oils comprehensible zone of inhibition was found 9±0.085mm and 8±0.051mm respectively, and at elevated concentrations there was a total decline in growth of MRSA and a very clear zone of inhibition was observed. A synergistic effect of essential oils in amalgamation with amoxicillin a Penicillin group of antibiotic was also examined. Interestingly a strong synergism was observed with oregano (Origanum vulgare) and pennyroyal mint (Mentha pulegium) essential oils, which were not so effective alone driven out to be important synergistic candidate. Our results demonstrated that essential oils of cinnamon and thyme can be used as potential antimicrobial agent against the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections and Amoxicillin antibacterial activity can be enhanced using active constituents present in oregano and pennyroyal mint essential oils.

  11. [Inhibition of oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Vorobjeva, A K; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from 16 various spice plants were studied as natural antioxidants for the inhibition of autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids methyl esters isolated from linseed oil. The content of methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenoate after 1, 2, and 4 months of autooxidation were used as criteria to estimate the antioxidant efficiencies of essential oils. In 4 months, 92% of the methyl linolenoate and 79% of the methyl linoleate were oxidized in a control sample of a model system. It was found that the most effective antioxidants were essential oils from clove bud, cinnamon leaves, and oregano. They inhibited autooxidation of methyl linolenoate by 76–85%. The antioxidant properties of these essential oils were due to phenols— eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol. Essential oil from coriander did not contain phenols, but it inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 38%. Essential oils from thyme, savory, mace, lemon, and tea tree inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 17–24%. The other essential oils had no antioxidant properties.

  12. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuangang; Yu, Huimin; Liang, Lu; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Xia; Wu, Nan

    2010-04-30

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.

  13. Anti-rancidity effect of essential oils, application in the lipid stability of cooked turkey meat patties and potential implications for health.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Duthie, Garry

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-three commercial essential oils were tested for their anti-rancidity effect and potential implications to prolong the induction time of corn oil and extend the shelf life of cooked turkey patties. Moreover, the potential health benefit was investigated through DPPH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching, FRAP, and α-amylase inhibitory assays. Essential oils' composition was investigated by GC-MS. Cumin, thyme, clove, and cinnamon oils improved oxidative stability and increased the induction time of the corn oil 1.5-3 fold. Clove and cinnamon oils were particularly effective in delaying lipid oxidation of cooked turkey patties (time of induction 11.04 and 9.43 h) compared with the plain burger (5.04 h). Both oils are also characterized by a potent radical scavenging activity in ABTS test (IC(50) values of 1.43 and 2.05 μg/ml for cinnamon and clove, respectively). In the α-amylase inhibitory assay, cumin and grape fruits were the most potent with IC(50) values of 21.88 and 23.95 μg/ml, respectively.

  14. Antifungal activity by vapor contact of essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Navarro Cruz, Addí Rhode; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2012-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents can be incorporated into edible films to provide microbiological stability, since films can be used as carriers of a variety of additives to extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of microbial growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of small antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition by vapor contact of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) or lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oils (EOs) added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Essential oils were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 2.00, or 4.00%. Antifungal activity was evaluated by determining the mold radial growth on agar media inoculated with A. niger and P. digitatum after exposure to vapors arising from essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan or starch films using the inverted lid technique. The modified Gompertz model adequately described mold growth curves (mean coefficient of determination 0.991 ± 0.05). Chitosan films exhibited better antifungal effectiveness (inhibition of A. niger with 0.25% of Mexican oregano and cinnamon EO; inhibition of P. digitatum with 0.50% EOs) than amaranth films (2.00 and 4.00% of cinnamon and Mexican oregano EO were needed to inhibit the studied molds, respectively). For chitosan and amaranth films a significant increase (p<0.05) of lag phase was observed among film concentrations while a significant decrease (p<0.05) of maximum specific growth was determined. Chitosan edible films incorporating Mexican oregano or cinnamon essential oil could improve the quality of foods by the action of the volatile compounds on surface growth

  15. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions.

  16. Jet Cooked Starch and Essential Oil Composites as Antimicrobial Coating on Foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An estimated 76 million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States. Foodborne illness result from consumption of food contaminated with pathogens and its toxins. Essential oils such as cinnamon, garlic, oregano are known to possess antimicrobial properties. Stable aqueous star...

  17. Preservation Mechanism of Chitosan-Based Coating with Cinnamon Oil for Fruits Storage Based on Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Yang, Simon X.; Chen, Cunkun; Tang, Yong; Sun, Shumin; Zhang, Liang; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    The chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agent has been developed recently to control the decay of fruits. However, its fresh keeping and antimicrobial mechanism is still not very clear. The preservation mechanism of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil for fruits storage is investigated in this paper. Results in the atomic force microscopy sensor images show that many micropores exist in the chitosan coating film. The roughness of coating film is affected by the concentration of chitosan. The antifungal activity of cinnamon oil should be mainly due to its main consistent trans-cinnamaldehyde, which is proportional to the trans-cinnamaldehyde concentration and improves with increasing the attachment time of oil. The exosmosis ratios of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus flavus could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of cinnamon oil. Morphological observation indicates that, compared to the normal cell, the wizened mycelium of A. flavus is observed around the inhibition zone, and the growth of spores is also inhibited. Moreover, the analysis of gas sensors indicate that the chitosan-oil coating could decrease the level of O2 and increase the level of CO2 in the package of cherry fruits, which also control the fruit decay. These results indicate that its preservation mechanism might be partly due to the micropores structure of coating film as a barrier for gas and a carrier for oil, and partly due to the activity of cinnamon oil on the cell disruption. PMID:27438841

  18. Preservation Mechanism of Chitosan-Based Coating with Cinnamon Oil for Fruits Storage Based on Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Yang, Simon X; Chen, Cunkun; Tang, Yong; Sun, Shumin; Zhang, Liang; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2016-07-18

    The chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agent has been developed recently to control the decay of fruits. However, its fresh keeping and antimicrobial mechanism is still not very clear. The preservation mechanism of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil for fruits storage is investigated in this paper. Results in the atomic force microscopy sensor images show that many micropores exist in the chitosan coating film. The roughness of coating film is affected by the concentration of chitosan. The antifungal activity of cinnamon oil should be mainly due to its main consistent trans-cinnamaldehyde, which is proportional to the trans-cinnamaldehyde concentration and improves with increasing the attachment time of oil. The exosmosis ratios of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus flavus could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of cinnamon oil. Morphological observation indicates that, compared to the normal cell, the wizened mycelium of A. flavus is observed around the inhibition zone, and the growth of spores is also inhibited. Moreover, the analysis of gas sensors indicate that the chitosan-oil coating could decrease the level of O₂ and increase the level of CO₂ in the package of cherry fruits, which also control the fruit decay. These results indicate that its preservation mechanism might be partly due to the micropores structure of coating film as a barrier for gas and a carrier for oil, and partly due to the activity of cinnamon oil on the cell disruption.

  19. Effect of xantham gum, steviosides, clove, and cinnamon essential oils on the sensory and microbiological quality of a low sugar tomato jam.

    PubMed

    Gliemmo, María F; Montagnani, María A; Schelegueda, Laura I; González, Malena M; Campos, Carmen A

    2016-03-01

    The partial or total decrease of sugar content in the formulation of jams affects their physical, chemical and microbiological stability. In order to minimize these technological problems, we studied the effect of xanthan gum (XG), steviosides, cinnamon (CO), and clove (CLO) essential oils on the sensory and microbiological quality of a low sugar tomato jam. Levels of 0.250 g/100 g steviosides and 0.450 g/100 g XG showed maximum score of overall acceptability of jam. The combination of essential oils produced synergistic and additive effects in vitro on growth of Z. bailii and Z. rouxii, respectively. However, in the jam, CO was more effective and CLO did not modify the CO action. Cell surface was one of the sites of action of CO since a decrease in yeast cell surface hydrophobicity was observed. From the microbiological and sensory points of view, 0.0060 g/100 g CO showed the maximum score of jam overall acceptability and did not cause yeast inactivation but it could be useful as an additional stress factor against yeast post--process contamination. The adequate levels of XG, steviosides, and CO can improve the quality of a low sugar jam formulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  1. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, H. George; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  2. Fabrication of electrospun polylactic acid nanofilm incorporating cinnamon essential oil/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex for antimicrobial packaging.

    PubMed

    Wen, Peng; Zhu, Ding-He; Feng, Kun; Liu, Fang-Jun; Lou, Wen-Yong; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua; Wu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    A novel antimicrobial packaging material was obtained by incorporating cinnamon essential oil/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (CEO/β-CD-IC) into polylacticacid (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning technique. The CEO/β-CD-IC was prepared by the co-precipitation method and SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy analysis indicated the successful formation of CEO/β-CD-IC, which improved the thermal stability of CEO. The CEO/β-CD-IC was then incorporated into PLA nanofibers by electrospinning and the resulting PLA/CEO/β-CD nanofilm showed better antimicrobial activity compared to PLA/CEO nanofilm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PLA/CEO/β-CD nanofilm against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was approximately 1 mg/ml (corresponding CEO concentration 11.35 μg/ml) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was approximately 7 mg/ml (corresponding CEO concentration 79.45 μg/ml). Furthermore, compared with the casting method, the mild electrospinning process was more favorable for maintaining greater CEO in the obtained film. The PLA/CEO/β-CD nanofilm can effectively prolong the shelf life of pork, suggesting it has potential application in active food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn) peel waste with additive essential oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti Agustina, E. S.; Elfi Susanti, V. H.

    2018-05-01

    The research aimed to produce natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa Paradisiaca Linn.) peel waste with additive essentials oils. The method used in this research was alkalization. The delignification process is done with the use of NaOH 4% at the temperature of 100°C for 1.5 hours. Additive materials in the form of essential oils are added as a preservative and aroma agent, namely cinnamon oil, lemon oil, clove oil and lime oil respectively 2% and 3%. Chemical and physical properties of the produced papers are tested included water content (dry-oven method SNI ISO 287:2010), pH (SNI ISO 6588-1.2010), grammage (SNI ISO 536:2010) and brightness (SNI ISO 2470:2010). Testing results of each paper were compared with commercial wrapping paper. The result shows that the natural paper from banana peel waste with additive essential oil meets the standard of ISO 6519:2016 about Basic Paper for Laminated Plastic Wrapping Paper within the parameter of pH and water content. The paper produced also meet the standard of ISO 8218:2015 about Food Paper and Cardboard within the grammage parameter (high-grade grammage), except the paper with 2% lemon oil. The paper which is closest to the characteristic of commercial wrapping paper is the paper with the additive of 2% cinnamon oil, with pH of 6.95, the water content of 7.14%, grammage of 347.6 gram/m2 and the brightness level of 24.68%.

  4. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  5. Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei; Zeng, Xiaopeng; Yanma; Liu, Ting; Qian, Kuen; Han, Yuhua; Xue, Suqin; Tucker, Brad; Schultz, Gretchen; Coats, Joel; Rowley, Wayne; Zhang, Aijun

    2006-09-01

    The larvicidal activity and repellency of 5 plant essential oils--thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil, and cinnamon oil--were tested against 3 mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens pallens. Larvicidal activity of these essentials oils was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of each of the 3 mosquito species, and amyris oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect with LC50 values in 24 h of 58 microg/ml (LC90 = 72 microg/ml) for Ae. aegypti, 78 microg/ml (LC90 = 130 microg/ml) for Ae. albopictus, and 77 microg/ml (LC90 = 123 microg/ml) for Cx. p. pallens. The topical repellency of these selected essential oils and deet against laboratory-reared female blood-starved Ae. albopictus was examined. Catnip oil seemed to be the most effective and provided 6-h protection at both concentrations tested (23 and 468 microg/ cm2). Thyme oil had the highest effectiveness in repelling this species, but the repellency duration was only 2 h. The applications using these natural product essential oils in mosquito control are discussed.

  6. Severe exacerbation of rosacea induced by cinnamon supplements.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Tracy M; Neems, Rachel; Moore, Julie

    2008-06-01

    The authors report a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian female with type 2 diabetes mellitus who experienced an acute exacerbation of her rosacea 2 weeks after self-initiating cinnamon oil pills to lower her blood sugar levels. Historically, cinnamon oil has been used for a variety of medicinal purposes, but recently the use of cinnamon oil in lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes is being investigated and gaining popularity amongst the general population. The use of cinnamon has commonly produced cutaneous side effects of irritant or allergic contact dermatitis and been reported to have vasodilatory effects. Yet, there are no reports of cinnamon use triggering a rosacea exacerbation in the literature.

  7. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

  8. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  9. Evidence for synergistic activity of plant-derived volatile essential oils against fungal pathogens of food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antifungal activities of eight essential oils (EOs) namely basil, cinnamon, eucalyptus, mandarin, oregano, peppermint, tea tree and thyme were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus paraciticus and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifung...

  10. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, A. R.; Khorrami, B.; Mesgaran, M. Danesh; Parand, E.

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites. PMID:25049871

  11. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-02

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antidiabetic effects of cinnamon oil in diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Ping, Hua; Zhang, Guijun; Ren, Guixing

    2010-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of cinnamon oil (CO) in a type 2 diabetic animal model (KK-A(y) mice) was studied. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde, and other nineteen components were also determined. CO was administrated at doses of 25, 50 and 100mg/kg for 35 days. It was found that fasting blood glucose concentration was significantly decreased (P<0.05) with the 100mg/kg group (P<0.01) the most efficient compared with the diabetic control group. In addition, there was significant decrease in plasma C-peptide, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen levels while serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels were significantly increased after 35 days. Meanwhile, glucose tolerance was improved, and the immunoreactive of pancreatic islets beta-cells was promoted. These results suggest that CO had a regulative role in blood glucose level and lipids, and improved the function of pancreatic islets. Cinnamon oil may be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Zachary; Waggoner, Molly; Batdorff, Audra; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2014-05-27

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p=0.409). E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid.

  14. Evaluation of cinnamon essential oil microemulsion and its vapor phase for controlling postharvest gray mold of pears (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifei; Zhao, Ruipeng; Yu, Ling; Zhang, Yunbin; He, Yan; Yao, Jie

    2014-03-30

    Essential oil of cinnamon (CM) is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides. Thus this work aimed to investigate the possible effects of CM microemulsions on decay developments and qualitative properties of pears. The decay incidence of samples treated with 500 µg L⁻¹ microemulsion was significantly reduced by 18.7% in comparison to that of 500 µg L⁻¹ non-microemulsion after 4 days' storage at 20 °C. In the vapor phase, the CM microemulsion with the lowest concentration had the best control for decay incidence and lesion diameter. The interval between inoculations also influenced decay development. Pears treated with Botrytis cinerea and immediately followed by CM microemulsion showed the lowest decay incidence. Moreover, in the natural decay experiment, the percentage of rotted pears was 3.8% in the CM microemulsion treatment and 5.8% in the control. CM microemulsion delayed the loss of ascorbic acid, yet it had no significant influence on pear qualities such as firmness and color. CM microemulsion may be an alternative way to control the gray mold of pears without a negative influence on its qualities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of chitosan coatings enriched with cinnamon oil on proximate composition of rainbow trout fillets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of chitosan coating enriched with cinnamon oil on proximate composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage at 4°C was investigated. The treatments included the following: C1 (control samples), C2 (chitosan coating) and C3 (chitosan + 1 % [v/w] cinnamon EO added). The control and the coated fish samples were analysed for chemical (moisture, protein, lipid and ash) composition. The mean of moisture, protein, lipid and ash in the control samples (C1) were 70.3%, 20.1%, 2.6% and 1.2%, in coated samples (C2) 69.70%, 24.21%, 2.4% and 2.2% and coated+cinnamon oil samples (C3) 69.70%, 25.05%, 2.5% and 2.2%, respectively. Moisture and lipid contents in control groups were higher than other groups, but protein and ash contents were lower. Significant increases (p<0.05) in protein content were observed between samples, which subsequently decreased the moisture content of these samples.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Essential Oils on Aspergillus ochraceus Growth and Ochratoxin A Production

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yueju; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150–250 µL/L with fumigation and 250–500 µL/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ≥100 µg/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 µg/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 µg/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ≥75 µg/mL and ≥150 µg/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn’t fully inhibit OTA production at ≤200 µg/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains. PMID:25255251

  17. Smart and Fragrant Garment via Surface Modification of Cotton Fabric With Cinnamon Oil/Stimuli Responsive PNIPAAm/Chitosan Nano Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bashari, Azadeh; Hemmatinejad, Nahid; Pourjavadi, Ali

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with obtaining aromatherapic textiles via applying stimuli-responsive poly N-isopropyl acryl amide (PNIPAAm) /chitosan (PNCS) nano hydrogels containing cinnamon oil on cotton fabric and looks into the treated fabric characteristics as an antibacterial and temperature/pH responsive fabric. The semi-batch surfactant-free dispersion polymerization method was proposed to the synthesis of PNCS nano particles. The incorporation of modified β -cyclodextrin ( β -CD) into the PNCS nanohydrogel was performed in order to prepare a hydrophobic(cinnamon oil) carrier embedded in stimuli-responsive nanohydrogel. The β -CD postloading process of cinnamon oil in to the hydrogel nano particles was performed via ultrasonic bath and exhaustion methods. The antibacterial activity of the treated fabrics at different temperatures demonstrated the preparing new functional bio-antibacterial fabrics with temperature responsiveness.

  18. Antifungal properties of essential oils for improvement of indoor air quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Harriet; Gaskin, Sharyn; Schroder, Tiffany; Ross, Kirstin

    2018-03-28

    Concerns regarding indoor air quality, particularly the presence of fungi and moulds, are increasing. The potential for essential oils to reduce, control or remove fungi, is gaining interest as they are seen as a "natural" alternative to synthetic chemical fungicides. This review examines published research on essential oils as a method of fungal control in indoor environments. It was difficult to compare the relative performances of essential oils due to differences in research methods and reporting languages. In addition, there are limited studies that scale up laboratory results and assess the efficacy of essential oils within building environments. However, generally, there appears to be some evidence to support the essential oils clove oil, tea tree oil, oregano, thyme and lemon as potential antifungal agents. Essential oils from heartwood, marjoram, cinnamon, lemon basil, caraway, bay tree, fir, peppermint, pine, cedar leaf and manuka were identified in at least one study as having antifungal potential. Future studies should focus on comparing the effectiveness of these essential oils against a large number of fungal isolates from indoor environments. Studies will then need to focus on translating these results into realistic application methods, in actual buildings, and assess the potential for long-term antifungal persistence.

  19. Effect of essential oils prepared from Thai culinary herbs on sessile Candida albicans cultures.

    PubMed

    Hovijitra, Ray S; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2016-01-01

    Although medicinal herbs with fungicidal effects have been ubiquitously employed in traditional medicine, such effects of culinary herbs and spices still have to be elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized as naturally-derived antifungals. Fourteen essential oils extracted from Thai culinary herbs and spices were tested for their antifungal activity against C. albicans using the agar disk diffusion method followed by broth micro-dilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration. The oils with potent antifungal effects against planktonic fungi were then assessed for their effect against sessile fungus (adherent organisms and established biofilm culture). MIC of the oils against sessile C. albicans was evaluated by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay. All selected culinary herbs and spices, except galangal, garlic, and turmeric, exhibited inhibitory effects on planktonic yeast cells. Cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf essential oils exhibited potent fungicidal effect on planktonic and sessile fungus. Sessile MICs were 8-16 times higher than planktonic MICs. Consequently, both cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf herbal oils seem to be highly effective anti-Candida choices. (J Oral Sci 58, 365-371, 2016).

  20. Efficacy of some essential oils on Cephalopina titillator with special concern to nasal myiasis prevalence among camels and its consequent histopathological changes.

    PubMed

    Abu El Ezz, Nadia M T; Hassan, Noha M F; El Namaky, Amira H; Abo-Aziza, Faten

    2018-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal myiasis is an important high incidence disease among camels in the Middle East and North of Africa caused by Cephalopina titillator ( C. titillator ) that results in sever economic losses in many camel breeding areas around the world. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three essential oils; camphor, ginger and cinnamon oils and their histopathological effects on the 3rd larval instar of C. titillator, with special regard to the prevalence percentage of C. titillator infestation in slaughtered camels at Egyptian abattoirs in addition to investigate histopathological alterations of the infested animal's tissue. This study fulfilled that the prevalence of C. titillator infestation was 35.2% among slaughtered camels during summer season. The three tested essential oils were caused a significant mortality of C. tittilator ; however, camphor oil was exhibited greater and quicker insecticidal effect than ginger and cinnamon oils at the same concentration in terms of mortality of the 3rd instar C. tittilator larvae. There was a concentration-dependent effect on the larvae among the tested essential oils. The tested essential oils were caused remarkable histopathological alterations on the treated larval cuticle. The main salient lesions of the examined infested camel's tissue were necrotic and inflammatory alterations associated with cystic dilation of submucosal glands.

  1. Use of Selected Essential Oils to Control Aflatoxin Contaminated Stored Cashew and Detection of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R. M.; Mahmoud, Mohamed A.; Al-Othman, Monira R.; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. PMID:25705718

  2. Use of selected essential oils to control aflatoxin contaminated stored cashew and detection of aflatoxin biosynthesis gene.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R M; Mahmoud, Mohamed A; Al-Othman, Monira R; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method.

  3. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Levin, Carol E; Mandrell, Robert E

    2004-09-22

    We evaluated 17 plant essential oils and nine oil compounds for antibacterial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juices in a bactericidal assay in terms of % of the sample that resulted in a 50% decrease in the number of bacteria (BA(50)). The 10 compounds most active against E. coli (60 min BA(50) range in clear juice, 0.018-0.093%) were carvacrol, oregano oil, geraniol, eugenol, cinnamon leaf oil, citral, clove bud oil, lemongrass oil, cinnamon bark oil, and lemon oil. The corresponding compounds against S. enterica (BA(50) range, 0.0044-0.011%) were Melissa oil, carvacrol, oregano oil, terpeineol, geraniol, lemon oil, citral, lemongrass oil, cinnamon leaf oil, and linalool. The activity (i) was greater for S. enterica than for E. coli, (ii) increased with incubation temperature and storage time, and (iii) was not affected by the acidity of the juices. The antibacterial agents could be divided into two classes: fast-acting and slow-acting. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the bactericidal results are related to the composition of the oils. These studies provide information about new ways to protect apple juice and other foods against human pathogens.

  4. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  5. The ability of selected plant essential oils to enhance the action of recommended antibiotics against pathogenic wound bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Łysakowska, Monika; Kowalczyk, Edward; Szymańska, Grażyna; Kochan, Ewa; Krukowska, Jolanta; Olszewski, Jurek; Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the ability of essential oils to support antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria in wounds. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria obtained from wound infections were identified according to standard microbiological methods. Essential oils were analysed by GC-FID-MS. The susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics, essential oils and their combination was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the essential oils were established by the micro-dilution broth method. Although cinnamon, clove, thyme and lavender essential oils were found to have the greatest antibacterial activity when used alone, the greatest additive and synergistic effects against pathogenic wound bacteria in combination with recommended antibiotics were demonstrated by basil, clary sage and rosemary oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated bacterial functions by plant essential oils with special reference to clove oil.

    PubMed

    Khan, M S A; Zahin, M; Hasan, S; Husain, F M; Ahmad, I

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory activity of plant essential oils using strains of Chromobacterium violaceum (CV12472 and CVO26) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1). Inhibition of QS-controlled violacein production in C. violaceum was assayed using disc diffusion and agar well diffusion method. Of the 21 essential oils, four oils showed varying levels of anti-QS activity. Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) oil showed promising anti-QS activity on both wild and mutant strains with zones of pigment inhibition 19 and 17 mm, respectively, followed by activity in cinnamon, lavender and peppermint oils. The effect of clove oil on the extent of violacein production was estimated photometrically and found to be concentration dependent. At sub-MICs of clove oil, 78.4% reduction in violacein production over control and up to 78% reduction in swarming motility in PAO1 over control were recorded. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of clove oil indicated presence of many phytocompounds. Eugenol, the major constituent of clove oil could not exhibit anti-QS activity. Presence of anti-QS activity in clove oil and other essential oils has indicated new anti-infective activity. The identification of anti-QS phytoconstituents is needed to assess the mechanism of action against both C. violaceum and Ps. aeruginosa. Essential oils having new antipathogenic drugs principle because of its anti-QS activity might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of drug-resistant bacteria in vivo.

  7. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  8. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  9. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  10. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  11. The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Patrick H; Becker, Stephan T; Podschun, Rainer; Sivananthan, Sureshan; Springer, Ingo N; Russo, Paul A J; Wiltfang, Joerg; Fickenscher, Helmut; Sherry, Eugene

    2009-10-01

    Hospital-acquired infections and antibiotic-resistant bacteria continue to be major health concerns worldwide. Particularly problematic is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its ability to cause severe soft tissue, bone or implant infections. First used by the Australian Aborigines, Tea tree oil and Eucalyptus oil (and several other essential oils) have each demonstrated promising efficacy against several bacteria and have been used clinically against multi-resistant strains. Several common and hospital-acquired bacterial and yeast isolates (6 Staphylococcus strains including MRSA, 4 Streptococcus strains and 3 Candida strains including Candida krusei) were tested for their susceptibility for Eucalyptus, Tea tree, Thyme white, Lavender, Lemon, Lemongrass, Cinnamon, Grapefruit, Clove Bud, Sandalwood, Peppermint, Kunzea and Sage oil with the agar diffusion test. Olive oil, Paraffin oil, Ethanol (70%), Povidone iodine, Chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) served as controls. Large prevailing effective zones of inhibition were observed for Thyme white, Lemon, Lemongrass and Cinnamon oil. The other oils also showed considerable efficacy. Remarkably, almost all tested oils demonstrated efficacy against hospital-acquired isolates and reference strains, whereas Olive and Paraffin oil from the control group produced no inhibition. As proven in vitro, essential oils represent a cheap and effective antiseptic topical treatment option even for antibiotic-resistant strains as MRSA and antimycotic-resistant Candida species.

  12. Essential oils, their therapeutic properties, and implication in dentistry: A review.

    PubMed

    Dagli, Namrata; Dagli, Rushabh; Mahmoud, Rasha Said; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial treatments currently used for treatment cause several side effects, and bacterial resistance to the antibiotics is also increasing. Therefore, there is need to find better alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) have been used for treatment of various ailments since ancient times and have gained popularity over the years. Safety and efficacy of EOs have been proved by several clinical trials. This review gives an overview on the EOs, their uses, and adverse effects. A literature search was performed in the PubMed for clinical trial studies and review articles on EOs published up to February 2015. The search was performed during March 2015. The following keywords were used: "Lavender essential oil," "cinnamon oil," "clove oil," "eucalyptus oil," "peppermint oil," "lemon EOs," and "tea tree oil." Total 70 relevant articles were found in PubMed database. After screening of abstracts, 52 articles were selected to be included in the present review. On the basis of the available information, it can be concluded that EOs have the potential to be developed as preventive or therapeutic agents for various oral diseases, but further clinical trials are required to establish their safety and efficacy.

  13. Use of oil-in-water emulsions to control fungal deterioration of strawberry jams.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Susana; Fuentes, Ana; Talens, Pau; Barat, José M

    2016-11-15

    This work aimed to control the fungal deterioration of strawberry jams. The antifungal activity of the clove, cinnamon leaf, lemon and mandarin essential oils and their effectiveness in oil-in-water emulsions were evaluated. According to the results obtained, only clove and cinnamon leaf oils were selected to prepare emulsions. All the tested emulsions were stable, independently the amount of polymer and essential oil used. Essential oil loss was affected by the amount of polymer employed to prepare the emulsions. The oil-in-water emulsions with 5.0mg/g xanthan gum, and with 0.55mg/g clove or 0.65mg/g cinnamon leaf essential oil, were used for the in vivo tests. The jams prepared with the oil-in-water emulsions showed a lower fungal decay compared with jams without emulsion. The present work demonstrated that emulsions can be employed to prevent strawberry jam mould spoilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of the bioactive components of essential oils from Pakistani spices against Salmonella and other multi-drug resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study was the phytochemical characterization of four indigenous essential oils obtained from spices and their antibacterial activities against the multidrug resistant clinical and soil isolates prevalent in Pakistan, and ATCC reference strains. Methods Chemical composition of essential oils from four Pakistani spices cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), cardamom (Amomum subulatum) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) were analyzed on GC/MS. Their antibacterial activities were investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Thin-Layer Chromatography-Bioautographic (TLC-Bioautographic) assays against pathogenic strains Salmonella typhi (D1 Vi-positive), Salmonella typhi (G7 Vi-negative), Salmonella paratyphi A, Escherichia coli (SS1), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus licheniformis (ATCC 14580). The data were statistically analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) method to find out significant relationship of essential oils biological activities at p <0.05. Results Among all the tested essential oils, oil from the bark of C. verum showed best antibacterial activities against all selected bacterial strains in the MIC assay, especially with 2.9 mg/ml concentration against S. typhi G7 Vi-negative and P. fluorescens strains. TLC-bioautography confirmed the presence of biologically active anti-microbial components in all tested essential oils. P. fluorescens was found susceptible to C. verum essential oil while E. coli SS1 and S. aureus were resistant to C. verum and A. subulatum essential oils, respectively, as determined in bioautography assay. The GC/MS analysis revealed that essential oils of C. cyminum, C. verum, A. subulatum, and S. aromaticum contain 17.2% cuminaldehyde, 4.3% t-cinnamaldehyde, 5.2% eucalyptol and 0.73% eugenol, respectively. Conclusions Most of the essential oils included in this study possessed good antibacterial

  15. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Chang, S T; Chen, P F; Chang, S C

    2001-09-01

    The antibacterial activities of the essential oils from leaves of two Cinnamomum osmophloeum clones (A and B) and their chemical constituents were investigated in this study. The nine strains of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., and Vibrio parahemolyticus, were used in the antibacterial tests. Results from the antibacterial tests demonstrated that the indigenous cinnamon B leaf essential oils had an excellent inhibitory effect. The MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) of the B leaf oil were 500 microg/ml against both K. pneumoniae and Salmonella sp. and 250 microg/ml against the other seven strains of bacteria. Cinnamaldehyde possessed the strongest antibacterial activity compared to the other constituents of the essential oils. The MICs of cinnamaldehyde against the E. coli, P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, MRSA, K. pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., and V. parahemolyticus were 500, 1000, 250, 250, 250, 250, 1000, 500, and 250 microg/ml, respectively. These results suggest that C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil and cinnamaldehyde are beneficial to human health, having the potential to be used for medical purposes and to be utilized as anti-bacterial additives in making paper products.

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activities of cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene against Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Sleha, Radek; Mosio, Petra; Vydrzalova, Marketa; Jantovska, Alexandra; Bostikova, Vanda; Mazurova, Jaroslava

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of five natural substances against 50 clinical isolates of Mycoplasma hominis. The in vitro activity of selected natural compounds, cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene, was investigated against 50 M. hominis isolates cultivated from cervical swabs by the broth dilution method. All showed valuable antimicrobial activity against the tested isolates. Oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (MBC90 = 500 µg/mL) however was found to be the most effective. Carvacrol (MBC90 = 600 µg/mL) and eugenol (MBC90 = 1000 µg/mL) also possessed strong antimycoplasmal activity. The results indicate that cinnamon bark oil, carvacrol and eugenol have strong antimycoplasmal activity and the potential for use as antimicrobial agents in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections.

  17. The In Vitro Efficacy of Essential Oils and Antifungal Drugs Against Prototheca zopfii.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak, Barbara; Głowacka, Anna; Krukowski, Henryk; Lisowski, Andrzej; Lassa, Henryka; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2016-08-01

    The algae of the genus Prototheca are environmental pathogens whose main reservoir is the habitat of cows. They can cause protothecosis in domestic and wild animals, as well as human beings, with the main etiological agents being Prototheca zopfii in animals and Prototheca wickerhamii in humans. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of selected essential oils and antifungal antibiotics against P. zopfii isolates. The material consisted of nine P. zopfii strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis. Eight essential oils produced by POLLENA-AROMA, Poland, and nine antifungal agents were tested. The effects of essential oils on P. zopfii were evaluated by microdilution with liquid Sabouraud dextrose broth, and susceptibility to antifungal agents was tested using the disk-diffusion method. All used essential oils inhibited the activity of P. zopfii isolates, with MIC values ranging from 0.2 to 10.5 μl/ml. Cinnamon, clove, and thyme demonstrated the highest activity against the tested P. zopfii strains at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 μl/ml. Of the antifungal agents, the tested strains were the most sensitive to nystatin (100 %). The tested essential oils can be used to complement protothecosis therapy in animals and human beings.

  18. Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella)-resistant food packaging film development using microencapsulated cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Hah; Song, Ah Young; Han, Jaejoon; Park, Ki Hwan; Min, Sea C

    2014-10-01

    Insect-resistant laminate films containing microencapsulated cinnamon oil (CO) were developed to protect food products from the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). CO microencapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol was incorporated with a printing ink and the ink mixture was applied to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film as an ink coating. The coated LDPE surface was laminated with a polypropylene film. The laminate film impeded the invasion of moth larvae and repelled the larvae. The periods of time during which cinnamaldehyde level in the film remained above a minimum repelling concentration, predicted from the concentration profile, were 21, 21, and 10 d for cookies, chocolate, and caramel, respectively. Coating with microencapsulated ink did not alter the tensile or barrier properties of the laminate film. Microencapsulation effectively prevented volatilization of CO. The laminate film can be produced by modern film manufacturing lines and applied to protect food from Indian meal moth damage. The LDPE-PP laminate film developed using microencapsulated cinnamon oil was effective to protect the model foods from the invasion of Indian meal moth larvae. The microencapsulated ink coating did not significantly change the tensile and barrier properties of the LDPE-PP laminate film, implying that replacement of the uncoated with coated laminate would not be an issue with current packaging equipment. The films showed the potential to be produced in commercial film production lines that usually involve high temperatures because of the improved thermal stability of cinnamon oil due to microencapsulation. The microencapsulated system may be extended to other food-packaging films for which the same ink-printing platform is used. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Essential oils, their therapeutic properties, and implication in dentistry: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dagli, Namrata; Dagli, Rushabh; Mahmoud, Rasha Said; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antibacterial treatments currently used for treatment cause several side effects, and bacterial resistance to the antibiotics is also increasing. Therefore, there is need to find better alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) have been used for treatment of various ailments since ancient times and have gained popularity over the years. Safety and efficacy of EOs have been proved by several clinical trials. This review gives an overview on the EOs, their uses, and adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed in the PubMed for clinical trial studies and review articles on EOs published up to February 2015. The search was performed during March 2015. The following keywords were used: “Lavender essential oil,” “cinnamon oil,” “clove oil,” “eucalyptus oil,” “peppermint oil,” “lemon EOs,” and “tea tree oil.” Results: Total 70 relevant articles were found in PubMed database. After screening of abstracts, 52 articles were selected to be included in the present review. Conclusion: On the basis of the available information, it can be concluded that EOs have the potential to be developed as preventive or therapeutic agents for various oral diseases, but further clinical trials are required to establish their safety and efficacy. PMID:26539382

  20. Essential oils--their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and effect on intestinal cell viability.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Dusan; Dusan, Fabian; Sabol, Marián; Marián, Sabol; Domaracká, Katarína; Katarína, Domaracká; Bujnáková, Dobroslava; Dobroslava, Bujnáková

    2006-12-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate possible harmful effects of four commonly used essential oils and their major components on intestinal cells. Antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts against enteroinvasive Escherichia coli was dose dependent. However, doses of essential oils with the ability to completely inhibit bacterial growth (0.05%) showed also relatively high cytotoxicity to intestinal-like cells cultured in vitro. Lower doses of essential oils (0.01%) had only partial antimicrobial activity and their damaging effect on Caco-2 cells was only modest. Cell death assessment based on morphological and viability staining followed by fluorescence microscopy showed that essential oils of cinnamon and clove and their major component eugenol had almost no cytotoxic effect at lower doses. Although essential oil of oregano and its component carvacrol slightly increased the incidence of apoptotic cell death, they showed extensive antimicrobial activity even at lower concentrations. Relatively high cytotoxicity was demonstrated by thyme oil, which increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death incidence. In contrast, its component thymol showed no cytotoxic effect as well as greatly-reduced ability to inhibit visible growth of the chosen pathogen in the doses used. On the other hand, the addition of all essential oils and their components at lower doses, with the exception of thyme oil, to bacterial suspension significantly reduced the cytotoxic effect of E. coli on Caco-2 cells after 1h culture. In conclusion, it is possible to find appropriate doses of essential oils showing both antimicrobial activity and very low detrimental effect on intestinal cells.

  1. Investigation of the Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action of Thymus vulgaris, Citrus limonum, Pelargonium graveolens, Cinnamomum cassia, Ocimum basilicum, and Eugenia caryophyllus Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Gucwa, Katarzyna; Milewski, Sławomir; Dymerski, Tomasz; Szweda, Piotr

    2018-05-08

    The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. In this study the activity of Thymus vulgaris , Citrus limonum , Pelargonium graveolens , Cinnamomum cassia , Ocimum basilicum , and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils (EOs) distributed by Pollena Aroma (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki, Poland) was investigated against a group of 183 clinical isolates of C. albicans and 76 isolates of C. glabrata . All of the oils exhibited both fungistatic and fungicidal activity toward C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. The highest activity was observed for cinnamon oil, with MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) values in the range 0.002⁻0.125% ( v / v ). The MIC values of the rest of the oils were in the range 0.005% (or less) to 2.5% ( v / v ). In most cases MFC (Minimum Fungicidal Concentration) values were equal to MIC or twice as high. Additionally, we examined the mode of action of selected EOs. The effect on cell wall components could not be clearly proved. Three of the tested EOs (thyme, lemon, and clove) affected cell membranes. At the same time, thyme, cinnamon, and clove oil influenced potassium ion efflux, which was not seen in the case of lemon oil. All of the tested oils demonstrated the ability to inhibit the transition of yeast to mycelium form, but the effect was the lowest in the case of cinnamon oil.

  2. Evaluation of commercial essential oil samples on the growth of postharvest pathogen Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey.

    PubMed

    Lazar-Baker, E E; Hetherington, S D; Ku, V V; Newman, S M

    2011-03-01

    To assess the effect of several commercial essential oils samples Australian lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), oregano (Origanum vulgare), thyme oil (Thymus vulgaris), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and Australian tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on mycelium growth and spore germination of Monilinia fructicola. The effectiveness of lemon myrtle essential oil as a fumigant for the control of brown rot in nectarines was evaluated. Monilinia fructicola exhibited a different level of sensitivity to each tested essential oil with results suggesting that the essential oils provide excellent control of the pathogen with respect to mycelium growth and spore germination at very low concentrations, whereas for others higher concentrations are needed to reduce significant fungal growth. In vivo application of lemon myrtle essential oil effectively reduced the incidence of M. fructicola on noninoculated fruit. Fumigation of nectarines following inoculation did not reduce the incidence of brown rot in comparison with the inoculated control treatment. No evidence of phytotoxicity on the fruit was recorded. Lemon myrtle essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal activity against M. fructicola, in vitro and to a lesser extent, under in vivo conditions. The results demonstrate that lemon myrtle essential oil, in particular, has potential as an antifungal agent to control M. fructicola. © 2011 NSW Industry & Investment, Australia. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, α-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Harvesting on the Composition of Essential Oils from Five Varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivated in the Island of Kefalonia, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tsasi, Gerasimia; Mailis, Theofilos; Daskalaki, Artemis; Sakadani, Eleni; Razis, Panagis; Samaras, Yiannis; Skaltsa, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site. PMID:28927018

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of C-Cinnamal Calix [4] Resorsinarena from Cinnamon Oil Waste West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etika, S. B.; Nasra, E.; Rilaztika, I.

    2018-04-01

    Synthesis and characterization of compound C-Cinnamal Calix [4] Resorsinarena (CCCR) of cinnamon oil waste have been done. This study was aimed to synthesis and characterize C-Cinnamal Calix [4] Resorsinarena from cinnamaldehyde violated cinnamon oil waste. C-Cinnamal Calix [4] Resorsinarena was synthesized by electrophilic substitution reaction of cinnamaldehyde isolated by the acid and resorcinol at 77oC temperature for 2 hour. The data analysis spectrum UV-VIS and FT-IR showed that the compound isolated cinnamaldehyde same as pure cinnamaldehyde compound. The characterization of C-Cinnamal Calix [4] Resorsinarena in the form of reddish-colored solids with melting point 3580C by using UV-VIS showed the presence of double bond, FT-IR showed the absorption at the wave number 3323,94 cm-1 indicating the ‑OH group, the wave number 1610,94 cm-1 showed the vibration C=C, the strong region absorption of 1500,86 cm-1 indicating the presence of an aromatic ring, the at 1442,88 cm-1 wave number indicating the presence of CH3.

  6. The effect of edible coating based on Arabic gum, sodium caseinate and essential oil of cinnamon and lemon grass on guava.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Sanchita Biswas; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2018-04-15

    The effect of five coating formulations viz.: (A) 5% Arabic gum (AG)+1% sodium caseinate (SC)+1% cinnamon oil (CE); (B) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% CE; (C) 5% AG + 1% SC + 1% lemongrass oil (LG); (D) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% LG; and (E) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% CE + 2% LG on guava during 35 days storage at 4-7 °C was investigated. Thereafter samples were allowed to ripen for five days at 25 ± 2 °C. The quality of guava was analyzed at an interval of 7, 21, 35 and 40 days. The coating applications resulted in lower activity of PPO & POD, higher DPPH radical scavenging activity, higher retention of ascorbic acid, phenol & flavonoid content, exhibited slower rise of reducing and total sugar in guava pulp. Samples in treatment B and D were the best formulations for extending shelf-life of guava up to 40 days versus seven days of uncoated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Additivity vs Synergism: Investigation of the Additive Interaction of Cinnamon Bark Oil and Meropenem in Combinatory Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun-Kai; Yusoff, Khatijah; Mai, Chun-Wai; Lim, Wei-Meng; Yap, Wai-Sum; Lim, Swee-Hua Erin; Lai, Kok-Song

    2017-11-04

    Combinatory therapies have been commonly applied in the clinical setting to tackle multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and these have frequently proven to be effective. Specifically, combinatory therapies resulting in synergistic interactions between antibiotics and adjuvant have been the main focus due to their effectiveness, sidelining the effects of additivity, which also lowers the minimal effective dosage of either antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was undertaken to look at the effects of additivity between essential oils and antibiotic, via the use of cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and meropenem as a model for additivity. Comparisons between synergistic and additive interaction of CBO were performed in terms of the ability of CBO to disrupt bacterial membrane, via zeta potential measurement, outer membrane permeability assay and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the additivity interaction between CBO and meropenem showed similar membrane disruption ability when compared to those synergistic combinations which was previously reported. Hence, results based on our studies strongly suggest that additive interaction acts on a par with synergistic interaction. Therefore, further investigation in additive interaction between antibiotics and adjuvant should be performed for a more in depth understanding of the mechanism and the impacts of such interaction.

  8. Toxicity of plant essential oils to different life stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, and non-target invertebrates.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    Seven essential oils with potential as acaricides for use against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), were selected for study. These products (essential oils of manuka, cade, pennyroyal, thyme, garlic, clove bud and cinnamon bark) were deployed against different life stages of D. gallinae in laboratory tests at the (lethal concentration) LC(50) level for adult mites. For all essential oils tested, toxicity to D. gallinae juveniles was as high as toxicity to adults, if not higher. However, at the LC(50) level determined for adults, some oils were ineffective in preventing hatching of D. gallinae eggs. The essential oils were also tested under laboratory conditions at their LC(90) levels for D. gallinae adults on two model non-target species, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (L.), and the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (L.). Results showed that not all essential oils were as toxic to A. salina and T. molitor as they were to D. gallinae, suggesting that it may be possible to select certain oils for development as acaricides against D. gallinae that would have minimal impact on non-target organisms. However, the level of toxicity to A. salina and T. molitor was not consistent across the selected essential oils.

  9. Repellent activity screening of 11 kinds of essential oils against Aedes albopictus Skuse: microcapsule preparation of Herba Schizonepetae oil and repellent bioassay on hand skin.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Fu, C C; Yu, D D; Feng, J T; Zhang, X; Ma, Z Q

    2013-08-01

    The main ingredient of most repellents on the market is DEET, an effective compound that has the disadvantages of toxic reactions as well as damaging effects on plastic and synthetic fabric. DEET alternatives are urgently needed. The repellent activities of 11 kinds of essential oils were tested against Aedes albopictus Skuse by a Y-tube olfactometer. Using essential oils with high repellent activity as core material and gelatin and gum arabic as wall materials, we prepared microcapsules of essential oils and optimized the preparation process. The microcapsule formulation was then subjected to repellent bioassay on hand skin. when the dosage of essential oils was 5 µL, the cinnamon oil repellent rate was 87.5% within 10 min and the Herba Schizonepetae oil (HSO) repellent rate was 98.0% within 3 min. Up to 1.5% (w/v) gelatin and 1.5% (w/v) gum arabic (as wall materials), and HSO (as core material) were used to form microcapsules with a 1:1 ratio of core material to wall material. The ointment preparations effectively protected hand skin exposed to a high-density A. albopictus Skuse rearing cage for 4-5 h. The HSO microcapsule repellent has broad application and development prospects.

  10. Insect-resistant food packaging film development using cinnamon oil and microencapsulation technologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Hah; Han, Jaejoon; Na, Ja Hyun; Chang, Pahn-Sik; Chung, Myung Sub; Park, Ki Hwan; Min, Sea C

    2013-02-01

    Insect-resistant films containing a microencapsulated insect-repelling agent were developed to protect food products from the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). Cinnamon oil (CO), an insect repelling agent, was encapsulated with gum arabic, whey protein isolate (WPI)/maltodextrin (MD), or poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). A low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film was coated with an ink or a polypropylene (PP) solution that incorporated the microcapsules. The encapsulation efficiency values obtained with gum arabic, WPI/MD, and PVA were 90.4%, 94.6%, and 80.7%, respectively. The films containing a microcapsule emulsion of PVA and CO or incorporating a microcapsule powder of WPI/MD and CO were the most effective (P < 0.05) at repelling moth larvae. The release rate of cinnamaldehyde, an active repellent of cinnamaldehyde, in the PP was 23 times lower when cinnamaldehyde was microencapsulated. Coating with the microcapsules did not alter the tensile properties of the films. The invasion of larvae into cookies was prevented by the insect-repellent films, demonstrating potential for the films in insect-resistant packaging for food products. The insect-repelling effect of cinnamon oil incorporated into LDPE films was more effective with microencapsulation. The system developed in this research with LDPE film may also be extended to other food-packaging films where the same coating platform can be used. This platform is interchangeable and easy to use for the delivery of insect-repelling agents. The films can protect a wide variety of food products from invasion by the Indian meal moth. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of essential oils of some commonly used Indian spices in in vitro models and in food supplements enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bag, Anwesa; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential of essential oils of some commonly used Indian spices (black pepper, cinnamon, clove, coriander and cumin) in various in vitro models and in food supplements enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. In vitro antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and Fe 2+ ion-chelating methods and lipid oxidation stabilisation potential was evaluated in bulk soybean oil-fish oil mixture and their oil-in-water emulsions using peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV) and total oxidation value as indicators of oxidation. Combination effects using DPPH radical scavenging and Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction methods were also evaluated. Test essential oils showed varying degrees of radical scavenging and Fe 2+ ion-chelating efficacy. Clove and coriander oils showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) radical scavenging and Fe 2+ ion-chelating potential over other tested essential oils as well as BHT and ∞-tocopherol. The anti-lipid peroxidative potential of test essential oils was found in the following decreasing order: clove > coriander > BHT > cinnamon > α-tocopherol > cumin > black pepper. Furthermore, clove and coriander oils showed synergistic antioxidant activity in combination both in DPPH radical scavenging and Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction methods whereas other possible combinations showed additive effects. Strong radical scavenging and Fe 2+ -chelating as well as anti-lipid peroxidative activities of clove and coriander oils provide evidence that clove and coriander oils may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation of food supplements enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

  12. Antimicrobial, Rheological, and Thermal Properties of Plasticized Polylactide Films Incorporated with Essential Oils to Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Hiremath, Nikhil; Jacob, Harsha

    2016-02-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is the most mature biobased and biodegradable polymer. Due to its inherent brittleness, the polymer cannot be used as a packaging material without plasticizer. An attempt was made to develop antimicrobial plasticized PLA film by incorporating polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3 essential oils (EO), namely cinnamon, garlic, and clove by solvent casting method. Physical, thermal, and rheological properties of those films were evaluated for practical applications whereas the antimicrobial properties were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni-pathogens related to poultry industry. Both PEG and EOs led to the formation of flexible PLA/PEG/EO films with significant drop in the glass transition temperature (Tg ), and mechanical property. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was employed to melt rheology of EO-based films at selected temperature, and rheological moduli superimposed well in an extended frequency range. Among EOs, cinnamon and clove oil-based films (PLA/PEG/CIN and PLA/PEG/CLO) exhibited a complete zone of inhibition against C. jejuni at the maximum concentration (1.6 mL per 2 g PLA/PEG blend) whereas the garlic oil-based film (PLA/PEG/GAR) had the lowest activity. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. A vapour phase assay for evaluating the antimicrobial activities of essential oils against bovine respiratory bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amat, S; Baines, D; Alexander, T W

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a new assay for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EOs) in vapour phase and to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities of commercial EOs against BRPs. To achieve the first objective, a microtube cap containing 100 μl of EO was embedded in an agar plate. An agar plug (diameter 13 mm) inoculated with a bacterial suspension containing10 8  CFU per ml was then placed over the cap and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Subsequently, bacteria were recovered from the agar plug by immersion in 5 ml of broth for 10 min, followed by vortexing for 30 s, and the broths were then plated for enumeration. To demonstrate the usefulness of the assay, nine commercial EOs derived from the following specific plants: ajowan, carrot seed, cinnamon leaf, citronella, fennel, ginger grass, lavender, rosemary and thyme were first evaluated for their vapour phase antimicrobial activities against Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1. Selected EOs were further tested against Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni. The EOs of ajowan, thyme and cinnamon leaf completely or partially inhibited BRPs growth. This new assay provided reproducible results on the vapour phase antimicrobial activities of EOs against BRPs. These results support further study of EOs as a potential mitigation strategy against BRPs. In this study, we present a new vapour phase assay for evaluating the antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EO) against bovine respiratory pathogens (BRPs). Using this assay, we identified EOs, such as ajowan, thyme and cinnamon leaf, that can effectively inhibit growth of the BRPs Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1, Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni. This is the first study to demonstrate the vapour phase antimicrobial activity of EOs against BRPs. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of the

  14. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Ye-Ming; Liu, Pei; Yao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-10-07

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs) as penetration enhancers (PEs) to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil > Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05). The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO) were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05). In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea.

  15. The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of commercially essential oils and their combinations against acne.

    PubMed

    Orchard, A; van Vuuren, S F; Viljoen, A; Kamatou, Guy

    2018-03-24

    The study investigated the efficacy of commercial essential oil combinations against the two pathogens responsible for acne with the aim to identify synergy and favourable oils to possibly use in a blend. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 2223) and Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 11827), and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (ΣFIC) was calculated. Combinations displaying synergistic interactions were further investigated at varied ratios and the results plotted on isobolograms. From the 408 combinations investigated, 167 combinations were identified as displaying noteworthy antimicrobial activity (MIC value ≤ 1.00 mg ml -1 ). Thirteen synergistic interactions were observed against S. epidermidis and three synergistic combinations were observed against P. acnes. It was found that not one of the synergistic interactions identified were based on the combinations recommended in the layman's aroma-therapeutic literature. Synergy was evident rather from leads based on antimicrobial activity from previous studies, thus emphasising the importance of scientific validation. Leptospermum scoparium J.R.Forst. and G.Forst (manuka) was the essential oil mostly involved in synergistic interactions (four) against S. epidermidis. Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. and Thomson (ylang ylang) essential oil was also frequently involved in synergy where synergistic interactions could be observed against both pathogens. The combination with the lowest MIC value against both acne pathogens was and Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf (vetiver) with Cinnamomum verum J.Presl (cinnamon bark) (MIC values 0.19-0.25 mg ml -1 ). Pogostemon patchouli Benth. (patchouli), V. zizanioides, C. verum and Santalum spp. (sandalwood) could be identified as the oils that contributed the most noteworthy antimicrobial activity towards the combinations. The different chemotypes of the essential oils used in the

  16. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Mandrell, Robert E

    2002-10-01

    An improved method of sample preparation was used in a microplate assay to evaluate the bactericidal activity levels of 96 essential oils and 23 oil compounds against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica obtained from food and clinical sources. Bactericidal activity (BA50) was defined as the percentage of the sample in the assay mixture that resulted in a 50% decrease in CFU relative to a buffer control. Twenty-seven oils and 12 compounds were active against all four species of bacteria. The oils that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.009) were marigold, ginger root, jasmine, patchouli, gardenia, cedarwood, carrot seed, celery seed, mugwort, spikenard, and orange bitter oils; those that were most active against E. coli (with BA50 values ranging from 0.046 to 0.14) were oregano, thyme, cinnamon, palmarosa, bay leaf, clove bud, lemon grass, and allspice oils; those that were most active against L monocytogenes (with BA50 values ranging from 0.057 to 0.092) were gardenia, cedarwood, bay leaf, clove bud, oregano, cinnamon, allspice, thyme, and patchouli oils; and those that were most active against S. enterica (with BA50 values ranging from 0.045 to 0.14) were thyme, oregano, cinnamon, clove bud, allspice, bay leaf, palmarosa, and marjoram oils. The oil compounds that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.034) were cinnamaldehyde, estragole, carvacrol, benzaldehyde, citral, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, carvone R, and geranyl acetate; those that were most active against E. coli (with BA50 values ranging from 0.057 to 0.28) were carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, citral, perillaldehyde, and estragole; those that were most active against L monocytogenes (with BA50 values ranging from 0.019 to 0.43) were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, citral, geraniol, perillaldehyde

  17. The synergistic preservative effects of the essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) against acid-tolerant food microflora.

    PubMed

    Lachowicz, K J; Jones, G P; Briggs, D R; Bienvenu, F E; Wan, J; Wilcock, A; Coventry, M J

    1998-03-01

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from five different varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. plants (Anise, Bush, Cinnamon, Dark Opal and a commercial sample of dried basil) were examined for antimicrobial activity against a wide range of foodborne Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds by an agar well diffusion method. All five essential oils of basil showed antimicrobial activity against most of the organisms tested with the exception of Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Pseudomonas species. The inhibitory effect of Anise oil, in comparison with mixtures of the predominant components of pure linalool and methyl chavicol, against the acid-tolerant organisms, Lactobacillus curvatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was examined in broth by an indirect impedance method. Synergistic effects between Anise oil, low pH (pH 4.2) and salt (5% NaCl) were determined. The antimicrobial effect of Anise oil was also assessed in a tomato juice medium by direct viable count, showing that the growth of Lact. curvatus and S. cerevisiae was completely inhibited by 0.1% and 1% Anise oil, respectively. The results of the current study indicate the need for further investigations to understand the antimicrobial effects of basil oils in the presence of other food ingredients and preservation parameters.

  18. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  19. Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials.

    PubMed

    Tantaoui-Elaraki, A; Beraoud, L

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effect of 13 chemically different essential oils (EO) on the mycelial growth of and aflatoxin synthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus. Cinnamon, thyme, oregano, and cumin EO were able to stop mycelial growth at only 0.1% in the medium, while curcumin, ginger, lemon, and orange EO were unable to inhibit totally the growth even at 1% concentration. Coriander, black pepper, mugwort, bay, and rosemary EO caused the growth to stop at concentrations between 0.2 and 1%. The EO most active upon mycelial growth were also the most active against aflatoxinogenesis. However, aflatoxin synthesis was inhibited by all the EO at higher extent than the mycelial growth.

  20. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  1. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Wei-Lung; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Sen-Sung

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves and different tissues of Cryptomeria japonica against pathogenic Legionella pneumophila at 42 degrees C. Ten kinds of EOs were extracted by water distillation and their chemical constituents were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that cinnamon leaf EO possessed stronger anti-L. pneumophila activity than C. japonica EO. In particular, the highest bactericidal effect was noted in contact with C. osmophloeum leaf EO of cinnamaldehyde type (characterized by its major constituent of cinnamaldehyde accounting for 91.3% of EO), regardless of contacted cell concentration (2 and 4 log CFU ml(-1)) or exposure time (10 and 60 min). Cinnamaldehyde is responsible for anti-L. pneumophila activity based on the results of antimicrobial testing and statistical analysis. Stepwise regression analyses show that EO concentration is the most significant factor affecting the bioactivity of EO. It is concluded that C. osmophloeum leaf oil of cinnamaldehyde type and its major constituent, cinnamaldehyde, possess strong anti-L. pneumophila activities, and have the great potential to be used as an antibacterial agent to control legionellosis associated with hot tubs and spa facilities widely used in homes and resorts.

  2. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions.

    PubMed

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J J; Appa Rao, V; Babu, R Narendra

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  3. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J. J.; Appa Rao, V.; Babu, R. Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Materials and Methods: Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application. PMID:27051203

  4. Development of Poly(lactic acid)/Chitosan Fibers Loaded with Essential Oil for Antimicrobial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaowen; Wang, Shuyao; Zhang, Rong; Lan, Wenting; Qin, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) was successfully encapsulated into chitosan (CS) nanoparticles at different loading amounts (1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% v/v) using oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion and ionic-gelation methods. In order to form active packaging, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was used to fabricate PLA/CS-CEO composite fibers using a simple electrospinning method. The shape, size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficacy of the CS-CEO nanoparticles were investigated. The composition, morphology, and release behavior of the composite fibers were investigated. PLA/CS-CEO-1.5 showed good stability and favorable sustained release of CEO, resulting in improved antimicrobial activity compared to the other blends. The PLA/CS-CEO fibers showed high long-term inactivation rates against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus due to the sustained release of CEO, indicating that the developed PLA/CS-CEO fibers have great potential for active food packaging applications. PMID:28737719

  5. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds from four repellent essential oils against Bemisia tabaci whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Chandre, Fabrice; Barkman, Barbara; Menut, Chantal; Martin, Thibaud

    2016-01-01

    In tropical countries, netting is an effective sustainable tool for protecting horticultural crops against Lepidoptera, although not against small pests such as Bemisia tabaci, while smaller mesh netting can be used in temperate regions. A solution is to combine a net with a repellent. Previously we identified repellent essential oils: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and citronella (Cymbopogon winternarius). The present study was designed to identify the active compounds of these essential oils, characterise their biological activity and examine their potential for coating nets. We investigated the efficiency and toxicity of nets dipped in different solutions. We then studied the repellent effect with an olfactometer and the irritant effect by videotracking. Geraniol and citronellol were the most promising net coatings owing to their repellent effect. The repellency, irritancy or toxicity varied with the product and concentration, and these features were independent, indicating that the repellent and the irritant/toxic mechanisms were not the same. The combined effects of these different compounds account for the bioactivity of the mixture, suggesting interactions between the compounds. This new sustainable strategy for protecting vegetable crops against whiteflies is discussed, in addition to the use of companion plants that could produce such bioactive compounds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  7. Composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils from the North American boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Poaty, Bouddah; Lahlah, Jasmina; Porqueres, Félicia; Bouafif, Hassine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) were steam-extracted from the needles and twigs of balsam fir, black spruce, white spruce, tamarack, jack pine and eastern white cedar that remained after logging in eastern Canada. These EOs, similarly to that from Labrador tea and other commercial EOs from Chinese cinnamon, clove and lemon eucalyptus, exhibited many common constituent compounds (mainly α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and bornyl acetate) making up 91% of each oil based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. All of these oils exhibited antibacterial properties, especially when examined in closed tube assay compared to the traditional 96-well microliter format. These antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 0.2% w/v), comparable to those of exotic EOs, were shown against common pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antioxidant potential of the boreal samples was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (concentration providing 50% inhibition ≥ 7 mg/ml) and reducing power methods. Finally, this investigation revealed some boreal EOs to be potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that would notably benefit products in the personal hygiene and care industry.

  8. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS.

  9. Antimicrobial activities of gaseous essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes on a laboratory medium and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyeongmin; Kim, Yoonbin; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of gaseous essential oils (EO gases) against Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of a laboratory medium and radish sprouts. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) values of EO gases from eight EOs extracted from basil leaves, carrot seed, cinnamon bark, cinnamon leaves, clove flower buds, oregano leaves, thyme flowers (linalool), and thyme leaves (thymol) against L. monocytogenes on a nutrient agar supplemented with 1% glucose and 0.025% bromocresol purple (NGBA). Oregano, thyme thymol, and cinnamon bark EO gases showed the strongest antilisterial activities (MIC and MLC, 78.1μL/L). We also investigated the inhibitory and lethal activities of these gases against L. monocytogenes on the surface of radish sprouts. The number of L. monocytogenes after exposure to EO gases at ≥156μL/L was significantly (P≤0.05) lower than that of untreated L. monocytogenes. For example, the initial number of L. monocytogenes on the surface of radish sprouts (ca. 6.3logCFU/g) decreased by 1.4logCFU/g within 24h at 30°C and 43% relative humidity (RH) without EO gas treatment, whereas the number of L. monocytogenes after exposure to oregano, thyme thymol, and cinnamon bark EO gases at 156μL/L decreased by 2.1, 2.1, and 1.8logCFU/g, respectively, after 24h. Although EO gases exerted greater lethal activities at higher concentrations (312 and 625μL/L), L. monocytogenes on the surface of radish sprouts was not completely inactivated. The number of L. monocytogenes on sprouts treated with oregano, thyme thymol, and cinnamon bark EO gases at 625μL/L decreased by 2.7-3.0logCFU/g after 24h at 30°C and 43% RH. Results indicate that EO gases that showed antilisterial activities on a laboratory medium also exhibited reduced lethal activity on the surface of radish sprouts. These findings will be useful when developing strategies to inactivate L. monocytogenes and

  10. Essential Oils, Part I: Introduction.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are widely used in the flavor, food, fragrance, and cosmetic industries in many applications. Contact allergy to them is well known and has been described for 80 essential oils. The relevance of positive patch test reactions often remains unknown. Knowledge of the chemical composition of essential oils among dermatologists is suspected to be limited, as such data are published in journals not read by the dermatological community. Therefore, the authors have fully reviewed and published the literature on contact allergy to and chemical composition of essential oils. Selected topics from this publication will be presented in abbreviated form in Dermatitis starting with this issue, including I. Introduction; II. General aspects; III. Chemistry; IV. General aspects of contact allergy; V. Peppermint oil, lavender oil and lemongrass oil; VI: Sandalwood oil, ylang-ylang oil, and jasmine absolute.

  11. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  12. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed (P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc (P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  13. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains.

    PubMed

    López, P; Sánchez, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2005-08-24

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon (Cinnamon zeylanicum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), basil (Ocimum basillicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), dill (Anethum graveolens), and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) was evaluated over a range of concentrations in two types of contact tests (solid and vapor diffusion). The EOs were tested against an array of four Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes), four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three fungi (a yeast, Candida albicans, and two molds, Penicillium islandicum and Aspergillus flavus). The rationale for this work was to test the possibility of creating a protective atmosphere by using natural compounds that could extend the shelf life of packaged foodstuffs while minimizing organoleptic alterations. In the solid diffusion tests, cinnamon and clove gave the strongest (and very similar) inhibition, followed by basil and rosemary, with dill and ginger giving the weakest inhibition. The fungi were the most sensitive microorganisms, followed by the Gram-positive bacterial strains. The Gram-negative strain P. aeruginosa was the least inhibited. The composition of the atmosphere generated by the EOs, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were determined using a disk volatilization method, in which no inhibition from rosemary or basil was observed. Cinnamon and clove, once again, gave similar results for every microorganism. As a general rule, MIC (fungi) < MIC (bacteria) with no clear differences between Gram-positive or -negative strains except for P. aeruginosa, which was not inhibited by any of the EOs in the vapor phase. The atmosphere generated from the EOs was analyzed by means of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Differences among the volatiles in the EOs

  14. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production. PMID:29099084

  15. Effect of Chitosan Coating with Cinnamon Oil on the Quality and Physiological Attributes of China Jujube Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yage; Lin, Hongbin; Cao, Dong; Xu, Qinglian; Han, Wenfeng; Wang, Ranran; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g−1 and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%), respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g−1, 14.53 U·g−1, and 63.6 U·g−1 at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g−1 and 19.43 μmol·g−1 for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time. PMID:26495315

  16. Essential oils: from extraction to encapsulation.

    PubMed

    El Asbahani, A; Miladi, K; Badri, W; Sala, M; Aït Addi, E H; Casabianca, H; El Mousadik, A; Hartmann, D; Jilale, A; Renaud, F N R; Elaissari, A

    2015-04-10

    Essential oils are natural products which have many interesting applications. Extraction of essential oils from plants is performed by classical and innovative methods. Numerous encapsulation processes have been developed and reported in the literature in order to encapsulate biomolecules, active molecules, nanocrystals, oils and also essential oils for various applications such as in vitro diagnosis, therapy, cosmetic, textile, food etc. Essential oils encapsulation led to numerous new formulations with new applications. This insures the protection of the fragile oil and controlled release. The most commonly prepared carriers are polymer particles, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul A; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-09-01

    Cinnamon, the dry bark and twig of Cinnamomum spp., is a rich botanical source of polyphenolics that has been used for centuries in Chinese medicine and has been shown to affect blood glucose and insulin signaling. Cinnamon's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies; however, the issue of cinnamon intake's effect on fasting blood glucose (FBG) in people with type 2 diabetes and/or prediabetes still remains unclear. A meta-analysis of clinical studies of the effect of cinnamon intake on people with type 2 diabetes and/or prediabetes that included three new clinical trials along with five trials used in previous meta-analyses was done to assess cinnamon's effectiveness in lowering FBG. The eight clinical studies were identified using a literature search (Pub Med and Biosis through May 2010) of randomized, placebo-controlled trials reporting data on cinnamon and/or cinnamon extract and FBG. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA) was performed on the identified data for both cinnamon and cinnamon extract intake using a random-effects model that determined the standardized mean difference ([i.e., Change 1(control) - Change 2(cinnamon)] divided by the pooled SD of the post scores). Cinnamon intake, either as whole cinnamon or as cinnamon extract, results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG (-0.49±0.2 mmol/L; n=8, P=.025) and intake of cinnamon extract only also lowered FBG (-0.48 mmol/L±0.17; n=5, P=.008). Thus cinnamon extract and/or cinnamon improves FBG in people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes.

  18. Description of Aspergillus flavus growth under the influence of different factors (water activity, incubation temperature, protein and fat concentration, pH, and cinnamon essential oil concentration) by kinetic, probability of growth, and time-to-detection models.

    PubMed

    Kosegarten, Carlos E; Ramírez-Corona, Nelly; Mani-López, Emma; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2017-01-02

    A Box-Behnken design was used to determine the effect of protein concentration (0, 5, or 10g of casein/100g), fat (0, 3, or 6g of corn oil/100g), a w (0.900, 0.945, or 0.990), pH (3.5, 5.0, or 6.5), concentration of cinnamon essential oil (CEO, 0, 200, or 400μL/kg) and incubation temperature (15, 25, or 35°C) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus during 50days of incubation. Mold response under the evaluated conditions was modeled by the modified Gompertz equation, logistic regression, and time-to-detection model. The obtained polynomial regression models allow the significant coefficients (p<0.05) for linear, quadratic and interaction effects for the Gompertz equation's parameters to be identified, which adequately described (R 2 >0.967) the studied mold responses. After 50days of incubation, every tested model system was classified according to the observed response as 1 (growth) or 0 (no growth), then a binary logistic regression was utilized to model A. flavus growth interface, allowing to predict the probability of mold growth under selected combinations of tested factors. The time-to-detection model was utilized to estimate the time at which A. flavus visible growth begins. Water activity, temperature, and CEO concentration were the most important factors affecting fungal growth. It was observed that there is a range of possible combinations that may induce growth, such that incubation conditions and the amount of essential oil necessary for fungal growth inhibition strongly depend on protein and fat concentrations as well as on the pH of studied model systems. The probabilistic model and the time-to-detection models constitute another option to determine appropriate storage/processing conditions and accurately predict the probability and/or the time at which A. flavus growth occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phytochemical residue profiles in rice grains fumigated with essential oils for the control of rice weevil

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, S.; Sunny, Anila M.; Murugesan, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the fumigant potential of five edible essential oils (EOs) against Sitophilus oryzae and their phytochemical residues in treated grains. Among the tested EOs, peppermint oil proved significantly effective (P ≤ 0.05) on S.oryzae at 400 μl/L air concentration, inducing 83 and 100% mortalities in with-food and without-food conditions respectively over 72 h exposure. In addition, it was also observed that the binary mixtures of peppermint + lemon oil (1:1 ratio) produced an equivalent effect to that of peppermint oil alone treatments. The phytochemical residue analysis by GC-MS revealed the presence of six compounds upon 72 h exposure to EOs. Further, the analysis of physico-chemical properties of the compounds indicated a positive correlation between polar surface area (PSA) and its residual nature. The residue levels of eugenol were significantly elevated corresponding to its high PSA value (29) in clove and cinnamon oils. On the other hand, the compounds with zero PSA value imparted very less or no (D-Limonene, caryophyllene, pinene and terpinolene) residues in treated grains. With respect to the most active peppermint oil, L-menthone, menthyl acetate and eucalyptol residues were at 67, 41 and 23% levels respectively. The outcome of the present study indicate the peppermint oil as a potent fumigant against S. oryzae, and although the residues of phytochemicals in treated grains is higher; they belong to the generally recognised as safe (GRAS) status leaving no harmful effect. PMID:29023481

  20. Cinnamon for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Leach, Matthew J; Kumar, Saravana

    2012-09-12

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, sexual dysfunction and periodontal disease. Improvements in glycaemic control may help to reduce the risk of these complications. Several animal studies show that cinnamon may be effective in improving glycaemic control. While these effects have been explored in humans also, findings from these studies have not yet been systematically reviewed. To evaluate the effects of cinnamon in patients with diabetes mellitus. Pertinent randomised controlled trials were identified through AARP Ageline, AMED, AMI, BioMed Central gateway, CAM on PubMed, CINAHL, Dissertations Abstracts International, EMBASE, Health Source Nursing/Academic edition, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Natural medicines comprehensive database, The Cochrane Library and TRIP database. Clinical trial registers and the reference lists of included trials were searched also (all up to January 2012). Content experts and manufacturers of cinnamon extracts were also contacted. All randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of orally administered monopreparations of cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) to placebo, active medication or no treatment in persons with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias and trial quality, and extracted data. We contacted study authors for missing information. Ten prospective, parallel-group design, randomised controlled trials, involving a total of 577 participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, were identified. Risk of bias was high or unclear in all but two trials, which were assessed as having moderate risk of bias. Risk of bias in some domains was high in 50% of trials. Oral monopreparations of cinnamon (predominantly Cinnamomum cassia) were administered at a mean dose of 2 g daily, for a period ranging from 4 to 16 weeks

  1. Effect of sodium alginate coating incorporated with nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and rosemary essential oils on microbial quality of chicken meat and fate of Listeria monocytogenes during refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tabaraei, Alijan; Hashemi, Mohammad; Behnampour, Nasser

    2016-12-05

    The present study was conducted to preserve the microbial quality of chicken meat fillets during storage time by using sodium alginate active coating solutions incorporated with different natural antimicrobials including nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and rosemary essential oils (EOs) which were added individually and in combination. The samples were stored in refrigeration condition for 15days and were analyzed for total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, lactic acid bacteria count, Pseudomonas spp. count, psychrotrophic count, and yeast and mold count, as well as fate of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes at 3-day intervals. Results indicated that values of tested microbial indicators in all samples increased during storage. Antimicrobial agents, when used in combination, had stronger effect in preserving the microbial quality of chicken meat samples rather than their individual use and the strongest effect was observed in samples coated with alginate solution containing both cinnamon and rosemary EOs (CEO+REO). However, all treatments significantly inhibited microbial growth when compared to the control (P<0.05). Therefore, based on the results of this study, application of alginate coating solutions containing nisin, cinnamon, and rosemary EOs as natural preservatives is recommended in meat products especially in chicken meats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Invited review: Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Cardozo, P W; Castillejos, L; Ferret, A

    2007-06-01

    Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for the ruminant, respectively. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release of pollutants to the environment. Antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in reducing these energy and protein losses in the rumen, but the use of antibiotics in animal feeds is facing reduced social acceptance, and their use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006. For this reason, scientists have become interested in evaluating other alternatives to control specific microbial populations to modulate rumen fermentation. Essential oils can interact with microbial cell membranes and inhibit the growth of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result of such inhibition, the addition of some plant extracts to the rumen results in an inhibition of deamination and methanogenesis, resulting in lower ammonia N, methane, and acetate, and in higher propionate and butyrate concentrations. Results have indicated that garlic oil, cinnamaldehyde (the main active component of cinnamon oil), eugenol (the main active component of the clove bud), capsaicin (the active component of hot peppers), and anise oil, among others, may increase propionate production, reduce acetate or methane production, and modify proteolysis, peptidolysis, or deamination in the rumen. However, the effects of some of these essential oils are pH and diet dependent, and their use may be beneficial only under specific conditions and production systems. For example, capsaicin appears to have small effects in high-forage diets, whereas the changes observed in high-concentrate diets (increases in dry matter intake and total VFA, and reduction in the acetateto-propionate ratio and ammonia N concentration) may be beneficial

  3. Antimicrobial activity of four essential oils against pigmenting Pseudomonas fluorescens and biofilmproducing Staphylococcus aureus of dairy origin

    PubMed Central

    Pedonese, Francesca; Fratini, Filippo; Pistelli, Luisa; Porta, Federica Maria; Ciccio, Pierluigi Di; Fischetti, Roberto; Turchi, Barbara; Nuvoloni, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are mixtures of secondary metabolites of plant origin with many useful properties, among which the antimicrobial activity is also of interest for the food industry. EOs can exert their antimicrobial potential both directly, in food products and active packaging, and indirectly, as sanitizing and anti-biofilm agents of food facility surfaces. Aim of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four EOs (bergamot, cinnamon, manuka and thyme) against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products. The chemical composition of EOs was evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values were determined by a microplate method against 9 Ps. fluorescens from marketed mozzarella with blue discoloration defect, and 3 biofilm-producing S. aureus from milk. Reference ATCC strains were included. Pigment production activity by Ps. fluorescens was assessed both in culture and in cheese. EOs of manuka (leptospermone 23%) and thyme (carvacrol 30%, pcymene 20%, thymol 15%) showed the highest antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, MIC values were 0.012%-0.024% and 0.024% v/v, respectively; meanwhile EOs from thyme and cinnamon (cinnamaldehyde 55%) exhibited the best activity against Ps. fluorescens with MIC values of 0.098%-0.195% and 0.195%-0.391% v/v, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of these EOs is promising and they could be exploited in the dairy production chain. PMID:29564238

  4. Preparation and characterization of essential oil-loaded starch nanoparticles formed by short glucan chains.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chao; Chang, Ranran; Yang, Jie; Ge, Shengju; Xiong, Liu; Zhao, Mei; Li, Man; Sun, Qingjie

    2017-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs), including menthone, oregano, cinnamon, lavender, and citral, are natural products that have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. However, extremely low water solubility, and easy degradation by heat, restrict their application. The aim of this work was to evaluate the enhancement in antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of EOs encapsulated in starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared by short glucan chains. For the first time, we have successfully fabricated menthone-loaded SNPs (SNPs-M) at different complexation temperatures (30, 60, and 90°C) by an in situ nanoprecipitation method. The SNPs-M displayed spherical shapes, and the particle sizes ranged from 93 to 113nm. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of SNPs-M increased significantly with an increase in complexation temperature, and the maximum EE was 86.6%. The SNPs-M formed at 90°C had high crystallization and thermal stability. The durations of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of EOs was extended by their encapsulation in the SNPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Essential Oils, Part IV: Contact Allergy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 80 essential oils (including 2 jasmine absolutes) have caused contact allergy. Fifty-five of these have been tested in consecutive patients suspected of contact dermatitis, and nine (laurel, turpentine, orange, tea tree, citronella, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, clove, and costus root) showed greater than 2% positive patch test reactions. Relevance data are generally missing or inadequate. Most reactions are caused by application of pure oils or high-concentration products. The clinical picture depends on the responsible product. Occupational contact dermatitis may occur in professionals performing massages. The (possible) allergens in essential oils are discussed. Several test allergens are available, but patients should preferably be tested with their own products. Co-reactivity with other essential oils and the fragrance mix is frequent, which may partly be explained by common ingredients. Patch test concentrations for essential oils are suggested.

  6. Cinnamon, a promising prospect towards Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Saeideh; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Khan, Fazlullah; Ziaee, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Over the last decades, an exponential increase of efforts concerning the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been practiced. Phytochemicals preparations have a millenary background to combat various pathological conditions. Various cinnamon species and their biologically active ingredients have renewed the interest towards the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate AD through the inhibition of tau protein aggregation and prevention of the formation and accumulation of amyloid-β peptides into the neurotoxic oligomeric inclusions, both of which are considered to be the AD trademarks. In this review, we presented comprehensive data on the interactions of a number of cinnamon polyphenols (PPs) with oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain. In addition, we discussed the potential association between AD and diabetes mellitus (DM), vis-à-vis the effluence of cinnamon PPs. Further, an upcoming prospect of AD epigenetic pathophysiological conditions and cinnamon has been sighted. Data was retrieved from the scientific databases such as PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine, Scopus and Google Scholar without any time limitation. The extract of cinnamon efficiently inhibits tau accumulations, Aβ aggregation and toxicity in vivo and in vitro models. Indeed, cinnamon possesses neuroprotective effects interfering multiple oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory pathways. Besides, cinnamon modulates endothelial functions and attenuates the vascular cell adhesion molecules. Cinnamon PPs may induce AD epigenetic modifications. Cinnamon and in particular, cinnamaldehyde seem to be effective and safe approaches for treatment and prevention of AD onset and/or progression. However, further molecular and translational research studies as well as prolonged clinical trials are required to establish the therapeutic safety and efficacy in different cinnamon spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential Development Essential Oil Production of Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alighiri, D.; Eden, W. T.; Supardi, K. I.; Masturi; Purwinarko, A.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is the source of raw essential oil in the world. Essential oils are used in various types of industries such as food and beverage, flavour, fragrance, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. However, the development of Indonesian essential oil industry has not been encouraging for the production of essential oils, further it is unable to meet global demand. Besides that, the quality of volatile oil resulted cannot meet the international market standards. Based on the facts, the potential of Indonesian essential oils needs to be developed to provide added value, through increased production, improved quality and product diversification. One part of Indonesia having abundant of raw essential oil source is Central Java. Central Java has the quite large potential production of essential oils. Some essential oils produced from refining industry owned by the government, private and community sectors include cananga oils (Boyolali district), clove oils (Semarang district), patchouli oils (Brebes district, Pemalang district, and Klaten district). The main problem in the development of plants industries that producing essential oil in Central Java is low crops production, farming properties, quality of essential oils are diverse, providing poor-quality products and volatile oil price fluctuations. Marketing constraints of Central Java essential oils are quite complex supply chain. In general, marketing constraints of essential oils due to three factors, namely the low quality due to type of essential oil business that generally shaped small businesses with different capital and technology, domestic marketing is still a buyer-market (price determined by the buyer) because of weak bargaining position processors businessman, and prices fluctuate (domestic and foreign) due to uncontrolled domestic production and inter-country competition among manufacturers.

  8. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  9. [Cinnamon in type 2 diabetics].

    PubMed

    Ammon, Hermann P T

    2008-05-01

    At present numerous preparations containing cinnamon are in the market. And it is claimed that they are suitable as dietetic food or food additive to regulate glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. Background for this proposition are the results of some pharmacological and clinical studies, showing improvement of glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-diabetic animals, stimulation of insulin secretion in vitro and lowering blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients during simultaneous treatment with oral antidiabetics. This led to a controversy between producers of food additives on the one side and scientists in the field of pharmacology and diabetology on the other. In this connection in a scientific statement the German Diabetes Association (DDG) and the German Pharmaceutical Society (DPhG) kept on distance from the use of cinnamon as a dietetic food/food supplement. The point is the interpretation of what is considered to be a food and what is a drug for medical purposes. Since cinnamon has been used for long as a spice, the nutrition site claims cinnamon as a food. In contrary the medical site in this case claims cinnamon as a drug because of its pharmacological effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, insulin release and blood-sugar. In the meantime this is a case of jurisdiction.

  10. Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata)

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, L.; Aquino, M. D’

    2012-01-01

    Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use PMID:24031950

  11. Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of essential oil from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagozlu, Nural; Sahin, Serpil; Sumnu, Gulum; Bayramoglu, Beste

    2014-06-01

    Effects of microwave assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD) methods on yield, composition, specific gravity, refractive index, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L were studied. The main aroma compounds of rosemary essential oil were found as 1,8-cineole and camphor. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values for essential oils extracted by MAHD and HD were 1.52 mM/ml oil and 1.95 mM/ml oil, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the oils obtained by MAHD and HD were found as 60.55% and 51.04% respectively. Inhibitory effects of essential oils obtained by two methods on linoleic acid peroxidation were almost the same. Essential oils obtained by two methods inhibited growth of Esherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NRRLE 4463 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A with the same degree. However, inhibitory activity of essential oil obtained by MAHD on Staphylococcus aureus 6538P was stronger than that of obtained by HD (p < 0.05).

  12. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Maria Leonor; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Brito, José; Proença, Luis; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii) on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period.

  13. Cinnamon

    MedlinePlus

    ... cinnamon marketed in Italy: a natural chemical hazard? Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. 2008;25(11):1297-1305. Wainstein J, Stern N, Heller S, et al. ... Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011;14(12):1505-1510. Woehrlin F, Fry ...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Suppawat, Supatcha; Tintawee, Anchalee; Saramas, Phanida; Jareonvong, Suchada; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2012-10-01

    Antimicrobial activities of two blended essential oil preparations comprising lavender oil, petigrain oil, clary sage oil, ylang ylang oil and jasmine oil were evaluated against various pathogenic microorganisms. Both preparations showed antimicrobial activity in the agar disc diffusion assay against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and S. epidermidis isolated strain, the fungus, Candida albicans ATCC10231, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, but showed no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these preparations was evaluated. By the broth microdilution assay, preparation 1, comprising lavender oil, clary sage oil, and ylang ylang oil (volume ratio 3:4:3), exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than preparation 2, which was composed of petigrain oil, clary sage oil, and jasmine oil (volume ratio 3:4:3). Moreover, the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentrations (Sigma fic) of preparation 1 expressed a synergistic antimicrobial effect against the tested microorganisms (Sigma ficessential oil preparations, characterized for their components by GC/MS, contained linalyl acetate, and linalool as major components. Our experiments showed that the differential antimicrobial effect of either blended oil preparations or single/pure essential oils may be influenced by the amount of linalool and linalyl acetate, and the number of active components in either the blended preparations or single/pure essential oils. In addition, blended oil preparations expressed synergistic antimicrobial effect by the accumulation of active components such as linalool and linalyl acetate and combining active constituents of more than one oil.

  15. Is Low-field NMR a Complementary Tool to GC-MS in Quality Control of Essential Oils? A Case Study: Patchouli Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Krause, Andre; Wu, Yu; Tian, Runtao; van Beek, Teris A

    2018-04-24

    High-field NMR is an expensive and important quality control technique. In recent years, cheaper and simpler low-field NMR has become available as a new quality control technique. In this study, 60 MHz 1 H-NMR was compared with GC-MS and refractometry for the detection of adulteration of essential oils, taking patchouli essential oil as a test case. Patchouli essential oil is frequently adulterated, even today. In total, 75 genuine patchouli essential oils, 10 commercial patchouli essential oils, 10 other essential oils, 17 adulterants, and 1 patchouli essential oil, spiked at 20% with those adulterants, were measured. Visual inspection of the NMR spectra allowed for easy detection of 14 adulterants, while gurjun and copaiba balsams proved difficult and one adulterant could not be detected. NMR spectra of 10 random essential oils differed not only strongly from patchouli essential oil but also from one another, suggesting that fingerprinting by low-field NMR is not limited to patchouli essential oil. Automated chemometric evaluation of NMR spectra was possible by similarity analysis (Mahalanobis distance) based on the integration from 0.1 - 8.1 ppm in 0.01 ppm increments. Good quality patchouli essential oils were recognised as well as 15 of 17 deliberate adulterations. Visual qualitative inspection by GC-MS allowed for the detection of all volatile adulterants. Nonvolatile adulterants, and all but one volatile adulterant, could be detected by semiquantitation. Different chemometric approaches showed satisfactory results. Similarity analyses were difficult with nonvolatile adulterants. Refractive index measurements could detect only 8 of 17 adulterants. Due to advantages such as simplicity, rapidity, reproducibility, and ability to detect nonvolatile adulterants, 60 MHz 1 H-NMR is complimentary to GC-MS for quality control of essential oils. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Essential oil composition and antiradical activity of the oil of Iraq plants.

    PubMed

    Kiralan, Mustafa; Bayrak, Ali; Abdulaziz, Omar Fawzi; Ozbucak, Tuğba

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the antiradical activity and chemical composition of essential oils of some plants grown in Mosul, Iraq. The essential oils of myrtle and parsley seed contained α-pinene (36.08% and 22.89%, respectively) as main constituents. Trans-Anethole was the major compound found in fennel and aniseed oils (66.98% and 93.51%, respectively). The dominant constituent of celery seed oil was limonene (76.63%). Diallyl disulphide was identified as the major component in garlic oil (36.51%). Antiradical activity was higher in garlic oil (76.63%) and lower in myrtle oil (39.23%). The results may suggest that some essential oils from Iraq possess compounds with antiradical activity, and these oils can be used as natural antioxidants in food applications.

  17. Aromatherapy: Using Essential Oils as a Supportive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Reis, Debra; Jones, Tisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils can be a great adjunct to cancer care, aiding in the management of side effects, such as insomnia and nausea. Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about the quality and safety of essential oils when using them for clinical purposes. Using lesser quality essential oils and not understanding safety guidelines can negatively affect clinical outcomes. This article provides an overview of how nurses can help patients with cancer safely use essential oils as a supportive therapy.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the number of viable biofilm cells, but none of them could remove biofilms completely. Thyme and patchouli oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. [Cinnamon: not suitable for the treatment of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Kleefstra, N; Logtenberg, S J J; Houweling, S T; Verhoeven, S; Bilo, H J G

    2007-12-22

    To identify published studies evaluating the effects of cinnamon on glycaemic control. Literature search. The Medline database was searched using all possible combinations of the words and medical subject headings (MeSH) 'cinnamon', 'diabetes mellitus', 'HbA1C' and 'glucose'. All human or animal studies in which cinnamon was administered as intervention were included. Several animal studies and 5 randomized placebo-controlled trials in humans were found. Most of the animal studies described beneficial effects of cinnamon on glycaemic control. One placebo-controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes found that cinnamon intake was associated with favourable effects on fasting plasma glucose. None of the studies reported an improvement in HbA1C. A study in patients with type 1 diabetes found that cinnamon had no effect. Based on the currently available evidence, cinnamon should not be recommended for the improvement ofglycaemic control.

  20. Combination of different antifungal agents in oil-in-water emulsions to control strawberry jam spoilage.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Susana; Fuentes, Ana; Talens, Pau; Barat, Jose Manuel

    2018-01-15

    The combination of antifungal agents (cinnamon bark oil, zinc gluconate and trans-ferulic acid) in oil-in-water emulsions to control the fungal spoilage of strawberry jams, minimising essential oil's sensory impact, was evaluated in this work. The in vitro assays of free antifungal agents were performed against five fungal strains; meanwhile, the emulsions assays were conducted against Aspergillus niger given its strong resistance and its relevance in strawberry products. The emulsion formulated with 0.08mg/g of essential oil was able to inhibit mould growth after the incubation period. The incorporation of zinc gluconate or trans-ferulic acid, independently of the concentration used, allowed to reduce a 25% the amount of essential oil needed to inhibit the microbial growth. The combination of antifungal agents in the emulsions has demonstrated to be an effective alternative to reduce the amount of essential oil employed, maintaining the hygienic quality and sensory profile of the strawberry jam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, α-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent.

  2. Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events.

    PubMed

    Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie; Ostovar, Mohadeseh; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Mayer, Johannes Gottfried; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2018-04-05

    Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event. Databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed Central and Google scholar were searched using the key words "cinnamon" or "cinnamomum" for clinical trials, case reports and case series. Also spontaneous reports about adverse effects of cinnamon were collected from five national and international spontaneous reporting schemes. Thirty eight clinical trials were found, five of them reported adverse events. Twenty case reports and seven case series, as well as, spontaneous reports including 160 adverse events were also included. The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions which were self-limiting in the majority of cases. The available data suggests that despite the safety of cinnamon use as a spice and/or flavoring agent, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects in medicinal uses with larger doses or longer duration of use and should be clinically monitored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Antigiardial activity of Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Igor; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Vieira, Danielle Pereira; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C S; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on Giardia lamblia and on the modulation of the interaction of these parasites by peritoneal mouse macrophage. The essential oil (2 mg/ml) and its purified substances demonstrated antigiardial activity. Linalool (300 microg/ml), however, was able to kill 100% parasites after 1 h of incubation, which demonstrates its high antigiardial potential. Pretreatment of peritoneal mouse macrophages with 2 mg/ml essential oil dilution reduced in 79% the association index between these macrophages and G. lamblia, with a concomitant increase by 153% on nitric oxide production by the G. lamblia-ingested macrophages. The protein profiles and proteolitic activity of these parasite trophozoites, previously treated or not with 2 mg/ml essential oil or with the purified fractions, were also determined. After 1 and 2 h of incubation, proteins of lysates and culture supernatants revealed significant differences in bands patterns when compared to controls. Besides, the proteolitic activity, mainly of cysteine proteases, was clearly inhibited by the essential oil (2 mg/ml) and the purified linalool (300 microg/ml). These results suggest that, with G. lamblia, the essential oil from O. basilicum and its purified compounds, specially linalool, have a potent antimicrobial activity.

  4. [Orthogonal experiment using SFE-CO2 in extraction of essential oil from fresh Houttuynia cordata and analysis of essential oil by GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiang; Dong, Xiao-ping; Zhou, Yi-sheng; Jiang, Zhi-hong; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Zhao, Zhong-zhen

    2007-02-01

    To optimize the extraction procedure of essential oil from H. cordata using the SFE-CO2 and analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil. The extraction procedure of essential oil from fresh H. cordata was optimized with the orthogonal experiment. Essential oil of fresh H. cordata was analysed by GC-MS. The optimize preparative procedure was as follow: essential oil of H. cordata was extracted at a temperature of 35 degrees C, pressure of 15,000 kPa for 20 min. 38 chemical components were identified and the relative contents were quantified. The optimum preparative procedure is reliable and can guarantee the quality of essential oil.

  5. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (< 2.5 min) and decreased with increasing DT; but the trend reversed for the high-boiling point constituents: geraniol and geranyl-acetate. The concentration of the major essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  6. Essential Oils, Part VI: Sandalwood Oil, Ylang-Ylang Oil, and Jasmine Absolute.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    In this article, some aspects of sandalwood oil, ylang-ylang oil, and jasmine absolute are discussed including their botanical origin, uses of the plants and the oils and absolute, chemical composition, contact allergy to and allergic contact dermatitis from these essential oils and absolute, and their causative allergenic ingredients.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BURSERA MORELENSIS RAMÍREZ ESSENTIAL OIL.

    PubMed

    M, Canales-Martinez; C R, Rivera-Yañez; J, Salas-Oropeza; H R, Lopez; M, Jimenez-Estrada; R, Rosas-Lopez; D A, Duran; C, Flores; L B, Hernandez; M A, Rodriguez-Monroy

    2017-01-01

    Bursera morelensis , known as "Aceitillo", is an endemic tree of Mexico. Infusions made from the bark of this species have been used for the treatment of skin infections and for their wound healing properties. In this work, we present the results of a phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the essential oil of B. morelensis . The essential oil was obtained by a steam distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 28 compounds. The principal compound of the essential oil was a-Phellandrene (32.69%). The essential oil had antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative strains. The most sensitive strains were S. pneumoniae , V. cholerae (cc) and E. coli (MIC 0.125 mg/mL, MBC 0.25 mg/mL). The essential oil was bactericidal for V. cholera (cc). The essential oil inhibited all the filamentous fungi. F. monilifome (IC 50 = 2.27 mg/mL) was the most sensitive fungal strain. This work provides evidence that confirms the antimicrobial activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and this is a scientific support about of traditional uses of this species.

  8. Formulation of Granules for Site-Specific Delivery of an Antimicrobial Essential Oil to the Animal Intestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yin-Hing; Wang, Qi; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2016-03-01

    Owing to proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the use of antibiotics for livestock growth promotion is banned in many countries and alternatives to in-feed antibiotics are needed. Cinnamon essential oil exhibits strong in vitro antibacterial activity; however, direct addition of essential oils to animal feed has limited practicality due to their high volatility, odor, fast decomposition, and poor availability in the lower intestines. To solve these problems, we formulated trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN) with an adsorbent powder and fatty acid via a melt-solidification technique. Core granules of an optimized composition contained up to 48% wt/wt CIN. The granules were then coated with an enteric polymer to impart site-specific release of CIN. CIN was mostly retained in simulated gastric fluid and released rapidly (>80% under 2 h) in simulated intestinal fluids. Rapid CIN autoxidation into cinnamic acid was inhibited by adding 1% vol/vol eugenol, which maintained CIN stability for at least 1 y. The granule formulation increased the antimicrobial activity of CIN against Escherichia coli K88 slightly with a minimum bactericidal concentration of 450 μg/mL for CIN in lauric acid-based granules compared with 550-600 μg/mL for palmitic acid-based granules and free CIN, respectively. These results encourage the potential use of encapsulated CIN for control of animal enteric pathogens by oral in-feed administration. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of three essential oil blends.

    PubMed

    Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Haddioui, Laïla; Roques, Christine

    2017-08-01

    New agents that are effective against common pathogens are needed particularly for those resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Essential oils (EOs) are known for their antimicrobial activity. Using the broth microdilution method, we showed that (1) two unique blends of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs (AB1 and AB2; cinnamon EOs from two different suppliers) were active against the fourteen Gram-positive and -negative bacteria strains tested, including some antibiotic-resistant strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.01% to 3% v/v with minimal bactericidal concentrations from <0.01% to 6.00% v/v; (2) a blend of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Syzygium aromaticum, Origanum vulgare EOs was antifungal to the six Candida strains tested, with MICs ranging from 0.01% to 0.05% v/v with minimal fungicidal concentrations from 0.02% to 0.05% v/v. Blend AB1 was also effective against H1N1 and HSV1 viruses. With this dual activity, against H1N1 and against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae notably, AB1 may be interesting to treat influenza and postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia infections. These blends could be very useful in clinical practice to combat common infections including those caused by microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial drugs. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  11. Chromium and polyphenols from cinnamon improve insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Naturally-occurring compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenols found in cinnamon (Cinnamomon cassia). These compounds also have similar effects on insulin signalling and glucose control. The signs of Cr deficiency are similar to those for the metabolic syndrome and supplemental Cr has been shown to improve all these signs in human subjects. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study it has been demonstrated that glucose, insulin, cholesterol and HbA1c are all improved in patients with type 2 diabetes following Cr supplementation. It has also been shown that cinnamon polyphenols improve insulin sensitivity in in vitro, animal and human studies. Cinnamon reduces mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), TAG (23-30%), total cholesterol (12-26%) and LDL-cholesterol (7-27%) in subjects with type 2 diabetes after 40 d of daily consumption of 1-6 g cinnamon. Subjects with the metabolic syndrome who consume an aqueous extract of cinnamon have been shown to have improved fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, percentage body fat and increased lean body mass compared with the placebo group. Studies utilizing an aqueous extract of cinnamon, high in type A polyphenols, have also demonstrated improvements in fasting glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in women with insulin resistance associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome. For both supplemental Cr and cinnamon not all studies have reported beneficial effects and the responses are related to the duration of the study, form of Cr or cinnamon used and the extent of obesity and glucose intolerance of the subjects.

  12. Repellent activity of essential oils: a review.

    PubMed

    Nerio, Luz Stella; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the use of synthetic chemicals to control insects and arthropods raises several concerns related to environment and human health. An alternative is to use natural products that possess good efficacy and are environmentally friendly. Among those chemicals, essential oils from plants belonging to several species have been extensively tested to assess their repellent properties as a valuable natural resource. The essential oils whose repellent activities have been demonstrated, as well as the importance of the synergistic effects among their components are the main focus of this review. Essential oils are volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons with a diversity of functional groups, and their repellent activity has been linked to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. However, in some cases, these chemicals can work synergistically, improving their effectiveness. In addition, the use of other natural products in the mixture, such as vanillin, could increase the protection time, potentiating the repellent effect of some essential oils. Among the plant families with promising essential oils used as repellents, Cymbopogon spp., Ocimum spp. and Eucalyptus spp. are the most cited. Individual compounds present in these mixtures with high repellent activity include alpha-pinene, limonene, citronellol, citronellal, camphor and thymol. Finally, although from an economical point of view synthetic chemicals are still more frequently used as repellents than essential oils, these natural products have the potential to provide efficient, and safer repellents for humans and the environment.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BURSERA MORELENSIS RAMÍREZ ESSENTIAL OIL

    PubMed Central

    M., Canales-Martinez; C.R., Rivera-Yañez; J., Salas-Oropeza; H.R., Lopez; M., Jimenez-Estrada; R., Rosas-Lopez; D.A., Duran; C., Flores; L.B., Hernandez; M.A., Rodriguez-Monroy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bursera morelensis, known as “Aceitillo”, is an endemic tree of Mexico. Infusions made from the bark of this species have been used for the treatment of skin infections and for their wound healing properties. In this work, we present the results of a phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the essential oil of B. morelensis. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was obtained by a steam distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. Results: GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 28 compounds. The principal compound of the essential oil was a-Phellandrene (32.69%). The essential oil had antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative strains. The most sensitive strains were S. pneumoniae, V. cholerae (cc) and E. coli (MIC 0.125 mg/mL, MBC 0.25 mg/mL). The essential oil was bactericidal for V. cholera (cc). The essential oil inhibited all the filamentous fungi. F. monilifome (IC50 = 2.27 mg/mL) was the most sensitive fungal strain. Conclusions: This work provides evidence that confirms the antimicrobial activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and this is a scientific support about of traditional uses of this species. PMID:28480418

  14. Essential Oils Modulate Gene Expression and Ochratoxin A Production in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Rachelle; Atoui, Ali; Verheecke, Carol; Maroun, Richard; El Khoury, Andre; Mathieu, Florence

    2016-08-19

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin, mainly produced on grapes by Aspergillus carbonarius, that causes massive health problems for humans. This study aims to reduce the occurrence of OTA by using the ten following essential oils (E.Os): fennel, cardamom, anise, chamomile, celery, cinnamon, thyme, taramira, oregano and rosemary at 1 µL/mL and 5 µL/mL for each E.O.As a matter of fact, their effects on the OTA production and the growth of A. carbonarius S402 cultures were evaluated, after four days at 28 °C on a Synthetic Grape Medium (SGM). Results showed that A. carbonarius growth was reduced up to 100%, when cultured with the E.Os of cinnamon, taramira, and oregano at both concentrations and the thyme at 5 µL/mL. As for the other six E.Os, their effect on A. carbonarius growth was insignificant, but highly important on the OTA production. Interestingly, the fennel E.O at 5 µL/mL reduced the OTA production up to 88.9% compared to the control, with only 13.8% of fungal growth reduction. We further investigated the effect of these E.Os on the expression levels of the genes responsible for the OTA biosynthesis (acOTApks and acOTAnrps along with the acpks gene) as well as the two regulatory genes laeA and vea, using the quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) method. The results revealed that these six E.Os reduced the expression of the five studied genes, where the ackps was downregulated by 99.2% (the highest downregulation in this study) with 5 µL/mL of fennel E.O.As for the acOTApks, acOTAnrps, veA and laeA, their reduction levels ranged between 10% and 96% depending on the nature of the E.O and its concentration in the medium.

  15. Cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pham, Antony Q; Kourlas, Helen; Pham, David Q

    2007-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and most patients with the disease have type 2 diabetes. The effectiveness of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes has received a great deal of media attention after a study was published in 2003. Although the efficacy of cinnamon in patients with diabetes has not been established, many patients seek other therapies and supplement their prescribed pharmacologic therapy with cinnamon. We conducted a literature search, limited to English-language human studies, using MEDLINE (1966-August 2006), EMBASE (1980-August 2006), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-August 2006), and Iowa Drug Information Service (1966-August 2006). References from articles and clinical trials were reviewed for additional sources; no abstracts were reviewed. We found two prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trials and one prospective, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trial that evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes; a total of 164 patients were involved in these trials. Two of the studies reported modest improvements in lowering blood glucose levels with cinnamon supplementation in small patient samples. One trial showed no significant difference between cinnamon and placebo in lowering blood glucose levels. Overall, cinnamon was well tolerated. These data suggest that cinnamon has a possible modest effect in lowering plasma glucose levels in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. However, clinicians are strongly urged to refrain from recommending cinnamon supplementation in place of the proven standard of care, which includes lifestyle modifications, oral antidiabetic agents, and insulin therapy.

  16. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids ("Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita," "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon," and "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita"). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid "Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita" exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita," such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon"; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents.

  17. Essential oil composition of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. from Iran.

    PubMed

    Sonboli, Ali; Mirzania, Foroogh; Gholipour, Abbas

    2018-06-06

    Dracocephalum kotschyi is one of the medicinal and fragrant herbs that can be found in natural locations of mountainous areas. In this investigation the hydrodistilled essential oils obtained from aerial parts of two populations of D. kotschyi collected from Siahbisheh and Baladeh were analysed by capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. Essential oil analysis led to the identification of 48 compounds that represented 85.9 and 90.0% of the total oil compositions, respectively. As the major group of compounds, oxygenated monoterpens comprised 45.5 and 57.4% in the essential oils of compounds as the main group in the essential oils of Siahbisheh and Baladeh samples, respectively. Disagreement in the major contents of the essential oils of these two samples may be ascribed to differences in the ecological, climatic and genetically factors.

  18. Antimicrobial efficiency of essential oil and freeze-thaw treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Ser. Enteritidis in strawberry juice.

    PubMed

    Duan, J; Zhao, Y

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial efficiency of 3 essential oils (EOs), lemongrass, cinnamon leaf, and basil, and freeze-thaw treatment, alone or in combination, against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Ser. Enteritidis inoculated in strawberry juice stored at 7 degrees C. EO of lemongrass or cinnamon leaf at 0.1 to 2 microL/mL and freezing at -23 degrees C for 24 or 48 h followed by thawing at 7 degrees C for 4 h all showed significant antimicrobial activities (P < 0.05) against E. coli O157:H7 and S. Enteritidis in strawberry juice. The antimicrobial activity increased with increasing EO concentration and storage time, but extending freezing time from 24 to 48 h did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of freeze-thaw treatment (P > 0.05). EO of lemongrass or cinnamon leaf at 0.1 microL/mL and freeze-thaw treatment alone obtained a 5 log(10) reduction in the population of S. Enteritidis, while EOs at 0.1 to 0.3 microL/mL or freeze-thaw alone could not achieve a satisfactory protection against E. coli O157:H7 in strawberry juice. Combined EO and freeze-thaw treatment enhanced the overall antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7, with adding EO before the freeze-thaw treatment showed a faster decontamination rate than when added EO after the freeze-thaw. EOs of lemongrass and cinnamon leaf at 0.1 or 0.3 microL/mL followed by the freeze-thawing resulted in a 5 log(10) reduction in E. coli O157:H7 on the 5th and 2nd day of storage, respectively. This study suggested that combined EO and freeze-thaw treatment may be a suitable and inexpensive method to eliminate microorganisms that can be a hazard for the consumers of unpasteurized berry juices.

  19. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  20. Occupational contact dermatitis due to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Akiva; David, Michael; Lazarov, Aneta

    2008-05-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis induced by the occupational use of products containing essential oils has not been studied comprehensively. The aim of the present report was to describe the characteristics, diagnosis, and outcome of 5 patients with occupational contact dermatitis because of essential oils attending our outpatient dermatology clinics over a 2-year period. These patients are added to the 11 cases reported thus far in the literature. The research shows that for proper diagnosis, patch tests with the standard series and the fragrance series should be performed, in addition to tests with the specific oils to which the patients were exposed. Patients should be instructed to avoid the allergens identified. Sensitization to essential oils has important implications for the occupational future of affected individuals.

  1. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Zataria multiflora essential oils.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; HeidaryTabar, R; Mahdizadeh, E

    2017-06-01

    Dermtophytes are a group of pathogenic fungi and the major cause of dermatophytosis in humans and animals. Fighting dermatophytes by natural essential oils is one important issue in new researches. In this investigation, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of three samples of Z. multiflora essential oils against dermatophytes along with analysis of chemical compositions of the essential oils and their anti-elastase activities on elastase production in dermatophytes. Carvacrol (1.5-34.4%), thymol (25.8-41.2%), carvacrol methyl ether (1.9-28.3%) and p-cymene (2.3-8.3%) were the main components of Z. multiflora essential oils. Z. multiflora essential oils (100ppm) inhibited the mycelium growth of dermatophytes (6±1.7-47.0±1.4%) and had the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.03-0.25μl/ml against dermatophytes. Essential oils inhibited elastase produced in dermatophytes and pure porcine elastase. Z. multiflora essential oils can be used as natural anti-dermatophyte agent for fighting dermatophytes in further preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential application of corn starch edible films with spice essential oils for the shelf life extension of red meat.

    PubMed

    Radha Krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Rakhavan, K R; Tharavin, R; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of corn starch (CS) edible films with spice oils on the stability of raw beef during refrigerated storage. The antimicrobial properties of corn starch films containing 0-4·0% (w/v) ratios of clove (CL) and cinnamon (CI) essential oils (EOs) were tested against seven meat spoilage organisms by zone inhibition test. Effects of CS films containing 3% CL or CI or a mixture of CL + CI were also tested in raw beef stored at 4°C. Meat samples were analysed for pH, microbial counts, colour values and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values for a period of 15 days. CS films with CL + CI resulted in a significant reduction in microbial populations in the meat samples and also improved meat colour stability at the end of storage period. The incorporation of spice EOs in CS films may provide antimicrobial and antioxidant activities that could improve the stability of raw meat. Results from this study may be applied in meat industries as an additional barrier to control microbial spoilage as well as lipid oxidation in meat products. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory... essential oils. ...

  4. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory... essential oils. ...

  5. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory... essential oils. ...

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2004-06-01

    Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi.

  7. In Vitro antifungal activity of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Nor Hanis Aifaa; Abdullah, Siti Aisyah; Othman, Zaulia; Zainal, Zamri

    2018-04-01

    The efficacy of Citrus hystrix, Azadirachta indica and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils were evaluated for controlling the growth of mycelia and spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In order to determine the best essential oil (EO) and suitable concentration of essential oil, in vitro experiment was conducted by preparing a pure culture of antrachnose on Potato Dextrose Agar containing EOs of C. hystrix, A. indica and C. citratus with different concentrations (0.2%, 0.6%, 1% and 1.4% (v/v)). The result shows that C. hystrix essential oil at a concentration of 1.4% (v/v) reduced of mycelia growth of C. gloeosporioides by 29.49%. A second experiment was conducted, but at higher concentration of each essential oils (1.8%, 2.2%, 2.6% and 2.8% (v/v)). Significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) inhibition of mycelia growth was obtained in all treatments except the control. The antifungal index values of essential oils were proportionally increased with concentration of essential oil applied in each treatment. It is concluded that essential oil from C. hystrix are efficient in inhibiting C. gloeosporioides.

  8. Chemical composition of the essential oil and fixed oil Bauhinia pentandra (Bong.) D. Dietr.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Macia C S; Souza, Luciana G S; Ferreira, Daniele A; Monte, Francisco J Q; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; de Lemos, Telma L G

    2015-10-01

    Bauhinia pentandrais popularly known as "mororó" and inhabits the Caatinga and Savannah biomes. This paper reports the chemical composition of the essential and fatty oils of the leaves from B. pentandra. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and the fixed oil by extraction with hexane, followed by saponification with KOH/MeOH, and methylation using MeOH/HCl. The constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituent of the essential oil was the phytol (58.78% ±8.51%), and of the fatty oil were palmitic (29.03%), stearic (28.58%) and linolenic (10.53%) acids. Of the compounds identified in the essential oil, three are first reported in this species, and this is the first record of the chemical composition of the fixed oil.

  9. [Comparison of essential oil enriched with ultrafiltration method and extraction method respectively from essential oil-in-water emulsion of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride by GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Yin, Ailing; Han, Zhifeng; Shen, Jie; Guo, Liwei; Cao, Guiping

    2011-10-01

    To study on the separation from essential oil-in-water emulsion of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride by ultrafiltration and acetoacetate extraction methods respectively, and the comparison of the oil yields and chemical compositions. Essential oil-in-water emulsion of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride was separated by ultrafiltration and acetoacetate extraction methods respectively, and the chemical compositions were analyzed and compared by GC-MS. Ultrafiltration method could enrich essential oil more and its chemical compositions were more similar to the essential oil prepared by steam distillation method. Ultrafiltration method is a good medium to separate essential oil from essential oil-in-water emulsion of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride.

  10. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  12. Antispasmodic activity of essential oil from Lippia dulcis Trev.

    PubMed

    Görnemann, T; Nayal, R; Pertz, H H; Melzig, M F

    2008-04-17

    To investigate the essential oil of Lippia dulcis Trev. (Verbenaceae) that is traditionally used in the treatment of cough, colds, bronchitis, asthma, and colic in Middle America for antispasmodic activity. We used a porcine bronchial bioassay to study contractile responses to carbachol and histamine in the absence or presence of the essential oil. The essential oil showed anti-histaminergic and anti-cholinergic activities at 100 microg/ml. The anti-histaminergic and anti-cholinergic activities of the essential oil of Lippia dulcis support the rational use of the plant or plant extracts to treat bronchospasm.

  13. Synergistic effect of gamma (γ)-irradiation and microencapsulated antimicrobials against Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) meat.

    PubMed

    Huq, Tanzina; Vu, Khanh Dang; Riedl, Bernard; Bouchard, Jean; Lacroix, Monique

    2015-04-01

    Oregano essential oil (Origanum compactum; 250 μg/ml), cinnamon essential oil (Cinnamomum cassia; 250 μg/ml) and nisin (16 μg/ml) were used alone or in combination to evaluate their efficiency to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on RTE ham. Microencapsulation of the antimicrobial formulations was done to verify the potential effect of the polymer to protect the antimicrobial efficiency during storage. Combined treatments of antimicrobial formulation with γ-irradiation were done to verify the synergistic effect against L. monocytogenes. Microencapsulation of essential oils-nisin and γ-irradiation treatment in combination showed synergistic antimicrobial effect during storage on RTE meat products. Microencapsulated cinnamon and nisin in combination with γ-irradiation (at 1.5 kGy) showed 0.03 ln CFU/g/day growth rate of L. monocytogenes whereas the growth rate of non-microencapsulated cinnamon and nisin in combination with γ-irradiation was 0.17 ln CFU/g/day. Microencapsulation significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved the radiosensitivity of L. monocytogenes. Microencapsulated oregano and cinnamon essential oil in combination with nisin showed the highest bacterial radiosensitization 2.89 and 5, respectively, compared to the control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Gas chromatography for analysis of essential oils. Characteristics of essential oil of Dracocephalum species and the influence of extraction method on its composition].

    PubMed

    Lemberkovics, Eva; Kakasy, András Zoltán; Héthelyi, B Eva; Simándi, Béla; Böszörményi, Andrea; Balázs, Andrea; Szoke, Eva

    2007-01-01

    In this work the essential oil composition of some less known Dracocephalum species was studied and compared the effectiveness, selectivity and influence of different extraction methods (hydrodistillation, Soxhlet extraction with organic solvents and supercritical fluid extraction) on essential oils. For investigations in Hungary and Transylvania cultivated plant material was used. The analysis of essential oils was carried out by GC and GC-MS methods. The components were identified by standard addition, retention factors and mass spectra. The percentile evaluation of each volatile constituents was made on basis of GC-FID chromatograms. The accuracy of measurements was characterized by relative standard deviation. In the essential oil of D. renati Emb. (studied firstly by us) 18.3% of limonene was measured and carvone, citrals and linalyl acetate monoterpenes, methyl chavicol and some sesquiterpene (e.g. bicyclovetivenol) determined in lower quantities. We established that more than 50% of essential oil of D. grandiflorum L. was formed by sesquiterpenes (beta-caryophyllene and- oxide, beta-bourbonene, beta-cubebene, aromadendrene) and the essential oil of D. ruyschiana L. contained pinocamphone isomers in more than 60%. The oxygenated acyclic monoterpenes, the characteristic constituents of Moldavian dragonhead were present in some tenth percent only in D. renati oil. We found significant differences in the composition of the SFE extract and traditional essential oil of D. moldavica L. The supercritical fractions collected at the beginning of the extraction process were richer in valuable ester component (geranyl acetate) than the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation. The fractions collected at the end of supercritical were poor in oxygenated monoterpenes but rich in minor compounds of traditional oil, e.g. palmitic acid.

  15. Chemical composition of the essential oil and fixed oil Bauhinia pentandra (Bong.) D. Dietr

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Macia C. S.; Souza, Luciana G. S.; Ferreira, Daniele A.; Monte, Francisco J. Q.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; de Lemos, Telma L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bauhinia pentandrais popularly known as “mororó” and inhabits the Caatinga and Savannah biomes. Objective: This paper reports the chemical composition of the essential and fatty oils of the leaves from B. pentandra. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and the fixed oil by extraction with hexane, followed by saponification with KOH/MeOH, and methylation using MeOH/HCl. The constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The major constituent of the essential oil was the phytol (58.78% ±8.51%), and of the fatty oil were palmitic (29.03%), stearic (28.58%) and linolenic (10.53%) acids. Conclusion: Of the compounds identified in the essential oil, three are first reported in this species, and this is the first record of the chemical composition of the fixed oil. PMID:26664026

  16. Pulse Q-switched Nd:YAG laser ablation grown cinnamon nanomorphologies: Influence of different liquid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Ali Aqeel; Bidin, Noriah

    2017-12-01

    Broad range of biomedical applications demands accurate synthesis and characterization of various nanoparticles. We report the characterization of cinnamon nanoparticles (CNPs) grown via simple pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL). The influence of different liquid media (olive oil, ethanol, and citric acid each of volume 4 ml) on the growth morphology, structure and optical properties of CNPs is determined. Q-switched 1064-Nd: YAG laser of 10 ns pulse duration, 1 Hz repetition rate, 532 nm s harmonic generation and laser fluence of 6.37 J/cm2 is used to irradiate the cinnamon targets immersed in those liquids. Samples are characterized using TEM, HRTEM, SAED, FTIR, UV-Vis and Photoluminescence measurements. TEM images revealed the nucleation of CNPs of average size 18.36 nm (in olive oil), 21.48 nm (in ethanol), and 29.56 nm (in citric acid). Morphology of CNPs is demonstrated to be sensitive to the liquid medium. Our simple and innovative method may constitute a basis to produce CNPs of desired size distribution potential for the development of nanobiomedicine.

  17. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Australian native plants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Jenny M; Cavanagh, Heather M A

    2005-07-01

    To date, of the Australian essential oils, only tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus spp. have undergone extensive investigation. In this study a range of Australian essential oils, including those from Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity. M. alternifolia was also included for comparison purposes. Activity was determined using standard disc diffusion assays with each oil assayed at 100%, 10% and 1% against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis) and the yeast, Candida albicans. All bacteria, with the exception of Ps. aeruginosa, were susceptible to one or more of the essential oils at 100%, with only Eremophilia mitchelli inhibiting the growth of any bacteria at 1% (inhibition of Sal. typhimurium). Where multiple samples of a single oil variety were tested variability in activity profiles were noted. This suggests that different methods of preparation of essential oils, together with variability in plant chemical profiles has an impact on whether or not the essential oil is of use as an antimicrobial agent. These results show that essential oils from Australian plants may be valuable antimicrobial agents for use alone or incorporated into cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceutical products.

  18. Antifungal Effect of Essential Oils against Fusarium Keratitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    Homa, Mónika; Fekete, Ildikó Pálma; Böszörményi, Andrea; Singh, Yendrembam Randhir Babu; Selvam, Kanesan Panneer; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Juniperus communis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gaultheria procumbens, Melaleuca alternifolia, Origanum majorana, Salvia sclarea, and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Fusarium species, the most common etiologic agents of filamentous fungal keratitis in South India. C. zeylanicum essential oil showed strong anti-Fusarium activity, whereas all the other tested essential oils proved to be less effective. The main component of C. zeylanicum essential oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, was also tested and showed a similar effect as the oil. The in vitro interaction between trans-cinnamaldehyde and natamycin, the first-line therapeutic agent of Fusarium keratitis, was also investigated; an enhanced fungal growth inhibition was observed when these agents were applied in combination. Light and fluorescent microscopic observations revealed that C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces the cellular metabolism and inhibits the conidia germination. Furthermore, necrotic events were significantly more frequent in the presence of these two compounds. According to our results, C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde provides a promising basis to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of Fusarium keratitis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Antitumour Activity of the Microencapsulation of Annona vepretorum Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Larissa M; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Neto, Albertino F S; Nascimento, Magaly P; Campos, Adriana F; Silva, Lidércia C R C E; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae), popularly known as 'bruteira', has nutritional and medicinal uses. This study investigated the chemical composition and antitumour potential of the essential oil of A. vepretorum leaf alone and complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a microencapsulation. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed using GC-MS and GC-FID. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents in tumour cell lines from different histotypes was evaluated using the alamar blue assay. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of essential oil was demonstrated in mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma. The essential oil included bicyclogermacrene (35.71%), spathulenol (18.89%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.46%), α-phellandrene (8.08%), o-cymene (6.24%), germacrene D (3.27%) and α-pinene (2.18%) as major constituents. The essential oil and spathulenol exhibited promising cytotoxicity. In vivo tumour growth was inhibited by the treatment with the essential oil (inhibition of 34.46%). Importantly, microencapsulation of the essential oil increased in vivo tumour growth inhibition (inhibition of 62.66%). © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Maurya, Sumitra; DeLampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2007-09-01

    The antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial potentials of volatile oils and oleoresin of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (leaf and bark) were investigated in the present study. The oleoresins have shown excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products in mustard oil added at the concentration of 0.02% which were evaluated using peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, p-anisidine and carbonyl values. Moreover, it was further supported by other complementary antioxidant assays such as ferric thiocyanate method in linoleic acid system, reducing power, chelating and scavenging effects on 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. In antimicrobial investigations, using inverted petriplate and food poison techniques, the leaf and bark volatile oils has been found to be highly effective against all the tested fungi except Aspergillus ochraceus. However, leaf oleoresin has shown inhibition only for Penicillium citrinum whereas bark oleoresin has caused complete mycelial zone inhibition for Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus along with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, P. citrinum and Penicillium viridicatum at 6 microL. Using agar well diffusion method, leaf volatile oil and oleoresin have shown better results in comparison with bark volatile oil, oleoresin and commercial bactericide, i.e., ampicillin. Gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy studies on leaf volatile oil and oleoresin resulted in the identification of 19 and 25 components, which accounts for the 99.4% and 97.1%, respectively of the total amount and the major component was eugenol with 87.3% and 87.2%, respectively. The analysis of cinnamon bark volatile oil showed the presence of 13 components accounting for 100% of the total amount. (E)-cinnamaldehyde was found as the major component along with delta-cadinene (0.9%), whereas its bark oleoresin showed the presence of 17 components accounting for 92.3% of the total amount. The major components were (E

  1. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of Lavandula essential oil constituents.

    PubMed

    Woronuk, Grant; Demissie, Zerihun; Rheault, Mark; Mahmoud, Soheil

    2011-01-01

    Lavenders and their essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. The volatile compounds that comprise lavender essential oils, including linalool and linalyl acetate, have demonstrative therapeutic properties, and the relative abundance of these metabolites is greatly influenced by the genetics and environment of the developing plants. With the rapid progress of molecular biology and the genomic sciences, our understanding of essential oil biosynthesis has greatly improved over the past few decades. At the same time, there is a recent surge of interest in the use of natural remedies, including lavender essential oils, in alternative medicine and aromatherapy. This article provides a review of recent developments related to the biosynthesis and medicinal properties of lavender essential oils. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers.

  3. In vitro scolicidal effect of Satureja khuzistanica (Jamzad) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Hoseini, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Amir Mootabi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica)essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant. Methods The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results : A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group). Conclusions The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent. PMID:23569981

  4. Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oil and treatment of fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2017-05-01

    A. sieberi essential oil has been used for treatment of hardly curable infectious ulcers in Middle East Medicine and has been famous due to its wormicide effects. In this review, we evaluated the potency of A. sieberi essential oil in treatment of fungal infections. We searched in PubMed Central, Science direct, Wiley, Springer, SID, and accessible books, reports, thesis. There is a lot of mixed information on chemical compositions of A. sieberi essential oil, but most articles reported α, β-thujones as the main components of essential oils. In vitro studies confirmed the antifungal activity of A. sieberi essential oil against saprophytes fungi, dermatophytes, Malassezia sp. and Candida sp. and these results were confirmed in six clinical studies. The clinical studies confirmed the superiority of A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion in improvement of clinical signs of fungal superficial diseases, and mycological laboratory examinations of dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor diseases than clotrimazole (1%) topical treatment. The recurrence rate of superficial fungal infections with dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor was statistically lower in A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion than clotrimazole. There are no adverse effects due to the application of A. sieberi essential oil in clinical studies. Despite, the efficacy of A. sieberi essential oil against Candida sp., there is no clinical study about their related infections. Investigation about the effects of A. sieberi essential oil on fungal virulence factors in order to identifying the exact mechanism of antifungal activity and clinical trials on Candida related diseases are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of Salvia sclarea essential oil.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haiying; Zhang, Xuejing; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Chengting; Lin, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, essential oils are recognized as safe substances and can be used as antibacterial additives. Salvia sclarea is one of the most important aromatic plants cultivated world-wide as a source of essential oils. In addition to being flavoring foods, Salvia sclarea essential oil can also act as antimicrobials and preservatives against food spoilage. Understanding more about the antibacterial performance and possible mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil will be helpful for its application in the future. But so far few related researches have been reported. In our study, Salvia sclarea oil showed obvious antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) of seven pathogens were 0.05 and 0.1 % respectively. In addition, Salvia sclarea oil also exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and meats. After treated with Salvia sclarea oil, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images can clearly see the damage of cell membrane; the intracellular ATP concentrations of E. coli and S. aureus reduced 98.27 and 69.61 % respectively, compared to the control groups; the nuclear DNA content of E. coli and S. aureus was significantly reduced to 48.32 and 50.77 % respectively. In addition, there was massive leakage of cellular material when E. coli and S. aureus were exposed to Salvia sclarea oil. Salvia sclarea essential oil damaged the cell membrane and changed the cell membrane permeability, leading to the release of some cytoplasm such as macromolecular substances, ATP and DNA. In general, the antimicrobial action of Salvia sclarea essential oil is not only attributable to a unique pathway, but also involves a series of events both on the cell surface and within the cytoplasm. Therefore, more experiments need to be done to fully understand the antimicrobial mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil.

  7. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of essential oils. ...

  8. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of essential oils. ...

  9. Effects of patchouli and cinnamon essential oils on biofilm and hyphae formation by Candida species.

    PubMed

    Farisa Banu, S; Rubini, D; Shanmugavelan, P; Murugan, R; Gowrishankar, S; Karutha Pandian, S; Nithyanand, P

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence and fatality rates with biofilm-associated candidal infections have remained a challenge to the medical fraternity despite major advances in the field of antifungal therapy. Traditionally, essential oils (EOs) from the aromatic plants have been found to be excellent therapeutic agents to treat fungal ailments. The present study explores the antivirulent and antibiofilm effects of under explored leaf EOs of Indian patchouli EO extracted from Pogostemon heyneanus (PH), Indian cassia from Cinnamomum tamala (CT) and camphor EO from C. camphora (CC) against Candida species. The EOs were investigated for its efficacy to disrupt the young and preformed Candida spp. biofilms and to inhibit the yeast to hyphal transition, a hallmark virulent trait of C. albicans. The ability of these EOs to inhibit metabolically active cells was assessed through XTT assay. Of these three EOs, CT EO showed enhanced biofilm inhibition than others and hence it was further selected to study its biomass inhibition potential and exopolysaccharide layer disruption ability. The CT EO reduced the biomass of the preformed biofilms of all three Candida strains, which was supported by confocal microscopy. It also disrupted the exopolysaccharide layer of the Candida strains as shown by scanning electron microscopy. The present findings validate the effectiveness of EOs against the virulence of Candida spp. and emphasize the pharmaceutical potential of several native but yet unexplored wild aromatic plants in the prospect of therapeutic application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effect of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. and chemical composition of its essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Vaezi, Arefeh

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to Lamiaceae family and has been used for the treatment of wide range of diseases in traditional medicine in Iranian folk medicine. Due to the progressive need to anti-anxiety medications and because of the similarity between O. basilicum and Salvia officinalis, which has anti-anxiety effects, we decided to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activity of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum in mice by utilizing an elevated plus maze and locomotor activity meter. The chemical composition of the plant essential oil was also determined. The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of this plant were administered intraperitoneally to male Syrian mice at various doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract and 200 mg/kg of essential oil) 30 min before starting the experiment. The amount of hydroalcoholic extract was 18.6% w/w and the essential oil was 0.34% v/w. The major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol (42.8%), geranial (13.0%), neral (12.2%) and β-caryophyllene (7.2%). HE at 150 and 200 mg/kg and EO at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the time passed in open arms in comparison to control group. This finding was not significant for the dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. None of the dosages had significant effect on the number of entrance to the open arms. Moreover, both the hydroalcoholic extract and the essential oil decreased the locomotion of mice in comparison to the control group. This study shows the anxiolytic and sedative effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum. The anti-anxiety and sedative effect of essential oil was higher than the hydroalcoholic extract with the same doses. These effects could be due to the phenol components of O. basilicum.

  11. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effect of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. and chemical composition of its essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Vaezi, Arefeh

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to Lamiaceae family and has been used for the treatment of wide range of diseases in traditional medicine in Iranian folk medicine. Due to the progressive need to anti-anxiety medications and because of the similarity between O. basilicum and Salvia officinalis, which has anti-anxiety effects, we decided to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activity of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum in mice by utilizing an elevated plus maze and locomotor activity meter. The chemical composition of the plant essential oil was also determined. The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of this plant were administered intraperitoneally to male Syrian mice at various doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract and 200 mg/kg of essential oil) 30 min before starting the experiment. The amount of hydroalcoholic extract was 18.6% w/w and the essential oil was 0.34% v/w. The major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol (42.8%), geranial (13.0%), neral (12.2%) and β-caryophyllene (7.2%). HE at 150 and 200 mg/kg and EO at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the time passed in open arms in comparison to control group. This finding was not significant for the dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. None of the dosages had significant effect on the number of entrance to the open arms. Moreover, both the hydroalcoholic extract and the essential oil decreased the locomotion of mice in comparison to the control group. This study shows the anxiolytic and sedative effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum. The anti-anxiety and sedative effect of essential oil was higher than the hydroalcoholic extract with the same doses. These effects could be due to the phenol components of O. basilicum. PMID:26779273

  12. [Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

  13. Growth regulating properties of isoprene and isoprenoid-based essential oils.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell P; Shukla, Mukund R; Sherif, Sherif M; Brown, Paula B; Saxena, Praveen K

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils have growth regulating properties comparable to the well-documented methyl jasmonate and may be involved in localized and/or airborne plant communication. Aromatic plants employ large amounts of resources to produce essential oils. Some essential oils are known to contain compounds with plant growth regulating activities. However, the potential capacity of essential oils as airborne molecules able to modulate plant growth/development has remained uninvestigated. Here, we demonstrate that essential oils from eight taxonomically diverse plants applied in their airborne state inhibited auxin-induced elongation of Pisum sativum hypocotyls and Avena sativa coleoptiles. This response was also observed using five monoterpenes commonly found in essential oils as well as isoprene, the basic building block of terpenes. Upon transfer to ambient conditions, A. sativa coleoptiles resumed elongation, demonstrating an antagonistic relationship rather than toxicity. Inclusion of essential oils, monoterpenes, or isoprene into the headspace of culture vessels induced abnormal cellular growth along hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. These responses were also elicited by methyl jasmonate (MeJA); however, where methyl jasmonate inhibited root growth essential oils did not. Gene expression studies in A. thaliana also demonstrated differences between the MeJA and isoprenoid responses. This series of experiments clearly demonstrate that essential oils and their isoprenoid components interact with endogenous plant growth regulators when applied directly or as volatile components in the headspace. The similarities between isoprenoid and MeJA responses suggest that they may act in plant defence signalling. While further studies are needed to determine the ecological and evolutionary significance, the results of this study and the specialized anatomy associated with aromatic plants suggest that essential oils may act as airborne signalling molecules.

  14. Anaerobic utilization of essential oils by denitrifying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Harder, J; Heyen, U; Probian, C; Foss, S

    2000-01-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds are a major carbon source in nature. We studied the degradability of these substances by anaerobic microorganisms in enrichment cultures with representative essential oils as organic substrates and nitrate as electron acceptor. Lemon and pine needle oil supported microbial growth in the presence of pure oil, whereas parsley seed, camphor, sage, fennel, and mint oil supported growth only when the essential oils were dissolved in an overlying phase of 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane. Thyme oil did not support denitrification. Analyses of the microbially degraded oils revealed the disappearance of monoterpenes, of several monoterpenoids, and of methoxy-propenyl-benzenes, including apiole and myristicin. Most-probable-number determinations for denitrifying communities in sewage sludge and forest soil yielded 10(6) to 10(7) monoterpene-utilizing cells ml(-1), representing 0.7 to 100% of the total cultivable nitrate-reducing microorganisms. The utilization of essential oils together with the common occurrence of this metabolic trait are indications for an environmentally important, but currently unexplored anaerobic turnover of plant volatile organic compounds in soil.

  15. Improvement of the bioavailability and glycaemic metabolism of cinnamon oil in rats by liquid loadable tablets.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunchao; Cui, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the bioavailability and glycaemic metabolism of cinnamon oil (CIO) carried by liquid-loadable tablets (CIO-LLTs), the carrier of a CIO self-emulsifying formulation (CIO-LS). The results of tests performed to evaluate the physical properties of the CIO-LLT complied with Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010). The release profile suggested that the CIO-LLT preserved the enhancement of in vitro dissolution of cio. After orally administration, the plasma concentration-time profile and pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that a significant increase (P < 0.0001) in the C(max), AUC and F were observed in the CIO-LLT. The blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, resp.), while the level of insulin secretion was markedly elevated in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats (P < 0.05). The alloxan-damaged pancreatic β-cells of the rats were partly recovered gradually after the rats were administered with CIO-LLT 45 days later. CIO-LLT could improve the bioavailability and glycaemic metabolism of CIO.

  16. Toxicities of Selected Essential Oils, Silicone Oils, and Paraffin Oil against the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Li, Andrew

    2018-02-09

    The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs. In this study, we screened 18 essential oils, three silicone oils, and paraffin oil (C5-20 paraffins) for their toxicities against bed bugs. All the oils exhibited insecticidal activity in topical assays. Their toxicities varied significantly; all of the evaluated essential oils were less effective than silicone oils and paraffin oil. The LD50 values of the most effective essential oil (blood orange), paraffin oil, and the most effective silicone oil (dodecamethylpentasiloxane) are 0.184 ± 0.018, 0.069 ± 0.012, and 0.036 ± 0.005 mg per bug, respectively. Direct spray of 1% water solution of 3-[hydroxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] heptamethyltrisiloxane, the only silicone oil that mixes well with water, resulted in 92% bed bug mortality after 1 d. Results of this study indicate silicone oils and paraffin oil have the potential to be used as safer alternative bed bug control materials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Antifungal activity of Gallesia integrifolia fruit essential oil.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Keila Fernanda; Bortolucci, Wanessa de Campos; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros; Gazim, Zilda Cristiani

    2018-04-12

    Gallesia integrifolia (Phytolaccaceae) is native to Brazil and has a strong alliaceous odor. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and evaluate fungicidal activity against the main food-borne diseases and food spoilage fungi. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC-MS. From 35 identified compounds, 68% belonged to the organosulfur class. The major compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (15.49%), 2,8-dithianonane (52.63%) and lenthionine (14.69%). The utilized fungi were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, and Trichoderma viride. Minimal fungicidal concentration for the essential oil varied from 0.02 to 0.18mg/mL and bifonazole and ketoconazole controls ranged from 0.20 to 3.50mg/mL. The lower concentration of the essential oil was able to control P. ochrochloron, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus and T. viride. This study shows a high fungicidal activity of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and can support future applications by reducing the use of synthetic fungicides. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  18. Biopreservation of hamburgers by essential oil of Zataria multiflora.

    PubMed

    Samadi, N; Sharifan, A; Emam-Djomeh, Z; Sormaghi, M H Salehi

    2012-01-01

    Hamburgers with high nutrient supply and a loosely-packed structure present favourable conditions for microbial growth. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora and its potential application as a natural preservative in reducing the indigenous microbial population of hamburgers were investigated. Carvacrol, thymol and linalool were found to be the most abundant constituents of the essential oil using GC-MS analysis. The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Addition of Z. multiflora essential oil in concentrations higher than MIC values influenced the microbial population of hamburgers stored at 25°C, 4°C and -12°C. The significant results of this study are our observations that the use of Z. multiflora essential oil at 0.05% v/w increases the time needed for the natural microflora of hamburgers to reach concentrations able to produce a perceivable spoilage at refrigerator and room temperatures without any inverse effect on their sensory attributes. Freezing of essential oil-treated hamburgers may also reduce the risk of diseases associated with consumption of under-cooked hamburgers through significant microbial reduction by more than 3 log.

  19. Combined Toxicity of Three Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Ramirez, Jose L; Doll, Kenneth M; Bowman, Michael J

    2017-11-07

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty-one essential oils were initially screened for their toxicity against Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae and three out of the seven most toxic essential oils (Manuka, oregano, and clove bud essential oils) were examined for their chemical composition and combined toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with oregano essential oil and antagonistically with clove bud essential oil. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 21 components in Manuka essential oil and three components each in oregano and clove bud essential oils. Eugenol (84.9%) and eugenol acetate (9.6%) were the principal constituents in clove bud essential oil while carvacrol (75.8%) and m-isopropyltoluene (15.5%) were the major constituents in oregano essential oil. The major constituents in Manuka essential oil were calamenene (20%) and 3-dodecyl-furandione (11.4%). Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with eugenol acetate and antagonistically with eugenol, suggesting that eugenol was a major contributor to the antagonistic interaction between Manuka and clove bud essential oils. In addition, Manuka interacted synergistically with carvacrol suggesting its contribution to the synergistic interaction between Manuka and oregano essential oils. These findings provide novel insights that can be used to develop new and safer alternatives to synthetic insecticides. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Cinnamon extract suppresses experimental colitis through modulation of antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Hwang, Ji-Sun; Lee, Choong-Gu; So, Jae-Seon; Sahoo, Anupama; Im, Chang-Rok; Jeon, Won Kyung; Ko, Byoung Seob; Lee, Sung Haeng; Park, Zee Yong; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2011-02-28

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamon extract and elucidate its mechanisms for targeting the function of antigen presenting cells. Cinnamon extract was used to treat murine macrophage cell line (Raw 264.7), mouse primary antigen-presenting cells (APCs, MHCII(+)) and CD11c(+) dendritic cells to analyze the effects of cinnamon extract on APC function. The mechanisms of action of cinnamon extract on APCs were investigated by analyzing cytokine production, and expression of MHC antigens and co-stimulatory molecules by quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry. In addition, the effect of cinnamon extract on antigen presentation capacity and APC-dependent T-cell differentiation were analyzed by [H(3)]-thymidine incorporation and cytokine analysis, respectively. To confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamon extract in vivo, cinnamon or PBS was orally administered to mice for 20 d followed by induction of experimental colitis with 2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. The protective effects of cinnamon extract against experimental colitis were measured by checking clinical symptoms, histological analysis and cytokine expression profiles in inflamed tissue. Treatment with cinnamon extract inhibited maturation of MHCII(+) APCs or CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) by suppressing expression of co-stimulatory molecules (B7.1, B7.2, ICOS-L), MHCII and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Cinnamon extract induced regulatory DCs (rDCs) that produce low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] while expressing high levels of immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β). In addition, rDCs generated by cinnamon extract inhibited APC-dependent T-cell proliferation, and converted CD4(+) T cells into IL-10(high) CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, oral administration of cinnamon extract inhibited development and progression of intestinal colitis by inhibiting expression

  1. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-07-29

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent.

  2. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Ané

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils. PMID:28546822

  3. Essential oils as natural food antimicrobial agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Vergis, Jess; Gokulakrishnan, P; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend. Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a "natural" remedy to this problem other than its flavoring property instead of using synthetic agents. The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram-positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth, and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry.

  4. Composition of the Essential Oil of Aristolochia Manshurientsis Kom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuhong; Xin, Guang; Zhao, Lichun; Xiao, Zhigang; Xue, Bai

    2018-03-01

    This study demonstrated the chemical constituents of the essential oil of Aristolochia manshurientsis Kom and improved the essential oil efficiency by the enzyme-assisted extraction followed by hydrodistillation. The essential oils of Aristolochia manshurientsis Kom acquired by hydrodistillation after the solvent extraction with and without the assistance of cellulase have been investigated by gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The predominant constituents of both types of essential oils are camphene, 1,7,7-trimethyl-bicyclo [2.2.1] hept-2-yl acetate, 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl) naphthalene, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, and (-)-Spathulenol. The enzyme-assisted extraction not only increased extracting efficiency of the essential oil from 4.93% to 9.36%, but also facilitated the extraction of additional eight compounds such as 2-methano(-6,6-dimethyl) bicycle [3.1.1] hept-2-ene, (+)--terpineol and 1-propyl-3-(propen-1-yl) adamantane, which were not identified from the non-enzyme extraction sample.

  5. Anti-Legionella activity of essential oil of Satureja cuneifolia.

    PubMed

    Dunkić, Valerija; Mikrut, Antonija; Bezić, Nada

    2014-05-01

    The essential oil of Satureja cuneifolia Ten. was characterized by a high concentration of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (21.3%) and thymol (9.2%). The in vitro activity of the essential oil against Legionela pneumophila serogroups (SG) I and 2-15 and Legionella spp. from different sources, using microdilution, showed that L. pneumofila is sensitive to the oil, with MICs ranging from 0.12 to 0.5%, v/v, and a MBC at 0.5 to 1%, v/v. The essential oil of S. cuneifolia was effective in the reduction of Legionellosis infections.

  6. Singlet Oxygen Scavenging Activity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oils from Rutaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Yoko; Satoh, Kazue; Shibano, Katsushige; Kawahito, Yukari; Shioda, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    Since we have been exposed to excessive amounts of stressors, aromatherapy for the relaxation has recently become very popular recently. However, there is a problem which responds to light with the essential oil used by aromatherapy. It is generally believed that singlet oxygen is implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as light-induced skin disorders and inflammatory responses. Here we studied whether essential oils can effectively scavenge singlet oxygen upon irradiation, using the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. Green light was used to irradiate twelve essential oils from rutaceae. Among these twelve essential oils, eight were prepared by the expression (or the compression) method (referred to as E oil), and four samples were prepared by the steam distillation method (referred to as SD oil). Five E oils enhanced singlet oxygen production. As these essential oils may be phototoxic, it should be used for their use whit light. Two E oils and three SD oils showed singlet oxygen scavenging activity. These results may suggest that the antioxidant activity of essential oils are judged from their radical scavenging activity. Essential oils, which enhance the singlet oxygen production and show higher cytotoxicity, may contain much of limonene. These results suggest that limonene is involved not only in the enhancement of singlet oxygen production but also in the expression of cytotoxic activity, and that attention has to be necessary for use of blended essential oils. PMID:18648659

  7. Sensory attribute preservation in extra virgin olive oil with addition of oregano essential oil as natural antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2012-09-01

    Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes

  8. Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study.

    PubMed

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Yang, Qing; Wu, Weijuan; Wren, Jonathan; Suhail, Mahmoud M; Woolley, Cole L; Young, D Gary; Fung, Kar-Ming; Lin, Hsueh-Kung

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense (Boswellia carterii, known as Ru Xiang in Chinese) and sandalwood (Santalum album, known as Tan Xiang in Chinese) are cancer preventive and therapeutic agents in Chinese medicine. Their biologically active ingredients are usually extracted from frankincense by hydrodistillation and sandalwood by distillation. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils in cultured human bladder cancer cells. The effects of frankincense (1,400-600 dilutions) (v/v) and sandalwood (16,000-7,000 dilutions) (v/v) essential oils on cell viability were studied in established human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal human bladder urothelial UROtsa cells using a colorimetric XTT cell viability assay. Genes that responded to essential oil treatments in human bladder cancer J82 cells were identified using the Illumina Expression BeadChip platform and analyzed for enriched functions and pathways. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Human bladder cancer J82 cells were more sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects of frankincense essential oil than the immortalized normal bladder UROtsa cells. In contrast, sandalwood essential oil exhibited a similar potency in suppressing the viability of both J82 and UROtsa cells. Although frankincense and sandalwood essential oils activated common pathways such as inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 signaling), each essential oil had a unique molecular action on the bladder cancer cells. Heat shock proteins and histone core proteins were activated by frankincense essential oil, whereas negative regulation of protein kinase activity and G protein-coupled receptors were activated by sandalwood essential oil treatment. The effects of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils on J82 cells and UROtsa cells involved different mechanisms leading to cancer cell death. While frankincense

  9. Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Frankincense (Boswellia carterii, known as Ru Xiang in Chinese) and sandalwood (Santalum album, known as Tan Xiang in Chinese) are cancer preventive and therapeutic agents in Chinese medicine. Their biologically active ingredients are usually extracted from frankincense by hydrodistillation and sandalwood by distillation. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils in cultured human bladder cancer cells. Methods The effects of frankincense (1,400–600 dilutions) (v/v) and sandalwood (16,000–7,000 dilutions) (v/v) essential oils on cell viability were studied in established human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal human bladder urothelial UROtsa cells using a colorimetric XTT cell viability assay. Genes that responded to essential oil treatments in human bladder cancer J82 cells were identified using the Illumina Expression BeadChip platform and analyzed for enriched functions and pathways. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Human bladder cancer J82 cells were more sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects of frankincense essential oil than the immortalized normal bladder UROtsa cells. In contrast, sandalwood essential oil exhibited a similar potency in suppressing the viability of both J82 and UROtsa cells. Although frankincense and sandalwood essential oils activated common pathways such as inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 signaling), each essential oil had a unique molecular action on the bladder cancer cells. Heat shock proteins and histone core proteins were activated by frankincense essential oil, whereas negative regulation of protein kinase activity and G protein-coupled receptors were activated by sandalwood essential oil treatment. Conclusion The effects of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils on J82 cells and UROtsa cells involved different mechanisms leading to

  10. Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans.

    PubMed

    Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2011-08-01

    Although blended essential oils are increasingly being used for the improvement of the quality of life and for the relief of various symptoms in patients, the scientific evaluation of the aroma-therapeutic effects of blended essential oils in humans is rather scarce. In this study, we hypothesized that applying blended essential oil would provide a synergistic effect that would have a chance for success in treating depression or anxiety. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the blended essential oil on autonomic parameters and on emotional responses in humans following transdermal absorption. The blended essential oil consisted of lavender and bergamot oils. Human autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate, breathing rate, and skin temperature, were recorded as indicators of the arousal level of the autonomic nervous system. In addition, subjects had to rate their emotional condition in terms of relaxation, vigor, calmness, attentiveness, mood, and alertness in order to assess subjective behavioral arousal. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Blended essential oil was applied topically to the skin of the abdomen of each subject. Compared with placebo, blended essential oil caused significant decreases of pulse rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which indicated a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the blended essential oil group rated themselves as 'more calm' and 'more relaxed' than subjects in the control group. This finding suggests a decrease of subjective behavioral arousal. In conclusion, our investigation demonstrates the relaxing effect of a mixture of lavender and bergamot oils. This synergistic blend provides evidence for its use in medicine for treating depression or anxiety in humans.

  11. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro interactions of Peucedanum officinale essential oil with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Miladinović, Dragoljub L; Ilić, Budimir S; Kocić, Branislava D; Miladinović, Ljiljana C; Marković, Marija S

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Peucedanum officinale L. (Apiaceae) essential oil were examined, as well as the association between it and antibiotics: tetracycline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. The interactions of the essential oil with antibiotics were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay. Monoterpene hydrocarbons, with α-phellandrene as the dominant constituent, were the most abundant compound class of the essential oil of P. officinale. The researched essential oil exhibited slight antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains in vitro. On the contrary, essential oil of P. officinale possesses a great synergistic potential with chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Their combinations reduced the minimum effective dose of the antibiotic and, consequently, minimised its adverse side effects. In addition, investigated interactions are especially successful against Gram-negative bacteria, the pharmacological treatment of which is very difficult nowadays.

  13. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Koch, C; Reichling, J; Schneele, J; Schnitzler, P

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils from anise, hyssop, thyme, ginger, camomile and sandalwood were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. Genital herpes is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.016%, 0.0075%, 0.007%, 0.004%, 0.003% and 0.0015% for anise oil, hyssop oil, thyme oil, ginger oil, camomile oil and sandalwood oil, respectively. A clearly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-2 could be demonstrated for all essential oils tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, essential oils were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the essential oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 90% when HSV-2 was preincubated with hyssop oil, thyme oil or ginger oil. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the essential oils were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-2 or after the adsorption period. These results indicate that essential oils affected HSV-2 mainly before adsorption probably by interacting with the viral envelope. Camomile oil exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as virucidal agents for treatment of herpes genitalis.

  14. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques. PMID:24031717

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Individual and Combined Essential Oils against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Jurado, Fatima; López-Malo, Aurelio; Palou, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    The antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), mustard (Brassica nigra), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated alone and in binary combinations against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, or Salmonella Enteritidis. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The MICs of the evaluated essential oils ranged from 0.05 to 0.50% (vol/vol). Mustard essential oil was the most effective, likely due to the presence of allyl isothiocyanate, identified as its major component. Furthermore, mustard essential oil exhibited synergistic effects when combined with either Mexican oregano or thyme essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.75); an additive effect was obtained by combining thyme and Mexican oregano essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 1.00). These results suggest the potential of studied essential oil mixtures to inhibit microbial growth and preserve foods; however, their effect on sensory quality in selected foods compatible with their flavor needs to be assessed.

  16. [On the biological properties of fragrance compounds and essential oils].

    PubMed

    Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2004-11-01

    In the present review the physiological and/or pharmacological properties of essential oils and of single fragrance compounds are discussed. Essential oils are known and have been used since ancient times as natural medicines. As natural products essential oils are dependent on climate and their composition varies according to conditions of soil, to solar irradiation, to harvest time, to production methods, to storage conditions and similar facts which are discussed in chapter 2 of this review. The next chapters deal with the therapeutic use of essential oils in treating diseases, disorders or ailments of the nervous system, against cancer and as penetration enhancers. For space-saving reasons, however, the manifold antimicrobial and antifungal properties of these natural products have been left out. In the last chapter, the pros and cons in the use of essential oils in therapy are also discussed.

  17. Anthelmintic activity of Croton zehntneri and Lippia sidoides essential oils.

    PubMed

    Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Bevilaqua, C M L; Morais, S M; Maciel, M V; Costa, C T C; Macedo, I T F; Oliveira, L M B; Braga, R R; Silva, R A; Vieira, L S

    2007-09-30

    Because of the development of anthelmintic resistant populations, the search for new drugs is essential to maintain the productivity of small ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Croton zehntneri and Lippia sidoides essential oils and their major constituents, anethole and thymol. The effects of these oils and their constituents were determined by in vitro assays with the eggs and larvae of the sheep gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. The two essential oils were evaluated on intestinal nematodes of mice at 800 mg kg(-1) dose. In the last experiment, the mice were treated with larger doses of L. sidoides, 1200 and 1600 mg kg(-1). The essential oils and their constituents prevented more than 98% of the H. contortus eggs from hatching at a concentration of 1.25 mg ml(-1) and inhibited more than 90% of H. contortus larval development at a concentration of 10 mg ml(-1). At a concentration of 800 mg kg(-1), the two essential oils were 46.3% and 11.64% effective against Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera. At 1200 and 1600 mg kg(-1), L. sidoides essential oil's efficacy on the mouse worm burden was 57.6% and 68.9%, respectively. The fact that L. sidoides essential oil was almost 70% effective against mouse intestinal nematodes indicates it should be evaluated against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats.

  18. Luminescence and fluorescence of essential oils. Fluorescence imaging in vivo of wild chamomile oil.

    PubMed

    Boschi, F; Fontanella, M; Calderan, L; Sbarbati, A

    2011-06-16

    Essential oils are currently of great importance to pharmaceutical companies, cosmetics producers and manufacturers of veterinary products. They are found in perfumes, creams, bath products, and household cleaning substances, and are used for flavouring food and drinks. It is well known that some of them act on the respiratory apparatus. The increasing interest in optical imaging techniques and the development of related technologies have made possible the investigation of the optical properties of several compounds. Luminescent properties of essential oils have not been extensively investigated. We evaluated the luminescent and fluorescent emissions of several essential oils, in order to detect them in living organisms by exploiting their optical properties. Some fluorescent emission data were high enough to be detected in dermal treatments. Consequently, we demonstrated how the fluorescent signal can be monitored for at least three hours on the skin of living mice treated with wild chamomile oil. The results encourage development of this technique to investigate the properties of drugs and cosmetics containing essential oils.

  19. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    PubMed Central

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

  20. Antifungal activity of some essential oils against toxigenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Alireza; Zamani, Elham; Sharaifi, Rohollah; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad; Nazari, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Increasing attentions have been paid on the application of essential oils and plant extracts for control of postharvest pathogens due to their natural origin and less appearance of resistance in fungi pathogens. Some Aspergillus species are toxigenic and responsible for many cases of food and feed contamination. Some Toxins that produce with some Aspergillus species are known to be potent hepatocarcinogens in animals and humans. The present work evaluated the parameters of antifungal activity of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Thymus migricus, Satureja hortensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Carum capticum and thiabendazol fungicide on survival and growth of different species of Aspergillus. Aerial part and seeds of plant species were collected then dried and its essential oils isolated by means of hydrodistillation. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro by poisonous medium technique with PDA medium at six concentrations. Results showed that all essential oils could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus species. The essential oil with the best effect and lowest EC50 and MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) was Z. multiflora (223 microl/l and 650 microl/l, respectively). The chemical composition of the Z. multiflora essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS.

  1. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Alam; Safdar, Mahpara; Ali Khan, Mohammad Muzaffar; Khattak, Khan Nawaz; Anderson, Richard A

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cinnamon improves blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes. A total of 60 people with type 2 diabetes, 30 men and 30 women aged 52.2 +/- 6.32 years, were divided randomly into six groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 consumed 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon daily, respectively, and groups 4, 5, and 6 were given placebo capsules corresponding to the number of capsules consumed for the three levels of cinnamon. The cinnamon was consumed for 40 days followed by a 20-day washout period. After 40 days, all three levels of cinnamon reduced the mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), triglyceride (23-30%), LDL cholesterol (7-27%), and total cholesterol (12-26%) levels; no significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. Changes in HDL cholesterol were not significant. The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Saeid; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  3. The Sensitivity of Endodontic Enterococcus spp. Strains to Geranium Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Łysakowska, Monika E; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Banaszek, Katarzyna; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2015-12-21

    Enterococci are able to survive endodontic procedures and contribute to the failure of endodontic therapy. Thus, it is essential to identify novel ways of eradicating them from infected root canals. One such approach may be the use of antimicrobials such as plant essential oils. Enterococcal strains were isolated from endodontically treated teeth by standard microbiological methods. Susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by the disc-diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of geranium essential oil was investigated by microdilution in 96-well microplates in Mueller Hinton Broth II. Biofilm eradication concentrations were checked in dentin tests. Geranium essential oil inhibited enterococcal strains at concentrations ranging from 1.8-4.5 mg/mL. No correlation was shown between resistance to antibiotics and the MICs of the test antimicrobials. The MICs of the test oil were lower than those found to show cytotoxic effects on the HMEC-1 cell line. Geranium essential oil eradicated enterococcal biofilm at concentrations of 150 mg/mL. Geranium essential oil inhibits the growth of endodontic enterococcal species at lower concentrations than those required to reach IC50 against the HMEC-1 cell line, and is effective against bacteria protected in biofilm at higher concentrations. In addition, bacteria do not develop resistance to essential oils. Hence, geranium essential oil represents a possible alternative to other antimicrobials during endodontic procedures.

  4. Preservation of chicken breast meat treated with thyme and balm essential oils.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; De Martino, Laura; Melone, Antonio; De Feo, Vincenzo; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2010-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of thyme and balm essential oils on the 3-wk storage of fresh chicken breast meat at 4 °C. Thyme and, to a lesser extent, balm essential oils reduced DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical formation in the meat (25% to 30% and 20%, respectively). Treatment with the 2 essential oils also limited lipid peroxidation and the deterioration of sarcoplasmic proteins, helping to preserve the meat even after 2 wk of storage. Thyme and balm essential oils decreased the natural microflora present in the meat; total microbial content decreased down to 50% in comparison to the control samples. In addition, a clear effect on lactic acid bacterial growth was recorded. Balm essential oil significantly limited the growth of Salmonella sp., whereas thyme essential oil effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Our data demonstrate that these 2 essential oils effectively reduced deteriorative processes in chicken meat and extended the shelf life of this fresh product. Practical Application: The essential oils of thyme and balm can protect the chicken meat from decomposition during the storage time.

  5. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Aromatherapy with the use of essential oils has been studied in cancer patients to help with symptom relief. Read about how aromatherapy massage or inhalation of essential oils have reduced symptoms in cancer patients in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Beom-Su; Keum, Ki-Suk; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoi; Chang, Byoung-Soo; Ra, Ji-Young; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Seo, Bo-Ra; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) has been used as a spice in foods and as an antimicrobial in Oriental medicine. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of an essential oil isolated from C. longa on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which is an important bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries formation. First, the inhibitory effects of C. longa essential oil on the growth and acid production of S. mutans were tested. Next, the effect of C. longa essential oil on adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HAs) was investigated. C. longa essential oil inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL. The essential oil also exhibited significant inhibition of S. mutans adherence to S-HAs at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. S. mutans biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. The essential oil of C. longa inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. The components of C. longa essential oil were then analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the major components were α-turmerone (35.59%), germacrone (19.02%), α-zingiberene (8.74%), αr-turmerone (6.31%), trans-β-elemenone (5.65%), curlone (5.45%), and β-sesquiphellandrene (4.73%). These results suggest that C. longa may inhibit the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Stoilova, Ivanka; Stoyanova, Albena; Krastanov, Albert; Schmidt, Erich

    2006-08-23

    The antioxidant activity of a commercial rectified clove leaf essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and its main constituent eugenol was tested. This essential oil comprises in total 23 identified constituents, among them eugenol (76.8%), followed by beta-caryophyllene (17.4%), alpha-humulene (2.1%), and eugenyl acetate (1.2%) as the main components. The essential oil from clove demonstrated scavenging activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydracyl (DPPH) radical at concentrations lower than the concentrations of eugenol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This essential oil also showed a significant inhibitory effect against hydroxyl radicals and acted as an iron chelator. With respect to the lipid peroxidation, the inhibitory activity of clove oil determined using a linoleic acid emulsion system indicated a higher antioxidant activity than the standard BHT.

  8. Anti-biofilm properties of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil against periodontal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Ulvi Kahraman; Gursoy, Mervi; Gursoy, Orhan Vedat; Cakmakci, Lutfu; Könönen, Eija; Uitto, Veli-Jukka

    2009-08-01

    Essential oils of several plants are widely used in ethnomedicine for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, very limited data exist on their use in connection to periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacterial growth inhibiting and anti-biofilm effects of Satureja hortensis L. (summer savory), Salvia fruticosa M. (sage), Lavandula stoechas L. (lavender), Myrtus communis L., and Juniperus communis L. (juniper) essential oils. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, minimum inhibitor concentrations (MICs) with the agar dilution method, and anti-biofilm effects by the microplate biofilm assay. The toxicity of each essential oil was tested on cultured keratinocytes. Of the 5 essential oils, S. hortensis L. essential oil had the strongest growth inhibition effect. Subinhibitory dose of S. hortensis L. essential oil had anti-biofilm effects only against Prevotella nigrescens. Essential oils did not inhibit keratinocyte viability at the concentrations of 1 and 5 microl/ml, however at the concentration of 5 microl/ml epithelial cells detached from the culture well bottom. The present findings suggest that S. hortensis L. essential oil inhibits the growth of periodontal bacteria in the concentration that is safe on keratinocytes, however, in the subinhibitory concentration its anti-biofilm effect is limited.

  9. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  10. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges. PMID:28930277

  11. Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti Mosquito towards Essential Oils Using Olfactometer

    PubMed Central

    Uniyal, Ashish; Tikar, Sachin N; Mendki, Murlidhar J; Singh, Ram; Shukla, Shakti V; Agrawal, Om P; Veer, Vijay; Sukumaran, Devanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for transmitting human diseases like dengue and chikungunya. Personal or space protection with insect repellents is a practical approach to reducing human mosquito contact, thereby minimizing disease transmission. Essential oils are natural volatile substances from plants used as protective measure against blood-sucking mosquitoes. Methods: Twenty-three essential oils were evaluated for their repellent effect against Ae. aegypti female mosquito in laboratory conditions using Y-tube olfactometer. Results: The essential oils exhibited varying degree of repellency. Litsea oil showed 50.31%, 60.2 %, and 77.26% effective mean repellency at 1 ppm, 10 ppm and 100 ppm respectively, while DEET exhibited 59.63%, 68.63%, 85.48% and DEPA showed 57.97%, 65.43%, and 80.62% repellency at respective above concentrations. Statistical analysis revealed that among the tested essential oils, litsea oil had effective repellency in comparison with DEET and DEPA against Ae. aegypti mosquito at all concentration. Essential oils, DEET and DEPA showed significant repellence against Ae. aegypti (P< 0.05) at all 3 concentration tested. Conclusion: Litsea oil exhibited effective percentage repellency similar to DEET and DEPA. The essential oils are natural plant products that may be useful for developing safer and newer herbal based effective mosquito repellents. PMID:27308295

  12. Antioxidant activity and chemical characterization of essential oil of Bunium persicum.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, Neda; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Naghdibadi, Hasanali

    2008-12-01

    The search for natural antioxidants, especially of plant origin, has notably increased in recent years. Bunium persicum Boiss. is an economically important medicinal plant growing wild in the dry temperature regions in Iran. In this study, chemical constituents of the essential oil of the seed from Bunium persicum Boiss. have been studied by GC/MS technique. The major components were caryophyllene (27.81%), gamma-terpinene (15.19%), cuminyl acetate (14.67%). Individual antioxidant assays such as, DPPH* scavenging activity and beta-carotene bleaching have been carried out. In DPPH* system, the EC(50) value of essential oil was determined as 0.88 mg/mL. In beta-carotene bleaching antioxidant activity of essential oil (0.45%) was almost equal to BHT at 0.01%. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated in crude soybean oil by monitoring peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of the oil substrate. The results showed that the Bunium persicum essential oil (BPEO) was able to reduce the oxidation rate of the soybean oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C (oven test). The essential oil at 0.06% showed the same effect of BHA at 0.02%. Hence, BPEO could be used as an additive in food after screening.

  13. Antimicrobial properties of essential oils against Salmonella in organic soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is one of the important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of essential...

  14. Carbonyl species characteristics during the evaporation of essential oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2010-06-01

    Carbonyls emitted from essential oils can affect the air quality when they are used in indoors, especially under poor ventilation conditions. Lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, and tea tree oils were selected as typical and popular essential oils to investigate in terms of composition, thermal characteristics and fifteen carbonyl constituents. Based on thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the activation energy was 7.6-8.3 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.7 and the frequency factor was 360-2838 min -1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the dominant carbonyl compounds, and their concentrations were 0.034-0.170 ppm. The emission factors of carbonyl compounds were 2.10-3.70 mg g -1, and acetone, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde accounted for a high portion of the emission factor of carbonyl compounds in essential oil exhaust. Some unhealthy carbonyl species such as formaldehyde and valeraldehyde, were measured at low-temperature during the vaporization of essential oils, indicating a potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  15. Luminescence and fluorescence of essential oils. Fluorescence imaging in vivo of wild chamomile oil

    PubMed Central

    Boschi, F.; Fontanella, M.; Calderan, L.; Sbarbati, A.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils are currently of great importance to pharmaceutical companies, cosmetics producers and manufacturers of veterinary products. They are found in perfumes, creams, bath products, and household cleaning substances, and are used for flavouring food and drinks. It is well known that some of them act on the respiratory apparatus. The increasing interest in optical imaging techniques and the development of related technologies have made possible the investigation of the optical properties of several compounds. Luminescent properties of essential oils have not been extensively investigated. We evaluated the luminescent and fluorescent emissions of several essential oils, in order to detect them in living organisms by exploiting their optical properties. Some fluorescent emission data were high enough to be detected in dermal treatments. Consequently, we demonstrated how the fluorescent signal can be monitored for at least three hours on the skin of living mice treated with wild chamomile oil. The results encourage development of this technique to investigate the properties of drugs and cosmetics containing essential oils. PMID:22193298

  16. Influence sample sizing of citrus hystrix essential oil from hydrodistillation extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, A.; Amadi, I.; Hashib, S. A.; Mustapha, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Essential oil extracted from kaffir lime leaves through hydrodistillation. The objective of this study is to quantify the oil production rate by identify the significant influence of particle size on kaffir lime leaves. Kaffir lime leaves were ground and separated by using siever into 90, 150, 300 μm and other kaffir lime leaves. The mean essential oil yield of 0.87, 0.52, 0.41 and 0.3% was obtained. 90 μm of ground gives the highest yield compared to other sizes. Thus, it can be concluded that in quantifying oil production rate, the relevance of different size of particle is clearly affects the amount of oil yield. In analysing the composition of kaffir lime essential oil using GC-MS, there were 38 compounds found in the essential oil. Some of the major compounds of the kaffir lime leave oils were detected while some are not, may due to oil experience thermal degradation which consequently losing some significant compounds in controlled temperature.

  17. Biocontrol of Salmonella in organic soil using essential oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is one of the most important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of esse...

  18. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Joseph; Hohmann, Judit

    2006-06-01

    The antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils (orange oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, geranium oil, juniper oil, peppermint oil, rosemary oil, purified turpentine oil, thyme oil, Australian tea tree oil) and of menthol, the main component of peppermint oil, were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined on the Gram (+) Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Gram (-) Escherichia coli F'lac K12 LE140, and on two yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0425 delta/1 and 0425 52C strains. The antiplasmid activities were investigated on E. coli F'lac bacterial strain. Each of the oils exhibited antimicrobial activity and three of them antiplasmid action. The interaction of peppermint oil and menthol with the antibiotics was studied on the same bacterial strain with the checkerboard method. Peppermint oil and menthol displayed additive synergy with oxytetracycline. A new mechanism of plasmid curing was established for one of the oil components.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Chen, Liyan; Shi, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Su; Efferth, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) was tested alone and in combination. The compositions of the oils were analysed by GC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against three Gram-positive bacteria, three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungi were determined for the essential oils and their mixtures. Furthermore, time-kill dynamic processes of clove and rosemary essential oils against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were tested. Both essential oils possessed significant antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested. The MICs of clove oil ranged from 0.062% to 0.500% (v/v), while the MICs of rosemary oil ranged from 0.125% to 1.000% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two essential oils indicated their additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual microorganism tests. The time-kill curves of clove and rosemary essential oils towards three strains showed clearly bactericidal and fungicidal processes of (1)/(2) x MIC, MIC, MBC and 2 x MIC.

  20. Bioactivity of essential oils in phytopathogenic and post-harvest fungi control.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M P; Ibáñez, M D; Marqués, M; Roselló, J; Giménez, S; Blázquez, M A

    2017-11-01

    Commercial thyme and lavender essential oils were analysed by GC/MS. Sixty-six compounds accounting for 98.6-99.6% of total essential oil were identified. Thymol (52.14 ± 0.21%), followed by p-cymene (32.24 ± 0.16%), carvacrol (3.71 ± 0.01%) and γ-terpinene (3.34 ± 0.02%), were the main compounds in thyme essential oil, while large amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes linalool acetate (37.07 ± 0.24%) and linalool (30.16 ± 0.06%) were found in lavender one. In vitro antifungal activity of the essential oils was evaluated at 200 and 300 μg/mL against 10 phytopathogenic and post-harvest fungi, which significantly affect agriculture. Micelial growth inhibition was calculated for each tested fungus and dose. Thyme essential oil showed satisfactory results with 90-100% growth inhibition in almost all the assayed fungi at 300 μg/mL, while lavender essential oil showed no noteworthy inhibition data at either dose, and its growth was even enhanced. Thyme essential oil represents a natural alternative to control harvest and post-harvest fungi, and to extend the shelf-life of agriculture products.

  1. Antimicrobial, antioxidative, and insect repellent effects of Artemisia absinthium essential oil.

    PubMed

    Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Jovanović, Boris; Jović, Jovana; Ilić, Budimir; Miladinović, Dragoljub; Matejić, Jelena; Rajković, Jelena; Dorđević, Ljubiša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Zlatković, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ethnopharmacological uses of this plant species in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and wounds, and as an insect repellent. The aerial part of the plant was hydrodistilled, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty-seven compounds, corresponding to 94.65 % of the total oil, were identified, with the main constituents being sabinene (24.49 %), sabinyl acetate (13.64 %), and α-phellandrene (10.29 %). The oil yield was 0.23 % (v/w). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated against ten bacterial isolates (from patients wounds and stools) and seven American Type Culture Collection strains using a microwell dilution assay. The minimal inhibitory/bactericidal concentration of the oil ranged from < 0.08 to 2.43 mg/mL and from 0.08 to 38.80 mg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical-scavenging methods and assessed as significant. Skin irritation potential and acute toxicity of the oil were also investigated. Results of the skin irritant reaction showed that none of the 30 volunteers developed a positive skin irritant reaction to undiluted A. absinthium essential oil. Acute oral exposure to the essential oil did not cause mortality in the treated mice, but it did cause neurological, muscle, and gastrointestinal problems. A subchronic toxicity test on Drosophila melanogaster showed that the essential oil of A. absinthium is toxic for developing insect larvae. Starting with the concentration of 0.38 % of essential oil in medium, significant mortality of larvae exposed to the oil was noted when compared to the control. Probit

  2. Vasorelaxant and cardiovascular properties of the essential oil of Pogostemon elsholtzioides.

    PubMed

    Shiva Kumar, Arumugasamy; Jeyaprakash, Karnan; Chellappan, David Raj; Murugan, Ramar

    2017-03-06

    Pogostemon elsholtzioides Benth. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic shrub, endemic to eastern Himalaya region. The leaves are used for treating goiter and high blood pressure (BP) by indigenous people in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Young leaves are used as vegetable and leaf decoction is also used for cough, cold and headache by some indigenous communities in Northeast India. This species is used for treating hypertension and the genus Pogostemon is rich in essential oil. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigation of the chemical constituents, vasorelaxant and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of P. elsholtzioides. P. elsholtzioides was collected from Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh, India and essential oil was extracted from shade dried leaves. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS and the volatile constituents were identified. Vasorelaxant and cardiovascular properties of the essential oil were studied against phenylephrine induced contraction in isolated endothelium intact aortic preparations and by measuring systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) after carotid artery cannulation in Wistar rats. The essential oil was rich in sesquiterpenes and curzerene, benzophenone, α-cadinol and germacrone were major constituents. The essential oil exhibited significant vasodilation effect in phenylephrine induced contracted aortic rings. Vasorelaxant effect of the essential oil was also observed both in the presence and absence of Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester against phenylephrine-contracted aortic rings. It also induced reduction of systolic and diastolic BP, MAP and HR. Essential oil of P. elsholtzioides exhibited significant vasorelaxant effect against endothelium intact aortic preparation mediated through nitric oxide dependent pathway and also reduced BP. However, further study is needed to screen the role of calcium ions in both intracellular and extracellular pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  3. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  4. Inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Zouhir, Abdelmajid; Jridi, Taoufik; Nefzi, Adel; Ben Hamida, Jeannette; Sebei, Khaled

    2016-12-01

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections cause considerable patient mortality and morbidity. The annual frequency of deaths from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has surpassed those caused by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), plant essential oils (EOs) and their combinations have proven to be quite effective in killing a wide selection of bacterial pathogens including MRSA. This review summarizes the studies in the use of AMPs, plant EOs and their combinations for coping with MRSA bacteria, and to formulate new prospects for future studies on this topic. The sources of scientific literature such as PubMed, library search, Google Scholar, Science Direct and electronic databases such as 'The Antimicrobial Peptide Database', 'Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides' and 'YADAMP'. Physicochemical data of anti-MRSA peptides were determined by Scientific DataBase Maker software. Of the 118 peptides, 88 exhibited an activity against MRSA with the highest activity of minimum inhibitory concentration values. Various plant EOs have been effective against MRSA. Remarkably, lemongrass EOs completely inhibited all MRSA growth on the plate. Lemon myrtle, Mountain savory, Cinnamon bark and Melissa EOs showed a significant inhibition. Several of these AMPs, EOs and their combinations were effective against MRSA. Their activities have implications for the development of new drugs for medical use.

  5. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  6. Pinus Roxburghii essential oil anticancer activity and chemical composition evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam

    2018-01-01

    The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies. PMID:29743861

  7. Pinus Roxburghii essential oil anticancer activity and chemical composition evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam

    2018-01-01

    The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies.

  8. Chemical Composition and Biological Investigations of Eryngium triquetrum Essential Oil from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Medbouhi, Ali; Merad, Nadjiya; Khadir, Abdelmounaim; Bendahou, Mourad; Djabou, Nassim; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil obtained from Eryngium triquetrum from Algeria were studied. The chemical composition of sample oils from 25 locations was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-four components representing always more than 87% were identified in essential oils from total aerial parts of plants, stems, flowers and roots. Falcarinol is highly dominant in the essential oil from the roots (95.5%). The relative abundance of falcarinol in the aerial parts correlates with the phenological stages of the plant. Aerial parts of E. triquetrum produce an essential oil dominated by falcarinol during the early flowering stage, and then there is a decrease in falcarinol and rebalancing of octanal during the flowering stage. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the chemical composition of E. triquetrum essential oil. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity by means of the paper disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration assays, showed a moderate efficiency of E. triquetrum essential oil. Using the DPPH method, the interesting antioxidant activity of E. triquetrum essential oil was established. These activities could be attributed to the dominance of falcarinol. The outcome of our literature search on the occurrence of falcarinol in essential oils suggests that E. triquetrum from Algeria could be considered as a possible source of natural falcarinol. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Nutrigenomics of essential oils and their potential domestic use for improving health.

    PubMed

    Cayuela Sánchez, José Antonio; Elamrani, Abdelaziz

    2014-11-01

    The use of essential oils as industrial food additives is notorious, like their medicinal properties. However, their use in household food spicing is for now limited. In this work, we have made a review to reveal the nutrigenomic actions exerted by their bioactive components, to promote awareness of their modulating gene expression ability and the potential that this implies. Also considered is how essential oils can be used as flavoring and seasoning after cooking and before consumption, such as diet components which can improve human health. Genetic mechanisms involved in the medicinal properties of essential oils for food use are identified from literature. These genetic mechanisms reveal nutrigenomic actions. Reviews on the medicinal properties of essential oils have been particularly considered. A wide diversity of nutrigenomic effects from essential oils useful potentially for food spicing is reviewed. General ideas are discussed about essential oils and their properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, bone-reparation, anti-depressant and mitigatory for Alzheimer's disease. The essential oils for food use are potentially promoting health agents, and, therefore, worth using as flavoring and condiments. Becoming aware of the modulating gene expression actions from essential oils is important for understanding their potential for use in household dishes as spices to improve health.

  10. Effect of cinnamon on glucose control and lipid parameters.

    PubMed

    Baker, William L; Gutierrez-Williams, Gabriela; White, C Michael; Kluger, Jeffrey; Coleman, Craig I

    2008-01-01

    To perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cinnamon to better characterize its impact on glucose and plasma lipids. A systematic literature search through July 2007 was conducted to identify randomized placebo-controlled trials of cinnamon that reported data on A1C, fasting blood glucose (FBG), or lipid parameters. The mean change in each study end point from baseline was treated as a continuous variable, and the weighted mean difference was calculated as the difference between the mean value in the treatment and control groups. A random-effects model was used. Five prospective randomized controlled trials (n = 282) were identified. Upon meta-analysis, the use of cinnamon did not significantly alter A1C, FBG, or lipid parameters. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses did not significantly change the results. Cinnamon does not appear to improve A1C, FBG, or lipid parameters in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

  11. In vitro activity of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Candy, Kerdalidec; Melloul, Elise; Bernigaud, Charlotte; Chai, Ling; Darmon, Céline; Durand, Rémy; Botterel, Françoise; Chosidow, Olivier; Izri, Arezki; Huang, Weiyi; Guillot, Jacques

    2016-11-22

    The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei. The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experimentally infected pigs. For contact bioassays, essential oils were diluted with paraffin to get concentrations at 10, 5, and even 1% for the most efficient ones. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after contact. For fumigation bioassay, a filter paper was treated with 100 μL of the pure essential oil. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope for the first 5min, and then every 5min until 1h. Using contact bioassays, 1% clove and palmarosa oil killed all the mites within 20 and 50min, respectively. The oils efficacy order was: clove > palmarosa > geranium > tea tree > lavender > manuka > bitter orange > eucalyptus > Japanese cedar. In fumigation bioassays, the efficacy order was: tea tree > clove > eucalyptus > lavender > palmarosa > geranium > Japanese cedar > bitter orange > manuka. In both bioassays, cade oil showed no activity. Essential oils, especially tea tree, clove, palmarosa, and eucalyptus oils, are potential complementary or alternative products to treat S. scabiei infections in humans or animals, as well as to control the mites in the environment.

  12. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    PubMed

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  13. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    PubMed Central

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  14. In vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of aqueous cinnamon extract and cinnamon polyphenol-enhanced food matrix

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Diana M.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet-induced obese hyperglycemic mice at 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. To determine mechanisms of action, rat hepatoma cells were treated with CE and eluates of CDSF at a range of 1–25 µg/ml. CE and eluates of CDSF demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic glucose production with significant levels of inhibition at 25 µg/ml. Furthermore, CE decreased the gene expression of two major regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The hypoglycemic and insulin-like effects of CE and CDSF may help to ameliorate type 2 diabetes conditions. PMID:22980902

  15. In vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of aqueous cinnamon extract and cinnamon polyphenol-enhanced food matrix.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Diana M; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Rojo, Leonel E; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-12-15

    Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet induced obese hyperglycemic mice at 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. To determine mechanisms of action, rat hepatoma cells were treated with CE and eluates of CDSF at a range of 1-25 μg/ml. CE and eluates of CDSF demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic glucose production with significant levels of inhibition at 25 μg/ml. Furthermore, CE decreased the gene expression of two major regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The hypoglycemic and insulin-like effects of CE and CDSF may help to ameliorate type 2 diabetes conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Murray, Brittney L.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Setzer, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%); the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%); the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%); and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%). A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris. PMID:28231164

  17. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

  18. In vitro efficacy of five essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Candy, Kerdalidec; Nicolas, Patrick; Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Izri, Arezki; Durand, Rémy

    2018-02-01

    Treatment of head lice has relied mainly on the use of topical insecticides. Today, conventional topical pediculicides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. There is increasing interest in the use of natural products such as essential oils for head louse control, and many of them are now incorporated into various over-the-counter products presented as pediculicides, often without proper evaluation. The aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro efficacy of five essential oils against adults of Pediculus humanus capitis using a contact filter paper toxicity bioassay. The chemical composition of the essential oils from wild bergamot, clove, lavender, tea tree, and Yunnan verbena was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All treatments and controls were replicated three times on separate occasions over a period of 11 months. In all, 1239 living lice were collected from the scalp of 51 subjects, aged from 1 to 69 years. Clove oil, diluted either in coco oil or sunflower oil, demonstrated the best adulticidal activity, reaching > 90% mortality within 2 h in lice submitted to a 30-min contact. Yunnan verbena oil diluted in coco oil showed also a significant efficacy. Other essential oils showed a lower efficacy. The oil's major component(s) differed according to the tested oils and appeared chemically diverse. In the case of clove oil, the eugenol appeared as the main component. This study confirmed the potential interest of some of the essential oils tested, but not all, as products to include possibly in a pediculicidal formulation.

  19. The Effect of Cinnamon on Glucose of Type II Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Hasanzade, Farzaneh; Toliat, Maryam; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Emamimoghaadam, Zahra

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of type II diabetes is increasing across the world. Dietary modifications help the patients to control blood glucose. Traditional herbs and spices are commonly used for control of glucose among which cinnamon (Ròu Guì; Cinnamomum cassia) has the greatest effect. Research has shown that adding cinnamon to diet can help to lower the glucose level. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon on the glucose level in blood. This was a Randomized clinical trial in which 70 Patients with type II diabetes were assigned randomly two groups (35 in cinnamon and 35 in placebo group). The groups were matched in terms of body mass index (BMI), HbAlc and fasting blood sugar (FBS). Patients were treated with cinnamon and the placebo group was treated with placebo in addition to their routine treatment for 60 days. FBG levels and glycosylated hemoglobin of patients on the first day, and 1 and 2 months after treatment were measured. Data were analyzed using t-test and paired t-test in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).16 software. The mean levels of FBS before, and 1 and 2 months after the intervention were 174 ± 59, 169 ± 43 and 177 ± 45; respectively. The levels of HbAlc before and after the intervention in the cinnamon group were (8.9 ± 1.7 and 8.9 ± 1.6). There was no significant difference in FBS and glycosylated hemoglobin levels between the two groups (P = 0.738 and P = 0.87, respectively). Results showed that using certain amount of cinnamon for 60 days did not change the glucose level of diabetic patients. So, using cinnamon to type II diabetes patients cannot be recommended and more studies are needed in future.

  20. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Borges, Bruna Cristina; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; de Almeida Junior, Luiz Domingues; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2018-01-01

    Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w), and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%), globulol (14.13%), viridiflorol (8.83%), γ-eudesmol (7.89%) and α-eudesmol (6.88%). The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL−1) breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL−1). Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL−1) but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:29300307

  1. Controversies surrounding the clinical potential of cinnamon for the management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rafehi, H; Ververis, K; Karagiannis, T C

    2012-06-01

    Obesity levels have increased significantly in the past five decades and are predicted to continue rising, resulting in important health implications. In particular, this has translated to an increase in the occurrence of type II diabetes mellitus (T2D). To alleviate associated problems, certain nutraceuticals have been considered as potential adjuncts or alternatives to conventional prescription drugs. Cinnamon, a commonly consumed spice originating from South East Asia, is currently being investigated as a potential preventative supplement and treatment for insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and T2D. Extensive in vitro evidence has shown that cinnamon may improve insulin resistance by preventing and reversing impairments in insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. In adipose tissue, it has been shown that cinnamon increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors including, PPARγ. This is comparable to the action of commonly used thiazolinediones, which are PPAR agonists. Studies have also shown that cinnamon has potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, numerous human clinical trials with cinnamon have been conducted with varying findings. While some studies have showed no beneficial effect, others have indicated improvements in cholesterol levels, systolic blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and postprandial glucose levels with cinnamon. However, the only measurement consistently improved by cinnamon consumption is fasting glucose levels. While it is still premature to suggest the use of cinnamon supplementation based on the evidence, further investigation into mechanisms of action is warranted. Apart from further characterization of genetic and epigenetic changes in model systems, systematic large-scale clinical trials are required. In this study, we discuss the mechanisms of action of cinnamon in the context of T2D and we highlight some of the associated controversies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Bioinformatical and in vitro approaches to essential oil-induced matrix metalloproteinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Rybarczyk-Filho, José L; Gursoy, Mervi; Könönen, Eija; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Gursoy, Orhan V; Cakmakci, Lutfu; Moreira, José C F; Gursoy, Ulvi K

    2012-06-01

    Essential oils carry diverse antimicrobial and anti-enzymatic properties. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition characteristics of Salvia fruticosa Miller (Labiatae), Myrtus communis Linnaeus (Myrtaceae), Juniperus communis Linnaeus (Cupressaceae), and Lavandula stoechas Linnaeus (Labiatae) essential oils were evaluated. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bioinformatical database analysis was performed by STRING 9.0 and STITCH 2.0 databases, and ViaComplex software. Antibacterial activity of essential oils against periodontopathogens was tested by the disc diffusion assay and the agar dilution method. Cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity were determined by commercial kits. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were measured by zymography. Bioinformatical database analyses, under a score of 0.4 (medium) and a prior correction of 0.0, gave rise to a model of protein (MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases) vs. chemical (essential oil components) interaction network; where MMPs and essential oil components interconnected through interaction with hydroxyl radicals, molecular oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide. Components from L. stoechas potentially displayed a higher grade of interaction with MMP-2 and -9. Although antibacterial and growth inhibitory effects of essential oils on the tested periodontopathogens were limited, all of them inhibited MMP-2 in vitro at concentrations of 1 and 5 µL/mL. Moreover, same concentrations of M. communis and L. stoechas also inhibited MMP-9. MMP-inhibiting concentrations of essential oils were not cytotoxic against keratinocytes. We propose essential oils of being useful therapeutic agents as MMP inhibitors through a mechanism possibly based on their antioxidant potential.

  3. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils from lemon, grapefruit, coriander, clove, and their mixtures].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Samusenko, A L

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of individual essential oils from lemon (Citrus limon L.), pink grapefruit (Citrus paradise L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) buds and their mixtures were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was assessed by oxidation of the aliphatic aldehyde hexanal to the carboxylic acid. The lowest and highest antioxidant activities were exhibited by grapefruit and clove bud essential oils, respectively. Mixtures containing clove bud essential oil also strongly inhibited oxidation of hexanal. Changes in the composition of essential oils and their mixtures in the course of long-term storage in the light were studied. The stability of components of lemon and coriander essential oils in mixtures increased compared to individual essential oils.

  4. [Study on separation of essential oil of Caryophylli flos from oil-in-water emulsion by microfiltration].

    PubMed

    Han, Zhifeng; Shen, Jie; Guo, Liwei; Fan, Wenlin

    2011-01-01

    To separate essential oil of Caryophyllix flos from oil-in-water emulsion, and to enrich the essential oil by microfiltration (MF). Using membrane flux and removal rate of COD as the indicatrixes, the membrane material as well as the operating conditions containing pressure, surface speed, temperature were optimized. The results showed that QWLM membrane of hydrophilic is the proper membrane, and the best operating conditions was at 0.06 MPa, 60 degrees C, and 150 r min(-1) stir speed. It can be concluded that MF is a reasonable way to enrich essential oil of C. flox.

  5. Cinnamon in glycaemic control: Systematic review and meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Akilen, Rajadurai; Tsiami, Amalia; Devendra, Devasenan; Robinson, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Cinnamon seems to be highly bioactive, appearing to mimic the effect of insulin through increased glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles. This systematic review and Meta analysis examined the effect of cinnamon on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. A systematic literature search was conducted from the earliest possible date through to 01 August 2011. Search terms included free text terms, MeSH and Medline medical index terms such as: "cinnamon", "cinnamomum", "cinnamomum cassia", "cinnamomum zeylanicum", "type 2 diabetes mellitus". Each was crossed with the term "diabetes mellitus". In addition, references of key articles were hand searched. A total of 6 clinical trials met the strict inclusion criteria and considered a total of 435 patients; follow up between 40 days-4 months, doses ranging from 1 g to 6 g per day. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed a significant decrease in mean HbA1c [0.09%; 95% CI was 0.04-0.14] and mean FPG [0.84 mmol/l; 95% CI was 0.66-1.02]. Use of cinnamon showed a beneficial effect on glycaemic control (both HbA1c and FPG) and the short term (<4 months) effects of the use of cinnamon on glycaemic control looks promising. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole cinnamon and aqueous extracts ameliorate sucrose-induced blood pressure elevations in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Polansky, Marilyn M; Anderson, Richard

    2006-04-01

    Many agents (nutrients, nutraceuticals, and drugs) that enhance insulin sensitivity and/or reduce circulating insulin concentrations lower blood pressure (BP). Recently, it was reported that cinnamon has the potential to favorably influence the glucose/insulin system. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary cinnamon on systolic BP (SBP), and various glucose- and insulin-related parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In a series of three experiments, treated SHR eating sucrose and non sucrose containing diets were given various amounts of cinnamon, cinnamon extracts, or chromium. Then various parameters such as: body weight, systolic blood pressure, hematology and blood chemistries were followed for three to four weeks. Diets high in sucrose content are associated with insulin resistance and the elevation of SBP. Addition to diets of cinnamon (8% w/w) reduced the SBP of rats eating sucrose containing diets to virtually the same levels as SHR consuming non sucrose containing (only starch) diets. The presence of cinnamon in the diet also decreased the SBP of SHR consuming a non sucrose-containing diet, suggesting that cinnamon reduces more than just sucrose-induced SBP elevations--perhaps a genetic component(s) of the elevated BP as well. The effects of cinnamon on SBP tended to be dose-dependent. Cinnamon did not decrease the levels of blood glucose, but did lower circulating insulin concentrations. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon also decreased SBP and lowered the circulating levels of fructosamine. Cinnamon is used for flavor and taste in food preparation, but cinnamon may have additional roles in glucose metabolism and BP regulation. Therefore, BP regulation may not only be influenced favorably by limiting the amounts of dietary substances that have negative effects on BP and insulin function but also by the addition of beneficial ones, such as cinnamon, that have positive effects.

  7. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  8. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. [Antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from clove bud and pimento].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Medvedeva, I B

    2015-01-01

    The antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from the clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.) and berries of tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Meriff) were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (2,6-ditret-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHT) in model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The essential oils of clove bud and pimento had qualitatively close composition of the main components but differed by their quantitative content. In the studied samples, eugenol was the main compound with high antiradical activity. The reaction rates of essential oils and extracts with the DPPH radical were practically the same for essential oils and twice the reaction rate of BHT. The values of antiradical efficiency (AE) were also close for essential oils and were twice that for extracts and ionol. A synergetic action of components in the essential oil and extract of pimento on antiradical efficiency values was found.

  10. The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih

    Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ρ-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

  11. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from five selected herbs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Mei-Lin; Lin, Chih-Chien; Lin, Wei-Chao; Yang, Chao-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus bridgesiana, Cymbopogon martinii, Thymus vulgaris, Lindernia anagallis, and Pelargonium fragrans are five species of herbs used in Asia. Their essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 36 components were detected. The results of our study indicated that, except for the essential oil of P. fragrans, all of the essential oils demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms. The C. martinii essential oil, which is rich in geraniol, was the most effective antimicrobial additive. All of the essential oils demonstrated antioxidant activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, the T. vulgaris essential oil, which possesses plentiful thymol, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. For P. acnes-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the essential oils of P. aeruginosa, C. martinii, and T. vulgaris reduced the TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 secretion levels of THP-1 cells.

  12. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2008-10-01

    The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC-MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane oleoresins, respectively). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. They were found to be better antioxidants than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antimicrobial properties were also studied using various food-borne pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. The essential oil and CCl(4) oleoresin showed 100% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme. For other tested fungi and bacteriae, the essential oil and all oleoresins showed good to moderate inhibitory effects. Though, both essential oil and oleoresins were found to be effective, essential oil was found to be better than the oleoresins.

  13. Quality preservation of deliberately contaminated milk using thyme free and nanoemulsified essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ben Jemaa, Mariem; Falleh, Hanen; Neves, Marcos A; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Ksouri, Riadh

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of either a solution of Thymus capitatus essential oil or its nanoemulsion on the quality of milk contaminated by bacteria. After 24h of S. aureus inoculation, bacterial growth reached 202×10(3)CFU/ml in the presence of the essential oil while it was limited to 132×10(3)CFU/ml when treated with nanoemulsion. The reduction of antioxidant capacity of milk treated with essential oil was higher when treated with nanoemulsion. Moreover, free essential oil was more efficient in protecting proteins from degradation than the nanoemulsion. For instance, after 24h of E. hirae contamination, 26% of the total proteins were consumed in the presence of nano-encapsulated essential oil, while only 14% of the initial content was consumed when free essential oil was added. Concerning milk acidity increase and the inhibition of peroxide production, no statistical differences have been recorded between the use of free essential oil or its nano-emulsion. In conclusion, bulk or nano-encapsulated T. capitatus essential oil preserve milk quality and can extend its shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of Origanum dictamnus (dittany) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Fitsiou, Eleni; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Papavassilopoulou, Eleni; Vamvakias, Manolis; Pappa, Aglaia; Oreopoulou, Antigoni; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, there has been an increased interest in essential oils from various plant origins as potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative agents. This trend can be mainly attributed to the rising number and severity of food poisoning outbreaks worldwide along with the recent negative consumer perception against artificial food additives and the demand for novel functional foods with possible health benefits. Origanum dictamnus (dittany) is an aromatic, tender perennial plant that only grows wild on the mountainsides and gorges of the island of Crete in Greece. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components and assess its commercial potential in the food industry. O. dictamnus essential oil was initially analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine semi-quantitative chemical composition of the essential oils. Subsequently, the antimicrobial properties were assayed and the minimum inhibitory and non-inhibitory concentration values were determined. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic action against the hepatoma adenocarcinoma cell line HepG2 of the essential oil and its main components were further evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, respectively. The main constituents of O. dictamnus essential oil identified by GC-MS analysis were carvacrol (52.2%), γ-terpinene (8.4%), p-cymene (6.1%), linalool (1.4%), and caryophyllene (1.3%). O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. In addition, the estimated IC50 value for the DPPH radical scavenging activity for O. dictamnus essential oil was 0.045±0.0042% (v/v) and was mainly

  15. Chemical Constituents and Activity of Murraya microphylla Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The chemical composition, contact and repellent activities of the essential oil from Murraya microphylla branches and leaves against Lasioderma serricorne adults were determined and six compounds from the essential oil were isolated as well. The essential oil of M microphylla obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis; 22 compounds were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil included β-caryophyllene (18.0%), α-pinene (13.8%), spathulenol (9.5%), α-humulene (6.0%), γ-elemene (5.1%) and zingiberene (4.6%), followed by α-cadinol (3.9%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.8%). Six of these compounds were isolated and fully identified as α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol and α-cadinol. L. serricorne adults had different sensitivities to the crude essential oil and isolated compounds. α-Humulene exhibited the strongest contact activity against L. serricorne, showing an LD50 value of 13.1 µg adult(-1). However, spathulenol, the crude essential oil and α-cadinol showed stronger contact activity against L. serricorne than caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene. The essential oil, α-humulene and spathulenol showed comparable repellency against L. serricorne adults at 2 h after exposure, relative to the positive control, DEET. The results demonstrate that the essential oil and isolated compounds exhibited important contact and repellent activities against L. serricorne. Thus, they could become potential natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored products.

  16. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Guu, Shih-Yun; Tsai, Chan-Chuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Viswaraman, Mohan; Chen, Hsing-Bao; Chang, Chuan-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-α-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC), and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids. PMID:26076445

  17. Composition of essential oil of lemon thyme (Thymus × citriodorus) at different hydrodistillation times.

    PubMed

    Jurevičiūtė, Rūta; Ložienė, Kristina; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio

    2018-02-02

    Distillation time can both to optimise the production and to engineer the composition of essential oil in essential oil bearing plants. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of duration of hydrodistillation on composition of essential oil of Thymus × citriodorus, the natural source of commercially important geraniol and citral, a component with valuable biological properties. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation at different distillation times and analysed by GC/MS analytical methods. Increase in percentage of essential oil during all hydrodistillation time gradient was uneven. Elongation of hydrodistillation time decreased percentages of monoterpenes but increased percentages of sesquiterpenes in essential oil. Results showed that the hydrodistillation of essential oil from lemon thyme longer than 60 min is useless.

  18. Antifungal activity of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-12-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essential oil showed fungicidal activity.

  19. Chemical composition and phagocyte immunomodulatory activity of Ferula iliensis essential oils.

    PubMed

    Özek, Gulmira; Schepetkin, Igor A; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Andrei, Spencer R; Özek, Temel; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Abidkulova, Karime T; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Damron, Derek S; Quinn, Mark T

    2017-06-01

    Essential oil extracts from Ferula iliensis have been used traditionally in Kazakhstan for treatment of inflammation and other illnesses. Because little is known about the biologic activity of these essential oils that contributes to their therapeutic properties, we analyzed their chemical composition and evaluated their phagocyte immunomodulatory activity. The main components of the extracted essential oils were ( E )-propenyl sec -butyl disulfide (15.7-39.4%) and ( Z )-propenyl sec -butyl disulfide (23.4-45.0%). Ferula essential oils stimulated [Ca 2+ ] i mobilization in human neutrophils and activated ROS production in human neutrophils and murine bone marrow phagocytes. Activation of human neutrophil [Ca 2+ ] i flux by Ferula essential oils was dose-dependently inhibited by capsazepine, a TRPV1 channel antagonist, indicating that TRPV1 channels mediate this response. Furthermore, Ferula essential oils stimulated Ca 2+ influx in TRPV1 channel-transfected HEK293 cells and desensitized the capsaicin-induced response in these cells. Additional molecular modeling with known TRPV1 channel agonists suggested that the active component is likely to be ( Z )-propenyl sec -butyl disulfide. Our results provide a cellular and molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic properties of FEOs. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  20. Alginate/cashew gum nanoparticles for essential oil encapsulation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Erick F; Paula, Haroldo C B; de Paula, Regina C M

    2014-01-01

    Alginate/cashew gum nanoparticles were prepared via spray-drying, aiming at the development of a biopolymer blend for encapsulation of an essential oil. Nanoparticles were characterized regarding to their hydrodynamic volume, surface charge, Lippia sidoides essential oil content and release profile, in addition to being analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. Nanoparticles in solution were found to have averaged sizes in the range 223-399 nm, and zeta potential values ranging from -30 to -36 mV. Encapsulated oil levels varied from 1.9 to 4.4% with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 55%. The in vitro release profile showed that between 45 and 95% of oil was released within 30-50h. Kinetic studies revealed that release pattern follow a Korsmeyer-Peppas mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Repellent activity of five essential oils against Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Erler, F; Ulug, I; Yalcinkaya, B

    2006-12-01

    Essential oils extracted from the seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum), dried fruits of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), dried foliage of mint (Mentha piperita) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) and fresh foliage of laurel (Laurus nobilis) were tested for their repellency against the adult females of Culex pipiens. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees, eucalyptus, basil and anise being the most active.

  2. Study of quantitative and qualitative variations in essential oils of Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Cicero, Nicola; Gervasi, Teresa; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical characterisation of 10 Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L. biotypes essential oils is reported. The main goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between the essential oils yield and the geographical distribution of the species plants. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to cluster biotypes according to the essential oils chemical composition. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 (v/w). In total 82 compounds have been identified, these represent 96.7-99.9% of the essential oil. The most represented compounds in the essential oils were 1.8-cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, verbenone, α-pinene, limonene, bornyl acetate and terpinolene. The results show that the essential oil yield of the 10 biotypes is affected by the environmental characteristics of the sampling sites while the chemical composition is linked to the genetic characteristics of different biotypes.

  3. Chemical composition and anti-Acanthamoeba activity of Melaleuca styphelioides essential oil.

    PubMed

    Albouchi, Ferdaous; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, Maria; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Abderrabba, Manef

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba infections cause serious humans diseases, such as amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Melaleuca essential oil has been reported to be effective in treating bacterial and fungal infections. However, the anti-parasitic effects of this essential oil are not well studied. In the present study, we first characterized the composition of the essential oil, extracted from the Tunisian Melaleuca styphelioides leaves, and then tested its effect on the Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the major common compounds were Caryophyllene oxide (23.42%), Spathulenol (20.5%), Isoaromadendrene epoxide (7.45%), Ledol (5.98%), α-Pinene (3.82%), Isopinocarveol (2.18%). Our data also showed that M. styphelioides essential oil inhibited the growth of Acanthamoeba with an IC 50 value of 69.03 ± 9.17 μg/ml. This work suggests M. styphelioides essential oil as a potential anti amoeba drug. Nevertheless, further studies are still needed to further verify the cytotoxicity of the studied oil on human macrophages and check its applicability to treat Acanthamoeba infections in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment using an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fenghao; Uebaba, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroko; Tatsuse, Takeshi; Wang, Bing-Hong; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Venkatraman, Sonia

    2008-10-01

    Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment, Shirodhara, involves the use of medicated herbal sesame oils. In our previous reports, we found that Shirodhara with plain sesame oil induced anxiolysis and an altered state of consciousness (ASC) in healthy subjects. We studied the pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Shirodhara with medicated sesame oil including an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia (lavender) in the present study. Sixteen (16) healthy females (38 +/- 8 years old) were assigned at random to three treatments applied by a robotic oil-dripping system: plain sesame oil (plain Shirodhara), medicated sesame oil with a 0.3 volume % of lavender essential oil (lavender Shirodhara), or the control supine position. Psychophysiologic parameters including the heart rate, skin temperature of the dorsum of hands and feet, as well as anxiety and ASC were monitored, and the rates of change of these items were calculated to assess the psychophysiologic changes brought about by Shirodhara. Lavender Shirodhara showed potent anxiolytic and ASC-inducing or promoting effects, and induced the largest increase in foot skin temperature. The correlation between anxiolysis and ASC, as well as the correlation between these psychologic effects and the elevated foot skin temperature were larger in the lavender Shirodhara than in the other two conditions. It was speculated that the psycho-physiologic effects of lavender Shirodhara would be brought about by three mechanisms: (1) the well-known relaxing action of essential oils from L. angustifolia mediated by olfactory nerves, (2) the pharmacologic action of substances absorbed through the skin or mucosa in the sesame oil or lavender essential oil, and (3) the physiologic effect of sesame oil dripped on the forehead induced by the somato-autonomic reflex through thermosensors or pressure sensors in the skin or hair follicles via the trigeminal cranial nerve. The complicated pharmaco-physio-psychologic action of Ayurvedic oil treatment

  5. Cinnamon: Potential Role in the Prevention of Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bolin; Panickar, Kiran S.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, elevated glucose and lipids, inflammation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased weight gain, and increased glycation of proteins. Cinnamon has been shown to improve all of these variables in in vitro, animal, and/or human studies. In addition, cinnamon has been shown to alleviate factors associated with Alzheimer's disease by blocking and reversing tau formation in vitro and in ischemic stroke by blocking cell swelling. In vitro studies also show that components of cinnamon control angiogenesis associated with the proliferation of cancer cells. Human studies involving control subjects and subjects with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovary syndrome all show beneficial effects of whole cinnamon and/or aqueous extracts of cinnamon on glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, lipids, antioxidant status, blood pressure, lean body mass, and gastric emptying. However, not all studies have shown positive effects of cinnamon, and type and amount of cinnamon, as well as the type of subjects and drugs subjects are taking, are likely to affect the response to cinnamon. In summary, components of cinnamon may be important in the alleviation and prevention of the signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and related diseases. PMID:20513336

  6. Anti-inflammation activity of fruit essential oil from Cinnamomum insularimontanum Hayata.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Tsong; Chen, Chi-Jung; Lin, Ting-Yu; Tung, Judia Chen; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the fruit essential oil of Cinnamomum insularimontanum was prepared by using water distillation. Followed by GC-MS analysis, the composition of fruit essential oil was characterized. The main constituents of essential oil were alpha-pinene (9.45%), camphene (1.70%), beta-pinene (4.30%), limonene (1.76%), citronellal (24.64%), citronellol (16.78%), and citral (35.89%). According to the results obtained from nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity assay, crude essential oil and its dominant compound (citral) presented the significant NO production inhibitory activity, IC(50) of crude essential oil and citral were 18.68 and 13.18microg/mL, respectively. Moreover, based on the results obtained from the protein expression assay, the expression of IKK, iNOS, and nuclear NF-kappaB was decreased and IkappaBalpha was increased in dose-dependent manners, it proved that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of citral was blocked via the NF-kappaB pathway, but it could not efficiently suppress the activity on COX-2. In addition, citral exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory activity in the assay of croton oil-induced mice ear edema, when the dosage was 0.1 and 0.3mg per ear, the inflammation would reduce to 22% and 83%, respectively. The results presented that the fruit essential oil of C. insularimontanum and/or citral may have a great potential to develop the anti-inflammatory medicine in the future.

  7. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Wedelia prostrata

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jiali; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li; Qiu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The following study deals with the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Wedelia prostrata and their main constituents in vitro. A total of 70 components representing 99.26 % of the total oil were identified. The main compounds in the oil were limonene (11.38 %) and α-pinene (10.74 %). Antioxidant assays (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide anion radical, and reducing power test) demonstrate moderate activities for the essential oil and its main components (limonene and α-pinene). The essential oil (1000 μg/disc) exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against 10 strains of test microorganisms as a diameter of zones of inhibition (20.8 to 22.2 mm) and MIC values (125 to 250 µg/ml). The activities of limonene and α-pinene were also determined as main components of the oil. α-Pinene showed higher antimicrobial activity than the essential oil with a diameter of zones of inhibition (20.7 to 22.3 mm) and MIC values (62.5 to 125 µg/ml). The antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil may be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. PMID:26648809

  9. Cinnamon extract ameliorates ionizing radiation-induced cellular injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Azab, Khaled Sh; Mostafa, Abdel-Halem A; Ali, Ehab M M; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed A S

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of cinnamon extract against inflammatory and oxidative injuries in gamma irradiated rats. Rats were subjected to fractionated doses of gamma radiation. Cinnamon extract were daily administrated before starting irradiation and continued after radiation exposure. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cinnamon extract to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in liver antioxidant system; catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. The liver's lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation indices were significantly decreased when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. Furthermore, the changes induces in xanthine oxidoreductase system were significantly diminished. In addition, the changes in liver nitric oxide contents, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and C-reactive protein levels were markedly improved. In conclusion, the administration of cinnamon extract might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced oxidative and inflammatory damages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Essential oil composition and anti Acanthamoeba studies of Teucrium ramosissimum.

    PubMed

    Ghazouani, Nessrine; Sifaoui, Ines; Bachrouch, Olfa; Abderrabba, Manef; E Pinero, José; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of T. ramosissimum by hydrodistillation and to investigate their anti-Acanthamoeba activity. Identification and quantification were realized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection by (GC-FID). Sixty-eight compounds representing 97.78% of the essential oil were identified, of which δ-cadinene (18.63%), δ-cadinol (18.70%), β-eudesmol (12.13%), γ-gurjunene (4.34%) and 8-cedrene (3.99%) were the main compounds. This essential oil contained a complex mixture consisting mainly on sesquiterpenes (80.62%) and monoterpene fractions (14.34%). The findings of the anti-Acanthamoeba assay indicate that T. ramosissimum essential oil have a good activity with an IC 50  = 25.73 ± 0.75 μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage.

  12. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Jasminum pubescens leaves and flowers.

    PubMed

    Temraz, Abeer; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido; Braca, Alessandra

    2009-12-01

    The essential oil obtained from the leaves and flowers of Jasminum pubescens (Retz.) Willd. (Oleaceae) has been analyzed by GC/MS. Sixty-three and sixty-four components of the essential oils, representing 95.0% of the total oil for the leaves and 91.9% for the flowers, were identified, respectively. Both the oils were mainly constituted by non-terpene derivatives (58.2% and 50.8%, respectively), among which aldehydes (44.7%) characterized the essential oil from the leaves. Besides aldehydes (14.3%) and other carbonylic compounds (acids, esters, and ketones, 38.1%) were the main non-terpene compounds of the oil from the flowers.

  13. Composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of Origanum dictamnus (dittany) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Fitsiou, Eleni; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Papavassilopoulou, Eleni; Vamvakias, Manolis; Pappa, Aglaia; Oreopoulou, Antigoni; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    Background Nowadays, there has been an increased interest in essential oils from various plant origins as potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative agents. This trend can be mainly attributed to the rising number and severity of food poisoning outbreaks worldwide along with the recent negative consumer perception against artificial food additives and the demand for novel functional foods with possible health benefits. Origanum dictamnus (dittany) is an aromatic, tender perennial plant that only grows wild on the mountainsides and gorges of the island of Crete in Greece. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components and assess its commercial potential in the food industry. Design O. dictamnus essential oil was initially analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to determine semi-quantitative chemical composition of the essential oils. Subsequently, the antimicrobial properties were assayed and the minimum inhibitory and non-inhibitory concentration values were determined. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic action against the hepatoma adenocarcinoma cell line HepG2 of the essential oil and its main components were further evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, respectively. Results The main constituents of O. dictamnus essential oil identified by GC–MS analysis were carvacrol (52.2%), γ-terpinene (8.4%), p-cymene (6.1%), linalool (1.4%), and caryophyllene (1.3%). O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. In addition, the estimated IC50 value for the DPPH radical scavenging activity for O. dictamnus essential oil was

  14. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC 50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibacterial activity of essential oils of edible spices, Ocimum canum and Xylopia aethiopica.

    PubMed

    Vyry Wouatsa, N A; Misra, Laxminarain; Venkatesh Kumar, R

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils of 2 Cameroonian spices, namely, Xylopia aethiopica and Ocimum canum, were chemically investigated and screened for their antibacterial activity. The essential oils were analyzed by means of GC, GC/MS, and NMR. X. aethiopica oil contained myrtenol (12%), a monoterpenoid in highest concentration. The essential oil of O. canum belonged to the known linalool (44%) rich chemotype. The results of the antibacterial screening against the food spoiling bacteria revealed a significant and broad spectrum of activity for these essential oils. The present material of X. aethiopica, which is having myrtenol in relatively higher concentration, has shown moderate antibacterial activity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of Ocimum canum oil through flash chromatography showed that minor compounds, namely, α-terpineol, chavicol, chavibetol, and trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-ol, significantly contributed for the overall activity observed. Hence, these results evidenced the possible potential of the essential oil of O. canum as a suitable antibacterial for controlling food-borne pathogens whereas the X. aethiopica oil has moderate possibility. There is a strong global demand for the microbe-free, safe, and healthy foods. In this study, we showed that the essential oil of O. canum (wild basil) can be used as antibacterial for food items. Also, we showed that a value addition in the antibacterial potential of O. canum oil can be done by processing the essential oil through flash chromatographic separations. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Potential of the essential oil from Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus as an antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Érika Yoko; Baptista, Edilene Bolutari; Resende Do Carmo, Antônio Márcio; Miranda Chaves, Maria Das Graças Afonso; Chicourel, Elizabeth Lemos; Barbosa Raposo, Nádia Rezende

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the essential oil of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus in inhibiting the growth of the main bacteria responsible for bad perspiration odor (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus hauseri, Micrococcus yunnanensis and Corynebacterium xerosis). The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HR-GC) and four constituents were identified, eugenol being the major component (88.6%). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by means of the turbidimetric method, using the microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil ranged from 500 to 1,000 μg mL⁻¹. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations confirmed the physical damage and morphological alteration of the test bacteria treated with the essential oil, reference drugs and eugenol. The findings of the study demonstrated that this essential oil can be used in the formulation of personal care products.

  17. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  18. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  19. Properties and antioxidant activity of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2012-10-01

    Properties of protein-based film from fish skin gelatin incorporated with different citrus essential oils, including bergamot, kaffir lime, lemon and lime (50% based on protein) in the presence of 20% and 30% glycerol were investigated. Films containing 20% glycerol had higher tensile strength (TS) but lower elongation at break (EAB), compared with those prepared with 30% glycerol, regardless of essential oils incorporated (p<0.05). Films incorporated with essential oils, especially from lime, at both glycerol levels showed the lower TS but higher EAB than the control films (without incorporated essential oil) (p<0.05). Water vapour permeability (WVP) of films containing essential oils was lower than that of control films for both glycerol levels (p<0.05). Films with essential oils had varying ΔE(*) (total colour difference), where the highest value was observed in that added with bergamot essential oil (p<0.05). Higher glycerol content increased EAB and WVP but decreased TS of films. Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that films added with essential oils exhibited higher hydrophobicity with higher amplitude at wavenumber of 2874-2926 cm(-1) and 1731-1742 cm(-1) than control film. Film incorporated with essential oils exhibited slightly lower thermal degradation resistance, compared to the control film. Varying effect of essential oil on thermal degradation temperature and weight loss was noticeable, but all films prepared using 20% glycerol had higher thermal degradation temperature with lower weight loss, compared with those containing 30% glycerol. Films added with all types of essential oils had rough cross-section, compared with control films, irrespective of glycerol levels. However, smooth surface was observed in all film samples. Film incorporated with lemon essential oil showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (p<0.05), while the other films had lower activity. Thus, the

  20. Comparison of antispasmodic effects of Dracocephalum kotschyi essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Kasiri, F

    2015-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi is an essential oil containing plant found in Iran. In Iranian traditional medicine, D. kotschyi has been used as antispasmodic and analgesic but so far there is no pharmacological report about its antispasmodic activity. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activity of the essential oil of D. kotschyi and two of its constituents namely limonene and α-terpineol. The essential oil was obtained from aerial parts of D. kotschyi using hydrodistillation method. The main components found in the essential oil were α-pinene (10%), neral (11%), geraniol (10%), α-citral (12%), limonene (9%) and α-terpineol (1.1%). For antispasmodic studies, a portion of rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effect of the D. kotschyi essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The essential oil, in a concentration dependent manner inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=51 ± 8.7 nl/ml), ACh (IC50=19 ± 2.7 nl/ml) and EFS (IC50=15 ± 0.5 nl/ml). Limonene and α-terpineol showed same pattern of inhibitory effect on ileum contraction. Their inhibitory effects were also concentration dependent. However, limonene was more potent than the essential oil while the α-terpineol was less potent than either limonene or the essential oil. From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi essential oil has inhibitory effect on ileum contractions. Limonene contribute a major role in inhibitory effect of the essential oil while α-terpineol has weak antispasmodic activity.

  1. Comparison of antispasmodic effects of Dracocephalum kotschyi essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H.; Asghari, G.; Kasiri, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi is an essential oil containing plant found in Iran. In Iranian traditional medicine, D. kotschyi has been used as antispasmodic and analgesic but so far there is no pharmacological report about its antispasmodic activity. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activity of the essential oil of D. kotschyi and two of its constituents namely limonene and α-terpineol. The essential oil was obtained from aerial parts of D. kotschyi using hydrodistillation method. The main components found in the essential oil were α-pinene (10%), neral (11%), geraniol (10%), α-citral (12%), limonene (9%) and α-terpineol (1.1%). For antispasmodic studies, a portion of rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effect of the D. kotschyi essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The essential oil, in a concentration dependent manner inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=51 ± 8.7 nl/ml), ACh (IC50=19 ± 2.7 nl/ml) and EFS (IC50=15 ± 0.5 nl/ml). Limonene and α-terpineol showed same pattern of inhibitory effect on ileum contraction. Their inhibitory effects were also concentration dependent. However, limonene was more potent than the essential oil while the α-terpineol was less potent than either limonene or the essential oil. From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi essential oil has inhibitory effect on ileum contractions. Limonene contribute a major role in inhibitory effect of the essential oil while α-terpineol has weak antispasmodic activity. PMID:26487887

  2. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025

  3. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity.

  4. Ovicidal and Larvicidal Effects of Garlic and Asafoetida Essential Oils Against West Nile Virus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Ramirez, Jose L; Zilkowski, Bruce; Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We examined the chemical composition of garlic and asafoetida essential oils and their individual and combined toxicity against larvae of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex restuans Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae). The effect of the two essential oils on egg hatch was also examined. Ten and 12 compounds, respectively, were identified in garlic and asafoetida essential oils. Allyl disulfide (49.13%) and diallyl trisulfide (31.08%) were the most abundant compounds in garlic essential oil accounting for 80.2% of the total oil. In contrast, (E)-sec-butyl propenyl disulfide (30.03%), (Z)-sec-butyl propenyl disulfide (24.32%), and disulfide, methyl 1-(methylthio)propyl (21.87%) were the most abundant compounds in asafoetida essential oil. Allyl disulfide accounted for 7.38% of the total oil in asafoetida essential oil and was one of only three compounds found in both oils. For both mosquito species, garlic essential oil was more toxic than asafoetida essential oil with Cx. restuans (LC50: garlic = 2.7 ppm; asafoetida = 10.1 ppm) being more sensitive than Cx. pipiens (LC50: garlic = 7.5 ppm; asafoetida = 13.5 ppm). When combined, the two essential oils had antagonistic effects. The majority of Culex egg rafts exposed to garlic (73.1%) or asafoetida (55.8%) essential oils failed to hatch and larvae of the few that did hatch mostly died as first instars. Allyl disulfide exhibited strong ovicidal and larvicidal activity suggesting its important contribution to the overall toxicity of the two essential oils. Thus, garlic and asafoetida essential oils are potent mosquito ovicides and larvicides but if used jointly, they could undermine vector control programs. PMID:29718505

  5. Production, Characterization, and Stability of Orange or Eucalyptus Essential Oil/β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex.

    PubMed

    Kringel, Dianini Hüttner; Antunes, Mariana Dias; Klein, Bruna; Crizel, Rosane Lopes; Wagner, Roger; de Oliveira, Roberto Pedroso; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce and characterize inclusion complexes (IC) between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and orange essential oil (OEO) or eucalyptus essential oil (EEO), and to compare these with their pure compounds and physical mixtures. The samples were evaluated by chemical composition, morphology, thermal stability, and volatile compounds by static headspace-gas chromatography (SH-GC). Comparing the free essential oil and physical mixture with the inclusion complex, of both essential oils (OEO and EEO), it was observed differences occurred in the chemical composition, thermal stability, and morphology. These differences show that there was the formation of the inclusion complex and demonstrate the necessity of the precipitation method used to guarantee the interaction between β-CD and essential oils. The slow loss of the volatile compounds from both essential oils, when complexed with β-CD, showed a higher stability when compared with their physical mixtures and free essential oils. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical composition, molecular size, and structure of the essential oils influence the characteristics of the inclusion complexes. The application of the β-CD in the formation of inclusion complexes with essential oils can expand the potential applications in foods. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. EssOilDB: a database of essential oils reflecting terpene composition and variability in the plant kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sangita; Pundhir, Sachin; Priya, Piyush; Jeena, Ganga; Punetha, Ankita; Chawla, Konika; Firdos Jafaree, Zohra; Mondal, Subhasish; Yadav, Gitanjali

    2014-01-01

    Plant essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds, which play indispensable roles in the environment, for the plant itself, as well as for humans. The potential biological information stored in essential oil composition data can provide an insight into the silent language of plants, and the roles of these chemical emissions in defense, communication and pollinator attraction. In order to decipher volatile profile patterns from a global perspective, we have developed the ESSential OIL DataBase (EssOilDB), a continually updated, freely available electronic database designed to provide knowledge resource for plant essential oils, that enables one to address a multitude of queries on volatile profiles of native, invasive, normal or stressed plants, across taxonomic clades, geographical locations and several other biotic and abiotic influences. To our knowledge, EssOilDB is the only database in the public domain providing an opportunity for context based scientific research on volatile patterns in plants. EssOilDB presently contains 123 041 essential oil records spanning a century of published reports on volatile profiles, with data from 92 plant taxonomic families, spread across diverse geographical locations all over the globe. We hope that this huge repository of VOCs will facilitate unraveling of the true significance of volatiles in plants, along with creating potential avenues for industrial applications of essential oils. We also illustrate the use of this database in terpene biology and show how EssOilDB can be used to complement data from computational genomics to gain insights into the diversity and variability of terpenoids in the plant kingdom. EssOilDB would serve as a valuable information resource, for students and researchers in plant biology, in the design and discovery of new odor profiles, as well as for entrepreneurs—the potential for generating consumer specific scents being one of the most attractive and interesting topics

  7. Antifungal efficacy of plant essential oils against stored grain fungi of Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Atul; Sharma, Amit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The control potential of seven plant essential oils was evaluated against Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg and Fusarium verticillioides Sheldon. The fungicidal activity was assessed through microtiter plate assay to determine the minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentration of essential oils. The essential oil of Mentha arvensis was adjudged as best for inhibiting the fungal growth, while oil of Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolens showed high efficacy in terms of fungicidal activity. The oil of M. arvensis and T. vulgaris also showed good inhibition activity in agar disc diffusion assay. M. arvensis essential oil was analysed for its composition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealing menthol (63.18 %), menthone (15.08 %), isomenthyl acetate (5.50 %) and limonene (4.31 %) as major components. Significant activity of M. arvensis essential oil against F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides isolates obtained, pave the way for its use as antifungal control agents.

  8. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa activity of hemlock (Conium maculatum, Apiaceae) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Michela; Varcamonti, Mario; Basile, Adriana; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggi, Filippo; Zanfardino, Anna

    2018-05-21

    Conium maculatum is a nitrophilous weed belonging to the Apiaceae family and occurring in hedgerows, pastures, waste ground, along rivers and roadsides. Little is known on the chemistry and bioactivity of other secondary metabolites occurring in the plant. In the present work, we have analysed the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils hydrodistilled from leaves and inflorescenes of C. maculatum growing in Sicily, Italy. The composition of essential oils was achieved by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, whereas the inhibitory effects on the growth of two Gram negative strains, namely Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were assessed by two different analysis. The essential oils exhibited different chemical profiles (1-butylpiperidine and myrcene in the inflorescenes), (mostly (E)-caryophyllene in the leaves). The latter oil was particularly active in inhibiting the growth of P. aeruginosa. These results shed light on the possible application of hemlock essential oils as antimicrobial agents.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Antileishmanial Activities of Pistacia vera Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Sharifi, Iraj; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Rashidipour, Marzieh

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia vera essential oil and compare their efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®). This essential oil (0-100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against the intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica (MHOM/IR/2002/Mash2) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis of male BALB/c mice by Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER). In the in vitro assay, it could be observed that P. vera essential oil significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the growth rate of amastigote forms (IC50 of 21.3 ± 2.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent response compared with the control drug. Meglumine antimoniate also demonstrated antileishmanial effects with an IC50 value of 44.6 ± 2.5 µg/mL for this clinical stage. In the in vivo assay, the results indicated that 30 mg/mL of the essential oil had potent suppression effects on cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice (87.5% recovery), while 10 and 20 mg/mL of the essential oil represented the suppression effects as weak to intermediate. The mean diameter of the lesions decreased about 0.11 and 0.27 cm after the treatment of the subgroups with the essential oil concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/mL, respectively. In contrast, in the subgroup treated with the essential oil concentration of 30 mg/mL, the mean diameter of the lesions decreased about 0.56 cm. In the control subgroups, the mean diameter of the lesions increased to 1.01 cm. The main components of P. vera essential oil were limonene (26.21%), α-pinene (18.07%), and α-thujene (9.31%). It was also found that P. vera essential oil had no significant cytotoxic effect on J774 cells. The present study found that P. vera essential oil showed considerable in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. tropica and L. major compared to the reference drug. These findings also provided the scientific evidence that natural plants could be used in traditional medicine for the prevention and

  10. Salt effects on Origanum majorana fatty acid and essential oil composition.

    PubMed

    Baâtour, Olfa; Kaddour, Rym; Mahmoudi, Hela; Tarchoun, Imen; Bettaieb, Iness; Nasri, Nawel; Mrah, Sabah; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Lachaâl, Mokhtar; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-11-01

    The effects of salt on the essential oil yield and fatty acid composition of aerial parts of two marjoram varieties were investigated. Plants with 6 leaves were treated with NaCl (75mM). Salt treatment led to a reduction in aerial part growth. Salinity increased the fatty acid content more significantly in Tunisian variety (TV) than in Canadian variety (CV). CV showed an increase in double-bond index (DBI) and a decrease in malondialdehyde content under salt stress, while the opposite was observed in TV. The DBI was mainly affected by a strong reduction in oleic and linoleic acids in TV, whereas a strong stimulation of linoleic acid in CV was observed. Salt decreased and increased the essential oil yield in TV and CV respectively. The main constituents of the essential oil of TV were trans-hydrate sabinene and terpinen-4-ol, which showed a significant decrease under salt stress. In contrast, the main constituents of the essential oil of CV were sabinene and trans-hydrate sabinene, which showed a significant decrease and increase respectively under salt stress. Marjoram oil is a rich source of many compounds such as essential oils and fatty acids, but the distribution of these compounds differed significantly between the two varieties studied. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Inhibitory effects of spice essential oils on the growth of Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Sağdiç, Osman; Ozkan, Gülcan

    2006-01-01

    A series of essential oils of 11 Turkish plant spices [black thyme, cumin, fennel (sweet), laurel, marjoram, mint, oregano, pickling herb, sage, savory, and thyme], used in foods mainly for their flavor, aromas, and preservation, in herbal tea, in alternative medicines, and in natural therapies, were screened for antibacterial effects at 1:50, 1:100, 1:250, and 1:500 dilutions by the paper disc diffusion method against six Bacillus species (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 3842, Bacillus brevis FMC 3, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, and B. subtilis var. niger ATCC 10). All of the tested essential oils (except for cumin) showed antibacterial activity against one or more of the Bacillus species used in this study. Generally, the essential oils at 1:50 and 1:100 levels were more effective. Only one essential oil (laurel) was not found effective against the tested bacteria. The bacterium most sensitive to all of the spice essential oils was B. amyloliquefaciens ATCC 3842. Based on the results of this study, it is likely that essential oils of some spices may be used as antimicrobial agents to prevent the spoilage of food products.

  12. Water soluble fractions of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rao, B R Rajeswara; Kaul, P N; Syamasundar, K V; Ramesh, S

    2002-09-01

    The essential oil of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species, family: Geraniaceae) obtained through steam or water plus steam distillation of shoot biomass is extensively used in the fragrance industry and in aromatherapy. During distillation, a part of the essential oil becomes dissolved in the distillation water (hydrosol) and is lost as this hydrosol is discarded. In this investigation, hydrosol was shaken for 30 min with hexane (10:1 proportion) and the hexane was distilled to yield 'secondary' or 'recovered' essential oil. The chemical composition of secondary oil was compared with that of 'primary' oil (obtained directly by distilling shoot biomass of the crop). Primary oil accounted for 93.0% and secondary oil 7.0% of the total oil yield (100.2 ml from 100 kg green shoot biomass). Fifty-two compounds making up 95.0-98.5% of the primary and the secondary oils were characterized through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC--MS). Primary oil was richer in hydrocarbons (8.5-9.4%), citronellyl formate (6.2-7.5%), geranyl formate (4.1-4.7%), citronellyl propionate (1.0-1.2%), alpha-selinene (1.8-2.2%), citronellyl butyrate (1.4-1.7%), 10-epi-gamma-eudesmol (4.9-5.5%) and geranyl tiglate (1.8-2.1%). Recovered oil was richer in organoleptically important oxygenated compounds (88.9-93.9%), commercial rhodinol fraction (74.3-81.2%), sabinene (0.4-6.2%), cis-linool oxide (furanoid) (0.7-1.2%), linalool (14.7-19.6%), alpha-terpineol (3.3-4.8%) and geraniol (21.3-38.4%). Blending of recovered oil with primary oil is recommended to enhance the olfactory value of the primary oil of rose-scented geranium. Distillation water stripped of essential oil through hexane extraction can be recycled for distilling the next batch of rose-scented geranium.

  13. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C; Lis-Balchin, M; Kirk-Smith, M

    2000-09-01

    Childhood atopic eczema is an increasingly common condition in young children. As well as being irritating to the child, it causes sleepless nights for both the child and the family and leads to difficulties in parental relationships and can have severe effects on employment. A group of eight children, born to professional working mothers were studied to test the hypothesis that massage with essential oils (aromatherapy) used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with normal medical treatment, would help to alleviate the symptoms of childhood atopic eczema. The children were randomly allocated to the massage with essential oils group and both counselled and massaged with a mixture of essential oils by the therapist once a week and the mother every day over a period of 8 weeks. The preferred essential oils, chosen by the mothers for their child, from 36 commonly used aromatherapy oils, were: sweet marjoram, frankinsence, German chamomile, myrrh, thyme, benzoin, spike lavender and Litsea cubeba. A control group of children received the counselling and massage without essential oils. The treatments were evaluated by means of daily day-time irritation scores and night time disturbance scores, determined by the mother before and during the treatment, both over an 8 week period; finally general improvement scores were allocated 2 weeks after the treatment by the therapist, the general practitioner and the mother. The study employed a single case experimental design across subjects, such that there were both a within-subject control and between-subjects control, through the interventions being introduced at different times. The results showed a significant improvement in the eczema in the two groups of children following therapy, but there was no significant difference in improvement shown between the aromatherapy massage and massage only group. Thus there is evidence that tactile contact between mother and child benefits the symptoms of atopic eczema but there is no

  14. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.

  15. Antifungal activity of essential oils of Croton species from the Brazilian Caatinga biome.

    PubMed

    Fontenelle, R O S; Morais, S M; Brito, E H S; Brilhante, R S N; Cordeiro, R A; Nascimento, N R F; Kerntopf, M R; Sidrim, J J C; Rocha, M F G

    2008-05-01

    To find new antifungal agents among essential oils from Brazilian Croton species. Plant leaves were steam distilled and the obtained essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The main constituents were estragole and anethole for Croton zehntneri, methyl-eugenol and bicyclogermacrene for Croton nepetaefolius and spathulenol and bicyclogermacrene for Croton argyrophylloides. The antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Microsporum canis by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the broth microdilution method. Essential oils of Croton species demonstrated better activity against M. canis. Among the three plants C. argyrophylloides showed the best results, with MIC ranging from 9 to 19 microg ml(-1). The acute administration of the essential oil up to 3 g kg(-1) by the oral route to mice was devoid of overt toxicity. The studied essential oils are active in vitro against the dermatophyte M. canis and present relative lack of acute toxicity in vivo. Because of its antifungal activity and low toxicity, the essential oils of studied Croton species are promising sources for new phytotherapeutic agents to treat dermatophytosis.

  16. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Pensel, P. E.; Maggiore, M. A.; Gende, L. B.; Eguaras, M. J.; Denegri, M. G.; Elissondo, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus. PMID:25180033

  17. Control of Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin accumulation by plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bluma, R; Amaiden, M R; Daghero, J; Etcheverry, M

    2008-07-01

    The antifungal effect of Pimpinella anisum (anise), Pëumus boldus (boldus), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Origanum vulgare (oregano) and Minthosthachys verticillata (peperina) essential oils against Aspergillus section Flavi (two isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus and two isolates of Aspergillus flavus) was evaluated in maize meal extract agar at 0.982 and 0.955 water activities, at 25 degrees C. The percentage of germination, germ-tube elongation rate, growth rate and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) accumulation at different essential oils concentrations were evaluated. Anise and boldus essential oils were the most inhibitory at 500 mg kg(-1) to all growth parameters of the fungus. These essential oils inhibited the percentage of germination, germ-tube elongation rate and fungal growth. AFB(1) accumulation was completely inhibited by anise, boldus and oregano essential oils. Peperina and peppermint essential oils inhibited AFB(1) production by 85-90% in all concentrations assayed. Anise and boldus essential oils could be considered as effective fungitoxicans for Aspergillus section flavi. Our results suggest that these phytochemical compounds could be used alone or in conjunction with other substances to control the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in stored maize.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong-Hua; Feng, Rui-Zhang; Li, Qun; Wei, Qin; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Tao, Cui; Jia, Ren-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from C. longepaniculatum was evaluated by three experimental models including the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice, the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat and the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. The influence of the essential oil on histological changes and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) production associated with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was also investigated. The essential oil (0.5, 0.25, 0.13 ml/kg b.w.) showed significantly inhibition of inflammation along with a dose-dependent manner in the three experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil was occurred both in early and late phase and peaked at 4 h after carrageenan injection. The essential oil resulted in a dose dependent reduction of the paw thickness, connective tissue injury and the infiltration of inflammatory cell. The essential oil also significantly reduced the production of PGE2, histamine and 5-HT in the exudates of edema paw induced by carrageenan. Both the essential oil and indomethacin resulted relative lower percentage inhibition of histamine and 5-HT than that of PGE2 at 4 h after carrageenan injection.

  19. Antitumor Properties of the leaf essential oil of Zornia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Emmanoel V; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rocha, Suellen L A; Baliza, Ingrid R S; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    Zornia brasiliensis, popularly known as "urinária", "urinana", and "carrapicho", is a medicinal plant used in Brazilian northeast folk medicine as a diuretic and against venereal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antitumor potential of the leaf essential oil of Z. brasiliensis. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Its composition was characterized by the presence of trans-nerolidol, germacrene D, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and farnesene as major constituents. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents (trans-nerolidol, trans-caryophyllene, and α-humulene) was evaluated for tumor cell lines from different histotypes using the Alamar blue assay. The essential oil, but not the constituents tested, presented promising cytotoxicity. Furthermore, mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma were used to confirm its in vivo effectiveness. An in vivo antitumor study showed tumor growth inhibition rates of 1.68-38.61 % (50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). In conclusion, the leaf essential oil of Z. brasiliensis presents trans-nerolidol, germacrene D, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and farnesene as major constituents and is able to inhibit cell proliferation in cultures as well as in tumor growth in mice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Essential-oil composition and chemical variability of Senecio vulgaris L. from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Andreani, Stéphane; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of Senecio vulgaris plants collected in 30 Corsican localities was characterized using GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 54 components, which accounted for 95.2% of the total oil composition, were identified in the 30 essential-oil samples. The main compounds were α-humulene (1; 57.3%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (2; 5.6%), terpinolene (3; 5.3%), ar-curcumene (4; 4.3%), and geranyl linalool (5; 3.4%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs and during the complete vegetative cycle of the plants were also studied, to gain more knowledge about the plant ecology. The production of monoterpene hydrocarbons, especially terpinolene, seems to be implicated in the plant-flowering process and, indirectly, in the dispersal of this weed species. Comparison of the present results with the literature highlighted the originality of the Corsican S. vulgaris essential oils and indicated that α-humulene might be used as taxonomical marker for the future classification of the Senecio genus. A study of the chemical variability of the 30 S. vulgaris essential oils using statistical analysis allowed the discrimination of two main clusters according to the soil nature of the sample locations. These results confirmed that there is a relation between the soil nature, the chemical composition of the essential oils, and morphological plant characteristics. Moreover, they are of interest for commercial producers of essential oil in selecting the most appropriate plants. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  1. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  2. Repellent effect of microencapsulated essential oil in lotion formulation against mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2017-01-01

    Many essential oils have been reported as natural sources of insect repellents; however, due to high volatility, they present low repellent effect. Formulation technique by using microencapsulation enables to control the volatility of essential oil and thereby extends the duration of repellency. In this study, the effectiveness of microencapsulated essential oils of Alpinia galanga, Citrus grandis and C. aurantifolia in the lotion formulations were evaluated against mosquito bites. Essential oils and N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were encapsulated by using interfacial pre- cipitation techniques before incorporation into lotion base to form microencapsulated (ME) formulation. The pure essential oil and DEET were also prepared into lotion base to produce non-encapsulated (NE) formulation. All the prepared formulations were assessed for their repellent activity against Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory condition. Field evaluations also were conducted in three different study sites in Peninsular Malaysia. In addi- tion, Citriodiol® (Mosiquard®) and citronella-based repellents (KAPS®, MozAway® and BioZ Natural®) were also included for comparison. In laboratory conditions, the ME formulations of the essential oils showed no significant difference with regard to the duration of repellent effect compared to the microencapsulated DEET used at the highest con- centration (20%). It exhibited >98% repellent effect for duration of 4 h (p = 0.06). In the field conditions, these formulations demonstrated comparable repellent effect (100% for a duration of 3 h) to Citriodiol® based repellent (Mosiguard®) (p = 0.07). In both test conditions, the ME formulations of the essential oils presented longer duration of 100% repellent effect (between 1 and 2 h) compared to NE formulations. The findings of the study demonstrate that the application of the microencapsulation technique during the preparation of the formulations significantly increases the duration of the

  3. Eupatorium Capillifolium Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity, and Insecticidal Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    armigera) than had the extracts of other plant species [16]. The essential oil of E. buniifolium was evaluated against Varroa mite (Varroa...however by hours 3, 4 and 5, mortality increased to about 95% (Fig. 1). Many of more potent essential oil compounds such as Neem oil can inflict...did kill greater than 95% of adult bugs at 1% concentration after 3h exposure. This was nearly as many bugs that were killed by 100% neem oil and

  4. Efficacy of medicinal essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia sp. isolates.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Fahimirad, S

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the distribution pattern and population size of Malassezia species in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and the inhibitory efficacy of Zataria multiflora, Thymus kotschyanus, Mentha spicata, Artemisia sieberi, Rosmarinus officinalis and Heracleum persicum essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia isolates. The samples were collected from 5 different anatomical sites of 33 atopic dogs and cultured onto modified Dixon agar (MDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) media. The essential oil extraction was performed by steam distillation using Clevenger system. Anti-Malassezia efficacy of medicinal essential oils and standard drugs was evaluated using broth microdilution method. A total of 103 yeast colonies were isolated from dogs with AD. Eight different Malassezia species were identified as follows: Malassezia pachydermatis (81.4%), M. globosa (7.8%), M. restricta (3.9%), M. sloofiae (2.9%), M. furfur (1%), M. nana (1%), M. obtusa (1%) and M. sympodialis (1%). The most and least infected sites were: anal (21.2%) and ear (10.6%) respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent Malassezia species isolated from both skin and mucosa of dogs with AD. Antifungal susceptibility test revealed the inhibitory efficacy of essential oils on pathogenic Malassezia isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 30 to 850 μg/mL. Among the tested oils, Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus exhibited the highest inhibitory effects (P<0.05). The essential oils of Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus showed strong antifungal activity against pathogenic Malassezia species tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Habitat-related variation in composition of the essential oil of Seseli rigidum Waldst. & Kit. (Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Marčetić, Mirjana; Kovačević, Nada; Lakušić, Dmitar; Lakušić, Branislava

    2017-03-01

    Plant specialised metabolites like essential oils are highly variable depending on genetic and various ecological factors. The aim of the present work was to characterise essential oils of the species Seseli rigidum Waldst. & Kit. (Apiaceae) in various organs on the individual and populational levels. Geographical variability and the impact of climate and soil type on essential oil composition were also investigated. Individually sampled essential oils of roots, aerial parts and fruits of plants from seven populations were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The investigated populations showed high interpopulational and especially intrapopulational variability of essential oil composition. In regard to the variability of essential oils, different chemotypes were defined. The essential oils of S. rigidum roots represented a falcarinol chemotype, oils of aerial parts constituted an α-pinene or α-pinene/sabinene chemotype and fruit essential oils can be characterised as belonging to a complex sabinene/α-pinene/β-phellandrene/falcarinol/germacrene B chemotype. At the species level, analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) showed that the plant part exerted the strongest influence on the composition of essential oils. Climate had a high impact on composition of the essential oils of roots, aerial parts and fruits, while influence of the substrate was less pronounced. The variations in main compounds of essential oils based on climate or substrate were complex and specific to the plant part. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from Ferulago angulata.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Izadi, Arezo; Malek Poor, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Behzad

    2016-11-01

    Ferulago angulata Boiss. (Apiaceae), a perennial aromatic herb, grows wild in Iran. The aerial parts of F. angulata are used as a flavouring in foods, especially dairy foods by indigenous people in western and southwestern Iran. This study investigates variation in chemical compositions, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from F. angulata collected from natural habitats in the alpine regions of southwestern Iran. The antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) of the essential oils were evaluated against four bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium). Antioxidant activity of the oils was determined by DPPH assay. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS, which 49 volatile components were identified. There were significant differences between the various populations for oil yield and some main compounds. The major constituents of the essential oils from F. angulata were α-pinene, and cis-β-ocimene. The MICs of the essential oils were within concentration ranges from 62 to 250 μg/mL and the respective MBCs were 125 to > 500 μg/mL. Generally, the oils from F. angulata indicated weak to moderate inhibitory activities against bacteria, especially against Listeria monocytogenes. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from the oil of the Kallar population (IC 50 value   =   488 μg/mL) and BHT as positive control (IC 50  value =   321 μg/mL). The essential oil of F. angulata could be serving as a potential source of α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene for use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Gong; Lijuan, He; Shaoyu, Li; Chen, Zhang; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-07-01

    In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC-MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%), estragole (29.5%), and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%). 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8%) and estragole (20.8%). At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml(-1) and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of cinnamaldehyde and linalool from the leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira in endotoxin-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Shih-Yun; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2018-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira is a Taiwan native plant that belongs to genus Cinnamomum and is also known as pseudocinnamomum or indigenous cinnamon. Its leaf is traditionally used by local people in cooking and as folk therapy. We previously demonstrated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira of linalool chemotype in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on endotoxin-injected mice. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether cinnamaldehyde and linalool the active anti-inflammatory compounds in leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira. Before the injection of endotoxin, C57BL/6 mice of the experimental groups were administered cinnamaldehyde (0.45 or 0.9 mg/kg body weight) or linalool (2.6 or 5.2 mg/kg body weight), mice of the positive control group were administered the leaf essential oil (13 mg/kg body weight), and mice of the negative group were administered vehicle (corn oil, 4 mL/kg body weight) by gavage every other day for two weeks. All mice received endotoxin (i.p. 10 mg/mL/kg body weight) the next day after the final administration and were killed 12 h after the injection. Normal control mice were pretreated with vehicle followed by the injection with saline. None of the treatment found to affect body weight or food or water intake of mice before the injection of endotoxin. Cinnamaldehyde and linalool were found significantly reversed endotoxin-induced body weight loss and lymphoid organ enlargement compared with vehicle (P < 0.05). Both compounds also significantly lowered endotoxin-induced levels of peripheral nitrate/nitrite, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB-1), and levels of nitrate/nitrite, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) (P < 0.05). Endotoxin-induced expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid

  9. GC/MS Analysis of the Essential Oil of Vernonia cinerea.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2015-07-01

    The hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the roots of V. cinerea Less. (Asteraceae) was investigated by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-five constituents were identified, which represented 97.4% of the total oil. The major compounds were α-muurolene (30.7%), β-caryophyllene (9.6%), α-selinene (8.7%), cyperene (6.7%) and α-gurjunene (6.5%). The essential oil was dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (87.8%).

  10. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  11. Ultrastructural studies on antimicrobial efficacy of thyme essential oils on Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Rasooli, Iraj; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher; Allameh, Abdolamir

    2006-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has gained increasing attention as a pathogen of public health importance owing to large numbers of food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Because of negative consumer perception of chemical preservatives, attention is shifting towards natural alternatives. Particular interest has been focused on the potential application of plant essential oils. The objective of the present study was to determine ultrastructural changes brought about by essential oils from two types of thyme, Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus x-porlock, on Listeria monocytogenes. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal (MBC) concentrations and bactericidal kinetics of the oils were determined. Listeria monocytogenes were treated with essential oils from two thyme species and observed under a transmission electron microscope. The oils from the above plants were found to be strongly antimicrobial. Analysis of the oils by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry lead to the identification of 18 and 19 components in T. eriocalyx and T. x-porlock oils, respectively. Listeria monocytogenes treated with essential oils from the two thyme species exhibited a thickened or disrupted cell wall with increased roughness and lack of cytoplasm. The antilisterial effects of thyme oil are stronger than the action of electric shocks in combination with nisin reported in the literature. It is concluded that essential oils such as thyme oil, which inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes at low concentrations, could be considered as preservative materials for some kinds of foods; they could find an application as additives to foodstuffs in storage to protect them from listerial contamination.

  12. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. Results: The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. PMID:28512603

  13. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal ( Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), plai ( Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ), kaffir lime ( Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil ( Ocimum gratissimum ), lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove ( Syzygium aromaticum ), and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum ) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR- A. baumannii ). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil ( Melaleuca alternifolia ) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus , E. coli , P. aeruginosa , and A. baumannii . Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa . In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR- A. baumannii with MBC 90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR- A. baumannii infections.

  14. [Study on essential oil separation from Forsythia suspensa oil-bearing water body based on vapor permeation membrane separation technology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Pan, Yong-Lan; Li, Bo; Fu, Ting-Ming; Yao, Wei-Wei; Liu, Hong-Bo; Pan, Lin-Mei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of vapor permeation membrane technology in separating essential oil from oil-water extract by taking the Forsythia suspensa as an example. The polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinylidene fluoride (PDMS/PVDF) composite flat membrane and a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) flat membrane was collected as the membrane material respectively. Two kinds of membrane osmotic liquids were collected by self-made vapor permeation device. The yield of essential oil separated and enriched from two kinds of membrane materials was calculated, and the microscopic changes of membrane materials were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare and analyze the differences in chemical compositions of essential oil between traditional steam distillation, PVDF membrane enriched method and PDMS/PVDF membrane enriched method. The results showed that the yield of essential oil enriched by PVDF membrane was significantly higher than that of PDMS/PVDF membrane, and the GC-MS spectrum showed that the content of main compositions was higher than that of PDMS/PVDF membrane; The GC-MS spectra showed that the components of essential oil enriched by PVDF membrane were basically the same as those obtained by traditional steam distillation. The above results showed that vapor permeation membrane separation technology shall be feasible for the separation of Forsythia essential oil-bearing water body, and PVDF membrane was more suitable for separation and enrichment of Forsythia essential oil than PDMS/PVDF membrane. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Koliopoulos, George; Giatropoulos, Athanasios; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (enantiomers of alpha- and beta-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). The chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Citrus essential oils contained in high proportion limonene and in lower quantities p-menthane molecules and pinenes. The insecticidal action of these essential oils and enantiomers of their pinenes on mosquito larvae was evaluated. Plant essential oils exhibited strong toxicity against larvae with the LC(50) values ranging from 30.1 (lemon) to 51.5 mg/L (orange) depending on Citrus species and their composition. Finally, the LC(50) value of pinenes ranging from 36.53 to 66.52 mg/L indicated an enantioselective toxicity only for the beta-pinene enantiomer.

  16. Antibacterial activity of endemic Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad essential oil against oral pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Seghatoleslami, Sogol; Samadi, Nasrin; Salehnia, Ali; Azimi, Shahram

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To assess the antibacterial effects of an Iranian endemic essential oil, Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad (SKJ) when used as an intracanal antiseptic and interappointment medicament. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) of SKJ essential oil with and without calcium hydroxide (CH) against eleven aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic bacteria were assessed. The evaluation was carried out by agar dilution and well diffusion methods. The results were measured and recorded by an independent observer. Data were analyzed statistically using student t-test. RESULTS: The MIC for eight species was recorded in 0.31 mg/mL of essential oil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL appeared to be the most resistant bacterium; while only 0.16 mg/mL of essential oil was sufficient to inhibit the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibition zone of the antiseptic oil (at 0.31 mg/mL) with E. faecalis in the well diffusion method was 13 mm; this was comparable with 12.5 mm inhibition zone value of the tetracycline disc (30 µg). No synergistic effect was found in combination of essential oil and CH powder. CONCLUSION: SKJ essential oil with the concentration of 0.31 mg/mL is effective against most of oral pathogens including E. faecalis. PMID:23864870

  17. Anticancer activity of essential oils and their chemical components - a review

    PubMed Central

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël HN; Scifo, Riccardo; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Morel, Laurent; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils are widely used in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agriculture and food industries for their bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical and insecticidal properties. Their anticancer activity is well documented. Over a hundred essential oils from more than twenty plant families have been tested on more than twenty types of cancers in last past ten years. This review is focused on the activity of essential oils and their components on various types of cancers. For some of them the mechanisms involved in their anticancer activities have been carried out. PMID:25520854

  18. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis.

    PubMed

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  19. Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena E; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Kunze, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC-MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included α-pinene (Ocotea sp.), β-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), α-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented promising inhibitory properties for the short chain AHL quorum sensing (QS) system, in Escherichia coli containing the biosensor plasmid pJBA132, in particular Lippia alba. Moderate activity as anti-QS using the same plasmid, were also found for selected constituents of essential oils studied here, such as citral, carvone and α-pinene, although solely at the highest tested concentration (250 µg mL(-1)). Only citral presented some activity for the long chain AHL QS system, in Pseudomonas putida containing the plasmid pRK-C12. In short, essential oils from Colombian flora have promising properties as QS modulators.

  20. [Analysis of constituents of essential oil from the skin of water caltrop].

    PubMed

    Liang, Rui; Peng, Qi-Jun

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the constituents of essential oil from the skin of water caltrop. Water steam distillation and GC-MS were used. 58 componds were separated respectively. 56 componds being identified which were 96. 5% of the totle essential oil. Diethyl phthalate, acetamide, N-acetyl-N, N'-1,2-ethanediylbis-, isopropyl palmitate, hexadecanoic acid, Z-11 and octadecanoic acid are the main component of essential oil from the skin of water caltrop.

  1. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves.

    PubMed

    Sebei, Khaled; Sakouhi, Fawzi; Herchi, Wahid; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-01-19

    In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon), Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani), Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata). Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30), Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778). The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w) for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain α-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%). Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens) and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte), E. bicostata (arboretum of Aindraham) showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59%) and α-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostata showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

  2. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muchtaridi; Diantini, Adjeng; Subarnas, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L.) leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L.) herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L.) bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb.) rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s) that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%), 0.1 (55.72%), 0.5 (60.75%), and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%), respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  3. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as "Bergamot," is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  4. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1998-11-01

    The in-vitro activity of a range of essential oils, including tea tree oil, against the yeast candida was examined. Of the 24 essential oils tested by the agar dilution method against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, three did not inhibit C. albicans at the highest concentration tested, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil. Sandalwood oil had the lowest MIC, inhibiting C. albicans at 0.06%. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was investigated for activity against 81 C. albicans isolates and 33 non-albicans Candida isolates. By the broth microdilution method, the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates for both C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species was 0.25% (v/v). The minimum concentration of oil killing 90% of isolates was 0.25% for C. albicans and 0.5% for non-albicans Candida species. Fifty-seven Candida isolates were tested for sensitivity to tea tree oil by the agar dilution method; the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates was 0.5%. Tests on three intra-vaginal tea tree oil products showed these products to have MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that the tea tree oil contained in these products has retained its anticandidal activity. These data indicate that some essential oils are active against Candida spp., suggesting that they may be useful in the topical treatment of superficial candida infections.

  5. Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition antifungal activity and insecticidal activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chro...

  6. Chemical composition, phytotoxic and antifungal properties of Ruta chalepensis L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bouabidi, Wafa; Hanana, Mohsen; Gargouri, Samia; Amri, Ismail; Fezzani, Tarek; Ksontini, Mustapha; Jamoussi, Bassem; Hamrouni, Lamia

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition, and phytotoxic and antifungal activities of the essential oils isolated by using hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Tunisian rue were evaluated. Significant variations were observed among harvest periods. The analysis of the chemical composition by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that 2-undecanone (33.4-49.8%), 2-heptanol acetate (13.5-15.4%) and α-pinene (9.8-11.9%) were the main components. The antifungal ability of rue essential oils was tested by using disc agar diffusion against ten plant pathogenic fungi. A high antifungal activity was observed for the essential oil isolated at flowering developmental phase. Furthermore, rue essential oils showed high level of herbicidal activity against several weeds.

  7. The chemical composition, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of Pycnocycla spinosa and Pycnocyla flabellifolia essential oils.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Mahdizadeh, Elaheh; Heidary Tabar, Rezvan

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Pycnocycla spinosa and Pycnocycla flabellifolia essential oils. cis-Asarone (62.5%) and widdra-2,4(14)-diene (9%) were the main components of P. spinosa aerial part essential oil, while elemicin (60.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.8%) were the main components of P. spinosa seed essential oil. α-Phellandrene (25.5%), p-cymene (15.3%), and limonene (13.3%) were found in P. flabellifolia essential oil. The inhibition zone diameters for P. flabellifolia essential oil were significantly higher than for the two other essential oils from P. spinosa (p<0.05). In broth dilution assay (µL/mL), the sensitive microorganism to Pycnocycla sp. (P. spinosa, P. flabellifolia) was Aspergillus niger, followed by Candida albicans. In 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) system, P. spinosa aerial parts essential oil (IC50=548 µg/mL) had higher antioxidant activity than that of two other essential oils.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production. PMID:27275253

  9. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism.

    PubMed

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Krastev, Lutsian; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-02-24

    The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН(•)) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical ((•)O₂(-)) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx).

  10. Virucidal activity of Colombian Lippia essential oils on dengue virus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ocazionez, Raquel Elvira; Meneses, Rocio; Torres, Flor Angela; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-05-01

    The inhibitory effect of Lippia alba and Lippia citriodora essential oils on dengue virus serotypes replication in vitro was investigated. The cytotoxicity (CC50) was evaluated by the MTT assay and the mode of viral inhibitory effect was investigated with a plaque reduction assay. The virus was treated with the essential oil for 2 h at 37 masculineC before cell adsorption and experiments were conducted to evaluate inhibition of untreated-virus replication in the presence of oil. Antiviral activity was defined as the concentration of essential oil that caused 50% reduction of the virus plaque number (IC50). L. alba oil resulted in less cytotoxicity than L. citriodora oil (CC50: 139.5 vs. 57.6 microg/mL). Virus plaque reduction for all four dengue serotypes was observed by treatment of the virus before adsorption on cell. The IC50 values for L. alba oil were between 0.4-32.6 microg/mL and between 1.9-33.7 microg/mL for L. citriodora oil. No viral inhibitory effect was observed by addition of the essential oil after virus adsorption. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil seems to cause direct virus inactivation before adsorption on host cell.

  11. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant.

  12. Cinnamon supplementation does not improve glycemic control in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Thomassen, Bregje J W; Senden, Joan M; Wodzig, Will K W H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2006-04-01

    In vitro and in vivo animal studies have reported strong insulin-like or insulin-potentiating effects after cinnamon administration. Recently, a human intervention study showed that cinnamon supplementation (1 g/d) strongly reduced fasting blood glucose concentration (30%) and improved the blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon supplementation on insulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance and blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, a total of 25 postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes (aged 62.9 +/- 1.5 y, BMI 30.4 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) participated in a 6-wk intervention during which they were supplemented with either cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, 1.5 g/d) or a placebo. Before and after 2 and 6 wk of supplementation, arterialized blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Blood lipid profiles and multiple indices of whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined. There were no time x treatment interactions for whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance. The blood lipid profile of fasting subjects did not change after cinnamon supplementation. We conclude that cinnamon supplementation (1.5 g/d) does not improve whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance and does not modulate blood lipid profile in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes. More research on the proposed health benefits of cinnamon supplementation is warranted before health claims should be made.

  13. Composition and antimicrobial activity of Marrubium incanum Desr. (Lamiaceae) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Silvana; Pavlović, Milica; Maksimović, Zoran; Milenković, Marina; Couladis, Maria; Tzakouc, Olga; Niketić, Marjan

    2009-03-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Marrubium incanum Desr. (Lamiaceae), obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Forty-six compounds were identified, representing 96.3% of the total oil. The main components of the oil were (E)-caryophyllene (27.0%), germacrene D (26.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (11.5%). The microbial growth inhibitory properties of the isolated essential oil were determined using the agar diffusion and broth microdilution method against seven bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, Micrococcus flavus ATCC 10240, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIMB 9111, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and two strains of the yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 10259 and ATCC24433). The essential oil showed activity against all the microorganisms tested, but differences in microbial susceptibility were registered.

  14. Cytotoxic and genotoxic studies of essential oil from Rosa damascene Mill., Kashan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Habibi, Emran; Modanloo, Mona

    2017-08-01

    Aim Rosa damascene Mill. belongs to the family of Roseaceae and its essential oil is produced in large amounts in Iran. The wide application of rose oil has raised questions about potential adverse health effects. We have investigated cytotoxic activity and genotoxic effects of Rosa oil from Kashan, Iran. Methods The cytotoxic effect and IC50 of the essential oil on the cell lines was studied followed by MTT assay. In this assay mitochondrial oxidoreductase enzymes with reducing the tetrazolium dye MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reflect the number of viable cells. Genotoxic effect of the oil was evaluated by micronucleus assay by evaluating produced micronuclei due to cytogenetic damage in binucleated lymphocytes. Results The results showed that essential oil significantly had cytotoxic and genotoxic effects at doses over 10µg/mL (p<0.05). Also, essential oil of Rose showed lower IC50 in cancer cell line (A549) in comparison with the normal cell line (NIH3T3). Conclusion Cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of essential oil of Rose in Kashan, Iran, are safe at a dose of 10µg/mL. Also, a good cytotoxic effect was shown and could be introduced as an anticancer compound. Further studies are needed with regard to anti-cancer effects of Rose essential oil. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  15. Effect of citronella essential oil fractions as oil phase on emulsion stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiyanti, Melati; Meliana, Yenny; Agustian, Egi

    2017-11-01

    The emulsion system consists of water, oil and surfactant. In order to create stable emulsion system, the composition and formulation between water phase, surfactant and oil phase are very important. Essential oil such as citronella oil has been known as active ingredient which has ability as insect repellent. This research studied the effect of citronella oil and its fraction as oil phase on emulsion stability. The cycle stability test was conducted to check the emulsion stability and it was monitored by pH, density, viscosity, particle size, refractive index, zeta potential, physical appearance and FTIR for 4 weeks. Citronellal fraction has better stability compared to citronella oil and rhodinol fraction with slight change of physical and chemical properties before and after the cycle stability test. However, it is need further study to enhance the stability of the emulsion stability for this formulation.

  16. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots.

    PubMed

    Thusoo, Sakshima; Gupta, Sahil; Sudan, Rasleen; Kour, Jaspreet; Bhagat, Sahil; Hussain, Rashid; Bhagat, Madhulika

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, β-vatirenene, β-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, β-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, β-guaiene, and α-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity.

  17. Essential oil yield and composition reflect browsing damage of junipers.

    PubMed

    Markó, Gábor; Gyuricza, Veronika; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbacker, Vilmos

    2008-12-01

    The impact of browsing on vegetation depends on the relative density and species composition of browsers. Herbivore density and plant damage can be either site-specific or change seasonally and spatially. For juniper (Juniperus communis) forests of a sand dune region in Hungary, it has been assumed that plant damage investigated at different temporal and spatial scales would reflect selective herbivory. The level of juniper damage was tested for a possible correlation with the concentration of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in plants and seasonal changes in browsing pressure. Heavily browsed and nonbrowsed junipers were also assumed to differ in their chemical composition, and the spatial distribution of browsing damage within each forest was analyzed to reveal the main browser. Long-term differences in local browsing pressure were also expected and would be reflected in site-specific age distributions of distant juniper populations. The concentrations of PSMs (essential oils) varied significantly among junipers and seasons. Heavily browsed shrubs contained the lowest oil yield; essential oils were highest in shrubs bearing no damage, indicating that PSMs might contribute to reduce browsing in undamaged shrubs. There was a seasonal fluctuation in the yield of essential oil that was lower in the summer period than in other seasons. Gas chromatography (GC) revealed differences in some essential oil components, suggesting that certain chemicals could have contributed to reduced consumption. The consequential long-term changes were reflected in differences in age distribution between distant juniper forests. These results confirm that both the concentration of PSMs and specific compounds of the essential oil may play a role in selective browsing damage by local herbivores.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from cones of Pinus koraiensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Yang, Hye-Young; Lee, Hong-Sub; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2008-03-01

    The essential oil from the cones of Pinus koraiensis was prepared after removing the seeds, and its chemical composition analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation of the P. koraiensis cones yielded 1.07% (v/w) of essential oil, which was almost three times the amount of essential oil extracted from the needles of the same plant. Moreover, the antimicrobial activities of the oil against the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi were evaluated using the agar disc diffusion method and broth microdilution method. Eighty-seven components, comprising about 96.8% of the total oil, were identified. The most abundant oil components were limonene (27.90%), alpha-pinene (23.89%), beta-pinene (12.02%), 3-carene (4.95%), beta-myrcene (4.53%), isolongifolene (3.35%), (-)-bornyl acetate (2.02%), caryophyllene (1.71%), and camphene (1.54%). The essential oil was confirmed to have significant antimicrobial activities, especially against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida glabrata YFCC 062 and Cryptococcus neoformans B 42419. Therefore, the present results indicate that the essential oil from the cones of Pinus koraiensis can be used in various ways as a nontoxic and environmentally friendly disinfectant.

  19. Cymbopogon citratus essential oil: effect on polymicrobial caries-related biofilm with low cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Alcionéia Carvalho de; Borges, Aline Chiodi; Brighenti, Fernanda Lourenção; Salvador, Marcos José; Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2017-11-06

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and its main compound (citral) against primary dental colonizers and caries-related species. Chemical characterization of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and the main compound was determined. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations were determined by broth microdilution assay for streptococci and lactobacilli reference, and for clinical strains. The effect of the essential oil on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation/disruption was investigated. Negative (without treatment) and positive controls (chlorhexidine) were used. The effect of citral on preformed biofilm was also tested using the same methodology. Monospecies and microcosm biofilms were tested. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (α=0.05). Cytotoxicity of the essential oil to human keratinocytes was performed by MTT assay. GC/MS demonstrated one major component (citral). The essential oil showed an inhibitory effect on all tested bacterial species, including S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Essential oil of C. citratus (10X MIC) reduced the number of viable cells of lactobacilli and streptococci biofilms (p < 0.05). The essential oil inhibited adhesion of caries-related polymicrobial biofilm to dental enamel (p < 0.01). Citral significantly reduced the number of viable cells of streptococci biofilm (p < 0.001). The essential oil showed low cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes. Based on these findings, this study can contribute to the development of new formulations for products like mouthwash, against dental biofilms.

  20. Physical and mechanical testing of essential oil-embedded cellulose ester films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polymer films made from cellulose esters are useful for embedding plant essential oils, either for food packaging or air freshener applications. Studies and testing were done on the physical and mechanical properties of cellulose ester-based films incorporating essential oils (EO) from lemongrass (C...

  1. Medfly Responses to Natural Essential Oils: Electroantennography and Long-Range Attraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Secondary metabolites emitted from plants and natural essential oils are suspected to attract males of the Mediterranean fruit fly to their calling sites. We investigated the differential attractiveness of six essential oils that have either been shown to have aromatherapy effects and/or that differ...

  2. Additive postprandial blood glucose-attenuating and satiety-enhancing effect of cinnamon and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Samuel; Schwarz, Isaline; Colombani, Paolo C

    2009-10-01

    Cinnamon and vinegar or acetic acid were reported to reduce the postprandial blood glucose response. We hypothesized that the combination of these substances might result in an additive effect. Therefore, we determined the 2-hour postprandial blood glucose and satiety response to a milk rice meal supplemented with either cinnamon or acetic acid on their own or in combination. Subjects (n = 27) consumed the meal on 4 occasions as either pure (control trial), with 4 g cinnamon, 28 mmol acetic acid, or the combination of cinnamon + acetic acid. Blood glucose and satiety were assessed before eating and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes postprandially. At 15 minutes, the combination of cinnamon + acetic acid resulted in a significantly reduced blood glucose concentration compared with the control meal (P = .021). The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve over 120 minutes did, however, not differ between the trials (P = .539). The satiety score of the cinnamon + acetic acid trial was significantly higher than that in the control trial at 15 (P = .024) and 30 minutes (P = .024), but the incremental area under the curve of the satiety response did not differ (P = .116) between the trials. In conclusion, the significant effect of the combination of cinnamon and acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety immediately after meal intake indicated an additive effect of the 2 substances. Whether larger doses of cinnamon and acetic acid may result in a more substantial additive effect on blood glucose or satiety remains to be investigated.

  3. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as “Bergamot,” is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress. PMID:25784877

  4. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis).

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Carvalho, Camila R; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (-)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (-)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively.

  5. Effects of essential oil exposure on salivary estrogen concentration in perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Doi, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Chizu; Sawano, Erika; Tarumi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    The menopausal transition is the time from the onset of menstrual changes until one year after the final menstrual period. During this phase, perimenopausal women experience a variety of health-related symptoms, which seemingly derive from declining level of estrogen secretion. It has long been recognized that some essential oils have the efficacy of alleviating menopausal symptoms. On the basis of this, it is possible that these essential oils have the potency to facilitate estrogen secretion in women. The present study investigated this possibility by examining if the olfactory exposure to the essential oil increase salivary estrogen concentration. We tested the effect of ten essential oils; clary sage, frankincense, geranium, lavender, jasmine absolute, neroli, rose otto, ylang ylang, orange and roman chamomile, which are thought to relieve perimenopasal symptoms. The results have shown increase of salivary estrogen concentration induced by exposure to geranium and rose otto compared to control odor. Together with the previous studies, the present study may give support to the notion that olfactory exposure to some essential oils can influence salivary concentration of estrogen.

  6. Antitumour properties of the leaf essential oil of Xylopia frutescens Aubl. (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Rosana P C; Cardoso, Gabriella M B; da Silva, Thanany B; Fontes, José Eraldo do N; Prata, Ana Paula do N; Carvalho, Adriana A; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and anticancer effect of the leaf essential oil of Xylopia frutescens in experimental models. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analysed by GC/FID and GC/MS. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the essential oil was determined on cultured tumour cells. In vivo antitumour activity was assessed in Sarcoma 180-bearing mice. The major compounds identified were (E)-caryophyllene (31.48%), bicyclogermacrene (15.13%), germacrene D (9.66%), δ-cadinene (5.44%), viridiflorene (5.09%) and α-copaene (4.35%). In vitro study of the essential oil displayed cytotoxicity on tumour cell lines and showed IC50 values ranging from 24.6 to 40.0 μg/ml for the NCI-H358M and PC-3M cell lines, respectively. In the in vivo antitumour study, tumour growth inhibition rates were 31.0-37.5%. In summary, the essential oil was dominated by sesquiterpene constituents and has some interesting anticancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    PubMed Central

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

  8. Larvicidal potential of essential oils against Musca domestica and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitin; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati; Dhiman, R C

    2016-06-01

    The larvicidal activity of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogan citratus (lemongrass), Eucalyptus globulus and Citrus sinensis (orange) essential oils and their combinations was evaluated against Musca domestica (housefly) and Anopheles stephensi (mosquitoes) through contact toxicity assay. Among all the tested essential oils/combinations, Me. piperita was found to be the most effective larvicidal agent against Mu. domestica and An. stephensi with LC50 values of 0.66 μl/cm(2) and 44.66 ppm, respectively, after 48 h. The results clearly highlighted that the addition of mentha oil to other oils (1:1 ratio) improved their larvicidal activity. The order of effectiveness of essential oils/combinations indicated that the pattern for An. stephensi follows the trend as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus > mentha + orange > orange and for Mu. domestica as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + orange > orange > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus. The images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated the toxic effect of Me. piperita as the treated larvae were observed to be dehydrated and deformed. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of tested essential oils/combinations against the larval stages of Mu. domestica and An. stephensi and has the potential for development of botanical formulations.

  9. Development and characterization of biodegradable chitosan films containing two essential oils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhu; Kamdem, Donatien Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Active biodegradable films from chitosan containing 10% to 30% w/w of citronella essential oil (CEO) and cedarwood oil (CWO) were developed by casting and solvent-evaporation method, and their physical, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. Possible interactions between the chitosan chains and the essential oils were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Various amounts of CEO or CWO had significant effects on the films' mechanical properties, with the exception of 10% of CEO, which did not significantly affect the tensile strength of the films. The incorporation of the two tested oils provoked a remarkable reduction in the water-vapor permeability properties, with a decrease of about 63% when 30% CEO was added in chitosan films. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that degradation temperatures of the films containing CEO and CWO improved only slightly in comparison to control films without essential oils. FTIR spectra analysis provided some insights on the possible interactions between chitosan and the two essential oils used. This study suggests that active films can be developed by including CEO and CWO in a chitosan matrix. Such films can provide new formulation options for packaging industries in developing active packaging with potential food-technology applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Essential Oil Composition of Phagnalon sordidum (L.) from Corsica, Chemical Variability and Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Brunel, Marion; Vitrac, Caroline; Costa, Jean; Mzali, Fatima; Vitrac, Xavier; Muselli, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The chemical composition of Phagnalon sordidum (L.) essential oil was investigated for the first time using gas chromatography and chromatography/mass spectrometry. Seventy-six compounds, which accounted for 87.9% of the total amount, were identified in a collective essential oil of P. sordidum from Corsica. The main essential oil components were (E)-β-caryophyllene (14.4%), β-pinene (11.0%), thymol (9.0%), and hexadecanoic acid (5.3%). The chemical compositions of essential oils from 19 Corsican locations were investigated. The study of the chemical variability using statistical analysis allowed identifying direct correlation between the three populations of P. sordidum widespread in Corsica and the essential oil compositions they produce. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of P. sordidum essential oil was evaluated and it exhibited a notable activity on a large panel of clinically significant microorganisms. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata. L.

    PubMed

    Osho, A; Adetunji, T; Fayemi, S O; Moronkola, D O

    2010-01-01

    The need for a reduction in drug resistance led to the investigation of Argemone Mexicana L. as an agent against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida stellatoidea and Candida torulopsis, using well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations methods. The sensitivity of Bacillus Subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to the essential oils of both the aerial and root parts were determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to the essential oil from both the aerial and root part of the plant. C. torulopsis, C. stellatoidea and C. albicans were susceptible to the essential oils from the aerial and root part of the plant. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 3.75 mg/ml and 4.0 mg/ml were recorded for Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae by the aerial and the root extracts, but P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were not susceptible to the aerial and root extracts. The observed inhibition of selected bacteria and fungi by oils of Physalis angulata makes it a promising antimicrobial agent. This study justifies its uses for treatment of sores, cuts, intestinal and digestive problems and some skin-diseases often reported in folkloric medicine.

  12. Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.

    PubMed

    Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Simin, Natasa; Anackov, Goran

    2006-03-08

    The essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. Essential oils exhibited very strong RSCs, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50)) in the range from 0.17 (oregano) to 0.39 microg/mL (basil). The essential oil of T. vulgaris exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, although none of the examined essential oils reached 50% of neutralization (IC(50)). All of the tested essential oils strongly inhibited LP, induced either by Fe(2+)/ascorbate or by Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2). The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed by the essential oil of oregano, even on multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A significant rate of antifungal activity of all of the examined essential oils was also exhibited.

  13. Essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (Omani Basil): a desert crop.

    PubMed

    Al-Maskri, Ahmed Yahya; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Maskari, Masoud Yahya; Abraham, Alfie Susan; Al-sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Al-Mantheri, Omar

    2011-10-01

    The focus of the present study was on the influence of season on yield, chemical composition, antioxidant and antifungal activities of Omani basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil. The present study involved only one of the eight Omani basil varieties. The hydro-distilled essential oil yields were computed to be 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.1% in the winter, spring and summer seasons, respectively. The major components identified were L- linalool (26.5-56.3%), geraniol (12.1-16.5%), 1,8-cineole (2.5-15.1%), p-allylanisole (0.2-13.8%) and DL-limonene (0.2-10.4%). A noteworthy extra component was beta- farnesene, which was exclusively detected in the oil extracted during winter and spring at 6.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The essential oil composition over the different seasons was quite idiosyncratic, in which the principal components of one season were either trivial or totally absent in another. The essential oil extracted in spring exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (except DPPH scavenging ability) in comparison with the oils from other seasons. The basil oil was tested against pathogenic fungi viz. Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Penicillium italicum and Rhizopus stolonifer using a disc diffusion method, and by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. Surprisingly high antifungal values were found highlighting the potential of Omani basil as a preservative in the food and medical industries.

  14. Development of alginate microspheres containing thyme essential oil using ionic gelation.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Sergio; Cortés, Pablo; Parada, Javier; Franco, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    Essential oils are a good antimicrobial and antioxidant agent alternative in human or animal feed. However, their direct use has several disadvantages such as volatilization or oxidation. The development of essential oil microspheres may help to avoid these problems. The objective of the present research was to microencapsulate thyme essential oil by generating emulsions with different dispersion degrees. The emulsions were encapsulated in calcium-alginate microspheres by ionic gelation. The microspheres were evaluated regarding size, shape, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and antimicrobial properties. The results indicate that encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity are dependent on concentration and degree of dispersion. The best encapsulation conditions were obtained at 2% v/v of thyme essential oil with a high dispersion degree (18,000rpm/5min), which was achieved with an efficiency of 85%. Finally, the microspheres obtained showed significant antimicrobial effect, especially in gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis and Trachyspermum copticum essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis and Trachyspermum copticum essential oils against different kinds of microorganisms in vitro. Material and Methods The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by micro broth dilution assay and the chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Results Thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene and carvacrol were the main components of S. hortensis oil while thymol, γ-terpinene, and o-cymene were the major components of T. copticum oil. Two essential oils exhibited strong antimicrobial activity but the antimicrobial activity of T. copticum oil was higher than that of S. hortensis oil. Conclusion Thymol as a main component of oils plays an important role in antimicrobial activity. PMID:22530088

  16. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Krastev, Lutsian; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН•) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical (•O2−) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). PMID:26784665

  17. The influence of essential oils on human attention. I: alertness.

    PubMed

    Ilmberger, J; Heuberger, E; Mahrhofer, C; Dessovic, H; Kowarik, D; Buchbauer, G

    2001-03-01

    Scientific research on the effects of essential oils on human behavior lags behind the promises made by popular aromatherapy. Nearly all aspects of human behavior are closely linked to processes of attention, the basic level being that of alertness, which ranges from sleep to wakefulness. In our study we measured the influence of essential oils and components of essential oils [peppermint, jasmine, ylang-ylang, 1,8-cineole (in two different dosages) and menthol] on this core attentional function, which can be experimentally defined as speed of information processing. Substances were administered by inhalation; levels of alertness were assessed by measuring motor and reaction times in a reaction time paradigm. The performances of the six experimental groups receiving substances (n = 20 in four groups, n = 30 in two groups) were compared with those of corresponding control groups receiving water. Between-group analysis, i.e. comparisons between experimental groups and their respective control groups, mainly did not reach statistical significance. However, within-group analysis showed complex correlations between subjective evaluations of substances and objective performance, indicating that effects of essentials oils or their components on basic forms of attentional behavior are mainly psychological.

  18. Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Constituents from the Essential Oil of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Nara O.; Pascon, Renata C.; Vallim, Marcelo A.; Figueiredo, Carlos R.; Soares, Marisi G.; Lago, João Henrique G.; Sartorelli, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Backgroud: Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The present work deals with the chemical composition of the crude essential oil extracted from leaves of L. alba and evaluation of its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Methods: Leaves of L. alba were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of crude essential oil were evaluated in vitro using MTT and broth microdilution assays, respectively. Results: Chemical analysis afforded the identification of 39 substances corresponding to 99.45% of the total oil composition. Concerning the main compounds, monoterpenes nerol/geraniol and citral correspond to approximately 50% of crude oil. The cytotoxic activity of obtained essential oil against several tumor cell lines showed IC50 values ranging from 45 to 64 µg/mL for B16F10Nex2 (murine melanoma) and A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma). In the antimicrobial assay, was observed that all tested yeast strains, except C. albicans, were sensitive to crude essential oil. MIC values were two to four-folds lower than those determined to bacterial strains. Conclusion: Analysis of chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of L. alba suggested a new chemotype nerol/geraniol and citral. Based in biological evidences, a possible application for studied oil as an antifungal in medicine, as well as in agriculture, is described. PMID:28930132

  19. Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Constituents from the Essential Oil of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Pascon, Renata C; Vallim, Marcelo A; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Soares, Marisi G; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia

    2016-08-12

    Backgroud: Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The present work deals with the chemical composition of the crude essential oil extracted from leaves of L. alba and evaluation of its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Methods: Leaves of L. alba were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of crude essential oil were evaluated in vitro using MTT and broth microdilution assays, respectively. Results: Chemical analysis afforded the identification of 39 substances corresponding to 99.45% of the total oil composition. Concerning the main compounds, monoterpenes nerol/geraniol and citral correspond to approximately 50% of crude oil. The cytotoxic activity of obtained essential oil against several tumor cell lines showed IC 50 values ranging from 45 to 64 µg/mL for B16F10Nex2 (murine melanoma) and A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma). In the antimicrobial assay, was observed that all tested yeast strains, except C. albicans , were sensitive to crude essential oil. MIC values were two to four-folds lower than those determined to bacterial strains. Conclusion: Analysis of chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of L. alba suggested a new chemotype nerol/geraniol and citral. Based in biological evidences, a possible application for studied oil as an antifungal in medicine, as well as in agriculture, is described.

  20. Application of Origanum majorana L. essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in sausage.

    PubMed

    Busatta, C; Vidal, R S; Popiolski, A S; Mossi, A J; Dariva, C; Rodrigues, M R A; Corazza, F C; Corazza, M L; Vladimir Oliveira, J; Cansian, R L

    2008-02-01

    This work reports on the antimicrobial activity in fresh sausage of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) essential oil against several species of bacteria. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 10 selected aerobic heterotrophic bacterial species. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil based on the highest MIC value was tested in a food system comprising fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with a fixed concentration of Escherichia coli and the time course of the product was evaluated with respect to the action of the different concentrations of essential oil. Results showed that addition of marjoram essential oil to fresh sausage exerted a bacteriostatic effect at oil concentrations lower than the MIC, while a bactericidal effect was observed at higher oil concentrations which also caused alterations in the taste of the product.

  1. Combined Raman spectroscopy and first-principles calculation for essential oil of Lemongrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Rozilaine A. P. G.; Picanço, Nágela F. M.; Campo, Gladís S. D. L.; Faria, Jorge L. B.; Instituto de Física/UFMT Collaboration; Instituto Federal de Mato Grosso/IFMT Team

    2014-03-01

    The essential oils have increased food's industry interest by the presence of antioxidant and antimicrobial. Many of them have antimicrobial and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. But, due to the concentrations required to be added in the food matrix, the sensory quality of the food is changed. The production and composition of essential oil extracted from plants depend on the plant-environment interactions, the harvest season, phenophase and physiological state of the vegetal. Cymbopogom citratus (Lemongrass) has a good yield in essential oil with neral (citral A), geranial (citral B) and myrcene, reaching 90% of the oil composition. In our experimental work, the essential oil of lemongrass was obtained by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus for 4 hours. The compound was further analyzed by Raman scattering in a spectrometer HR 800, with excitation at 633nm, in the range 80-3400 cm-1. The spectrum obtained was compared with DFT calculations of molecules of the oil components. Our results show the vibrational signatures of the main functional groups and suggest a simple, but very useful, methodology to quantify the proportions of these components in the oil composition, showing good agreement with Raman data. CNPq/Capes/Fapemat.

  2. Sensitivity of Candida albicans to essential oils: are they an alternative to antifungal agents?

    PubMed

    Bona, E; Cantamessa, S; Pavan, M; Novello, G; Massa, N; Rocchetti, A; Berta, G; Gamalero, E

    2016-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for the majority of yeast infections in humans. Essential oils, extracted from aromatic plants, are well-known antimicrobial agents, characterized by a broad spectrum of activities, including antifungal properties. The aim of this work was to assess the sensitivity of 30 different vaginal isolated strains of C. albicans to 12 essential oils, compared to the three main used drugs (clotrimazole, fluconazole and itraconazole). Thirty strains of C. albicans were isolated from vaginal swab on CHROMagar ™ Candida. The agar disc diffusion method was employed to determine the sensitivity to the essential oils. The antifungal activity of the essential oils and antifungal drugs (clotrimazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) were investigated using a microdilution method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed to get a deep inside on cellular damages. Mint, basil, lavender, tea tree oil, winter savory and oregano essential oils inhibited both the growth and the activity of C. albicans more efficiently than clotrimazole. Damages induced by essential oils at the cellular level were stronger than those caused by clotrimazole. Candida albicans is more sensitive to different essential oils compared to the main used drugs. Moreover, the essential oil affected mainly the cell wall and the membranes of the yeast. The results of this work support the research for new alternatives or complementary therapies against vaginal candidiasis. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Chemical composition and some biological activities of the essential oils from basil Ocimum different cultivars.

    PubMed

    Avetisyan, Arpi; Markosian, Anahit; Petrosyan, Margarit; Sahakyan, Naira; Babayan, Anush; Aloyan, Samvel; Trchounian, Armen

    2017-01-19

    The plants belonging to the Ocimum genus of the Lamiaceae family are considered to be a rich source of essential oils which have expressed biological activity and use in different area of human activity. There is a great variety of chemotypes within the same basil species. Essential oils from three different cultivars of basil, O. basilicum var. purpureum, O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, and O. citriodorum Vis. were the subjects of our investigations. The oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The gas chromatography mass selective analysis was used to determine their chemical composition. The antioxidant activities of these essential oils were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays; the tyrosinase inhibition abilities of the given group of oils were also assessed spectophotometrically, and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was determined by the agar diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations were expressed. According to the results, the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils was quite different: O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained 57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil had 68.0% linalool. The main constituents of O. citriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral (20.7%). The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil. This oil has also exhibited the highest tyrosinase inhibition level, whereas the oil from O. citriodorum cultivar demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity. The results obtained indicate that these essential oils have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity and can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in medicine, food industry and cosmetics.

  4. Chemical Compositions and Insecticidal Activities of Alpinia kwangsiensis Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Dong-Ye; Wang, Ying; Wei, Jian-Yu; Li, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Bai, Jia-Feng; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Wang, Ping-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan

    2015-12-08

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Alpinia kwangsiensis rhizomes was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 31 components representing 92.45% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be camphor (17.59%), eucalyptol (15.16%), β-pinene (11.15%) and α-pinene (10.50%). These four compounds were subsequently isolated and the essential oil and four isolated compounds exhibited potent insecticidal activity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. During the assay, it was shown that the essential oil exhibited both potential contact (LD50 = of 24.59 μg/adult) and fumigant (LC50 = of 9.91 mg/L air) toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne. The study revealed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major components, which indicates that oil of Alpinia kwangsiensis and its isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides to control insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  5. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts that are generally... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils...

  6. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adulticidal activity of essential oil of Lantana camara leaves against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Dua, V K; Pandey, A C; Dash, A P

    2010-03-01

    Development of insect resistance to synthetic pesticides, high operational cost and environmental pollution have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control vector-borne diseases. In the present study we have investigated the insecticidal activity of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Lantana camara against mosquito vectors. Essential oil was isolated from the leaves of L. camara using hydro-distillation method. Bioassay test was carried out by WHO method for determination of adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. Different compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. LD(50) values of the oil were 0.06, 0.05, 0.05, 0.05 and 0.06 mg/cm(2) while LD(90) values were 0.10, 0.10, 0.09, 0.09 and 0.10 mg/cm(2) against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. culicifacies, An. fluvialitis and An. stephensi respectively. KDT(50) of the oil were 20, 18, 15, 12, and 14 min and KDT(90) values were 35, 28 25, 18, 23 min against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis and An. stephensi, respectively on 0.208 mg/cm(2) impregnated paper. Studies on persistence of essential oil of L. camara on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 45 peaks. Caryophyllene (16.37%), eucalyptol (10.75%), alpha-humelene (8.22%) and germacrene (7.41%) were present in major amounts and contributed 42.75 per cent of the total constituents. Essential oil from the leaves of L. camara possesses adulticidal activity against different mosquito species that could be utilized for development of oil-based insecticide as supplementary to synthetic insecticides.

  8. Chemotypes of Pistacia atlantica leaf essential oils from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Gourine, Nadhir; Bombarda, Isabelle; Yousfi, Mohamed; Gaydou, Emile M

    2010-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Pistacia atlantica Desf. leaves collected from different regions of Algeria were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was rich in monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major components were alpha-pinene (0.0-67%), delta-3-carene (0.0-56%), spathulenol (0.5-22%), camphene (0.0-21%), terpinen-4-ol (0.0-16%) and beta-pinene (0.0-13%). Among the various components identified, twenty were used for statistical analyses. The result of principal component analysis (PCA) showed the occurrence of three chemotypes: a delta-3-carene chemotype (16.4-56.2%), a terpinen-4-ol chemotype (10.8-16.0%) and an alpha-pinene/camphene chemotype (10.9-66.6%/3.8-20.9%). It was found that the essential oil from female plants (delta-3-carene chemotype) could be easily differentiated from the two other chemotypes corresponding to male trees.

  9. Preparation and characterization of clove essential oil-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Carine; Jraij, Alia; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    In this study, suitable formulations of natural soybean phospholipid vesicles were developed to improve the stability of clove essential oil and its main component, eugenol. Using an ethanol injection method, saturated (Phospholipon 80H, Phospholipon 90H) and unsaturated soybean (Lipoid S100) phospholipids, in combination with cholesterol, were used to prepare liposomes at various eugenol and clove essential oil concentrations. Liposomal batches were characterized and compared for their size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The liposomes were tested for their stability after storing them for 2 months at 4°C by monitoring changes in their mean size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values. It was found that liposomes exhibited nanometric oligolamellar and spherical shaped vesicles and protected eugenol from degradation induced by UV exposure; they also maintained the DPPH-scavenging activity of free eugenol. Liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile unstable essential oil constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemodiversity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei.

    PubMed

    Schicchi, Rosario; Geraci, Anna; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (Pinaceae) is a species occurring in a very small population only in a restricted area of Sicily. Its taxonomic classification as different species has been object of discussion. In this work the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves is presented for the first time and compared to the essential oils from other euroasiatic species reported in literature. Peculiar characteristics of the essential oil of A. nebrodensis are highlighted. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dongmei; Chen, Liping; Yang, Xiuyan; Tu, Ya; Jiao, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Depressive order is one of the most common psychiatric diseases, and Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis has shown many bioactivities in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from T. ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the compositions of essential oil. The immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspending test (TST), and open field test (OFT) were used to evaluate the antidepressive effects of essential oil. Furthermore, chronic mild stress (CMS) rats were established, and contents of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron capture detector (HPLC-ECD). Western blotting was performed to investigate the effects of essential oil on the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein in rats' brain. The GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of essential oil were estragole (6.16 %), β-elemene (24.91 %), β-cubebene (14.29 %), and γ-elemene (8.05 %). The results from the FST and TST demonstrated that the immobility time could be significantly reduced by essential oil (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg), without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in the OFT. Additionally, the contents of DA, NE, 5-HT, and BDNF in the hippocampus of CMS rats could be increased by treatment with essential oil at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg. All these results suggested that essential oil could be considered as a new candidate for curing depressive disorders.

  12. Relationship Between Soil and Essential Oil Profiles in Salvia desoleana Populations: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Rapposelli, Emma; Melito, Sara; Barmina, Giovanni Gabriele; Foddai, Marzia; Azara, Emanuela; Scarpa, Grazia Maria

    2015-09-01

    Salvia desoleana is a herbaceous perennial shrub endemic of Sardinia (Italy). The leaves are a source of essential oil, used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The therapeutic function of this species has been associated to the presence of essential oils rich in α/β-pinene, p-cimene, linalool, linalyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. Today.the industrial request of Salvia essential oils is increasing and most of the biomass is exploited from the natural populations which are under severe risk of genetic erosion. In order to improve the essential oil production, the study of the environmental parameters that influence composition, quality and quantity of the essential oils, turns out to be necessary. Soil physical and chemical structure represents one of the determinant factors in secondary metabolites production, and could also be involved in volatiles fraction composition in the same species. The main aim of this research was to explore the relationship between essential oil profiles and soil characteristics in S. desoleana populations. GC/MS analysis performed on the essential oil extracts identified 22 principal compounds, which were extremely variable among the five S. desoleana populations studied. The analysis of the essential oils revealed different compositions in the terpenes fractions: 68.2% of monoterpenes, 27.3% of sesquiterpenes and 4.5% of diterpenes. Analysis of chemical and physical soil parameters at the collection sites revealed that silt and sand contents were correlated with α-pinene and sclareol fractions and the total K20 was significantly correlated to several compounds belonging to the three terpene fractions identified. These results will provide guidelines for the in site conservation and for the improvement of the commercial value of the species.

  13. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Pinus patula.

    PubMed

    Amri, Ismail; Lamia, Hamrouni; Gargouri, Samia; Hanana, Mohsen; Mahfoudhia, Mariem; Fezzani, Tarek; Ezzeddine, Ferjani; Jamoussi, Bassem

    2011-10-01

    Essential oils isolated from needles of Pinus patula by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-eight compounds were identified, representing 98.3% of the total oil. The oil was rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons (62.4%), particularly alpha-pinene (35.2%) and beta-phellandrene (19.5%). The in vitro antifungal assay showed that P. patula oil significantly inhibited the growth of 9 plant pathogenic fungi. The oil, when tested on Sinapis arvensis, Lolium rigidum, Phalaris canariensis and Trifolium campestre, completely inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of all species. Our preliminary results showed that P. patula essential oil could be valorized for the control of weeds and fungal plant diseases.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity and antagonistic effect of essential oils from plant species.

    PubMed

    Toroglu, Sevil

    2007-07-01

    Kahramanmaras, is a developing city located in the southern part of Turkey Thymus eigii (M. Zohary and RH. Davis) Jalas, Pinus nigraAm. sub sp pallasiana and Cupressus sempervirens L. are the useful plants of the Kahramanmaras province and have been understudy since 2004 for the traditional uses of plants empiric drug, spice, herbal tea industry herbal gum and fuel. The study was designed to examine the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of these plants by the disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. In addition, antimicrobial activity of Thymus eigii was researched by effects when it was used together with antibiotics and even when it was combined with other essential oils. When the results of this study were compared with vancomycin (30 mcg) and erytromycin (15 mcg) standards, it was found that Thymus eigii essential oil was particularly found to possess strongerantimicrobial activity whereas other essential oils showed susceptible or moderate activity However, antimicrobial activity changed also by in vitro interactions between antibiotics and Thymus eigii essential oil, also between essential oils of these plants and that of Thymus eigii causing synergic, additive, antagonist effect.

  15. Increasing antioxidant activity and reducing decay of blueberries by essential oils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chien Y; Wang, Shiow Y; Chen, Chitsun

    2008-05-28

    Several naturally occurring essential oils including carvacrol, anethole, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, perillaldehyde, linalool, and p-cymene were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing decay and increasing antioxidant levels and activities in 'Duke' blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum). Carvacrol, anethole, and perillaldehyde showed the capability to promote total anthocyanins and total phenolics and enhance antioxidant activity in fruit tissues expressed as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical ( (*)OH) scavenging capacity. All of the essential oils tested in this study were able to inhibit fruit decay development to some degree compared to controls. The most effective compound for mold retardation was p-cymene, followed by linalool, carvacrol, anethole, and perillaldehyde. Cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde also suppressed mold growth, but to a lesser extent. Treatment with carvacrol, anethole, or perillaldehyde also significantly increased the levels of fructose, glucose, and citric acid. Individual flavonoids were variably affected by the essential oils. Levels of chlorogenic acid, which was the major phenolic compound in blueberry fruit, were enhanced by all of the essential oils in this study. Increased amounts of quercetin 3-galactoside and quercetin 3-arabinoside were also found in all treated fruit except samples treated with linalool or p-cymene. The major anthocyanin, malvidin 3-galactoside, was enhanced by all essential oils tested except linalool and p-cymene. The levels of other individual anthocyanins including petunidin 3-galactoside, delphinidin 3-galactoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-arabinoside, delphinidin 3-arabinoside, and cyanidin 3-galactoside were higher in treated fruit compared to controls. Those essential oils that have positive effects on enhancing anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of fruit, but inhibitory effects on microbial growth and decay development, deserve

  16. Antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from Satureja hortensis against selected clinical pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görmez, Arzu; Yanmiş, Derya; Bozari, Sedat; Gürkök, Sumeyra

    2017-04-01

    The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic microorganisms has become a worldwide concern to public health. To overcome the current resistance problem, new antimicrobial agents are extremely needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Satureja hortensis essential oils against seven clinical pathogens. Chemical compositions of hydro distillated essential oils from S. hortensis were analyzed by GS-MS. The antibacterial activity was investigated against Corynebacterium diphtheria, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia plymuthica Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Vibrio cholerae by the use of disc diffusion method and broth micro dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of essential oils were found as low as 7.81 µg/mL. Notably, essential oils of S. hortensis exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activities against the tested clinical pathogens. The results indicate that these essential oils can be used in treatment of different infectious diseases.

  17. Cinnamon polyphenol extract regulates tristetraprolin and related gene expression in mouse adipocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been widely used in spices, flavoring agents, and preservatives. Cinnamon polyphenol extract (CPE) may be important in the alleviation of chronic diseases, but the molecular evidence is not substantial. Tristetraprolin (TTP) family proteins have anti-inflammatory ef...

  18. Use of prebiotic carbohydrate as wall material on lime essential oil microparticles.

    PubMed

    Campelo, Pedro Henrique; Figueiredo, Jayne de Abreu; Domingues, Rosana Zacarias; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the use of different prebiotic biopolymers in lime essential oil microencapsulation. Whey protein isolate, inulin and oligofructose biopolymers were used. The addition of prebiotic biopolymers reduced emulsion viscosity, although it produced larger droplet sizes (0.31-0.32 µm). Moisture values (2.94-3.13 g/100 g dry solids) and water activity (0.152-0.185) were satisfactory, being within the appropriate range for powdered food quality. Total oil content, limonene retention values and antioxidant activity of the microparticles containing essential oil decreased in the presence of the carbohydrates. The addition of prebiotic biopolymers reduced the microparticle thermal stability. X-ray diffraction confirmed the amorphous characteristic of the microparticles and the interaction of the essential oil with the wall material. The presence of prebiotic biopolymers can be a good alternative for lime essential oil microparticles, mainly using fibre that has a functional food appeal and can improve consumer health.

  19. Essential oil constituents and antimicrobial activity of Pycnocycla bashagardiana Mozaff. from Iran.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Ardalan; Abdollahzadeh, Hamid

    2017-09-01

    Pycnocycla bashagardiana is a rare endemic and endangered species that has been used in folkloric medicine in Southern Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the essential oil constituents and antimicrobial activity of wild and cultivated p. bashagardiana. The aerial parts of wild and cultivated plants were collected from two provinces of Iran. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. The main components in wild plants were myristicin (39.12%), (E)-β-ocimene (21.97%), sabinene (15.0%) and cis-iso-miristicin (2.67%) and in cultivated plants, (E)-β-ocimene (55.40%), myristicin (18.27%), (Z)-β-ocimene (12.47%) and cis-iso-miristicin (2.94%) were the main constituents in essential oil. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. bashagardiana were studied against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans for the first time. The results showed that the oil exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens.

  20. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural...

  1. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural...

  2. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils...

  3. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils...

  4. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils...

  5. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils...

  6. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils...

  7. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis dys-function of diabetes rats.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Arash; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Hajhosseini, Laleh; Golzar, Farhad Sadeghpour; Ainehchi, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes rats have been linked to reproductive dysfunction and plant medicine has been shown to be effective in its treatment. Antioxidants have distinctive effects on spermatogenesis, sperm biology and oxidative stress, and changes in anti-oxidant capacity are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Animals (n = 80) were allocated randomly into eight groups, 10 each: Group 1: Control rats given only 5cc Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily;Group2: rats received ginger (100mg/kg/rat) daily; Group 3: rats received cinnamon (75mg/kg) daily; Group 4: rats received ginger and cinnamon, (100mg/kg/rat ginger and 75mg/kg cinnamon) daily; Group 5: Diabetic control rats received only normal saline. Group 6: Diabetic rats received 100mg/kg/day ginger; Group 7: Diabetic rats received 75mg /kg/ day cinnamon; Group 8: Diabetic rats received ginger and cinnamon (100mg/kg/day and 75mg/kg /day). Diabetes was induced with 55 mg/kg, single intra-peritoneal injection of STZ in all groups. At the end of the experiment (56th day), blood samples were taken for determination of testosterone, LH,FSH, total anti-oxidant capacity, and levels of malondialdehyde, SOD, Catalase and GPX. All rats were euthanized, testes were dissected out and spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Sperm numbers, percentages of sperm viability and motility, and total serum testosterone increased in ginger and cinnamon and combined ginger and cinnamon treated diabetic rats compared with control groups. Serum testosterone, LH and FSH were higher compared to control group and also serum anti-oxidants (TAC, SOD, GPX and catalase) all were increased at the

  8. Plant essential oils potency as natural antibiotic in Indonesian medicinal herb of “jamu”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetjipto, H.; Martono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to compile antibacterial activity data of essential oils from Indonesian’s plants in order which can be used as a natural antibiotic in “jamu” to increase potential Indonesian medicinal herb. By using Agar Diffusing method, Bioautography and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum, respectively, antibacterial activity and chemical compounds of 12 plants essential oils were studied in the Natural Product Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga since 2007 until 2015. The results of this studies showed that all of the essential oils have a medium to a strong antibacterial activity which are in the range of 30 - 2,500 μg and 80-5,000 μg. Further on, the essential oils analyzed by GCMS showed that each essential oils have different dominant compounds. These data can be used as basic doses in the usage of essential oils as natural antibiotics.

  9. Chemical composition, anthelmintic, antibacterial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nidal; Adwan, Lina; K'aibni, Shadi; Shraim, Naser; Zaid, Abdel Naser

    2016-10-26

    It has been recently recognized that oxidative stress, helminth and microbial infections are the cause of much illness found in the underdeveloped, developing and developed countries. The present study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition, and to assess anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antimicrobial activity was tested against the selected strains from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans using MIC assay. The anthelmintic assay was carried out on adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma), while antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. Trans-geraniol (35.38 %), α-citral (20.37 %) and β-citral (14.76 %) were the major compounds comprising 70.51 % of the essential oil. Our results showed that T. bovei essential oil exhibited strong anthelmintic activity, even higher than piperazine citrate, the used reference standard, with potential antioxidant activity almost equal to the Trolox standard. Furthermore, T. bovei essential oil had powerful antibacterial and antifungal activities against the studied pathogens. Essential oil of T. bovei exerted excellent antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anthelmintic activities. Moreover, this study found that T. bovei volatile oil contains active substances that could potentially be used as natural preservatives in food and pharmaceutical industries, these substances could also be employed for developing new anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  10. [Study on essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Zheng; Luo, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Lv, Ze-Liang; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are seriously harmful to human health for transmitting some mortal diseases. Among the methods of mosquito control, synthetical insecticides are the most popular. However, as a result of longterm use of these insecticides, high resistant mosquitos and heavy environmental pollution appear. Thus, eco-friendly prevention measures are taken into the agenda. Essential oils extracted from medicinal plants have repellent and smoked killing effects on mosquitoes. With abundant medical plants resources and low toxicity, they have the potential of being developed as a new type of mosquito and insect repellent agent. The recent application advances of essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent and its application limitations are overviewed. This review will provide references for the future development and in-depth study of essential oils. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Comparison of pistachio hull essential oils from different Tunisian localities.

    PubMed

    Chahed, Thouraya; Dhifi, Wissal; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Msaada, Kamel; Bellila, Amor; Kchouk, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Brahim