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Sample records for cinnamon extract ace-c

  1. The effect of cinnamon extract on isolated rat uterine strips.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Cinnamon is a spice used by some populations as a traditional remedy to control blood pressure and thus hypertension. Cinnamon extract decreases contractility in some smooth muscles, but its effect on uterine smooth muscle is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and pharmacological effects of cinnamon extract (CE) on the contractions of isolated rat uterine strips and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. Isolated longitudinal uterine strips were dissected from non-pregnant rats, mounted vertically in an organ bath chamber, and exposed to different concentrations of CE (10-20mg/mL). The effect of CE was investigated in the presence of each of the following solutions: 60mM KCl, 5nM oxytocin, and 1μM Bay K8644. CE significantly decreased the force of uterine contraction in a concentration-dependent manner and significantly attenuated the uterine contractions elicited by KCl and oxytocin. In addition, CE significantly decreased the contractile force elicited when L-type Ca(2+) channels were activated by Bay K8644. CE's major mechanism may be inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels, which limits calcium influx. These data demonstrate that CE can be a potent tocolytic that can decrease uterine activity regardless of how the force was produced, even when the uterus was stimulated by agonists. As a result, cinnamon may be used to alleviate menstrual pain associated with dysmenorrhoea or prevent unwanted uterine activity in early pregnancy.

  2. Cinnamon polyphenol extract regulates tristetraprolin and related gene expression in mouse adipocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been widely used in spices, flavoring agents, and preservatives. Cinnamon polyphenol extract (CPE) may be important in the alleviation of chronic diseases, but the molecular evidence is not substantial. Tristetraprolin (TTP) family proteins have anti-inflammatory ef...

  3. Cinnamon extract exhibits insulin-like and independent effects on gene expression in adipocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cinnamon is beneficial to people with insulin resistance due in part to the insulin-like activity of the cinnamon extract (CE). Molecular effects of CE are limited. This study tested the hypothesis that CE has insulin-like and insulin-independent effects at the molecular level. Quantitative real-tim...

  4. Maternal cinnamon extract intake during lactation leads to sex-specific endocrine modifications in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Toste, Fernanda P; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Oliveira, Karen J

    2017-08-01

    Cinnamon supplementation has been associated with an improvement in glucose disposal and a reduction in fat mass in type 2 diabetes. Maternal nutrition during lactation impacts the health of the offspring throughout life. We hypothesize that cinnamon intake by lactating rats affects maternal physiology, leading to hormonal and metabolic changes in their offspring. To investigate this hypothesis, dams received aqueous cinnamon extract (400 mg cinnamon kg(-1)  body mass day(-1) ) or water orally, during lactation. Maternal cinnamon intake did not affect the body mass gain or food intake of dams or their offspring, although it decreased visceral white adipose tissue mass in dams and in their adult offspring of both sexes. Cinnamon-treated dams exhibited no differences in serum insulin, adiponectin, leptin or estradiol levels, although they presented higher serum progesterone. At weaning, cinnamon male pups exhibited lower insulinemia, whereas cinnamon female pups exhibited lower glycemia. Interestingly, in adulthood, only the female offspring exhibited an altered hormonal profile, with reduced serum leptin, adiponectin and insulin levels accompanied by lower glycemia. The present study demonstrates that maternal cinnamon intake during lactation promotes mild changes in dams and can trigger sex-specific metabolic programming in pups that lasts into adulthood. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of cinnamon ethanolic extract against CCI4-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Bazargan, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    The inner bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of cinnamon bark extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. Administration with cinnamon extracts (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg) for 28 days significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. In addition, treatment of cinnamon extract resulted in markedly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes in rats. The histopathological studies in the liver of rats also supported that cinnamon extract markedly reduced the toxicity of CCl4 and preserved the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue to near normal. Thus, the results suggest that cinnamon extract acts as a potent hepatoprotective agent against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:27547174

  7. Antioxidant effects of a cinnamon extract on overweight subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To determine the effects of an aqueous extract of cinnamon on antioxidant status of obese subjects. Methods: Twenty-two obese subjects with elevated blood glucose were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were given either a placebo or 250 mg of an aqueous extract...

  8. Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An aqueous extract of Ceylon cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was found to inhibit tau aggregation and filament formation, hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in vitro using brain cells taken from patients who died with AD. The extract also promoted complete disassembly of recombinant tau filaments, and ...

  9. Cinnamon Extract Improves Insulin Sensitivity in the Brain and Lowers Liver Fat in Mouse Models of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Tina; Peter, Andreas; Schulz, Nadja; Drescher, Andrea; Bergheim, Ina; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Siegel-Axel, Dorothea; Schürmann, Annette; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. Methods Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde) were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. Results Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. Conclusions Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis. PMID:24643026

  10. Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Tina; Peter, Andreas; Schulz, Nadja; Drescher, Andrea; Bergheim, Ina; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Siegel-Axel, Dorothea; Schürmann, Annette; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde) were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis.

  11. Cinnamon Extract Improves TNF-a Induced Overproduction of Intestinal ApolipoproteinB-48 Lipoproteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TNF-alpha stimulates the overproduction of intestinal apolipoproteins. We evaluated whether a water extract of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) improved the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339 treated hamsters, and whether Cinnulin PF® inhibits the TNF-alpha-induced over the secretion of apoB...

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cinnamon Bark, Honey, and Their Combination Effects against Acne-Causing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Julianti, Elin; Rajah, Kasturi K.; Fidrianny, Irda

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were attained using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction between cinnamon bark extract and honey was determined using a checkerboards method. The results showed that the MICs of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while those against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of cinnamon bark extract against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis showed additive activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of 0.625. Therefore, the combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey has potential activity against acne-causing bacteria. PMID:28398231

  13. Stimulatory Effects of Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum cassia) during the Initiation Stage of 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Gil; Siaw, Joanna A.; Kang, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has an anti-diabetic effect by possibly increasing the lipid storage capacity of white adipocytes; however, this effect remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine which stage of adipogenesis is critical for the stimulatory effect of cinnamon in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 cells. Cells were treated with cinnamon extract during three different stages of adipogenesis. We found that genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis were enhanced when cinnamon extract was administered during the initiation stage of differentiation but not when administered during the preadipocyte and post stages of differentiation. At the same time, genes that were involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation were unexpectedly upregulated. Taken together, cinnamon may boost lipid storage in white adipocytes and increase the fatty acid oxidation capacity throughout the initiation stage of differentiation, which may be beneficial for the prevention of obesity-induced type II diabetes. PMID:28231178

  14. Cinnamon Polyphenol Extract Inhibits Hyperlipidemia and Inflammation by Modulation of Transcription Factors in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tuzcu, Zeynep; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Juturu, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cinnamon polyphenol extract on hepatic transcription factors expressions including SREBP-1c and LXR-α in rats fed high fat diet (HFD). Twenty-eight Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: (i) normal control: animals fed with normal chow; (ii) cinnamon: animals supplemented with cinnamon polyphenol; (iii) HFD: animals fed a high-fat diet; and (iv) HFD + cinnamon: animals fed a high-fat diet and treated with cinnamon polyphenol. Obesity was linked to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress as imitated by elevated serum glucose, lipid profile, and serum and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Cinnamon polyphenol decreased body weight, visceral fat, liver weight and serum glucose and insulin concentrations, liver antioxidant enzymes, and lipid profile (P < 0.05) and reduced serum and liver MDA concentration compared to HFD rats (P < 0.05). Cinnamon polyphenol also suppressed the hepatic SREBP-1c, LXR-α, ACLY, FAS, and NF-κB p65 expressions and enhanced the PPAR-α, IRS-1, Nrf2, and HO-1 expressions in the HFD rat livers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, cinnamon polyphenol reduces the hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress through activating transcription factors and antioxidative defense signaling pathway in HFD rat liver. PMID:28396714

  15. Cinnamon Polyphenol Extract Inhibits Hyperlipidemia and Inflammation by Modulation of Transcription Factors in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Tuzcu, Zeynep; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Juturu, Vijaya; Sahin, Kazim

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cinnamon polyphenol extract on hepatic transcription factors expressions including SREBP-1c and LXR-α in rats fed high fat diet (HFD). Twenty-eight Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: (i) normal control: animals fed with normal chow; (ii) cinnamon: animals supplemented with cinnamon polyphenol; (iii) HFD: animals fed a high-fat diet; and (iv) HFD + cinnamon: animals fed a high-fat diet and treated with cinnamon polyphenol. Obesity was linked to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress as imitated by elevated serum glucose, lipid profile, and serum and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Cinnamon polyphenol decreased body weight, visceral fat, liver weight and serum glucose and insulin concentrations, liver antioxidant enzymes, and lipid profile (P < 0.05) and reduced serum and liver MDA concentration compared to HFD rats (P < 0.05). Cinnamon polyphenol also suppressed the hepatic SREBP-1c, LXR-α, ACLY, FAS, and NF-κB p65 expressions and enhanced the PPAR-α, IRS-1, Nrf2, and HO-1 expressions in the HFD rat livers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, cinnamon polyphenol reduces the hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress through activating transcription factors and antioxidative defense signaling pathway in HFD rat liver.

  16. Antimicrobial effect of extracts from Chinese chive, cinnamon, and corni fructus.

    PubMed

    Mau, J; Chen, C; Hsieh, P

    2001-01-01

    Extracts were prepared from Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), and corni fructus (Cornus officinalis) and used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity on common foodborne microorganisms, alone and in combination. The mixed extract, consisting of three extracts in equal volumes, showed an entire antimicrobial spectrum and had excellent stability to heat, pH, and storage. The mixed extract exhibited better inhibition on growth of Escherichia coli than potassium sorbate at 2-5 mg/mL. The mixed extract inhibited the growth of Pichia membranaefaciens at levels as low as 2 mg/mL. When the mixed extract was used in foods, the expected antimicrobial effect in orange juice, pork, and milk was observed. After gel filtration chromatography, each extract was partially purified into fractions, and one fraction in each extract showed enhanced antimicrobial activity. Overall, the mixed extract was of promising potential for incorporation into various food products for which a natural antimicrobial additive is desired.

  17. Cinnamon extract improves the body composition and attenuates lipogenic processes in the liver and adipose tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Bruna P; Gaique, Thaiane G; Souza, Luana L; Paula, Gabriela S M; Kluck, George E G; Atella, Georgia C; Gomes, Anne Caroline C; Simas, Naomi K; Kuster, Ricardo M; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Oliveira, Karen J

    2015-10-01

    In models of metabolic disorders, cinnamon improves glucose and lipid metabolism. This study explores the effect of chronic supplementation with aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) on the lipid metabolism of rats. Male adult Wistar rats were separated into a control group (CTR) receiving water and a CE Group receiving aqueous cinnamon extract (400 mg of cinnamon per kg body mass per day) by gavage for 25 consecutive days. Cinnamon supplementation did not change the food intake or the serum lipid profile but promoted the following changes: lower body mass gain (P = 0.008), lower relative mass of white adipose tissue (WAT) compartments (P = 0.045) and higher protein content (percentage of the carcass) (P = 0.049). The CE group showed lower leptin mRNA expression in the WAT (P = 0.0017) and an important tendency for reduced serum leptin levels (P = 0.059). Cinnamon supplementation induced lower mRNA expression of SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) in the WAT (P = 0.001) and liver (P = 0.013) and lower mRNA expression of SREBP2 (P = 0.002), HMGCoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) (P = 0.0003), ACAT1 (acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1) (P = 0.032) and DGAT2 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2) (P = 0.03) in the liver. These changes could be associated with the reduced esterified cholesterol and triacylglycerol content detected in this tissue. Our results suggest that chronic ingestion of aqueous cinnamon extract attenuates lipogenic processes, regulating the expression of key enzymes and transcriptional factors and their target genes, which are directly involved in lipogenesis. These molecular changes possibly promote adaptations that would prevent an increase in circulating cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels and prevent lipid accumulation in tissues, such as liver and WAT. Therefore, we speculate that cinnamon may also be useful for preventing or retarding the development of lipid disorders.

  18. Bark Extracts of Ceylon Cinnamon Possess Antilipidemic Activities and Bind Bile Acids In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abeysekera, Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mendis; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekera Daya

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol (95%) and dichloromethane : methanol (1 : 1) bark extracts of authenticated Ceylon cinnamon were investigated for range of antilipidemic activities (ALA): HMG-CoA reductase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities and bile acids binding in vitro. Individual compounds in bark extracts were also evaluated. Bark extracts showed ALA in all the assays studied. The IC50 (μg/mL) values ranged within 153.07 ± 8.38–277.13 ± 32.18, 297.57 ± 11.78–301.09 ± 4.05, 30.61 ± 0.79–34.05 ± 0.41, and 231.96 ± 9.22–478.89 ± 9.27, respectively, for HMG-CoA reductase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities. The bile acids binding (3 mg/mL) for taurocholate, glycodeoxycholate, and chenodeoxycholate ranged within 19.74 ± 0.31–20.22 ± 0.31, 21.97 ± 2.21–26.97 ± 1.61, and 16.11 ± 1.42–19.11 ± 1.52%, respectively. The observed ALA were moderate compared to the reference drugs studied. Individual compounds in bark extracts ranged within 2.14 ± 0.28–101.91 ± 3.61 and 0.42 ± 0.03–49.12 ± 1.89 mg/g of extract. Cinnamaldehyde and gallic acid were the highest and the lowest among the tested compounds. The ethanol extract had highest quantity of individual compounds and ALA investigated. Properties observed indicate usefulness of Ceylon cinnamon bark in managing hyperlipidemia and obesity worldwide. Further, this study provides scientific evidence for the traditional claim that Ceylon cinnamon has antilipidemic activities. PMID:28808476

  19. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Sheng, Hongguang; Wu, Johnna; Cheng, Yuan; Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Yan

    2012-06-01

    For thousands of years, cinnamon has been used as a traditional treatment in China. However, there are no studies to date that investigate whether cinnamon supplements are able to aid in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. We hypothesized cinnamon should be effective in improving blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-blinded clinical study to analyze the effect of cinnamon extract on glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 66 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: placebo and low-dose and high-dose supplementation with cinnamon extract at 120 and 360 mg/d, respectively. Patients in all 3 groups took gliclazide during the entire 3 months of the study. Both hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in patients in the low- and high-dose groups, whereas they were not changed in the placebo group. The blood triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced in the low-dose group. The blood levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver transaminase remained unchanged in the 3 groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that cinnamon supplementation is able to significantly improve blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Cinnamon polyphenol extract affects immune responses by regulating anti- and proinflammatory and glucose transporter gene expression in mouse macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tristetraprolin (TTP/TIS11/ZFP36) family proteins have anti-inflammatory effects by polyphenoldestabilizing pro-inflammatory mRNAs. TTP expression is induced by insulin and cinnamon extract (CPE) in adipocytes, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in macrophages, and by green tea extract in rats. This study ...

  1. Effect of cinnamon water extract on monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and scavenger receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Water soluble cinnamon extract has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and modulate macrophage activation, a desirable trait for the management of obesity or atherosclerosis. Our present study investigated whether cinnamon water extract (CWE) may influence the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and the activity of macrophage scavenger receptors, commonly observed in atherosclerotic lesions. Methods We investigated the effect of CWE on the expression of various surface markers and the uptake of acetylated low density lipoprotein (LDL) in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated THP-1 cells. The protein levels of PMA or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)-stimulated type 1 macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA) were analyzed. Finally, the role of extracellar signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 in SRA synthesis and the effect of CWE on PMA-stimulated ERK1/2 were determined. Results CWE inhibited the differentiation of monocyte by decreasing the expression of CD11b, CD36 and SRA and the uptake of acetyl LDL. CWE suppressed the upregulation of SRA by M-CSF and modulated ERK1/2 activity, which was required for PMA-induced SRA synthesis. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that CWE was able to interfere with monocyte differentiation and macrophage scavenger activity, indicating its potential in preventing the development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24602512

  2. Mechanisms of cinnamon extract-induced suppression of the overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in insulin resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Metabolic dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and is associated with aberrant metabolism of apoB-containing lipoprotein particles produced by not only the liver but also the small intestine. We have reported previously that an aqueous extract from cinnamon (CE) improves high...

  3. Cinnamon extract inhibits the postprandial overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in fructose-fed animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have reported previously that a cinnamon extract(CE)prevents fructose feeding-induced decreases in insulin sensitivity, and suggested that improvements of insulin sensitivity by CE were partly attributable to enhanced insulin signaling. In this study, we examined the effects of CE on postprandial...

  4. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  5. Creatine co-ingestion with carbohydrate or cinnamon extract provides no added benefit to anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Islam, Hashim; Yorgason, Nick J; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-09-01

    The insulin response following carbohydrate ingestion enhances creatine transport into muscle. Cinnamon extract is promoted to have insulin-like effects, therefore this study examined if creatine co-ingestion with carbohydrates or cinnamon extract improved anaerobic capacity, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. Active young males (n = 25; 23.7 ± 2.5 y) were stratified into 3 groups: (1) creatine only (CRE); (2) creatine+ 70 g carbohydrate (CHO); or (3) creatine+ 500 mg cinnamon extract (CIN), based on anaerobic capacity (peak power·kg(-1)) and muscular strength at baseline. Three weeks of supplementation consisted of a 5 d loading phase (20 g/d) and a 16 d maintenance phase (5 g/d). Pre- and post-supplementation measures included a 30-s Wingate and a 30-s maximal running test (on a self-propelled treadmill) for anaerobic capacity. Muscular strength was measured as the one-repetition maximum 1-RM for chest, back, quadriceps, hamstrings, and leg press. Additional sets of the number of repetitions performed at 60% 1-RM until fatigue measured muscular endurance. All three groups significantly improved Wingate relative peak power (CRE: 15.4% P = .004; CHO: 14.6% P = .004; CIN: 15.7%, P = .003), and muscular strength for chest (CRE: 6.6% P < .001; CHO: 6.7% P < .001; CIN: 6.4% P < .001), back (CRE: 5.8% P < .001; CHO: 6.4% P < .001; CIN: 8.1% P < .001), and leg press (CRE: 11.7% P = .013; CHO: 10.0% P = .007; CIN: 17.3% P < .001). Only the CRE (10.4%, P = .021) and CIN (15.5%, P < .001) group improved total muscular endurance. No differences existed between groups post-supplementation. These findings demonstrate that three different methods of creatine ingestion lead to similar changes in anaerobic power, strength, and endurance.

  6. Improved Insulin Resistance and Lipid Metabolism by Cinnamon Extract through Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuebo; Gong, Zhenwei; Huang, Cheng; Zang, Ying Qin

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors involved in the regulation of insulin resistance and adipogenesis. Cinnamon, a widely used spice in food preparation and traditional antidiabetic remedy, is found to activate PPARgamma and alpha, resulting in improved insulin resistance, reduced fasted glucose, FFA, LDL-c, and AST levels in high-caloric diet-induced obesity (DIO) and db/db mice in its water extract form. In vitro studies demonstrate that cinnamon increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and alpha (PPARgamma/alpha) and their target genes such as LPL, CD36, GLUT4, and ACO in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. The transactivities of both full length and ligand-binding domain (LBD) of PPARgamma and PPARalpha are activated by cinnamon as evidenced by reporter gene assays. These data suggest that cinnamon in its water extract form can act as a dual activator of PPARgamma and alpha, and may be an alternative to PPARgamma activator in managing obesity-related diabetes and hyperlipidemia.

  7. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    PubMed

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

  8. The Effect of Cinnamon Extract and Long-Term Aerobic Training on Heart Function, Biochemical Alterations and Lipid Profile Following Exhaustive Exercise in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Results: Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (P<0.05). Both regular training and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, pre-treatment with cinnamon extract and/or regular training significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (P<0.01). Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile. PMID:25671183

  9. Water extracts of cinnamon and clove exhibits potent inhibition of protein glycation and anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo hypolipidemic activity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seori; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    Advanced glycation end products contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. Aqueous extracts of ground pepper, cinnamon, rosemary, ginger, and clove were analyzed and tested for anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo using hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. Cinnamon and clove extracts (at final 10 μg/mL) had the strongest anti-glycation and antioxidant activity in this study. Cinnamon and clove had the strongest inhibition of activity against copper-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and LDL phagocytosis by macrophages. Cinnamon or clove extracts had potent cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. They exhibited hypolipidemic activity in a hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model; the clove extract-treated group had a 68% and 80% decrease in serum cholesterol and TG levels, respectively. The clove extract-fed group had the smallest increase in body weight and height and the strongest antioxidant activity following a 5-week high cholesterol diet. Hydrophilic ingredients of cinnamon and clove showed potent activities to suppress the incidence of atherosclerosis and diabetes via strong antioxidant potential, prevention of apoA-I glycation and LDL-phagocytosis, inhibition of CETP, and hypolipidemic activity. These results suggest the potential to develop a new functional dietary agent to treat chronic metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cinnamon extract reduces symptoms, inflammatory mediators and mast cell markers in murine IL-10(-/-) colitis.

    PubMed

    Hagenlocher, Yvonne; Hösel, Angela; Bischoff, Stephan C; Lorentz, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) shows an increasing prevalence and harm in western countries. Conventional therapies are associated with bad compliance and adverse side effects. Natural substances like cinnamon extract (CE) could be an additional therapy. We found recently that CE acts anti-inflammatory on mast cells - discussed of being relevant in IBD. Here, we analysed the effects of CE on murine IL-10(-/-) colitis as model for IBD. Mice were treated 12 weeks with or without CE in drinking water. Clinical scores and disease activity index were assessed. Colonic tissue samples were analysed for infiltration, tissue damage, bowel wall thickness, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, mast cell proteases, tight junction proteins, and NF-κB signaling. Following treatment with CE, symptoms of murine colitis as well as increased infiltration of immune cells, tissue damage and bowel wall thickness in colon tissue of IL-10(-/-) mice were diminished significantly. MIP-2, TNF, IFNγ, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and IL-1β as well as MC-CPA, MCP-1 and MCP-4 were strongly upregulated in IL-10(-/-) mice compared to WT, but noteworthy not in CE group. Expression of tight junction proteins was not influenced by CE. Phosphorylation of IκB was slightly down-regulated in CE treated IL-10(-/-) mice compared to IL-10(-/-) controls. In summary, CE decreases inflammatory symptoms and expression of inflammatory markers in murine IL-10(-/-) colitis. CE has no influence on tight junction proteins, but seems acting via reducing pro-inflammatory mediators and recruitment of neutrophil granulocytes probably by inhibiting NF-κB signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trimer procyanidin oligomers contribute to the protective effects of cinnamon extracts on pancreatic β-cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Lu; Yu, Bang-Wei; Jia, Qi; Chen, Kai-Xian; Fan, Hui-Min; Li, Yi-Ming; Wang, He-Yao

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamon extracts rich in procyanidin oligomers have shown to improve pancreatic β-cell function in diabetic db/db mice. The aim of this study was to identify the active compounds in extracts from two species of cinnamon responsible for the pancreatic β-cell protection in vitro. Cinnamon extracts were prepared from Cinnamomum tamala (CT-E) and Cinnamomum cassia (CC-E). Six compounds procyanidin B2 (cpd1), (-)-epicatechin (cpd2), cinnamtannin B1 (cpd3), procyanidin C1 (cpd4), parameritannin A1 (cpd5) and cinnamtannin D1 (cpd6) were isolated from the extracts. INS-1 pancreatic β-cells were exposed to palmitic acid (PA) or H2O2 to induce lipotoxicity and oxidative stress. Cell viability and apoptosis as well as ROS levels were assessed. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was examined in PA-treated β-cells and murine islets. CT-E, CC-E as well as the compounds, except cpd5, did not cause cytotoxicity in the β-cells up to the maximum dosage using in this experiment. CT-E and CC-E (12.5-50 μg/mL) dose-dependently increased cell viability in both PA- and H2O2-treated β-cells, and decreased ROS accumulation in H2O2-treated β-cells. CT-E caused more prominent β-cell protection than CC-E. Furthermore, CT-E (25 and 50 μg/mL) dose-dependently increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in PA-treated β-cells and murine islets, but CC-E had little effect. Among the 6 compounds, trimer procyanidins cpd3, cpd4 and cpd6 (12.5-50 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased the cell viability and decreased ROS accumulation in H2O2-treated β-cells. The trimer procyanidins also increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in PA-treated β-cells. Trimer procyanidins in the cinnamon extracts contribute to the pancreatic β-cell protection, thus to the anti-diabetic activity.

  12. Effect of clove and cinnamon extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats: Immunopathological and antimicrobial study.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H; Abdelhafez, S; Ismail, T A

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts on some pathogenic microorganisms so we evaluated antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 40 adult healthy male albino rats divided into four groups: Group 1: negative control group (received intragastric saline solution daily); Group 2: injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S. aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis then received intragastric saline solution daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric clove extract 500 mg/kg/day; and Group (4): injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric cinnamon 500 mg/kg/day. Five rats from each group were sacrificed after 1 and 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozymes activity and nitric oxide production, lymphocyte transformation test, as well as counting of both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirmed the efficacy of clove extract as natural antimicrobials and suggested the possibility of its use in treatment of such bacterial infections. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Mechanisms of cinnamon extract-induced suppression of the intestinal overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in insulin resistant high-fructose fed animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have reported previously that cinnamon extract (CE) prevents high-fructose (HF) feeding-induced whole-body insulin resistance by enhancing insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated whether intestinal apolipoprotein overproduction is inhibited by CE in this insulin-resis...

  14. Effects of a water-soluble cinnamon extract on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic men and women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with a water-soluble cinnamon extract (Cinnulin PF®) on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome. Methods: Twenty-two subjects with prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome (mean ± SD: age, BMI, systolic ...

  15. Effects of a blended garlic and cinnamon essential oil extract with and without monensin sodium on the performance of grazing steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing calf diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts (GCOE) in promoting growth on cool-season annuals in Arkansas (SWREC) and Oklahoma (SPRRS), or native rangelan...

  16. Cinnamon extract attenuates TNF-alpha-induced intestinal lipoprotein ApoB48 overproduction by regulating inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein pathways in enterocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated whether a water extract of cinnamon (CE = Cinnulin PF®) attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339-treated hamsters, and whether CE inhibited the over-secretion of apoB48-induced by TNF-alpha in enterocytes in a 35S-labelling study. In vivo, oral treatment with C...

  17. A procyanidin type A trimer from cinnamon extract attenuates glial cell swelling and the reduction in glutamate uptake following ischemic injury in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary polyphenols exert neuroprotective effects in ischemic injury. The protective effects of a procyanidin type A trimer (trimer 1) isolated from a water soluble cinnamon extract (CE) were investigated on key features of ischemic injury including cell swelling, increased free radical production, ...

  18. Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract and powder mediated green synthesis of nano-crystalline silver particles and its bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, M; Sneha, K; Won, S W; Cho, C-W; Kim, S; Yun, Y-S

    2009-10-15

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The present study reports the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles from silver precursor using the bark extract and powder of novel Cinnamon zeylanicum. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nano-sized Ag particles. TEM and XRD results confirmed the presence of nano-crystalline Ag particles. The pH played a major role in size control of the particles. Bark extract produced more Ag nanoparticles than the powder did, which was attributed to the large availability of the reducing agents in the extract. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The EC(50) value of the synthesized nanoparticles against Escherichia coli BL-21 strain was 11+/-1.72 mg/L. Thus C. zeylanicum bark extract and powder are a good bio-resource/biomaterial for the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity.

  19. Extraction and quantitation of coumarin from cinnamon and its effect on enzymatic browning in fresh apple juice: a bioinformatics approach to illuminate its antibrowning activity.

    PubMed

    Thada, Rajarajeshwari; Chockalingam, Shivashri; Dhandapani, Ramesh Kumar; Panchamoorthy, Rajasekar

    2013-06-05

    Enzymatic browning by polyphenoloxidase (PPO) affects food quality and taste in fruits and vegetables. Thus, the study was designed to reduce browning in apple juice by coumarin. The ethanolic extract of cinnamon was prepared and its coumarin content was quantitated by HPLC, using authentic coumarin (AC) as standard. The effect of cinnamon extract (CE) and AC on enzymatic browning, its time dependent effects, and the specific activity of PPO and peroxidase (POD) were studied in apple juice. The docking of coumarin with PPO and POD was also performed to elucidate its antibrowning mechanism. The CE (73%) and AC (82%) showed better reduction in browning, maintained its antibrowning effect at all time points, and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the specific activity of PPO and POD when compared with controls. Coumarin showed strong interaction with binding pockets of PPO and POD, suggesting its potential use as inhibitor to enzyme mediated browning in apple juice.

  20. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-08

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii.

  1. Hydro-Alcoholic Cinnamon Extract, Enhances Glucose Transporter Isotype-4 Translocation from Intracellular Compartments into the Cytoplasmic Membrane of C2C12 Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Absalan, Abdorrahim; Mohiti-Ardakani, Javad; Hadinedoushan, Hossein; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2012-10-01

    Cinnamon has been used as an anti-diabetic agent for centuries but only in recent few years its mechanism of action has been under investigation. Previous studies showed that cinnamon might exert its anti-diabetic effect via increasing glucose transporter isotype-4 (GLUT4) gene and glycoprotein contents in fat cells. To study if hydro-alcoholic cinnamon extract (HACE) enhances GLUT4 translocation from intracellular compartments of nuclear or endoplasmic reticulum membranes (N/ER) into the cytoplasmic membrane (CM). C2C12 myoblastic cell line were seeded in DMEM plus 20 % FBS and differentiated to myotubes using 2 % horse serum. After myotubes formation, 100 or 1,000 μg/ml HACE, as intervention, and as control 1 % DMSO were added for 3 h. Cells were washed and homogenized followed by ultracentrifuge fractionation, protein separation by SDS-PAGE and GLUT4 detection using semi-quantitative Western blotting. Data analysis was done by two-independent samples t test for comparison of mean ± SD of GLUT4 percent in categories. GLUT4 contents were higher in CM of groups 100 and 1,000 μg/ml HACE and lower in 1 % DMSO treated myotubes (CI = 0.95, P < 0.05). For N/ER reverse results were obtained (CI = 0.95, P < 0.05). As our results have shown HACE induces GLUT4 translocation from intra-cell into cell surface. We conclude that cinnamon maybe a choice of type-2 diabetes mellitus treatment because its extract enhances GLUT4 contents in CM where it facilitates glucose entrance into the cell. However it is necessary to trace the signaling pathways which are activated by HACE in muscular tissue.

  2. Orally Administrated Cinnamon Extract Reduces β-Amyloid Oligomerization and Corrects Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Farfara, Dorit; Benromano, Tali; Scherzer-Attali, Roni; Peled, Sivan; Vassar, Robert; Segal, Daniel; Gazit, Ehud; Frenkel, Dan; Ovadia, Michael

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that accumulation of soluble oligomeric assemblies of β-amyloid polypeptide (Aβ) play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Specifically, 56 kDa oligomeric species were shown to be correlated with impaired cognitive function in AD model mice. Several reports have documented the inhibition of Aβ plaque formation by compounds from natural sources. Yet, evidence for the ability of common edible elements to modulate Aβ oligomerization remains an unmet challenge. Here we identify a natural substance, based on cinnamon extract (CEppt), which markedly inhibits the formation of toxic Aβ oligomers and prevents the toxicity of Aβ on neuronal PC12 cells. When administered to an AD fly model, CEppt rectified their reduced longevity, fully recovered their locomotion defects and totally abolished tetrameric species of Aβ in their brain. Furthermore, oral administration of CEppt to an aggressive AD transgenic mice model led to marked decrease in 56 kDa Aβ oligomers, reduction of plaques and improvement in cognitive behavior. Our results present a novel prophylactic approach for inhibition of toxic oligomeric Aβ species formation in AD through the utilization of a compound that is currently in use in human diet. PMID:21305046

  3. Cinnamon extract inhibits the postprandial overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in fructose-fed animals.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bolin; Polansky, Marilyn M; Sato, Yuzo; Adeli, Khosrow; Anderson, Richard A

    2009-11-01

    We have reported previously that a cinnamon extract (CE), high in type A polyphenols, prevents fructose feeding-induced decreases in insulin sensitivity and suggested that improvements of insulin sensitivity by CE were attributable, in part, to enhanced insulin signaling. In this study, we examined the effects of CE on postprandial apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 increase in fructose-fed rats, and the secretion of apoB48 in freshly isolated intestinal enterocytes of fructose-fed hamsters. In an olive oil loading study, a water-soluble CE (Cinnulin PF, 50 mg/kg body weight, orally) decreased serum triglyceride (TG) levels and the over production of total- and TG-rich lipoprotein-apoB48. In ex vivo (35)S labeling study, significant decreases were also observed in apoB48 secretion into the media in enterocytes isolated from fructose-fed hamsters. We also investigated the molecular mechanisms of the effects of CE on the expression of genes of the insulin signaling pathway [insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate (IRS)1, IRS2 and Akt1], and lipoprotein metabolism [microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c) in isolated primary enterocytes of fructose-fed hamsters, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The CE reversed the expression of the impaired IR, IRS1, IRS2 and Akt1 mRNA levels and inhibited the overexpression of MTP and SREBP1c mRNA levels of enterocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that the postprandial hypertriglycerides and the overproduction of apoB48 can be acutely inhibited by a CE by a mechanism involving improvements of insulin sensitivity of intestinal enterocytes and regulation of MTP and SREBP1c levels. We present both in vivo and ex vivo evidence that a CE improves the postprandial overproduction of intestinal apoB48-containing lipoproteins by ameliorating intestinal insulin resistance and may be beneficial in the control of lipid metabolism.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon (C. zeylanicum and C. cassia) extracts - identification of E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxy cinnamaldehyde as the most potent bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Karunaweera, Niloo; Lee, Samiuela; van Der Kooy, Frank; Harman, David G; Raju, Ritesh; Bennett, Louise; Gyengesi, Erika; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is a contributing factor in many age-related diseases. In a previous study, we have shown that Sri Lankan cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was one of the most potent anti-inflammatory foods out of 115 foods tested. However, knowledge about the exact nature of the anti-inflammatory compounds and their distribution in the two major cinnamon species used for human consumption is limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of C. zeylanicum and C. cassia and elucidate their main phytochemical compounds. When extracts were tested in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, most of the anti-inflammatory activity, measured by down-regulation of nitric oxide and TNF-α production, was observed in the organic extracts. The most abundant compounds in these extracts were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde. The highest concentration of E-cinnamaldehyde was found in the DCM extract of C. zeylanicum or C. cassia (31 and 34 mg g(-1) of cinnamon, respectively). When these and other constituents were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 macrophages, the most potent compounds were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, which exhibited IC₅₀ values for NO with RAW 264.7 cells of 55 ± 9 μM (7.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 35 ± 9 μM (5.7 ± 1.5 μg mL(-1)), respectively; and IC₅₀ values for TNF-α of 63 ± 9 μM (8.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 78 ± 16 μM (12.6 ± 2.6 μg mL(-1)), respectively. If therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in target tissues, cinnamon and its components may be useful in the treatment of age-related inflammatory conditions.

  5. Cinnamon effectively inhibits the activity of leukemia stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, X; Su, M C; Zhao, R B; Ouyang, H M; Dong, X D; Hu, P; Pei, Q; Lu, J; Li, Z F; Zhang, C R; Yang, T-H

    2016-08-19

    Cinnamon is the main component of Sanyangxuedai, which is one of the effective traditional Chinese medicines for treating malignancies. Leukemia is a prevalent malignant disease that Sanyangxuedai has been used to treat. Although successful in several studies, there is a lack of solid evidence as to why Sanyangxuedai has an effect on leukemia, and little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the active ingredients of cinnamon were isolated, purified, and identified. The transwell transport pool formed with the Caco-2 cell model was used to filter the active ingredients of cinnamon by simulating the gastrointestinal barrier in vitro. Moreover, the cell morphology, cell cycle status, apoptosis status, and antigenic variation of the cell surface antigens were observed and measured in K562 cells after treatment with the active ingredients of cinnamon. Our results showed that 50-75 μM was a safe concentration of cinnamon extract for treatment of K562 cells for 72 h. The cinnamon extract caused growth inhibition of K562 cells. Cinnamon extract seemed to arrest the cells at the G1 stage and increased the apoptosis rate significantly. Interestingly, cinnamon extract treatment upregulated the expression of erythroid and myeloid differentiation antigens and downregulated that of the megakaryocytic differentiation antigens in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that cinnamon extract from Sanyangxuedai may be effective for treating leukemia.

  6. Chitosan-Coated Cinnamon/Oregano-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles to Augment 5-Fluorouracil Cytotoxicity for Colorectal Cancer: Extract Standardization, Nanoparticle Optimization, and Cytotoxicity Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Kamel M; Khalil, Islam A; Rateb, Mostafa E; Elgendy, Hosieny; Elhawary, Seham

    2017-09-13

    This study aimed to coat lipid-based nanocarriers with chitosan to encapsulate nutraceuticals, minimize opsonization, and facilitate passive-targeting. Phase one was concerned with standardization according to the World Health Organization. Qualitative analysis using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) investigated the active constituents, especially reported cytotoxic agents. Cinnamaldehyde and rosmarinic acid were selected to be quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Phase two was aimed to encapsulate both extracts in solid lipid nanoparticles (core) and chitosan (shell) to gain the advantages of both materials properties. The developed experimental model suggested an optimum formulation with 2% lipid, 2.3% surfactant, and 0.4% chitosan to achieve a particle size of 254.77 nm, polydispersity index of 0.28, zeta potential of +15.26, and entrapment efficiency percentage of 77.3% and 69.1% for cinnamon and oregano, respectively. Phase three was focused on the evaluation of cytotoxic activity unencapsulated/encapsulated cinnamon and oregano extracts with/without 5-fluorouracil on HCT-116 cells. This study confirmed the success of the suggested combination with 5-fluorouracil for treating human colon carcinoma with a low dose leading to decreasing side effects and allowing uninterrupted therapy.

  7. Evaluation of the release profile, stability and antioxidant activity of a proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) extract co-encapsulated with α-tocopherol by spray chilling.

    PubMed

    Tulini, Fabrício L; Souza, Volnei B; Thomazini, Marcelo; Silva, Marluci P; Massarioli, Adna P; Alencar, Severino M; Pallone, Eliria M J A; Genovese, Maria I; Favaro-Trindade, Carmen S

    2017-05-01

    Cinnamon has many health improving compounds such as proanthocyanidins, which also have potential for the prevention of damages caused by diabetes. Similarly, α-tocopherol is a natural antioxidant with important role on protection of fatty acids in membranes and lipoproteins. However, the addition of antioxidants in food may result in interaction with food matrix, low stability and unpleasant taste. In the present study, a proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon extract (PRCE) (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) was co-encapsulated with α-tocopherol into solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) by spray chilling. The microparticles were characterized with regard to the physical and chemical properties, morphology, proanthocyanidin stability and release profile. SLMs were spherical with an average diameter of ca. 80μm. Proanthocyanidins were highly stable in SLMs stored for up to 90days at 5, 25 and 37°C. Moreover, SLMs gradually released proanthocyanidins in simulated gastrointestinal fluids by a diffusional process, following a Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic. Analyses of the antioxidant compounds indicated that PRCE components exhibited a higher scavenging capacity against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Thus, the SLMs produced in the present study have potential for application in the development of new functional foods and nutraceuticals, also providing an alternative for the controlled release of proanthocyanidins and α-tocopherol into the intestine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cinnamon extract regulates plasma levels of adipose-derived factors and expression of multiple genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of fructose-fed rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We reported previously that a dietary cinnamon extract (CE) improves systemic insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia by enhancing insulin signaling. In the present study, we examined the effects of CE on several biomarkers including plasma levels of adipose-derived adipokines, and the potential molec...

  9. Cinnamon increases liver glycogen in an animal model of insulin resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cinnamon, and aqueous polyphenol extracts of cinnamon, improve insulin sensitivity in vitro, and in animal and human studies. Given the relationship between the glucose/insulin system and glycogen metabolism, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of cinnamon on glycogen synthesis...

  10. Effect of Cinnamon Extract and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (0.2%) on the Clinical Level of Dental Plaque and Gingival Health: A 4-Week, Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanand; Jain, Ankita

    2015-07-01

    To compare the effect of cinnamon extract, chlorhexidine mouthwash and placebo on dental plaque level and gingivitis. One hundred five healthy dental and medical students aged 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: i.e., the cinnamon group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the placebo (distilled water) group. Data were collected at baseline, the 15th and the 30th day. Plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Gingival scoring was done by the gingival index of Löe and Silness. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the effect of all three treatments groups; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The chlorhexidine group showed the maximum decrease in both plaque and gingival scores, followed by cinnamon extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. The plaque and gingival scores remained almost unchanged in the distilled water group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that cinnamon may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level and gingivitis.

  11. Cinnamon and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Mitra; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family and is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. It contains a lot of manganese, iron, dietary fiber, and calcium. Cinnamon contains derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamate, and numerous other components such as polyphenols and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer effects. Several reports have dealt with the numerous properties of cinnamon in the forms of bark, essential oils, bark powder, and phenolic compounds, and each of these properties can play a key role in human health. Recently, many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, arthritis, and arteriosclerosis, but still we need further investigations to provide additional clinical evidence for this spice against cancer and inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neurological disorders.

  12. Assessment of the effeCt of lIfestyle iNtervention plus water-soluble ciNnAMon extract On loweriNg blood glucose in pre-diabetics, a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo controlled trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Paul; Thai, Chuong; Obholz, Joshua; Schievenin, Jeffrey; True, Mark; Shah, Sachin A; Hallgren, John; Clark, Jill; Sharon, Danny

    2016-01-05

    The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death in the world. Multiple studies have tried to determine if cinnamon is an effective treatment for diabetes. Cinnamon extract is an insulin sensitizer, protects mesangial cells, decreases inflammatory markers, and lowers glucose, lipids, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes, so we developed a protocol to study whether ingestion of water-soluble cinnamon extract prevents progression from pre-diabetes to diabetes. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing cinnamon extract versus placebo in subjects with pre-diabetes who have committed to participate in a lifestyle change program. The trial will be conducted at five sites and will include 428 subjects who take cinnamon extract or placebo for 1 year. Follow-up for these subjects will be for a total of 2 years (nine study visits). The primary outcomes to be assessed are 1) conversion of patients from pre-diabetes to diabetes and 2) impact of water-soluble cinnamon extract on hepatic transaminases, renal function, and QT interval on electrocardiogram. Secondary outcomes include changes in HbA1c, lipids, waist circumference, weight, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. The trial protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the US Air Force 59th Medical Wing, Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center (Protocol FWH20110035H). Investigator-sponsored Investigational New Drug status (114078) was granted by the US Food and Drug Administration. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of water-soluble cinnamon extract in conjunction with lifestyle intervention for preventing patients with pre-diabetes from converting to diabetes. Additionally, it will provide important safety information about water-soluble cinnamon extract. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01301521 , 18 February 2011.

  13. Cinnamon contact stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulou, Eleni A

    2010-11-19

    Cinnamon contact stomatitis (CCS) is a rare reaction to the use of products containing artificial cinnamon flavor ingredients. Such products are gums, toothpastes and mouthwashes. A 20-year-old female patient presented with white elevated mucosal patches in the right lateral board of her tongue. Based on anamnesis, the intitial diagnosis of allergy to cinnamon gum was established. Clinical differential diagnosis included hairy leukoplakia, leukoplakia and lichenoid reaction. The patient was advised to completely avoid the use of cinnamon flavoured chewing gums. On re-examination later she had a normal tongue appearance. Clinicians who treat patients with oral conditions should be aware of CCS in order to be able to correctly diagnose and manage this condition.

  14. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  15. Cinnamon extract attenuates TNF-alpha-induced intestinal lipoprotein ApoB48 overproduction by regulating inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein pathways in enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Qin, B; Dawson, H; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2009-07-01

    We have previously reported that the obesity-associated proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha, stimulates the overproduction of intestinal apolipoprotein (apo) B48 containing lipoproteins. In the current study, we have evaluated whether a water-soluble cinnamon extract [CE (Cinnulin PF)] attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339 treated hamsters, and whether CE inhibits the oversecrection of apoB48-induced by TNF-alpha in enterocytes in a 35S labeling study. In vivo, oral treatment of Cinnulin PF (50 mg per kg BW), inhibited the postprandial overproduction of apoB48-containing lipoproteins and serum triglyceride levels. In ex vivo 35S labeling studies, CE (10 and 20 microg/ml) inhibited the oversecretion of apoB48 induced by TNF-alpha treated enterocytes into the media. To determine the molecular mechanisms, TNF-alpha treated primary enterocytes isolated from chow-fed hamsters, were incubated with CE (10 microg/ml), and the expression of the inflammatory factor genes, IL1-beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, insulin signaling pathway genes, insulin receptor (IR), IRS1, IRS2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), Akt1 and phosphatase and tensin homology (PTEN), as well as the key regulators of lipid metabolism, cluster of differentiation (CD)36, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c were evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR assays showed that CE treatment decreased the mRNA expression of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, improved the mRNA expression of IR, IRS1, IRS2, PI3K and Akt1, inhibited CD36, MTTP, and PTEN, and enhanced the impaired SREBP-1c expression in TNF-alpha treated enterocytes. These data suggest that a water extract of cinnamon reverses TNF-alpha-induced overproduction of intestinal apoB48 by regulating gene expression involving inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein signaling pathways. In conclusion, Cinulin PF improves inflammation related intestinal dyslipidemia.

  16. Cinnamon bark deodorised aqueous extract as potential natural antioxidant in meat emulsion system: a comparative study with synthetic and natural food antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M H; Iqbal, Shahid; Ch'ng, Soo Ee; Younas, Umer; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-11-01

    Cinnamon deodorised aqueous extract (CinDAE) was prepared and evaluated for its total phenolic (315.3 ± 35.4 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (99.3 ± 9.6 mg RE/g) contents. Stabilizing efficiency of CinDAE, for chicken meatballs, was measured against oxidative deterioration as function of storage time under chilled conditions. For this purpose, oxidative stability [2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); peroxide value (PV)], colour and sensory acceptability were measured in the control meatballs (C), and those stabilized with 200 ppm of: CinDAE (T1), ascorbic acid (T2), BHA/BHT (50/50; w/w) (T3). In comparison to "C", induction period (IP) and redness (a* value) of the stabilized samples (T1, T2 and T3) were increased, while PV and TBARS were decreased throughout storage (8 ± 1 °C) significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, CinDAE slightly decreased L* value of the meatballs as compared to other tested samples. Conclusively, CinDAE improved stability and redness of chicken meatballs without negatively affecting its sensory acceptability (Hedonic test) up to a comparable extent to that of ascorbic acid/BHA/BHT and may potentially function as a dietary antioxidant for meat products.

  17. Cinnamon Extract Enhances Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C2C12 Myocytes by Inducing LKB1-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK. PMID:24551069

  18. Optimization and Characterization of Cinnamon Leaves (Cinnamomum burmannii) Oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Prasetyawan, P.; Utami, R.; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Sanjaya, A. P.

    2017-04-01

    This research aimed to determine the optimum yield condition on cinnamon leaves oleoresin production at various temperature and contact time during maceration and to find out the characteristics of cinnamon leaves oleoresin such as active compound, cinnamon leaves oil content, and solvent residue levels at optimum yield. This research used the variations of extraction temperature (70, 75 and 80°C) and extraction time (4, 5 and 6 h). Based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the equation of cinnamon leaves oleoresin sample optimization as follow: Y = 13 - 1.0167X1- 0.2833X2- 0.6833X12- 0.5833X22- 0.3250 X1X2. The optimum yield of cinnamon leaves oleoresin (13.3790%) was obtained at 77.754°C for 4.9185 h. The characteristics of cinnamon leaves oleoresin that showed the optimum yield were 59.56% eugenol level, 9.50% cinnamon leaves oil content and 22700 ppm solvent residue level.

  19. Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2007-07-11

    Cinnamomum burmannii Blume (cinnamon stick) from Indonesia is a little-investigated spice. In this study, the antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon stick extract were evaluated against five common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Cinnamon stick extract exhibited significant antibacterial properties. Major compounds in cinnamon stick were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS) as a predominant volatile oil component ((E)-cinnamaldehyde) and several polyphenols (mainly proanthocyanidins and (epi)catechins). Both (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of bacteria treated with the crude extract of cinnamon stick and its major components. This study suggests that cinnamon stick and its bioactive components have potential for application as natural food preservatives.

  20. Cinnamon and its Components Suppress Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Up-Regulating Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeeun; Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Gu, Min Jung; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark has been used in traditional herbal medicine to treat a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the antiproliferative effect of cinnamon extract on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the corresponding restenosis has not been explored. Hence, after examining the effect of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation, we investigated the possible involvement of signal transduction pathways associated with early signal and cell cycle analysis, including regulatory proteins. Besides, to identify the active components, we investigated the components of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation. Cinnamon extract inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and suppressed the PDGF-stimulated early signal transduction. In addition, cinnamon extract arrested the cell cycle and inhibited positive regulatory proteins. Correspondingly, the protein levels of p21 and p27 not only were increased in the presence of cinnamon extract, also the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was inhibited by cinnamon extract. Besides, among the components of cinnamon extract, cinnamic acid (CA), eugenol (EG) and cinnamyl alcohol significantly inhibited the VSMC proliferation. Overall, the present study demonstrates that cinnamon extract inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs through a G0/G1 arrest, which down-regulated the expression of cell cycle positive regulatory proteins by up-regulating p21 and p27 expression.

  1. Interaction between natural antioxidants derived from cinnamon and cocoa in binary and complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Praseptiangga, Danar; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2017-09-15

    Cinnamon and cocoa are known to be valuable sources of bioactive phytochemicals, mainly the polyphenols. This paper investigates the potential antioxidant activity of cinnamon and cocoa extract and the interaction of their mixtures by various in vitro tests. Moreover, the combination effect of their constituents in a binary mixture was studied. Two representative active compounds of chocolate (epicatechin, catechin) were combined with seven of cinnamon (gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, sinapic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde) in multilevel ratios. The results indicate that the addition of the cinnamon extract significantly increased the antioxidant activity of the cocoa extract. The interaction ranged from synergetic to antagonistic. The interaction was less synergetic when cinnamon extract was added in higher proportion. The interaction of their constituents substantially influenced the antioxidant activity of the mixture and was dependent on the ratio. The kinetics' study could elucidate how the polyphenols work in a mixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of a Water-Soluble Cinnamon Extract on Body Composition and Features of the Metabolic Syndrome in Pre-Diabetic Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Hofheins, Jennifer E; Mendel, Ronald W; Landis, Jamie; Anderson, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with a water-soluble cinnamon extract (Cinnulin PF®) on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Twenty-two subjects with prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome (mean ± SD: age, BMI, systolic blood pressure [SBP], fasting blood glucose [FBG]: 46.0 ± 9.7 y; 33.2 ± 9.3 kg/m2; 133 ± 17 mm Hg; 114.3 ± 11.6 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with either Cinnulin PF® (500 mg/d) or a placebo for 12-weeks. Main outcome measures were changes in FBG, SBP, and body composition measured after 12-weeks of supplementation. The primary statistical analyses consisted of two factor (group × time), repeated-measures ANOVA for between group differences over time. In all analyses, an intent-to-treat approach was used and significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Results Subjects in the Cinnulin PF® group had significant decreases in FBG (-8.4%: 116.3 ± 12.8 mg/dL [pre] to 106.5 ± 20.1 mg/dL [post], p < 0.01), SBP (-3.8%: 133 ± 14 mm Hg [pre] to 128 ± 18 mm Hg [post], p < 0.001), and increases in lean mass (+1.1%: 53.7 ± 11.8 kg [pre] to 54.3 ± 11.8 kg [post], p < 0.002) compared with the placebo group. Additionally, within-group analyses uncovered small, but statistically significant decreases in body fat (-0.7%: 37.9 ± 9.2% [pre] to 37.2 ± 8.9% [post], p < 0.02) in the Cinnulin PF® group. No significant changes in clinical blood chemistries were observed between groups over time. Conclusion These data support the efficacy of Cinnulin PF® supplementation on reducing FBG and SBP, and improving body composition in men and women with the metabolic syndrome and suggest that this naturally-occurring spice can reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18500972

  3. Phenolic composition, anitproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties of conventional and organic cinnamon and peppermint

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional and organic cinnamon and peppermint were investigated for their phenolic profile, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 75% acetone was a better method than Soxhlet and overnight extraction for phenolic content and a...

  4. Cinnamon: Potential Role in the Prevention of Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bolin; Panickar, Kiran S.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, elevated glucose and lipids, inflammation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased weight gain, and increased glycation of proteins. Cinnamon has been shown to improve all of these variables in in vitro, animal, and/or human studies. In addition, cinnamon has been shown to alleviate factors associated with Alzheimer's disease by blocking and reversing tau formation in vitro and in ischemic stroke by blocking cell swelling. In vitro studies also show that components of cinnamon control angiogenesis associated with the proliferation of cancer cells. Human studies involving control subjects and subjects with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovary syndrome all show beneficial effects of whole cinnamon and/or aqueous extracts of cinnamon on glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, lipids, antioxidant status, blood pressure, lean body mass, and gastric emptying. However, not all studies have shown positive effects of cinnamon, and type and amount of cinnamon, as well as the type of subjects and drugs subjects are taking, are likely to affect the response to cinnamon. In summary, components of cinnamon may be important in the alleviation and prevention of the signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and related diseases. PMID:20513336

  5. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  6. A potential low-coumarin cinnamon substitute: Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Feng; Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-02-19

    The essential oils from leaves of Taiwan's indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. cinnamaldehyde) have similar constituents as compared to that from commercial bark cinnamons. This indigenous cinnamon has been proven to have excellent bioactivities. To understand whether this indigenous cinnamon contains a high level of the hepatotoxic compound, coumarin, as often seen in Cassia cinnamons, current research focused on determining the coumarin content in this indigenous cinnamon and screening the low-coumarin clones. The results demonstrated that the coumarin contents in all tested indigenous cinnamon clones were much lower than that found in Cassia cinnamons. In addition, this indigenous cinnamon contains about 80% (w/w) of cinnamaldehyde and 0.4-2.7% (w/w) of eugenol in its leaf essential oils. This combination could provide this indigenous cinnamon a better shelf life compared to that of regular commercial cinnamons. These results suggested that leaves of this indigenous cinnamon could be a potential resource for a safer cinnamon substitute.

  7. New identification of proanthocyanidins in cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Fuguet, Elisabet; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-01-01

    The inner bark of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The positive health effects associated with the consumption of cinnamon could in part be due to its phenolic composition; proanthocyanidins (PA) are the major polyphenolic component in commercial cinnamon. We present a thorough study of the PA profile of cinnamon obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. In addition to the advantages of MALDI-TOF as a sensitive technique for the analysis of high-molecular-weight compounds, the tandem arrangement allows the identification of the compounds through their fragmentation patterns from MS/MS experiments. This is the first time that this technique has been used to analyze polymeric PA. The results show that cinnamon PA are more complex than was previously thought. We show here for the first time that they contain (epi)gallocatechin and (epi)catechingallate units. As gallates (galloyl moieties) and the pyrogallol group in gallocatechins have been related to the biological activity of grape and tea polyphenols, the presence of these substructures may explain some of the properties of cinnamon extracts. MALDI-TOF/TOF reveals that cinnamon bark PA include combinations of (epi)catechin, (epi)catechingallate, (epi)gallocatechin, and (epi)afzelechin, which results in a highly heterogeneous mixture of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, and propelargonidins.

  8. Mud bath dermatitis due to cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    García-Abujeta, José Luis; de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Berna, José Pomares; Palomino, Elena Muñoz

    2005-04-01

    A case of long-lasting, extensive eczematous and bullous dermatitis affecting exposed areas (arms and legs), beginning within 24 hr after having a mud bath with cinnamon essential oil in a spa, in a 74-year-old woman, is reported. Patch tests with the GEIDC standard battery and the dental battery (including clove essence and eugenol), cinnamon essence and its components were carried out 5 years later. Fragrance mix, cinnamon essence, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic aldehyde yielded a positive result. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cinnamon dermatitis after a mud bath.

  9. Cinnamon extract regulates plasma levels of adipose-derived factors and expression of multiple genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, B; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2010-03-01

    We reported earlier that dietary cinnamon extract (CE) improves systemic insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia by enhancing insulin signaling. In the present study, we have examined the effects of CE on several biomarkers including plasma levels of adipose-derived adipokines, and the potential molecular mechanisms of CE in epididymal adipose tissue (EAT). In Wistar rats fed a high-fructose diet (HFD) to induce insulin resistance, supplementation with a CE (Cinnulin PF, 50 mg/kg daily) for 8 weeks reduced blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, chylomicron-apoB48, VLDL-apoB100, and soluble CD36. CE also inhibited plasma retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) levels. CE-induced increases in plasma adiponectin were not significant. CE did not affect food intake, bodyweight, and EAT weight. In EAT, there were increases in the insulin receptor ( IR) and IR substrate 2 ( IRS2) mRNA, but CE-induced increases in mRNA expression of IRS1, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, AKT1, glucose transporters 1 and 4 , and glycogen synthase 1 expression and decreased trends in mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta were not statistically significant. CE also enhanced the mRNA levels of ADIPOQ, and inhibited sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c mRNA levels. mRNA and protein levels of fatty acid synthase and FABP4 were inhibited by CE and RBP4, and CD36 protein levels were also decreased by CE. These results suggest that CE effectively ameliorates circulating levels of adipokines partially mediated via regulation of the expression of multiple genes involved in insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in the EAT.

  10. Cinnamon intake reduces serum T3 level and modulates tissue-specific expression of thyroid hormone receptor and target genes in rats.

    PubMed

    Gaique, Thaiane G; Lopes, Bruna P; Souza, Luana L; Paula, Gabriela S M; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Oliveira, Karen J

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamon has several effects on energy metabolism. However, no data exist on the impact of cinnamon intake on thyroid hormone serum concentrations and action, since thyroid hormones (THs) play a major role in metabolism. Male rats were treated with cinnamon water extract (400 mg kg(-1) body weight, 25 days). Cinnamon supplementation resulted in a lower serum total T3 level accompanied by normal serum T4 and TSH levels. The cinnamon-treated rats did not exhibit significant differences in TSHβ subunit, TRβ or deiodinase type 2 mRNA expression in the pituitary. In the liver, cinnamon did not change the TRβ protein expression or the deiodinase type 1 mRNA expression, suggesting that there were no changes in T3 signaling or metabolism in this organ. However, mitochondrial GPDH, a target gene for T3 in the liver, exhibited no changes in mRNA expression, although its activity level was reduced by cinnamon. In the cardiac ventricle, T3 action was markedly reduced by cinnamon, as demonstrated by the lower TRα mRNA and protein levels, reduced SERCA2a and RyR2 and increased phospholamban mRNA expression. This study has revealed that TH action is a novel target of cinnamon, demonstrating impairment of T3 signaling in the cardiac ventricles. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Asthma and other symptoms in cinnamon workers.

    PubMed Central

    Uragoda, C G

    1984-01-01

    Cinnamon, which is the bark of the Cinnamomum zeylanicum tree, contains cinnamic aldehyde, which is an irritant. Workers processing cinnamon before export are exposed to much cinnamon dust. Forty such workers with an average of four years' service in the industry were examined. Thirty five workers (87.5%) had symptoms, nine having had asthma (22.5%). Other symptoms, probably related to the irritant nature of cinnamon dust, were irritation of skin (50%), loss of hair (37.5%), and smarting of eyes while at work (22.5%). Loss of weight (65%) was the commonest finding. Contact dermatitis which has previously been described was not found in any of the workers. PMID:6232942

  12. Anti-allergic effect of intranasal administration of type-A procyanidin polyphenols based standardized extract of cinnamon bark in ovalbumin sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila M; Kandhare, Amit D; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate anti-allergic effects of intranasal administration of type-A procynidines polyphenols (TAPP) based standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (TAPP-CZ) in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) in BALB/c mice. Sixty male BALB/c mice were divided into six groups of ten each (G1-G6). The mice from G1 were nonsensitized and maintained as normal group. Remaining mice (G2-G6) were sensitized with OVA (500 μL solution, intraperitoneal) on alternate days for 13 days and had twice daily intranasal treatment from day 14-21 as follows: G2 (AR control) received saline, G3 (positive control, XLY) received xylometazoline (0.5 mg/mL, 20 μL/nostril) and G4-G6 received TAPP-CZ (3, 10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril), respectively. On day 21, mice were challenged with OVA (5 μL/nostril, 5% solution) and assessments (nasal signs, biochemical and histopathological) were performed. Treatment with TAPP-CZ (10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril) showed significant attenuation in OVA-induced alterations of the nasal (number of nasal rubbing and sneezing), biochemical markers (serum IgE and histamine), haematological, morphological (relative organ weight of spleen and lung) and histopathological (nasal mucosa and spleen) parameters. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ showed anti-allergic efficacy in animal model of AR. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Cinnamon

    MedlinePlus

    ... natural chemical hazard? Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. 2008;25(11): ... samples from Indonesia . Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010;58(19):10568-10575. This publication is ...

  14. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Perera, Sanja; Gunatilake, Mangala; Abeywardene, Eranga; Gunapala, Nuwan; Premakumara, Sirimal; Perera, Kamal; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Katulanda, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water) and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts) were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water) and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts) were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05). Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05). Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001). Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001). C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

  15. Effects of irradiation on natural antioxidants of cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum N.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazuru, E. R.; Moreira, A. V. B.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation to reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms and insects is an ionizing process that induces free radical formation in proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other molecular structures in food. Antioxidants generally decrease the level of oxidation in such systems by transferring hydrogen atoms to the free radical structure. In the present paper, the effect of ionizing radiation on natural cinnamon antioxidants is studied. Cinnamon samples were purchased from retailers and irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed at IPEN (São Paulo, Brazil) using 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 kGy at room temperature. After irradiation 3 kinds of sequential extractions were performed. One was submitted to antioxidant extraction using ethyl ether, the second with ethanol and the last with water. The antioxidant activity was determined by β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation. Irradiation in the dose range applied did not have any effect on the antioxidant potential of the cinnamon compounds. Further studies will be performed to study the possibility to use cinnamon extracts in preserving food from oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation.

  16. Cassia Cinnamon as a source of Coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cinnamon is one of the most popular flavoring agents in the United States. Some cinnamon varieties and cinnamon flavored food sold in US could be potential sources of coumarin. Coumarin is banned from food in the United States due to its potential adverse side effects. An ultra-performance liquid ch...

  17. Cinnamon-induced Oral Mucosal Contact Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Ana P. M; Migliari, Dante A

    2015-01-01

    Contact stomatitis associated with consumption of cinnamon flavoring agents is a relatively uncommon disorder. Of relevance, both clinical features and the histopathologic findings of this condition are nonspecific, and, more importantly, may resemble some other inflammatory oral mucosa disorders, eventually making diagnosis difficult. Usually a patient exhibits a combination of white and erythematous patches of abrupt onset, accompanied by a burning sensation. To shed some light on this subject, a case of a 64-year-old woman with hypersensitivity contact reaction on the oral mucosa due to cinnamon mints is presented, with emphasis on differential diagnosis and the process for confirmation of the diagnosis. The treatment consists of discontinuing the use of cinnamon products. Clinicians will be able to recognize this disorder following a careful clinical examination and detailed history. This recognition is important in order to avoid invasive and expensive diagnostic procedures. PMID:26312097

  18. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Kawatra, Pallavi; Rajagopalan, Rathai

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios. PMID:26109781

  19. Chitosan-cinnamon beads enhance suppressive activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Park, Ro-Dong; Jung, Woo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A novel chitosan-cinnamon bead carrier was prepared in this study. Chitosan was mixed with cinnamon powder (CP) and cinnamon extract (CE) to obtain chitosan-cinnamon powder (CCP) beads and chitosan-cinnamon extracted (CCE) beads, respectively. The potential antifungal and nematicidal activities of CCP and CCE were investigated against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. Relative antifungal activity of the CCP (5% CP) bead-treated R. solani was 30.9 and 23.9% after 1 and 2 day incubations, respectively. Relative antifungal activity of the CCE (0.5% CE) bead-treated R. solani was 4.3, 3.0 and 4.2% after 1, 2 and 3 days of incubation. Inhibition of hatch by CCP beads with CP of 5% was 78.8%. Inhibition of hatch by CCE beads with CE of 0.5% was 82.0%. J2 mortality following the CCP (5% CP) and CCE (0.5% CE) bead treatments was 85.0 and 95.8%, respectively against M. incognita after 48 h incubations.

  20. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS.

  1. Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Kreydiyyeh, S I; Usta, J; Copti, R

    2000-09-01

    The effect of a water extract of some spices on the in vitro activity of the rat jejunal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was investigated. Extracts of nutmeg, cinnamon, clove, cumin, coriander, turmeric and caraway all inhibited the ATPase, while anise seed and white pepper exerted no significant effects. The extracts of clove and cinnamon had the most potent inhibitory effect on the intestinal ATPase as compared to extracts of other spices. They also inhibited the in vitro Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in a crude kidney homogenate and the activity of an isolated dog kidney Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The alcoholic extract of cinnamon, compared to the aqueous extract, had a stronger inhibitory action on the jejunal enzyme and a lower IC(50) value, which was not significantly different from the one observed with cinnamaldehyde, the major volatile oil present cinnamon, suggesting that in alcoholic extracts cinnamaldehyde is the major inhibitory component. The IC(50) values of eugenol, aqueous clove extract and ethanolic clove extract all fell within the same range and were not significantly different from each other, suggesting that eugenol is the major inhibitory component in both alcoholic and aqueous extracts. Based on the IC(50) values, the order of sensitivity of the enzyme to the spices extracts is as follows: isolated dog kidney ATPase>rat kidney ATPase>rat intestine ATPase. The aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon also significantly lowered the absorption of alanine from the rat intestine. It was concluded that the active principle(s) in clove and cinnamon can permeate the membrane of the enterocytes and inhibit the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase that provides the driving force for many transport processes.

  2. Oxidative markers, nitric oxide and homocysteine alteration in hypercholesterolimic rats: role of atorvastatine and cinnamon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kamal A.; Abd El-Twab, Thanaa M.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of atorvastatin and cinnamon on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, hepatic enzymes activities, nitric oxide (NO) as well as homocysteine (Hcy) in hypercholesterolemic rats, 48 male albino rats, weighing 130–190 gm were divided into 2 groups, normal group fed on basal rat chow diet (n=12) and high cholesterol group (HCD) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 day (n=36). Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into 3 subgroups (n=12 for each) fed the same diet and treated with atorvastatine (HCD+Atorvastatin) or cinnamon extract (HCD+cinnamon) or none treated (HCD) for 3&6 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), ALT, AST, NO, Hcy, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were measured. Results showed that HCD increased significantly TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, Hcy and hepatic MDA, while lowered significantly antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels. Atorvastatin therapy significantly increased HDL-C, NO and antioxidant activity while decreased LDL-C, MDA and Hcy concentrations. Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST and hepatic MDA levels were significantly lowered meanwhile, serum HDL, NO values and hepatic antioxidant activities were significantly, higher in cinnamon-treated than untreated group. These results indicate that lipid abnormalities, oxidative injury and hyperhomocystienemia were induced by HCD and this study recommend that administration of atorvastatine or cinnamon provided protection against the lipemic-oxidative disorder and act as hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective agent and improve cardiovascular function through modulation of oxidative stress, NO and Hcy. PMID:19918318

  3. Coffee with cinnamon - impact of phytochemicals interactions on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in vitro activity.

    PubMed

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Pecio, Lukasz

    2014-11-01

    This paper evaluates the potential bioaccessibility and interactions between antiradical and anti-inflammatory compounds from coffee and cinnamon. Results obtained for whole plant material extracts were compared with those for chlorogenic and cinnamic acids (the main bioactive constituents of the study material). All samples, coffee, cinnamon and a mixture of the two showed abilities to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Both activities increased after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. In the mixture antiradical phytochemicals acted antagonistically - isoboles adopted the convex form. The same interactions were determined for chemical standards. The water-extractable LOX inhibitors acted synergistically - the isobole curve was "concave". The same type of interaction was determined for standard compounds. Interestingly, after digestion in vitro a slight antagonism in the action of LOX inhibitors was observed. The results show that the food matrix and/or its changes during digestion may play an important role in creating the biological properties.

  4. Contact allergy to cinnamon: case report.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Steve; Avon, Sylvie Louise

    2008-06-01

    Allergic contact stomatitis is a rare disorder that is unfamiliar to most clinicians. The vast majority of cases are associated with consumption of products containing cinnamaldehyde or cinnamon essential oil, which are used as flavourings because of their pleasant taste and sensation of freshness. We report here the case of a patient who was diagnosed with alllergic contact stomatitis due to cinnamon-flavoured chewing gum. The clinical features of allergic contact stomatitis, which may occur indiscriminately on any of the oral mucosa, include edema and erythroplakic, ulcerous or hyperkeratotic changes, generally accompanied by a burning sensation. The histopathologic aspect of allergic contact stomatitis is nonspecific but tends to support the clinical diagnosis. Treatment generally consists of eliminating the causal agent. To avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures and treatments, it is important for clinicians to recognize this disorder to be able to diagnose it quickly and accurately.

  5. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Perera, Sanja; Gunatilake, Mangala; Abeywardene, Eranga; Gunapala, Nuwan; Premakumara, Sirimal; Perera, Kamal; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Katulanda, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water) and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts) were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water) and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts) were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05). Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05). Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001). Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001). Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats. PMID:22518078

  6. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-11

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided.

  7. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  8. High-resolution α-amylase assay combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for expedited identification of α-amylase inhibitors: proof of concept and α-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon.

    PubMed

    Okutan, Leyla; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2014-11-26

    Type 2 diabetes affects millions of people worldwide, and new improved drugs or functional foods containing selective α-amylase inhibitors are needed for improved management of blood glucose. In this article the development of a microplate-based high-resolution α-amylase inhibition assay with direct photometric measurement of α-amylase activity is described. The inhibition assay is based on porcine pancreatic α-amylase with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotriose as substrate, which this gives a stable, sensitive, and cheap inhibition assay as requested for high-resolution purposes. In combination with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR, this provides an analytical platform that allows simultaneous chemical and biological profiling of α-amylase inhibitors in plant extracts. Proof-of-concept with an artificial mixture of six compounds-of which three are known α-amylase inhibitors-showed that the high-resolution α-amylase inhibition profiles allowed detection of sub-microgram amounts of the α-amylase inhibitors. Furthermore, the high-resolution α-amylase inhibition assay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR platform allowed identification of cinnamaldehyde as the α-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl.).

  9. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii) on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period. PMID:26258147

  10. Physical characteristics of cinnamon oil microcapsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanto, R. F.; Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii) oil products can be obtained from the bark by steam distillation. Essential oils are susceptible to high temperatures, oxidation, UV light, and humidity. Microencapsulation may change essential oils into powder, protect the sensitive core material and reduce the amount of flavor which lost during storage. In the microencapsulation, one of the important factors is the type of coating agent. The objective of this work was to characterize the cinnamon oil microcapsule. Ratio variations of coating agent maltodextrin and gum arabic were (1:0); (0:1); (1:1); (2:3). Physical characteristics such as water content, solubility, bulk density, surface oil, and microencapsulation efficiency of samples were investigated. Results showed that the ratio variations of the coating agent significantly affected the water content, bulk density, surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency but significantly affected the water solubility. Characteristics of selected microcapsule were 6.13% water content; 96.33% solubility; 0.46 g/cm3 bulk density; 2.68% surface oil; 70.68% microencapsulation efficiency and microstructures were rather good.

  11. Reading cinnamon activates olfactory brain regions.

    PubMed

    González, Julio; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Meseguer, Vanessa; Sanjuán, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Avila, César

    2006-08-15

    Some words immediately and automatically remind us of odours, smells and scents, whereas other language items do not evoke such associations. This study investigated, for the first time, the abstract linking of linguistic and odour information using modern neuroimaging techniques (functional MRI). Subjects passively read odour-related words ('garlic', 'cinnamon', 'jasmine') and neutral language items. The odour-related terms elicited activation in the primary olfactory cortex, which include the piriform cortex and the amygdala. Our results suggest the activation of widely distributed cortical cell assemblies in the processing of olfactory words. These distributed neuron populations extend into language areas but also reach some parts of the olfactory system. These distributed neural systems may be the basis of the processing of language elements, their related conceptual and semantic information and the associated sensory information.

  12. The Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Activity of Cress Seed and Cinnamon on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qusti, Safaa; Balashram, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the stimulation of pancreas of rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes using 20% (w/w) garden cress seed (Lepidium sativum) and cinnamon methanol extracts. The positive control diabetic group showed a significant increase in fasting blood sugar, lipid peroxide, interleukin-6, carboxymethyl lysine, serum uric acid, urea, creatinine, immunoglobulins, and urine albumin and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes, sodium ions, potassium ions, and urine creatinine. Severe histopathological changes in the kidney and pancreas tissues in hyperglycemic rats were also shown in the positive control diabetic group. Meanwhile, the groups that were treated with 20% garden cress seed and cinnamon methanol extracts showed a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar and all elevated abovementioned biochemical parameters and an increase in the lowered ones restoring them nearly to the normal levels of G1. Kidney and pancreas tissues were also ameliorated and restored nearly to the normal status. Both garden cress seed and cinnamon methanol extracts succeeded in controlling hyperglycemia in rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes and ameliorated the biochemical and histopathological changes because of their antioxidant activity acquired by their possession of phenolic phytochemicals. PMID:27525022

  13. Natural formation of styrene by cinnamon mold flora.

    PubMed

    Lafeuille, J-L; Buniak, M-L; Vioujas, M-C; Lefevre, S

    2009-08-01

    Tests on 106 dried pure cinnamon samples of diverse origins showed that some samples were naturally contaminated with high levels of styrene, up to 524 microg/g. Styrene taint can be associated with high water activity levels and thus with microorganism growth. The mold flora of a Korintji cinnamon sample in which styrene had been found at a 50 microg/g concentration was analyzed and 5 species of mold were isolated. An investigation into the ability of the 5 species of mold to produce styrene showed that 3 of them--namely, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium oxalicum, Aspergillus niger--produced styrene in vitro in buffered peptone water at 25 degrees C within 5 d in the presence of several natural cinnamon volatile constituents containing the styrene structure. The conversion of these compounds into styrene by these 3 cinnamon fungal species has never been previously reported. A standardized inoculation with the 3 mold species was carried out on 10 g cinnamon samples of various origins followed by a 10-d incubation and highlighting styrene production except for Sri Lanka origin.

  14. Cinnamon in glycaemic control: Systematic review and meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Akilen, Rajadurai; Tsiami, Amalia; Devendra, Devasenan; Robinson, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Cinnamon seems to be highly bioactive, appearing to mimic the effect of insulin through increased glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles. This systematic review and Meta analysis examined the effect of cinnamon on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. A systematic literature search was conducted from the earliest possible date through to 01 August 2011. Search terms included free text terms, MeSH and Medline medical index terms such as: "cinnamon", "cinnamomum", "cinnamomum cassia", "cinnamomum zeylanicum", "type 2 diabetes mellitus". Each was crossed with the term "diabetes mellitus". In addition, references of key articles were hand searched. A total of 6 clinical trials met the strict inclusion criteria and considered a total of 435 patients; follow up between 40 days-4 months, doses ranging from 1 g to 6 g per day. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed a significant decrease in mean HbA1c [0.09%; 95% CI was 0.04-0.14] and mean FPG [0.84 mmol/l; 95% CI was 0.66-1.02]. Use of cinnamon showed a beneficial effect on glycaemic control (both HbA1c and FPG) and the short term (<4 months) effects of the use of cinnamon on glycaemic control looks promising. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenylpropanoids from cinnamon bark reduced β-amyloid production by the inhibition of β-secretase in Chinese hamster ovarian cells stably expressing amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu Jeong; Seo, Dae-Gun; Park, So-Young

    2016-11-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ) is a substance of Alzheimer disease (AD), which is generated via the amyloidogenic pathway from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase. Inhibition of Aβ production is a potential therapeutic approach to AD. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that cinnamon bark (Cinnamomi Cortex Spissus), the dried bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Lauraceae), and its constituents are beneficial to AD. The methanol extract of cinnamon bark efficiently reduced Aβ40 production in Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells stably expressing APP as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bioassay-guided isolation of cinnamon bark extract was carried out using open column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and the following 6 phenylpropanoids were isolated: syringaresinol (1); medioresinol (2); coumarin (3); 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (4); cryptamygin A (5); and 3',5,7-trimethoxy epicatechin (6). Among these, 4 μg/mL medioresinol and cryptamygin A reduced Aβ40 production by 50% and 60%, respectively, compared with dimethyl sulfoxide-treated control cells. The IC50 values of medioresinol and cryptamygin A for the inhibition of Aβ40 production were 10.8 and 8.2 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of APP-CHO cells with either compound decreased the amount of β-secretase and sAPPβ (the proteolytic fragment of APP catalyzed by β-secretase). These results suggest that the antiamyloidogenic activity of cinnamon bark extract was exerted by medioresinol and cryptamygin A via a reduction in the amount of β-secretase. The extract of cinnamon bark contains potentially valuable antiamyloidogenic agents for the prevention and treatment of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Verification of the antidiabetic effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) using insulin-uncontrolled type 1 diabetic rats and cultured adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Fukushima, Misato; Ito, Yoshimasa; Muraki, Etsuko; Hosono, Takashi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    It has long been believed that an intake of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) alleviates diabetic pathological conditions. However, it is still controversial whether the beneficial effect is insulin-dependent or insulin-mimetic. This study was aimed at determining the insulin-independent effect of cinnamon. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups and orally administered with an aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) for 22 d. The diabetic rats that had taken CE at a dose of more than 30 mg/kg/d were rescued from their hyperglycemia and nephropathy, and these rats were found to have upregulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in their brown adipose tissues as well as in their muscles. This was verified by using 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which CE upregulates GLUT4 translocation and increases the glucose uptake. CE exhibited its anti-diabetic effect independently from insulin by at least two mechanisms: i) upregulation of mitochondrial UCP-1, and ii) enhanced translocation of GLUT4 in the muscle and adipose tissues.

  17. Octadecylimidazolium ionic liquid-modified magnetic materials: Preparation, adsorption evaluation and their excellent application for honey and cinnamon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houmei; Li, Zhan; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2017-08-15

    A novel and versatile adsorbent based on 1-octadecylimidazolium ionic liquid modified magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@ImC18) possessing of both magnetic property and excellent adsorption ability was successfully synthesized. Twelve compounds from four kinds of substances (alkylbenzenes, PAHs, flavonoids and organic acids) were chosen as probe molecules to evaluate adsorption properties of the new adsorbent. A series of adsorption experiments were conducted and results indicated both synergism and competition effects were existed and multiple interactions took place during adsorption process. After considerable acquaintances with the adsorbent, it was successfully applied for real samples analysis of honey and cinnamon. Three flavonoid compounds of myricetin, quercetin and luteolin from honey and cinnamic acid from cinnamon were all detected and quantified. Meanwhile, it reached 280-fold concentration reduction of interferent during the extraction of cinnamic acid from cinnamon. The recoveries were in the range of 85.4-94.8% with relative standard deviations (n=3) of 2.5-5.6%.The current study not only provided a strategy to evaluate new adsorbent, but also demonstrated the novel Fe3O4@SiO2@ImC18 material was reliable, accurate and suitable for sample pretreatment in pharmaceutical and food chemistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantification of coumarin in cinnamon and woodruff beverages using DIP-APCI-MS and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Sonja; Hayen, Heiko; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2013-10-01

    The use of the direct inlet probe-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (DIP-APCI) ion source developed in our laboratory coupled to a high resolution Q-TOF MS for the quantitative analysis of coumarin in different cinnamon samples was demonstrated in this study. Extraction of coumarin from various cinnamon samples was followed by DIP-APCI-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS analysis. For quantification, an external calibration with and without the use of stable isotope-labeled coumarin as internal standard was compared. The results obtained by DIP-APCI-MS and LC-MS were in good agreement. Even without the use of an internal standard satisfying linearity (R(2) > 0.997), recovery (94-104% for spiking levels between 100 and 5,000 mg/kg) and intra- and interday repeatability (2.2-13.8%RSD) was demonstrated using DIP-APCI-MS. To reduce the number of samples requiring quantitative analysis, the possibility of semi-quantitative screening of coumarin directly from powdered cinnamon using DIP-APCI-MS was shown. The analysis of woodruff-flavored beverages and cinnamon-flavored chewing gum by DIP-APCI-MS resulted in the formation of an artifact interfering with coumarin detection. As with other ambient ionization methods, special attention has to be paid to possible spectral interferences due to isobaric substances present in the sample matrix or formed from matrix components after ionization. The temperature-programmed vaporization in DIP-APCI-MS combined with the use of stable isotope-labeled coumarin as internal standard helped in recognizing this interference.

  19. Chromium and Polyphenols From Cinnamon Improve Insulin Sensitivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Naturally occurring compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include chromium and polyphenols found in cinnamon. These compounds also have similar effects on insulin signaling and glucose control. The signs of chromium deficiency are similar to those for the metabolic syndrome ...

  20. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QWToF-MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and 'avouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as ‘cinnamon’. ‘True cinnamon’ refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other ‘cinnamon’ species, C....

  1. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Saifan, Hamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was designed to assess some pharmacological effects of cinnamon (CAE) and ginger (GAE) aqueous extracts in obese diabetic rats, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group 1 was a negative control and the other groups were rendered obese by feeding rats on high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The obese rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan for 5*days to induce diabetes. Group 2 was a positive control, and Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were orally given CAE in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg and GAE in the same doses, respectively for 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected for serum biochemical analyses. Kidneys were dissected out to assay activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Results: CAE and GAE significantly reduced body weight and body fat mass; normalized serum levels of liver enzymes; improved lipid profile; decreased blood glucose and leptin and increased insulin serum levels in obese diabetic rats. Both extracts also increased activity of kidney antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: CAE and GAE exhibit anti-obesity, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic and anti-oxidant effects in obese diabetic rats. These results confirm the previous reports on both extracts. The potential mechanisms underlying these effects are fully discussed and clarified. Our results affirm the traditional use of cinnamon and ginger for treating patients suffering from obesity and diabetes. The obese diabetic rat model used in this study is a novel animal model used in pharmacology researches. PMID:26401364

  2. The meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens fed diet with cinnamon powder.

    PubMed

    Sang-Oh, Park; Chae-Min, Ryu; Byung-Sung, Park; Jong, Hwangbo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feeding effect of diets containing 3, 5 and 7% of cinnamon powder on meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens. The chicken meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens fed diets containing cinnamon powder increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to the control group. However, the TBARS of the meat of chickens fed diets containing cinnamon powder decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the cinnamon powder can improve the shelf life and quality of chicken meat with maximize the productivity of broiler chickens.

  3. Bioactivity of cinnamon with special emphasis on diabetes mellitus: a review.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Thushari; Uluwaduge, Inoka; Jansz, E R

    2012-05-01

    Cinnamon is the oldest spice and has been used by several cultural practices for centuries. In addition to its culinary uses, cinnamon possesses a rising popularity due to many stated health benefits. Out of the large number of cinnamon species available, Cinnamomum aromaticum (Cassia) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum have been subjected to extensive research. Available in vitro and in vivo evidence indicates that cinnamon may have multiple health benefits, mainly in relation to hypoglycaemic activity. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of cinnamon is stated also to be brought about by its anti-microbial, anti-fungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-tumour, blood pressure-lowering, cholesterol and lipid-lowering and gastro-protective properties. This article provides a summary of the scientific literature available on both C. aromaticum and C. zeylanicum. All studies reported here have used cinnamon bark and its products. Although almost all the animal models have indicated a pronounced anti-diabetic activity of both cinnamon species, conflicting results were observed with regard to the few clinical trials available. Therefore, the necessity of evaluating the effects of cinnamon for its therapeutic potential through well-defined and adequately powered randomized controlled clinical trials is emphasized, before recommendations are made for the use of cinnamon as an effective treatment for humans.

  4. Medicinal properties of 'true' cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Pigera, Shehani; Premakumara, G A Sirimal; Galappaththy, Priyadarshani; Constantine, Godwin R; Katulanda, Prasad

    2013-10-22

    In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: "Cinnamomum zeylanicum", "Ceylon cinnamon", "True cinnamon" and "Sri Lankan cinnamon". To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public health implications.

  5. The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Głowacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Marta; Łysakowska, Monika

    2014-12-12

    Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment.

  6. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  7. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-09-30

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

  8. Assessment of coumarin levels in ground cinnamon available in the Czech retail market.

    PubMed

    Blahová, Jana; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the coumarin content of ground cinnamon purchased from retail markets in the Czech Republic. No sample was labelled with information on the botanical source, but, in some cases, the countries of origin were specified. For comparison, a single cinnamon sample imported directly from a plantation in Sri Lanka that came from Cinnamomum verum was analyzed. Results from 60 ground cinnamon samples comprising twelve brands confirmed a high content of coumarin, with mean levels ranging from 2,650 to 7,017 mg · kg(-1). The high coumarin content confirmed that these cinnamon samples obtained from cassia cinnamon were in contrast to the sample from Sri Lanka, which was coumarin-free.

  9. Assessment of Coumarin Levels in Ground Cinnamon Available in the Czech Retail Market

    PubMed Central

    Blahová, Jana; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the coumarin content of ground cinnamon purchased from retail markets in the Czech Republic. No sample was labelled with information on the botanical source, but, in some cases, the countries of origin were specified. For comparison, a single cinnamon sample imported directly from a plantation in Sri Lanka that came from Cinnamomum verum was analyzed. Results from 60 ground cinnamon samples comprising twelve brands confirmed a high content of coumarin, with mean levels ranging from 2 650 to 7 017 mg · kg−1. The high coumarin content confirmed that these cinnamon samples obtained from cassia cinnamon were in contrast to the sample from Sri Lanka, which was coumarin-free. PMID:22761548

  10. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  11. Liposome containing cinnamon oil with antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haiying; Li, Wei; Li, Changzhu; Vittayapadung, Saritporn; Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of bacterial disease remains high and is set against a backdrop of increasing antimicrobial resistance. There is a pressing need for highly effective and natural antibacterial agents. In this work, the anti-biofilm effect of cinnamon oil on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Then, cinnamon oil was encapsulated in liposomes to enhance its chemical stability. The anti-biofilm activities of the liposome-encapsulated cinnamon oil against MRSA biofilms on stainless steel, gauze, nylon membrane and non-woven fabrics were evaluated by colony forming unit determination. Scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy analyses were employed to observe the morphological changes in MRSA biofilms treated with the encapsulated cinnamon oil. As a natural and safe spice, the cinnamon oil exhibited a satisfactory antibacterial performance on MRSA and its biofilms. The application of liposomes further improves the stability of antimicrobial agents and extends the action time.

  12. Beneficial effects of cinnamon on the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and pain, and mechanisms underlying these effects - a review.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Jia, Liu-Nan; Honma, Natsumi; Hosono, Takashi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon is one of the most important herbal drugs and has been widely used in Asia for more than 4000 years. As a folk medicine, cinnamon has been traditionally applied to the treatment of inflammatory disorders and gastric diseases. After chemical profiling of cinnamon's components, their biological activities including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertension, antilipemic, antidiabetes, gastroprotective and immunomodulatory were reported by many investigators. As a result, current studies have been performed mostly focusing on the bioactivity of cinnamon toward the recently generalized metabolic syndrome involving diabetes. In this review article, we provide an overview of the recent literature describing cinnamon's potential for preventing the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Beneficial Effects of Cinnamon on the Metabolic Syndrome, Inflammation, and Pain, and Mechanisms Underlying These Effects – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Jia, Liu-Nan; Honma, Natsumi; Hosono, Takashi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon is one of the most important herbal drugs and has been widely used in Asia for more than 4000 years. As a folk medicine, cinnamon has been traditionally applied to the treatment of inflammatory disorders and gastric diseases. After chemical profiling of cinnamon's components, their biological activities including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertension, antilipemic, antidiabetes, gastroprotective and immunomodulatory were reported by many investigators. As a result, current studies have been performed mostly focusing on the bioactivity of cinnamon toward the recently generalized metabolic syndrome involving diabetes. In this review article, we provide an overview of the recent literature describing cinnamon's potential for preventing the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24716111

  14. Impact of cooking and digestion, in vitro, on the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon, clove and nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Baker, Iona; Chohan, Magali; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2013-12-01

    The impact of cooking and digestion on the antioxidant capacity (AC), estimated total phenolic content (TPC) and anti-inflammatory activity (AA) of culinary spices was determined to investigate their significance as dietary contributors to these properties. Extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested, in vitro, (D) cinnamon, clove and nutmeg were prepared and the TPC, AC and AA, specifically the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the amount of prostaglandin (PG) synthesized, were determined. Compared to their uncooked (U) counterparts, the following changes were statistically significant: the AC and TPC for (C) clove, and the TPC for (D) clove decreased, the TPC for (D) clove increased, the TPC for (C) nutmeg increased, and the AC and TPC for (D) nutmeg increased, and the TPC for (C) and (D) nutmeg increased. All the spices achieved near 100 % inhibition of COX-2 which was associated with the inhibition of the amount of PG synthesized. Based on estimated levels of ingestion, cinnamon possesses a much higher AC than clove and nutmeg because it is typically used in larger quantities. For AA, (U, C and D) cinnamon and clove maintain near 100 % inhibition of COX-2 but only the inhibitory potential of (D) nutmeg could be ascertained (70 %). Cooking and digestion alter the TPC and AC of these spices although the changes are not consistent between spices or across treatments. In contrast to AC, significant AA is likely to be present in these spices at amounts used in cooking.

  15. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J. J.; Appa Rao, V.; Babu, R. Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Materials and Methods: Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application. PMID:27051203

  16. Development and Characterization of Cinnamon Leaf Oil Nanocream for Topical Application

    PubMed Central

    Zainol, N. A.; Ming, T. S.; Darwis, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon leaf oil contains a high percentage of eugenol and has antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. However, the undiluted oil can cause irritation to the skin. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and evaluate cinnamon leaf oil nanocream using palm oil. Nanocream base was prepared using different ratios of oil, surfactants and water. The surfactant used were mixture of Tween 80:Carbitol or Tween 80:Span 65 at different hydrophile-lipophile balance values. The pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the nanocream base areas and the results showed that the nanocream bases using Span 65 as co-surfactant produced bigger cream area. Fifteen formulations using mixtures of Tween 80:Span 65 were further evaluated for accelerated stability test, droplet size, zeta potential, rheological properties and apparent viscosity. The nanocream base which had an average droplet size of 219 nm and had plastic flow with thixotropic behavior was selected for incorporation of 2% cinnamon leaf oil. The nanocream containing cinnamon leaf oil had the average size of 286 nm and good rheological characteristics. The in vitro release study demonstrated that eugenol as the main constituent of cinnamon leaf oil was released for about 81% in 10 h. The short-term stability study conducted for 6 months showed that the cinnamon leaf oil nanocream was stable at a temperature of 25° and thus, cinnamon leaf oil nanocream is a promising natural based preparation to be used for topical application. PMID:26664058

  17. The cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells.

    PubMed

    Wondrak, Georg Thomas; Villeneuve, Nicole F; Lamore, Sarah D; Bause, Alexandra S; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D

    2010-05-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.

  18. The Cinnamon-derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Georg T.; Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Bause, Alexandra S.; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:20657484

  19. Potential of Cinnamon Oil Emulsions as Alternative Washing Solutions of Carrots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Chen, Huaiqiong; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of cinnamon oil emulsions as alternative washing solutions to improve the microbial safety of carrots. Whey protein concentrate (WPC), gum arabic (GA), lecithin, and their combinations were used to prepare cinnamon oil emulsions. The emulsions were characterized for their hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) during 7 days of storage and their antimicrobial activity against cocktails of Salmonella enterica , Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes . The Dh of the emulsion prepared with the GA+WPC blend did not change significantly (195.0 to 184.1 nm), whereas all other emulsions showed varying degrees of increases in Dh. Compared with free cinnamon oil dissolved in 5% ethanol, all emulsions showed similar or lower MICs and MBCs. Emulsions prepared with GA and equal masses of GA and WPC were chosen and diluted to 0.2 and 0.5% cinnamon oil to wash carrots that were surface inoculated with bacterial cocktails because of their lower MICs and MBCs than free oil. Emulsions resulted in significantly higher reductions of pathogens on carrots than free cinnamon oil, 3.0 to 3.7 versus 2.1 to 2.3 log CFU/g at 0.5% cinnamon oil and 2.0 to 3.0 versus 1.0 to 1.7 log CFU/g at 0.2% cinnamon oil. No transfer of bacteria from inoculated carrots to wash solutions and no effects of organic load on log reductions were only observed for wash treatments with 0.5% emulsified cinnamon oil. Thus, the cinnamon oil emulsions are potential alternative postharvest washing solutions for fresh produce production.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk.

    PubMed

    Cava, R; Nowak, E; Taboada, A; Marin-Iniesta, F

    2007-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon bark, cinnamon leaf, and clove against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A were studied in semiskimmed milk incubated at 7 degrees C for 14 days and at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The MIC was 500 ppm for cinnamon bark EO and 3,000 ppm for the cinnamon leaf and clove EOs. These effective concentrations increased to 1,000 ppm for cinnamon bark EO, 3,500 ppm for clove EO, and 4,000 ppm for cinnamon leaf EO when the semiskimmed milk was incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Partial inhibitory concentrations and partial bactericidal concentrations were obtained for all the assayed EOs. The MBC was 3,000 ppm for the cinnamon bark EO, 10,500 ppm for clove EO, and 11,000 ppm for cinnamon leaf EO. The incubation temperature did not affect the MBC of the EOs but slightly increased the MIC at 35 degrees C. The increased activity at the lower temperature could be attributed to the increased membrane fluidity and to the membrane-perturbing action of EOs. The influence of the fat content of milk on the antimicrobial activity of EOs was tested in whole and skimmed milk. In milk samples with higher fat content, the antimicrobial activity of the EOs was reduced. These results indicate the possibility of using these three EOs in milk beverages as natural antimicrobials, especially because milk beverages flavored with cinnamon and clove are consumed worldwide and have been increasing in popularity in recent years.

  1. Effect of cinnamon oil on icaA expression and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Iravati, Susi; Aman, Abu T; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2009-11-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is notorious for its biofilm formation on medical devices, and novel approaches to prevent and kill S. epidermidis biofilms are desired. In this study, the effect of cinnamon oil on planktonic and biofilm cultures of clinical S. epidermidis isolates was evaluated. Initially, susceptibility to cinnamon oil in planktonic cultures was compared to the commonly used antimicrobial agents chlorhexidine, triclosan, and gentamicin. The MIC of cinnamon oil, defined as the lowest concentration able to inhibit visible microbial growth, and the minimal bactericidal concentration, the lowest concentration required to kill 99.9% of the bacteria, were determined using the broth microdilution method and plating on agar. A checkerboard assay was used to evaluate the possible synergy between cinnamon oil and the other antimicrobial agents. The effect of cinnamon oil on biofilm growth was studied in 96-well plates and with confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). Biofilm susceptibility was determined using a metabolic 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Real-time PCR analysis was performed to determine the effect of sub-MIC concentrations of cinnamon oil on expression of the biofilm-related gene, icaA. Cinnamon oil showed antimicrobial activity against both planktonic and biofilm cultures of clinical S. epidermidis strains. There was only a small difference between planktonic and biofilm MICs, ranging from 0.5 to 1% and 1 to 2%, respectively. CLSM images indicated that cinnamon oil is able to detach and kill existing biofilms. Thus, cinnamon oil is an effective antimicrobial agent to combat S. epidermidis biofilms.

  2. Cinnamon ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice via regulatory T cells: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach.

  3. Constituents of cinnamon inhibit bacterial acetyl CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Meades, Glen; Henken, Rachel L; Waldrop, Grover L; Rahman, Md Mukhlesur; Gilman, S Douglass; Kamatou, Guy P P; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Gibbons, Simon

    2010-10-01

    Cinnamon bark ( CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM) is used extensively as an antimicrobial material and currently is being increasingly used in Europe by people with type II diabetes to control their glucose levels. In this paper we describe the action of cinnamon oil, its major component, TRANS-cinnamaldehyde, and an analogue, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- TRANS-cinnamaldehyde against bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of action of this well-known antimicrobial material. These natural products inhibited the carboxyltransferase component of ESCHERICHIA COLI acetyl-CoA carboxylase but had no effect on the activity of the biotin carboxylase component. The inhibition patterns indicated that these products bound to the biotin binding site of carboxyltransferase with TRANS-cinnamaldehyde having a K (i) value of 3.8 ± 0.6 mM. The inhibition of carboxyltransferase by 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- TRANS-cinnamaldehyde was analyzed with a new assay for this enzyme based on capillary electrophoresis. These results explain, in part, the antibacterial activity of this well-known antimicrobial material. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Changes of membrane fatty acids and proteins of Shewanella putrefaciens treated with cinnamon oil and gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Fei; Gao, Fei; Wei, Qianqian; Liu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In order to detect the antimicrobial mechanism of combined treatment of cinnamon oil and gamma irradiation (GI), the membrane fatty acids and proteins characteristics of Shewanella putrefaciens (S. putrefaciens) treated with cinnamon oil and GI, and the distribution of cinnamon oil in S. putrefaciens were observed in this study. The membrane lipid profile of S. putrefaciens was notably damaged by treatments of cinnamon oil and the combination of cinnamon oil and GI, with significantly fatty acids decrease in C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:1, C18:1 (p < 0.05). The SDS-PAGE result showed that GI did not have obvious effect on membrane proteins (MP), but GI combined with cinnamon oil changed the MP subunits. Cinnamaldehyde, the main component of cinnamon oil, can not transport into S. putrefaciens obviously. It was transformed into cinnamyl alcohol in the nutrient broth with the action of S. putrefaciens. This indicated that the antimicrobial action of cinnamon oil mainly happened on the membrane of S. putrefaciens. Cinnamon oil could act on the membrane of S. putrefaciens with the damage of fatty acids and proteins, and GI would increase the destructive capability of cinnamon oil on the membrane fatty acids and proteins of S. putrefaciens.

  5. [Study on solidifying volatile oil of cinnamon with colloidal silicon dioxide SYLOID244FP].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Hu, Shao-Ying; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil of cinnamon with colloidal silicon dioxide SYLOID244FP. Volatile oil of cinnamon was solidified by SYLOID244FP. The amount of SYLOID244FP was optimized with the cinnamaldehyde yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). The effects of SYLOID244FP on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of cinnamaldehyde were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of SYLOID244FP to volatile oil of cinnamon was 1: 1. Dissolution rate of cinnamaldehyde increasesd and its thermal stability improved after volatile oil of cinnamon was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with SYLOID244FP deserves studying further.

  6. Comparative study of cinnamon oil and clove oil on some oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Kumari, Archana; Garg, A Pankaj; Catanzaro, R; Marotta, F

    2011-12-01

    A comparative study was carried out between cinnamon oil and clove oil on the oral micro-biota causing dental caries. Cinnamon oil was found to be more effective than clove oil exhibiting broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting all the ten test bacterial species involved in dental caries. Cinnamon oil produced maximum inhibition zone of diameter (IZD) of 24.0 mm against Streptococcus mutans (major causative bacteria of dental plaque) as compared to clove oil (IZD = 13.0mm). This is contrary to the popular belief that clove oil is effective in tooth decay and dental plaque. This study shows the potential of cinnamon oil over clove oil in the treatment of dental caries. (www.actabiomedica.it).

  7. Nanostructured cinnamon oil has the potential to control Rhipicephalus microplus ticks on cattle.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Daiane S; Boito, Jhonatan P; Santos, Roberto C V; Quatrin, Priscilla M; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Dos Reis, João H; Gebert, Roger R; Glombowsky, Patrícia; Klauck, Vanderlei; Boligon, Aline A; Baldissera, Matheus D; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2017-08-29

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of pure and nanostructured cinnamon oil to control the infestation and reproductive efficiency of Rhipicephalus microplus on dairy cows. In vitro (stage I)-engorged female ticks were immersed in concentrations of 1.0, 5.0 and 10% of cinnamon oil on its pure form, and 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0% of the nanostructured form. 10% cinnamon oil (pure form) showed 100% efficacy, whereas concentrations of 1 and 5% were 62 and 97% efficacious, respectively. Nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing cinnamon oil at 5% showed 95 and 97% efficacy, respectively. In vivo (stage II)-16 naturally tick-infested cows were divided into four groups of four animals each: Group A was composed of dairy cows sprayed with Triton (control); Group B was composed of dairy cows sprayed with cinnamon oil in its pure form (5%), whereas groups C and D were composed of dairy cows sprayed with nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, containing cinnamon oil at 0.5%. The ticks on each animal were counted on days 0, 1, 4 and 20 after spraying. Animals sprayed with pure and nanoencapsulated cinnamon oil carried significantly fewer ticks on days 1 and 4 post-treatment and were free of ticks on day 20 post-treatment. Ticks collected from these dairy cows (24 h after application) had impaired oviposition and larval inhibition, resulting in 90.5 and 100% efficacy when using pure and nanocapsules, respectively. In conclusion, the pure and nanostructured forms of cinnamon oil interfered with tick reproduction, whereas a significant acaricidal effect was found when applied onto cattle.

  8. The glycaemic outcomes of Cinnamon, a review of the experimental evidence and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Medagama, Arjuna B

    2015-10-16

    Cinnamon is currently marketed as a remedy for obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. Integrative medicine is a new concept that combines conventional treatment with evidence-based complementary therapies. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the experimental evidence available for cinnamon in improving glycaemic targets in animal models and humans. Insulin receptor auto-phosphorlylation and de-phosphorylation, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4 ) receptor synthesis and translocation, modulation of hepatic glucose metabolism through changes in Pyruvate kinase (PK) and Phosphenol Pyruvate Carboxikinase (PEPCK), altering the expression of PPAR (γ) and inhibition of intestinal glucosidases are some of the mechanisms responsible for improving glycaemic control with cinnamon therapy. We reviewed 8 clinical trials that used Cinnamomum cassia in aqueous or powder form in doses ranging from 500 mg to 6 g per day for a duration lasting from 40 days to 4 months as well as 2 clinical trials that used cinnamon on treatment naïve patients with pre-diabetes. An improvement in glycaemic control was seen in patients who received Cinnamon as the sole therapy for diabetes, those with pre-diabetes (IFG or IGT) and in those with high pre-treatment HbA1c. In animal models, cinnamon reduced fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c. Cinnamon has the potential to be a useful add-on therapy in the discipline of integrative medicine in managing type 2 diabetes. At present the evidence is inconclusive and long-term trials aiming to establish the efficacy and safety of cinnamon is needed. However, high coumarin content of Cinnamomum cassia is a concern, but Cinnamomum zeylanicum with its low coumarin content would be a safer alternate.

  9. Effect of cinnamon and its procyanidin-B2 enriched fraction on diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Muthenna, P; Raghu, G; Kumar, P Anil; Surekha, M V; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2014-10-05

    Non-enzymatic protein glycation and resultant accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications including diabetic nephropathy (DN). It is considered that antiglycating agents offer protection against AGE mediated pathologies including DN. Earlier we characterized procyanidin-B2 (PCB2) as the active component from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) that inhibits AGE formation in vitro. In this study, we have investigated the potential of PCB2-enriched fraction of cinnamon to prevent in vivo accumulation of AGE and to ameliorate renal changes in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fed with either 3% cinnamon or 0.002% PCB2-fraction in diet for 12weeks. Biochemical analysis of blood and urine was performed at the end of experiment. Evaluation of glomerular markers that serve as indicators of renal function was done by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and qRT-PCR. Supplementation of diabetic rats with cinnamon and PCB2-fraction prevented glycation mediated RBC-IgG cross-links and HbA1c accumulation in diabetes rats. Cinnamon and PCB2-fraction also inhibited the accumulation of N-carboxy methyl lysine (CML), a prominent AGE in diabetic kidney. Interestingly, cinnamon and its PCB2-fraction prevented the AGE mediated loss of expression of glomerular podocyte proteins; nephrin and podocin. Inhibition of AGE by cinnamon and PCB2-fraction ameliorated the diabetes mediated renal malfunction in rats as evidenced by reduced urinary albumin and creatinine. In conclusion, PCB2 from cinnamon inhibited AGE accumulation in diabetic rat kidney and ameliorated AGE mediated pathogenesis of DN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cinnamon Bark, Water Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-14

    Office of Research Protocol Support Use Only: Who Signed? PI Co-PI Auth AI Received on: Initials: Report Expiration Date: Scheduled for IRB...requested changes to the protocol and ICD 3 28 Jun 11 Changes to the protocol and ICD. Added an AI , 90 day study calendar and diet and exercise...monitoring blood glucose statement and added risk for hypoglycemic episodes. 6 18 Dec 12 Add and remove an AI 7 8 Jan 13 Change contractor information

  11. Identification of Toxicants in Cinnamon-Flavored Electronic Cigarette Refill Fluids.

    PubMed

    Behar, R Z; Davis, B; Wang, Y; Bahl, V; Lin, S; Talbot, P

    2013-10-25

    In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users.

  12. Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids.

    PubMed

    Behar, R Z; Davis, B; Wang, Y; Bahl, V; Lin, S; Talbot, P

    2014-03-01

    In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Postharvest Processing and Benefits of Black Pepper, Coriander, Cinnamon, Fenugreek, and Turmeric Spices.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Roselin, P; Singh, K K; Zachariah, John; Saxena, S N

    2016-07-26

    Spices are prime source for flavor, aroma, and taste in cuisines and play an active role as medicines due to their high antioxidant properties. As medicine or food, the importance of spices cannot be overemphasized. The medicinal values of spices are very well established in treating various ailments like cancer, fever, malaria, stomach offset, nausea, and many more. A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried which requires further processing to be utilized in the form of value-added product. This review paper deals with the cultivation, postharvesting, chemical composition, uses, health, and medicinal benefits of the selected spice viz., black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek, turmeric, and technological advances in processing of spices viz., super critical fluid extraction, cryogenic grinding, and microencapsulation etc. This paper also focuses on issues related to utilization of spices toward its high end-product development and characterization in pharmaceuticals and other medicinal purposes. The availability of different spices and their varietal differences and location have their pertinent characters, which are much demanding to refine postharvest and processing to assure its quality in the international market.

  14. Effect of cinnamon powder addition during conching on the flavor of dark chocolate mass.

    PubMed

    Albak, F; Tekin, A R

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, refined dark chocolate mix was conched with the addition of finely powdered cinnamon in a laboratory-style conching machine to evaluate its aroma profile both analytically and sensorially. The analytical determinations were carried out by a combination of solid phase micro extraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectroscopy (MS) and-olfactometry(O), while the sensory evaluation was made with trained panelists. The optimum conditions for the SPME were found to be CAR/PDMS as the fiber, 60 °C as the temperature, and 60 min as the time. SPME analyses were carried out at 60 °C for 60 min with toluene as an internal standard. 26 compounds were monitored before and after conching. The unconched sample had a significantly higher fruity odor value than the conched sample. This new product was highly acceptable according to the overall inclination test. However some of textural properties, such as coarseness, and hardness were below the general preference.

  15. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049-0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  16. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049–0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  17. Screening of polyphenolic plant extracts for anti-obesity properties in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Boqué, Noemi; Campión, Javier; de la Iglesia, Rocío; de la Garza, Ana L; Milagro, Fermín I; San Román, Belén; Bañuelos, Óscar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-03-30

    Polyphenols have been reported to prevent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the study was to conduct a screening for potential anti-obesity polyphenolic plant extracts using a diet-induced animal model. Rats were fed a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet with or without supplementation of different polyphenolic plant extracts (almond, apple, cinnamon, orange blossom, hamamelis, lime blossom, grape vine, and birch) for 56-64 days. Body weight gain was lower in rats supplemented with apple, cinnamon, hamamelis and birch extracts as compared to HFS non-supplemented group. Moreover, apple and cinnamon extracts prevented the increase in fat mass promoted by the HFS diet. Insulin resistance, estimated by the homostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, was reduced in rats fed apple, cinnamon, hamamelis and birch extracts. Apple extract also prevented the HFS-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperleptinaemia. Only apple and cinnamon extracts were finally considered as potentially important anti-obesogenic extracts, due to their body fat-lowering effects, while the improvement of obesity-related metabolic complications by apple polyphenols highlights this extract as a promising functional food ingredient for the management of obesity and its metabolic complications. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The Effect of Cinnamon on Menstrual Bleeding and Systemic Symptoms With Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Hatefi, Masoud; Najafi, Fatemeh; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Khani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea with interferes in daily activities can have adverse effects on quality of life of women. Objectives: Regarding the use of herbal medicine, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of cinnamon on primary dysmenorrhea in a sample of Iranian female college students from Ilam University of Medical Sciences (west of Iran) during 2013-2014. Patients and Methods: In a randomized double-blind trial, 76 female student received placebo (n = 38, capsules containing starch, three times a day (TDS)) or cinnamon (n = 38, capsules containing 420 mg cinnamon, TDS) in 24 hours. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the severity of pain and nausea. Vomiting and menstrual bleeding were assessed by counting the number of saturated pads. The parameters were recorded in the group during the first 72 hours of the cycle. Results: The mean amount of menstrual bleeding in the cinnamon group was significantly lower than the placebo group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). The mean pain severity score in the cinnamon group was less than the placebo group at various intervals (4.1 ± 0.5 vs. 6.1 ± 0.4 at 24 hours, 3.2 ± 0.6 vs. 6.1 ± 0.4 at 48 hours, and 1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 4.0 ± 0.3 at 72 hours, respectively) (P < 0.001). The mean severity of nausea and the frequencies of vomiting significantly decreased in the cinnamon group compared with the placebo group at various intervals (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Regarding the significant effect of cinnamon on reduction of pain, menstrual bleeding, nausea and vomiting with primary dysmenorrhea without side effects, it can be regarded as a safe and effective treatment for dysmenorrhea in young women. PMID:26023350

  19. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

  20. Superheated water extraction of essential oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.).

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Bimali; Smith, Roger M

    2010-01-01

    Superheated water extraction (SHWE) potentially provides an environmentally friendly and clean extraction technique which uses a minimum or no organic solvent. The scope and limitations of the technique have still to be fully explored. To investigate the application of SHWE to cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark and leaves as typical plant materials to determine if this extraction method can yield a higher quality oil. Samples of cinnamon bark or leaves were extracted at 200°C with water under pressure. The essential oils were obtained from the aqueous solution using a solid phase extraction cartridge and were then examined by GC-MS. Using superheated water extraction, cinnamon bark oil with over 80% cinnamaldehyde and cinnamon leaf oil containing up to 98% eugenol were obtained. Alternative solvent extraction methods were also studied but led to emulsion formation apparently because of the presence of cellulose breakdown products. Superheated water extraction offers a cheap, environmentally friendly technique with a shorter extraction time than hydrodistillation and yielded a higher quality oil with a higher proportion of eugenol than hydrodistillation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Differentiation of the four major types (C. Burmannii, C. Verum, C. cassia, And C. Loureiroi) of cinnamons using a flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple and efficient flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indon...

  2. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase and amylase by extracts of different spices and plants.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Mohamed; Louati, Hanen; Kamoun, Jannet; Kchaou, Ali; Damak, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to search new anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agents from plant and spices crude extracts as alternative to synthetic drugs. The inhibitory effect of 72 extracts was evaluated, in vitro, on lipase and amylase activities. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and black tea exhibited an appreciable inhibitory effect on pancreatic amylase with IC50 values of 18 and 87 μg, respectively. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and mint showed strong inhibitory effects against pancreatic lipase with IC50 of 45 and 62 μg, respectively. The presence of bile salts and colipase or an excess of interface failed to restore the lipase activity. Therefore, the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, by extracts of spices and plants, belongs to an irreversible inhibition. Crude extract of cinnamon showed the strongest anti-lipase and anti-amylase activities which offer a prospective therapeutic approach for the management of diabetes and obesity.

  3. Sensory Attributes and Preliminary Characterization of Milk Chocolate Bar Enriched with Cinnamon Essential Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmi, A.; Praseptiangga, D.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of Indonesia's main commodities with annually increasing production. Chocolates are semi-solid suspensions of fine solid particles in a continuous fat phase. Primary chocolate categories are dark, milk, and white that differs in content of cocoa solid, milk fat, and cocoa butter. Milk chocolate bar is one of the most popular processed cocoa products in Indonesia. Widely cultivated in Indonesia, cinnamon is potential to be developed and is expected to add flavor and taste as well as enhance functional properties of milk chocolate, since it is well-known of its high antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon essential oil addition on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of milk chocolate bar. Three formulas of milk chocolate bar with an addition of cinnamon essential oil (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) were evaluated in this study. Panelists acceptance level decreased with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil added, while moisture content and color analysis results did not show any significantly different for each formula, suggesting that milk chocolate bar with the addition of 0.1% of cinnamon essential oil had the highest level of acceptance and preferences for some of properties evaluated.

  4. Cinnamon bark oil and its components inhibit biofilm formation and toxin production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Il; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Jintae

    2015-02-16

    The long-term usage of antibiotics has resulted in the evolution of multidrug resistant bacteria, and pathogenic biofilms contribute to reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. In this study, 83 essential oils were initially screened for biofilm inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cinnamon bark oil and its main constituent cinnamaldehyde at 0.05% (v/v) markedly inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Furthermore, cinnamon bark oil and eugenol decreased the production of pyocyanin and 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone, the swarming motility, and the hemolytic activity of P. aeruginosa. Also, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol at 0.01% (v/v) significantly decreased biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Transcriptional analysis showed that cinnamon bark oil down-regulated curli genes and Shiga-like toxin gene stx2 in EHEC. In addition, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) film incorporating biofilm inhibitors was fabricated and shown to provide efficient biofilm control on solid surfaces. This is the first report that cinnamon bark oil and its components, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, reduce the production of pyocyanin and PQS, the swarming motility, and the hemolytic activity of P. aeruginosa, and inhibit EHEC biofilm formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by cinnamon through a sex-specific dependence on the insulin receptor substrate chico

    PubMed Central

    Schriner, Samuel E.; Kuramada, Steven; Lopez, Terry E.; Truong, Stephanie; Pham, Andrew; Jafari, Mahtab

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon is a spice commonly used worldwide to flavor desserts, fruits, cereals, breads, and meats. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to its consumption, including the recent suggestion that it may decrease blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. Insulin signaling is an integral pathway regulating the lifespan of laboratory organisms, such as worms, flies, and mice. We posited that if cinnamon truly improved the clinical signs of diabetes in people that it would also act on insulin signaling in laboratory organisms and increase lifespan. We found that cinnamon did extend lifespan in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. However, it had no effect on the expression levels of the 3 aging-related Drosophila insulin-like peptides nor did it alter sugar, fat, or soluble protein levels, as would be predicted. In addition, cinnamon exhibited no protective effects in males against oxidative challenges. However, in females it did confer a protective effect against paraquat, but sensitized them to iron. Cinnamon provided no protective effect against desiccation and starvation in females, but sensitized males to both. Interestingly, cinnamon protected both sexes against cold, sensitized both to heat, and elevated HSP70 expression levels. We also found that cinnamon required the insulin receptor substrate to extend lifespan in males, but not females. We conclude that cinnamon does not extend lifespan by improving stress tolerance in general, though it does act, at least in part, through insulin signaling. PMID:25456850

  6. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by cinnamon through a sex-specific dependence on the insulin receptor substrate chico.

    PubMed

    Schriner, Samuel E; Kuramada, Steven; Lopez, Terry E; Truong, Stephanie; Pham, Andrew; Jafari, Mahtab

    2014-12-01

    Cinnamon is a spice commonly used worldwide to flavor desserts, fruits, cereals, breads, and meats. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to its consumption, including the recent suggestion that it may decrease blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. Insulin signaling is an integral pathway regulating the lifespan of laboratory organisms, such as worms, flies, and mice. We posited that if cinnamon truly improved the clinical signs of diabetes in people that it would also act on insulin signaling in laboratory organisms and increase lifespan. We found that cinnamon did extend lifespan in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. However, it had no effect on the expression levels of the 3 aging-related Drosophila insulin-like peptides nor did it alter sugar, fat, or soluble protein levels, as would be predicted. In addition, cinnamon exhibited no protective effects in males against oxidative challenges. However, in females it did confer a protective effect against paraquat, but sensitized them to iron. Cinnamon provided no protective effect against desiccation and starvation in females, but sensitized males to both. Interestingly, cinnamon protected both sexes against cold, sensitized both to heat, and elevated HSP70 expression levels. We also found that cinnamon required the insulin receptor substrate to extend lifespan in males, but not females. We conclude that cinnamon does not extend lifespan by improving stress tolerance in general, though it does act, at least in part, through insulin signaling. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients’ daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level. PMID:27651812

  8. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients' daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level.

  9. Combination of analytical and microbiological techniques to study the antimicrobial activity of a new active food packaging containing cinnamon or oregano against E. coli and S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Becerril, R; Gómez-Lus, R; Goñi, P; López, P; Nerín, C

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is the optimization and application of a group of analytical and microbiological techniques in the study of the activity of essential oils (EOs) incorporated in a new antimicrobial packaging material and the research in depth of the interaction between the microbial cells and the individual compounds present in the active material. For this purpose the antimicrobial activity of the active packaging containing cinnamon or oregano was evaluated against E. coli and S. aureus. The vapour phase activity and the direct contact between the antimicrobial agents themselves, or once incorporated in the packaging material, and the microbial cells have been studied. The direct contact was studied using a broth dilution method. The vapour phase was evaluated by using a new method which involves the use of a filter disk containing the EOs. Furthermore, the kill time assay was used to determine the exposure time for the maximum efficiency in packaging, and transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the antimicrobial activity and the possible mechanism of action against E. coli and S. aureus. Finally, the compounds absorbed by cells were identified. The results showed that the techniques used provide relevant information about the antibacterial activity of cinnamon and oregano in direct contact as well as in the vapour phase. The antimicrobial packaging showed a fast efficiency which supports its likely application as a food packaging material. Bacteria treated with EOs exhibit a wide range of significant abnormalities; these include formation of blebs, coagulation of cytoplasmatic constituents, collapse of the cell structure and lack of cytoplasmatic material. Some of these observations are correlated to the ability of some of these substances to disrupt envelop structure, especially the inner membrane. After an extraction from dead cells, cinnamaldehyde was detected by GC-MS in E. coli exposed to the active packaging containing cinnamon.

  10. Cinnamon spice and everything not nice: many features of intraoral allergy to cinnamic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Isaac-Renton, Megan; Li, Monica Kayi; Parsons, Laurie M

    2015-01-01

    Intraoral allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an uncommonly reported entity. The most commonly implicated allergens are metals that are incorporated into dental appliances. Intraoral ACD to nonmetal allergens is even less frequently described. Cinnamic aldehyde is widely used as a flavoring agent in foods and dentifrices. However, intraoral ACD to cinnamon flavoring agents has only been sporadically reported. In these cases, a variety of sources have been implicated, including candy, chewing gum, mouthwash, lip sunscreen, cinnamon toast, volatile oils, and toothpaste. The clinical presentation of intraoral ACD reactions varies greatly, and as a result, clinicians often do not recognize the diagnosis. Furthermore, because patients are typically unable to provide a list of putative allergens, a high degree of clinical suspicion is required to make the correct diagnosis. We describe several patients with intraoral ACD caused by cinnamon and review the literature associated with this condition.

  11. Influence of cinnamon and catnip on the stereotypical pacing of oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Resende, Letícia de S; Pedretti Gomes, Karla C; Andriolo, Artur; Genaro, Gelson; Remy, Gabriella L; Almeida Ramos, Valdir de

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. Environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. This study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2 odors (catnip and cinnamon) introduced individually into the animals' enclosures for 3 consecutive days. Proportion of scans spent engaging in stereotypical pacing were compared before, during, and after treatments. The addition of cinnamon reduced the proportion of pacing during and after enrichment (Wilcoxon: Z = 3.16, p < .001; Z = 3.16, p < .001, respectively), indicating a prolonged effect of the enrichment on the animals' behavior. Catnip appears to have elicited no significant difference in the stereotypic pacing before, during, or after the enrichment (Friedman: X(2) = 2.69; p = .260). The results highlight the potential use of cinnamon as a method of environmental enrichment for small captive-housed cats.

  12. Comparative Effect of Cinnamon and Ibuprofen for Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Hatefi, Masoud; Khajavikhan, Javaher

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Primary dysmenorrheal has a negative impact on women's quality of life. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Cinnamon and Ibuprofen for treatment of primary dysmenorrheal in a sample of Iranian female college students from Ilam University of Medical Sciences (western Iran). Materials and Methods In a randomized, double-blind trial, out of 114, control group received placebo (empty capsules contain starch, TDS, n= 38) a test group received Ibuprofen (capsule containing 400mg Ibuprofen, TDS, n=38), or another test group received Cinnamon (capsule containing 420 mg Cinnamon, TDS, n= 38) in 24 h. To determine severity of pain, we used the VAS scale. Pain intensity and duration of pain were monitored in the group during first 72 h of cycle. Results The mean pain severity score and mean duration of pain in Ibuprofen and Cinnamon were less than placebo group respectively (p< 0.001). Of 4 hours after the intervention there were no statistically significant differences between the Cinnamon and placebo group (p> 0.05). Of eight hours after the intervention, the mean pain severity in the cinnamon group was significantly lower than placebo group (p< 0.001). At various time intervals the mean pain severity in the Ibuprofen group were significantly less than Cinnamon and placebo groups (p< 0.001). Conclusion Cinnamon compared with placebo significantly reduced the severity and duration of pain during menstruation, but this effect was lower compared with Ibuprofen. Cinnamon can be regarded as a safe and effective treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. More researches are recommended to study the efficacy of Cinnamon on reducing menstrual bleeding. PMID:26023601

  13. Cinnamon users with prediabetes have a better fasting working memory: a cross-sectional function study.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fang, Wen-Hui; Liu, Hsiao-Yu; Xiu, Lili; Andrews, Zane B

    2016-04-01

    Working memory (WM) is impaired in prediabetes. We hypothesized that culinary herbs and spices may decrease insulin resistance (IR) and improve WM in prediabetes. Healthy people aged ≥60 years with prediabetes (fasting blood glucose 100-125 mg/dL) (47 men and 46 women) whose food and culinary herb intakes were established with a food frequency questionnaire had body composition assessed and fasting glucose and insulin measured. Working memory and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed on the same occasion. The contributions to associations between WM and diet, body fat, and IR were estimated by linear regression. Compared with nonusers, cinnamon users had significantly less frequent physical activity (2.9 vs. 4.4 times per week) and more often used fresh ginger (93.3% vs. 64.1%) and ginger in cooking (60.0% vs. 32.1%). Cinnamon users also had a better WM (2.9 vs. 2.5, P < .001). Cinnamon had a significant effect (users were 0.446 higher), but not ginger or curry usage, in predicting WM. For sociodemographic variables, only education (years) was significant in predicting WM (β = 0.065). Other significant determinants of WM were total fat mass (kilograms) (β = -0.024) and MMSE (β = 0.075). After adjustment for age and sex, cinnamon use, education, and MMSE remained significant individual predictors. In the final model, in which all variables listed were adjusted simultaneously, cinnamon users still had a significantly higher WM than nonusers. Cinnamon usage is associated with a better WM, not accounted for by dietary quality or IR, in untreated prediabetes.

  14. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, Ashley; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2012-11-01

    In healthy normal-weight adults, cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, is commonly observed in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare declines in postprandial glycemic response in normal-weight and obese subjects with ingestion of 6 g ground cinnamon. In a crossover study, subjects consumed 50 g available carbohydrate in instant farina cereal, served plain or with 6 g ground cinnamon. Blood glucose concentration, the main outcome measure, was assessed at minutes 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) group, dietary condition, and time on blood glucose. Paired t-test assessed blood glucose at individual time points and glucose area under the curve (AUC) between dietary conditions. Thirty subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, 15 with BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9 and 15 with BMIs of 30.0 or more, completed the study. There was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two BMI groups at any time point. However, in a combined analysis of all subjects, the addition of cinnamon to the cereal significantly reduced 120-minute glucose AUC (P=0.008) and blood glucose at 15 (P=0.001), 30 (P<0.001), 45 (P<0.001), and 60 (P=0.001) minutes. At 120 minutes, blood glucose was significantly higher with cinnamon consumption (P<0.001). These results suggest cinnamon may be effective in moderating postprandial glucose response in normal weight and obese adults.

  15. Structural characterization and bioactivity of proanthocyanidins from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Min; Lin, Huan-You; Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-11-01

    Barks and twigs of common species of cinnamon with abundant proanthocyanidins are used as a spice, fold medicine or supplement. Cinnamomum osmophloeum is an endemic species in Taiwan and coumarin was not detected in the oil of the C. osmophloeum twig. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the bioactivities and proanthocyanidins of C. osmophloeum twig extracts (CoTE). The n-butanol soluble fraction from CoTE was divided into 10 subfractions (F1-F10) by Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography. The antihyperglycemic activities were examined by α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory assays. Total antioxidant activities were examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating assays. The results revealed that subfractions F6-F10, with high proanthocyanidin contents, showed excellent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities. Subfractions F6-F10 were analyzed further by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry and thiolysis-reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. The results showed that the mean degrees of polymerization of proanthocyanidins in subfractions F6-F10 ranged from 3.5 to 5.1, with the highest degrees of polymerization of proanthocyanidins reaching 8 in subfractions F8-F10. Two compounds in F6 were identified as cinnamtannin B1 and parameritannin A1. These proanthocyanidins contained at least one A-type and major B-type linkages. These results demonstrate that proanthocyanidins are associated with their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities in CoTE. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The Effect of Oregano and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Field Pea Silages

    PubMed Central

    Soycan-Önenç, Sibel; Koc, Fisun; Coşkuntuna, Levent; Özdüven, M. Levent; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which were the organic acid (OA) alternative of oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Whole crop pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions allocated to five groups: CON (non-treated), distilled water, denoted as control group; OA group, a mixture of 60% formic acid, 20% sodium formate and 20% water applied at a rate of 5 g/kg fresh forage (Silofarm Liquid, Farmavet); origanum (ORE) group, Origanum onites essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; cinnamon (CIN) group, cinnamon essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; origanum+cinnamon (ORECIN) group, a mixture of ORE and CIN applied at an equal rate of 400 mg/kg fresh forage. Cinnamon decreased acetic acid (AA), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and weight loss (WL) at the end of 60 days silage. Crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) increased by cinnamon essential oil. Yeasts were not detected in any treatments, including the control, after 7 days of air exposure. The CO2 amount decreased and the formation mold was inhibited in the aerobic period by the addition of cinnamon oil. Oregano did not show a similar effect, but when it was used with cinnamon, it showed synergic effect on AA and during aerobic period, it showed antagonistic effect on mold formation and DM losses. It was found in this study that cinnamon can be an alternative to organic acids. PMID:26323518

  17. Influence of Ginger and Cinnamon Intake on Inflammation and Muscle Soreness Endued by Exercise in Iranian Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Barani, Azam; Taghiyar, Maryam; Shiranian, Afshin; Hajishafiee, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger rhizomes (rich in gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone) have been used in Asia for the treatment of asthma, diabetes, and pain, and have shown potent anti-inflammatory attributes. Common spices such as Cinnamon (including cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehydeis) are used in food and many studies have focused on its anti-inflammatory components. Intense exercise can result in an inflammatory response to cell damage and also muscle soreness. The efficacy of dietary ginger and cinnamon as anti-inflammatory agents and their effectiveness in reducing muscle soreness has been investigated in limited studies on humans. Therefore, we have studied the effects of dietary ginger and cinnamon on inflammation and muscle soreness in Iranian female taekwondo players. Methods: Sixty healthy, trained women, aged 13-25 years, were enrolled in the six-week investigation and randomly categorized into three groups (cinnamon, ginger or placebo) and received 3 g of ginger, cinnamon or placebo powder each day, depending on the group they belonged to. The IL-6 level and Likert Scale of Muscle Soreness were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the study and compared among the groups. Results: Forty-nine of the participants completed the six-week intervention. There were no significant changes in the IL-6 cinnamon and ginger group when compared with the placebo group, whereas, there was a significant fall in muscle soreness in the cinnamon group and placebo (P < 0.1) and ginger group and placebo (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups. PMID:23717759

  18. The Effect of Oregano and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Field Pea Silages.

    PubMed

    Soycan-Önenç, Sibel; Koc, Fisun; Coşkuntuna, Levent; Özdüven, M Levent; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which were the organic acid (OA) alternative of oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Whole crop pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions allocated to five groups: CON (non-treated), distilled water, denoted as control group; OA group, a mixture of 60% formic acid, 20% sodium formate and 20% water applied at a rate of 5 g/kg fresh forage (Silofarm Liquid, Farmavet); origanum (ORE) group, Origanum onites essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; cinnamon (CIN) group, cinnamon essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; origanum+cinnamon (ORECIN) group, a mixture of ORE and CIN applied at an equal rate of 400 mg/kg fresh forage. Cinnamon decreased acetic acid (AA), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and weight loss (WL) at the end of 60 days silage. Crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) increased by cinnamon essential oil. Yeasts were not detected in any treatments, including the control, after 7 days of air exposure. The CO2 amount decreased and the formation mold was inhibited in the aerobic period by the addition of cinnamon oil. Oregano did not show a similar effect, but when it was used with cinnamon, it showed synergic effect on AA and during aerobic period, it showed antagonistic effect on mold formation and DM losses. It was found in this study that cinnamon can be an alternative to organic acids.

  19. Review article: cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet as a primary treatment for orofacial granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, H E; Escudier, M P; Patel, P; Challacombe, S J; Sanderson, J D; Lomer, M C E

    2011-10-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the lips, face and mouth. The aetiology remains unclear but may involve an allergic component. Improvements have been reported with cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets. To explore the prevalence of compound and food sensitivity and examine the dietary treatments used in orofacial granulomatosis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out and relevant studies from January 1933 to January 2010 were identified using the electronic database search engines; AGRIS 1991-2008, AMED 1985-2008, British Nursing and Index archive 1985-2008, EMBASE 1980-2008, evidence based medicine review databases (e.g. Cochrane DSR), International Pharmaceutical and Medline 1950-2008. Common sensitivities identified, predominantly through patch testing, were to benzoic acid (36%) food additives (33%), perfumes and flavourings (28%), cinnamaldehyde (27%), cinnamon (17%), benzoates (17%) and chocolate (11%). The cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet has been shown to provide benefit in 54-78% of patients with 23% requiring no adjunctive therapies. A negative or positive patch test result to cinnamaldehyde, and benzoates did not predict dietary outcome. The most concentrated source of benzoate exposure is from food preservatives. Use of liquid enteral formulas can offer a further dietary therapy, particularly in children with orofacial granulomatosis. Management of orofacial granulomatosis is challenging but cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets appear to have a definite role to play. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  1. Effects of cinnamon granules on pharmacokinetics of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis granules in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaoyi; Lu, Fu'er; Dong, Hui; Xu, Lijun; Chen, Guang; Zou, Xin; Lei, Hongwei

    2011-06-01

    The effects of Cinnamon granules on pharmacokinetics of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis granules in healthy male volunteers, and the compatibility mechanism of Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW) composed of Rhizoma Coptidis granules and Cinnamon granules were investigated. The concentration of berberine in plasma of healthy male volunteers was determined directly by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after an oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis granules alone or combined with Cinnamon granules (JTW). The plasma concentration-time curves of berberine were plotted. The data were analyzed with Drug and Statistics (DAS) 2.0 pharmacokinetic program (Chinese Pharmacology Society) to obtain the main pharmacokinetic parameters. The results showed that the plasma concentration-time curve of berberine was described by a two-compartment model. The C(max), T(max), t(1/2) and CLz/F of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis granules were 360.883 μg/L, 2.0 h, 3.882 h, 119.320 L·h(-1)·kg(-1) respectively, and those of berberine in JTW were 396.124 μg/L, 1.5 h, 4.727 h, 57.709 L·h(-1)·kg(-1) respectively. It was suggested that Rhizoma Coptidis granules combined with Cinnamon granules could increase the plasma concentration of berberine, promote berberine absorption and lengthen the detention time of berberine in healthy male volunteers.

  2. Cinnamon Polyphenols Attenuate Neuronal Death and Glial Swelling in Ischemic Injury

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brain edema is a major complication associated with ischemic stroke and is characterized by a volumetric enlargement of the brain. Astrocyte swelling is a major component of brain edema. We investigated the protective effects of polyphenols isolated from green tea and cinnamon in C6 glial cultures s...

  3. Determination of Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon by SPME-GC-MS: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yimin; Ocariz, Jessica; Hammersand, Jennifer; MacDonald, Evan; Bartczak, Ashley; Kero, Frank; Young, Vaneica Y.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    Students analyze "trans"-cinnamaldehyde in commercial cinnamon using solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS with ethyl benzoate as the internal standard. Aside from the instrumentation, the experiment utilizes readily available low hazard materials and can be completed within one four-hour laboratory period. (Contains 2 figures.)

  4. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  5. Effect of cortisol on gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic peptides, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), play pivotal roles in the control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in fish. In the present study we tested the possibility that stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction in teleost may involve changes in GnRH and GnIH activity. We studied expression of brain GnIH, GnIH-R, seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), as well as circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Treatment with cortisol increased GnIH mRNA level, but reduced sbGnRH mRNA and circulating levels of LH and FSH in cinnamon clownfish. Using double immunofluorescence staining, we found expression of both GnIH and GnRH in the diencephalon region of cinnamon clownfish brain. These findings support the hypothesis that cortisol, an indicator of stress, affects reproduction, in part, by increasing GnIH in cinnamon clownfish which contributes to hypothalamic suppression of reproductive function in A. melanopus, a protandrous hermaphroditic fish.

  6. The Effects of Chewing Cinnamon Flavored Gum on Mood, Feeling and Spelling Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Andrew; Kim, Wonsun; Raudenbush, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of chewing cinnamon flavored gum can increase mood, feeling and spelling acquisition. 5th grade students (n = 22) at Ilshin elementary school in South Korea served as participants. The same students were required to take 4 spelling tests with 1 given every day over the course of 4 days. For…

  7. Efficacy of citronella and cinnamon essential oils on Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Leopoldina de Fátima Dantas de; Paula, Jacqueline Felipe de; Almeida, Rossana Vanessa Dantas de; Williams, David Wynne; Hebling, Josimeri; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of new antimicrobials derived from plants could aid in the management of biofilm-associated infections, including denture-induced stomatitis (DS). DS is an oral infection caused by Candida biofilms on the surfaces of poorly cleansed dentures. Effective treatment of DS requires the use of an appropriate denture cleanser and preferably one that exhibits antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-Candida and anti-biofilm efficacy of two essential plant oils from Cymbopogon winterianus (citronella) and Cinnamon cassia (cinnamon). Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentrations (MFCs) were determined by broth microdilution, whilst anti-biofilm activity was measured against mature (cultured for 72 h) biofilms on acrylic surfaces. Candida cell viability was assessed immediately (0 h) after treatment (T0) and 48 h after biofilm re-growth (T48). Biofilm structure was determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) at T0 and T48. The respective MICs of cinnamon and citronella oils were 65 and 250 μg/ml and these were also the MFC values. For anti-biofilm efficacy, both oils significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of viable micro-organisms and accumulation of biofilms at T0. However, at T48, there was no difference between treated and untreated biofilms. It is concluded that citronella and cinnamon essential oils have potential for daily anti-candidal denture cleansing.

  8. Cinnamon: potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, elevated glucose and lipids, inflammation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased weight gain, and increased glycation of proteins. Cinnamon has been shown to improve aspects of metabolic syndrome in cells cultured in vitro, and in an...

  9. Profile of urinary and fecal proanthocyanidin metabolites from common cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) in rats.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Fuguet, Elisabet; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark is widely used as a spice and in traditional medicine. Its oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins are believed to be partly responsible for the beneficial properties of the plant. We describe here the metabolic fate of cinnamon proanthocyanidins in the urine and feces of rats fed a suspension of the whole bark. The metabolites include ten mono-, di-, and tri- conjugated (epi)catechin phase II metabolites and more than 20 small phenolic acids from intestinal microbial fermentation. Some of these are sulfated conjugates. Feces contain intact (epi)catechin and dimers. This suggests that free radical scavenging species are in contact with the intestinal walls for hours after ingestion of cinnamon. The phenolic metabolite profile of cinnamon bark in urine is consistent with a mixture of proanthocyanidins that are depolymerized into their constitutive (epi)catechin units as well as cleaved into smaller phenolic acids during their transit along the intestinal tract, with subsequent absorption and conjugation into bioavailable metabolites. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Research Advances: Nanoscale Molecular Tweezers; Cinnamon as Pesticide?; Recently Identified Dietary Sources of Antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2004-12-01

    This Report from Other Journals surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include reports that receptors have been designed to act as molecular tweezers; cinnamon has potential in the fight against mosquitoes; and high levels of antioxidants are found in some surprising foods. See Featured Molecules .

  11. Determination of Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon by SPME-GC-MS: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yimin; Ocariz, Jessica; Hammersand, Jennifer; MacDonald, Evan; Bartczak, Ashley; Kero, Frank; Young, Vaneica Y.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    Students analyze "trans"-cinnamaldehyde in commercial cinnamon using solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS with ethyl benzoate as the internal standard. Aside from the instrumentation, the experiment utilizes readily available low hazard materials and can be completed within one four-hour laboratory period. (Contains 2 figures.)

  12. Cinnamon improves insulin sensitivity and alters body composition in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenols from cinnamon (CN) have been described recently as insulin sensitizers and antioxidants, but their effects on the glucose/insulin system in vivo have not been totally investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of CN on insulin resistance and body composition, using ...

  13. FIRE_ACE_C130_RAMS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-26

    ... NCAR C-130 Instrument:  Radiation Measurement System Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the ... Parameters:  Upwelling and Downwelling Total Solar Flux Infrared Flux and Narrowband Flux Order Data:  ...

  14. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis dys-function of diabetes rats.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Arash; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Hajhosseini, Laleh; Golzar, Farhad Sadeghpour; Ainehchi, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes rats have been linked to reproductive dysfunction and plant medicine has been shown to be effective in its treatment. Antioxidants have distinctive effects on spermatogenesis, sperm biology and oxidative stress, and changes in anti-oxidant capacity are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Animals (n = 80) were allocated randomly into eight groups, 10 each: Group 1: Control rats given only 5cc Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily;Group2: rats received ginger (100mg/kg/rat) daily; Group 3: rats received cinnamon (75mg/kg) daily; Group 4: rats received ginger and cinnamon, (100mg/kg/rat ginger and 75mg/kg cinnamon) daily; Group 5: Diabetic control rats received only normal saline. Group 6: Diabetic rats received 100mg/kg/day ginger; Group 7: Diabetic rats received 75mg /kg/ day cinnamon; Group 8: Diabetic rats received ginger and cinnamon (100mg/kg/day and 75mg/kg /day). Diabetes was induced with 55 mg/kg, single intra-peritoneal injection of STZ in all groups. At the end of the experiment (56th day), blood samples were taken for determination of testosterone, LH,FSH, total anti-oxidant capacity, and levels of malondialdehyde, SOD, Catalase and GPX. All rats were euthanized, testes were dissected out and spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Sperm numbers, percentages of sperm viability and motility, and total serum testosterone increased in ginger and cinnamon and combined ginger and cinnamon treated diabetic rats compared with control groups. Serum testosterone, LH and FSH were higher compared to control group and also serum anti-oxidants (TAC, SOD, GPX and catalase) all were increased at the

  15. Antifungal Activity of Cinnamon Oil and Olive Oil against Candida Spp. Isolated from Blood Stream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Hina; Singh, Gajender; Punia, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recently non-albicans Candida has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in blood stream infections. Some species of the Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to first line and second line antifungals such as echinocandins and fluconazole. In view of increasing global antifungal resistance, role of alternative and better antifungals like natural plant products need to be explored. Essential oils are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against various fungi. Hence, we evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon oil and olive oil against Candida spp. Aim To evaluate the invitro antifungal activity of olive oil and cinnamon oil against blood stream Candida isolates. Materials and Methods The present prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology at a tertiary care teaching hospital during one year June 2011-July 2012. Blood samples were collected from 1376 patients clinically suspected to have fungal septicaemia, out of which 100 (7.2%) Candida isolates obtained, were speciated by conventional methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing of all the isolates was done against fluconazole, voriconazole as per NCCL (M27-A2) and against olive oil and cinnamon oil by agar well diffusion method. Results Prevalence of Candidemia was 7.26%. C. albicans (85.3%) and C. parapsilosis (85.7%) were most sensitive to fluconazole followed by C. tropicalis (67.4%). All isolates were 100% sensitive to voriconazole. Both oils were found to be effective against nearly 50% of the Candida isolates. About 55.5% of fluconazole resistant C. krusei strains were sensitive to olive and cinnamon oil. Conclusion Fluconazole resistant non-albicans Candida has emerged as major cause of Candidemia. Cinnamon and olive oil show marked sensitivity against albicans and non-albicans spp. PMID:27656437

  16. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.) inclusion in diets for Nile tilapia submitted to acute hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    M Dos Santos, Welliene; S de Brito, Túlio; de A Prado, Samuel; G de Oliveira, Camila; C De Paula, Andréia; C de Melo, Daniela; A P Ribeiro, Paula

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of diets supplemented with probiotics and different cinnamon levels (powder and essential oil) on immunological parameters of Nile tilapia after being subjected to acute stress by hypoxia. Three hundred and thirty juvenile male tilapia fish (66.08 ± 2.79 g) were distributed in 30 tanks of 100 L capacity (11/cage) with a water recirculation system. The animals were fed for 71 days with diets containing extruded cinnamon powder at different levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), cinnamon essential oil (0.05, 0.1, 0.15; 0.2%) and probiotics (0.4%), all in triplicate. At the end of the experiment, the fish (200.36 ± 19.88 g) of the different groups were subjected to stress by hypoxia. Hypoxia was achieved by capturing the animals with a net, keeping them out of the water for three minutes, and then sampling the blood 30 min after the procedure to determine the levels of cortisol, glucose, haematocrit, lysozyme, bactericidal index, total protein, and its fractions. The animals kept blood homeostasis after hypoxic stress. Diet supplementation with 0.5% cinnamon powder improved the fish immune response, since it resulted in an increase of 0.5% in γ-globulin level. Administration of 0.15% cinnamon essential oil resulted in an increase of α1 and α2-globulins, which may be reflected in increased lipid content of the carcass and the hepatosomatic index. More studies are necessary to better understand the effects of these additives for fish immunity.

  17. [Cinnamon rolls are not associated with admission for toxic or alcoholic hepatitis in a Danish liver referral centre].

    PubMed

    Gr Ønbæk, Henning; Borre, Mette

    2014-12-08

    Cinnamon contains cumarin, which may be toxic to the liver. EU-regulations standardardize the amount of cinnamon in pastry including cinnamon rolls. The aim of the study was to investigate if cinnamon intake from pastry was associated with toxic or alcoholic hepatitis. We registered 58 patients with toxic hepatitis, 38 (66%) women and 20 (34%) men with a median age of 51 (range: 32-80) and 53 (range: 18-78) years, respectively. A total of 22 patients had primarily cholestasis and 36 had hepatitis biochemically. The duration of toxic liver disease from admission to normalization of liver enzymes was similar in the two groups (3.5 ± 3.5 vs 3.6 ± 3.5 months). Toxic hepatitis was most often caused by drugs e.g. NSAID (n = 15; 26%), antibiotics (n = 9; 16%), alternative medicine (n = 7; 12%) and Antabuse (n = 5; 9%). We registered eight patients admitted with severe alcoholic hepatitis, five men and three women, median age of 60 (range: 34-67) years. Alcoholic hepatitis was associated with high alcohol intake. None of the patients with toxic or alcoholic hepatitis reported of excessive intake of cinnamon rolls and there was no evidence of cinnamon added to alcohol of alternative medicine products. Intake of cinnamon from cinnamon rolls is not associated with admission for toxic or alcoholic hepatitis. However, for the diagnosis of toxic liver diseases including alcohol it is very important to have patient information regarding any new drugs, alternative medicine and alcohol intake. Further, other causes of liver diseases should be excluded. not relevant. not relevant.

  18. Do Cinnamon Supplements Have a Role in Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes? A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Saldanha, Leila; Bailey, Regan L; Merkel, Joyce; Wambogo, Edwina

    2016-11-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp) has been suggested to help patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) achieve better glycemic control, although conclusions from meta-analyses are mixed. To evaluate whether the use of cinnamon dietary supplements by adults with T2DM had clinically meaningful effects on glycemic control, as measured by changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a comprehensive PubMed literature search was performed. Eleven randomized controlled trials were identified that met our inclusion criteria that enrolled 694 adults with T2DM receiving hypoglycemic medications or not. In 10 of the studies, participants continued to take their hypoglycemic medications during the cinnamon intervention period. Studies ranged from 4 to 16 weeks in duration; seven studies were double-blind. Cinnamon doses ranged from 120 to 6,000 mg/day. The species of cinnamon used varied: seven used Cinnamomum cassia or Cinnamomum aromaticum, one used Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and three did not disclose the species. Because of the heterogeneity of the studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. All 11 of the studies reported some reductions in FPG during the cinnamon intervention, and of the studies measuring HbA1c very modest decreases were also apparent with cinnamon, whereas changes in the placebo groups were minimal. However, only four studies achieved the American Diabetes Association treatment goals (FPG <7.2 mmol/L [130 mg/dL] and/or HbAlc <7.0). We conclude that cinnamon supplements added to standard hypoglycemic medications and other lifestyle therapies had modest effects on FPG and HbA1c. Until larger and more rigorous studies are available, registered dietitian nutritionists and other health care professionals should recommend that patients continue to follow existing recommendations of authoritative bodies for diet, lifestyle changes, and hypoglycemic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Differentiation of the Four Major Species of Cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) Using a Flow Injection Mass Spectrometric (FIMS) Fingerprinting Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka were studied using the developed FIMS fingerprinting method. The FIMS fingerprints of the cinnamon samples were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The FIMS technique required only 1 min of analysis time per sample. The representative samples from each of the four major species of cinnamon were further examined using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry system, and the chemical differences between the four species were profiled. The results showed that the 1 min FIMS fingerprinting method successfully differentiated the four cinnamon species studied. PMID:24628250

  20. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment.

  1. Inhibitory effect of cinnamon powder on pathogen growth in laboratory media and oriental-style rice cakes (sulgidduk).

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu-Jin; Bae, Young-Min; Moon, Bokyung; Lee, Sun-Young

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of natural plant materials as alternative food preservatives. We examined the antimicrobial effects of natural plant materials used as additives against foodborne pathogens in laboratory media and Sulgidduk, oriental-style rice cakes. Cinnamon, mugwort, and garlic powder solutions (3%) were tested for their antimicrobial activities against pathogens in laboratory media. Sulgidduk prepared with different amounts of cinnamon powder (1, 3, and 6%) was inoculated with a Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus cocktail. The samples were air or vacuum packaged and stored at 22 ± 1°C for 72 h, and microbial growth was determined. Cinnamon powder showed more inhibitory properties against pathogens such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, S. aureus, and B. cereus than did mugwort or garlic powder. The populations of S. aureus and B. cereus in Sulgidduk containing cinnamon powder were significantly lower than in the control during storage time. Different packaging methods did not result in a significant difference in pathogen growth. In a sensory evaluation, Sulgidduk containing 1 and 3% cinnamon powder did not significantly differ from the control sample in any of the attributes tested other than flavor. These results indicate that natural plant materials such as cinnamon powder could be used as food additives to improve the microbiological stability of rice cakes.

  2. New cinnamon-based active paper packaging against Rhizopusstolonifer food spoilage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Nerín, C; Batlle, R

    2008-08-13

    A new active paper package based on the incorporation of cinnamon essential oil to solid wax paraffin as an active coating is proposed, developed, and evaluated. The antifungal activity of the active paper is tested against Rhizopusstolonifer, and the results demonstrate that 6% (w/w) of the essential oil in the active coating formulation completely inhibits the growth of R. stolonifer, whereas 4% still has strong antimicrobial activity in in vitro conditions. Then, active paper is evaluated with actual food, sliced bread, using different storage times. After 3 days of storage, almost complete inhibition is obtained with 6% cinnamon essential oil. Qualitative analysis by solid-phase microextraction and determination of cinnamaldehyde in the sliced bread were also performed and confirmed the strong correspondence between the inhibition of the mold and the amount of cinnamaldehyde in the bread.

  3. Performance of an active paper based on cinnamon essential oil in mushrooms quality.

    PubMed

    Echegoyen, Y; Nerín, C

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity of two active papers (based on solid and emulsion paraffin) with cinnamon essential oil was studied. Mushroom samples were introduced in macroperforated PET trays covered with the active papers, and weight loss and browning monitored for 9 days. The antioxidant capacity of the different papers was evaluated based on scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and tyrosinase inhibition kinetics, and the release of aromatic volatile oils was determined by HSPME-GC-MS. Differences in performance were observed: the active papers were more efficient at avoiding weight loss and mushroom browning when compared to the non-active paraffin-based papers. The efficiency increased when the bottom and walls of the trays were covered rather than the bottom alone. Better results were observed when cinnamon was incorporated as emulsion paraffin instead of a solid.

  4. Effect of chitosan coatings enriched with cinnamon oil on proximate composition of rainbow trout fillets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of chitosan coating enriched with cinnamon oil on proximate composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage at 4°C was investigated. The treatments included the following: C1 (control samples), C2 (chitosan coating) and C3 (chitosan + 1 % [v/w] cinnamon EO added). The control and the coated fish samples were analysed for chemical (moisture, protein, lipid and ash) composition. The mean of moisture, protein, lipid and ash in the control samples (C1) were 70.3%, 20.1%, 2.6% and 1.2%, in coated samples (C2) 69.70%, 24.21%, 2.4% and 2.2% and coated+cinnamon oil samples (C3) 69.70%, 25.05%, 2.5% and 2.2%, respectively. Moisture and lipid contents in control groups were higher than other groups, but protein and ash contents were lower. Significant increases (p<0.05) in protein content were observed between samples, which subsequently decreased the moisture content of these samples.

  5. Cinnamon effects on metabolic syndrome: a review based on its mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major risk factors of death globally. One of the most undeniable reasons of CVDs is metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is defined as a complex of diseases including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, obesity, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The use of complementary medicine such as traditional herbal species can be effective in treatment of MetS’s complications. Cinnamomum verum (family Lauraceae) is a medicinal global plant which has been used daily by people all over the world. Positive effects of cinnamon in reducing blood pressure, plasma glucose, obesity and ameliorating dyslipidemia which represented in traditional medicine introduced it as probable decreasing MetS’s complications agent. The aim of this review was to investigate the mechanisms of C. verum in reducing the MetS’s complications and CVDs risk factors. Materials and Methods: Various databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Persian Websites such as www.sid.ir with keywords search of cinnamon, cinnamomum, cinnamaldehyde, atherogenic, hypertension, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, obesity and dyslipidemia have been included in this search. Results: Clinical data and mechanisms of action of C. verum and its active ingredients that have been shown in this review indicated that cinnamon has protective effects against MetS’s aspects in various ways. Conclusion: The use of this plant can be effective in reducing MetS’s complications and its morbidity and mortality. PMID:28096957

  6. Cinnamon Converts Poor Learning Mice to Good Learners: Implications for Memory Improvement.

    PubMed

    Modi, Khushbu K; Rangasamy, Suresh B; Dasarathi, Sridevi; Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2016-12-01

    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) in converting poor learning mice to good learning ones. NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to upregulate plasticity-related molecules, stimulate NMDA- and AMPA-sensitive calcium influx and increase of spine density in cultured hippocampal neurons. NaB induced the activation of CREB in hippocampal neurons via protein kinase A (PKA), which was responsible for the upregulation of plasticity-related molecules. Finally, spatial memory consolidation-induced activation of CREB and expression of different plasticity-related molecules were less in the hippocampus of poor learning mice as compared to good learning ones. However, oral treatment of cinnamon and NaB increased spatial memory consolidation-induced activation of CREB and expression of plasticity-related molecules in the hippocampus of poor-learning mice and converted poor learners into good learners. These results describe a novel property of cinnamon in switching poor learners to good learners via stimulating hippocampal plasticity.

  7. Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-01-01

    The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC50 values, two cassia oils (0.084–0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064–0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, α-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114–0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl α-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224–0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

  8. Antimicrobial activity of cinnamon and clove oils under modified atmosphere conditions.

    PubMed

    Matan, N; Rimkeeree, H; Mawson, A J; Chompreeda, P; Haruthaithanasan, V; Parker, M

    2006-03-15

    Mixtures of cinnamon and clove oils were tested for inhibitory activity against important spoilage microorganism of intermediate moisture foods. Four fungal species (Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor plumbeus and Eurotium sp.), four yeasts species (Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia membranaefaciens, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida lipolytica), and two bacteria species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pediococcus halophilus) inoculated separately on agar plates were sealed in a barrier pouch and exposed to essential oil volatiles under a modified atmosphere of low O2 (<0.05-10%) and high CO2 (20% or 40%), with the balance being N2. A. flavus and Eurotium sp. proved to be the most resistant microorganisms. Cinnamon and clove oils added between 1000 and 4000 microL at a ratio of 1:1 were tested for minimum inhibitory volume (MIV) against molds and yeasts. The gas phase above 1000 microL of the oil mixture inhibited growth of C. lipolytica and P. membranaefaciens; 2000 microL inhibited growth of A. flavus, P. roqueforti, M. plumbeus, Eurotium sp., D. hansenii, and Z. rouxii, while inhibition of A. flavus required the addition of 4000 microL. Higher ratios of cinnamon oil/clove oil were more effective for inhibiting the growth of A. flavus.

  9. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    PubMed

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284 PMID:21899741

  11. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Benarroz, M O; Fonseca, A S; Rocha, G S; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, V C; Pereira, M O; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2008-02-01

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1 hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  12. Effect of Cinnamon Oil on Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Manmohit; Yadav, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Sharma, Deepmala; Pandey, Himanshu; Narvi, Shahid Suhail; Agarwal, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a system of stimuli and responses in bacterial cells governed by their population density, through which they regulate genes that control virulence factors and biofilm formation. Despite considerable research on QS and the discovery of new antibiotics, QS-controlled biofilm formation by microorganisms in clinical settings has remained a problem because of nascent drug resistance, which requires screening of diverse compounds for anti-QS activities. Cinnamon is a dietary phytochemical that is traditionally used to remedy digestive problems and assorted contagions, which suggests that cinnamon might contain chemicals that can hinder the QS process. To test this hypothesis, the anti-QS activity of cinnamon oil against P. aeruginosa was tested, measured by the inhibition of biofilm formation and other QS-associated phenomena, including virulence factors such as pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, protease, alginate production, and swarming activity. To this end, multiple microscopy analyses, including light, scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed the ability of cinnamon oil to inhibit P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms and their accompanying extracellular polymeric substances. This work is the first to demonstrate that cinnamon oil can influence various QS-based phenomena in P. aeruginosa PAO1, including biofilm formation. PMID:26263486

  13. Evaluation of bacterial resistance to essential oils and antibiotics after exposure to oregano and cinnamon essential oils.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Raquel; Nerín, Cristina; Gómez-Lus, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are excellent antimicrobial agents sometimes used in active food packaging. This work studies the susceptibility of 48 clinical isolates and 12 reference strains of Gram-negative bacilli to oregano essential oil, cinnamon essential oil, and combinations of both. Furthermore, the tendency of the clinical isolates to develop resistance to these EOs and to different antibiotics after sequential oregano or cinnamon exposure was studied. For this purpose, antibiotic susceptibility (through disk diffusion assays and minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] determination) and oregano and cinnamon susceptibility (through MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC] determination) were compared after 50 passages in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of oregano and cinnamon essential oils. The results showed that all strains were susceptible to both EOs and their combination independently of the antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, neither synergistic nor antagonistic effects were observed between oregano and cinnamon essential oils at the concentrations tested. After the sequential exposure to both EOs, only Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, and Proteus mirabilis treated with oregano changed their antibiotic resistance profile and/or increased their resistance to this EO. However, the changes in antibiotic and oregano resistance were not related.

  14. Effect of Cinnamon Oil on Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Manmohit; Yadav, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Sharma, Deepmala; Pandey, Himanshu; Narvi, Shahid Suhail; Agarwal, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a system of stimuli and responses in bacterial cells governed by their population density, through which they regulate genes that control virulence factors and biofilm formation. Despite considerable research on QS and the discovery of new antibiotics, QS-controlled biofilm formation by microorganisms in clinical settings has remained a problem because of nascent drug resistance, which requires screening of diverse compounds for anti-QS activities. Cinnamon is a dietary phytochemical that is traditionally used to remedy digestive problems and assorted contagions, which suggests that cinnamon might contain chemicals that can hinder the QS process. To test this hypothesis, the anti-QS activity of cinnamon oil against P. aeruginosa was tested, measured by the inhibition of biofilm formation and other QS-associated phenomena, including virulence factors such as pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, protease, alginate production, and swarming activity. To this end, multiple microscopy analyses, including light, scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed the ability of cinnamon oil to inhibit P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms and their accompanying extracellular polymeric substances. This work is the first to demonstrate that cinnamon oil can influence various QS-based phenomena in P. aeruginosa PAO1, including biofilm formation.

  15. Cinnamon intake alleviates the combined effects of dietary-induced insulin resistance and acute stress on brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Poulet, Laurent; Anderson, Richard A; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Canini, Frédéric; Batandier, Cécile

    2016-02-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), which is a leading cause of the metabolic syndrome, results in early brain function alterations which may alter brain mitochondrial functioning. Previously, we demonstrated that rats fed a control diet and submitted to an acute restraint stress exhibited a delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of dietary and emotional stressors as found in western way of life. We studied, in rats submitted or not to an acute stress, the effects of diet-induced IR on brain mitochondria, using a high fat/high fructose diet (HF(2)), as an IR inducer, with addition or not of cinnamon as an insulin sensitizer. We measured Ca(2+) retention capacity, respiration, ROS production, enzymatic activities and cell signaling activation. Under stress, HF(2) diet dramatically decreased the amount of Ca(2+) required to open the mPTP (13%) suggesting an adverse effect on mitochondrial survival. Cinnamon added to the diet corrected this negative effect and resulted in a partial recovery (30%). The effects related to cinnamon addition to the diet could be due to its antioxidant properties or to the observed modulation of PI3K-AKT-GSK3β and MAPK-P38 pathways or to a combination of both. These data suggest a protective effect of cinnamon on brain mitochondria against the negative impact of an HF(2) diet. Cinnamon could be beneficial to counteract deleterious dietary effects in stressed conditions.

  16. Efficacy of plant extracts against stored-products fungi.

    PubMed

    Magro, Ana; Carolino, Manuela; Bastos, Margarida; Mexia, António

    2006-09-01

    The fungistatic activity of six aqueous extracts of plants were tested against Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium culmorum. The plants were, chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl.), French lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), malva (Malva sylvestris L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). The more concentrated extracts of chamomile and malva inhibited totally the growth of the tested fungi with malva the most effective one.

  17. Inhibitory effects of some spice and herb extracts against Arcobacter butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirrowii.

    PubMed

    Cervenka, Libor; Peskova, Iva; Foltynova, Eva; Pejchalova, Marcela; Brozkova, Iveta; Vytrasova, Jarmila

    2006-11-01

    Seventeen spice and medicinal plant extracts (methanol and chloroform) were assayed for their antimicrobial activity against Arcobacter butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirrowii. In general, all of the tested extracts were able, to a different extent, to inhibit the growth of the selected Arcobacter species. Cinnamon, bearberry, chamomile, sage and rosemary extracts showed strong antimicrobial activity toward arcobacter strains tested. Overall, the methanol extracts showed better activity than the chloroform extracts (P < 0.05); however, enhanced antibacterial activity of chloroform extracts of cinnamon and rosemary has been observed in comparison with their methanol counterparts. The inhibitory dose of the most active extracts (the diameter of zone of inhibition > or = 20 mm) was determined using the disc-diffusion method as well.

  18. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark essential oil on the halitosis-associated bacterium Solobacterium moorei and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    LeBel, Geneviève; Haas, Bruno; Adam, Andrée-Ann; Veilleux, Marie-Pier; Lagha, Amel Ben; Grenier, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Halitosis, also known as bad breath or oral malodour, is a condition affecting a large proportion of the population. Solobacterium moorei is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that has been specifically associated with halitosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of essential oils, more particularly cinnamon bark oil, on growth, biofilm formation, eradication and killing, as well as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production by S. moorei. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils. Biofilm formation was assessed by a crystal violet staining assay and scanning electron microscopy. The biofilm of S. moorei was characterized by enzymatic treatments. Biofilm killing was determined by a luminescence assay monitoring ATP production. H2S production was quantified with a colorimetric assay. The biocompatibility of cinnamon oil was investigated using a gingival keratinocyte cell line. Among the ten essential oils tested, cinnamon oil was found to be the most powerful against S. moorei with MIC and MBC values of 0.039% and 0.156%, respectively. The biofilm formed by S. moorei was then characterized. The fact that DNase I and to a lesser extent proteinase K significantly reduced biofilm formation by S. moorei and induced its eradication suggests that the extracellular matrix of S. moorei biofilm may be mainly containing a DNA backbone associated with proteins. At concentrations below the MIC, cinnamon oil reduced S. moorei biofilm formation that resulted from an attenuation of bacterial growth. It was also found that treatment of a pre-formed biofilm of S. moorei with cinnamon oil significantly decreased its viability although it did not cause its eradication. Cinnamon oil had an inhibitory effect on the production of H2S by S. moorei. Lastly, it was found that at concentrations effective against S. moorei, no significant loss of viability in gingival keratinocytes occurred after a 1-h exposure. Our study brought evidence

  19. Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella)-resistant food packaging film development using microencapsulated cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Hah; Song, Ah Young; Han, Jaejoon; Park, Ki Hwan; Min, Sea C

    2014-10-01

    Insect-resistant laminate films containing microencapsulated cinnamon oil (CO) were developed to protect food products from the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). CO microencapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol was incorporated with a printing ink and the ink mixture was applied to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film as an ink coating. The coated LDPE surface was laminated with a polypropylene film. The laminate film impeded the invasion of moth larvae and repelled the larvae. The periods of time during which cinnamaldehyde level in the film remained above a minimum repelling concentration, predicted from the concentration profile, were 21, 21, and 10 d for cookies, chocolate, and caramel, respectively. Coating with microencapsulated ink did not alter the tensile or barrier properties of the laminate film. Microencapsulation effectively prevented volatilization of CO. The laminate film can be produced by modern film manufacturing lines and applied to protect food from Indian meal moth damage. The LDPE-PP laminate film developed using microencapsulated cinnamon oil was effective to protect the model foods from the invasion of Indian meal moth larvae. The microencapsulated ink coating did not significantly change the tensile and barrier properties of the LDPE-PP laminate film, implying that replacement of the uncoated with coated laminate would not be an issue with current packaging equipment. The films showed the potential to be produced in commercial film production lines that usually involve high temperatures because of the improved thermal stability of cinnamon oil due to microencapsulation. The microencapsulated system may be extended to other food-packaging films for which the same ink-printing platform is used. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Li, Yaolan; Kam, Sheung-Lau; Wang, Hua; Wong, Elaine Y L; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2006-01-01

    Both Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. and Cinnamomum cassia Blume are collectively called Cortex Cinnamonmi for their medicinal cinnamon bark. Cinnamomum verum is more popular elsewhere in the world, whereas C. cassia is a well known traditional Chinese medicine. An analysis of hydro-distilled Chinese cinnamon oil and pure cinnamaldehyde by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that cinnamaldehyde is the major component comprising 85% in the essential oil and the purity of cinnamaldehyde in use is high (> 98%). Both oil and pure cinnamaldehyde of C. cassia were equally effective in inhibiting the growth of various isolates of bacteria including Gram-positive (1 isolate, Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative (7 isolates, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Samonella typhymurium), and fungi including yeasts (four species of Candida, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei), filamentous molds (4 isolates, three Aspergillus spp. and one Fusarium sp.) and dermatophytes (three isolates, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagraphytes). Their minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) as determined by agar dilution method varied only slightly. The MICs of both oil and cinnamaldehyde for bacteria ranged from 75 microg/ml to 600 microg/ml, for yeasts from 100 microg/ml to 450 microg/ml, for filamentous fungi from 75 microg/ml to 150 microg/ml, and for dermatophytes from 18.8 microg/ml to 37.5 microg/ml. The antimicrobial effectiveness of C. cassia oil and its major constituent is comparable and almost equivalent, which suggests that the broad-spectrum antibiotic activities of C. cassia oil are due to cinnamaldehyde. The relationship between structure and function of the main components of cinnamon oil is also discussed.

  1. Cinnamon extract regulates intestinal lipid metabolism related gene expression in primary enterocytes of rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerging evidence suggests that the small intestine is not a passive organ, but is actively involved in the regulation of lipid absorption, intracellular transport, and metabolism, and is closely linked to systemic lipoprotein metabolism. We have reported previously that the water-soluble components...

  2. Novel angiogenesis inhibitory activity in cinnamon extract blocks VEGFR2 kinase and downstream signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    VEGF is one of the most critical factors that induce angiogenesis, and has thus become an attractive target for anti-angiogenesis treatment. However, most of the current anti-VEGF agents that often cause side effects cannot be recommended for long term use. Identification of natural VEGF inhibitors...

  3. Long-term diameter growth for trees in the Cinnamon Bay Watershed

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Weaver

    2009-01-01

    From 1983 to 2008, the mean annual diameter growth (MAI) for 1,402 surviving stems of 62 species in the Cinnamon Bay watershed was 0.08¡À0.002 cm yr-1. Long-term MAI ranged from 0.02 cm yr-1 for Randia aculeata to 0.23 cm yr-1 for Inga laurina. Of the 30 species with ¡Ý8 surviving stems, eight averaged ¡Ý0.10 cm yr-1. Hurricane Hugo in 1989, Hurricane Marilyn in 1995,...

  4. Preservation Mechanism of Chitosan-Based Coating with Cinnamon Oil for Fruits Storage Based on Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Yang, Simon X.; Chen, Cunkun; Tang, Yong; Sun, Shumin; Zhang, Liang; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    The chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agent has been developed recently to control the decay of fruits. However, its fresh keeping and antimicrobial mechanism is still not very clear. The preservation mechanism of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil for fruits storage is investigated in this paper. Results in the atomic force microscopy sensor images show that many micropores exist in the chitosan coating film. The roughness of coating film is affected by the concentration of chitosan. The antifungal activity of cinnamon oil should be mainly due to its main consistent trans-cinnamaldehyde, which is proportional to the trans-cinnamaldehyde concentration and improves with increasing the attachment time of oil. The exosmosis ratios of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus flavus could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of cinnamon oil. Morphological observation indicates that, compared to the normal cell, the wizened mycelium of A. flavus is observed around the inhibition zone, and the growth of spores is also inhibited. Moreover, the analysis of gas sensors indicate that the chitosan-oil coating could decrease the level of O2 and increase the level of CO2 in the package of cherry fruits, which also control the fruit decay. These results indicate that its preservation mechanism might be partly due to the micropores structure of coating film as a barrier for gas and a carrier for oil, and partly due to the activity of cinnamon oil on the cell disruption. PMID:27438841

  5. Preservation Mechanism of Chitosan-Based Coating with Cinnamon Oil for Fruits Storage Based on Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Yang, Simon X; Chen, Cunkun; Tang, Yong; Sun, Shumin; Zhang, Liang; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2016-07-18

    The chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agent has been developed recently to control the decay of fruits. However, its fresh keeping and antimicrobial mechanism is still not very clear. The preservation mechanism of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil for fruits storage is investigated in this paper. Results in the atomic force microscopy sensor images show that many micropores exist in the chitosan coating film. The roughness of coating film is affected by the concentration of chitosan. The antifungal activity of cinnamon oil should be mainly due to its main consistent trans-cinnamaldehyde, which is proportional to the trans-cinnamaldehyde concentration and improves with increasing the attachment time of oil. The exosmosis ratios of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus flavus could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of cinnamon oil. Morphological observation indicates that, compared to the normal cell, the wizened mycelium of A. flavus is observed around the inhibition zone, and the growth of spores is also inhibited. Moreover, the analysis of gas sensors indicate that the chitosan-oil coating could decrease the level of O₂ and increase the level of CO₂ in the package of cherry fruits, which also control the fruit decay. These results indicate that its preservation mechanism might be partly due to the micropores structure of coating film as a barrier for gas and a carrier for oil, and partly due to the activity of cinnamon oil on the cell disruption.

  6. The antimicrobial effects of cinnamon oil against multi-drug resistant Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is generally no kill-step when preparing salad vegetables, so there is a risk for foodborne illness outbreaks due to consumption of these vegetables. Some essential oils have antimicrobial activities and could provide a natural way to reduce pathogens on fresh produce. The use of a cinnamon ...

  7. Effects of Allspice, Cinnamon, and Clove Bud Essential Oils in Edible Apple Films on Physical Properties and Antimicrobial Activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The results of the present study show that allspice, cinnamon and clove bud essential oils can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by both direct contact and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films. Application of the a...

  8. A Summary of 20 Years of Forest Monitoring in Cinnamon Bay Watershed, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Weaver

    2006-01-01

    St. John, and probably the Cinnamon Bay watershed, has a history of human use dating to 1700 B.C. The most notable impacts, however, occurred from 1730 to 1780 when sugar cane and cotton production peaked on the island. As agriculture was abandoned, the island regenerated in secondary forest, and in 1956, the Virgin Islands National Park was created. From 1983 to 2003...

  9. [The antibacterial activity of cinnamon oil on the selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Anna; Głowacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Lysakowska, Monika; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antibacterial activity of cinnamon bark oil against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates belonging to Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter genera come from different clinical specimens. The microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration--MIC for cinnamon bark oil. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. Our investigations showed that the tested cinnamon bark oil was inhibiting activity against all isolates. The MIC for Gram-positive bacteria were between 01.25 and 1.5 μl/ml and for Gram-negative between 1.0 and 1.75 μl/ml. The tested bacteria come from Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter genera were susceptible to essential oil obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness in low concentrations, despite the fact that the bacteria characterized the high resistance to recommended antibiotics. No correlation was found between the antibiotic resistance of the bacterial strains and their sensitivity to essential oil. The cinnamon bark oil due to the strong activity can be used as alternative antibacterial agents in cosmetics, toiletries and disinfectants applied in hospital environment.

  10. Cell enumeration and visualisation by transmission electron microscopy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus treated with cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum B.) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Feniman, C M; Rall, V L M; Doyama, J T; Júnior, A Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The use of essential oils (EOs) in functional foods containing probiotic microorganisms must consider the antimicrobial activity of these oils against beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of L. rhamnosus cultures treated with cinnamon EO through viable cell counts and visualisation by transmission electron microscopy. Cinnamon EO at a concentration of 0.04% had a bacteriostatic activity after 2 h of incubation. Although slight alterations were detected in the cell structure, this concentration was considered to be bactericidal, since it led to a significant reduction in cell numbers after 24 h. On the other hand, cinnamon EO at a 1.00% concentration decreased cell counts by 3 log units after 2 h incubation and no viable cell count was detected after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that cells treated with 1.00% cinnamon EO were severely damaged and presented cell membrane disruption and cytoplasmic leakage.

  11. Accumulation of diacylglycerol in the liver membrane of the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat with hepatitis: FT-IR spectroscopic and HPLC detection.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S; Kazusaka, A; Fujita, S

    2000-04-03

    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats develop severe hepatitis and subsequent hepatoma with excess accumulation of copper in the liver with increasing age. Lipids extracted from the LEC rat liver membrane were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy and an HPLC technique at the stages of pre-hepatitis and hepatitis, i.e. at 10 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. The 10-week-old rats exhibited an IR spectrum characteristic of a phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine mixture with a ratio of 2:1. The 16-week-old rats developed new absorption bands at 1161 and 1070 cm(-1), which were assigned to the spectra of triglyceride, neutral lipid, and diacylglycerol, an endogenous activator of protein kinase C, respectively. The diacylglycerol was estimated to amount to ca. 10% (w/w) of phospholipid extract by comparing the spectrum with those of model compounds. This was confirmed using an HPLC assay. Previously, we found that a serum response factor is activated by copper in the LEC rat liver, and suggested that it must mediate proto-oncogene c-fos induction. The results obtained here suggest that accumulation of diacylglycerol plays an important role in development of hepatoma in LEC rats by mediating proto-oncogene c-fos induction.

  12. Repeated systemic administration of the cinnamon essential oil possesses anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activities in mice.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Reyhaneh; Pazgoohan, Nasim; Seresht, Hasan Rezaei; Amin, Bahareh

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the putative antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects of the cinnamon essential oil when administered acute (for 3 doses) and sub-acute (for 14 days) to mice. In an acute experimental study, forced swim test (FST) was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like behavior of animals treated with the intraperitoneal (IP) essential oil of cinnamon in triple doses (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg). In a sub-acute study (14 days in 24-hr intervals) antidepressant-like effects of essential oil (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with the same route were assessed in FST and tail suspension test (TST). Anti-anxiety and motor activities were evaluated using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open field tests, respectively. Determination of different constituents within the sample oil was via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Repetitive administration of cinnamon essential oil (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg) during 14 days significantly decreased the time of immobility in both FST and TST as compared to the control group. Mice treated with oil at the dose of 2 mg/kg spent a longer time and had more entries into the open arms of EPM as compared with the vehicle-treated ones. According to GC-MS analysis, 46 chemical compounds were identified in the studied cinnamon essential oil with the main constituent being trans-cinnamaldehyde (87.32%). Cinnamon essential oil might be used as an adjunctive therapy in improving symptoms of depressive and anxiety disorders. However, dose-response effects need further evaluation. Trans-cinnamaldehyde might be responsible for the beneficial effect observed.

  13. Repeated systemic administration of the cinnamon essential oil possesses anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Reyhaneh; Pazgoohan, Nasim; Seresht, Hasan Rezaei; Amin, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The present study aimed to evaluate the putative antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects of the cinnamon essential oil when administered acute (for 3 doses) and sub-acute (for 14 days) to mice. Materials and Methods: In an acute experimental study, forced swim test (FST) was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like behavior of animals treated with the intraperitoneal (IP) essential oil of cinnamon in triple doses (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg). In a sub-acute study (14 days in 24-hr intervals) antidepressant-like effects of essential oil (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with the same route were assessed in FST and tail suspension test (TST). Anti-anxiety and motor activities were evaluated using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open field tests, respectively. Determination of different constituents within the sample oil was via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. Results: Repetitive administration of cinnamon essential oil (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg) during 14 days significantly decreased the time of immobility in both FST and TST as compared to the control group. Mice treated with oil at the dose of 2 mg/kg spent a longer time and had more entries into the open arms of EPM as compared with the vehicle-treated ones. According to GC-MS analysis, 46 chemical compounds were identified in the studied cinnamon essential oil with the main constituent being trans-cinnamaldehyde (87.32%). Conclusion: Cinnamon essential oil might be used as an adjunctive therapy in improving symptoms of depressive and anxiety disorders. However, dose-response effects need further evaluation. Trans-cinnamaldehyde might be responsible for the beneficial effect observed. PMID:28868126

  14. The antimicrobial effects of cinnamon leaf oil against multi-drug resistant Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens.

    PubMed

    Todd, Jennifer; Friedman, Mendel; Patel, Jitendra; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2013-08-16

    There is generally no kill-step when preparing salad vegetables, so there is a greater risk for foodborne illness from contaminated vegetables. Some essential oils have antimicrobial activities and could provide a natural way to reduce pathogens on fresh produce. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of cinnamon oil wash against Salmonella enterica serotype Newport on organic leafy greens. Organic romaine and iceberg lettuce, and organic baby and mature spinach were inoculated with Salmonella Newport and then dip treated in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) control and 3 different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% v/v) of cinnamon oil. The treatment time varied at either 1 or 2min, and storage temperature varied at either 4 or 8°C. Samples were collected at days 0, 1, and 3. For romaine and iceberg lettuce, S. Newport was not recovered on day 3 for 2min 0.3% and 0.5% cinnamon oil treatments. For mature spinach, S. Newport was not recovered by day 3 for the 2min 0.3% and 0.5% 4°C treatments. For baby spinach, there was no recovery of S. Newport by day 1 for all 0.5% treatments. Overall, the cinnamon oil treatments were concentration and time dependent with higher concentrations and longer treatment times providing the greatest reduction in S. Newport population on leafy greens. In addition, the treatments had a residual effect with the greatest reduction generally seen on the last day of sampling. Storage temperature did not have a significant effect on the reduction of S. Newport. Based on the results of this study, cinnamon oil has the potential to be used as a treatment option for washing organic baby and mature spinach, and iceberg and romaine lettuces.

  15. [Effect of cinnamon and lavender oils on FtsZ gene expression in the Staphylococus aureus ATCC 29213].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of lavender and cinnamon oils on FtsZ gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. The cinnamon and lavender oils at least partially results from the inhibition of FtsZ transcription and disruption of cell division process at the level of the septum synthesis, what is similar to mechanisms of drug action used in anti-staphylococcal therapies. The presented results could be an important background for the further detailed research, which is needed to clarify the effect of essential oils on FtsZ synthesis at the posttranscriptional level and other stages of cell division process of S. aureus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  16. Sodium benzoate, a metabolite of cinnamon and a food additive, upregulates ciliary neurotrophic factor in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Khushbu K.; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:26399250

  17. Up-regulation of neurotrophic factors by cinnamon and its metabolite sodium benzoate: therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Jana, Arundhati; Modi, Khushbu K; Roy, Avik; Anderson, John A; van Breemen, Richard B; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-06-01

    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a widely-used food spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB), a widely-used food preservative and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in humans, in increasing the levels of neurotrophic factors [e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)] in the CNS. NaB, but not sodium formate (NaFO), dose-dependently induced the expression of BDNF and NT-3 in primary human neurons and astrocytes. Interestingly, oral administration of ground cinnamon increased the level of NaB in serum and brain and upregulated the levels of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in mouse CNS. Accordingly, oral feeding of NaB, but not NaFO, also increased the level of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in the CNS of mice. NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), but not protein kinase C (PKC), and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced increase in neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, but not NF-κB, by NaB, abrogation of NaB-induced expression of neurotrophic factors by siRNA knockdown of CREB and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the BDNF promoter by NaB suggest that NaB exerts its neurotrophic effect through the activation of CREB. Accordingly, cinnamon feeding also increased the activity of PKA and the level of phospho-CREB in vivo in the CNS. These results highlight a novel neutrophic property of cinnamon and its metabolite NaB via PKA - CREB pathway, which may be of benefit for various neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Sodium Benzoate, a Metabolite of Cinnamon and a Food Additive, Upregulates Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Modi, Khushbu K; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-11-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders.

  19. Effects of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud essential oils in edible apple films on physical properties and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) derived from plants are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on contact and in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. EOs from cinnamon, allspice, and clove bud plants are compatible with the sensory characteristics of apple-based edible films. These films could extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. This study evaluated physical properties (water vapor permeability, color, tensile properties) and antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud oils in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: cinnamon oil > clove bud oil > allspice oil. The antimicrobial films were more effective against L. monocytogenes than against the S. enterica. The oils reduced the viscosity of the apple solutions and increased elongation and darkened the colors of the films. They did not affect water vapor permeability. The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon, or clove bud oils were active against 3 foodborne pathogens by both direct contact with the bacteria and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.

  20. Excessive application of pig manure increases the risk of P loss in calcic cinnamon soil in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanju; Zhang, Haipeng; Qian, Xiaoqing; Duan, Jiannan; Wang, Gailan

    2017-12-31

    Soil phosphorus (P) is a critical factor affecting crop yields and water environmental quality. To investigate the degree of loss risk and forms of soil P in calcic cinnamon soil, the P fraction activities in soils were analysed using chemical methods, combined with an in situ field experiment. Seven treatments were set in this study, including control (unfertilized), no P fertilizer (No-P), mineral P fertilizer (Min-P), low (L-Man) and high (H-Man) quantities of pig manure, Min-P+L-Man, and Min-P+H-Man. The results showed that manure fertilizer could not only significantly increase maize yield but could also enhance the accumulation of soil P in organic and inorganic forms. After 23years of repeated fertilization, the soil Olsen-P contents respectively showed 64.7-, 43.7- and 31.9-fold increases in the Min-P+H-Man, Min-P+L-Man and H-Man treatments, while the soil Olsen-P in Min-P treatment only increased 23.7-fold. The soil Olsen-P thresholds ranged from 22.59 to 32.48mgkg(-1) in calcic cinnamon soil to maintain a higher maize yield as well as a lower risk of P loss. Therefore, long-term excessive manure application could obviously raise the content of soil Olsen-P and increase the risk of P loss in calcic cinnamon soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. Results: The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. PMID:28512603

  2. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  3. Cinnamon Oil Inhibits Shiga Toxin Type 2 Phage Induction and Shiga Toxin Type 2 Production in Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Lina; Rasco, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of cinnamon oil against Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin (Stx) production and further explored the underlying mechanisms. The MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon oil against E. coli O157:H7 were 0.025% and 0.05% (vol/vol), respectively. Cinnamon oil significantly reduced Stx2 production and the stx2 mRNA expression that is associated with diminished Vero cell cytotoxicity. Consistently, induction of the Stx-converting phage where the stx2 gene is located, along with the total number of phages, decreased proportionally to cinnamon oil concentration. In line with decreased Stx2 phage induction, cinnamon oil at 0.75× and 1.0× MIC eliminated RecA, a key mediator of SOS response, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), and poly(A) polymerase (PAP I), which positively regulate Stx-converting phages, contributing to reduced Stx-converting phage induction and Stx production. Furthermore, cinnamon oil at 0.75× and 1.0× MIC strongly inhibited the qseBC and luxS expression associated with decreased AI-2 production, a universal quorum sensing signaling molecule. However, the expression of oxidative stress response genes oxyR, soxR, and rpoS was increased in response to cinnamon oil at 0.25× or 0.5× MIC, which may contribute to stunted bacterial growth and reduced Stx2 phage induction and Stx2 production due to the inhibitory effect of OxyR on prophage activation. Collectively, cinnamon oil inhibits Stx2 production and Stx2 phage induction in E. coli O157:H7 in multiple ways. IMPORTANCE This study reports the inhibitory effect of cinnamon oil on Shiga toxin 2 phage induction and Shiga toxin 2 production. Subinhibitory concentrations (concentrations below the MIC) of cinnamon oil reduced Stx2 production, stx2 mRNA expression, and cytotoxicity on Vero cells. Subinhibitory concentrations of cinnamon oil also dramatically reduced both the Stx2 phage and total phage induction in E. coli O157:H7

  4. A Cinnamon-Derived Procyanidin Compound Displays Anti-HIV-1 Activity by Blocking Heparan Sulfate- and Co-Receptor- Binding Sites on gp120 and Reverses T Cell Exhaustion via Impeding Tim-3 and PD-1 Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Bridgette Janine; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Yousfi, Rahima; Mohan, Viswaraman; Posch, Wilfried; Wilflingseder, Doris; Moog, Christiane; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Clayette, Pascal; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the many strategies aiming at inhibiting HIV-1 infection, blocking viral entry has been recently recognized as a very promising approach. Using diverse in vitro models and a broad range of HIV-1 primary patient isolates, we report here that IND02, a type A procyanidin polyphenol extracted from cinnamon, that features trimeric and pentameric forms displays an anti-HIV-1 activity against CXCR4 and CCR5 viruses with 1–7 μM ED50 for the trimer. Competition experiments, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding assay, revealed that IND02 inhibited envelope binding to CD4 and heparan sulphate (HS) as well as to an antibody (mAb 17b) directed against the gp120 co-receptor binding site with an IC50 in the low μM range. IND02 has thus the remarkable property of simultaneously blocking gp120 binding to its major host cell surface counterparts. Additionally, the IND02-trimer impeded up-regulation of the inhibitory receptors Tim-3 and PD-1 on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, thereby demonstrating its beneficial effect by limiting T cell exhaustion. Among naturally derived products significantly inhibiting HIV-1, the IND02-trimer is the first component demonstrating an entry inhibition property through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein. These data suggest that cinnamon, a widely consumed spice, could represent a novel and promising candidate for a cost-effective, natural entry inhibitor for HIV-1 which can also down-modulate T cell exhaustion markers Tim-3 and PD-1. PMID:27788205

  5. [Effects of different tillage methods on phospholipid fatty acids and enzyme activities in calcareous cinnamon soil].

    PubMed

    Pei, Xue-Xia; Dang, Jian-You; Zhang, Ding-Yi; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing

    2014-08-01

    In order to study changes of physical and chemical characteristics and microbial activities in soil under different tillage methods, effects of four tillage methods, rotary tillage (RT), subsoil tillage (ST), conventional tillage (CT) with corn straw returned to soil, and rotary tillage with no corn straw returned to soil (CK), on phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) characteristics and hydrolase enzymes activities in calcareous cinnamon soil were investigated. The results showed that soil hydrolase enzymes activities, nutrient contents, microbial diversity varied greatly with the different tillage methods. Returning corn straw to soil increased the kinds, amount of soil total PLFAs, bacteria PLFAs and actonomycetes PLFAs, while decreased the fungi PLFAs, indicating that fungi was more adaptable than bacteria to an infertile environment. ST and CT resulted in higher amounts of total PLFAs, which were 74.7% and 53.3% higher than that of CK, indicating they were more beneficial to the growth of plants. They could also improve soil physical and chemical properties, increase alk-phosphatase, protease and urease activities, which would provide a favorable soil condition for high and stable crop yields.

  6. The Cinnamon-derived Michael Acceptor Cinnamic Aldehyde Impairs Melanoma Cell Proliferation, Invasiveness, and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Christopher M.; Bair, Warner B.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Ley, Stephanie; Bause, Alexandra S.; Azimian, Sara; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2009-01-01

    Redox dysregulation in cancer cells represents a chemical vulnerability that can be targeted by prooxidant redox intervention. Dietary constituents that contain an electrophilic Michael acceptor pharmacophore may therefore display promising chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic anti-cancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived dietary Michael acceptor trans-cinnamic aldehyde (CA) impairs melanoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Feasibility of therapeutic intervention using high doses of CA (120 mg/kg, p.o., q.d., 10 days) was demonstrated in a human A375 melanoma SCID-mouse xenograft model. Low micromolar concentrations (IC50 < 10 μM) of CA, but not closely related CA-derivatives devoid of Michael acceptor activity, suppressed proliferation of human metastatic melanoma cell lines (A375, G361, LOX) with G1 cell cycle arrest, elevated intracellular ROS, and impaired invasiveness. Expression array analysis revealed that CA induced an oxidative stress response in A375 cells, up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), sulfiredoxin 1 homolog (SRXN1), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), and other genes including the cell cycle regulator and stress-responsive tumor suppressor gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), a key mediator of G1 phase arrest. CA, but not Michael-inactive derivatives, inhibited NFκB transcriptional activity and TNFα-induced IL-8 production in A375 cells. These findings support a previously unrecognized role of CA as a dietary Michael acceptor with potential anticancer activity. PMID:19000754

  7. The cinnamon-derived Michael acceptor cinnamic aldehyde impairs melanoma cell proliferation, invasiveness, and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Christopher M; Bair, Warner B; Lamore, Sarah D; Ley, Stephanie; Bause, Alexandra S; Azimian, Sara; Wondrak, Georg T

    2009-01-15

    Redox dysregulation in cancer cells represents a chemical vulnerability that can be targeted by pro-oxidant redox intervention. Dietary constituents that contain an electrophilic Michael acceptor pharmacophore may therefore display promising chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic anti-cancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived dietary Michael acceptor trans-cinnamic aldehyde (CA) impairs melanoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Feasibility of therapeutic intervention using high doses of CA (120 mg/kg, po, daily, 10 days) was demonstrated in a human A375 melanoma SCID mouse xenograft model. Low-micromolar concentrations (IC(50)< 10 microM) of CA, but not closely related CA derivatives devoid of Michael acceptor activity, suppressed proliferation of human metastatic melanoma cell lines (A375, G361, LOX) with G1 cell-cycle arrest, elevated intracellular ROS, and impaired invasiveness. Expression array analysis revealed that CA induced an oxidative stress response in A375 cells, up-regulating heme oxygenase 1, sulfiredoxin 1 homolog, thioredoxin reductase 1, and other genes, including the cell-cycle regulator and stress-responsive tumor suppressor gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, a key mediator of G1-phase arrest. CA, but not Michael-inactive derivatives, inhibited NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and TNFalpha-induced IL-8 production in A375 cells. These findings support a previously unrecognized role of CA as a dietary Michael acceptor with potential anti-cancer activity.

  8. A cinnamon-derived procyanidin type A compound inhibits hepatitis C virus cell entry.

    PubMed

    Fauvelle, Catherine; Lambotin, Melanie; Heydmann, Laura; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Bhaskaran, Sunil; Vishwaraman, Mohan; Baumert, Thomas F; Moog, Christiane

    2017-07-11

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Although direct-acting antivirals can cure the large majority of treated patients, important limitations remain, including treatment failure and high costs precluding access to therapy in resource-limited settings. We report herein the anti-HCV effects of IND02, a procyanidin type A molecule, isolated and characterized from cinnamon. Using cellculture-derived HCV (HCVcc), HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp), and subgenomic replicons, we demonstrated that IND02 markedly and dose-dependently inhibited HCV cell entry. Kinetic assays demonstrated that IND02 inhibits HCV entry most likely at a postbinding step. Experiments performed using primary human hepatocytes confirmed inhibition of HCV entry by IND02, demonstrating the functional impact in the most physiological cell-based system for studying HCV-host interactions. The natural compound IND02 exhibits potent HCV cell entry inhibition and provides a novel perspective for development of a low-cost antiviral for treatment of HCV infection.

  9. Studies on perilla, agarwood, and cinnamon through a combination of fieldwork and laboratory work.

    PubMed

    Ito, Michiho

    2008-10-01

    Fieldwork is one of the primary methods for studying medicinal plants and materials, and information thus obtained can be valuable for experiments performed in the laboratory. Meanwhile, results of experiments in the laboratory can be brought back to the field for verification and further investigation. A combination of field and laboratory work has led to effective progress in studies of medicinal plants in the field of pharmacognosy. However, the collection of samples with information through fieldwork is not easy, and it fundamentally requires a great deal of research experience. Geographical, ethnical, and political affairs often affect its performance, and to establish a good cooperative relationship with foreign localities is inevitably required. Beyond these difficulties, fieldwork can provide a framework for the research project and excellent and unique viewpoints concerning the target. This review article describes studies on perilla, agarwood, and cinnamon, focusing mainly on the results of fieldwork performed in Indochina on these species. All three of these medicinal plants contain essential oils, and their composition varieties, biosynthetic pathways, pharmacological activities, or induction mechanisms for production are principally investigated through shuttling between fieldwork and laboratory experiments.

  10. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    PubMed Central

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280

  11. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake.

    PubMed

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.

  12. Antiinflammatory Activity of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Bark Essential Oil in a Human Skin Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuesheng; Parker, Tory L

    2017-07-01

    The effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark essential oil (CBEO) on human skin cells has not been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the activity of a commercially available CBEO in a validated human dermal fibroblast system, a model of chronic inflammation and fibrosis. We first evaluated the impact of CBEO on 17 protein biomarkers that play critical roles in inflammation and tissue remodeling. The impact of CBEO on genome-wide gene expression was also evaluated. CBEO showed strong anti-proliferative effects on skin cells and significantly inhibited the production of several inflammatory biomarkers, including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant, and monokine induced by gamma interferon. In addition, CBEO significantly inhibited the production of several tissue remodeling molecules, including epidermal growth factor receptor, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which is an immunomodulatory protein molecule, was also significantly inhibited by CBEO. Furthermore, CBEO significantly modulated global gene expression and altered signaling pathways, many of which are important in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cancer biology. The study shows that CBEO is a promising antiinflammatory agent; however, further research is required to clarify its clinical efficacy. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Antiinflammatory Activity of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Bark Essential Oil in a Human Skin Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Tory L.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark essential oil (CBEO) on human skin cells has not been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the activity of a commercially available CBEO in a validated human dermal fibroblast system, a model of chronic inflammation and fibrosis. We first evaluated the impact of CBEO on 17 protein biomarkers that play critical roles in inflammation and tissue remodeling. The impact of CBEO on genome‐wide gene expression was also evaluated. CBEO showed strong anti‐proliferative effects on skin cells and significantly inhibited the production of several inflammatory biomarkers, including vascular cell adhesion molecule‐1, intercellular cell adhesion molecule‐1, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1, interferon gamma‐induced protein 10, interferon‐inducible T‐cell alpha chemoattractant, and monokine induced by gamma interferon. In addition, CBEO significantly inhibited the production of several tissue remodeling molecules, including epidermal growth factor receptor, matrix metalloproteinase‐1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor‐1. Macrophage colony‐stimulating factor, which is an immunomodulatory protein molecule, was also significantly inhibited by CBEO. Furthermore, CBEO significantly modulated global gene expression and altered signaling pathways, many of which are important in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cancer biology. The study shows that CBEO is a promising antiinflammatory agent; however, further research is required to clarify its clinical efficacy. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28444928

  14. Migration of radionuclides and heavy metals during the bioremediation of a polluted cinnamonic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nikolova, Marina

    2013-04-01

    A fresh sample of cinnamonic soil polluted with radionuclides (U, Ra) and toxic heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) was subjected to bioremediation in large-scale lysimeters by means of moulching. The aim of soil treatment was solubilization of pollutants located in horizon A, the migration of their dissolved complexes through the soil profile, and the pollutants` precipitation in the rich-in-clays below-lying horizons. The solubilization was due to the joint action of natural soil microflora and leach waters containing ammonium and phosphate ions, and in some variants-hydrocarbonate ions. The precipitation of pollutants was due to the enhanced activity of the indigenous microflora in which iron- and sulphate-reducing bacteria were the prevalent groups. After 24 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the relevant soil layers (horizon A and the sub-horizons B1, B2, B3, and B4). The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the obtained data were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of soil bioremediation. It was found that considerable portions of the pollutants were removed from the horizon A and were migrated to the sub-horizons B3 and B4, mainly. In these sub-horizons the non-ferrous metals were precipitated mainly as the relevant sulphides, uranium was precipitated as uraninite (UO2), and radium-mainly as adsorbed ions and complexes.

  15. [Effects of nitrogen regulators on fertilizer nitrogen transformation in meadow cinnamon soil and on pakchoi growth].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi-Mei; Zhang, Kuo; Liu, Jian-Tao; Si, Huan-Sen; Wang, Yan-Qun

    2012-09-01

    Soil incubation test and pot experiment were conducted to investigate the effects of dicyandiamide (DCD) and its combination with nano-carbon on the transformation of fertilizers (urea and ammonium bicarbonate) nitrogen (N) in meadow cinnamon soil, a typical soil type in North China Plain, and on the growth of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis). In the first two weeks after applying urea and ammonium bicarbonate, the soil NH4+-N and NO3(-)-N contents varied greatly, but little variation was observed since then. The effects of the applied fertilizer N on the pakchoi growth and its N use efficiency differed significantly at early growth stages, but had little difference at harvesting stage. The DCD inhibited the transformation of the fertilizer N (especially ammonium bicarbonate N) into nitrate markedly, and this effect increased with increasing DCD dose. Under the conditions of our experiment, the optimal application rate of DCD was 1.0-1.5% of applied fertilize N, which could increase the pakchoi yield significantly, improve the leaf color, decrease the plant nitrate contents, and increase the fertilizer N use efficiency. The combination of DCD and nano-carbon exerted a synergistic effect on inhibiting soil ammonium oxidation, and also, promoted the pakchoi growth and N utilization at early growth stages significantly and decreased the plant nitrate level at harvesting stage.

  16. A green ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on deep eutectic solvent for the HPLC-UV determination of ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic acid from olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali; Sahraei, Reza

    2016-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive and sensitive ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method based on deep eutectic solvent (UALLME-DES) was used for the extraction of three phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic) from vegetable oils. In a typical experiment, deep eutectic solvent as green extraction solvent was added to n-hexane (as a typical oil medium) containing target analytes. Subsequently, the extraction was accelerated by sonication. After the extraction, phase separation (DES rich phase/n-hexane phase) was performed by centrifugation. DES rich phase (lower phase) was withdrawn by a micro-syringe and submitted to isocratic reverse-phase HPLC with UV detection. Under optimum conditions obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF), the method has good linear calibration ranges (between 1.30 and 1000 µg L(-1)), coefficients of determination (r(2)>0.9949) and low limits of detection (between 0.39 and 0.63 µg L(-1)). This procedure was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil samples. The relative mean recoveries ranged from 94.7% to 104.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Summanen, Paula H; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP-HPLC-DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects of spice extracts on the viability of 88 anaerobic and facultative isolates from intestinal microbiota were determined by using Brucella agar plates containing serial dilutions of extracts. A total of 14 phenolic compounds, a piperine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde were identified and quantitated. Spice extracts exhibited high antioxidant capacity that correlated with the total amount of major chemicals. All spice extracts, with the exception of turmeric, enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. All spices exhibited inhibitory activity against selected Ruminococcus species. Cinnamon, oregano, and rosemary were active against selected Fusobacterium strains and cinnamon, rosemary, and turmeric were active against selected Clostridium spp. Some spices displayed prebiotic-like activity by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria, suggesting their potential role in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and the enhancement of gastrointestinal health. The identification and quantification of spice-specific phytochemicals provided insight into the potential influence of these chemicals on the gut microbial communities and activities. Future research on the connections between spice-induced changes in gut microbiota and host metabolism and disease preventive effect in animal models and humans is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of

  18. Odor attributes change in relation to the time of the year. Cinnamon odor is more familiar and pleasant during Christmas season than summertime.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Buschhüter, Dorothee; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to examine whether odor attributes like pleasantness and familiarity change in relation to the time of the year. In the first part of the study a total of 100 subjects answered to questions without odor presentation whether a certain odor was more related to summertime or Christmas season. Another 41 and 51 subjects rated the familiarity and hedonicity of 12 odors either during summertime or Christmas season, respectively. Importantly, this investigation was performed at the same place within a science museum during stable environmental conditions. Subjects reported that rose odor was more related to summertime, whereas orange, cinnamon, and cloves were more associated with Christmas season with cinnamon being most intimately connected to this time of the year. Moreover, subjects showed significantly higher familiarity and pleasantness ratings when they smelled cinnamon during the Christmas season than during summertime. Taken together, this study demonstrated that attributes of some odors change throughout the year.

  19. Smart and Fragrant Garment via Surface Modification of Cotton Fabric With Cinnamon Oil/Stimuli Responsive PNIPAAm/Chitosan Nano Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bashari, Azadeh; Hemmatinejad, Nahid; Pourjavadi, Ali

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with obtaining aromatherapic textiles via applying stimuli-responsive poly N-isopropyl acryl amide (PNIPAAm) /chitosan (PNCS) nano hydrogels containing cinnamon oil on cotton fabric and looks into the treated fabric characteristics as an antibacterial and temperature/pH responsive fabric. The semi-batch surfactant-free dispersion polymerization method was proposed to the synthesis of PNCS nano particles. The incorporation of modified β -cyclodextrin ( β -CD) into the PNCS nanohydrogel was performed in order to prepare a hydrophobic(cinnamon oil) carrier embedded in stimuli-responsive nanohydrogel. The β -CD postloading process of cinnamon oil in to the hydrogel nano particles was performed via ultrasonic bath and exhaustion methods. The antibacterial activity of the treated fabrics at different temperatures demonstrated the preparing new functional bio-antibacterial fabrics with temperature responsiveness.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of several herb and spice extracts in culture medium and in vacuum-packaged pork.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Wang, Jinzhi; Xiong, Youling L

    2007-03-01

    Extracts prepared from honeysuckle, Scutellaria, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb), cinnamon, and rosemary with 75% ethanol and from clove oil dissolved in 75% ethanol were applied to inoculated agar media to observe their inhibitory effects on the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Lactobacillus plantarum. All the extracts suppressed the growth of these bacteria; Scutellaria exhibited the strongest effect against E. coli. An orthogonal test revealed that the most effective antimicrobial composite extracts were equal-volume mixtures of 0.125 g/ml Scutellaria + 0.5 g/ml honeysuckle + 0.125 g/ml Forsythia + 0.25 g/ml cinnamon and 0.25 g/ml cinnamon + 0.125 g/ml rosemary + 0.25% clove oil. These mixed extracts also produced strong antimicrobial effects in vacuum-packaged fresh pork, with 1.81- to 2.32-log reductions in microbial counts compared with the control when stored for up to 28 days. The sensory panel detected minimal differences in surface color and off-odors between meat samples treated with herb-spice extracts and the control. These results indicate that combined herb and spice extracts can be used as natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

  1. Anti-oxidant effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) seeds in rats fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Dhuley, J N

    1999-03-01

    In order to gain insight into the antioxidant effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum; Lauraceae) and cardamom (Amomum subulatum; Zingiberaceae) hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) content and lipid conjugated dienes were studied in rats fed high fat diet along with cinnamon or cardamom. The antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be significantly enhanced whereas GSH content was markedly restored in rats fed a fat diet with spices. In addition, these spices partially counteracted increase in lipid conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides, the primary products of lipid peroxidation. Thus, it appears that these spices exert antioxidant protection through their ability to activate the antioxidant enzymes.

  2. Vapor-phase activities of cinnamon, thyme, and oregano essential oils and key constituents against foodborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    López, Patricia; Sanchez, Cristina; Batlle, Ramón; Nerín, Cristina

    2007-05-30

    The aim of the study presented here was to gain knowledge about the vapor-phase antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils and their major putatively active constituents against a range of foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. In a first step, the vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of three commercially available essential oils (EOs)-cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and oregano (Origanum vulgare)-were evaluated against a wide range of microorganisms, including Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella choleraesuis), Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Enterococcus faecalis), molds (Penicillium islandicum and Aspergillus flavus), and a yeast (Candida albicans). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were generally lower for oregano EO than for the thyme and cinnamon EOs, especially against the relatively resistant Gram-negative. The persistence of the EOs' antimicrobial activities over time was assessed, and changes in the composition of the atmosphere they generated over time were determined using single-drop microextraction (SDME) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and subsequent analysis of the data by principal component analysis (PCA). More relevant chemicals were selected. In addition, the vapor-phase activities of putatively key constituents of the oils were screened against representative Gram-positive (L. monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (S. choleraesuis) bacteria, a mold (A. flavus), and a yeast (C. albicans). Of the tested compounds, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol showed the strongest antimicrobial effectiveness, so their MICs, defined as the minimum vapor concentrations that completely inhibited detectable growth of the microorganisms, were calculated. To check for possible interactions between components present in the EOs, cinnamon EO was fortified with

  3. Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. Methods A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: “Cinnamomum zeylanicum”, “Ceylon cinnamon”, “True cinnamon” and “Sri Lankan cinnamon”. To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. Results The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. Conclusions The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public

  4. Simultaneous adsorption and desorption of cadmium and tetracycline on cinnamon soil.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ying; Bao, Yanyu; Zhou, Qixing

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metals and antibiotics often coexist in agricultural soils and their concentrations are increasing with land application of wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations. This study aims at evaluating interaction of cadmium (Cd) and a widely-used veterinary antibiotic tetracycline (TC) on the basis of their adsorption and desorption on cinnamon soil using the batch experiments. The results indicated that adsorption and desorption of Cd and TC were strongly dependent on soil characteristics, and adsorption and desorption isotherms of Cd and TC on the soils were well fitted with the Freundlich equation. In particular, there was an apparent sorption-desorption hysteresis of Cd and TC in soil, which will probably pose a threat to soil-environmental quality and human health. Moreover, the presence of TC increased Cd adsorption on the tested soil (K(f)=602.2-737.6), which can be attributed to increasing Cd adsorption via the bridge of TC, or stronger affinity of the TC-Cd complex to soil minerals than Cd ion itself. The presence of TC also enhanced the hysteresis effect of Cd sorption-desorption (H=0.86-0.96). Similarly, the sorption K(f) values of TC increased from 1095 in absence of Cd to 1305 in presence of Cd, respectively. In the meantime, the presence of Cd enhanced adsorption of TC by the bridge of Cd, which is similar to that of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). However, the presence of Cd decreased the hysteresis effect of TC sorption-desorption (H=0.99-0.84). It is thus important to consider the interaction between Cd and TC when studying on the fate of Cd and TC in soil environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anticandidal efficacy of cinnamon oil against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Regina Helena; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Martins, Carlos Henrique G; Zaia, José Eduardo; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Matsumoto, Marcelo T; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S

    2011-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is yeast capable of forming biofilms on medical devices. Novel approaches for the prevention and eradication of the biofilms are desired. This study investigated the anticandidal activity of sixteen essential oils on planktonic and biofilm cultures of C. parapsilosis complex. We used molecular tools, enumeration of colony-forming units, the colourimetric MTT assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a chequerboard assay coupled with software analyses to evaluate the growth kinetics, architecture, inhibition and reduction in biofilms formed from environmental isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex; further, we also evaluated whether essential oils would interact synergistically with amphotericin B to increase their anticandidal activities. Of the environmental C. parapsilosis isolates examined, C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis were identified. Biofilm growth on polystyrene substrates peaked within 48 h, after which growth remained relatively stable up to 72 h, when it began to decline. Details of the architectural analysis assessed by SEM showed that C. parapsilosis complex formed less complex biofilms compared with C. albicans biofilms. The most active essential oil was cinnamon oil (CO), which showed anticandidal activity against C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis in both suspension (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC-250 and 500 μg/ml) and biofilm (minimum biofilm reduction concentration-MBRC-1,000 and 2,000 μg/ml) cultures. CO also inhibited biofilm formation (MBIC) at concentrations above 250 μg/ml for both species tested. However, synergism with amphotericin B was not observed. Thus, CO is a natural anticandidal agent that can be effectively utilised for the control of the yeasts tested.

  6. Effect of LED light spectra on starvation-induced oxidative stress in the cinnamon clownfish Amphiprion melanopus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Cheol Young; Shin, Hyun Suk; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Lee, Jehee; Kil, Gyung-Suk

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to test starvation-induced oxidative stress in the cinnamon clownfish Amphiprion melanopus illuminated by light-emitting diodes (LEDs): red (peak at 630 nm), green (peak at 530 nm), and blue (peak at 450 nm) within a visible light. We investigated the oxidative stress induced by starvation for 12 days during illumination with 3 LED light spectra through measuring antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD] and catalase [CAT]) mRNA expression and activity; CAT western blotting; and measuring lipid peroxidation [LPO]), plasma H(2)O(2), lysozyme, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and melatonin levels. In green and blue lights, expression and activity of antioxidant enzyme mRNA were significantly lower than those of other light spectra, results that are in agreement with CAT protein expression level by western blot analysis. Also, in green and blue lights, plasma H(2)O(2), lysozyme, glucose, AlaAT, AspAT, and melatonin levels were significantly lower than those in other light spectra. These results indicate that green and blue LEDs inhibit oxidative stress and enhance immune function in starved cinnamon clownfish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition and hypoglycemic and pancreas-protective effect of leaf essential oil from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira).

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Xu, Wen-Xin; Lin, Li-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jung; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2013-05-22

    The antidiabetic effect of cinnamon has generated broad interest during the past decade. We investigated the hypoglycemic activity and pancreas-protective effect of leaf essential oil from indigenous cinnamon (CO) in diabetic rats induced with streptozotocin (STZ, iv, 65 mg/(kg bw)) and found linalool to be the major component representing 40.24% of the CO composition. In diabetics, all tested doses of CO significantly lowered fasting blood glucose and fructosamine and are concomitant with elevated plasma and pancreatic insulin levels under a fasting condition. However, during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) period the effect of 25 and 50 mg/(kg bw) of CO was shown to be less effective than that of 12.5 mg/(kg bw) in ameliorating the accumulation of plasma insulin. In addition, at 12.5 mg/(kg bw), CO significantly ameliorated pancreatic values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase in diabetics to an extent greater than that of higher CO doses. At doses 12.5 and 25 but not 50 mg/(kg bw), CO significantly ameliorated pancreatic levels of interleukin-1β and nitric oxide. In conclusion, appropriate doses of CO of the linalool chemotype exhibited therapeutic potential in glycemic control in diabetes that was at least partially resulted from improved insulin secretion. The ameliorated oxidative stress and proinflammatory environment in the pancreas by CO may provide a protective effect on pancreatic β cells and warrant further investigation.

  8. Effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeribaşi, S; Sönmez, M; Çiftçi, M; Güvenç, M

    2013-08-01

    Cinnamon and its contents have multifactorial properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. Male infertility is one of the major health problems in life. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term cinnamon bark oil (CBO) ingestion on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality of adult rats. Twelve male healthy Wistar rats were divided into two groups, each group containing six rats. While olive oil was given to control group, 100 mg kg(-1)  CBO was administered to the other group by gavage daily for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities, and testicular apoptosis via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method were examined. A significant decrease in malondialdehyde level and marked increases in reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were observed in rats treated with CBO compared with the control group. CBO consumption provided a significant increase in weights of testes and epididymides, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and diameter of seminiferous tubules when compared with the control group. However, CBO consumption tended to decrease the abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic germ cell count, but it did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that CBO has improvement effect on testicular oxidant-antioxidant balance and sperm quality, and its consumption may be useful for asthenozoospermic men. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Cinnamon may have therapeutic benefits on lipid profile, liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Askari, Faezeh; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2014-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of hepatic injury in the world. One of the most important therapeutic strategies for this disease is modulating insulin resistance and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that supplementation with cinnamon exerts an insulin sensitizer effect in patients with NAFLD. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel groups, fifty patients with NAFLD were randomized to receive daily supplementation with either two capsules of cinnamon (each capsule contain 750 mg cinnamon) or 2 placebo capsules, daily for 12 weeks. During the intervention, all patients were given advice on how to implement a balanced diet and physical activity into their daily lives. In the treatment group (P < .05), significant decreases in HOMA (Homeostatic Model Assessment) index, FBS (fasting blood glucose), total cholesterol, triglyceride, ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (gamma glutamine transpeptidase), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were seen, but there was no significant change in serum high-density lipoproteins levels (P = .122). In both groups, low-density lipoproteins decreased significantly (P < .05). In conclusion, the study suggests that taking 1500 mg cinnamon daily may be effective in improving NAFLD characteristics.

  10. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insulin resistance leads to memory impairment. Cinnamon (CN) improves whole body insulin resistance but its effects in the brain are not known. Changes in behavior, insulin signaling, and Alzheimer-associated gene expression in the brain were measured in male Wistar rats fed a high fat/high fructose...

  11. Effects of Cinnamon, Cardamom, Saffron, and Ginger Consumption on Markers of Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Abbasi, Behnoud

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) may be caused by elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia. The phytochemicals in several herbal medicines are reported to effectively improve diabetes and to ameliorate diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron, and ginger as supplementary remedies in T2D. This randomized controlled, clinical trial included 204 T2D patients. The participants were randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 glasses of black tea and either 3 g cardamom, or cinnamon, or ginger, or 1 g saffron and one control group which consumed only 3 tea glasses without any herbal medicine for 8 weeks. Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and anthropometric measures were evaluated at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. After 8 weeks of intervention, cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, and saffron consumption had significant effects on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels (p < 0.05) compared with controls. However, the herbal products did not have significant effects on measures of glycemic control, anthropometry, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In within-group comparisons only, cinnamon intake significantly decreased fasting blood sugar (FBS). The herbal remedies examined had significantly beneficial effects on cholesterol, but not on measures of glycemic control, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Based on the contradictory results reported in the literature, the effects of herbal medicine in diabetic patients should undergo further detailed investigation.

  12. Inhibitory effect of cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, oregano and palmarose essential oils on growth and fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium proliferatum in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Velluti, A; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J; Egido, J; Marín, S

    2003-12-31

    The effect of cinnamon, clove, oregano, palmarose and lemongrass oils on growth and FB1 production by three different isolates of F. proliferatum in irradiated maize grain at 0.995 and 0.950 aw and at 20 and 30 degrees C was evaluated. The five essential oils inhibited growth of F. proliferatum isolates at 0.995 aw at both temperatures, while at 0.950 aw only cinnamon, clove and oregano oils were effective in inhibiting growth of F. proliferatum at 20 degrees C and none of them at 30 degrees C. Cinnamon, oregano and palmarose oils had significant inhibitory effect on FB1 production by the three strains of F. proliferatum at 0.995 aw and both temperatures, while clove and lemongrass oils had only significant inhibitory effect at 30 degrees C. No differences were found using 500 or 1000 microg essential oil g(-1). At 0.950 aw, none of the essential oils had any significant effect on FB1 production. The results suggest that mainly cinnamon and oregano oils could be effective in controlling growth and FB1 production by F. proliferatum in maize under preharvest conditions.

  13. Cinnamon Treatment Upregulates Neuroprotective Proteins Parkin and DJ-1 and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khasnavis, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of Parkinson’s disease (PD)-related beneficial proteins such as Parkin and DJ-1 in astrocytes during neurodegenerative insults may have therapeutic efficacy in PD. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material throughout the world. Here we have explored a novel use of cinnamon in upregulating Parkin and DJ-1 and protecting dopaminergic neurons in MPTP mouse model of PD. Recently we have delineated that oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder produces sodium benzoate (NaB) in blood and brain of mice. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β decreased the level of Parkin/DJ-1 in mouse astrocytes. However, cinnamon metabolite NaB abrogated IL-1β-induced loss of these proteins. Inability of TNF-α to produce nitric oxide (NO) and decrease the level of Parkin/DJ-1 in wild type (WT) astrocytes, failure of IL-1β to reduce Parkin/DJ-1 in astrocytes isolated from iNOS (−/−) mice, and decrease in Parkin/DJ-1 in WT astrocytes by NO donor DETA-NONOate suggest that NO is a negative regulator of Parkin/DJ-1. Furthermore, suppression of IL-1β-induced expression of iNOS in astrocytes by NaB and reversal of NaB-mediated protection of Parkin/DJ-1 by DETA-NONOate in astrocytes indicate that NaB protects Parkin/DJ-1 in activated astrocytes via suppressing iNOS. Similarly MPTP intoxication also increased the level of iNOS and decreased the level of Parkin/DJ-1 in vivo in the nigra. However, oral treatment of MPTP-intoxicated mice with cinnamon powder and NaB reduced the expression of iNOS and protected Parkin/DJ-1 in the nigra. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions by cinnamon in MPTP-intoxicated mice. These results suggest that cinnamon may be beneficial for PD patients. PMID:24946862

  14. Influence on longevity of blueberry, cinnamon, green and black tea, pomegranate, sesame, curcumin, morin, pycnogenol, quercetin, and taxifolin fed iso-calorically to long-lived, F1 hybrid mice.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span.

  15. Effect of oral cinnamon intervention on metabolic profile and body composition of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a randomized double -blind control trial.

    PubMed

    Gupta Jain, Sonal; Puri, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani

    2017-06-12

    Nutritional modulation remains central to the management of metabolic syndrome. Intervention with cinnamon in individuals with metabolic syndrome remains sparsely researched. We investigated the effect of oral cinnamon consumption on body composition and metabolic parameters of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. In this 16-week double blind randomized control trial, 116 individuals with metabolic syndrome were randomized to two dietary intervention groups, cinnamon [6 capsules (3 g) daily] or wheat flour [6 capsules (2.5 g) daily]. Body composition, blood pressure and metabolic parameters were assessed. Significantly greater decrease [difference between means, (95% CI)] in fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) [0.3 (0.2, 0.5) p = 0.001], glycosylated haemoglobin (mmol/mol) [2.6 (0.4, 4.9) p = 0.023], waist circumference (cm) [4.8 (1.9, 7.7) p = 0.002] and body mass index (kg/m2 ) [1.3 (0.9, 1.5) p = 0.001] was observed in the cinnamon group compared to placebo group. Other parameters which showed significantly greater improvement were: waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Prevalence of defined metabolic syndrome was significantly reduced in the intervention group (34.5%) vs. the placebo group (5.2%). A single supplement intervention with 3 g cinnamon for 16 weeks resulted in significant improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of Asian Indians in north India. The clinical trial was retrospectively registered (after the recruitment of the participants) in ClinicalTrial.gov under the identification number: NCT02455778 on 25th May 2015.

  16. Effect of cinnamon essential oil on bacterial diversity and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dongping; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Kong, Chunli; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-16

    The present study investigated the effect of cinnamon essential oil on the quality of vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4±1°C in terms of sensory scores, physicochemical characteristics (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), biogenic amines, and color), and presence of spoilage microbiota. A total of 290,753 bacterial sequences and 162 different genera belonging to 14 phyla were observed by a high-throughput sequencing technique targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA, which showed a more comprehensive estimate of microbial diversity in carp samples compared with microbial enumeration. Before storage, Macrococcus and Aeromonas were the prevalent populations in the control samples, but cinnamon essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Macrococcus in the treated samples. Variability in the predominant microbiota in different samples during chilled storage was observed. Aeromonas followed by Lactococcus were the major contaminants in the spoiled control samples. Microbial enumeration also observed relatively higher counts of Aeromonas than other spoilage microorganisms. Compared with the control samples, cinnamon essential oil inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Lactococcus were the predominant components in the treated samples on day 10; plate counts also revealed a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the composition of dominant microbiota between these two treatments at the end of the shelf-life. Furthermore, cinnamon essential oil treatment was more effective in inhibiting the increase of TVB-N and the accumulation of biogenic amines (especially for putrescine and cadaverine levels). Based primarily on sensory analysis, the use of cinnamon essential oil extended the shelf-life of vacuum-packaged common carp fillets by about 2days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanism of action of Spanish oregano, Chinese cinnamon, and savory essential oils against cell membranes and walls of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Oussalah, Mounia; Caillet, Stéphane; Lacroix, Monique

    2006-05-01

    The mechanism of the antimicrobial action of Spanish oregano (Corydothymus capitatus), Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), and savory (Satureja montana) essential oils against cell membranes and walls of bacteria was studied by the measurement of the intracellular pH and ATP concentration, the release of cell constituents, and the electronic microscopy observations of the cells when these essential oils at their MICs were in contact with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes, two pathogenic foodborne bacteria, were used as gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial models, respectively. Treatment with these essential oils at their MICs affected the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced depletion of the intracellular ATP concentration. Spanish oregano and savory essential oils, however, induced more depletion than Chinese cinnamon oil. An increase of the extracellular ATP concentration was observed only when Spanish oregano and savory oils were in contact with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. Also, a significantly higher (P < or = 0.05) cell constituent release was observed in the supernatant when E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes cells were treated with Chinese cinnamon and Spanish oregano oils. Chinese cinnamon oil was more effective to reduce significantly the intracellular pH of E. coli O157:H7, whereas Chinese cinnamon and Spanish oregano decreased more significantly the intracellular pH of L. monocytogenes. Electronic microscopy observations revealed that the cell membrane of both treated bacteria was significantly damaged. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic membrane is involved in the toxic action of essential oils.

  18. Effect of an herbal mixture of Cinnamon Cortex, Persicae Semen, and Natril Sulfas on collagen-induced arthritis and lipopolysaccharides-induced nuclear factor-κ B signaling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Won; Lew, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kang, Hee

    2016-11-17

    To investigate the anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects of the mixture of three herbal agents, Cinnamon Cortex, Persica Semen, and Natril Sulfas (CPN), the major ingredients of Taoren Chengqi Decoction (). Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced by immunization with bovine type II collagen on day 1 and 21. DBA/1J mice were orally administered the water extract of CPN (100 and 500 mg/kg) and indomethacin (1 mg/kg) or vehicle (water) 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Arthritic symptoms were recorded on day 29, 31, 33, 36 and 38. On sacrififi ce, serum was obtained for inflammatory markers and anti-collagen antibodies as well as arthritic joints were obtained for histologic analysis. For the evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory mechanism of CPN, peritoneal macrophages were isolated from thioglycollate injected C57BL/6 mice and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) for 15 min in the presence of CPN extract. Levels of inhibitor of NF-κB α isoform (IκBα), phospho-p38, phospho-C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were detected by Western blot. Compared with mice in CIA group, oral administration of CPN signififi cantly reduced the clinical scores (P<0.05), histological analysis revealed the protective effect of CPN on inflamed joints. Serum levels of the pro-inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2, but not anti-collagen antibodies, were significantly reduced (P<0.05). CPN did not affect the activation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2 but inhibited LPS-induced IκBα degradation, a required event prior to the translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus. The ameliorating effect of CPN on arthritis progression seems to be mediated by its anti-inflammatory effect, without affecting antibody response. As a supplementary agent, CPN could be benefifi cial for treatment of CIA.

  19. Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Activities of Extracts from Edible Plants against Soft Drink Spoilage by Asaia spp.

    PubMed

    Antolak, Hubert; Czyzowska, Agata; Kregiel, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza radix ), nettle leaves ( Urtica dioica ), green tea leaves ( Camellia sinensis ), and elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra ). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks.

  20. Risk assessment of coumarin using the bench mark dose (BMD) approach: children in Norway which regularly eat oatmeal porridge with cinnamon may exceed the TDI for coumarin with several folds.

    PubMed

    Fotland, T Ø; Paulsen, J E; Sanner, T; Alexander, J; Husøy, T

    2012-03-01

    Coumarin is a naturally occurring flavouring substance in cinnamon and many other plants. It is known that coumarin can cause liver toxicity in several species, and it is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen in rodents. By using the bench mark dose approach we re-assessed coumarin toxicity and established a new TDI for coumarin of 0.07 mg/kg bw/day. Oral intake of coumarin is related to consumption of cinnamon-containing foods and food supplements. Cinnamon is a widely used spice in Norway, and can be used as topping on oatmeal porridge. Based on analyses of coumarin in Norwegian foods, intake calculations for children and adults were conducted, and a risk assessment of coumarin in the Norwegian population was performed. Intake estimates of coumarin show that small children eating oatmeal porridge several times a week sprinkled with cinnamon could have a coumarin intake of 1.63 mg/kg bw/day and may exceeding the TDI with several folds. Adults drinking cinnamon-based tea and consuming cinnamon supplements also can exceed TDI. The coumarin intake could exceed the TDI by 7- to 20-fold in some intake scenarios. Such large daily exceedances of TDI, even for a limited time period of 1-2 weeks, cause concern of adverse health effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on salivary anaerobes associated with halitosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Carvalho, Regina; Scher, Aubrey; Wu, Christine D

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on total and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes. Fifteen healthy adult subjects were recruited in the double-blind, crossover clinical study. The three test chewing gums included: 1) sugared chewing gum containing cinnamic aldehyde and natural flavors (CinA+); 2) sugared chewing gum without cinnamic aldehyde but with natural flavors (CinA-); and 3) non-sugared chewing gum base (GB) without any flavors and without cinnamic aldehyde. A three-day "washout" period followed each treatment. Each subject chewed gum under supervision for 20 minutes at 60 chews/minute. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected before the subjects chewed the gum and at 20 minutes after expectoration of the gum. All saliva samples were serially diluted, plated on blood agar or agar plates that select for bacteria producing H2S, incubated anaerobically for three days, and enumerated for viable colony counts of total and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes. Significant reductions in total salivary anaerobes (p < 0.01) and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes (p < 0.01) were observed 20 minutes after subjects chewed the CinA+ gum. The chewing of CinA- gum also significantly reduced total salivary anaerobes (p < 0.05) and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes (p < 0.05). However, no statistically significant difference in germ-killing effect was detected between the CinA+ and CinA- gums, although there was a numeric difference. The chewing of a gum base (GB) alone did not result in a significant reduction in the total or H2S-producing salivary anaerobes (p > 0.05). The commercially available sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum may benefit halitosis by reducing volatile sulfur compounds producing anaerobes in the oral cavity.

  2. Microbial nitrification, denitrification and respiration in the leached cinnamon soil of the upper basin of Miyun Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen; Cai, Yan-Peng; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Yin, Xin-An; Tan, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Leached cinnamon soil is the main agricultural soil distributed in the North China Plain. In this research, leached cinnamon soil samples were collected in the upper basin of Miyun Reservoir (northeast of Beijing, China). The BaPS method (Barometric Process Separation) was applied to measure nitrification, denitrification and respiration rates. The rates of nitrification, denitrification and respiration were 0–120.35 μg N/kg SDW h, 0–246.86 μg N/kg SDW h and 0.17–225.85 μg C/kg SDW h (Soil Dry Weight, SDW), respectively. The emission rates of CO2 and NxOy through nitrification, denitrification and respiration were 1.00–547.80 and 6.00–4850.65 μmol/h, respectively. The analysis of relationships between nitrification, denitrification and respiration rates indicated that these three microbial processes were interacted, which posed impacts on soil nitrogen availability. As indicated by the results, C:N ratio coupled with content could be taken as the indicators of content, which is usually the predominant form of N available to plants growing in soil. Results showed that content was the highest (i.e., >62.4 mg/kg) when C:N ratio was 5.30–8.40, meanwhile content was 3.71–4.39 mg/kg. Nevertheless, content was the lowest (i.e., <6.40 mg/kg) when C:N ratio was 9.2–12.10, meanwhile content was 3.41–4.35 mg/kg. PMID:28165035

  3. Microbial nitrification, denitrification and respiration in the leached cinnamon soil of the upper basin of Miyun Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Cai, Yan-Peng; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Yin, Xin-An; Tan, Qian

    2017-02-01

    Leached cinnamon soil is the main agricultural soil distributed in the North China Plain. In this research, leached cinnamon soil samples were collected in the upper basin of Miyun Reservoir (northeast of Beijing, China). The BaPS method (Barometric Process Separation) was applied to measure nitrification, denitrification and respiration rates. The rates of nitrification, denitrification and respiration were 0–120.35 μg N/kg SDW h, 0–246.86 μg N/kg SDW h and 0.17–225.85 μg C/kg SDW h (Soil Dry Weight, SDW), respectively. The emission rates of CO2 and NxOy through nitrification, denitrification and respiration were 1.00–547.80 and 6.00–4850.65 μmol/h, respectively. The analysis of relationships between nitrification, denitrification and respiration rates indicated that these three microbial processes were interacted, which posed impacts on soil nitrogen availability. As indicated by the results, C:N ratio coupled with content could be taken as the indicators of content, which is usually the predominant form of N available to plants growing in soil. Results showed that content was the highest (i.e., >62.4 mg/kg) when C:N ratio was 5.30–8.40, meanwhile content was 3.71–4.39 mg/kg. Nevertheless, content was the lowest (i.e., <6.40 mg/kg) when C:N ratio was 9.2–12.10, meanwhile content was 3.41–4.35 mg/kg.

  4. Microbial nitrification, denitrification and respiration in the leached cinnamon soil of the upper basin of Miyun Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Cai, Yan-Peng; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Yin, Xin-An; Tan, Qian

    2017-02-06

    Leached cinnamon soil is the main agricultural soil distributed in the North China Plain. In this research, leached cinnamon soil samples were collected in the upper basin of Miyun Reservoir (northeast of Beijing, China). The BaPS method (Barometric Process Separation) was applied to measure nitrification, denitrification and respiration rates. The rates of nitrification, denitrification and respiration were 0-120.35 μg N/kg SDW h, 0-246.86 μg N/kg SDW h and 0.17-225.85 μg C/kg SDW h (Soil Dry Weight, SDW), respectively. The emission rates of CO2 and NxOy through nitrification, denitrification and respiration were 1.00-547.80 and 6.00-4850.65 μmol/h, respectively. The analysis of relationships between nitrification, denitrification and respiration rates indicated that these three microbial processes were interacted, which posed impacts on soil nitrogen availability. As indicated by the results, C:N ratio coupled with content could be taken as the indicators of content, which is usually the predominant form of N available to plants growing in soil. Results showed that content was the highest (i.e., >62.4 mg/kg) when C:N ratio was 5.30-8.40, meanwhile content was 3.71-4.39 mg/kg. Nevertheless, content was the lowest (i.e., <6.40 mg/kg) when C:N ratio was 9.2-12.10, meanwhile content was 3.41-4.35 mg/kg.

  5. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2015-11-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation.

  7. Characterization of anthropogenic and natural sources of acid rock drainage at the Cinnamon Gulch abandoned mine land inventory site, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Colorado's Cinnamon Gulch releases acid rock drainage (ARD) from anthropogenic and natural sources. In 2001, the total discharge from Cinnamon Gulch was measured at 1.02 cfs (29 L/s) at base flow and 4.3 cfs (122 L/s) at high flow (spring runoff). At base flow, natural sources account for 98% of the discharge from the watershed, and about 96% of the chemical loading. At high flow, natural sources contribute 96% of discharge and 92 to 95% of chemical loading. The pH is acidic throughout the Cinnamon Gulch watershed, ranging from 2.9 to 5.4. At baseflow, nearly all of the trace metals analyzed in the 18 samples exceeded state hardness-dependent water quality standards for aquatic life. Maximum dissolved concentrations of selected constituents included 16 mg/ L aluminum, 15 mg/L manganese, 40 mg/L iron, 2 mg/L copper, 560 ??g/L lead, 8.4 mg/L zinc, and 300 mg/L sulfate. Average dissolved concentrations of selected metals at baseflow were 5.5 mg/L aluminum, 5.5 mg/L manganese, 14 ??g/L cadmium, 260 ??g/L copper, 82 ??g/L lead, and 2.8 mg/L zinc.

  8. Potential of in vivo real-time gastric gas profiling: a pilot evaluation of heat-stress and modulating dietary cinnamon effect in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jian Zhen; Cottrell, Jeremy J.; Ha, Nam; Pillai, Naresh; Yao, Chu K.; Berean, Kyle J.; Ward, Stephanie A.; Grando, Danilla; Muir, Jane G.; Harrison, Christopher J.; Wijesiriwardana, Udani; Dunshea, Frank R.; Gibson, Peter R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-09-01

    Gastroenterologists are still unable to differentiate between some of the most ordinary disorders of the gut and consequently patients are misdiagnosed. We have developed a swallowable gas sensor capsule for addressing this. The gases of the gut are the by-product of the fermentation processes during digestion, affected by the gut state and can consequently provide the needed information regarding the health of the gut. Here we present the first study on gas sensor capsules for revealing the effect of a medical supplement in an animal (pig) model. We characterise the real-time alterations of gastric-gas in response to environmental heat-stress and dietary cinnamon and use the gas profiles for understanding the bio-physiological changes. Under no heat-stress, feeding increases gastric CO2 concentration, while dietary cinnamon reduces it due to decrease in gastric acid and pepsin secretion. Alternatively, heat-stress leads to hyperventilation in pigs, which reduces CO2 concentration and with the cinnamon treatment, CO2 diminishes even more, resulting in health improvement outcomes. Overall, a good repeatability in gas profiles is also observed. The model demonstrates the strong potential of real-time gas profiler in providing new physiological information that will impact understanding of therapeutics, presenting a highly reliable device for monitoring/diagnostics of gastrointestinal disorders.

  9. Potential of in vivo real-time gastric gas profiling: a pilot evaluation of heat-stress and modulating dietary cinnamon effect in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Jian Zhen; Cottrell, Jeremy J.; Ha, Nam; Pillai, Naresh; Yao, Chu K.; Berean, Kyle J.; Ward, Stephanie A.; Grando, Danilla; Muir, Jane G.; Harrison, Christopher J.; Wijesiriwardana, Udani; Dunshea, Frank R.; Gibson, Peter R.; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Gastroenterologists are still unable to differentiate between some of the most ordinary disorders of the gut and consequently patients are misdiagnosed. We have developed a swallowable gas sensor capsule for addressing this. The gases of the gut are the by-product of the fermentation processes during digestion, affected by the gut state and can consequently provide the needed information regarding the health of the gut. Here we present the first study on gas sensor capsules for revealing the effect of a medical supplement in an animal (pig) model. We characterise the real-time alterations of gastric-gas in response to environmental heat-stress and dietary cinnamon and use the gas profiles for understanding the bio-physiological changes. Under no heat-stress, feeding increases gastric CO2 concentration, while dietary cinnamon reduces it due to decrease in gastric acid and pepsin secretion. Alternatively, heat-stress leads to hyperventilation in pigs, which reduces CO2 concentration and with the cinnamon treatment, CO2 diminishes even more, resulting in health improvement outcomes. Overall, a good repeatability in gas profiles is also observed. The model demonstrates the strong potential of real-time gas profiler in providing new physiological information that will impact understanding of therapeutics, presenting a highly reliable device for monitoring/diagnostics of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27633400

  10. Potential of in vivo real-time gastric gas profiling: a pilot evaluation of heat-stress and modulating dietary cinnamon effect in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jian Zhen; Cottrell, Jeremy J; Ha, Nam; Pillai, Naresh; Yao, Chu K; Berean, Kyle J; Ward, Stephanie A; Grando, Danilla; Muir, Jane G; Harrison, Christopher J; Wijesiriwardana, Udani; Dunshea, Frank R; Gibson, Peter R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-09-16

    Gastroenterologists are still unable to differentiate between some of the most ordinary disorders of the gut and consequently patients are misdiagnosed. We have developed a swallowable gas sensor capsule for addressing this. The gases of the gut are the by-product of the fermentation processes during digestion, affected by the gut state and can consequently provide the needed information regarding the health of the gut. Here we present the first study on gas sensor capsules for revealing the effect of a medical supplement in an animal (pig) model. We characterise the real-time alterations of gastric-gas in response to environmental heat-stress and dietary cinnamon and use the gas profiles for understanding the bio-physiological changes. Under no heat-stress, feeding increases gastric CO2 concentration, while dietary cinnamon reduces it due to decrease in gastric acid and pepsin secretion. Alternatively, heat-stress leads to hyperventilation in pigs, which reduces CO2 concentration and with the cinnamon treatment, CO2 diminishes even more, resulting in health improvement outcomes. Overall, a good repeatability in gas profiles is also observed. The model demonstrates the strong potential of real-time gas profiler in providing new physiological information that will impact understanding of therapeutics, presenting a highly reliable device for monitoring/diagnostics of gastrointestinal disorders.

  11. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat.

  13. Cinnamon and immune actions: potential role in Tristetraprolin-Mediated inflamatory diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inflammatory diseases have placed a heavy burden on the American health care system. Drug treatment for reducing inflammation and associated diseases has not been satisfactory. Complementary and alternative approaches are urgently needed. Bioactive plant extracts have been used for preventing and...

  14. Effect of Chitosan Coating with Cinnamon Oil on the Quality and Physiological Attributes of China Jujube Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yage; Lin, Hongbin; Cao, Dong; Xu, Qinglian; Han, Wenfeng; Wang, Ranran; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g−1 and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%), respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g−1, 14.53 U·g−1, and 63.6 U·g−1 at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g−1 and 19.43 μmol·g−1 for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time. PMID:26495315

  15. Fabrication of electrospun polylactic acid nanofilm incorporating cinnamon essential oil/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex for antimicrobial packaging.

    PubMed

    Wen, Peng; Zhu, Ding-He; Feng, Kun; Liu, Fang-Jun; Lou, Wen-Yong; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua; Wu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    A novel antimicrobial packaging material was obtained by incorporating cinnamon essential oil/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (CEO/β-CD-IC) into polylacticacid (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning technique. The CEO/β-CD-IC was prepared by the co-precipitation method and SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy analysis indicated the successful formation of CEO/β-CD-IC, which improved the thermal stability of CEO. The CEO/β-CD-IC was then incorporated into PLA nanofibers by electrospinning and the resulting PLA/CEO/β-CD nanofilm showed better antimicrobial activity compared to PLA/CEO nanofilm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PLA/CEO/β-CD nanofilm against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was approximately 1 mg/ml (corresponding CEO concentration 11.35 μg/ml) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was approximately 7 mg/ml (corresponding CEO concentration 79.45 μg/ml). Furthermore, compared with the casting method, the mild electrospinning process was more favorable for maintaining greater CEO in the obtained film. The PLA/CEO/β-CD nanofilm can effectively prolong the shelf life of pork, suggesting it has potential application in active food packaging.

  16. Quality attributes and microbial survival on whole cantaloupes with antimicrobial coatings containing chitosan, lauric arginate, cinnamon oil and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiumin; Zhang, Yue; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-10-17

    Cantaloupes are susceptible to microbiological contamination in pre- or postharvest environments. Novel intervention strategies, such as antimicrobial coatings, are needed to improve the microbiological safety of cantaloupes. The objective of this study was to prepare whole cantaloupes coated with mixtures containing chitosan, lauric arginate (LAE), cinnamon oil (CO), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and determine survival characteristics of inoculated foodborne pathogens during storage as well as cantaloupe quality attributes. Chitosan coating with 0.1% LAE, 0.1% EDTA, and 1% CO was the most effective for inactivating foodborne pathogens inoculated on cantaloupes. This coating caused a >3logCFU/cm(2) reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes immediately after coating and reduced Salmonella enterica to below the detection limit during a 14-day storage. Total molds and yeasts also were reduced to the detection limit by the coating. The redness and yellowness of uncoated cantaloupes were significantly higher than coated ones from day 6. The firmness of uncoated cantaloupes and those coated with chitosan only was significantly lower than other treatments from day 10. No significant differences were found in total soluble solids content or weight loss between coated and uncoated cantaloupes. Results showed the potential benefits of applying the coating mixtures to improve the quality and microbiological safety of cantaloupes.

  17. Development of an anti-insect sachet using a polyvinyl alcohol-cinnamon oil polymer strip against Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heon-Joo; Park, Ki-Moon; Min, Sea C; Na, Ja Hyun; Park, Ki Hwan; Han, Jaejoon

    2013-11-01

    Plodia interpunctella is a major storage pest that penetrates into food packaging and causes serious economic losses, as well as posing health risks. The goal of this study was to develop effective anti-insect polymer strips against P. interpunctella by using plant essential oil (EO) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The EO of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, CO) bark was used as an insect repellent, and fumigant mortality and the repellent activity of CO were measured to evaluate subsistent anti-insect properties through newly designed traps. Repellent activity was also examined with several foods to simulate the storage environment. The mortality rate with CO after fumigation for 120 h was 63%. In the repellent assay, CO-treated strips, but not control strips, effectively repelled P. interpunctella in both "with foods" and "without foods" groups. A PVA-CO strip sachet (PCO sachet) was developed to control the volatility of CO, and the PCO sachet demonstrated robust repellent activity. The loading contents of CO at the center and edges of strips were 39.41% and 39.59%, respectively, and through the results of FT-IR, it inferred that CO was physically diffused in the PVA polymer matrix, not forming chemical bonds. In a release test using a gas chromatography, the PCO sachet showed remarkable controlled release of CO. These results demonstrate that the anti-insect effects of CO can be maintained throughout the distribution and storage periods of foods using PCO sachets.

  18. Low susceptibility to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced transplacental carcinogenesis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    PubMed

    Tsuchigauchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Ohnishi, Takamasa; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Bando, Yoshimi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takizawa, Tamotsu; Kaneda, Shinya; Nakai, Tokiko; Shiota, Hiroshi; Izumi, Keisuke

    2009-08-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, an animal model of Wilson's disease, is resistant to a variety of chemical carcinogenesis except liver and colon. In the present study, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced transplacental carcinogenesis was examined in male and female LEC, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA), a sibling line of the LEC rat, and F344 rats (n=21). ENU was administered to pregnant rats as a single s.c. injection at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight on the 17th day after conception. Cerebral/spinal gliomas and trigeminal/spinal nerve schwannomas developed in both LEA and F344 rats at 30 weeks of age, but no nervous system tumors developed in LEC rats, the difference being statistically significant. Lung adenomas also developed in LEA and F344 rats, but not in LEC rats. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that metallothionein (MT)1a, MT2 and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) mRNA levels in the liver of LEC rats were higher than those in F344 and LEA rats. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that MT (MT1 plus MT2) in the liver of LEC rats was also higher than that in other strains. Present results suggest that high levels of MT and/or MGMT contribute to the resistance to nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in LEC rats.

  19. Cinnamon from the selection of traditional applications to its novel effects on the inhibition of angiogenesis in cancer cells and prevention of Alzheimer's disease, and a series of functions such as antioxidant, anticholesterol, antidiabetes, antibacterial, antifungal, nematicidal, acaracidal, and repellent activities

    PubMed Central

    Hamidpour, Rafie; Hamidpour, Mohsen; Hamidpour, Soheila; Shahlari, Mina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to use search engines such as PubMed and Scifinder to locate scholarly articles and reports pertaining to Cinnamon (肉桂 ròu guì), its novel effects, preparation, analysis, and use in the prevention and treatment of serious illnesses, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. Cinnamon has been used traditionally in food preparations and as an herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments and their symptoms. Cinnamon is known to have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and other therapeutic properties. New studies reaffirm the importance of cinnamon as a spice but also suggest that it may be a natural remedy to treat serious diseases such as type 2 diabetes, chronic digestion problems, cardiovascular diseases, and even cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of cinnamon. PMID:26151013

  20. Cinnamon from the selection of traditional applications to its novel effects on the inhibition of angiogenesis in cancer cells and prevention of Alzheimer's disease, and a series of functions such as antioxidant, anticholesterol, antidiabetes, antibacterial, antifungal, nematicidal, acaracidal, and repellent activities.

    PubMed

    Hamidpour, Rafie; Hamidpour, Mohsen; Hamidpour, Soheila; Shahlari, Mina

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to use search engines such as PubMed and Scifinder to locate scholarly articles and reports pertaining to Cinnamon ( ròu guì), its novel effects, preparation, analysis, and use in the prevention and treatment of serious illnesses, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. Cinnamon has been used traditionally in food preparations and as an herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments and their symptoms. Cinnamon is known to have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and other therapeutic properties. New studies reaffirm the importance of cinnamon as a spice but also suggest that it may be a natural remedy to treat serious diseases such as type 2 diabetes, chronic digestion problems, cardiovascular diseases, and even cancer and Alzheimer's disease. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of cinnamon.

  1. C. zeylanicum aqueous extract induced apoptosis in the human myelocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1).

    PubMed

    Assadollahi, V; Gholami, M; Zendedel, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of C. zeylanicum aqueous extract on cell growth in the human myelocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Today, application of Cinnamon for treatment of cancer investigates extensively. Cinnamon has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. In this experimental study, THP-1 was incubated in 2, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml C. zeylanicum solutions for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Cell cycle was assessed with flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells were identified by Hoechst 33342 staining. Cell proliferation was assessed by the MTT assay. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analytical tests. Samples that supplemented with 0.1 mg/ml C. zeylanicum aqueous extract enhanced induction of apoptosis in THP-1 cell line compared to samples that supplemented with 2, 1 and 0.01 mg/ml. According to flow cytometry analysis, after 24 and 72 hours of incubation in 0.1 and 2 mg/ml C. zeylanicum aqueous extract, respectively, the amount of cells in apoptosis phase was higher than that in the control sample. Supplemented C. zeylanicum aqueous extract induced apoptosis in the human myelocytic leukemia cell line (Fig. 4, Ref. 20).

  2. Nrf2-dependent suppression of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis by the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Long, Min; Tao, Shasha; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Jiang, Tao; Wen, Qing; Park, Sophia L; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2015-05-01

    The progressive nature of colorectal cancer and poor prognosis associated with the metastatic phase of the disease create an urgent need for the development of more efficacious strategies targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. Cumulative evidence suggests that the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defence, represents a promising molecular target for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Recently, we have identified cinnamon, the ground bark of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cassia cinnamon) and Cinnamomum verum (Ceylon cinnamon), as a rich dietary source of the Nrf2 inducer cinnamaldehyde (CA) eliciting the Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells, conferring cytoprotection against electrophilic and genotoxic insult. Here, we have explored the molecular mechanism underlying CA-induced Nrf2 activation in colorectal epithelial cells and have examined the chemopreventive potential of CA in a murine colorectal cancer model comparing Nrf2(+/+) with Nrf2(-/-) mice. In HCT116 cells, CA caused a Keap1-C151-dependent increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination with upregulation of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes and elevation of cellular glutathione. After optimizing colorectal Nrf2 activation and target gene expression by dietary CA-supplementation regimens, we demonstrated that CA suppresses AOM/DSS-induced inflammatory colon carcinogenesis with modulation of molecular markers of colorectal carcinogenesis. Dietary suppression of colorectal cancer using CA supplementation was achieved in Nrf2(+/+) but not in Nrf2(-/-) mice confirming the Nrf2 dependence of CA-induced chemopreventive effects. Taken together, our data suggest feasibility of colorectal cancer suppression by dietary CA, an FDA-approved food additive derived from the third most consumed spice in the world.

  3. Cinnamon and Its Metabolite Sodium Benzoate Attenuate the Activation of p21rac and Protect Memory and Learning in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Modi, Khushbu K; Roy, Avik; Brahmachari, Saurabh; Rangasamy, Suresh B; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) in attenuating oxidative stress and protecting memory and learning in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to inhibit LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse microglial cells. Similarly, NaB also inhibited fibrillar amyloid beta (Aβ)- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(+)-induced microglial production of ROS. Although NaB reduced the level of cholesterol in vivo in mice, reversal of the inhibitory effect of NaB on ROS production by mevalonate, and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, but not cholesterol, suggests that depletion of intermediates, but not end products, of the mevalonate pathway is involved in the antioxidant effect of NaB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an inhibitor of p21rac geranylgeranyl protein transferase suppressed the production of ROS and that NaB suppressed the activation of p21rac in microglia. As expected, marked activation of p21rac was observed in the hippocampus of subjects with AD and 5XFAD transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD. However, oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder and NaB suppressed the activation of p21rac and attenuated oxidative stress in the hippocampus of Tg mice as evident by decreased dihydroethidium (DHE) and nitrotyrosine staining, reduced homocysteine level and increased level of reduced glutathione. This was accompanied by suppression of neuronal apoptosis, inhibition of glial activation, and reduction of Aβ burden in the hippocampus and protection of memory and learning in transgenic mice. Therefore, cinnamon powder may be a promising natural supplement in halting or delaying the progression of AD.

  4. Nrf2-dependent suppression of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis by the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Long, Min; Tao, Shasha; de la Vega, Montserrat Rojo; Jiang, Tao; Wen, Qing; Park, Sophia L.; Zhang, Donna D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2015-01-01

    The progressive nature of colorectal cancer (CRC) and poor prognosis associated with the metastatic phase of the disease create an urgent need for the development of more efficacious strategies targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. Cumulative evidence suggests that the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defence, represents a promising molecular target for CRC chemoprevention. Recently, we have identified cinnamon, the ground bark of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cassia cinnamon) and Cinnamomum verum (Ceylon cinnamon), as a rich dietary source of the Nrf2 inducer cinnamaldehyde (CA) eliciting the Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells, conferring cytoprotection against electrophilic and genotoxic insult. Here, we have explored the molecular mechanism underlying CA-induced Nrf2 activation in colorectal epithelial cells and have examined the chemopreventive potential of CA in a murine CRC model comparing Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2−/− mice. In HCT116 cells, CA caused a Keap1-C151-dependent increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination with upregulation of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes and elevation of cellular glutathione. After optimizing colorectal Nrf2 activation and target gene expression by dietary CA-supplementation regimens, we demonstrated that CA suppresses AOM/DSS-induced inflammatory colon carcinogenesis with modulation of molecular markers of colorectal carcinogenesis. Dietary suppression of CRC using CA supplementation was achieved in Nrf2+/+ but not in Nrf2−/− mice confirming the Nrf2-dependence of CA-induced chemopreventive effects. Taken together, our data suggest feasibility of CRC suppression by dietary CA, an FDA-approved food additive derived from the third most consumed spice in the world. PMID:25712056

  5. Preservation Effect of Two-Stage Cinnamon Bark (Cinnamomum Burmanii) Oleoresin Microcapsules On Vacuum-Packed Ground Beef During Refrigerated Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfiana, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules (0%, 0.5% and 1%) on the TPC (Total Plate Count), TBA (thiobarbituric acid), pH, and RGB color (Red, Green, and Blue) of vacuum-packed ground beef during refrigerated storage (at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 days). This study showed that the addition of two stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules affected the quality of vacuum-packed ground beef during 16 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that the TPC value of the vacuum-packed ground beef sample with the addition 0.5% and 1% microcapsules was lower than the value of control sample. The TPC value of the control sample, sample with additional 0.5% and 1% microcapsules were 5.94; 5.46; and 5.16 log CFU/g respectively. The TBA value of vacuum-packed ground beef were 0.055; 0.041; and 0.044 mg malonaldehyde/kg, resepectively on the 16th day of storage. The addition of two-stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules could inhibit the growth of microbia and decrease the oxidation process of vacuum-packed ground beef. Moreover, the change of vacuum-packed ground beef pH and RGB color with the addition 0.5% and 1% microcapsules were less than those of the control sample. The addition of 1% microcapsules showed the best effect in preserving the vacuum-packed ground beef.

  6. Coffee consumption delays the hepatitis and suppresses the inflammation related gene expression in the Long-Evans Cinnamon rat.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Masafumi; Donai, Kenichiro; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Ohtomo, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Makoto; Kuroda, Kengo; Kodama, Hiroko; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Kasai, Noriyuki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Takafumi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi; Isogai, Emiko; Sone, Hideko; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2014-04-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that drinking more than two cups of coffee per day reduces the risks of hepatitis and liver cancer. However, the heterogeneity of the human genome requires studies of experimental animal models with defined genetic backgrounds to evaluate the coffee effects on liver diseases. We evaluated the efficacy of coffee consumption with one of experimental animal models for human disease. We used the Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, which onsets severe hepatitis and high incidence of liver cancer, due to the accumulation of copper and iron in livers caused by the genetic mutation in Atp7B gene, and leading to the continuous oxidative stress. We determined the expression of inflammation related genes, and amounts of copper and iron in livers, and incidence of the pre-neoplastic foci in the liver tissue of LEC rats. Coffee administration for 25 weeks delayed the occurrence of hepatitis by two weeks, significantly improved survival, reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and reduced the incidence of small pre-neoplastic liver foci in LEC rats. There was no significant difference in the accumulation of copper and iron in livers, indicating that coffee administration does not affect to the metabolism of these metals. These findings indicate that drinking coffee potentially prevents hepatitis and liver carcinogenesis through its anti-inflammatory effects. This study showed the efficacy of coffee in the prevention of hepatitis and liver carcinogenesis in the LEC model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effects of nitrification inhibitors DCD and DMPP on cinnamon soil' s gross nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Xia, Zong-Wei; Guo, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    By using 15N pool dilution technique in combining with in situ soil cultivation, this paper studied the effects of nitrification inhibitors dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on the gross nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates in a saline-alkali cinnamon soil in North China. The experiment was carried out in a maize-wheat rotation field in Yuncheng City of Shanxi Province, and three treatments were installed, i.e., urea, urea + DCD, and urea + DMPP. In the first two weeks after fertilization, DCD and DMPP made the gross N mineralization rate and gross N nitrification rate decreased by 25.5% and 7.3%, and by 60.3% and 59.1%, respectively, with a significant difference in the gross N mineralization rate but less difference in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP. However, significant difference was observed in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP after seven weeks of fertilization. The gross N mineralization and nitrification rates and the NH4+ and NO3-consumption rates after two weeks of fertilization were 7.2-10.0, 5.5-21.5, 9.1-12.2, and 5.1-8.4 times of those before fertilization, respectively, possibly due to the stimulating effect of N fertilization. DCD and DMPP made the fertilizer urea N more maintained in NH(4+)-N form and less accumulated in NO(3-)-N form in soil. The decreases of the gross N mineralization and nitrifications rate in the test soil due to the effects of the inhibitors would benefit the reduction of N2O emission from the soil.

  8. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows.

  9. Anthelmintic efficacy of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid from cortex cinnamon essential oil against Dactylogyrus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Ling, Fei; Jiang, Chao; Liu, Guanglu; Li, Mingshuang; Wang, Gaoxue

    2015-12-01

    Utilization of chemical pesticide to control monogenean diseases is often restricted in many countries due to the development of pesticide resistance and concerns of chemical residues and environmental contamination. Thus, the use of antiparasitic agents from plants has been explored as a possible way for controlling monogenean infections. Extracts from Cinnamomum cassia were investigated under in vivo conditions against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. The two bioactive compounds, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The 48 h median effective concentrations (EC(50)) for these compounds against D. intermedius were 0·57 and 6·32 mg L(-1), respectively. The LD(50) of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid were 13·34 and 59·66 mg L(-1) to goldfish in 48 h acute toxicity tests, respectively. These data confirm that cinnamaldehyde is effective against D. intermedius, and the cinnamaldehyde exhibits potential for the development of a candidate antiparasitic agent.

  10. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of GST activity by cardamom and cinnamon during chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Shamee; Rana, Tapasi; Sengupta, Archana

    2007-01-01

    Globally, colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer in men since 1975.The present study focuses on the preventive strategies aimed at reducing the incidences and mortality of large bowel cancer. Chemoprevention of colon cancer appears to be a very realistic possibility because various intermediate stages have been identified preceding the development of malignant colonic tumors. Several studies have demonstrated that generous consumption of vegetables reduces the risk of colon cancer. This idea has prompted the present investigation to search for some novel plant products, which may have possible anticarcinogenic activity. It has already been proved from various experiments that chemopreventive agents, by virtue of their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, apoptosis-inducing activity, act at various levels including molecular, cellular, tissue and organ levels to interfere with carcinogens. Previous studies from our laboratory have already reported the inhibitory effect of cinnamon and cardamom on azoxymethane induced colon carcinogenesis by virtue of their anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity. This particular experiment was carried out to assess the anti-oxidative potential of these spices. Aqueous suspensions of cinnamon and cardamom have been shown to enhance the level of detoxifying enzyme (GST activity) with simultaneous decrease in lipid peroxidation levels in the treatment groups when compared to that of the carcinogen control group.

  11. Influence of cinnamon and clove essential oils on the D- and z-values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Knight, K P; McKellar, R C

    2007-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has become a concern within the apple cider industry. The purpose of this study was to screen several essential oils and isolated components for antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7 in tryptic soy broth at neutral and acidic pH and to assess the effect of these additives on the D-value of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider in combination with mild heat treatments. Cinnamon oil and clove oil strongly inhibited the growth of E. coli O157:H7 at neutral and acidic pH, (R)-(-)-carvone and (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde were moderately inhibitory at both pH 7.2 and pH 4.5, and citral and geraniol displayed moderate activity at pH 4.5 only. Lemon oil, methyl jasmonate, and p-anisaldehyde displayed little or no antibacterial activity. A synergistic effect between the essential oils and the lower pH of the growth medium was evident by consistently lower MICs at pH 4.5. Cinnamon and clove oils (0.01%, vol/vol) were further tested in apple cider in combination with mild heat treatments for the practical control of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider. The addition of either essential oil resulted in lower D-values than those for cider alone, suggesting a synergistic effect and the potential efficacy of a mild heat treatment for apple cider.

  12. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  13. Potential application of spice and herb extracts as natural preservatives in cheese.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial efficiency of five spice and herb extracts (cinnamon stick, oregano, clove, pomegranate peel, and grape seed) against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica in cheese at room temperature (~ 23°C). The lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) of cheese was periodically tested by oxidative analyses. The results showed that all five plant extracts were effective against three foodborne pathogens in cheese. Treatments with these extracts increased the stability of cheese against lipid oxidation. Clove showed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The reduction of foodborne pathogen numbers and the inhibition of lipid oxidation in cheese indicated that the extracts of these plants (especially clove) have potential as natural food preservatives.

  14. Supercritical CO2 extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Sanjust, Enrico; Meli, Massimo; Sollai, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The volatile oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction in different conditions of pressure and temperature. Its chemical composition was characterized by GC-MS analysis. Nineteen compounds, which in the supercritical extract represented >95% of the oil, were identified. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde (77.1%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (6.0%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), and eugenol (3.0%) were found to be the major constituents. The SFE oil of cinnamon was screened for its biological activity about the formation of melanin in vitro. The extract showed antityrosinase activity and was able to reduce the formation of insoluble flakes of melanin from tyrosine. The oil also delayed the browning effect in apple homogenate. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to be mainly responsible of this inhibition effect.

  15. Physical and antimicrobial properties of cinnamon bark oil co-nanoemulsified by lauric arginate and Tween 80.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Jonas; Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Weiss, Jochen; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-09-16

    Lauric arginate (LAE) is a water-soluble cationic surfactant which has antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of foodborne pathogens. Some spice essential oils are effective lipophilic antimicrobials. Combining both antimicrobials may reduce their usage levels and possible negative sensory impacts when applied in complex food matrices. The objective of this study was to combine a nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) with LAE to form stable nanoemulsions with cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and to characterize the antimicrobial activity of these nanoemulsions. CBO was homogenized at 1% w/w in the aqueous phase with 3% w/w Tween 80 and 0.05-0.375% w/w LAE, followed by heating at 90°C for 30min to obtain final emulsions. With 0.125% and higher LAE, transparent emulsions with ~100nm in hydrodynamic diameter were observed to be stable during 30-day storage at 21°C. Antimicrobial activities of the nanoemulsion prepared with Tween 80 and 0.375% w/w LAE were studied. The respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the nanoemulsion in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were 12, 7, and 8ppm LAE for Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes, while those of free LAE were 11, 6, and 6ppm, respectively. MICs of CBO were 400ppm for the tested bacteria and Tween 80 at 6% w/w did not show inhibitory effect. Growth kinetics of the bacteria in TSB treated with the nanoemulsion or individual components at concentrations corresponding to the MICs of free LAE showed that binding among the LAE and Tween 80 and CBO components resulted in the antibacterial activity of nanoemulsion being lower than same concentrations of free LAE and CBO. Conversely, little difference was observed for the individual antimicrobials and the nanoemulsion in 2% reduced fat milk, and 750ppm LAE and 2000ppm CBO were observed to be the dominant antimicrobial against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The growth of L. monocytogenes in 2% reduced fat

  16. Antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli recovered from retail chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Arfat Yousaf; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Rabbani, Masood; Aslam, Asim; Bibi, Tasra; Liaqat, Fakhra; Muhammad, Javed; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Increasing incidence rate of multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to extensive uses of antibiotics is a serious challenge to disease treatment. Contaminated retail chicken meat is one of the major sources of spread of multi drug resistant (MDR) E. coli. Current study has been conducted to study the prevalence of MDR E. coli in retail chicken meat samples from Lahore city of Pakistan and it was found that 73.86% of E. coli isolates have MDR pattern. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of six herbs against MDR E. coli phenotypes has revealed that clove and cinnamon have maximum zones of inhibition as compared to other herbal extracts. Mint and coriander gave the intermediate results while garlic and kalonji showed the least antibacterial activity against the MDR E. coli phenotypes using the agar well diffusion technique. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for clove, mint, cinnamon, coriander, kalonji and garlic extracts were 1.15, 1.38, 0.5, 1.99, 2.41, 8.60 mg/mL respectively using the broth micro dilution method. The results obtained in present study were revealed that crude ethanol extracts of selected herbs have had significant antibacterial activity. Hence they can be used as promising alternatives of antimicrobials against MDR E. coli species and can be used for cooked food preservation.

  17. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C L; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. Cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. The glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) treatment, indicating that the active phytochemicals are likely to be phenolic in nature. The activity of sage, mushrooms, and brewers's yeast was not removed by PVP. Some products such as Korean ginseng, flaxseed meal, and basil have been reported to be effective antidiabetic agents; however, they were only marginally active in our assay. Our technique measures direct stimulation of cellular glucose metabolism, so it may be that the active phytochemicals in these plants improve glucose metabolism via other mechanisms or that this in vitro screening is not a reliable predictor of hypoglycemic effects in vivo for some products. In summary, the positive effects of specific plant extracts on insulin activity suggest a possible role of these plants in improving glucose and insulin metabolism.

  18. Hepatic iron accumulation is not directly associated with induction of DNA strand breaks in the liver cells of Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masanobu; Kuge, Tomoko; Endoh, Daiji; Nakayama, Kenji; Arikawa, Jiro; Takazawa, Akira; Okui, Toyo

    2002-01-01

    Effects of accumulation of copper and iron on induction of DNA strand breaks were investigated in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats that spontaneously develop fulminant hepatitis. Copper and iron accumulated in the liver of LEC rats in an age-dependent manner from 4 to 15 weeks. Low-iron diet prevented the accumulation of iron in the liver, but did not prevent accumulation of copper. The amounts of DNA strand breaks that were estimated by comet assay in the liver cells of rats fed standard diet increased with age from 4 to 15 weeks. No significant differences were observed in the proportions of LEC rat liver cells without tail and the average lengths of tail momentum in the comet images between LEC rats that had been fed standard MF diet and low-iron diet. These results support the idea that accumulation of iron is not directly associated with the induction of DNA damage in the liver cells of LEC rats.

  19. Beneficial effects of cinnamon proanthocyanidins on the formation of specific advanced glycation endproducts and methylglyoxal-induced impairment on glucose consumption.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaofang; Ma, Jinyu; Chao, Jianfei; Sun, Zheng; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Tse, Iris; Li, Edmund T S; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2010-06-09

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds formed from nonenzymatic reactions. The accumulation of AGEs in vivo has been implicated as a major pathogenic process in diabetic complications and other health disorders, such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and normal aging. In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effects of cinnamon bark proanthocyanidins, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 on the formation of specific AGE representatives including pentosidine, N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and methylglyoxal (MGO) derived AGEs. These compounds displayed obvious inhibitory effects on these specific AGEs, which are largely attributed to both their antioxidant activities and carbonyl scavenging capacities. Meanwhile, in terms of their potent MGO scavenging capacities, effects of these proanthocyanidins on insulin signaling pathways interfered by MGO were evaluated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. According to the results, proanthocyanidins exerted protective effects on glucose consumption impaired by MGO in 3T3-L1 fat cells.

  20. Sublethal Exposure to Clove and Cinnamon Essential Oils Induces Hormetic-Like Responses and Disturbs Behavioral and Respiratory Responses in Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Faroni, Lêda R A; Guedes, Daniela C; Miranda, Natalie N S

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils have been suggested as suitable alternatives for controlling insect pests. However, the potential adaptive responses elicited in insects for mitigating the actions of these compounds have not received adequate attention. Furthermore, as is widely reported with traditional insecticides, sublethal exposure to essential oils might induce stimulatory responses or contribute to the development of resistance strategies that can compromise the management of insect pests. The current study evaluated the locomotory and respiratory responses as well as the number of larvae per grain produced by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, after being sublethally exposed to the essential oils of clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. The essential oils showed similar insecticidal toxicity (exposure route: contact with dried residues; Clove LC95 = 3.96 [2.78-6.75] µl/cm(2); Cinnamon LC95 = 3.47 [2.75-4.73] µl/cm(2)). A stimulatory effect on the median survival time (TL50) was observed when insects were exposed to low concentrations of each oil. Moreover, a higher number of larvae per grain was produced under sublethal exposure to clove essential oil. S. zeamais avoided the treated areas (in free-choice experiments) and altered their mobility when sublethally exposed to both essential oils. The respiratory rates of S. zeamais (i.e., CO2 production) were significantly reduced under low concentrations of the essential oils. We recommend the consideration of the potential sublethal effects elicited by botanical pesticides during the development of integrated pest management programs aiming to control S. zeamais. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions.

  2. Alcoholic extraction enables EPR analysis to characterize radiation-induced cellulosic signals in spices.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-11-19

    Different spices such as turmeric, oregano, and cinnamon were γ-irradiated at 1 and 10 kGy. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the nonirradiated samples were characterized by a single central signal (g = 2.006), the intensity of which was significantly enhanced upon irradiation. The EPR spectra of the irradiated spice samples were characterized by an additional triplet signal at g = 2.006 with a hyperfine coupling constant of 3 mT, associated with the cellulose radical. EPR analysis on various sample pretreatments in the irradiated spice samples demonstrated that the spectral features of the cellulose radical varied on the basis of the pretreatment protocol. Alcoholic extraction pretreatment produced considerable improvements of the EPR signals of the irradiated spice samples relative to the conventional oven and freeze-drying techniques. The alcoholic extraction process is therefore proposed as the most suitable sample pretreatment for unambiguous detection of irradiated spices by EPR spectroscopy.

  3. Inhibitory effects of trientine, a copper-chelating agent, on induction of DNA strand breaks in kidney cells of Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masanobu; Miyane, Kazuhiro; Senou, Misato; Endoh, Daiji; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Nagahata, Hajime; Nakayama, Kenji; Kon, Yasuhiro; Okui, Toyo

    2005-10-01

    The effects of treatment with trientine, a specific copper-chelating agent, on the accumulation of copper and induction of DNA strand breaks were investigated in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, an animal model for human Wilson's disease. Copper accumulated in the kidneys of LEC rats in an age-dependent manner from 12 to 18 weeks of age. When LEC rats were treated with trientine from 10 weeks of age, renal copper contents did not increase and were maintained at the same levels as those in 4-week-old LEC rats. Estimation of the amounts of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) by comet assay showed that SSBs of DNA were induced in a substantial population of LEC rat renal cortex cells around 12 weeks of age and that the amounts of SSBs increased in an age-dependent manner from 12 to 18 weeks of age. When LEC rats were treated with trientine from 10 weeks of age, the observed number of cells with DNA damage decreased, suggesting that induction of SSBs of DNA was inhibited and/or SSBs were repaired during the period of treatment with trientine. The results show that SSBs of DNA in LEC rat kidney cells are induced prior to occurrence of clinical signs of hepatic injury and that treatment of LEC rats with trientine decreases the number of DNA strand breaks.

  4. Inhibitory effects of trientine, a copper-chelating agent, on induction of DNA strand breaks in hepatic cells of Long-Evans Cinnamon rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masanobu; Miyane, Kazuhiro; Hirooka, Takeshi; Endoh, Daiji; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Nagahata, Hajime; Nakayama, Kenji; Kon, Yashuhiro; Okui, Toyo

    2004-11-01

    Effects of treatment with trientine, a specific copper-chelating agent, on accumulation of copper and induction of DNA strand breaks were investigated in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, an animal model for human Wilson's disease. Copper accumulated in the livers of LEC rats in an age-dependent manner from 4 to 13 weeks of age. When LEC rats were treated with trientine from 10 weeks of age, hepatic copper contents did not increase and were maintained at the same levels as those in 10-week-old LEC rats. When the amounts of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) were estimated by a comet assay, SSBs of DNA were induced in a substantial population of LEC rat hepatic cells around 8 weeks of age and the amounts of SSBs increased in an age-dependent manner from 8 to 15 weeks of age. When LEC rats were treated with trientine from 10 weeks of age, the observed number of cells with DNA damage decreased dramatically, suggesting that induction of SSBs of DNA was inhibited and/or SSBs were repaired during the period of treatment with trientine. The results show that treatment of LEC rats with trientine decreases the number of DNA strand breaks observed, although copper contents remain high in the liver.

  5. A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2014-07-01

    Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biocontrol of gray mold disease on strawberry fruit by integration of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 with ajwain and cinnamon essential oils.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Zadeh, Maryam; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the Lactobacillus plantarum A7 (L. Plantarum), ajwain and cinnamon essential oils (AO and CO, respectively) in suppressing gray mold rot in strawberry fruit. AO and CO showed over 90% inhibition of radial mycelia growth with lower concentration of the oils per plate for all tested pathogens. Combined application of L. plantarum with AO and CO was tested to assess the possible synergistic effects of these 3 elements on the control of tested plant pathogens. In this case both combinations of L. plantarum + AO and L. plantarum + CO inhibited the mycelia growth of the pathogens completely. Results showed that the combined treatment of strawberry fruits with L. plantarum + AO (50 μL) and L. plantarum + CO (100 μL) resulted in remarkably improved control of Botrytis infections, in comparison with application of L. plantarum or essential oils alone. Quality attributes (that is pH, acidity, vitamin C, and total soluble solid) of the strawberry fruits did not change significantly (P < 0.01) when combination of Lactobacillus and essential oils was used. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of combination of a Lactobacillus as an antagonist bacterium with essential oils to increase the shelf life of strawberry.

  7. Effect of xantham gum, steviosides, clove, and cinnamon essential oils on the sensory and microbiological quality of a low sugar tomato jam.

    PubMed

    Gliemmo, María F; Montagnani, María A; Schelegueda, Laura I; González, Malena M; Campos, Carmen A

    2016-03-01

    The partial or total decrease of sugar content in the formulation of jams affects their physical, chemical and microbiological stability. In order to minimize these technological problems, we studied the effect of xanthan gum (XG), steviosides, cinnamon (CO), and clove (CLO) essential oils on the sensory and microbiological quality of a low sugar tomato jam. Levels of 0.250 g/100 g steviosides and 0.450 g/100 g XG showed maximum score of overall acceptability of jam. The combination of essential oils produced synergistic and additive effects in vitro on growth of Z. bailii and Z. rouxii, respectively. However, in the jam, CO was more effective and CLO did not modify the CO action. Cell surface was one of the sites of action of CO since a decrease in yeast cell surface hydrophobicity was observed. From the microbiological and sensory points of view, 0.0060 g/100 g CO showed the maximum score of jam overall acceptability and did not cause yeast inactivation but it could be useful as an additional stress factor against yeast post--process contamination. The adequate levels of XG, steviosides, and CO can improve the quality of a low sugar jam formulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effectiveness of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced damages on the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeribaşı, S; Güvenç, M; Çiftçi, M; Sönmez, M; Özer Kaya, Ş; Çay, M; Aksakal, M

    2014-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the likelihood of detrimental effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) on male reproductive system through oxidative stress mechanism and also protective effects of cinnamon bark oil (CBO). For this purpose, 28 healthy male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, seven rats in each. Group 1 received only olive oil daily; group 2 was treated with 100 mg kg(-1) CBO daily; group 3 was treated with only 0.25 ml kg(-1) CCl4 weekly; and group 4 received weekly CCl4 + daily CBO. All administrations were made by intragastric catheter and maintained for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular oxidative stress markers and testicular apoptosis were examined. CCl4 administration caused significant decreases in body and reproductive organ weights, testicular catalase (CAT) activity, sperm motility and concentration, and significant increases in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic index along with some histopathological damages compared with the control group. However, significant improvements were observed in absolute weights of testis and epididymis, all sperm quality parameters, LPO level, apoptotic index and testicular histopathological structure following the administration of CCl4 together with CBO when compared to group given CCl4 only. The findings of this study clearly suggest that CBO has protective effect against damages in male reproductive organs and cells induced by CCl4 . © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Surface decontamination and quality enhancement in meat steaks using plant extracts as natural biopreservatives.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Moussa, Shaaban H; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M

    2012-08-01

    Nine plant extracts were evaluated as biopreservatives to decontaminate and maintain the quality of meat steaks. Most of the extracts exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant strains from Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. The pomegranate peel extract (PPE), cinnamon bark extract (CBE), and lemon grass leaves extract (LGE) were the most effective as bactericides, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 250, 350, and 550 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective treatments, for decontaminating meat steak surfaces, were the application of combined PPE, CBE, and LGE at their MIC values and the treatment with double MIC from PPE; these treatments resulted in complete bacterial inhibitions during the first 2 days of storage period for 7 days. The sensory evaluation of treated steaks revealed that these two treatments had the highest panelist overall scores. The highest scores, for individual attributes, were observed in the treated steaks with double MIC from PPE. Application of plant extracts could be impressively recommended for comprehensive meat decontamination and quality attributes enhancement.

  10. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts and Active Principles of Commonly Consumed Indian Spices.

    PubMed

    Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that free radical reactions play a key part in the development of degenerative diseases and that an antioxidant-rich diet is a major defense against these free radical reactions. In this study, we explore comparative antioxidant capacities of extracts of some commonly used in Indian spices (anise, cardamom, Ceylon cinnamon, and clove) along with their purified components (anethole, eucalyptol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, respectively). Eugenol shows the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide scavenging and reducing power activity in terms of weight; however, this was not found when compared in terms of equivalence. Extracts of the other three spices were found to be more potent antioxidants than their corresponding active components. Interestingly, clove extract, despite possessing the highest phenol and flavonoid content, is not the most potent radical scavenger. At low concentrations, both the crude extracts and their purified components (except for anethole and eugenol) have low hemolytic activity, but at higher concentrations purified components are more toxic than their respective crude extract. This study suggests that spices as a whole are more potent antioxidants than their purified active components, perhaps reflecting the synergism among different phytochemicals present in spice extracts.

  11. DNA damage triggers imbalance of proliferation and apoptosis during development of preneoplastic foci in the liver of Long-Evans Cinnamon rats.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang; Tohyama, Chiharu; Sone, Hideko

    2002-10-01

    The mutant strain Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat accumulates copper, resulting in spontaneous hepatitis and subsequent development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in the liver, providing a promising model for investigation of the relationship between hepatitis induced by oxidative stress and hepatocarcinogenesis. We examined DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood cells and p53 expression in livers during acute and chronic hepatitis in LEC rats, along with preneoplastic lesions, and cell proliferation and apoptosis in non-cancerous portions of livers from LEC rats aged 7-115 weeks. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against glutathione S-transferase placental-form (GST-P), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and in situ DNA nick labeling (TUNEL) were used. Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rats, a sibling line of the LEC strain, were used as controls. In the LEC rats, DNA strand breaks and expression of p53 were significantly higher than that of LEA rats at 24 weeks of age. The number of GST-P-positive (GST-P+) foci/cm2 increased and peaked at 48 weeks old, and the areas rapidly expanded thereafter. The level of cell proliferation increased with the development of hepatitis and was highest at about 48 weeks old. The induction of apoptosis in LEC rats was transiently higher than that in LEA rats during the period from 24 to 34 weeks of age. However, the ratio of PCNA-positive cells to the apoptotic index showed a growth imbalance in favor of cell proliferation, supporting sustained net growth in LEC rats. These findings suggest that DNA damage, reflected in DNA strand breaks, plays a critical role in the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic foci, with an imbalance between high proliferation and relatively low apoptosis.

  12. The antioxidant effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on copper-induced acute hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Watanabe, T; Mizuno, H; Endo, K; Fukushige, J; Hosokawa, T; Kazusaka, A; Fujita, S

    2001-01-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, due to a genetic defect, accumulate excess copper (Cu) in the liver in a manner similar to patients with Wilson's disease and spontaneously develop acute hepatitis with severe jaundice. In this study we examined the protective effect of DL-alpha-Lipoic acid (LA) against acute hepatitis in LEC rats. LA was administered to LEC rats by gavage in doses of 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg five times per week, starting at 8-weeks-old and continuing till 12-weeks-old. Although LA had little effect against the increases in serum transaminase activities, it suppressed the loss of body weight and prevented severe jaundice in a dose-dependent manner. Antioxidant system analyses in liver showed that LA treatment significantly suppressed the inactivations of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and the induction of heme oxygenase-1, an enzyme which is inducible under oxidative stress. Furthermore, LA showed dose-dependent suppressive effect against increase in nonheme iron contents of both cytosolic and crude mitochondrial fractions in a dose-dependent manner. Although at the highest dose, LA slightly suppressed the accumulation of Cu in crude mitochondrial fraction, it had no effect on the accumulation of Cu in cytosolic fraction. While LA completely suppressed the increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the microsomal fraction at the highest dose, the suppressive effect against LPO in crude mitochondrial fractions was slight. From these results, it is concluded that LA has antioxidant effects at the molecular level against the development of Cu-induced hepatitis in LEC rats. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative damage might be involved in the development of acute hepatitis in LEC rats.

  13. Bile salt-induced pro-oxidant liver damage promotes transplanted cell proliferation for correcting Wilson disease in the Long-Evans Cinnamon rat model.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Brigid; Kapoor, Sorabh; Schilsky, Michael L; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-05-01

    Insights into disease-specific mechanisms for liver repopulation are needed for cell therapy. To understand the efficacy of pro-oxidant hepatic perturbations in Wilson disease, we studied Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats with copper toxicosis under several conditions. Hepatocytes from healthy Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rats were transplanted intrasplenically into the liver. A cure was defined as lowering of copper to below 250 microg/g liver, presence of ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide (atp7b) messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver and improvement in liver histology. Treatment of animals with the hydrophobic bile salt, cholic acid, or liver radiation before cell transplantation produced cure rates of 14% and 33%, respectively; whereas liver radiation plus partial hepatectomy followed by cell transplantation proved more effective, with cure in 55%, P < 0.01; and liver radiation plus cholic acid followed by cell transplantation was most effective, with cure in 75%, P < 0.001. As a group, cell therapy cures in rats preconditioned with liver radiation plus cholic acid resulted in less hepatic copper, indicating greater extent of liver repopulation. We observed increased hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in LEC rats, suggesting chronic oxidative stress. After liver radiation or cholic acid, hepatic lipid peroxidation levels increased, indicating further oxidative injury, although we did not observe overt additional cytotoxicity. This contrasted with healthy animals in which liver radiation and cholic acid produced hepatic steatosis and loss of injured hepatocytes. We concluded that pro-oxidant perturbations were uniquely effective for cell therapy in Wilson disease because of the nature of preexisting hepatic damage.

  14. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, A. R.; Khorrami, B.; Mesgaran, M. Danesh; Parand, E.

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites. PMID:25049871

  15. Cinnamon Counteracts the Negative Effects of a High Fat/High Fructose Diet on Behavior, Brain Insulin Signaling and Alzheimer-Associated Changes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Richard A.; Qin, Bolin; Canini, Frederic; Poulet, Laurent; Roussel, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance leads to memory impairment. Cinnamon (CN) improves peripheral insulin resistance but its effects in the brain are not known. Changes in behavior, insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated mRNA expression in the brain were measured in male Wistar rats fed a high fat/high fructose (HF/HFr) diet to induce insulin resistance, with or without CN, for 12 weeks. There was a decrease in insulin sensitivity associated with the HF/HFr diet that was reversed by CN. The CN fed rats were more active in a Y maze test than rats fed the control and HF/HFr diets. The HF/HFr diet fed rats showed greater anxiety in an elevated plus maze test that was lessened by feeding CN. The HF/HFr diet also led to a down regulation of the mRNA coding for GLUT1 and GLUT3 that was reversed by CN in the hippocampus and cortex. There were increases in Insr, Irs1 and Irs2 mRNA in the hippocampus and cortex due to the HF/HFr diet that were not reversed by CN. Increased peripheral insulin sensitivity was also associated with increased glycogen synthase in both hippocampus and cortex in the control and HF/HFr diet animals fed CN. The HF/HFr diet induced increases in mRNA associated with Alzheimers including PTEN, Tau and amyloid precursor protein (App) were also alleviated by CN. In conclusion, these data suggest that the negative effects of a HF/HFr diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes were alleviated by CN suggesting that neuroprotective effects of CN are associated with improved whole body insulin sensitivity and related changes in the brain. PMID:24349472

  16. Sodium Benzoate, a Food Additive and a Metabolite of Cinnamon, Enriches Regulatory T Cells via STAT6-Mediated Upregulation of TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Madhuchhanda; Mondal, Susanta; Roy, Avik; Martinson, Jeffrey L; Pahan, Kalipada

    2016-10-15

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during autoimmune insults may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Earlier we have reported that sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug against urea cycle disorders, upregulates Tregs and protects mice from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, mechanisms by which NaB increases Tregs are poorly understood. Because TGF-β is an important inducer of Tregs, we examined the effect of NaB on the status of TGF-β. In this study, we demonstrated that NaB induced the expression of TGF-β mRNA and protein in normal as well as proteolipid protein-primed splenocytes. The presence of a consensus STAT6 binding site in the promoter of the TGF-β gene, activation of STAT6 in splenocytes by NaB, recruitment of STAT6 to the TGF-β promoter by NaB, and abrogation of NaB-induced expression of TGF-β in splenocytes by small interfering RNA knockdown of STAT6 suggest that NaB induces the expression of TGF-β via activation of STAT6. Furthermore, we demonstrated that blocking of TGF-β by neutralizing Abs abrogated NaB-mediated protection of Tregs and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. These studies identify a new function of NaB in upregulating TGF-β via activation of STAT6, which may be beneficial in MS patients.

  17. The effects of thyme and cinnamon essential oils on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in holstein calves consuming high concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Vakili, A R; Khorrami, B; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Parand, E

    2013-07-01

    Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  18. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats.

  19. Effects of plant extracts on the reversal of glucose-induced impairment of stress-resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Fitzenberger, Elena; Deusing, Dorothé Jenni; Wittkop, Anette; Kler, Adolf; Kriesl, Erwin; Bonnländer, Bernd; Wenzel, Uwe

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced blood glucose levels are a hallmark of diabetes and are associated with diabetic complications and a reduction of lifespan. In order to search for plant extracts that display preventive activities in such a scenario, we tested 16 extracts used in human nutrition for their survival enhancing activities in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematodes were exposed for 48 h to 10 mM glucose in the absence or presence of 0.1% extract. Thereafter, survival was measured at 37 °C. Extracts made from coffee, kola, rooibos and cinnamon, did not influence the glucose-induced reduction of survival. Those made from ginseng, camomile, lime blossom, paraguay tea, balm, rhodiola, black tea, or knotgrass all extended the lifespan of the glucose-treated nematodes significantly but did not rescue survival completely. Extracts from the leaves of blackberries, from hibiscus, elderberries, or jiaogulan completely countered the glucose-induced survival reduction. A potent activation of the proteasome was shown for the most preventive extracts suggesting a more efficient degradation of proteins impaired by glucose. In conclusion, we present a simple animal model to screen for plant extracts with potency to reverse glucose toxicity. Extracts from blackberry leaves, hibiscus, elderberries, and jiaogulan were identified as very potent in this regard whose exact mechanisms of action appear worthwile to investigate at the molecular level.

  20. Effects of the polyphenol content on the anti-diabetic activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts.

    PubMed

    IM, Krishnakumar; Issac, Abin; NM, Johannah; Ninan, Eapen; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadassan

    2014-09-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a popular kitchen spice widely investigated for insulin potentiating effects. Though a group of water soluble polyphenols belonging to the oligomeric procyanidins has been identified as the bioactive principle, the lack of systematic information on the effect of the polyphenol content on safety and anti-diabetic efficacy remains as a major limitation for the development of optimized and standardized cinnamon extracts for functional use. In the present paper, water soluble extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum containing 45 and 75% gallic acid equivalents (GAE) of polyphenol content were prepared by a novel process and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. The polyphenol enhanced extracts were shown to be safe and offered better antioxidant potential, hypoglycemic effect, hypolipidimic effect, and significant decrease in other biochemical parameters as compared to the standard aqueous extract containing 15% GAE, when administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 200 mg per kg b.w. for 30 days. The efficacy of polyphenol extracts in lowering blood glucose levels and ameliorating oxidative stress was further demonstrated in humans by administrating 'procynZ-45' containing 45% GAE polyphenols at a relatively low dosage of (125 mg × 2) per day for 30 days to 15 volunteers who had elevated fasting blood glucose levels; but not involved in any medication.

  1. Inhibition of hereditary hepatitis and liver tumor development in Long-Evans cinnamon rats by the copper-chelating agent trientine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sone, K; Maeda, M; Wakabayashi, K; Takeichi, N; Mori, M; Sugimura, T; Nagao, M

    1996-04-01

    Trientine dihydrochloride (trientine) is an alternative medicinal copper chelating agent for patients with Wilson's disease of penicillamine intolerance. We examined the effects of trientine on the spontaneous development of hepatitis and hepatic tumors, by its short-term and long-term administration to Long-Evans cinnamon (LEC) rats with an accumulation of copper in the liver, as animal models of Wilson's disease. Male rats were given trientine in their drinking water at 1500 ppm for 18 weeks, from 6 weeks to 24 weeks of age in short-term experiment, and 1500 ppm for 27 weeks then 750 ppm for 52 weeks, from 8 to 87 weeks of age in the long-term experiment. Development of hepatitis was observed in the control LEC rats at 18 weeks of age. They had high levels of plasma transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [GOT], glutamic pyruvic transaminase [GPT]), and on pathological examination, hepatocyte destruction was observed. Histological findings revealed that short-term administration of trientine inhibited the development of hepatitis remarkably. The plasma GOT and GPT levels of treated animals were only slightly higher than those of normal LEA (Long-Evans with agouti coat color) rats, a sibling line of LEC rats. Copper levels in the liver were decreased by a maximum of 50 percent. In the long-term administration of trientine, the incidence of hepatic cell carcinoma (HCC) in the treated rats was 67 percent that of the untreated LEC rats, and the number of HCCs per rat in the treated group was 0.7 +/- 0.5, being significantly lower as compared with 4.7 +/- 3.5 in the untreated rats. Additionally, the development of cholangiofibrosis in LEC rats was completely prevented by long-term administration of the agent. The copper level in the liver of treated rats was reduced by 33 percent at 87 weeks of age. Development of HCC in LEC rats might be partly, but not totally, because of copper accumulation. No effects on the levels of copper, iron, or zinc in the liver of

  2. Cognition enhancing effect of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on non-transgenic Alzheimer's disease rat model: Biochemical, histological, and behavioural studies.

    PubMed

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2016-06-16

    Several dietary supplements are actively being tested for their dual role of alleviating the metabolic perturbations and restricting the consequent cognitive dysfunctions seen in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of aqueous extract of cinnamon (CE) on the monosodium glutamate-induced non-transgenic rat model of AD (NTAD) established with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, neuronal loss, and cognitive impairment at a very early stage of life. The experimental design included oral administration of CE (50 mg/kg body weight) for 20 weeks to 2-month and 10-month-old NTAD rats. Following the treatments, the animals attained 7 and 15 months of age, respectively. They were then subjected to behavioural testing, biochemical analysis, and stereology experiments. The results demonstrated that CE treatment improved the insulin sensitivity, increased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (pGSK3β), inhibited the cholinesterase activity, and improved the learning ability in NTAD rats. Histological evaluation has shown an increase in neuron count in the DG sub-field of hippocampus upon treatment with CE. These beneficial effects of CE are suggestive of considering cinnamon as a dietary supplement in modulating the metabolic changes and cognitive functions.

  3. Investigation of the use of various plant extracts activity in ruminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüca, Songül; Gül, Mehmet; Ćaǧlayan, Alper

    2016-04-01

    The prohibition of the use of antibiotics and as a result of the adverse effect on health of synthetic products, research has focused on natural feed additives. In recent years, the diet of farm animals many feed additives have been used for various purposes or continues. These include as used in ruminant rations as plant extract thyme, anise, pepper, mint, garlic, rosemary, cinnamon, parsley, bay leaf, coconut, like used herbal extracts and their effects on the performance of ruminants was investigated. Antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflamaotry is known to have effects of plant extract. By stimulating the digestive system of ruminants, they increase the activity of digestive enzymes, to prevent environmental pollution caused by manure, regulations rumen fermentation, inhibition of methane formation and protein degradability in the rumen as well as the animal is known to have many benefits. The structure of essential oils and plant extracts in this collection, examining the use of ruminant livestock events and the importance of the use in animal nutrition into practice will be discussed.

  4. MEMS Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-03

    5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University,Department of Electrical and...aspects of the work . I would like to thank Mr. Sitaraman Iyer and Ms. Qi Jing who helped by providing necessary models for the lumped parameter simulator...extraction of functional elements such as springs, and electromechanical comb sensors and actuators. Comb drives are extracted using similarity in shape

  5. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  6. The effect of a cinnamon-, chromium- and magnesium-formulated honey on glycaemic control, weight loss and lipid parameters in type 2 diabetes: an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Patricia; Parry-Strong, Amber; Walsh, Emily; Weatherall, Mark; Krebs, Jeremy D

    2016-04-01

    This randomised controlled trial assessed the acute and long-term effects of daily supplementation of kanuka honey, formulated with cinnamon, chromium and magnesium on glucose metabolism, weight and lipid parameters in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Twelve individuals with type 2 diabetes received 53.5 g of a formulated honey and a control (non-formulated) kanuka honey in a random order for 40 days, using cross-over design. Fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipids and anthropometric measures were measured at baseline and end of treatment. A meal tolerance test was performed at baseline to assess acute metabolic response. There was no statistically significant difference in acute glucose metabolism between treatment groups, as measured by the Matsuda index and AUC for glucose and insulin. After the 40-day intervention with honey, fasting glucose did not differ significantly between the two treatments (95 % CI -2.6 to 0.07). There was no statistically significant change in HbA1c or fasting insulin. There was a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol by -0.29 mmol/L (95 % CI -0.57 to -0.23), LDL cholesterol by -0.29 mmol/L (95 % CI -0.57 to -0.23) and weight by -2.2 kg (95 % CI -4.2 to -0.1). There was a trend towards increased HDL and reduced systolic blood pressure in the intervention treatment. The addition of cinnamon, chromium and magnesium supplementation to kanuka honey was not associated with a significant improvement in glucose metabolism or glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Use of the formulated honey was associated with a reduction in weight and improvements in lipid parameters, and should be investigated further.

  7. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuejun; Cotillard, Aurélie; Vatier, Camille; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Fellahi, Soraya; Stévant, Marie; Allatif, Omran; Langlois, Clotilde; Bieuvelet, Séverine; Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Clément, Karine; Rizkalla, Salwa W

    2015-01-01

    Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization. Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24 ± 0.50 vs +0.12 ± 0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02), without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (%) increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02). Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement. Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530685.

  8. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuejun; Cotillard, Aurélie; Vatier, Camille; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Fellahi, Soraya; Stévant, Marie; Allatif, Omran; Langlois, Clotilde; Bieuvelet, Séverine; Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Clément, Karine; Rizkalla, Salwa W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue. Objectives Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization. Results Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24±0.50 vs +0.12±0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02), without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (%) increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02). Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement. Conclusions Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530685 PMID:26406981

  9. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested.

  10. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  11. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  12. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  13. Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Madrid, J; García, V; Orengo, J; Megías, M D

    2004-02-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to study the influence of 2 plant extracts on performance, digestibility, and digestive organ weights in broilers. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet until 21 d and a finisher diet until 42 d. There were 4 treatment groups: control; 10 ppm avilamycin (AB); 200 ppm essential oil extract (EOE) from oregano, cinnamon, and pepper; and 5,000 ppm Labiatae extract (LE) from sage, thyme, and rosemary. No differences in feed intake or feed conversion were observed. From 14 to 21 d of age, broilers fed the LE diet grew faster than the broilers fed the control or EOE feeds (68.8 vs. 63.9 and 61.6 g/d, respectively). Antibiotic and plant extract supplementation improved apparent whole-tract and ileal digestibility of the nutrients. For starter feed, LE supplementation improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM (P < 0.01), and all additives increased ether extract digestibility (P < 0.001). However, no effect was detected for CP digestibility (P > 0.1). At the ileal level, the AB, EOE, and LE supplementation of the starter feed increased DM and starch (P < 0.01) digestibility but not CP digestibility (P > 0.1). All additives improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM and CP of the finisher diet. No differences were observed for proventriculus, gizzard, liver, pancreas, or large or small intestine weight. In the present study, both plant extracts improved the digestibility of the feeds for broilers. The effect of different additives on digestibility improved the performance slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  14. Prevention Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Mulberry Leaf Extract and its Formulation on Rats with Insulin-Insensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chen; Luo, Xiuzhen; Bao, Yonggang; Wu, Bin; Hu, Yuchi; Zhong, Zhong; Liu, Chang; Li, MinJie

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, mulberry leaf has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. This study aims to test the prevention effects of a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and a formula consisting of MLE, fenugreek seed extract, and cinnamon cassia extract (MLEF) on insulin resistance development in animals. MLE was refined to contain 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin by weight. MLEF was formulated by mixing MLE with cinnamon cassia extract and fenugreek seed extract at a 6:5:3 ratio (by weight). First, the acute toxicity effects of MLE on ICR mice were examined at 5 g/kg BW dose. Second, two groups of normal rats were administrated with water or 150 mg/kg BW MLE per day for 29 days to evaluate MLE’s effect on normal animals. Third, to examine the effects of MLE and MLEF on model animals, sixty SD rats were divided into five groups, namely, (1) normal, (2) model, (3) high-dose MLE (75 mg/kg BW) treatment; (4) low-dose MLE (15 mg/kg BW) treatment; and (5) MLEF (35 mg/kg BW) treatment. On the second week, rats in groups (2)-(5) were switched to high-energy diet for three weeks. Afterward, the rats were injected (ip) with a single dose of 105 mg/kg BW alloxan. After four more days, fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Last, liver lysates from animals were screened with 650 antibodies for changes in the expression or phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins. The results were further validated by Western blot analysis. We found that the maximum tolerance dose of MLE was greater than 5 g/kg in mice. The MLE at a 150 mg/kg BW dose showed no effect on fast blood glucose levels in normal rats. The MLE at a 75 mg/kg BW dose and MLEF at a 35 mg/kg BW dose, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fast blood glucose levels in rats with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. In total, 34 proteins with significant changes in expression and phosphorylation levels were identified. The

  15. Prevention Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Mulberry Leaf Extract and its Formulation on Rats with Insulin-Insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xuemei; Xie, Chen; Luo, Xiuzhen; Bao, Yonggang; Wu, Bin; Hu, Yuchi; Zhong, Zhong; Liu, Chang; Li, MinJie

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, mulberry leaf has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. This study aims to test the prevention effects of a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and a formula consisting of MLE, fenugreek seed extract, and cinnamon cassia extract (MLEF) on insulin resistance development in animals. MLE was refined to contain 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin by weight. MLEF was formulated by mixing MLE with cinnamon cassia extract and fenugreek seed extract at a 6:5:3 ratio (by weight). First, the acute toxicity effects of MLE on ICR mice were examined at 5 g/kg BW dose. Second, two groups of normal rats were administrated with water or 150 mg/kg BW MLE per day for 29 days to evaluate MLE's effect on normal animals. Third, to examine the effects of MLE and MLEF on model animals, sixty SD rats were divided into five groups, namely, (1) normal, (2) model, (3) high-dose MLE (75 mg/kg BW) treatment; (4) low-dose MLE (15 mg/kg BW) treatment; and (5) MLEF (35 mg/kg BW) treatment. On the second week, rats in groups (2)-(5) were switched to high-energy diet for three weeks. Afterward, the rats were injected (ip) with a single dose of 105 mg/kg BW alloxan. After four more days, fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Last, liver lysates from animals were screened with 650 antibodies for changes in the expression or phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins. The results were further validated by Western blot analysis. We found that the maximum tolerance dose of MLE was greater than 5 g/kg in mice. The MLE at a 150 mg/kg BW dose showed no effect on fast blood glucose levels in normal rats. The MLE at a 75 mg/kg BW dose and MLEF at a 35 mg/kg BW dose, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fast blood glucose levels in rats with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. In total, 34 proteins with significant changes in expression and phosphorylation levels were identified. The

  16. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  17. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  18. Extractant composition

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Jarvihen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes an organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. It comprises: primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoly-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  19. Induced lexico-syntactic patterns improve information extraction from online medical forums.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonal; MacLean, Diana L; Heer, Jeffrey; Manning, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    To reliably extract two entity types, symptoms and conditions (SCs), and drugs and treatments (DTs), from patient-authored text (PAT) by learning lexico-syntactic patterns from data annotated with seed dictionaries. Despite the increasing quantity of PAT (eg, online discussion threads), tools for identifying medical entities in PAT are limited. When applied to PAT, existing tools either fail to identify specific entity types or perform poorly. Identification of SC and DT terms in PAT would enable exploration of efficacy and side effects for not only pharmaceutical drugs, but also for home remedies and components of daily care. We use SC and DT term dictionaries compiled from online sources to label several discussion forums from MedHelp (http://www.medhelp.org). We then iteratively induce lexico-syntactic patterns corresponding strongly to each entity type to extract new SC and DT terms. Our system is able to extract symptom descriptions and treatments absent from our original dictionaries, such as 'LADA', 'stabbing pain', and 'cinnamon pills'. Our system extracts DT terms with 58-70% F1 score and SC terms with 66-76% F1 score on two forums from MedHelp. We show improvements over MetaMap, OBA, a conditional random field-based classifier, and a previous pattern learning approach. Our entity extractor based on lexico-syntactic patterns is a successful and preferable technique for identifying specific entity types in PAT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to extract SC and DT entities from PAT. We exhibit learning of informal terms often used in PAT but missing from typical dictionaries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Induced lexico-syntactic patterns improve information extraction from online medical forums

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sonal; MacLean, Diana L; Heer, Jeffrey; Manning, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To reliably extract two entity types, symptoms and conditions (SCs), and drugs and treatments (DTs), from patient-authored text (PAT) by learning lexico-syntactic patterns from data annotated with seed dictionaries. Background and significance Despite the increasing quantity of PAT (eg, online discussion threads), tools for identifying medical entities in PAT are limited. When applied to PAT, existing tools either fail to identify specific entity types or perform poorly. Identification of SC and DT terms in PAT would enable exploration of efficacy and side effects for not only pharmaceutical drugs, but also for home remedies and components of daily care. Materials and methods We use SC and DT term dictionaries compiled from online sources to label several discussion forums from MedHelp (http://www.medhelp.org). We then iteratively induce lexico-syntactic patterns corresponding strongly to each entity type to extract new SC and DT terms. Results Our system is able to extract symptom descriptions and treatments absent from our original dictionaries, such as ‘LADA’, ‘stabbing pain’, and ‘cinnamon pills’. Our system extracts DT terms with 58–70% F1 score and SC terms with 66–76% F1 score on two forums from MedHelp. We show improvements over MetaMap, OBA, a conditional random field-based classifier, and a previous pattern learning approach. Conclusions Our entity extractor based on lexico-syntactic patterns is a successful and preferable technique for identifying specific entity types in PAT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to extract SC and DT entities from PAT. We exhibit learning of informal terms often used in PAT but missing from typical dictionaries. PMID:24970840

  1. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  2. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed (P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc (P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  3. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Seema; Sangma, Tultul; Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari

    2015-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) is commonly known as cinnamon in traditional system of medicine having antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and other activities. The present study was designed to assess the effect of extract of CZ bark on cognitive performance of scopolamine (SCOP)-treated rats and on associated altered oxidative stress markers in the brain of rats. The extract was administered orally in three doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for a period of 21 days. SCOP was administered in the dose of 1.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance step-down tasks were performed to assess cognitive functions. At the end of the study, oxidative stress parameters namely, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also analyzed in the brain tissue of rats. SCOP-treated group showed significantly impaired acquisition and retention of memory as compared to the saline- and vehicle-treated groups. Pretreatment with CZ extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 21 days significantly reversed SCOP-induced amnesia as evidenced by increased step-down latency in passive avoidance and decreased latency in Morris water maze test compared to the SCOP-treated group. SCOP administration also caused the increase of MDA and reduction of GSH levels. Pretreatment with CZ extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and increase in GSH levels as compared to the SCOP-treated animals. The results suggest that CZ can induce cognitive improvement in SCOP-treated rats and this effect can be attributed to a certain extent to decreased oxidative stress.

  4. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive activity of an essential oil recipe consisting of the supercritical fluid CO2 extract of white pepper, long pepper, cinnamon, saffron and myrrh in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanbin; Wang, Xinfang; Ma, Ling; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Xinhui; Chen, Jing; Fu, Xueyan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil recipe (OR) in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inflammatory models of dimethylbenzene (DMB)-induced ear vasodilatation and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability enhancement in mice whereas the antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhes and hot plate test methods in mice. Additionally, the chemical composition of OR has been also analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 37 compounds, representing 74.42% of the total oil content, were identified. β-Selinene (7.38%), aromadendrene (5.30%), β-elemene (5.22%), cis-piperitol (5.21%), cis-β-guaiene (4.67%), ylangene (3.70%), 3-heptadecene (3.55%), δ-cadinene (3%) and β-cadinene (2.87%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. Oral pretreatment with OR (62.5-1000 mg/kg) not only decreased the DMB-induced ear vasodilatation but also attenuated capillary permeability under acetic acid challenge in mice. OR significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection. All test samples showed no significant analgesic activity on the hot plate pain threshold in mice. These data demonstrated that the OR inhibits inflammatory and peripheral inflammatory pain. These results may support the fact that the essential oil of traditional Hui prescription played a role in the inflammation of stroke.

  5. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans Materials and Methods Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. Results The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct. PMID:26436036

  6. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  7. Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.

    2012-08-01

    Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

  8. New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate.

  9. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of Cinnamomi cassiae (Lauraceae) bark aqueous extract in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ikram, Huma; Akhtar, Naheed

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor leading to a number of chronic and metabolic disorders. Obesity is the fifth leading cause of global deaths. At least 2.8 million adults are dying each year as being overweight or obese. Cinnamomi cassiae is widely used traditional medicinal plant, used indigenously, to decrease glucose and cholesterol. 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT; Serotonin) is an important neurotransmitter reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia. Present study was designed to investigate the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cinnamon bark aqueous extract (CBAE) in obese rats and to find the possible involvement of 5-HT in reducing the body weight in these experimental animals. CBAE was repeatedly administered orally in the test animals for 5 weeks. A decrease in the food intake along with a concomitant increase in brain 5-HT level was observed in rats administered with CBAE. Findings may help in extending therapeutics in the pathophysiology of obesity and related eating disorders. Decrease activities in behavioral models were also monitored in CBAE treated animals.

  10. Apoptosis and age-dependant induction of nuclear and mitochondrial etheno-DNA adducts in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats: enhanced DNA damage by dietary curcumin upon copper accumulation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jagadeesan; Strand, Susanne; Frank, Norbert; Knauft, Jutta; Wesch, Horst; Galle, Peter R; Bartsch, Helmut

    2005-07-01

    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, a model for human Wilson's disease, develop chronic hepatitis and liver tumors owing to accumulation of copper and induced oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation (LPO)-induced etheno-DNA adducts in nuclear- and mitochondrial-DNA along with apoptosis was measured in LEC rat liver. Levels of etheno-DNA adducts (1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine and 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine) increased with age reaching a peak at 8 and 12 weeks in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first demonstration that etheno-DNA adducts are also formed in mitochondrial DNA. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL+ cells in liver sections. CD95L RNA expression was also measured by in situ hybridization in the same sections. The highest nuclear DNA adduct levels coincided with a reduced apoptotic rate at 8 weeks. Mitochondrial-DNA adducts peaked at 12 weeks that coincided with the highest apoptotic rate, suggesting a link of etheno-DNA adducts in mitochondrial DNA to apoptosis. The DNA damage in liver was further enhanced and sustained by 0.5% curcumin in the diet. Treatment for 2 weeks elevated etheno-DNA adducts 9- to 25-fold in nuclear DNA and 3- to 4-fold in mitochondrial-DNA, providing a plausible explanation as to why in our earlier study [Frank et al. (2003) Mutat. Res., 523-524, 127-135], curcumin failed to prevent liver tumors in LEC rats. Our results also confirm the reported in vitro DNA damaging potential of curcumin in the presence of copper ions by reactive oxygen species. LPO-induced adduct formation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA appear as early lesions in LEC rat liver carcinogenesis and are discussed in relation to apoptotic events in the progression of malignant disease.

  11. Effect of a high-fat--high-fructose diet, stress and cinnamon on central expression of genes related to immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function and cerebral plasticity in rats.

    PubMed

    Marissal-Arvy, Nathalie; Batandier, Cécile; Dallennes, Julien; Canini, Frédéric; Poulet, Laurent; Couturier, Karine; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Mormède, Pierre

    2014-04-14

    The intake of a high-fat/high-fructose (HF/HFr) diet is described to be deleterious to cognitive performances, possibly via the induction of inflammatory factors. An excess of glucocorticoids is also known to exert negative effects on cerebral plasticity. In the present study, we assessed the effects of an unbalanced diet on circulating and central markers of inflammation and glucocorticoid activity, as well as their reversal by dietary cinnamon (CN) supplementation. A group of male Wistar rats were subjected to an immune challenge with acute lipopolysaccharide under a HF/HFr or a standard diet. Another group of Wistar rats were fed either a HF/HFr or a control diet for 12 weeks, with or without CN supplementation, and with or without restraint stress (Str) application before being killed. We evaluated the effects of such regimens on inflammation parameters in the periphery and brain and on the expression of actors of brain plasticity. To assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, we measured the plasma concentrations of corticosterone and the expression of central corticotrophin-releasing hormone, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We found that the HF/HFr diet induced the expression of cytokines in the brain, but only after an immune challenge. Furthermore, we observed the negative effects of Str on the plasma concentrations of corticosterone and neuroplasticity markers in rats fed the control diet but not in those fed the HF/HFr diet. Additionally, we found that CN supplementation exerted beneficial effects under the control diet, but that its effects were blunted or even reversed under the HF/HFr diet. CN supplementation could be beneficial under a standard diet. [corrected].

  12. Description of Aspergillus flavus growth under the influence of different factors (water activity, incubation temperature, protein and fat concentration, pH, and cinnamon essential oil concentration) by kinetic, probability of growth, and time-to-detection models.

    PubMed

    Kosegarten, Carlos E; Ramírez-Corona, Nelly; Mani-López, Emma; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2017-01-02

    A Box-Behnken design was used to determine the effect of protein concentration (0, 5, or 10g of casein/100g), fat (0, 3, or 6g of corn oil/100g), aw (0.900, 0.945, or 0.990), pH (3.5, 5.0, or 6.5), concentration of cinnamon essential oil (CEO, 0, 200, or 400μL/kg) and incubation temperature (15, 25, or 35°C) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus during 50days of incubation. Mold response under the evaluated conditions was modeled by the modified Gompertz equation, logistic regression, and time-to-detection model. The obtained polynomial regression models allow the significant coefficients (p<0.05) for linear, quadratic and interaction effects for the Gompertz equation's parameters to be identified, which adequately described (R(2)>0.967) the studied mold responses. After 50days of incubation, every tested model system was classified according to the observed response as 1 (growth) or 0 (no growth), then a binary logistic regression was utilized to model A. flavus growth interface, allowing to predict the probability of mold growth under selected combinations of tested factors. The time-to-detection model was utilized to estimate the time at which A. flavus visible growth begins. Water activity, temperature, and CEO concentration were the most important factors affecting fungal growth. It was observed that there is a range of possible combinations that may induce growth, such that incubation conditions and the amount of essential oil necessary for fungal growth inhibition strongly depend on protein and fat concentrations as well as on the pH of studied model systems. The probabilistic model and the time-to-detection models constitute another option to determine appropriate storage/processing conditions and accurately predict the probability and/or the time at which A. flavus growth occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hosseinzadeh, Javad; Bahreynian, Maryam; Hariri, Mitra; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Herbal medicines with high amounts of phytochemicals have been shown to have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP), endothelial function and anthropometric measures. This study aimed to determine the effect of herbal treatment on BP, endothelial function and anthropometric measures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This clinical trial included 204 T2DM patients randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 g cinnamon, 3 g cardamom, 1 g saffron or 3 g ginger with three glasses of black tea, and one control group consuming only three glasses of tea without any herbals, for 8 weeks. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), systolic and diastolic BP and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between various medicinal plants in terms of influencing BP, serum soluble (s)ICAM-1 concentrations and anthropometric measures. However, in within-group comparison saffron and ginger intakes significantly reduced sICAM-1 concentrations (340.9 ± 14.4 vs 339.69 ± 14.4 ng/ml, p = 0.01, and 391.78 ± 16.0 vs 390.97 ± 15.8 ng/ml, p = 0.009, respectively) and ginger intake affected systolic BP (143.06 ± 0.2 vs 142.07 ± 0.2 mmHg, p = 0.02). Although administration of these herbal medicines as supplementary remedies could affect BP and sICAM-1 concentrations, there was no significant difference between the plants in terms of influencing anthropometric measures, BP and endothelial function.

  14. Trans-Cinnamaldehyde, An Essential Oil in Cinnamon Powder, Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Brain Injury via Inhibition of Neuroinflammation Through Attenuation of iNOS, COX-2 Expression and NFκ-B Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Fung; Wang, Yu-Wen; Huang, Wei-Shih; Lee, Ming-Ming; Wood, W Gibson; Leung, Yuk-Man; Tsai, Huei-Yann

    2016-09-01

    Trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA), an essential oil in cinnamon powder, may have beneficial effects as a treatment for stroke which is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Post-ischemic inflammation induces neuronal cell damage after stroke, and activation of microglia, in particular, has been thought as the main contributor of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of TCA in an animal model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury and the neuroprotective mechanism was verified in LPS-induced inflammation of BV-2 microglial cells. Our results showed that TCA (10-30 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the infarction area, neurological deficit score and decreased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression level in I/R-induced injury brain tissue. It inhibited 0.5 µg/ml LPS-induced NO production in BV-2 microglial cells without affecting cell viability, reduced protein expression of iNOS and COX-2, and attenuated inhibition of p53 protein. TCA also suppressed the effects of LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 and increased cytosolic IκBα. It also reduced LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS, COX-2, and TNFα. We concluded that TCA has a potential neuroprotective effect to against the ischemic stroke, which may be via the inhibition of neuroinflammation through attenuating iNOS, COX-2 expression and NF-κB signaling pathway.

  15. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  16. Efficacy and safety of 'true' cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as a pharmaceutical agent in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, P; Jayawardana, R; Galappaththy, P; Constantine, G R; de Vas Gunawardana, N; Katulanda, P

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies have frequently looked at dietary components beneficial in treatment and prevention. We aim to systematically evaluate the literature on the safety and efficacy of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on diabetes. A comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, Biological Abstracts, SciVerse Scopus, SciVerse ScienceDierect, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library. A meta-analysis of studies examining the effect of C. zeylanicum extracts on clinical and biochemical parameters was conducted. Data were analysed using RevMan v5.1.2. The literature search identified 16 studies on C. zeylanicum (five in-vitro, six in-vivo and five in-vivo/in-vitro). However, there were no human studies. In-vitro C. zeylanicum demonstrated a potential for reducing post-prandial intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase, stimulating cellular glucose uptake by membrane translocation of glucose transporter-4, stimulating glucose metabolism and glycogen synthesis, inhibiting gluconeogenesis and stimulating insulin release and potentiating insulin receptor activity. The beneficial effects of C. zeylanicum in animals include attenuation of diabetes associated weight loss, reduction of fasting blood glucose, LDL and HbA(1c) , increasing HDL cholesterol and increasing circulating insulin levels. Cinnamomum zeylanicum also significantly improved metabolic derangements associated with insulin resistance. It also showed beneficial effects against diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy, with no significant toxic effects on liver and kidney and a significantly high therapeutic window. Cinnamomum zeylanicum demonstrates numerous beneficial effects both in vitro and in vivo as a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes. However, further randomized clinical trials are required to establish therapeutic safety and efficacy. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic

  17. Extraction parameters for metabolomics from cell extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ser, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojing; Tang, Ngoc Nu; Locasale, Jason W

    2015-01-01

    The successful extraction of metabolites is a critical step in metabolite profiling. By optimizing metabolite extraction, the range and quantitative capacity of metabolomics studies can be improved. We considered eight separate extraction protocols for the preparation of a metabolite extract from cultured mammalian cells. Parameters considered included temperature, pH, and cell washing before extraction. The effects on metabolite recovery were studied using a high resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) platform that measures metabolites of diverse chemical classes including among others amino acids, lipids, and sugar derivatives. The temperature considered during the extraction or the presence of formic acid, a commonly used additive, was shown to have minimal effects on the measured ion intensities of metabolites. However, washing of samples before metabolite extraction whether with water or PBS (both commonly considered practices) exhibited dramatic effects on measured intensities of both intra- and extra-cellular metabolites. Together these findings present a systematic assessment of extraction conditions for metabolite profiling. PMID:25613493

  18. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  19. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  20. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696699

  1. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  2. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  3. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadegan, K.; Falahpour, P.

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels. PMID:26623342

  4. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture.

    PubMed

    Shirzadegan, K; Falahpour, P

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels.

  5. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  6. Extractant Design by Covalency

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, Andrew James; Olson, Angela Christine; Kozimor, Stosh Anthony; Cross, Justin Neil; Batista, Enrique Ricardo; Macor, Joe; Peterman, Dean R.; Grimes, Travis

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  7. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  8. TRITIUM EXTRACTION FACILITY ALARA

    SciTech Connect

    Joye, BROTHERTON

    2005-04-19

    The primary mission of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) is to extract tritium from tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) that have been irradiated in a commercial light water reactor and to deliver tritium-containing gas to the Savannah River Site Facility 233-H. The tritium extraction segment provides the capability to deliver three (3) kilograms per year to the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. The TEF includes processes, equipment and facilities capable of production-scale extraction of tritium while minimizing personnel radiation exposure, environmental releases, and waste generation.

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  11. Comparison of the cytotoxic potential of cigarette smoke and electronic cigarette vapour extract on cultured myocardial cells.

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Romagna, Giorgio; Allifranchini, Elena; Ripamonti, Emiliano; Bocchietto, Elena; Todeschi, Stefano; Tsiapras, Dimitris; Kyrzopoulos, Stamatis; Voudris, Vassilis

    2013-10-16

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been marketed as an alternative-to-smoking habit. Besides chemical studies of the content of EC liquids or vapour, little research has been conducted on their in vitro effects. Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoke (CS) has well-established cytotoxic effects on myocardial cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of the vapour of 20 EC liquid samples and a "base" liquid sample (50% glycerol and 50% propylene glycol, with no nicotine or flavourings) on cultured myocardial cells. Included were 4 samples produced by using cured tobacco leaves in order to extract the tobacco flavour. Cytotoxicity was tested according to the ISO 10993-5 standard. By activating an EC device at 3.7 volts (6.2 watts-all samples, including the "base" liquid) and at 4.5 volts (9.2 watts-four randomly selected samples), 200 mg of liquid evaporated and was extracted in 20 mL of culture medium. Cigarette smoke (CS) extract from three tobacco cigarettes was produced according to ISO 3308 method (2 s puffs of 35 mL volume, one puff every 60 s). The extracts, undiluted (100%) and in four dilutions (50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%), were applied to myocardial cells (H9c2); percent-viability was measured after 24 h incubation. According to ISO 10993-5, viability of <70% was considered cytotoxic. CS extract was cytotoxic at extract concentrations >6.25% (viability: 76.9 ± 2.0% at 6.25%, 38.2 ± 0.5% at 12.5%, 3.1 ± 0.2% at 25%, 5.2 ± 0.8% at 50%, and 3.9 ± 0.2% at 100% extract concentration). Three EC extracts (produced by tobacco leaves) were cytotoxic at 100% and 50% extract concentrations (viability range: 2.2%-39.1% and 7.4%-66.9% respectively) and one ("Cinnamon-Cookies" flavour) was cytotoxic at 100% concentration only (viability: 64.8 ± 2.5%). Inhibitory concentration 50 was >3 times lower in CS extract compared to the worst-performing EC vapour extract. For EC extracts produced by high

  12. Plant extracts in BPH.

    PubMed

    Di Silverio, F; Flammia, G P; Sciarra, A; Caponera, M; Mauro, M; Buscarini, M; Tavani, M; D'Eramo, G

    1993-12-01

    In Italy plant extracts represent 8.6% of all pharmacological prescriptions for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (data from 1991). This review evaluates all the suggested mechanisms of action for plant extracts. Recently we demonstrated an antiestrogenic effect of Serenoa Repens in BPH patients. Clinical trials with plant extracts have yielded conflicting results. In a recent review by Dreikorn and Richter, only five placebo controlled studies were found. Moreover, as opposed to chemically defined drugs, it is possible that for these extracts the active ingredients are not known; consequently pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data are often missing. The International Consultation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (Paris, June 1991) concluded that, to date, phytotherapeutic agents must be considered as a symptomatic treatment. Now more adequate pharmacological and clinical studies, placebo controlled, should determine the exact role of these drugs in the treatment of BPH.

  13. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  14. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  16. Plant protein extraction.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Helen E; Salter, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    A method is presented for the extraction of total protein from Arabidopsis thaliana tissue. The protocol was designed for the solubilization of a range of proteins and their efficient and quantitative recovery. It is especially compatible with the small quantities of available tissue often associated with this species and was originally intended for Western blot preparations. Samples extracted using this method can be quantitated directly using a commercially available kit.

  17. NLC extraction line studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y.

    1999-12-09

    In this note, the authors briefly review the current lattice of the NLC extraction line which was designed for the nominal NLC beam parameters. Then the authors describe the beam parameters for the high luminosity option with larger beam disruption parameter and discuss its effect on beam loss in the extraction line. Finally, the authors present a summary of the optics study aimed at minimizing the beam loss with high disruption beams.

  18. Gallium extraction by microemulsions.

    PubMed

    de Castro Dantas, T N; de Lucena Neto, M H; Dantas Neto, A A

    2002-04-08

    In this work, the use of microemulsion in the extraction of gallium, with Bayer process, has been studied. The studied microemulsion systems were: systems I and II, with saponified coconut oil (SCO) and 4-ethyl,1-methyl,7-octyl,8-hydroxyquinoleine (Kelex-100) as extractants. The extraction essays by microemulsion were carried out by applying an experimental planning method whose microemulsion points were prepared within an experimental domain favorable to the extraction. Gallium and aluminum extraction percentages, in each point, were evaluated via a statistical treatment of the data, with the use of variance analysis and mathematical models. In system I (SCO), percentages of extraction of 85.5% for gallium and 35.4% for aluminum were achieved; in system II (Kelex-100), the yields were 100% for gallium and 99.9% for aluminum. The reextraction study with sulfuric acid presented the same behavior for both systems, with efficiency depending upon the concentration of the acid, and allowing for a selective reextraction of gallium and aluminum.

  19. Antiangiogenic Activity of Glycyrrhiza Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Qiu

    The bioactivity of extract of glycyrrhiza was detected by zebrafish antiangiogenic model after 70% ethanol extract of glycyrrhiza was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol. The inhibition of the extracts in antiangiogenic activity showed that the highest active components existed in ethyl acetate extract of glycyrrhiza. The ethyl acetate extract of glycyrrhiza was separated by polyamide column chromatography to obtain 7 fractions (Fr1-Fr7), which Fr5 and Fr6 showed antiangiogenic activity.

  20. Magma Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-20

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric. 10 figs., 10 refs.

  1. Phytoplasma plasmid DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mark T; Liefting, Lia W

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasma plasmids have generally been detected from DNA extracted from plants and insects using methods designed for the purification of total phytoplasma DNA. Methods include extraction from tissues that are high in phytoplasma titre, such as the phloem of plants, with the use of CsCl-bisbenzimide gradients that exploit the low G+C content of phytoplasma DNA. Many of the methods employed for phytoplasma purification have been described elsewhere in this book. Here we describe in detail two methods that are specifically aimed at isolating plasmid DNA.

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  3. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  4. Endophthalmitis following cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    McClellan, K; Coster, D J; Badenoch, P R; Sanders, R; Chandraratnam, E; Kupa, A

    1987-02-01

    We describe a case of bacterial endophthalmitis complicating routine cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in a 91-year-old woman. The ocular and systemic factors that may have predisposed to intraocular infection in this case, and the possibility of predicting these pre-operatively, are discussed.

  5. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ocakcioglu, Ilhan; Koyuncu, Serhat; Kupeli, Mustafa; Bol, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum. PMID:26989552

  6. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  7. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  8. Extraction of plant secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jones, William P; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the preparation of extracts from plants using organic solvents, with emphasis on common problems encountered and methods for their reduction or elimination. In addition to generally applicable extraction protocols, methods are suggested for selectively extracting specific classes of plant-derived compounds, and phytochemical procedures are presented for the detection of classes of compounds encountered commonly during extraction, including selected groups of secondary metabolites and interfering compounds. Successful extraction begins with careful selection and preparation of plant samples and thorough review of the appropriate literature for suitable protocols for a particular class of compounds or plant species. During the extraction of plant material, it is important to minimize interference from compounds that may co-extract with the target compounds, and to avoid contamination of the extract, as well as to prevent decomposition of important metabolites or artifact formation as a result of extraction conditions or solvent impurities.

  9. Lunar hydrogen extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snaufer, M. J.; Alred, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the power and mass requirements of a lunar hydrogen extraction plant producing five metric tons of hydrogen per year. These power and mass requirements are based upon experimental work that determined gaseous hydrogen release rates from lunar samples at various heating rates and temperatures. An optimum heating temperature and rate can be selected to minimize the processing plant's power and mass requirements. The impact of thermal recovery on the power and mass requirements is studied, as is the use of nuclear waste heat for processing the regolith. In addition, the potential of using the extracted hydrogen in the form of methane as a propellant for a Lunar Excursion Vehicle is examined.

  10. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  11. Information Extraction Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    manual extraction to easily organize information to fill in fields and that can detect errors for analysts) to Tabula Rasa , New Mexico has driven tool...design toward general, reusable tools for any domain in any language [1]. Tabula Rasa allows a developer to create a complete template-filling tool...number of different groups have adopted this approach, including the TIPSTER site GFJ CMU/MM. Their SHOGUN system design illustrates the central role

  12. Ion extraction system optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, Marco

    2013-07-18

    The extraction of a beam from ion sources is dominated by the strong space charge of the beam, due to the initial low speed of the particles. Several mathematical and computational issues are discussed, with reference to a diode design based on thin anode lens effect, yielding a parallel beam at its exit, which is the first block of many high current electrostatic accelerators. Perturbation to uniform current density are analyzed. Effect of a thick anode lens is also treated.

  13. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  14. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  15. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  16. Understanding extractive bleed : wood extractives: distribution, properties, and classes

    Treesearch

    Edward Burke; Norm Slavik; Tony Bonura; Dennis Connelly; Tom Faris; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; Sam Williams; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Color, odor, and natural durability of heartwood are characteristics imparted by a class of chemicals in wood known collectively extractives. Wood is converted by the tree from sapwood to heartwood by the deposition of extractives, typically many years after the growth ring undergoing this change was formed by the tree. Extractives are thus not a part of the wood...

  17. Ancient DNA extraction from plants.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Logan

    2012-01-01

    A variety of protocols for DNA extraction from archaeological and paleobotanical plant specimens have been proposed. This is not surprising given the range of taxa and tissue types that may be preserved and the variety of conditions in which that preservation may take place. Commercially available DNA extraction kits can be used to recover ancient plant DNA, but modifications to standard approaches are often necessary to improve yield. In this chapter, I describe two protocols for extracting DNA from small amounts of ancient plant tissue. The CTAB protocol, which I recommend for use with single seeds, utilizes an incubation period in extraction buffer and subsequent chloroform extraction followed by DNA purification and suspension. The PTB protocol, which I recommend for use with gourd rind and similar tissues, utilizes an overnight incubation of pulverized tissue in extraction buffer, removal of the tissue by centrifugation, and DNA extraction from the buffer using commercial plant DNA extraction kits.

  18. Cinnamaldehyde content in foods determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Kozukue, N; Harden, L A

    2000-11-01

    trans-Cinnamaldehyde, the principal component of cinnamon flavor, is a potent antimicrobial compound present in essential oils such as cinnamon. In the course of studies designed to discover its maximum microbial lethality under food-processing conditions, a gas chromatographic-mass spectrophotometric procedure was developed for the extraction and analysis of essential oil components such as cinnamaldehyde from commercial cinnamon-containing foods (several brands of cinnamon breads, cereals, cookies, puddings, applesauces, and fruit juices). The cinnamaldehyde content ranged from trace amounts in orange juice to 12.2 mg/100 g (122 ppm) in apple cinnamon cereals and 31.1 mg/100 g (311 ppm) for cinnamon swirl bread (highest value). To ascertain the heat stability of cinnamaldehyde, pure cinnamaldehyde, pure eugenol, cinnamon oil, and mixtures consisting of cinnamaldehyde plus eugenol or cinnamon oil were heated at graded temperatures up to 210 degrees C and 60 min, and then possible compositional changes were examined. Eugenol was stable to heat, as were the components of cinnamon oil: carvone, eugenol, and linalool. In contrast, starting at approximately 60 degrees C, pure cinnamaldehyde undergoes a temperature-dependent transformation to benzaldehyde under the influence of heat. Eugenol, both pure and in cinnamon oil, when added to pure cinnamaldehyde protected the aldehyde against heat destruction. The protection may due to an antioxidative action of eugenol. The possible mechanism of this effect and the significance of these findings for food chemistry and microbiology are discussed.

  19. Slow extraction at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Resonant slow extraction at the SSC will permit fixed-target operation. Stochastic extraction appears to be a promising technique for achieving spill times of the order of 1000 s. However, systematic sextupole error fields in the SSC dipoles must be reduced a factor of twenty from the design values; otherwise the extraction process will be perturbed or suppressed. In addition, good regulation of the SSC power supplies is essential for smooth extraction over the spill period. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  2. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  3. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  4. SSRMS EP Extraction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-23

    ISS020-E-041819 (23 Sept. 2009) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk and NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, both Expedition 20 flight engineers, work the controls of the Canadarm2 in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Thirsk and Stott used the station?s robotic arm to release and extract the Exposed Pallet (EP) from the Unpressurized Logistics Carrier (ULC) to hand over to the JEM Robotic Manipulator System (JEM-RMS) and berth to the JEM Exposed Facility / Exposed Facility Unit 10 (JEF EFU10).

  5. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  6. Solvent extraction of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes improvement in a process for solvent refining a hydrocarbon based lubricating oil stock containing aromatics and non-aromatics components with an extraction solvent wherein the lubricating oil stock is contacted with the extraction solvent in a first extraction zone at a first extraction temperature in the range of 100{degrees} F to 250{degrees} F and a solvent to oil dosage in the range of 75 to 500 vol % forming an aromatics-rich primary extract and an aromatics-lean primary raffinate of high viscosity index of at least 85. The improvement comprises: withdrawing and cooling the primary extract to a temperature 10{degrees} F to 120{degrees} F below the extraction temperature and admixing with 0.0 vol % to 10 vol % anti-solvent thereby forming a secondary extract and a secondary raffinate, passing the secondary raffinate to a second extraction zone wherein the secondary raffinate is contacted with the extraction solvent at a second extraction temperature in the range of 100{degrees} F to 250{degrees} F and solvent to oil dosage in the range of 75 to 500 vol %, to form an aromatics-lean tertiary raffinate phase of viscosity index 65 or greater.

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of henna extracts.

    PubMed

    Al-Rubiay, Kathem K; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K

    2008-10-01

    Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (Co-agulase negative staphylococci or CONS), ß-hemolytic streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were obtained from 74 (35 females, 39 males) patients with different skin infections who attended the Dermatology outpatient clinic in Basra General Hospital. The bacterial isolates were treated with L. inermis extracts in vitro. Alcoholic and oily extracts were more effective than the water extract which had no effects using standard method of NCCL, 2000.Alcoholic extracts had the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.125-0.150 µg/ml against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against CONS was 0.125-175 µg/ml .Oily extracts had a MIC of 0.25-0.30 µg/ml against Staphylococcus epidermidis (cons). Both alcoholic and oily extracts had the same MIC (0.5 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus. However, alcoholic extracts were more effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC of 0.5-0.57 µg/ml than oily extract (MIC of 0.20-0.28 µg/ml). However, there were no statically differences between the effects of oily and alcoholic henna extracts (p= 0.050).When comparing the extracts' MICs with those of antibiotics, alcoholic extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against the isolated bacteria in vitro but oily extracts had much similar MICs to those of antibiotics and there are significant difference between effect of both extracts and antibiotics p>0.050.

  8. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-04-23

    In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities.

  9. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  10. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Henna Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubiay, Kathem K.; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K.

    2008-01-01

    Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (Co-agulase negative staphylococci or CONS), ß-hemolytic streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were obtained from 74 (35 females, 39 males) patients with different skin infections who attended the Dermatology outpatient clinic in Basra General Hospital. The bacterial isolates were treated with L. inermis extracts in vitro. Alcoholic and oily extracts were more effective than the water extract which had no effects using standard method of NCCL, 2000. Alcoholic extracts had the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.125-0.150 µg/ml against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against CONS was 0.125-175 µg/ml .Oily extracts had a MIC of 0.25-0.30 µg/ml against Staphylococcus epidermidis (cons). Both alcoholic and oily extracts had the same MIC (0.5 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus. However, alcoholic extracts were more effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC of 0.5-0.57 µg/ml than oily extract (MIC of 0.20-0.28 µg/ml). However, there were no statically differences between the effects of oily and alcoholic henna extracts (p= 0.050). When comparing the extracts’ MICs with those of antibiotics, alcoholic extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against the isolated bacteria in vitro but oily extracts had much similar MICs to those of antibiotics and there are significant difference between effect of both extracts and antibiotics p>0.050. PMID:22334837

  11. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  12. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  13. The root extraction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, C.

    The Nth root extraction problem for germs of diffeomorphisms f :(C,0)→(C,0) is the problem of finding a germ of diffeomorphism g :(C,0)→(C,0) such that g=f, where g is the Nth iterate of g under composition. Depending on f and on the multiplier of g at the origin there can be formal and analytic obstructions to a solution of the problem. By considering an unfolding of f we explain these obstructions. Indeed each analytic obstruction corresponds to an accumulation of periodic points which, in turn, are an obstruction to taking an Nth root of the unfolding. We apply this to the problem of the section of a curvilinear angle in N equal parts in conformal geometry.

  14. Liquefaction for cataract extraction

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  15. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei.

  16. [Quality control of plant extract].

    PubMed

    Shao, Yun-dong; Gao, Wen-yuan; Liu, Dan; Jia, Wei; Duan, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2003-10-01

    The current situation of plant extract in domestic and international market was analyzed in the paper. The quality control of 20 plant extracts which have reasonably good sales in USA market was compared and analyzed. The analysis of the quality control of six plant extracts indicated that there were two main reasons leading to the varied quality specifications among different suppliers. One reason was that the plant species utilized by different companies were different. The other reason was that the extraction processes were different among different production plants. Comparing with the significant international suppliers of plant extracts, the product quality of Chinese companies were not satisfactory. It was suggested that chromatography and chromatographic fingerprint techniques should be applied to improve the quality control standard of plant extract in our country.

  17. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  18. HUMINT Extraction and Fusion System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2005-12 Final Technical Report January 2005 HUMINT EXTRACTION AND FUSION SYSTEM General Dynamics...January 2005 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED FINAL Aug 02 – Sep 04 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HUMINT EXTRACTION AND FUSION SYSTEM 6...The objective of this effort was to develop the HUMINT Processing Subsystem (HPS) which extracts and exploits information from text documents to

  19. Quasi-linear Dialectica Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Trifon

    Gödel's functional interpretation [1] can be used to extract programs from non-constructive proofs. Though correct by construction, the obtained terms can be computationally inefficient. One reason for slow execution is the re-evaluation of equal subterms due to the use of substitution during the extraction process. In the present paper we define a variant of the interpretation, which avoids subterm repetition and achieves an almost linear bound on the size of extracted programs.

  20. Liquid membrane extraction of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.M.; Breembroek, G.R.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rosmalen, G.M van

    1996-12-31

    Three Liquid Membrane extraction designs are compared by their experimental extraction performance of cadmium ions from an aqueous phase with tri-laurylamine dissolved in an aliphatic kerosene. The compared designs are Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM), Flat Sheet Supported Liquid Membrane (FSSLM) and Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM4) extraction units. The results demonstrated that ELM possesses the best extraction performance per volume of equipment, but that HFSLM is a good alternative because of its less complicated design and greater flexibility. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  2. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  3. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  4. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  5. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  6. Ischemia-induced endothelial cell swelling and mitochondrial dysfunction are attenuated by cinnamtannin D1, green tea extract, and resveratrol in vitro.

    PubMed

    Panickar, Kiran S; Qin, Bolin; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-10-01

    Polyphenols possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cytotoxic brain edema in cerebral ischemia. In addition, OS and pro-inflammatory cytokines also damage the endothelial cells and the neurovascular unit. Endothelial cell swelling may contribute to a leaky blood-brain barrier which may result in vasogenic edema in the continued presence of the existing cytotoxic edema. We investigated the protective effects of polyphenols on cytotoxic cell swelling in bEND3 endothelial cultures subjected to 5 hours oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). A polyphenol trimer from cinnamon (cinnamtannin D1), a polyphenol-rich extract from green tea, and resveratrol prevented the OGD-induced rise in mitochondrial free radicals, cell swelling, and the dissipation of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (also called CCL2), a chemokine, but not tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-6, augmented the cell swelling. This effect of monochemoattractant protein 1-1 was attenuated by the polyphenols. Cyclosporin A, a blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, did not attenuate cell swelling but BAPTA-AM, an intracellular calcium chelator did, indicating a role of [Ca(2+)]i but not the mPT in cell swelling. These results indicate that the polyphenols reduce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and subsequent cell swelling in endothelial cells following ischemic injury and thus may reduce brain edema and associated neural damage in ischemia. One possible mechanism by which the polyphenols may attenuate endothelial cell swelling is through the reduction in [Ca(2+)]i.

  7. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  8. Extractive Metallurgy Program funded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In an effort to concentrate research on ore dressing and metal production, the National Science Foundation (NSF) formed a new basic research program as a part of its Chemical and Process Engineering Division. This program will be under the auspices of NSF's Engineering Directorate. Research is to be supported on every step of extractive metallurgy, from mining to processing to production, and even to reprocessing and disposal. Budgeting for the new program is expected to be on the order of $1.2 million for fiscal year 1981.A program of this nature was apparently considered seriously by the Carter administration as a joint Department of Interior-private industry project of considerable size. Then-Secretary of Interior Cecil Andrus evidently did not support the program, but there is wide agreement throughout the mineral industries and the university community that such research is badly needed for the U.S. to compete. A joint program could benefit by cutting across the many difficult regulations that now are blamed for slowing research in minerals processing in this country.

  9. Dental extraction during dicumarol therapy.

    PubMed

    ASKEY, J M; CHERRY, C B

    1956-01-01

    Extraction of 14 teeth in six patients taking dicumarol caused no unusual bleeding. Discontinuance of dicumarol prior to dental extraction should not necessarily be a routine procedure; in certain persons with a demonstrated strong tendency to recurrent thrombosis, dicumarol should be continued, based on the decision that the danger of clotting without the drug is greater than the danger of bleeding with the drug.

  10. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  11. Protein extraction for 2DE.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Claus; Klose, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Our protein extraction protocol for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was updated to meet current needs in the field of proteomics. This protocol summarizes our experience using this method since its introduction over 30 years ago. We provide a total as well as fractionated extraction protocol. The former is easy and fast to use, suitable for most standard 2DE applications, whereas the latter is used for special applications such as the extraction of membrane or nuclear proteins.Both extraction protocols stress the need that protease inhibitors are added early to still deep frozen tissue to preclude an activation of proteases which destroy proteins and make them inaccessible to analysis. We also emphasize that, to remain soluble, proteins need to stay in an environment resembling a living cell as closely as possible. Sample dilution is therefore kept to a minimum and the pH of the extract is close to in vivo conditions at pH 7.1. In addition there are no precipitation/resolubilization steps which could irreversibly remove proteins from the extract. Furthermore, the total extraction does not even require centrifugation. Our extraction protocol is compatible with recent advances in 2DE-staining techniques such as differential in gel electrophoresis and fluorescence staining as well as mass spectrometry.

  12. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  13. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  15. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  16. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  17. Extraction of Questions Behind Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki

    To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.

  18. Event extraction for DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoko; Pyysalo, Sampo; Miwa, Makoto; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2011-10-06

    We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts including a representative sample of all PubMed citations relevant to DNA methylation, and introduce manual annotation for this corpus marking nearly 3000 gene/protein mentions and 1500 DNA methylation and demethylation events. We retrain a state-of-the-art event extraction system on the corpus and find that automatic extraction of DNA methylation events, the methylated genes, and their methylation sites can be performed at 78% precision and 76% recall. Our results demonstrate that reliable extraction methods for DNA methylation events can be created through corpus annotation and straightforward retraining of a general event extraction system. The introduced resources are freely available for use in research from the GENIA project homepage http://www-tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/GENIA.

  19. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION COMBINED WITH ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with the EPA Region 1 Laboratory, under the Regional Methods Program administered through the ORD Office of Science Policy. The aim of the project was to develop an approach for the rapid removal of water in high moisture content solids (e.g., wetland sediments) in preparation for analysis via Method 8270. Alternative methods for water removal have been investigated to enhance compound solid concentrations and improve extraction efficiency, with the use of pressure filtration providing a high-throughput alternative for removal of the majority of free water in sediments and sludges. In order to eliminate problems with phase separation during extraction of solids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction, a variation of a water-isopropanol extraction method developed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, CO is being employed. The concentrations of target compounds in water-isopropanol extraction fluids are subsequently analyzed using an automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)-GC/MS method developed in our laboratory. The coupled approaches for dewatering, extraction, and target compound identification-quantitation provide a useful alternative to enhance sample throughput for Me

  20. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION COMBINED WITH ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with the EPA Region 1 Laboratory, under the Regional Methods Program administered through the ORD Office of Science Policy. The aim of the project was to develop an approach for the rapid removal of water in high moisture content solids (e.g., wetland sediments) in preparation for analysis via Method 8270. Alternative methods for water removal have been investigated to enhance compound solid concentrations and improve extraction efficiency, with the use of pressure filtration providing a high-throughput alternative for removal of the majority of free water in sediments and sludges. In order to eliminate problems with phase separation during extraction of solids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction, a variation of a water-isopropanol extraction method developed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, CO is being employed. The concentrations of target compounds in water-isopropanol extraction fluids are subsequently analyzed using an automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)-GC/MS method developed in our laboratory. The coupled approaches for dewatering, extraction, and target compound identification-quantitation provide a useful alternative to enhance sample throughput for Me

  1. Endovascular extraction techniques for pacemaker and ICD lead extraction

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years, comprehensive endovascular techniques have been developed to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads. It is important that referring physician have knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. In this paper we discuss the techniques and results of the currently used endovascular extraction techniques. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696690

  2. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.

  3. Nonvolatile dichloromethane extractives of Gmelina arborea

    SciTech Connect

    Ukkonen, K.

    1982-02-01

    In pulping it is important to know how lipophilic extractives will behave and so avoid pitch problems. Experiments on Gmelina wood delivered from Brazil in 1978 are described, using dichloromethane extractives to give sufficient information about the lipophilic extractives. The behavior of Gmelina extracts in kraft pulping was compared to that of birch extracts and was found to be similar. (Refs. 10).

  4. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  5. Extractive condensation: A new separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitsch, K.J.

    1999-10-01

    A new highly selective vapor-phase extraction process is described. Hydrogen bonding between a scavenging extractant and the substance to be extracted results in a high-boiling complex forming fog droplets readily separable from the remaining vapor. The process is exemplified by the extraction of acetic acid from the predominantly aqueous vapor stream of furfural reactors. Triethylamine is used as the extractant.

  6. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  7. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  8. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    PubMed Central

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V.; Gujjula, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements. PMID:26130934

  9. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, S; Chen, Y; Saravanan, D; Sundram, K M; Yoga Latha, L

    2011-01-01

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.

  10. Soil Vapor Extraction Implementation Experiences

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper identifies issues and summarizes experiences with soil vapor extraction (SVE) as a remedy for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soils. The issues presented here reflect discussions with over 30 Remedial Project Managers (RPMs)...

  11. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  12. COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-09-07

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  13. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  14. Heavy metals extraction by microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Dantas, T N Castro; Dantas Neto, A A; Moura, M C P A; Barros Neto, E L; Forte, K R; Leite, R H L

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study is the heavy metal extraction by microemulsion, using regional vegetable oils as surfactants. Firstly, the main parameters, which have influence in the microemulsion region, such as: nature of cosurfactant, influence of cosurfactant (C)/surfactant (S) ratio and salinity were studied, with the objective of choosing the best extraction system. The extraction/reextraction process by microemulsion consists of two stages. In the first one, the heavy metal ion present in the aqueous phase is extracted by the microemulsion. In a second step, the reextraction process occurs: the microemulsion phase, rich in metal, is acidified and the metal is recovered in a new aqueous phase, with higher concentration. The used system had the following parameters: surfactant-saponified coconut oil; cosurfactant-n-butanol; oil phase-kerosene; C/S ratio=4; salinity-2% (NaCl); temperature of 27+/-1 degrees C; water phase-aqueous solution that varied according to the heavy metal in study (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb). A methodology of experimental planning was used (Scheffé Net) to study the behavior of the extraction in a chosen domain. The extraction was accomplished in one step and yielded extraction percentage higher than 98% for all metals. In the reextraction HCl-8M was used as reextraction agent and the influence of the pH and time were verified. This work showed the great efficiency of the microemulsion, indicating that it is possible to extract selectively the heavy metals from the aqueous phase.

  15. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  16. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans or...

  17. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans or...

  18. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans or...

  19. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  20. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25...

  1. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25...

  2. Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-28

    ... Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction This routine demonstrates extraction of the feature type information stored in a ... Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction routine  (5 KB) Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  ...

  3. Protein extraction from solid tissue.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Christer; Nistér, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Maximal extraction and solubilization of protein from diseased or healthy tissue is important to make the whole protein complement available for proteomic analysis. It also helps to maximize reproducibility and to minimize waste. Minimal degradation of the protein amino acid backbone or dephosphorylation is essential to preserve the analytical utility of the extract. Containment of the sample is important to minimize the risk of contamination to and from the sample. The proposed standard protocol for protein extraction and solubilization can result in 98% solubilization of brain tissue, corresponding to about 100 μg protein per mg tissue wet weight, by a frozen disintegration/SDS-based solubilization method: Tissue is crushed in the frozen state in a cryotube by shaking with a sterile steel ball. The crushing is followed by the extraction and solubilization in 2% SDS for 10 min, at 70°C, in a volume corresponding to ten times the tissue wet weight, with shaking. The containment in a cryotube helps to prevent contamination. The treatment with SDS sample buffer can inhibit protease and phosphatase activity. The resulting protein extracts can be used for SDS PAGE, 2-D PAGE, Western blotting, ESI-MS, and ELISA. The proposed standard protocol has the potential to find wide application where protein extraction, solubilization, identification, and quantitation from cryopreserved clinical samples are desirable.

  4. Small-incision lenticule extraction.

    PubMed

    Moshirfar, Majid; McCaughey, Michael V; Reinstein, Dan Z; Shah, Rupal; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Fenzl, Carlton R

    2015-03-01

    This review looks at the benefits, limitations, complications, and future applications of the small-incision lenticule extraction procedure. Using the search terms small incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond lenticule extraction, we obtained data from 56 articles (omitting German and Chinese articles) from the PubMed database. Small-incision lenticule extraction has shown efficacy, predictability, and safety that are proportionate to those of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), with the additional benefit that it eliminates flap creation and the attendant risks. The potential advantages of the procedure related to improved biomechanical stability, postoperative inflammation, and dry-eye symptoms have not been fully established. Small-incision lenticule extraction-treated eyes have shown a reduced degree of postoperative corneal denervation and higher-order aberrations and an accelerated rate of corneal nerve convalescence relative to LASIK. Future possibilities related to long-term cryogenic storage of extracted lenticules with eventual reimplantation or donation have been investigated with encouraging preliminary results. Drs. Reinstein and Shah are consultants to Carl Zeiss Meditec AG. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  6. Isoflavone extraction from okara using water as extractant.

    PubMed

    Jankowiak, Lena; Kantzas, Nikolaos; Boom, Remko; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2014-10-01

    We here report on the use of water as a 'green' extraction solvent for the isolation of isoflavones from okara, a by-product of soymilk production. At a low liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 to 1 and 20 °C, 47% of the isoflavones that can be extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol were extracted. The malonyl-glucosides were fully recovered with a ratio of 20 to 1, while β-glucosides were recovered with an increased liquid-to-solid ratio of 40 to 1. The extraction of aglycones was better at higher ratios, but leveled off before reaching a 100% yield. Temperature hardly affected the total amount of isoflavones. At a 20 to 1 ratio, 20 °C, and pH 10, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between isoflavone extraction in water and in 70% aqueous ethanol. The results suggest that water may be used as a green alternative for separation of isoflavones from okara. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  8. Comprehensive comparison of classic Soxhlet extraction with Soxtec extraction, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil.

    PubMed

    Sporring, Sune; Bøwadt, Søren; Svensmark, Bo; Björklund, Erland

    2005-10-07

    This paper compares the extraction effectiveness of six different commonly applied extraction techniques for the determination of PCBs in soil. The techniques included are Soxhlet, Soxtec, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction. For none of the techniques were the extraction conditions optimized, but instead the extraction parameters were based on the experience from previous successful investigation published by a number of research groups worldwide. In general, all extraction techniques were capable of producing accurate data for one native PCB contaminated soil diluted with another soil sample to obtain two concentration levels. It could therefore be concluded that any of the investigated techniques can be used with success if the extraction conditions applied are chosen wisely.

  9. Using solid extractants to extract, concentrate, and purify transplutonium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Barsukova, K.V.; Kremlyakova, N.Y.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1986-09-01

    This paper examines extractants containing D2EHPA (Eu, Cm, Am, Bk and Cf) and a material containing another class of organophosphorus compound: phosphine oxides OPC. The behavior of the transplutonium and rare-earth elements was examined in aluminum nitrate and nitric acid solutins. The static results are presented for A1(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/; there are no major differences in behavior with OPC extractant that would enable one to separate them. The dependence of the partition coefficient on the aluminum nitrate concentration is the converse of that found with D2EHPA.

  10. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  11. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-11-01

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other.

  12. Symmetry constraint for foreground extraction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Cao, Xiaochun; Tu, Zhuowen; Lin, Dongdai

    2014-05-01

    Symmetry as an intrinsic shape property is often observed in natural objects. In this paper, we discuss how explicitly taking into account the symmetry constraint can enhance the quality of foreground object extraction. In our method, a symmetry foreground map is used to represent the symmetry structure of the image, which includes the symmetry matching magnitude and the foreground location prior. Then, the symmetry constraint model is built by introducing this symmetry structure into the graph-based segmentation function. Finally, the segmentation result is obtained via graph cuts. Our method encourages objects with symmetric parts to be consistently extracted. Moreover, our symmetry constraint model is applicable to weak symmetric objects under the part-based framework. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the advantages of our approach in extracting the foreground. Our method also shows improved results in segmenting objects with weak, complex symmetry properties.

  13. Extraction and isolation of saponins.

    PubMed

    Majinda, Runner R T

    2012-01-01

    Due to their special structural features, extraction and isolation of saponins poses a serious challenge. Conventional methods have been explored as well as the recent, relatively greener, efficient, solvent-economic, time-saving, newer methods of extraction. Both traditional and recent methods of isolation are also discussed. Finally, examples are given involving both conventional and newer methods of extraction and isolation. Though in general it is difficult to use a single technique for isolation of saponins, recent literature work seems to point to the fact that high speed counter-current separation coupled to evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) gives superior separation. The ELSD appears to have circumvented the long-standing problem of saponin detection as most of these do not have a chromophore, and hence making UV detection only nonspecific and at range 200-210 nm.

  14. Website-Level Data Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yu

    This paper proposes a website-level data extraction approach to identify the object relevant information distributed across multiple web pages. Page-level data extraction is widely studied with assumption that each input web page contains multiple data records of interested objects. However, in many cases for web mining, the multiple pages describing an object are sparsely distributed in a website. It makes page-level solutions no longer applicable. We exploit the hierarchy model of websites for web page organization to solve the problem of website-level data extraction. A new resource, the Hierarchical Navigation Path (HNP), which can be discovered from the website structure, is introduced for object relevant web page filtering. The found web pages are clustered using the URL and semantic hyperlink analysis, and then the entry page and the detailed profile pages of each object are identified. The empirical experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-11-17

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other.

  16. Rule extraction by successive regularization.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M

    2000-12-01

    Knowledge acquisition is, needless to say, important, because it is a key to the solution to one of the bottlenecks in artificial intelligence. Recently, knowledge acquisition using neural networks, called rule extraction, is attracting wide attention because of its computational simplicity and ability to generalize. Proposed in this paper is a novel approach to rule extraction named successive regularization. It generates a small number of dominant rules at an earlier stage and less dominant rules or exceptions at later stages. It has various advantages such as robustness of computation, better understanding, and similarity to child development. It is applied to the classification of mushrooms, the recognition of promoters in DNA sequences and the classification of irises. Empirical results indicate superior performance of rule extraction in terms of the number and the size of rules for explaining data.

  17. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-07

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  18. Antileishmanial Potential of Tropical Rainforest Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Monzote, Lianet; Piñón, Abel; Setzer, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess a selectivity index. Crude extracts that showed a selectivity index (CC50 for macrophage / IC50 for promastigotes) ≥ 5 or with IC50 < 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes, a total of 28 extracts, were further screened for anti-amastigote activity. A total of 25 extracts showed promising activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes with low cytotoxic activity. Ten of these extracts showed selectivity indices, (CC50 for macrophages / IC50 for amastigotes) greater than 10 and are considered “hits”, worthy candidates for further phytochemical exploration: Conostegia xalapensis methanol bark extract, Endiandra palmerstonii bark extract, Eugenia monteverdensis acetone bark extract, Eugenia sp. “fine leaf” acetone bark extract, Exothea paniculata chloroform bark extract, Mallotus paniculatus ethanol bark extract, Matelea pseudobarbata ethanol extract, Quercus insignis ethanol bark extract, Sassafras albidum dichloromethane bark extract, and Stemmadenia donnell-smithii acetone bark extract. PMID:28933376

  19. Antileishmanial Potential of Tropical Rainforest Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Monzote, Lianet; Piñón, Abel; Setzer, William N

    2014-11-19

    A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess a selectivity index. Crude extracts that showed a selectivity index (CC50 for macrophage / IC50 for promastigotes) ³ 5 or with IC50 < 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes, a total of 28 extracts, were further screened for anti-amastigote activity. A total of 25 extracts showed promising activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes with low cytotoxic activity. Ten of these extracts showed selectivity indices, (CC50 for macrophages / IC50 for amastigotes) greater than 10 and are considered "hits", worthy candidates for further phytochemical exploration: Conostegia xalapensis methanol bark extract, Endiandra palmerstonii bark extract, Eugenia monteverdensis acetone bark extract, Eugenia sp. "fine leaf" acetone bark extract, Exothea paniculata chloroform bark extract, Mallotus paniculatus ethanol bark extract, Matelea pseudobarbata ethanol extract, Quercus insignis ethanol bark extract, Sassafras albidum dichloromethane bark extract, and Stemmadenia donnell-smithii acetone bark extract.

  20. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  1. Catastrophic extraction of anomalous events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Ro, Sookwang; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we discuss extraction of anomalous events based on the theory of catastrophes, a mathematical theory of continuous geometrical manifolds with discrete singularities called catastrophes. Intelligence exploitation systems and technologies include such novel data mining techniques as automatic extraction of discrete anomalous events by software algorithms based on the theory of catastrophes, that can reduce complex problems to a few essential so-called state variables. This paper discusses mostly corank-1 catastrophes with only one state variable, for simplicity. As an example we discuss mostly avionics platforms and catastrophic failures that can be recorded by flight instruments.

  2. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  3. [Efficient extraction of transmembrane proteins using ProteoExtract Transmembrane Protein Extraction Kit].

    PubMed

    Błachnio, Karina

    2010-01-01

    Detergents commonly used for solubilization of membrane proteins may be ionic or non-ionic. Exposing membrane proteins to detergents, however, can adversely affect their native structure, which can be a major hindrance for functional studies. This is especially true for proteins with multiple transmembrane domains. The ProteoExtract Transmembrane Protein Extraction Kit (TM-PEK), offered by Merck, provides a detergent-free novel reagents to enable the mild and efficient extraction of proteins containing seven transmembrane domains, such as GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors) e.g.: Frizzled-4 and CELSR-3, from mammalian cells. The fraction enriched in transmembrane proteins using TM-PEK is directly compatible with enzyme assays, non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, 1- and 2-D SDS-PAGE, MS analysis, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation and ELISA. Unlike many alternatives, TM-PEK extraction procedure does not require sonication, extended rigorous vortexing, ultracentrifugation, or incubation of samples at elevated temperatures--thus minimizing the risk of post-extraction degradation or modifications.

  4. Determination of hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers in Sargassum fusiforme and comparison of the extraction efficiency of ultrasonication, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction and pressurised liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Chen, Xiaomei; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Zhenou; Liu, Cuiping; Chen, Fan; Shen, Yan

    2010-11-01

    The concentrations of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) in Sargassum fusiforme, the common Chinese edible seaweed, were investigated by LC-MS/MS. For the recovery of HBCD, the efficiency levels of ultrasonic-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction and pressurised liquid extraction were compared under different conditions. Pressurised liquid extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction resulted in complete extraction of HBCD (92.7-102.5% recovery). Microwave-assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction, on the other hand, offered relatively low extraction recoveries (82.1-90.6%). The instrumental LODs on columns in this study were 1.0, 0.3 and 0.7 ng/g for α-HBCD, β-HBCD and γ-HBCD, respectively. Because of its accuracy, this straightforward method is particularly suitable for routine HBCD analysis.

  5. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from condiments against fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Soares, I H; Loreto, É S; Rossato, L; Mario, D N; Venturini, T P; Baldissera, F; Santurio, J M; Alves, S H

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Salvia officinalis (sage), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) were assessed against Candida glabrata isolates. One group contained 30 fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata isolates, and the second group contained fluconazole-resistant isolates derived from the first group after the in vitro induction of fluconazole-resistance, for a total of 60 tested isolates. The broth microdilution methodology was used. Concentrations of 50μg/mL, 100μg/mL, 200μg/mL, 400μg/mL, 800μg/mL, 1600μg/mL and 3200μg/mL of the essential oils were used, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Thyme, sage, rosemary, basil and ginger essential oils showed no antifungal activity at the tested concentrations. Antimicrobial activity less than or equal to 3200μg/mL was observed for oregano, Mexican oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Both the oregano and Mexican oregano essential oils showed high levels of antifungal activity against the fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata group, whereas the cinnamon essential oil showed the best antifungal activity against the fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

  7. Development of new natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Périchet, Christine; Schnaebele, Nicolas; Humbert, Marina

    2014-11-01

    For over the past 20 years, a remarkable development in the study and search of natural products has been observed. This is linked to a new market trend towards ecology and also due to new regulations. This could be a rupture, but also a real booster for creativity. Usually, in the flavor and fragrance field, creativity was boosted by the arrival of new synthetic molecules. Naturals remained the traditional, century-old products, protected by secrecy and specific know-how from each company. Regulatory restrictions or eco-friendly certification constraints like hexane-free processes triggered an important brainstorming in the industry. As a result, we developed new eco-friendly processes including supercritical CO2 extraction, allowing fresh plants to be used to obtain industrial flower extracts (Jasmine Grandiflorum, Jasmine Sambac, Orange blossom). These extracts are analyzed by GC, GC/MS, GCO, and HPTLC techniques. New or unusual raw materials can also be explored, but the resulting extracts have to be tested for safety reasons. Some examples are described. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  9. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  11. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  12. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  13. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  14. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  15. Ant Ecdysteroid Extraction and Radioimmunoassay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ecdysteroids are a group of steroid compounds present in many plant and invertebrate species. In arthropods, they function primarily as hormones involved in the regulation of molting. This protocol describes how to extract ecdysteroid hormones from ant specimens and subsequently quantify circulating...

  16. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation.

    PubMed

    Minier, M; Goma, G

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction, The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dedecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used-1 pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to (1) increase the interfacial area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, (2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35 degrees C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot-in classical process- completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion.

  17. Improved method of signature extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christianson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Kriegler, F. J.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R. E.; Mclaughlin, R.; Smith, V.

    1977-01-01

    System promises capability of rapidly processing large amounts of data generated by currently available and planned multispectral sensors, such as those utilized on aircraft and spacecraft. Techniques developed for system, greatly decrease operator time required for signature extraction from multispectral data base.

  18. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  19. Uranium extraction: Fuel from seawater

    DOE PAGES

    Tsouris, Costas; Oak Ridge National Lab.

    2017-02-17

    Over four billion tonnes of uranium are currently in the oceans that could be harvested for nuclear fuel, but current capture methods have limited performance and reusability. Now, an electrochemical method using modified carbon electrodes is shown to be promising for the extraction of uranium from seawater.

  20. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...