Science.gov

Sample records for circadian protein bmal1

  1. The Circadian Protein BMAL1 Regulates Translation in Response to S6K1-Mediated Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Jonathan O; Yuan, Elizabeth D; Boyle, Lara M; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Kwiatkowski, Erica; Nathan, Ashwin; Güttler, Thomas; Davis, Fred; Asara, John M; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-05-21

    The circadian timing system synchronizes cellular function by coordinating rhythmic transcription via a transcription-translational feedback loop. How the circadian system regulates gene expression at the translational level remains a mystery. Here, we show that the key circadian transcription factor BMAL1 associates with the translational machinery in the cytosol and promotes protein synthesis. The mTOR-effector kinase, ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1), an important regulator of translation, rhythmically phosphorylates BMAL1 at an evolutionarily conserved site. S6K1-mediated phosphorylation is critical for BMAL1 to both associate with the translational machinery and stimulate protein synthesis. Protein synthesis rates demonstrate circadian oscillations dependent on BMAL1. Thus, in addition to its critical role in circadian transcription, BMAL1 is a translation factor that links circadian timing and the mTOR signaling pathway. More broadly, these results expand the role of the circadian clock to the regulation of protein synthesis.

  2. Deficiency of circadian clock protein BMAL1 in mice results in a low bone mass phenotype.

    PubMed

    Samsa, William E; Vasanji, Amit; Midura, Ronald J; Kondratov, Roman V

    2016-03-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous time keeping system that controls the physiology and behavior of many organisms. The transcription factor Brain and Muscle ARNT-like Protein 1 (BMAL1) is a component of the circadian clock and necessary for clock function. Bmal1(-/-) mice display accelerated aging and many accompanying age associated pathologies. Here, we report that mice deficient for BMAL1 have a low bone mass phenotype that is absent at birth and progressively worsens over their lifespan. Accelerated aging of these mice is associated with the formation of bony bridges occurring across the metaphysis to the epiphysis, resulting in shorter long bones. Using micro-computed tomography we show that Bmal1(-/-) mice have reductions in cortical and trabecular bone volume and other micro-structural parameters and a lower bone mineral density. Histology shows a deficiency of BMAL1 results in a reduced number of active osteoblasts and osteocytes in vivo. Isolation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells from Bmal1(-/-) mice demonstrate a reduced ability to differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro, which likely explains the observed reductions in osteoblasts and osteocytes, and may contribute to the observed osteopenia. Our data support the role of the circadian clock in the regulation of bone homeostasis and shows that BMAL1 deficiency results in a low bone mass phenotype.

  3. A Novel Bmal1 Mutant Mouse Reveals Essential Roles of the C-Terminal Domain on Circadian Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Park, Noheon; Kim, Hee-Dae; Cheon, Solmi; Row, Hansang; Lee, Jiyeon; Han, Dong-Hee; Cho, Sehyung; Kim, Kyungjin

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock is an endogenous biological timer comprised of transcriptional/translational feedback loops of clock genes. Bmal1 encodes an indispensable transcription factor for the generation of circadian rhythms. Here, we report a new circadian mutant mouse from gene-trapped embryonic stem cells harboring a C-terminus truncated Bmal1 (Bmal1GTΔC) allele. The homozygous mutant (Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC) mice immediately lost circadian behavioral rhythms under constant darkness. The heterozygous (Bmal1+/GTΔC) mice displayed a gradual loss of rhythms, in contrast to Bmal1+/- mice where rhythms were sustained. Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice also showed arrhythmic mRNA and protein expression in the SCN and liver. Lack of circadian reporter oscillation was also observed in cultured fibroblast cells, indicating that the arrhythmicity of Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice resulted from impaired molecular clock machinery. Expression of clock genes exhibited distinct responses to the mutant allele in Bmal1+/GTΔC and Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice. Despite normal cellular localization and heterodimerization with CLOCK, overexpressed BMAL1GTΔC was unable to activate transcription of Per1 promoter and BMAL1-dependent CLOCK degradation. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of Bmal1 has pivotal roles in the regulation of circadian rhythms and the Bmal1GTΔC mice constitute a novel model system to evaluate circadian functional mechanism of BMAL1.

  4. CRY Drives Cyclic CK2-Mediated BMAL1 Phosphorylation to Control the Mammalian Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Tamaru, Teruya; Hattori, Mitsuru; Honda, Kousuke; Nakahata, Yasukazu; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Ozawa, Takeaki; Takamatsu, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular circadian clocks, composed of clock genes that act in transcription-translation feedback loops, drive global rhythmic expression of the mammalian transcriptome and allow an organism to anticipate to the momentum of the day. Using a novel clock-perturbing peptide, we established a pivotal role for casein kinase (CK)-2-mediated circadian BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation (BMAL1-P) in regulating central and peripheral core clocks. Subsequent analysis of the underlying mechanism showed a novel role of CRY as a repressor for protein kinase. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and real-time monitoring of protein–protein interactions revealed that CRY-mediated periodic binding of CK2β to BMAL1 inhibits BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation by CK2α. The FAD binding domain of CRY1, two C-terminal BMAL1 domains, and particularly BMAL1-Lys537 acetylation/deacetylation by CLOCK/SIRT1, were shown to be critical for CRY-mediated BMAL1–CK2β binding. Reciprocally, BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation is prerequisite for BMAL1-Lys537 acetylation. We propose a dual negative-feedback model in which a CRY-dependent CK2-driven posttranslational BMAL1–P-BMAL1 loop is an integral part of the core clock oscillator. PMID:26562092

  5. Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine ameliorates symptoms of premature aging associated with the deficiency of the circadian protein BMAL1

    PubMed Central

    Kondratov, Roman V.; Vykhovanets, Olena; Kondratova, Anna A.; Antoch, Marina P.

    2009-01-01

    Deficiency of the circadian clock protein BMAL1 leads to premature aging and increased levels of reactivate oxygen species in several tissues of mice. In order to investigate the role of oxidative stress in accelerated aging and development of age-related pathologies, we continuously administered the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine toBmal1-deficient mice through their entire lifespan by supplementing drinking water. We found that the life long treatment with antioxidant significantly increased average and maximal lifespan and reduced the rate of age-dependent weight loss and development of cataracts. At the same time, it had no effect on time of onset and severity of other age-related pathologies characteristic of Bmal1-/- mice, such as joint ossification, reduced hair regrowth and sarcopenia. We conclude that chronic oxidative stress affects longevity and contributes to the development of at least some age-associated pathology, although ROS-independent mechanisms may also play a role. Our bioinformatics analysis identified the presence of a conservative E box element in the promoter regions of several genes encoding major antioxidant enzymes. We speculate that BMAL1 controls antioxidant defense by regulating the expression of major antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20157581

  6. Circadian transcription factor BMAL1 regulates innate immunity against select RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Tanmay; Dhar, Jayeeta; Patel, Sonal; Kondratov, Roman; Barik, Sailen

    2017-02-01

    BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as MOP3 or ARNT3) belongs to the family of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS domain-containing transcription factors, and is a key component of the molecular oscillator that generates circadian rhythms. Here, we report that BMAL1-deficient cells are significantly more susceptible to infection by two major respiratory viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family, namely RSV and PIV3. Embryonic fibroblasts from Bmal1(-/-) mice produced nearly 10-fold more progeny virus than their wild type controls. These results were supported by animal studies whereby pulmonary infection of RSV produced a more severe disease and morbidity in Bmal1(-/-)mice. These results show that BMAL1 can regulate cellular innate immunity against specific RNA viruses.

  7. Nuclear envelope protein MAN1 regulates clock through BMAL1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Ting; Zhang, Luoying; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Linda Chen; Garcia, Valentina Elizabeth; Tsai, Chen-Wei; Ptáček, Louis; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks serve as internal pacemakers that influence many basic homeostatic processes; consequently, the expression and function of their components are tightly regulated by intricate networks of feedback loops that fine-tune circadian processes. Our knowledge of these components and pathways is far from exhaustive. In recent decades, the nuclear envelope has emerged as a global gene regulatory machine, although its role in circadian regulation has not been explored. We report that transcription of the core clock component BMAL1 is positively modulated by the inner nuclear membrane protein MAN1, which directly binds the BMAL1 promoter and enhances its transcription. Our results establish a novel connection between the nuclear periphery and circadian rhythmicity, therefore bridging two global regulatory systems that modulate all aspects of bodily functions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02981.001 PMID:25182847

  8. Circadian control of innate immunity in macrophages by miR-155 targeting Bmal1

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Anne M.; Fagundes, Caio T.; Palsson-McDermott, Eva M.; Wochal, Paulina; McGettrick, Anne F.; Foley, Niamh H.; Early, James O.; Chen, Lihong; Zhang, Hanrui; Xue, Chenyi; Geiger, Sarah S.; Hokamp, Karsten; Reilly, Muredach P.; Coogan, Andrew N.; Vigorito, Elena; FitzGerald, Garret A.; O’Neill, Luke A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The response to an innate immune challenge is conditioned by the time of day, but the molecular basis for this remains unclear. In myeloid cells, there is a temporal regulation to induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the proinflammatory microRNA miR-155 that correlates inversely with levels of BMAL1. BMAL1 in the myeloid lineage inhibits activation of NF-κB and miR-155 induction and protects mice from LPS-induced sepsis. Bmal1 has two miR-155–binding sites in its 3′-UTR, and, in response to LPS, miR-155 binds to these two target sites, leading to suppression of Bmal1 mRNA and protein in mice and humans. miR-155 deletion perturbs circadian function, gives rise to a shorter circadian day, and ablates the circadian effect on cytokine responses to LPS. Thus, the molecular clock controls miR-155 induction that can repress BMAL1 directly. This leads to an innate immune response that is variably responsive to challenges across the circadian day. PMID:25995365

  9. Circadian Factor BMAL1 in Histaminergic Neurons Regulates Sleep Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Zecharia, Anna; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Qianzi; Yustos, Raquel; Jager, Polona; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Chesham, Johanna E.; Ma, Ying; Brickley, Stephen G.; Hastings, Michael H.; Franks, Nicholas P.; Wisden, William

    2014-01-01

    Summary Circadian clocks allow anticipation of daily environmental changes [1]. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) houses the master clock, but clocks are also widely expressed elsewhere in the body [1]. Although some peripheral clocks have established roles [1], it is unclear what local brain clocks do [2, 3]. We tested the contribution of one putative local clock in mouse histaminergic neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus to the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Histaminergic neurons are silent during sleep, and start firing after wake onset [4–6]; the released histamine, made by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC), enhances wakefulness [7–11]. We found that hdc gene expression varies with time of day. Selectively deleting the Bmal1 (also known as Arntl or Mop3 [12]) clock gene from histaminergic cells removes this variation, producing higher HDC expression and brain histamine levels during the day. The consequences include more fragmented sleep, prolonged wake at night, shallower sleep depth (lower nonrapid eye movement [NREM] δ power), increased NREM-to-REM transitions, hindered recovery sleep after sleep deprivation, and impaired memory. Removing BMAL1 from histaminergic neurons does not, however, affect circadian rhythms. We propose that for mammals with polyphasic/nonwake consolidating sleep, the local BMAL1-dependent clock directs appropriately timed declines and increases in histamine biosynthesis to produce an appropriate balance of wake and sleep within the overall daily cycle of rest and activity specified by the SCN. PMID:25454592

  10. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonal A; Chaudhari, Amol; Gupta, Richa; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Kondratov, Roman V

    2016-04-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity in many species by unknown mechanisms. The circadian clock was proposed as a potential mediator of CR. Deficiency of the core component of the circadian clock-transcriptional factor BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator]-like protein 1)-results in accelerated aging. Here we investigated the role of BMAL1 in mechanisms of CR. The 30% CR diet increased the life span of wild-type (WT) mice by 20% compared to mice on anad libitum(AL) diet but failed to increase life span ofBmal1(-/-)mice. BMAL1 deficiency impaired CR-mediated changes in the plasma levels of IGF-1 and insulin. We detected a statistically significantly reduction of IGF-1 in CRvs.AL by 50 to 70% in WT mice at several daily time points tested, while inBmal1(-/-)the reduction was not significant. Insulin levels in WT were reduced by 5 to 9%, whileBmal1(-/-)induced it by 10 to 35% at all time points tested. CR up-regulated the daily average expression ofBmal1(by 150%) and its downstream target genesPeriods(by 470% forPer1and by 130% forPer2). We propose that BMAL1 is an important mediator of CR, and activation of BMAL1 might link CR mechanisms with biologic clocks.-Patel, S. A., Chaudhari, A., Gupta, R., Velingkaar, N., Kondratov, R. V. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms.

  11. Investigations of the CLOCK and BMAL1 Proteins Binding to DNA: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Tuo; Song, Chunnian; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yan; Chen, Guangju

    2016-01-01

    The circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), and brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) proteins are important transcriptional factors of the endogenous circadian clock. The CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins can regulate the transcription-translation activities of the clock-related genes through the DNA binding. The hetero-/homo-dimerization and DNA combination of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins play a key role in the positive and negative transcriptional feedback processes. In the present work, we constructed a series of binary and ternary models for the bHLH/bHLH-PAS domains of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins, and the DNA molecule, and carried out molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations and conformational analysis to explore the interaction properties of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins with DNA. The results show that the bHLH domains of CLOCK and BMAL1 can favorably form the heterodimer of the bHLH domains of CLOCK and BMAL1 and the homodimer of the bHLH domains of BMAL1. And both dimers could respectively bind to DNA at its H1-H1 interface. The DNA bindings of the H1 helices in the hetero- and homo-bHLH dimers present the rectangular and diagonal binding modes, respectively. Due to the function of the α-helical forceps in these dimers, the tight gripping of the H1 helices to the major groove of DNA would cause the decrease of interactions at the H1-H2 interfaces in the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins. The additional PAS domains in the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins affect insignificantly the interactions of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins with the DNA molecule due to the flexible and long loop linkers located at the middle of the PAS and bHLH domains. The present work theoretically explains the interaction mechanisms of the bHLH domains of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins with DNA. PMID:27153104

  12. Palmitate Inhibits SIRT1-Dependent BMAL1/CLOCK Interaction and Disrupts Circadian Gene Oscillations in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Arthurs, Blake; Li, Pei; Durudogan, Leigh; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum saturated fatty acid palmitate have been shown to promote insulin resistance, increase cellular ROS production, and trigger cell apoptosis in hepatocytes during the development of obesity. However, it remains unclear whether palmitate directly impacts the circadian clock in hepatocytes, which coordinates nutritional inputs and hormonal signaling with downstream metabolic outputs. Here we presented evidence that the molecular clock is a novel target of palmitate in hepatocytes. Palmitate exposure at low dose inhibits the molecular clock activity and suppresses the cyclic expression of circadian targets including Dbp, Nr1d1 and Per2 in hepatocytes. Palmitate treatment does not seem to alter localization or reduce protein expression of BMAL1 and CLOCK, the two core components of the molecular clock in hepatocytes. Instead, palmitate destabilizes the protein-protein interaction between BMAL1-CLOCK in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that SIRT1 activators could reverse the inhibitory action of palmitate on BMAL1-CLOCK interaction and the clock gene expression, whereas inhibitors of NAD synthesis mimic the palmitate effects on the clock function. In summary, our findings demonstrated that palmitate inhibits the clock function by suppressing SIRT1 function in hepatocytes. PMID:26075729

  13. Liver Clock Protein BMAL1 Promotes de Novo Lipogenesis through Insulin-mTORC2-AKT Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deqiang; Tong, Xin; Arthurs, Blake; Guha, Anirvan; Rui, Liangyou; Kamath, Avani; Inoki, Ken; Yin, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The clock protein BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1) participates in circadian regulation of lipid metabolism, but its contribution to insulin AKT-regulated hepatic lipid synthesis is unclear. Here we used both Bmal1−/− and acute liver-specific Bmal1-depleted mice to study the role of BMAL1 in refeeding-induced de novo lipogenesis in the liver. Both global deficiency and acute hepatic depletion of Bmal1 reduced lipogenic gene expression in the liver upon refeeding. Conversely, Bmal1 overexpression in mouse liver by adenovirus was sufficient to elevate the levels of mRNA of lipogenic enzymes. Bmal1−/− primary mouse hepatocytes displayed decreased levels of de novo lipogenesis and lipogenic enzymes, supporting the notion that BMAL1 regulates lipid synthesis in hepatocytes in a cell-autonomous manner. Both refed mouse liver and insulin-treated primary mouse hepatocytes showed impaired AKT activation in the case of either Bmal1 deficiency or Bmal1 depletion by adenoviral shRNA. Restoring AKT activity by a constitutively active mutant of AKT nearly normalized de novo lipogenesis in Bmal1−/− hepatocytes. Finally, Bmal1 deficiency or knockdown decreased the protein abundance of RICTOR, the key component of the mTORC2 complex, without affecting the gene expression of key factors of insulin signaling. Thus, our study uncovered a novel metabolic function of hepatic BMAL1 that promotes de novo lipogenesis via the insulin-mTORC2-AKT signaling during refeeding. PMID:25063808

  14. Calorie restriction regulates circadian clock gene expression through BMAL1 dependent and independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sonal A.; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Makwana, Kuldeep; Chaudhari, Amol; Kondratov, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Feeding behavior, metabolism and circadian clocks are interlinked. Calorie restriction (CR) is a feeding paradigm known to extend longevity. We found that CR significantly affected the rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes in mice on the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that CR reprograms the clocks both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. The effect of CR on gene expression was distinct from the effects of time-restricted feeding or fasting. Furthermore, CR affected the circadian output through up- or down-regulation of the expression of several clock-controlled transcriptional factors and the longevity candidate genes. CR-dependent effects on some clock gene expression were impaired in the liver of mice deficient for BMAL1, suggesting importance of this transcriptional factor for the transcriptional reprogramming of the clock, however, BMAL1- independent mechanisms also exist. We propose that CR recruits biological clocks as a natural mechanism of metabolic optimization under conditions of limited energy resources. PMID:27170536

  15. FTO modulates circadian rhythms and inhibits the CLOCK-BMAL1-induced transcription.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Yung; Shie, Shian-Sen; Hsieh, I-Chang; Tsai, Ming-Lung; Wen, Ming-Shien

    2015-08-28

    Variations in the human fat mass and obesity-associated gene, which encodes FTO, an 2-oxoglutarate-dependent nucleic acid demethylase, are associated with increased risk of obesity. These FTO variations were recently shown to affect IRX3 and the exact function of FTO is still controversial. Obesity is closely linked to circadian rhythm. To understand the role of FTO in circadian rhythm, we analyzed the circadian rhythm of FTO deficient mice. FTO deficient mice had robust circadian locomotor activity rhythms with prolonged periods. The light-induced phase shifts of circadian rhythms were also significantly affected in FTO deficient mice. Tissue explants of FTO deficient mice maintained robust peripheral rhythms with prolonged period. Overexpress of FTO represses the transcriptional activation by CLOCK and BMAL1. Core clock genes expression of mRNA and protein were also altered in FTO deficient mice. Furthermore, FTO co-immunoprecipitated with CRY1/2 in a circadian manner. These results indicate a fundamental link between the circadian rhythm and FTO and extend the function of FTO to the core clockwork machinery.

  16. Fine-Tuning Circadian Rhythms: The Importance of Bmal1 Expression in the Ventral Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Mieda, Michihiro; Hasegawa, Emi; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Although, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus acts as the central clock in mammals, the circadian expression of clock genes has been demonstrated not only in the SCN, but also in peripheral tissues and brain regions outside the SCN. However, the physiological roles of extra-SCN circadian clocks in the brain remain largely elusive. In response, we generated Nkx2.1-Bmal1−/− mice in which Bmal1, an essential clock component, was genetically deleted specifically in the ventral forebrain, including the preoptic area, nucleus of the diagonal band, and most of the hypothalamus except the SCN. In these mice, as expected, PER2::LUC oscillation was drastically attenuated in the explants of mediobasal hypothalamus, whereas it was maintained in those of the SCN. Although, Nkx2.1-Bmal1−/− mice were rhythmic and nocturnal, they showed altered patterns of locomotor activity during the night in a 12:12-h light:dark cycle and during subjective night in constant darkness. Control mice were more active during the first half than the second half of the dark phase or subjective night, whereas Nkx2.1-Bmal1−/− mice showed the opposite pattern of locomotor activity. Temporal patterns of sleep-wakefulness and feeding also changed accordingly. Such results suggest that along with mechanisms in the SCN, local Bmal1–dependent clocks in the ventral forebrain are critical for generating precise temporal patterns of circadian behaviors. PMID:28232786

  17. Dynamical mechanism of Bmal 1 / Rev- erbα loop in circadian clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Zengrong

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, the circadian clock is driven by multiple integrated transcriptional feedback loops involving three kinds of central clock-controlled elements (CCEs): E-boxes, D-boxes and ROR-elements. With the aid of CCEs, the concentrations of the active proteins are approximated by the delayed concentrations of mRNAs, which simplifies the circadian system drastically. The regulatory loop composed by BMAL1 and REV-ERB- α plays important roles in circadian clock. With delay differential equations, we gave a mathematical model of this loop and investigated its dynamical mechanisms. Specially, we theoretically provided the sufficient conditions for sustained oscillation of the loop with Hopf bifurcation theory. The total of delays determines the emergence of oscillators, which explains the crucial roles of delays in circadian clock revealed by biological experiments. Numerically, we studied the amplitude and period against the variations of delays and the degradation rates. The different sensitivities of amplitude and period on these factors provide ideas to adjust the amplitude or period of circadian oscillators.

  18. Histone mono-ubiquitination by a Clock–Bmal1 complex marks Per1 and Per2 genes for circadian feedback

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Alfred G.; Duong, Hao A.; Robles, Maria S.; Mann, Matthias; Weitz, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in mammals are driven by a feedback loop in which the transcription factor Clock–Bmal1 activates expression of Per and Cry proteins, which together form a large nuclear complex (Per complex) that represses Clock–Bmal1 activity. We found that mouse Clock–Bmal1 recruits the Ddb1–Cullin-4 ubiquitin ligase to Per, Cry, and other circadian target genes. Histone 2B mono-ubiquitination at Per genes was rhythmic and depended on Bmal1, Ddb1, and Cullin-4a. Depletion of Ddb1–Cullin-4a or independent reduction of Histone 2B mono-ubiquitination caused defective circadian feedback and reduced the association of the Per complex with DNA-bound Clock–Bmal1. Clock–Bmal1 thus covalently marks Per genes for subsequent recruitment of the Per complex. Our results reveal a chromatin-mediated signal from the positive to the negative limb of the clock that provides a licensing mechanism for circadian feedback. PMID:26323038

  19. PI3K regulates BMAL1/CLOCK-mediated circadian transcription from the Dbp promoter.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Yoshikazu; Miura, Daiki; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The circadian rhythm generated by circadian clock underlies a molecular mechanism of rhythmic transcriptional regulation by transcription factor BMAL1/CLOCK. Importantly, the circadian clock is coordinated by exogenous cues to accommodate to changes in the external environment. However, the molecular mechanisms by which intracellular-signaling pathways mediate the adjustments of the circadian transcriptional rhythms remain unclear. In this study, we found that pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) blocked upregulation of Dbp mRNA induced by serum shock in NIH 3T3 cells. Moreover, the inhibition of PI3K significantly reduced the promoter activity of the Dbp gene, as well as decreased the recruitment of BMAL1/CLOCK to the E-box in the Dbp promoter. Interestingly, the inhibition of PI3K blocked heterodimerization of BMAL1 and CLOCK. Our findings suggest that PI3K signaling plays a modulatory role in the regulation of the transcriptional rhythm of the Dbp gene by targeting BMAL1 and CLOCK.

  20. Differential effects of light and feeding on circadian organization of peripheral clocks in a forebrain Bmal1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Izumo, Mariko; Pejchal, Martina; Schook, Andrew C; Lange, Ryan P; Walisser, Jacqueline A; Sato, Takashi R; Wang, Xiaozhong; Bradfield, Christopher A; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2014-12-19

    In order to assess the contribution of a central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to circadian behavior and the organization of peripheral clocks, we generated forebrain/SCN-specific Bmal1 knockout mice by using floxed Bmal1 and pan-neuronal Cre lines. The forebrain knockout mice showed >90% deletion of BMAL1 in the SCN and exhibited an immediate and complete loss of circadian behavior in constant conditions. Circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues persisted but became desynchronized and damped in constant darkness. The loss of synchrony was rescued by light/dark cycles and partially by restricted feeding (only in the liver and kidney but not in the other tissues) in a distinct manner. These results suggest that the forebrain/SCN is essential for internal temporal order of robust circadian programs in peripheral clocks, and that individual peripheral clocks are affected differently by light and feeding in the absence of a functional oscillator in the forebrain.

  1. Differential effects of light and feeding on circadian organization of peripheral clocks in a forebrain Bmal1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Izumo, Mariko; Pejchal, Martina; Schook, Andrew C; Lange, Ryan P; Walisser, Jacqueline A; Sato, Takashi R; Wang, Xiaozhong; Bradfield, Christopher A; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the contribution of a central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to circadian behavior and the organization of peripheral clocks, we generated forebrain/SCN-specific Bmal1 knockout mice by using floxed Bmal1 and pan-neuronal Cre lines. The forebrain knockout mice showed >90% deletion of BMAL1 in the SCN and exhibited an immediate and complete loss of circadian behavior in constant conditions. Circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues persisted but became desynchronized and damped in constant darkness. The loss of synchrony was rescued by light/dark cycles and partially by restricted feeding (only in the liver and kidney but not in the other tissues) in a distinct manner. These results suggest that the forebrain/SCN is essential for internal temporal order of robust circadian programs in peripheral clocks, and that individual peripheral clocks are affected differently by light and feeding in the absence of a functional oscillator in the forebrain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04617.001 PMID:25525750

  2. Modulation of learning and memory by the targeted deletion of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 in forebrain circuits.

    PubMed

    Snider, Kaitlin H; Dziema, Heather; Aten, Sydney; Loeser, Jacob; Norona, Frances E; Hoyt, Kari; Obrietan, Karl

    2016-07-15

    A large body of literature has shown that the disruption of circadian clock timing has profound effects on mood, memory and complex thinking. Central to this time keeping process is the master circadian pacemaker located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Of note, within the central nervous system, clock timing is not exclusive to the SCN, but rather, ancillary oscillatory capacity has been detected in a wide range of cell types and brain regions, including forebrain circuits that underlie complex cognitive processes. These observations raise questions about the hierarchical and functional relationship between the SCN and forebrain oscillators, and, relatedly, about the underlying clock-gated synaptic circuitry that modulates cognition. Here, we utilized a clock knockout strategy in which the essential circadian timing gene Bmal1 was selectively deleted from excitatory forebrain neurons, whilst the SCN clock remained intact, to test the role of forebrain clock timing in learning, memory, anxiety, and behavioral despair. With this model system, we observed numerous effects on hippocampus-dependent measures of cognition. Mice lacking forebrain Bmal1 exhibited deficits in both acquisition and recall on the Barnes maze. Notably, loss of forebrain Bmal1 abrogated time-of-day dependent novel object location memory. However, the loss of Bmal1 did not alter performance on the elevated plus maze, open field assay, and tail suspension test, indicating that this phenotype specifically impairs cognition but not affect. Together, these data suggest that forebrain clock timing plays a critical role in shaping the efficiency of learning and memory retrieval over the circadian day.

  3. Circadian clock components RORα and Bmal1 mediate the anti-proliferative effect of MLN4924 in osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuju; Zhang, Jiaming; Deng, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huadie; Mao, Wei; Jiang, Fang; Xia, Zanxian; Li, Jia-Da

    2016-01-01

    The anticancer small molecule MLN4924, a Nedd8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, triggers cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence in cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that MLN4924 suppresses osteosarcoma cell proliferation by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our results indicate that MLN4924 stabilizes the retinoid orphan nuclear receptor alpha (RORα) by decreasing its ubiquitination. RNA interference of RORα attenuates the anti-proliferative effect of MLN4924 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. MLN4924 up-regulates the expression of p21 and Bmal1, two transcriptional targets of RORα. However, p21 plays a minimal role in the anti-proliferative effect of MLN4924 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. In contrast, Bmal1 suppression by siRNA attenuates the anti-proliferative effect of MLN4924 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells, indicating that the MLN4924-mediated cell growth inhibition is mediated by Bmal1. These results show MLN4924 to be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteosarcoma and suggest that MLN4924-induced tumor growth inhibition is mediated by the circadian clock components RORα and Bmal1. PMID:27602774

  4. Circadian clock components RORα and Bmal1 mediate the anti-proliferative effect of MLN4924 in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuju; Zhang, Jiaming; Deng, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huadie; Mao, Wei; Jiang, Fang; Xia, Zanxian; Li, Jia-Da

    2016-10-04

    The anticancer small molecule MLN4924, a Nedd8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, triggers cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence in cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that MLN4924 suppresses osteosarcoma cell proliferation by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our results indicate that MLN4924 stabilizes the retinoid orphan nuclear receptor alpha (RORα) by decreasing its ubiquitination. RNA interference of RORα attenuates the anti-proliferative effect of MLN4924 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. MLN4924 up-regulates the expression of p21 and Bmal1, two transcriptional targets of RORα. However, p21 plays a minimal role in the anti-proliferative effect of MLN4924 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. In contrast, Bmal1 suppression by siRNA attenuates the anti-proliferative effect of MLN4924 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells, indicating that the MLN4924-mediated cell growth inhibition is mediated by Bmal1. These results show MLN4924 to be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteosarcoma and suggest that MLN4924-induced tumor growth inhibition is mediated by the circadian clock components RORα and Bmal1.

  5. Circadian factors BMAL1 and RORα control HIF-1α transcriptional activity in nucleus pulposus cells: implications in maintenance of intervertebral disc health

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, Kaori; Silagi, Elizabeth S.; Choi, Hyowon; Sakabe, Kou; Mochida, Joji; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2016-01-01

    BMAL1 and RORα are major regulators of the circadian molecular oscillator. Since previous work in other cell types has shown cross talk between circadian rhythm genes and hypoxic signaling, we investigated the role of BMAL1 and RORα in controlling HIF-1-dependent transcriptional responses in NP cells that exist in the physiologically hypoxic intervertebral disc. HIF-1-dependent HRE reporter activity was further promoted by co-transfection with either BMAL1 or RORα. In addition, stable silencing of BMAL1 or inhibition of RORα activity resulted in decreased HRE activation. Inhibition of RORα also modulated HIF1α-TAD activity. Interestingly, immunoprecipitation studies showed no evidence of BMAL1, CLOCK or RORα binding to HIF-1α in NP cells. Noteworthy, stable silencing of BMAL1 as well as inhibition of RORα decreased expression of select HIF-1 target genes including VEGF, PFKFB3 and Eno1. To delineate if BMAL1 plays a role in maintenance of disc health, we studied the spinal phenotype of BMAL1-null mice. The lumbar discs of null mice evidenced decreased height, and several parameters associated with vertebral trabecular bone quality were also affected in nulls. In addition, null animals showed a higher ratio of cells to matrix in NP tissue and hyperplasia of the annulus fibrosus. Taken together, our results indicate that BMAL1 and RORα form a regulatory loop in the NP and control HIF-1 activity without direct interaction. Importantly, activities of these circadian rhythm molecules may play a role in the adaptation of NP cells to their unique niche. PMID:27049729

  6. Identification of a new clock-related element EL-box involved in circadian regulation by BMAL1/CLOCK and HES1.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Taichi; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Honda, Kiyomasa K; Noshiro, Mitsuhide; Fujimoto, Katsumi; Nakao, Sanae; Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Hashimoto, Seiichi; Gotoh, Osamu; Kato, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    Several cis-acting elements play critical roles in maintaining circadian expression of clock and clock-controlled genes. Using in silico analysis, we identified 10 sequence motifs that are correlated with the circadian phases of gene expression in the cartilage. One of these motifs, an E-box-like clock-related element (EL-box; GGCACGAGGC), can mediate BMAL1/CLOCK-induced transcription, which is typically regulated through an E-box or E'-box. Expression of EL-box-containing genes, including Ank, Dbp, and Nr1d1 (Rev-erbα), was induced by BMAL1/CLOCK or BMAL1/NPAS2. Compared with the E-box, the EL-box elements had distinct responsiveness to DEC1, DEC2, and HES1: suppressive actions of DEC1 and DEC2 on the EL-box were less potent than those on the E-box. HES1, which is known to bind to the N-box (CACNAG), suppressed enhancer activity of the EL-box, but not the E-box. In the Dbp promoter, an EL-box worked cooperatively with a noncanonical (NC) E-box to mediate BMAL1/CLOCK actions. These findings suggest that in addition to known clock elements, the EL-box element may contribute to circadian regulation of clock and clock-controlled genes.

  7. Shifting the Circadian Rhythm of Feeding in Mice Induces Gastrointestinal, Metabolic and Immune Alterations Which Are Influenced by Ghrelin and the Core Clock Gene Bmal1

    PubMed Central

    Laermans, Jorien; Broers, Charlotte; Beckers, Kelly; Vancleef, Laurien; Steensels, Sandra; Thijs, Theo; Tack, Jan; Depoortere, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Background In our 24-hour society, an increasing number of people are required to be awake and active at night. As a result, the circadian rhythm of feeding is seriously compromised. To mimic this, we subjected mice to restricted feeding (RF), a paradigm in which food availability is limited to short and unusual times of day. RF induces a food-anticipatory increase in the levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin. We aimed to investigate whether ghrelin triggers the changes in body weight and gastric emptying that occur during RF. Moreover, the effect of genetic deletion of the core clock gene Bmal1 on these physiological adaptations was studied. Methods Wild-type, ghrelin receptor knockout and Bmal1 knockout mice were fed ad libitum or put on RF with a normal or high-fat diet (HFD). Plasma ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric contractility was studied in vitro in muscle strips and in vivo (13C breath test). Cytokine mRNA expression was quantified and infiltration of immune cells was assessed histologically. Results The food-anticipatory increase in plasma ghrelin levels induced by RF with normal chow was abolished in HFD-fed mice. During RF, body weight restoration was facilitated by ghrelin and Bmal1. RF altered cytokine mRNA expression levels and triggered contractility changes resulting in an accelerated gastric emptying, independent from ghrelin signaling. During RF with a HFD, Bmal1 enhanced neutrophil recruitment to the stomach, increased gastric IL-1α expression and promoted gastric contractility changes. Conclusions This is the first study demonstrating that ghrelin and Bmal1 regulate the extent of body weight restoration during RF, whereas Bmal1 controls the type of inflammatory infiltrate and contractility changes in the stomach. Disrupting the circadian rhythm of feeding induces a variety of diet-dependent metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal alterations, which may explain the higher prevalence of obesity and immune

  8. Bmal1 and Beta cell clock are required for adaptation to circadian disruption, and their loss of function leads to oxidative stress-induced Beta cell failure in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circadian disruption has deleterious effects on metabolism. Global deletion of Bmal1, a core clock gene, results in Beta cell dysfunction and diabetes. However, it is unknown if this is due to loss of cell-autonomous function of Bmal1 in Beta cells. To address this, we generated mice with Beta cell ...

  9. Methylation on the Circadian Gene BMAL1 Is Associated with the Effects of a Weight Loss Intervention on Serum Lipid Levels.

    PubMed

    Samblas, Mirian; Milagro, Fermin I; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Martínez, J Alfredo; Garaulet, Marta

    2016-06-01

    The circadian clock system has been linked to the onset and development of obesity and some accompanying comorbidities. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, are putatively involved in the regulation of the circadian clock system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a weight loss intervention based on an energy-controlled Mediterranean dietary pattern in the methylation levels of 3 clock genes, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NR1D1, and the association between the methylation levels and changes induced in the serum lipid profile with the weight loss treatment. The study sample enrolled 61 women (body mass index = 28.6 ± 3.4 kg/m(2); age: 42.2 ± 11.4 years), who followed a nutritional program based on a Mediterranean dietary pattern. DNA was isolated from whole blood obtained at the beginning and end point. Methylation levels at different CpG sites of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NR1D1 were analyzed by Sequenom's MassArray. The energy-restricted intervention modified the methylation levels of different CpG sites in BMAL1 (CpGs 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 18) and NR1D1 (CpGs 1, 10, 17, 18, 19, and 22). Changes in cytosine methylation in the CpG 5 to 9 region of BMAL1 with the intervention positively correlated with the eveningness profile (p = 0.019). The baseline methylation of the CpG 5 to 9 region in BMAL1 positively correlated with energy (p = 0.047) and carbohydrate (p = 0.017) intake and negatively correlated with the effect of the weight loss intervention on total cholesterol (p = 0.032) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.005). Similar significant and positive correlations were found between changes in methylation levels in the CpG 5 to 9 region of BMAL1 due to the intervention and changes in serum lipids (p < 0.05). This research describes apparently for the first time an association between changes in the methylation of the BMAL1 gene with the intervention and the effects of a weight loss intervention on blood lipids levels.

  10. Effects of BMAL1-SIRT1-positive cycle on estrogen synthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells: an implicative role of BMAL1 in PCOS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaou; Liu, Jiansheng; Zhu, Kai; Hong, Yan; Sun, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoming; Du, Yanzhi; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1) is necessary for fertility and has been found to be essential to follicle growth and steroidogenesis. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) has been reported to interact with BMAL1 and function in a circadian manner. Evidence has shown that SIRT1 regulates aromatase expression in estrogen-producing cells. We aimed to ascertain if there is a relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and BMAL1, and whether and how BMAL1 takes part in estrogen synthesis in human granulosa cells (hGCs). Twenty-four women diagnosed with PCOS and 24 healthy individuals undergoing assisted reproduction were studied. BMAL1 expression in their granulosa cells (GCs) was observed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The level of expression in the PCOS group was lower than that of the group without PCOS (p < 0.05). We also analyzed estrogen synthesis and aromatase expression in KGN cell lines. Both were downregulated after BMAL1 and SIRT1 knock-down and, conversely, upregulated after overexpression treatments of these two genes in KGN cells. Both BMAL1 and SIRT1 had a mutually positive regulation, as did the phosphorylation of JNK. Furthermore, JNK overexpression increased estrogen synthesis activity and the expression levels of aromatase, BMAL1, and SIRT1. In KGN and hGCs, estrogen synthesis and aromatase expression were downregulated after treatment with JNK and SIRT1 inhibitors. In addition, BMAL1, SIRT1, and JNK expression levels were all downregulated. Our results demonstrate the effects of BMAL1 on estrogen synthesis in hGCs and suggest a BMAL1-SIRT1-JNK positive feedback cycle in this process, which points out an important role of BMAL1 in the development of PCOS.

  11. Timing of expression of the core clock gene Bmal1 influences its effects on aging and survival

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guangrui; Chen, Lihong; Grant, Gregory R.; Paschos, Georgios; Song, Wen-Liang; Musiek, Erik S.; Lee, Vivian; McLoughlin, Sarah C.; Grosser, Tilo; Cotsarelis, George; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2016-01-01

    The absence of Bmal1, a core clock gene, results in a loss of circadian rhythms, an acceleration of aging, and a shortened life span in mice. To address the importance of circadian rhythms in the aging process, we generated conditional Bmal1 knockout mice that lacked the BMAL1 protein during adult life and found that wild-type circadian variations in wheel-running activity, heart rate, and blood pressure were abolished. Ocular abnormalities and brain astrogliosis were conserved irrespective of the timing of Bmal1 deletion. However, life span, fertility, body weight, blood glucose levels, and age-dependent arthropathy - which are altered in standard Bmal1 knockout mice - remained unaltered, while atherosclerosis and hair growth improved, in the conditional adult-life Bmal1 knockout mice, despite abolition of clock function. Hepatic RNA-Seq revealed that expression of oscillatory genes was dampened in the adult-life Bmal1 knockout mice, while overall gene expression was largely unchanged. Thus, many phenotypes in conventional Bmal1 knockout mice, hitherto attributed to disruption of circadian rhythms, reflect the loss of properties of BMAL1 that are independent of its role in the clock. These findings prompt re-evaluation of the systemic consequences of disruption of the molecular clock. PMID:26843191

  12. Generation of myometrium-specific Bmal1 knockout mice for parturition analysis.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Christine K; Asada, Minoru; Allen, Gregg C; McMahon, Douglas G; Muglia, Lisa M; Smith, Donté; Bhattacharyya, Sandip; Muglia, Louis J

    2012-01-01

    Human and rodent studies indicate a role for circadian rhythmicity and associated clock gene expression in supporting normal parturition. The importance of clock gene expression in tissues besides the suprachiasmatic nucleus is emerging. Here, a Bmal1 conditional knockout mouse line and a novel Cre transgenic mouse line were used to examine the role of myometrial Bmal1 in parturition. Ninety-two percent (22/24) of control females but only 64% (14/22) of females with disrupted myometrial Bmal1 completed parturition during the expected time window of 5p.m. on Day 19 through to 9a.m. on Day 19.5 of gestation. However, neither serum progesterone levels nor uterine transcript expression of the contractile-associated proteins Connexin43 and Oxytocin receptor differed between females with disrupted myometrial Bmal1 and controls during late gestation. The data indicate a role for myometrial Bmal1 in maintaining normal time of day of parturition.

  13. Glutamate-Dependent BMAL1 Regulation in Cultured Bergmann Glia Cells.

    PubMed

    Chi-Castañeda, Donají; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Zepeda, Rossana C; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa C R; Caba, Mario; Ortega, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Glutamate, the major excitatory amino acid, activates a wide variety of signal transduction cascades. This neurotransmitter is involved in photic entrainment of circadian rhythms, which regulate physiological and behavioral functions. The circadian clock in vertebrates is based on a transcription-translation feedback loop in which Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like protein 1 (BMAL1) acts as transcriptional activator of others clock genes. This protein is expressed in nearly all suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons, as well as in the granular layer of the cerebellum. In this context, we decided to investigate the role of glutamate in the molecular mechanisms involved in the processes of transcription/translation of BMAL1 protein. To this end, primary cultures of chick cerebellar Bergmann glial cells were stimulated with glutamatergic ligands and we found that BMAL1 levels increased in a dose- and time dependent manner. Additionally, we studied the phosphorylation of serine residues in BMAL1 under glutamate stimulation and we were able to detect an increase in the phosphorylation of this protein. The increased expression of BMAL1 is most probably the result of a stabilization of the protein after it has been phosphorylated by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and/or the Ca(2+)/diacylglycerol dependent protein kinase. The present results strongly suggest that glutamate participates in regulating BMAL1 in glial cells and that these cells might prove to be important in the control of circadian rhythms in the cerebellum.

  14. Development of dilated cardiomyopathy in Bmal1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Lefta, Mellani; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Feng, Han-Zhong; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are approximate 24-h oscillations in physiology and behavior. Circadian rhythm disruption has been associated with increased incidence of hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, and other cardiovascular pathologies in both humans and animal models. Mice lacking the core circadian clock gene, brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like protein (Bmal1), are behaviorally arrhythmic, die prematurely, and display a wide range of organ pathologies. However, data are lacking on the role of Bmal1 on the structural and functional integrity of cardiac muscle. In the present study, we demonstrate that Bmal1−/− mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy with age, characterized by thinning of the myocardial walls, dilation of the left ventricle, and decreased cardiac performance. Shortly after birth the Bmal1−/− mice exhibit a transient increase in myocardial weight, followed by regression and later onset of dilation and failure. Ex vivo working heart preparations revealed systolic ventricular dysfunction at the onset of dilation and failure, preceded by downregulation of both myosin heavy chain isoform mRNAs. We observed structural disorganization at the level of the sarcomere with a shift in titin isoform composition toward the stiffer N2B isoform. However, passive tension generation in single cardiomyocytes was not increased. Collectively, these findings suggest that the loss of the circadian clock gene, Bmal1, gives rise to the development of an age-associated dilated cardiomyopathy, which is associated with shifts in titin isoform composition, altered myosin heavy chain gene expression, and disruption of sarcomere structure. PMID:22707558

  15. Dual attenuation of proteasomal and autophagic BMAL1 degradation in Clock Δ19/+ mice contributes to improved glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kwon; He, Baokun; Nohara, Kazunari; Park, Noheon; Shin, Youngmin; Kim, Seonghwa; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Koike, Nobuya; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Chen, Zheng

    2015-07-31

    Circadian clocks orchestrate essential physiology in response to various cues, yet their mechanistic and functional plasticity remains unclear. Here, we investigated Clock(Δ19/+) heterozygous (Clk/+) mice, known to display lengthened periodicity and dampened amplitude, as a model of partially perturbed clocks. Interestingly, Clk/+ mice exhibited improved glycemic control and resistance to circadian period lengthening under high-fat diet (HFD). Furthermore, BMAL1 protein levels in Clk/+ mouse liver were upregulated compared with wild-type (WT) mice under HFD. Pharmacological and molecular studies showed that BMAL1 turnover entailed proteasomal and autophagic activities, and CLOCKΔ19 attenuated both processes. Consistent with an important role of BMAL1 in glycemic control, enhanced activation of insulin signaling was observed in Clk/+ mice relative to WT in HFD. Finally, transcriptome analysis revealed reprogramming of clock-controlled metabolic genes in Clk/+ mice. Our results demonstrate a novel role of autophagy in circadian regulation and reveal an unforeseen plasticity of circadian and metabolic networks.

  16. Circadian clock proteins and immunity.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Anne M; Bellet, Marina M; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; O'Neill, Luke A J

    2014-02-20

    Immune parameters change with time of day and disruption of circadian rhythms has been linked to inflammatory pathologies. A circadian-clock-controlled immune system might allow an organism to anticipate daily changes in activity and feeding and the associated risk of infection or tissue damage to the host. Responses to bacteria have been shown to vary depending on time of infection, with mice being more at risk of sepsis when challenged ahead of their activity phase. Studies highlight the extent to which the molecular clock, most notably the core clock proteins BMAL1, CLOCK, and REV-ERBα, control fundamental aspects of the immune response. Examples include the BMAL1:CLOCK heterodimer regulating toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) expression and repressing expression of the inflammatory monocyte chemokine ligand (CCL2) as well as REV-ERBα suppressing the induction of interleukin-6. Understanding the daily rhythm of the immune system could have implications for vaccinations and how we manage infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  17. PI3K-PTEN dysregulation leads to mTOR-driven upregulation of the core clock gene BMAL1 in normal and malignant epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Camila S; Almeida, Luciana O; Guimarães, Douglas M; Martins, Manoela D; Papagerakis, Petros; Papagerakis, Silvana; Leopoldino, Andreia M; Castilho, Rogerio M; Squarize, Cristiane H

    2016-07-05

    Dysfunctional clock signaling is observed in a variety of pathological conditions. Many members of the clock gene family are upregulated in tumor cells. Here, we explored the consequences of a commonly disrupted signaling pathway in head and neck cancer on the regulation of circadian clock genes. PTEN is a key molecular controller of the PI3K signaling, and loss of PTEN function is often observed in a variety of cancers. Our main goal was to determine whether PTEN regulates circadian clock signaling. We found that oxidation-driven loss of PTEN function resulted in the activation of mTOR signaling and activation of the core clock protein BMAL1 (also known as ARNTL). The PTEN-induced BMAL1 upregulation was further confirmed using small interference RNA targeting PTEN, and in vivo conditional depletion of PTEN from the epidermis. We observed that PTEN-driven accumulation of BMAL1 was mTOR-mediated and that administration of Rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, resulted in in vivo rescue of normal levels of BMAL1. Accumulation of BMAL1 by deletion of PER2, a Period family gene, was also rescued upon in vivo administration of mTOR inhibitor. Notably, BMAL1 regulation requires mTOR regulatory protein Raptor and Rictor. These findings indicate that mTORC1 and mTORC2 complex plays a critical role in controlling BMAL1, establishing a connection between PI3K signaling and the regulation of circadian rhythm, ultimately resulting in deregulated BMAL1 in tumor cells with disrupted PI3K signaling.

  18. BMAL1-dependent regulation of the mTOR signaling pathway delays aging.

    PubMed

    Khapre, Rohini V; Kondratova, Anna A; Patel, Sonal; Dubrovsky, Yuliya; Wrobel, Michelle; Antoch, Marina P; Kondratov, Roman V

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, has been linked with control of aging, but molecular mechanisms of regulation are not known. BMAL1 is a transcriptional factor and core component of the circadian clock; BMAL1 deficiency is associated with premature aging and reduced lifespan. Here we report that activity of mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) is increased upon BMAL1 deficiency both in vivo and in cell culture. Increased mTOR signaling is associated with accelerated aging; in accordance with that, treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin increased lifespan of Bmal1-/- mice by 50%. Our data suggest that BMAL1 is a negative regulator of mTORC1 signaling. We propose that the circadian clock controls the activity of the mTOR pathway through BMAL1-dependent mechanisms and this regulation is important for control of aging and metabolism.

  19. The Transcriptional Repressor ID2 Can Interact with the Canonical Clock Components CLOCK and BMAL1 and Mediate Inhibitory Effects on mPer1 Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Sarah M.; Fernando, Shanik J.; Hou, Tim Y.; Duffield, Giles E.

    2010-01-01

    ID2 is a rhythmically expressed HLH transcriptional repressor. Deletion of Id2 in mice results in circadian phenotypes, highlighted by disrupted locomotor activity rhythms and an enhanced photoentrainment response. ID2 can suppress the transactivation potential of the positive elements of the clock, CLOCK-BMAL1, on mPer1 and clock-controlled gene (CCG) activity. Misregulation of CCGs is observed in Id2−/− liver, and mutant mice exhibit associated alterations in lipid homeostasis. These data suggest that ID2 contributes to both input and output components of the clock and that this may be via interaction with the bHLH clock proteins CLOCK and BMAL1. The aim of the present study was to explore this potential interaction. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis revealed the capability of ID2 to complex with both CLOCK and BMAL1, and mammalian two-hybrid analysis revealed direct interactions of ID2, ID1 and ID3 with CLOCK and BMAL1. Deletion of the ID2 HLH domain rendered ID2 ineffective at inhibiting CLOCK-BMAL1 transactivation, suggesting that interaction between the proteins is via the HLH region. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed overlapping localization of ID2 with CLOCK and BMAL1 in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of CLOCK and BMAL1 in the presence of ID2 resulted in a significant reduction in their nuclear localization, revealing that ID2 can sequester CLOCK and BMAL1 to the cytoplasm. Serum stimulation of Id2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in an enhanced induction of mPer1 expression. These data provide the basis for a molecular mechanism through which ID2 could regulate aspects of both clock input and output through a time-of-day specific interaction with CLOCK and BMAL1. PMID:20861012

  20. Role of miR-142-3p in the post-transcriptional regulation of the clock gene Bmal1 in the mouse SCN.

    PubMed

    Shende, Vikram R; Neuendorff, Nichole; Earnest, David J

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional modulators by regulating stability or translation of target mRNAs. Recent studies have implicated miRNAs in the regulation of mammalian circadian rhythms. To explore the role of miRNAs in the post-transcriptional modulation of core clock genes in the master circadian pacemaker, we examined miR-142-3p for evidence of circadian expression in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), regulation of its putative clock gene target Bmal1 via specific binding sites in the 3' UTR and overexpression-induced changes in the circadian rhythm of BMAL1 protein levels in SCN cells. In mice exposed to constant darkness (DD), miR-142-3p levels in the SCN were characterized by circadian rhythmicity with peak expression during early subjective day at CT 3. Mutagenesis studies indicate that two independent miRNA recognition elements located at nucleotides 1-7 and 335-357 contribute equally to miR-142-3p-induced repression of luciferase-reported Bmal1 3' UTR activity. Importantly, overexpression of miR-142-3p in immortalized SCN cells abolished circadian variation in endogenous BMAL1 protein levels in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-142-3p may play a role in the post-transcriptional modulation of Bmal1 and its oscillatory regulation in molecular feedback loops mediating SCN circadian function.

  1. Role of miR-142-3p in the Post-Transcriptional Regulation of the Clock Gene Bmal1 in the Mouse SCN

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Vikram R.; Neuendorff, Nichole; Earnest, David J.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional modulators by regulating stability or translation of target mRNAs. Recent studies have implicated miRNAs in the regulation of mammalian circadian rhythms. To explore the role of miRNAs in the post-transcriptional modulation of core clock genes in the master circadian pacemaker, we examined miR-142-3p for evidence of circadian expression in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), regulation of its putative clock gene target Bmal1 via specific binding sites in the 3′ UTR and overexpression-induced changes in the circadian rhythm of BMAL1 protein levels in SCN cells. In mice exposed to constant darkness (DD), miR-142-3p levels in the SCN were characterized by circadian rhythmicity with peak expression during early subjective day at CT 3. Mutagenesis studies indicate that two independent miRNA recognition elements located at nucleotides 1–7 and 335–357 contribute equally to miR-142-3p-induced repression of luciferase-reported Bmal1 3′ UTR activity. Importantly, overexpression of miR-142-3p in immortalized SCN cells abolished circadian variation in endogenous BMAL1 protein levels in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-142-3p may play a role in the post-transcriptional modulation of Bmal1 and its oscillatory regulation in molecular feedback loops mediating SCN circadian function. PMID:23755214

  2. Dual attenuation of proteasomal and autophagic BMAL1 degradation in ClockΔ19/+ mice contributes to improved glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kwon; He, Baokun; Nohara, Kazunari; Park, Noheon; Shin, Youngmin; Kim, Seonghwa; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Koike, Nobuya; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Circadian clocks orchestrate essential physiology in response to various cues, yet their mechanistic and functional plasticity remains unclear. Here, we investigated ClockΔ19/+ heterozygous (Clk/+) mice, known to display lengthened periodicity and dampened amplitude, as a model of partially perturbed clocks. Interestingly, Clk/+ mice exhibited improved glycemic control and resistance to circadian period lengthening under high-fat diet (HFD). Furthermore, BMAL1 protein levels in Clk/+ mouse liver were upregulated compared with wild-type (WT) mice under HFD. Pharmacological and molecular studies showed that BMAL1 turnover entailed proteasomal and autophagic activities, and CLOCKΔ19 attenuated both processes. Consistent with an important role of BMAL1 in glycemic control, enhanced activation of insulin signaling was observed in Clk/+ mice relative to WT in HFD. Finally, transcriptome analysis revealed reprogramming of clock-controlled metabolic genes in Clk/+ mice. Our results demonstrate a novel role of autophagy in circadian regulation and reveal an unforeseen plasticity of circadian and metabolic networks. PMID:26228022

  3. Astrocyte deletion of Bmal1 alters daily locomotor activity and cognitive functions via GABA signalling

    PubMed Central

    Barca-Mayo, Olga; Pons-Espinal, Meritxell; Follert, Philipp; Armirotti, Andrea; Berdondini, Luca; De Pietri Tonelli, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are controlled by a network of clock neurons in the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Core clock genes, such as Bmal1, are expressed in SCN neurons and in other brain cells, such as astrocytes. However, the role of astrocytic clock genes in controlling rhythmic behaviour is unknown. Here we show that ablation of Bmal1 in GLAST-positive astrocytes alters circadian locomotor behaviour and cognition in mice. Specifically, deletion of astrocytic Bmal1 has an impact on the neuronal clock through GABA signalling. Importantly, pharmacological modulation of GABAA-receptor signalling completely rescues the behavioural phenotypes. Our results reveal a crucial role of astrocytic Bmal1 for the coordination of neuronal clocks and propose a new cellular target, astrocytes, for neuropharmacology of transient or chronic perturbation of circadian rhythms, where alteration of astrocytic clock genes might contribute to the impairment of the neurobehavioural outputs such as cognition. PMID:28186121

  4. Age-related BMAL1 change affects mouse bone marrow stromal cell proliferation and osteo-differentiation potential

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yijia; Xu, Xiaomei; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Cui; Chen, Yangxi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Aging people's bone regeneration potential is always impaired. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) contain progenitors of osteoblasts. Donor age may affect MSCs’ proliferation and differentiation potential, but the genomic base is still unknown. Due to recent research's indication that a core circadian component, brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 protein (BMAL1), has a role in premature aging, we investigated the normal aging mechanism in mice with their MSCs and Bmal1 gene/protein level. Material and methods 1, 6 and 16 month old C57BL/6 mice were used and the bone marrow stromal cells were gained and cultured at early passage. Bmal1 gene and protein level were detected in these cells. Marrow stromal cells were also induced to differentiate to osteoblasts or adipocytes. Three groups of mice MSCs were compared on proliferation by flow cytometry, on cell senescence by SA-β-gal expression and after osteo-induction on osteogenic potential by the expression of osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Results Bmal1 gene and protein level as well as S-phase fraction of the cell cycle decreased in MSCs along with the aging process. At the same time, SA-β-gal+ levels increased, especially in the aged mice MSCs. When induced to be osteogenic, Osx gene expression and ALP activity declined in the mid-age and aged mice MSCs, while OCN protein secretion deteriorated in the aged mice MSCs. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that mouse MSCs changed with their proliferation and osteo-differentiation abilities at different aging stages, and that Bmal1 is related to the normal aging process in MSCs. PMID:22457671

  5. Global and hepatocyte-specific ablation of Bmal1 induces hyperlipidaemia and enhances atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms controlled by clock genes affect plasma lipids. Here we show that global ablation of Bmal1 in Apoe−/− and Ldlr−/− mice and its liver-specific ablation in Apoe−/− (L-Bmal1−/−Apoe−/−) mice increases, whereas overexpression of BMAL1 in L-Bmal1−/−Apoe−/− and Apoe−/−mice decreases hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Bmal1 deficiency augments hepatic lipoprotein secretion and diminishes cholesterol excretion to the bile. Further, Bmal1 deficiency reduces expression of Shp and Gata4. Reductions in Shp increase Mtp expression and lipoprotein production, whereas reductions in Gata4 diminish Abcg5/Abcg8 expression and biliary cholesterol excretion. Forced SHP expression normalizes lipoprotein secretion with no effect on biliary cholesterol excretion, while forced GATA4 expression increases cholesterol excretion to the bile and reduces plasma lipids in L-Bmal1−/−Apoe−/− and Apoe−/− mice. Thus, our data indicate that Bmal1 modulates lipoprotein production and biliary cholesterol excretion by regulating the expression of Mtp and Abcg5/Abcg8 via Shp and Gata4. PMID:27721414

  6. Global Loss of Bmal1 Expression Alters Adipose Tissue Hormones, Gene Expression and Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kennaway, David John; Varcoe, Tamara Jayne; Voultsios, Athena; Boden, Michael James

    2013-01-01

    The close relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and poor metabolic status is becoming increasingly evident, but role of adipokines is poorly understood. Here we investigated adipocyte function and the metabolic status of mice with a global loss of the core clock gene Bmal1 fed either a normal or a high fat diet (22% by weight). Bmal1 null mice aged 2 months were killed across 24 hours and plasma adiponectin and leptin, and adipose tissue expression of Adipoq, Lep, Retn and Nampt mRNA measured. Glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance tests were conducted and the expression of liver glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzyme mRNA determined. Bmal1 null mice displayed a pattern of increased plasma adiponectin and plasma leptin concentrations on both control and high fat diets. Bmal1 null male and female mice displayed increased adiposity (1.8 fold and 2.3 fold respectively) on the normal diet, but the high fat diet did not exaggerate these differences. Despite normal glucose and insulin tolerance, Bmal1 null mice had increased production of glucose from pyruvate, implying increased liver gluconeogenesis. The Bmal1 null mice had arrhythmic clock gene expression in epigonadal fat and liver, and loss of rhythmic transcription of a range of metabolic genes. Furthermore, the expression of epigonadal fat Adipoq, Retn, Nampt, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and liver Pfkfb3 mRNA were down-regulated. These results show for the first time that global loss of Bmal1, and the consequent arrhythmicity, results in compensatory changes in adipokines involved in the cellular control of glucose metabolism. PMID:23750248

  7. Cardiomyocyte-specific Bmal1 deletion in mice triggers diastolic dysfunction, extracellular matrix response, and impaired resolution of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Kevin A.; Kain, Vasundhara; Goel, Mehak; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Young, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock consists of multiple transcriptional regulators that coordinate biological processes in a time-of-day-dependent manner. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of the circadian clock component, Bmal1 (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1), leads to age-dependent dilated cardiomyopathy and decreased lifespan in mice. We investigated whether cardiomyocyte-specific Bmal1 knockout (CBK) mice display early alterations in cardiac diastolic function, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, and inflammation modulators by investigating CBK mice and littermate controls at 8 and 28 wk of age (i.e., prior to overt systolic dysfunction). Left ventricles of CBK mice exhibited (P < 0.05): 1) progressive abnormal diastolic septal annular wall motion and reduced pulmonary venous flow only at 28 wk of age; 2) progressive worsening of fibrosis in the interstitial and endocardial regions from 8 to 28 wk of age; 3) increased (>1.5 fold) expression of collagen I and III, as well as the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-14 at 28 wk of age; 4) increased transcript levels of neutrophil chemotaxis and leukocyte migration genes (Ccl2, Ccl8, Cxcl2, Cxcl1, Cxcr2, Il1β) with no change in Il-10 and Il-13 genes expression; and 5) decreased levels of 5-LOX, HO-1 and COX-2, enzymes indicating impaired resolution of inflammation. In conclusion, genetic disruption of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock results in diastolic dysfunction, adverse ECM remodeling, and proinflammatory gene expression profiles in the mouse heart, indicating signs of early cardiac aging in CBK mice. PMID:26432841

  8. Premature aging of the hippocampal neurogenic niche in adult Bmal1‐ deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amira A. H.; Schwarz‐Herzke, Beryl; Stahr, Anna; Prozorovski, Timour; Aktas, Orhan; von Gall, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis undergoes dramatic age‐related changes. Mice with targeted deletion of the clock gene Bmal1 (Bmal1‐/‐) show disrupted regulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, accelerated aging, neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. As proliferation of neuronal progenitor/precursor cells (NPCs) is enhanced in young Bmal1‐/‐ mice, we tested the hypothesis that this results in premature aging of hippocampal neurogenic niche in adult Bmal1‐/‐ mice as compared to wildtype littermates. We found significantly reduced pool of hippocampal NPCs, scattered distribution, enhanced survival of NPCs and an increased differentiation of NPCs into the astroglial lineage at the expense of the neuronal lineage. Immunoreaction of the redox sensitive histone deacetylase Sirtuine 1, peroxisomal membrane protein at 70kDa and expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 Waf1/CIP1 were increased in adult Bmal1‐/‐ mice. In conclusion, genetic disruption of the molecular clockwork leads to accelerated age‐dependent decline in adult neurogenesis presumably as a consequence of oxidative stress. PMID:26142744

  9. Premature aging of the hippocampal neurogenic niche in adult Bmal1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amira A H; Schwarz-Herzke, Beryl; Stahr, Anna; Prozorovski, Timour; Aktas, Orhan; von Gall, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis undergoes dramatic age-related changes. Mice with targeted deletion of the clock geneBmal1 (Bmal1(-/-)) show disrupted regulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, accelerated aging, neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. As proliferation of neuronal progenitor/precursor cells (NPCs) is enhanced in young Bmal1(-/-) mice, we tested the hypothesis that this results in premature aging of hippocampal neurogenic niche in adult Bmal1(-/-) mice as compared to wildtype littermates. We found significantly reduced pool of hippocampal NPCs, scattered distribution, enhanced survival of NPCs and an increased differentiation of NPCs into the astroglial lineage at the expense of the neuronal lineage. Immunoreaction of the redox sensitive histone deacetylase Sirtuine 1, peroxisomal membrane protein at 70 kDa and expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Waf1/CIP1) were increased in adult Bmal1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, genetic disruption of the molecular clockwork leads to accelerated age-dependent decline in adult neurogenesis presumably as a consequence of oxidative stress.

  10. The PXDLS linear motif regulates circadian rhythmicity through protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Moran; Aviram, Rona; Adamovich, Yaarit; Kraut-Cohen, Judith; Shamia, Tal; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golik, Marina; Asher, Gad

    2014-01-01

    The circadian core clock circuitry relies on interlocked transcription-translation feedback loops that largely count on multiple protein interactions. The molecular mechanisms implicated in the assembly of these protein complexes are relatively unknown. Our bioinformatics analysis of short linear motifs, implicated in protein interactions, reveals an enrichment of the Pro-X-Asp-Leu-Ser (PXDLS) motif within circadian transcripts. We show that the PXDLS motif can bind to BMAL1/CLOCK and disrupt circadian oscillations in a cell-autonomous manner. Remarkably, the motif is evolutionary conserved in the core clock protein REV-ERBα, and additional proteins implicated in the clock's function (NRIP1, CBP). In this conjuncture, we uncover a novel cross talk between the two principal core clock feedback loops and show that BMAL/CLOCK and REV-ERBα interact and that the PXDLS motif of REV-ERBα participates in their binding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PXDLS motifs of NRIP1 and CBP are involved in circadian rhythmicity. Our findings suggest that the PXDLS motif plays an important role in circadian rhythmicity through regulation of protein interactions within the clock circuitry and that short linear motifs can be employed to modulate circadian oscillations. PMID:25260595

  11. Hepatitis B virus X protein disrupts the balance of the expression of circadian rhythm genes in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Li; Yu, Chao; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Liu, Li-Ping; Fang, Xiefan; Wu, Chao

    2014-12-01

    The human circadian rhythm is controlled by at least eight circadian clock genes and disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with cancer development. The present study aims to elucidate the association between the expression of circadian clock genes and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and also to reveal whether the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is the major regulator that contributes to the disturbance of circadian clock gene expression. The mRNA levels of circadian clock genes in 30 HCC and the paired peritumoral tissues were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). A stable HBx-expressing cell line, Bel-7404-HBx, was established through transfection of HBx plasmids. The mRNA level of circadian clock genes was also detected by RT-qPCR in these cells. Compared with the paired peritumoral tissues, the mRNA levels of the Per1, Per2, Per3 and Cry2 genes in HCC tissue were significantly lower (P<0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the expression levels of CLOCK, BMAL1, Cry1 and casein kinase 1ɛ (CK1ɛ; P>0.05). Compared with Bel-7404 cells, the mRNA levels of the CLOCK, Per1 and Per2 genes in Bel-7404-HBx cells were significantly increased, while the mRNA levels of the BMAL1, Per3, Cry1, Cry2 and CKIɛ genes were decreased (P<0.05). Thus, the present study identified that disturbance of the expression of circadian clock genes is common in HCC. HBx disrupts the expression of circadian clock genes and may, therefore, induce the development of HCC.

  12. Myeloid Bmal1 deletion increases monocyte recruitment and worsens atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Huo, Mingyu; Huang, Yuhong; Qu, Dan; Zhang, Hongsong; Wong, Wing Tak; Chawla, Ajay; Huang, Yu; Tian, Xiao Yu

    2017-03-01

    BMAL1, the nonredundant transcription factor in the core molecular clock, has been implicated in cardiometabolic diseases in mice and humans. BMAL1 controls the cyclic trafficking of Ly6c(hi) monocytes to sites of acute inflammation. Myeloid deficiency of Bmal1 also worsens chronic inflammation in diet-induced obesity. We studied whether myeloid Bmal1 deletion promotes atherosclerosis by enhancing monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic lesions. By generating Bmal1(FloxP/FloxP);LysM(Cre) mice on the Apoe(-/-) background, we showed that Bmal1 deletion in myeloid cells increased the size of atherosclerotic lesions. Bmal1 deficiency in monocytes and macrophages resulted in an increased total number of lesional macrophages in general and Ly6c(hi) infiltrating monocyte-macrophages in particular, accompanied by skewed M2 to M1 macrophage phenotype. Ly6c(hi) and/or Ly6c(lo) monocyte subsets in blood, spleen, and bone marrow were not altered. Cell tracking and adoptive transfer of Ly6c(hi) monocytes showed Bmal1 deficiency induced more trafficking of Ly6c(hi) monocytes to atherosclerotic lesions, preferential differentiation of Ly6c(hi) monocytes into M1 macrophages, and increased macrophage content and lesion size in the carotid arteries. We demonstrated that Bmal1 deficiency in macrophages promotes atherosclerosis by enhancing recruitment of Ly6c(hi) monocytes to atherosclerotic lesions.-Huo, M., Huang, Y., Qu, D., Zhang, H., Wong, W. T., Chawla, A., Huang, Y., Tian, X. Y. Myeloid Bmal1 deletion increases monocyte recruitment and worsens atherosclerosis.

  13. Bone Resorption Is Regulated by Circadian Clock in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Xu, Cheng; Ochi, Hiroki; Nakazato, Ryota; Yamada, Daisuke; Nakamura, Saki; Kodama, Ayumi; Shimba, Shigeki; Mieda, Michihiro; Fukasawa, Kazuya; Ozaki, Kakeru; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujikawa, Koichi; Yoneda, Yukio; Numano, Rika; Hida, Akiko; Tei, Hajime; Takeda, Shu; Hinoi, Eiichi

    2016-12-07

    We have previously shown that endochondral ossification is finely regulated by the Clock system expressed in chondrocytes during postnatal skeletogenesis. Here we show a sophisticated modulation of bone resorption and bone mass by the Clock system through its expression in bone-forming osteoblasts. Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1) and Period1 (Per1) were expressed with oscillatory rhythmicity in the bone in vivo, and circadian rhythm was also observed in cultured osteoblasts of Per1::luciferase transgenic mice. Global deletion of murine Bmal1, a core component of the Clock system, led to a low bone mass, associated with increased bone resorption. This phenotype was recapitulated by the deletion of Bmal1 in osteoblasts alone. Co-culture experiments revealed that Bmal1-deficient osteoblasts have a higher ability to support osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ]-induced receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (Rankl) expression was more strongly enhanced in both Bmal1-deficient bone and cultured osteoblasts, whereas overexpression of Bmal1/Clock conversely inhibited it in osteoblasts. These results suggest that bone resorption and bone mass are regulated at a sophisticated level by osteoblastic Clock system through a mechanism relevant to the modulation of 1,25(OH)2 D3 -induced Rankl expression in osteoblasts. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Heterogeneous Expression of the Core Circadian Clock Proteins among Neuronal Cell Types in Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Zhijing; Ribelayga, Christophe P.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in metabolism, physiology, and behavior originate from cell-autonomous circadian clocks located in many organs and structures throughout the body and that share a common molecular mechanism based on the clock genes and their protein products. In the mammalian neural retina, despite evidence supporting the presence of several circadian clocks regulating many facets of retinal physiology and function, the exact cellular location and genetic signature of the retinal clock cells remain largely unknown. Here we examined the expression of the core circadian clock proteins CLOCK, BMAL1, NPAS2, PERIOD 1(PER1), PERIOD 2 (PER2), and CRYPTOCHROME2 (CRY2) in identified neurons of the mouse retina during daily and circadian cycles. We found concurrent clock protein expression in most retinal neurons, including cone photoreceptors, dopaminergic amacrine cells, and melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion cells. Remarkably, diurnal and circadian rhythms of expression of all clock proteins were observed in the cones whereas only CRY2 expression was found to be rhythmic in the dopaminergic amacrine cells. Only a low level of expression of the clock proteins was detected in the rods at any time of the daily or circadian cycle. Our observations provide evidence that cones and not rods are cell-autonomous circadian clocks and reveal an important disparity in the expression of the core clock components among neuronal cell types. We propose that the overall temporal architecture of the mammalian retina does not result from the synchronous activity of pervasive identical clocks but rather reflects the cellular and regional heterogeneity in clock function within retinal tissue. PMID:23189207

  15. Expression and Rhythmic Modulation of Circulating MicroRNAs Targeting the Clock Gene Bmal1 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Vikram R.; Goldrick, Marianna M.; Ramani, Suchitra; Earnest, David J.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact with 3′ untranslated region (UTR) elements of target genes to regulate mRNA stability or translation and thus play a role in regulating many different biological processes, including circadian rhythms. However, specific miRNAs mediating the regulation of essential clock genes remain largely unknown. Because vesicles containing membrane-bound miRNAs are present in the circulatory system, we examined miRNAs predicted to target the clock gene, Bmal1, for evidence of rhythmic fluctuations in circulating levels and modulatory effects on the 3′ UTR activity of Bmal1. A number of miRNAs with Bmal1 as a predicted target were expressed in the serum of mice exposed to LD 12∶12 and of these miRNAs, miR-152 and miR-494 but not miR-142-3p were marked by diurnal oscillations with bimodal peaks in expression occurring near the middle of the day and 8 or 12 hr later during the night. Co-transfection of pre-miR over-expression constructs for miR-494 and miR-142-3p in HEK293 cells had significant effects in repressing luciferase-reported Bmal1 3′ UTR activity by as much as 60%, suggesting that these miRNAs may function as post-transcriptional modulators of Bmal1. In conjunction with previous studies implicating miRNAs as extracellular regulatory signals, our results suggest that circulating miRNAs may play a role in the regulation of the molecular clockworks in peripheral circadian oscillators. PMID:21799909

  16. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy; Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric; Moreau, Régis; Hagen, Tory

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks. PMID:24944020

  17. Facilitated physiological adaptation to prolonged circadian disruption through dietary supplementation with essence of chicken.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Yao, Cencen; Tsang, Fai; Huang, Liangfeng; Zhang, Wanjing; Jiang, Jianguo; Mao, Youxiang; Shao, Yujian; Kong, Boda; Singh, Paramjeet; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Synchrony between circadian and metabolic processes is critical to the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Studies on essence of chicken (EC), a chicken meat extract rich in proteins, amino acids and peptides, showed its effectiveness in alleviating fatigue and promoting metabolism. A recent study revealed that it facilitated the re-entrainment of clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, Dec1, Per1 and Per2) in the pineal gland and liver in a rat model of circadian disruption. Here, we investigated the role of EC-facilitated circadian synchrony in the maintenance of the energy homeostasis using a mouse model of prolonged circadian disruption. Prolonged circadian disruption (12 weeks) resulted in hepatic maladaptation, manifested by a mild but significant (p < 0.05) hepatomegaly, accompanied by disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and liver injury (indicated by increased circulating hepatic enzymes). Evidently, there was marked elevations of hepatic inflammatory mediators (interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6), suggesting an underlying inflammation leading to the hepatic injury and functional impairment. Importantly, the disruption paradigm caused the decoupling between key metabolic regulators (e.g. mTOR and AMPK) and hepatic clock genes (Per1, Cry1, Dec1, Bmal1). Further, we showed that the loss of circadian synchrony between the master and hepatic clock genes (Per1, Cry1, Dec1, Bmal1) could be the underlying cause of the maladaptation. When supplemented with EC, the functional impairment and inflammation were abolished. The protective effects could be linked to its effectiveness in maintaining the synchrony between the master and hepatic clocks, and the resultant improved coupling of the circadian oscillators (Per1, Cry1, Dec1, Bmal1) and metabolic regulators (mTOR, AMPK). Overall, EC supplementation promoted the physiological adaptation to the prolonged circadian disruption through facilitation of endogenous circadian synchrony and the coupling of circadian oscillators and

  18. Endogenous rhythmicity of Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha in the hamster pineal gland is not driven by norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Pévet, Paul; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2009-05-01

    Pineal melatonin is synthesized with daily and seasonal rhythms following the hypothalamic clock-driven release of norepinephrine (NE). The pineal gland of rats and mice, like the biological clock, expresses a number of clock genes. However, the role of pineal clock elements in pineal physiology is still unknown. We examined the expression and regulation of several clock genes (Per1, Cry2, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha) under different lighting conditions or following adrenergic treatments in the Syrian hamster, a seasonal rodent. We found that Per1 and Cry2 genes were similarly regulated by the nocturnal release of NE: levels of Per1 and Cry2 mRNA displayed a nocturnal increase that was maintained after 2 days in constant darkness (DD) but abolished after 2 days under constant light (LL), a condition that suppresses endogenous NE release, or after an early night administration of the adrenergic antagonist propranolol. In contrast, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha exhibited a different pattern of expression and regulation. mRNA levels of both clock genes displayed a marked daily variation, maintained in DD, with higher values at midday for Bmal1 and at day/night transition for Rev-erb alpha. Remarkably, the daily variation of both Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha mRNA was maintained in LL conditions and was not affected by propranolol. This study confirms the daily regulation of Per1 and Cry2 gene expression by NE in the pineal gland of rodents and shows for the first time that a second set of clock genes, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha are expressed with a circadian rhythm independent of the hypothalamic clock-driven noradrenergic signal.

  19. Emerging Models for the Molecular Basis of Mammalian Circadian Timing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian circadian timekeeping arises from a transcription-based feedback loop driven by a set of dedicated clock proteins. At its core, the heterodimeric transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1 activates expression of Period, Cryptochrome, and Rev-Erb genes, which feed back to repress transcription and create oscillations in gene expression that confer circadian timing cues to cellular processes. The formation of different clock protein complexes throughout this transcriptional cycle helps to establish the intrinsic ∼24 h periodicity of the clock; however, current models of circadian timekeeping lack the explanatory power to fully describe this process. Recent studies confirm the presence of at least three distinct regulatory complexes: a transcriptionally active state comprising the CLOCK:BMAL1 heterodimer with its coactivator CBP/p300, an early repressive state containing PER:CRY complexes, and a late repressive state marked by a poised but inactive, DNA-bound CLOCK:BMAL1:CRY1 complex. In this review, we analyze high-resolution structures of core circadian transcriptional regulators and integrate biochemical data to suggest how remodeling of clock protein complexes may be achieved throughout the 24 h cycle. Defining these detailed mechanisms will provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of circadian timing and help to establish new platforms for the discovery of therapeutics to manipulate the clock. PMID:25303119

  20. Disruption of CLOCK-BMAL1 Transcriptional Activity Is Responsible for Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor–Mediated Regulation of Period1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Can-Xin; Krager, Stacey L.; Liao, Duan-Fang; Tischkau, Shelley A.

    2010-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a period-aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear transporter-simple minded domain transcription factor that shares structural similarity with circadian clock genes and readily interacts with components of the molecular clock. Activation of AhR by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alters behavioral circadian rhythms and represses the Period1 (Per1) gene in murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Per1 expression is driven by circadian locomotor activity cycles kaput-brain muscle ARNT-like (CLOCK-BMAL1)–dependent activation of Eboxes in the Per1 promoter. We hypothesized that the effects of AhR activation on the circadian clock are mediated by disruption of CLOCK-BMAL1 function and subsequent Per1 gene suppression. Effects of AhR activation on rhythmic Per1 transcripts were examined in livers of mice after treatment with the AhR agonist, TCDD; the molecular mechanisms of Per1 repression by AhR were determined in hepatoma cells using TCDD and β-napthoflavone as AhR activators. This study reports, for the first time, that AhR activation by TCDD alters the Per1 rhythm in the mouse liver and that Per1 gene suppression depends upon the presence of AhR. Furthermore, AhR interaction with BMAL1 attenuates CLOCK-BMAL1 activity and decreases CLOCK binding at Ebox1 and Ebox3 in the Per1 promoter. Taken together, these data suggest that AhR activation represses Per1 through disrupting CLOCK-BMAL1 activity, producing dysregulation of rhythmic Per1 gene expression. These data define alteration of the Per1 rhythm as novel signaling events downstream of AhR activation. Downregulation of Per1 could contribute to metabolic disease, cancer, and other detrimental effects resulting from exposure to certain environmental pollutants. PMID:20106950

  1. The mammalian circadian clock protein period counteracts cryptochrome in phosphorylation dynamics of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Ritsuko; Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Tokuda, Isao; Matsuo, Takahiro; Sato, Miho; Node, Koichi; Nishida, Eisuke; Akashi, Makoto

    2014-11-14

    The circadian transcription factor CLOCK exhibits a circadian oscillation in its phosphorylation levels. Although it remains unclear whether this phosphorylation contributes to circadian rhythm generation, it has been suggested to be involved in transcriptional activity, intracellular localization, and degradative turnover of CLOCK. Here, we obtained direct evidence that CLOCK phosphorylation may be essential for autonomous circadian oscillation in clock gene expression. Importantly, we found that the circadian transcriptional repressors Cryptochrome (CRY) and Period (PER) showed an opposite effect on CLOCK phosphorylation; CRY impaired BMAL1-dependent CLOCK phosphorylation, whereas PER protected the phosphorylation against CRY. Interestingly, unlike PER1 and PER2, PER3 did not exert a protective action, which correlates with the phenotypic differences among mice lacking the Per genes. Further studies on the regulatory mechanism of CLOCK phosphorylation would thus lead to elucidation of the mechanism of CRY-mediated transcriptional repression and an understanding of the true role of PER in the negative feedback system.

  2. Cancer/testis antigen PASD1 silences the circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Alicia K.; Harvey, Stacy L.; Sammons, Patrick J.; Anderson, Amanda P.; Kopalle, Hema M.; Banham, Alison H.; Partch, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The circadian clock orchestrates global changes in transcriptional regulation on a daily basis via the bHLH-PAS transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1. Pathways driven by other bHLH-PAS transcription factors have a homologous repressor that modulates activity on a tissue-specific basis, but none have been identified for CLOCK:BMAL1. We show here that the cancer/testis antigen PASD1 fulfills this role to suppress circadian rhythms. PASD1 is evolutionarily related to CLOCK and interacts with the CLOCK:BMAL1 complex to repress transcriptional activation. Expression of PASD1 is restricted to germline tissues in healthy individuals, but can be induced in cells of somatic origin upon oncogenic transformation. Reducing PASD1 in human cancer cells significantly increases the amplitude of transcriptional oscillations to generate more robust circadian rhythms. Our results describe a function for a germline-specific protein in regulation of the circadian clock and provide a molecular link from oncogenic transformation to suppression of circadian rhythms. PMID:25936801

  3. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy; Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric; Moreau, Régis; Hagen, Tory

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks.

  4. Glucocorticoid-mediated Period2 induction delays the phase of circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Solmi; Park, Noheon; Cho, Sehyung; Kim, Kyungjin

    2013-07-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling synchronizes the circadian rhythm of individual peripheral cells and induces the expression of circadian genes, including Period1 (Per1) and Period2 (Per2). However, no GC response element (GRE) has been reported in the Per2 promoter region. Here we report the molecular mechanisms of Per2 induction by GC signaling and its relevance to the regulation of circadian timing. We found that GC prominently induced Per2 expression and delayed the circadian phase. The overlapping GRE and E-box (GE2) region in the proximal Per2 promoter was responsible for GC-mediated Per2 induction. The GRE in the Per2 promoter was unique in that brain and muscle ARNT-like protein-1 (BMAL1) was essential for GC-induced Per2 expression, whereas other GRE-containing promoters, such as Per1 and mouse mammary tumor virus, responded to dexamethasone in the absence of BMAL1. This specialized regulatory mechanism was mediated by BMAL1-dependent binding of the GC receptor to GRE in Per2 promoter. When Per2 induction was abrogated by the mutation of the GRE or E-box, the circadian oscillation phase failed to be delayed compared with that of the wild-type. Therefore, the current study demonstrates that the rapid Per2 induction mediated by GC is crucial for delaying the circadian rhythm.

  5. Glucocorticoid-mediated Period2 induction delays the phase of circadian rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Solmi; Park, Noheon; Cho, Sehyung; Kim, Kyungjin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling synchronizes the circadian rhythm of individual peripheral cells and induces the expression of circadian genes, including Period1 (Per1) and Period2 (Per2). However, no GC response element (GRE) has been reported in the Per2 promoter region. Here we report the molecular mechanisms of Per2 induction by GC signaling and its relevance to the regulation of circadian timing. We found that GC prominently induced Per2 expression and delayed the circadian phase. The overlapping GRE and E-box (GE2) region in the proximal Per2 promoter was responsible for GC-mediated Per2 induction. The GRE in the Per2 promoter was unique in that brain and muscle ARNT-like protein-1 (BMAL1) was essential for GC-induced Per2 expression, whereas other GRE-containing promoters, such as Per1 and mouse mammary tumor virus, responded to dexamethasone in the absence of BMAL1. This specialized regulatory mechanism was mediated by BMAL1-dependent binding of the GC receptor to GRE in Per2 promoter. When Per2 induction was abrogated by the mutation of the GRE or E-box, the circadian oscillation phase failed to be delayed compared with that of the wild-type. Therefore, the current study demonstrates that the rapid Per2 induction mediated by GC is crucial for delaying the circadian rhythm. PMID:23620290

  6. Circadian control of β-cell function and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Liu, R; de Jesus, D; Kim, B S; Ma, K; Moulik, M; Yechoor, V

    2015-09-01

    Circadian disruption is the bane of modern existence and its deleterious effects on health; in particular, diabetes and metabolic syndrome have been well recognized in shift workers. Recent human studies strongly implicate a 'dose-dependent' relationship between circadian disruption and diabetes. Genetic and environmental disruption of the circadian clock in rodents leads to diabetes secondary to β-cell failure. Deletion of Bmal1, a non-redundant core clock gene, leads to defects in β-cell stimulus-secretion coupling, decreased glucose-stimulated ATP production, uncoupling of OXPHOS and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Both genetic and environmental circadian disruptions are sufficient to induce oxidative stress and this is mediated by a disruption of the direct transcriptional control of the core molecular clock and Bmal1 on Nrf2, the master antioxidant transcription factor in the β-cell. In addition, circadian disruption also leads to a dysregulation of the unfolded protein response and leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress in β-cells. Both the oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contribute to an impairment of mitochondrial function and β-cell failure. Understanding the basis of the circadian control of these adaptive stress responses offers hope to target them for pharmacological modulation to prevent and mitigate the deleterious metabolic consequences of circadian disruption.

  7. SRC-2 is an essential coactivator for orchastrating metabolism and circadian rhythm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchrony of the mammalian circadian clock is achieved by complex transcriptional and translational feedback loops centered on the BMAL1:CLOCK heterodimer. Modulation of circadian feedback loops is essential for maintaining rhythmicity, yet the role of transcriptional coactivators in driving BMAL1:C...

  8. CLOCK, PER2 and BMAL1 DNA methylation: association with obesity and metabolic syndrome characteristics and monounsaturated fat intake.

    PubMed

    Milagro, Fermín I; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Ordovás, Jose M; Garaulet, Marta

    2012-11-01

    The circadian clock system instructs 24-h rhythmicity on gene expression in essentially all cells, including adipocytes, and epigenetic mechanisms may participate in this regulation. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) features in clock gene methylation and the involvement of these epigenetic modifications in the outcomes. Sixty normal-weight, overweight and obese women followed a 16-weeks weight reduction program. DNA methylation levels at different CpG sites of CLOCK, BMAL1 and PER2 genes were analyzed by Sequenom's MassARRAY in white blood cells obtained before the treatment. Statistical differences between normal-weight and overweight + obese subjects were found in the methylation status of different CpG sites of CLOCK (CpGs 1, 5-6, 8 and 11-14) and, with lower statistical significance, in BMAL1 (CpGs 6-7, 8, 15 and 16-17). The methylation pattern of different CpG sites of the three genes showed significant associations with anthropometric parameters such as body mass index and adiposity, and with a MetS score. Moreover, the baseline methylation levels of CLOCK CpG 1 and PER2 CpGs 2-3 and 25 correlated with the magnitude of weight loss. Interestingly, the percentage of methylation of CLOCK CpGs 1 and 8 showed associations with the intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study demonstrates for the first time an association between methylation status of CpG sites located in clock genes (CLOCK, BMAL1 and PER2) with obesity, MetS and weight loss. Moreover, the methylation status of different CpG sites in CLOCK and PER2 could be used as biomarkers of weight-loss success, particularly CLOCK CPGs 5-6.

  9. The Zebrafish Period2 Protein Positively Regulates the Circadian Clock through Mediation of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR)-related Orphan Receptor α (Rorα)*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyong; Zhong, Zhaomin; Zhong, Yingbin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Han

    2015-01-01

    We report the characterization of a null mutant for zebrafish circadian clock gene period2 (per2) generated by transcription activator-like effector nuclease and a positive role of PER2 in vertebrate circadian regulation. Locomotor experiments showed that per2 mutant zebrafish display reduced activities under light-dark and 2-h phase delay under constant darkness, and quantitative real time PCR analyses showed up-regulation of cry1aa, cry1ba, cry1bb, and aanat2 but down-regulation of per1b, per3, and bmal1b in per2 mutant zebrafish, suggesting that Per2 is essential for the zebrafish circadian clock. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that Per2 represses aanat2 expression through E-box and enhances bmal1b expression through the Ror/Rev-erb response element, implicating that Per2 plays dual roles in the zebrafish circadian clock. Cell transfection and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Per2 enhances bmal1b expression through binding to orphan nuclear receptor Rorα. The enhancing effect of mouse PER2 on Bmal1 transcription is also mediated by RORα even though it binds to REV-ERBα. Moreover, zebrafish Per2 also appears to have tissue-specific regulatory roles in numerous peripheral organs. These findings help define the essential functions of Per2 in the zebrafish circadian clock and in particular provide strong evidence for a positive role of PER2 in the vertebrate circadian system. PMID:25544291

  10. Differential rescue of light- and food-entrainable circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Patrick M; Lu, Jun; Saper, Clifford B

    2008-05-23

    When food is plentiful, circadian rhythms of animals are powerfully entrained by the light-dark cycle. However, if animals have access to food only during their normal sleep cycle, they will shift most of their circadian rhythms to match the food availability. We studied the basis for entrainment of circadian rhythms by food and light in mice with targeted disruption of the clock gene Bmal1, which lack circadian rhythmicity. Injection of a viral vector containing the Bmal1 gene into the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus restored light-entrainable, but not food-entrainable, circadian rhythms. In contrast, restoration of the Bmal1 gene only in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus restored the ability of animals to entrain to food but not to light. These results demonstrate that the dorsomedial hypothalamus contains a Bmal1-based oscillator that can drive food entrainment of circadian rhythms.

  11. The circadian clock is functional in eosinophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Anja; Gönnenwein, Simone; Bischoff, Stephan C; Sherman, Hadas; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren; Lorentz, Axel

    2013-12-01

    Allergic diseases are frequently exacerbated between midnight and early morning, suggesting a role for the biological clock. Mast cells (MC) and eosinophils are the main effector cells of allergic diseases and some MC-specific or eosinophil-specific markers, such as tryptase or eosinophil cationic protein, exhibit circadian variation. Here, we analysed whether the circadian clock is functional in mouse and human eosinophils and MC. Mouse jejunal MC and polymorphonuclear cells from peripheral blood (PMNC) were isolated around the circadian cycle. Human eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood of non-allergic and allergic subjects. Human MC were purified from intestinal tissue. We found a rhythmic expression of the clock genes mPer1, mPer2, mClock and mBmal1 and eosinophil-specific genes mEcp, mEpo and mMbp in murine PMNC. We also found circadian variations for hPer1, hPer2, hBmal1, hClock, hEdn and hEcp mRNA and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in human eosinophils of both healthy and allergic people. Clock genes mPer1, mPer2, mClock and mBmal1 and MC-specific genes mMcpt-5, mMcpt-7, mc-kit and mFcεRI α-chain and protein levels of mMCPT5 and mc-Kit showed robust oscillation in mouse jejunum. Human intestinal MC expressed hPer1, hPer2 and hBmal1 as well as hTryptase and hFcεRI α-chain, in a circadian manner. We found that pre-stored histamine and de novo synthesized cysteinyl leukotrienes, were released in a circadian manner by MC following IgE-mediated activation. In summary, the biological clock controls MC and eosinophils leading to circadian expression and release of their mediators and, hence it might be involved in the pathophysiology of allergy.

  12. The De-Ubiquitinylating Enzyme, USP2, Is Associated with the Circadian Clockwork and Regulates Its Sensitivity to Light

    PubMed Central

    Scoma, Heather Dehlin; Humby, Monica; Yadav, Geetha; Zhang, Qingjiong; Fogerty, Joseph; Besharse, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a novel component of the circadian clock that regulates its sensitivity to light at the evening light to dark transition. USP2 (Ubiquitin Specific Protease 2), which de-ubiquitinylates and stabilizes target proteins, is rhythmically expressed in multiple tissues including the SCN. We have developed a knockout model of USP2 and found that exposure to low irradiance light at ZT12 increases phase delays of USP2−/− mice compared to wildtype. We additionally show that USP2b is in a complex with several clock components and regulates the stability and turnover of BMAL1, which in turn alters the expression of several CLOCK/BMAL1 controlled genes. Rhythmic expression of USP2 in the SCN and other tissues offers a new level of control of the clock machinery through de-ubiqutinylation and suggests a role for USP2 during circadian adaptation to environmental day length changes. PMID:21966515

  13. Glucocorticoids mediate circadian timing in peripheral osteoclasts resulting in the circadian expression rhythm of osteoclast-related genes.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Yuko; Kondo, Hisataka; Noguchi, Toshihide; Togari, Akifumi

    2014-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are prevalent in bone metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Recently, we suggested that output signals from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are transmitted from the master circadian rhythm to peripheral osteoblasts through β-adrenergic and glucocorticoid signaling. In this study, we examined how the master circadian rhythm is transmitted to peripheral osteoclasts and the role of clock gene in osteoclast. Mice were maintained under 12-hour light/dark periods and sacrificed at Zeitgeber times 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20. mRNA was extracted from femur (cancellous bone) and analyzed for the expression of osteoclast-related genes and clock genes. Osteoclast-related genes such as cathepsin K (CTSK) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) showed circadian rhythmicity like clock genes such as period 1 (PER1), PER2 and brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1 (BMAL1). In an in vitro study, not β-agonist but glucocorticoid treatment remarkably synchronized clock and osteoclast-related genes in cultured osteoclasts. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed the interaction between BMAL1 proteins and promoter region of CTSK and NFATc1. To examine whether endogenous glucocorticoids influence the osteoclast circadian rhythms, mice were adrenalectomized (ADX) and maintained under 12-hour light/dark periods at least two weeks before glucocorticoid injection. A glucocorticoid injection restarted the circadian expression of CTSK and NFATc1 in ADX mice. These results suggest that glucocorticoids mediate circadian timing to peripheral osteoclasts and osteoclast clock contributes to the circadian expression of osteoclast-related genes such as CTSK and NFATc1.

  14. Sleep Loss Reduces the DNA-Binding of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 to Specific Clock Genes in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Curie, Thomas; Franken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that clock genes contribute to the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Indeed, mutations in some clock genes modify the markers of sleep homeostasis and an increase in homeostatic sleep drive alters clock gene expression in the forebrain. Here, we investigate a possible mechanism by which sleep deprivation (SD) could alter clock gene expression by quantifying DNA-binding of the core-clock transcription factors CLOCK, NPAS2, and BMAL1 to the cis-regulatory sequences of target clock genes in mice. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we first showed that, as reported for the liver, DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to target clock genes changes in function of time-of-day in the cerebral cortex. Tissue extracts were collected at ZT0 (light onset), −6, −12, and −18, and DNA enrichment of E-box or E'-box containing sequences was measured by qPCR. CLOCK and BMAL1 binding to Cry1, Dbp, Per1, and Per2 depended on time-of-day, with maximum values reached at around ZT6. We then observed that SD, performed between ZT0 and −6, significantly decreased DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to Dbp, consistent with the observed decrease in Dbp mRNA levels after SD. The DNA-binding of NPAS2 and BMAL1 to Per2 was also decreased by SD, although SD is known to increase Per2 expression in the cortex. DNA-binding to Per1 and Cry1 was not affected by SD. Our results show that the sleep-wake history can affect the clock molecular machinery directly at the level of chromatin binding thereby altering the cortical expression of Dbp and Per2 and likely other targets. Although the precise dynamics of the relationship between DNA-binding and mRNA expression, especially for Per2, remains elusive, the results also suggest that part of the reported circadian changes in DNA-binding of core clock components in tissues peripheral to the suprachiasmatic nuclei could, in fact, be sleep-wake driven. PMID:22039518

  15. Sleep loss reduces the DNA-binding of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 to specific clock genes in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Mongrain, Valérie; La Spada, Francesco; Curie, Thomas; Franken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that clock genes contribute to the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Indeed, mutations in some clock genes modify the markers of sleep homeostasis and an increase in homeostatic sleep drive alters clock gene expression in the forebrain. Here, we investigate a possible mechanism by which sleep deprivation (SD) could alter clock gene expression by quantifying DNA-binding of the core-clock transcription factors CLOCK, NPAS2, and BMAL1 to the cis-regulatory sequences of target clock genes in mice. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we first showed that, as reported for the liver, DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to target clock genes changes in function of time-of-day in the cerebral cortex. Tissue extracts were collected at ZT0 (light onset), -6, -12, and -18, and DNA enrichment of E-box or E'-box containing sequences was measured by qPCR. CLOCK and BMAL1 binding to Cry1, Dbp, Per1, and Per2 depended on time-of-day, with maximum values reached at around ZT6. We then observed that SD, performed between ZT0 and -6, significantly decreased DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to Dbp, consistent with the observed decrease in Dbp mRNA levels after SD. The DNA-binding of NPAS2 and BMAL1 to Per2 was also decreased by SD, although SD is known to increase Per2 expression in the cortex. DNA-binding to Per1 and Cry1 was not affected by SD. Our results show that the sleep-wake history can affect the clock molecular machinery directly at the level of chromatin binding thereby altering the cortical expression of Dbp and Per2 and likely other targets. Although the precise dynamics of the relationship between DNA-binding and mRNA expression, especially for Per2, remains elusive, the results also suggest that part of the reported circadian changes in DNA-binding of core clock components in tissues peripheral to the suprachiasmatic nuclei could, in fact, be sleep-wake driven.

  16. Astakine 2--the dark knight linking melatonin to circadian regulation in crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Saelee, Netnapa; Phongdara, Amornrat; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2013-03-01

    Daily, circadian rhythms influence essentially all living organisms and affect many physiological processes from sleep and nutrition to immunity. This ability to respond to environmental daily rhythms has been conserved along evolution, and it is found among species from bacteria to mammals. The hematopoietic process of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is under circadian control and is tightly regulated by astakines, a new family of cytokines sharing a prokineticin (PROK) domain. The expression of AST1 and AST2 are light-dependent, and this suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for PROK domain proteins in mediating circadian rhythms. Vertebrate PROKs are transmitters of circadian rhythms of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain of mammals, but the mechanism by which they function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that high AST2 expression is induced by melatonin in the brain. We identify RACK1 as a binding protein of AST2 and further provide evidence that a complex between AST2 and RACK1 functions as a negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. By DNA mobility shift assay, we showed that the AST2-RACK1 complex will interfere with the binding between BMAL1 and CLK and inhibit the E-box binding activity of the complex BMAL1-CLK. Finally, we demonstrate by gene knockdown that AST2 is necessary for melatonin-induced inhibition of the complex formation between BMAL1 and CLK during the dark period. In summary, we provide evidence that melatonin regulates AST2 expression and thereby affects the core clock of the crustacean brain. This process may be very important in all animals that have AST2 molecules, i.e. spiders, ticks, crustaceans, scorpions, several insect groups such as Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Blattodea, but not Diptera and Coleoptera. Our findings further reveal an ancient evolutionary role for the prokineticin superfamily protein that links melatonin to direct regulation of the core clock gene feedback loops.

  17. Circadian Rhythmicity of Active GSK3 Isoforms Modulates Molecular Clock Gene Rhythms in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Besing, R.C.; Paul, J.R.; Hablitz, L.M.; Rogers, C.O.; Johnson, R.L.; Young, M.E.; Gamble, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives and synchronizes daily rhythms at the cellular level via transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprised of clock genes such as Bmal1 and Period (Per). Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a serine/threonine kinase, phosphorylates at least five core clock proteins and shows diurnal variation in phosphorylation state (inactivation) of the GSK3β isoform. Whether phosphorylation of the other primary isoform (GSK3α) varies across the subjective day-night cycle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if the endogenous rhythm of GSK3 (α and β) phosphorylation is critical for rhythmic BMAL1 expression and normal amplitude and periodicity of the molecular clock in the SCN. Significant circadian rhythmicity of phosphorylated GSK3 (α and β) was observed in the SCN from wild-type mice housed in constant darkness for two weeks. Importantly, chronic activation of both GSK3 isoforms impaired rhythmicity of the GSK3 target BMAL1. Furthermore, chronic pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 with 20 μM CHIR-99021 enhanced the amplitude and shortened the period of PER2::luciferase rhythms in organotypic SCN slice cultures. These results support the model that GSK3 activity status is regulated by the circadian clock and that GSK3 feeds back to regulate the molecular clock amplitude in the SCN. PMID:25724980

  18. Cell autonomous regulation of herpes and influenza virus infection by the circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Rachel S.; Stangherlin, Alessandra; Nagy, Andras D.; Nicoll, Michael P.; Efstathiou, Stacey; O’Neill, John S.; Reddy, Akhilesh B.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are intracellular pathogens that hijack host cell machinery and resources to replicate. Rather than being constant, host physiology is rhythmic, undergoing circadian (∼24 h) oscillations in many virus-relevant pathways, but whether daily rhythms impact on viral replication is unknown. We find that the time of day of host infection regulates virus progression in live mice and individual cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that herpes and influenza A virus infections are enhanced when host circadian rhythms are abolished by disrupting the key clock gene transcription factor Bmal1. Intracellular trafficking, biosynthetic processes, protein synthesis, and chromatin assembly all contribute to circadian regulation of virus infection. Moreover, herpesviruses differentially target components of the molecular circadian clockwork. Our work demonstrates that viruses exploit the clockwork for their own gain and that the clock represents a novel target for modulating viral replication that extends beyond any single family of these ubiquitous pathogens. PMID:27528682

  19. Hypoxia disrupts the expression levels of circadian rhythm genes in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Yang, Sheng-Li; Fang, Xiefan; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Huang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Disturbance in the expression of circadian rhythm genes is a common feature in certain types of cancer, however the mechanisms mediating this disturbance remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the expression of circadian rhythm genes in liver cancer cells and to identify the mechanisms underlying this effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HCC cell line, PLC/PRF/5. was treated with either a vehicle control or CoCl2 at 50, 100 or 200 µΜ for 24 h. Following treatment, the protein expression levels of hypoxia‑inducible factor (HIF)‑1α and HIF‑2α were detected by western blotting and the mRNA expression levels of circadian rhythm genes, including circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock), brain and muscle Arnt‑like 1 (Bmal1), period (Per)1, Per2, Per3, cryptochrome (Cry)1, Cry2 and casein kinase Iε (CKIε), were detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). Expression plasmids containing HIF‑1α or HIF‑2α were transfected into the PLC/PRF/5 cells using liposomes and RT‑qPCR was used to determine the effects of the transfections on the expression levels of circadian rhythm genes. Following treatment with CoCl2, the protein expression levels of HIF‑1α and HIF‑2α were upregulated in a CoCl2 concentration‑dependent manner. The mRNA expression levels of Clock, Bmal1 and Cry2 were increased, and the mRNA expression levels of Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1 and CKIε were decreased following CoCl2 treatment (P<0.05). In the PLC/PRF/5 cells transfected with the plasmid containing HIF‑1α, the mRNA expression levels of Clock, Bmal1 and Cry2 were increased, and the mRNA expression levels of Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1 and CKIε were decreased. In the PLC/PRF/5 cells transfected with the plasmid containing HIF‑2α, the mRNA expression levels of Clock, Bmal1, Per1, Cry1, Cry2 and CKIε were upregulated, and the mRNA expression levels of Per2 and Per3 were

  20. Long-Range Chromosome Interactions Mediated by Cohesin Shape Circadian Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yichi; Guo, Weimin; Li, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Meng; Fan, Zenghua; Zhao, Zhihu; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythm is established by the negative feedback loops consisting of a set of clock genes, which lead to the circadian expression of thousands of downstream genes in vivo. As genome-wide transcription is organized under the high-order chromosome structure, it is largely uncharted how circadian gene expression is influenced by chromosome architecture. We focus on the function of chromatin structure proteins cohesin as well as CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) in circadian rhythm. Using circular chromosome conformation capture sequencing, we systematically examined the interacting loci of a Bmal1-bound super-enhancer upstream of a clock gene Nr1d1 in mouse liver. These interactions are largely stable in the circadian cycle and cohesin binding sites are enriched in the interactome. Global analysis showed that cohesin-CTCF co-binding sites tend to insulate the phases of circadian oscillating genes while cohesin-non-CTCF sites are associated with high circadian rhythmicity of transcription. A model integrating the effects of cohesin and CTCF markedly improved the mechanistic understanding of circadian gene expression. Further experiments in cohesin knockout cells demonstrated that cohesin is required at least in part for driving the circadian gene expression by facilitating the enhancer-promoter looping. This study provided a novel insight into the relationship between circadian transcriptome and the high-order chromosome structure. PMID:27135601

  1. The diversity and evolution of circadian clock proteins in fungi.

    PubMed

    Salichos, Leonidas; Rokas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous cellular patterns that associate multiple physiological and molecular functions with time. The Neurospora circadian system contains at least three oscillators: the FRQ/WC-dependent circadian oscillator (FWO), whose core components are the FRQ, WC-1, WC-2, FRH, and FWD-1 proteins; the WC-dependent circadian oscillator (WC-FLO); and one or more FRQ/ WC-independent oscillators (FLO). Little is known about the distribution of homologs of the Neurospora clock proteins or about the molecular foundations of circadian rhythms across fungi. Here, we examined 64 diverse fungal proteomes for homologs of all five Neurospora clock proteins and retraced their evolutionary history. The FRH and FWD-1 proteins were likely present in the fungal ancestor. WC-1 and WC-2 homologs are absent from the early diverging chytrids and Microsporidia but are present in all other major clades. In contrast to the deep origins of these four clock proteins FRQ homologs are taxonomically restricted within Sordariomycetes, Leotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The large number of FRH and FWD-1 homologs identified and their lack of concordance with the fungal species phylogeny indicate that they likely underwent multiple rounds of duplications and losses. In contrast, the FRQ, WC-1 and WC-2 proteins exhibit relatively few duplications and losses. A notable exception is the 10 FRQ-like proteins in Fusarium oxysporum, which resulted from nine duplication events. Our results suggest that the machinery required for FWO oscillator function is taxonomically restricted within Ascomycetes. Although the WC proteins are widely distributed, the functional diversity of the few non-Neurospora circadian oscillators suggests that a WC-FLO oscillator is unlikely to fully explain the observed rhythms. The contrast between the diversity of circadian oscillators and the conservation of most of their machinery is likely best explained by considering the centrality of noncircadian functions

  2. A Role for Id2 in Regulating Photic Entrainment of the Mammalian Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Giles E.; Watson, Nathan P.; Mantani, Akio; Peirson, Stuart N.; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Loros, Jennifer J.; Israel, Mark A.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Inhibitor of DNA binding genes (Id1–Id4) encode helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional repressors associated with development and tumorigenesis [1, 2], but little is known concerning the function(s) of these genes in normal adult animals. Id2 was identified in DNA microarray screens for rhythmically expressed genes [3–5], and further analysis revealed a circadian pattern of expression of all four Id genes in multiple tissues including the suprachiasmatic nucleus. To explore an in vivo function, we generated and characterized deletion mutations of Id2 and of Id4. Id2−/− mice exhibit abnormally rapid entrainment and an increase in the magnitude of the phase shift of the pacemaker. A significant proportion of mice also exhibit disrupted rhythms when maintained under constant darkness. Conversely, Id4−/− mice did not exhibit a noticeable circadian phenotype. In vitro studies using an mPer1 and an AVP promoter reporter revealed the potential for ID1, ID2, and ID3 proteins to interact with the canonical basic HLH clock proteins BMAL1 and CLOCK. These data suggest that the Id genes may be important for entrainment and operation of the mammalian circadian system, potentially acting through BMAL1 and CLOCK targets. PMID:19217292

  3. A role for Id2 in regulating photic entrainment of the mammalian circadian system.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Giles E; Watson, Nathan P; Mantani, Akio; Peirson, Stuart N; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Loros, Jennifer J; Israel, Mark A; Dunlap, Jay C

    2009-02-24

    Inhibitor of DNA binding genes (Id1-Id4) encode helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional repressors associated with development and tumorigenesis [1, 2], but little is known concerning the function(s) of these genes in normal adult animals. Id2 was identified in DNA microarray screens for rhythmically expressed genes [3-5], and further analysis revealed a circadian pattern of expression of all four Id genes in multiple tissues including the suprachiasmatic nucleus. To explore an in vivo function, we generated and characterized deletion mutations of Id2 and of Id4. Id2(-/-) mice exhibit abnormally rapid entrainment and an increase in the magnitude of the phase shift of the pacemaker. A significant proportion of mice also exhibit disrupted rhythms when maintained under constant darkness. Conversely, Id4(-/-) mice did not exhibit a noticeable circadian phenotype. In vitro studies using an mPer1 and an AVP promoter reporter revealed the potential for ID1, ID2, and ID3 proteins to interact with the canonical basic HLH clock proteins BMAL1 and CLOCK. These data suggest that the Id genes may be important for entrainment and operation of the mammalian circadian system, potentially acting through BMAL1 and CLOCK targets.

  4. Circadian Mechanisms in Murine and Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Following Dexamethasone Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiying; Yu, Gang; Parks, Helen; Hebert, Teddi; Goh, Brian C.; Dietrich, Marilyn A.; Pelled, Gadi; Izadpanah, Reza; Gazit, Dan; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    A core group of transcriptional regulatory factors regulate circadian rhythms in mammalian cells. While the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain serves as the central core circadian oscillator, circadian clocks also exist within peripheral tissues and cells. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that >20% of expressed mRNAs in bone and adipose tissues oscillate in a circadian manner. The current manuscript reports evidence of the core circadian transcriptional apparatus within primary cultures of murine and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Exposure of confluent, quiescent BMSCs to dexamethasone synchronized the oscillating expression of the mRNAs encoding the albumin D binding protein (dbp), brain-muscle arnt-like 1 (bmal1), period 3 (per3), rev-erb α, and rev-erb β. The genes displayed a mean oscillatory period of 22.2 to 24.3 hours. The acrophase or peak expression of mRNAs encoding “positive” (bmal1) and “negative” (per3) transcriptional regulatory factors were out of phase with each other by ∼8-12 hours, consistent with in vivo observations. In vivo, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) mediated phosphorylation regulates the turnover of per3 and core circadian transcriptional apparatus. In vitro addition of lithium chloride, a GSK3β inhibitor, significantly shifted the acrophase of all genes by 4.2-4.7 hours oscillation in BMSCs; however, only the male murine BMSCs displayed a significant increase in the length of the period of oscillation. We conclude that human and murine BMSCs represent a valid in vitro model for the analysis of circadian mechanisms in bone metabolism and stem cell biology. PMID:18302991

  5. Circadian Clock Control of the Cellular Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Sancar, Aziz; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A.; Kang, Tae-Hong; Reardon, Joyce T.; Lee, Jin Hyup; Ozturk, Nuri

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cells possess a cell-autonomous molecular clock which controls the timing of many biochemical reactions and hence the cellular response to environmental stimuli including genotoxic stress. The clock consists of an autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loop made up of four genes/proteins, BMal1, Clock, Cryptochrome, and Period. The circadian clock has an intrinsic period of about 24 hours, and it dictates the rates of many biochemical reactions as a function of the time of the day. Recently, it has become apparent that the circadian clock plays an important role in determining the strengths of cellular responses to DNA damage including repair, checkpoints, and apoptosis. These new insights are expected to guide development of novel mechanism-based chemotherapeutic regimens. PMID:20227409

  6. AMPK at the crossroads of circadian clocks and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Sabine D; Lamia, Katja A

    2013-02-25

    Circadian clocks coordinate behavior and physiology with daily environmental cycles and thereby optimize the timing of metabolic processes such as glucose production and insulin secretion. Such circadian regulation of metabolism provides an adaptive advantage in diverse organisms. Mammalian clocks are primarily based on a transcription and translation feedback loop in which a heterodimeric complex of the transcription factors CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) and BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1) activates the expression of its own repressors, the period (PER1-3) and cryptochrome (CRY1 and CRY2) proteins. Posttranslational modification of these core clock components is critical for setting clock time or adjusting the speed of the clock. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one of several metabolic sensors that have been reported to transmit energy-dependent signals to the mammalian clock. AMPK does so by driving the phosphorylation and destabilization of CRY and PER proteins. In addition, AMPK subunit composition, sub-cellular localization, and substrate phosphorylation are dependent on clock time. Given the well-established role of AMPK in diverse aspects of metabolic physiology, the reciprocal regulation of AMPK and circadian clocks likely plays an important role in circadian metabolic regulation.

  7. Different Roles of Negative and Positive Components of the Circadian Clock in Oncogene-induced Neoplastic Transformation.

    PubMed

    Katamune, Chiharu; Koyanagi, Satoru; Shiromizu, Shoya; Matsunaga, Naoya; Shimba, Shigeki; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2016-05-13

    In mammals, circadian rhythms in physiological function are generated by a molecular oscillator driven by transcriptional-translational feedback loop consisting of negative and positive regulators. Disruption of this circadian clock machinery is thought to increase the risk of cancer development, but the potential contributions of each component of circadian clock to oncogenesis have been little explored. Here we reported that negative and positive transcriptional regulators of circadian feedback loop had different roles in oncogene-induced neoplastic transformation. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from animals deficient in negative circadian clock regulators, Period2 (Per2) or Cryptochrome1/2 (Cry1/2), were prone to transformation induced by co-expression of H-ras(V12) and SV40 large T antigen (SV40LT). In contrast, mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from mice deficient in positive circadian clock regulators, Bmal1 or Clock, showed resistance to oncogene-induced transformation. In Per2 mutant and Cry1/2-null cells, the introduction of oncogenes induced expression of ATF4, a potent repressor of cell senescence-associated proteins p16INK4a and p19ARF. Elevated levels of ATF4 were sufficient to suppress expression of these proteins and drive oncogenic transformation. Conversely, in Bmal1-null and Clock mutant cells, the expression of ATF4 was not induced by oncogene introduction, which allowed constitutive expression of p16INK4a and p19ARF triggering cellular senescence. Although genetic ablation of either negative or positive transcriptional regulators of the circadian clock leads to disrupted rhythms in physiological functions, our findings define their different contributions to neoplastic cellular transformation.

  8. Modeling circadian clock-cell cycle interaction effects on cell population growth rates.

    PubMed

    El Cheikh, R; Bernard, S; El Khatib, N

    2014-12-21

    The circadian clock and the cell cycle are two tightly coupled oscillators. Recent analytical studies have shown counter-intuitive effects of circadian gating of the cell cycle on growth rates of proliferating cells which cannot be explained by a molecular model or a population model alone. In this work, we present a combined molecular-population model that studies how coupling the circadian clock to the cell cycle, through the protein WEE1, affects a proliferating cell population. We show that the cell cycle can entrain to the circadian clock with different rational period ratios and characterize multiple domains of entrainment. We show that coupling increases the growth rate for autonomous periods of the cell cycle around 24 h and above 48 h. We study the effect of mutation of circadian genes on the growth rate of cells and show that disruption of the circadian clock can lead to abnormal proliferation. Particularly, we show that Cry 1, Cry 2 mutations decrease the growth rate of cells, Per 2 mutation enhances it and Bmal 1 knockout increases it for autonomous periods of the cell cycle less than 21 h and decreases it elsewhere. Combining a molecular model to a population model offers new insight on the influence of the circadian clock on the growth of a cell population. This can help chronotherapy which takes benefits of physiological rhythms to improve anti-cancer efficacy and tolerance to drugs by administering treatments at a specific time of the day.

  9. Intrinsic circadian clock of the mammalian retina: importance for retinal processing of visual information

    PubMed Central

    Signorovitch, James; Raviola, Elio; Pawlyk, Basil; Li, Tiansen; Weitz, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Circadian clocks are widely distributed in mammalian tissues, but little is known about the physiological functions of clocks outside the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain. The retina has an intrinsic circadian clock, but its importance for vision is unknown. Here we show that mice lacking Bmal1, a gene required for clock function, had abnormal retinal transcriptional responses to light and defective inner retinal electrical responses to light, but normal photoreceptor responses to light and retinas that appeared structurally normal by light and electron microscopy. We generated mice with a retina-specific genetic deletion of Bmal1, and they had defects of retinal visual physiology essentially identical to those of mice lacking Bmal1 in all tissues and lacked a circadian rhythm of inner retinal electrical responses to light. Our findings indicate that the intrinsic circadian clock of the retina regulates retinal visual processing in vivo. PMID:17719549

  10. Cloning of circadian rhythmic pathway genes and perturbation of oscillation patterns in endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-exposed mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Bo-Young; Hwang, Un-Ki; Lee, Yong Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the circadian rhythm pathway, we cloned clock and circadian rhythmic pathway-associated genes (e.g. Per2, Cry1, Cry2, and BMAL1) in the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus. The promoter region of Km-clock had 1 aryl hydrocarbon receptor element (AhRE, GTGCGTGACA) and 8 estrogen receptor (ER) half-sites, indicating that the AhRE and ER half sites would likely be associated with regulation of clock protein activity during EDCs-induced cellular stress. The Km-clock protein domains (bHLH, PAS1, PAS2) were highly conserved in five additional fish species (zebrafish, Japanese medaka, Southern platyfish, Nile tilapia, and spotted green pufferfish), suggesting that the fish clock protein may play an important role in controlling endogenous circadian rhythms. The promoter regions of Km-BMAL1, -Cry1, -Cry2, and -Per2 were found to contain several xenobiotic response elements (XREs), indicating that EDCs may be able to alter the expression of these genes. To analyze the endogenous circadian rhythm in K. marmoratus, we measured expression of Km-clock and other circadian rhythmic genes (e.g. Per2, Cry1, Cry2, and BMAL1) in different tissues, and found ubiquitous expression, although there were different patterns of transcript amplification during different developmental stages. In an estrogen (E2)-exposed group, Km-clock expression was down-regulated, however, a hydroxytamoxifen (TMX, nonsteroid estrogen antagonist)-exposed group showed an upregulated pattern of Km-clock expression, suggesting that the expression of Km-clock is closely associated with exposure to EDCs. In response to the exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tert-octyphenol (OP), Km-clock expression was down-regulated in the pituitary/brain, muscle, and skin in both gender types (hermaphrodite and secondary male). In juvenile K. marmoratus liver tissue, expression of Km-clock and other circadian rhythmic pathway

  11. Genetic Disruption of the Core Circadian Clock Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardlaw, Sarah M.; Phan, Trongha X.; Saraf, Amit; Chen, Xuanmao; Storm, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Perturbing the circadian system by electrolytically lesioning the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) or varying the environmental light:dark schedule impairs memory, suggesting that memory depends on the circadian system. We used a genetic approach to evaluate the role of the molecular clock in memory. Bmal1[superscript -/-] mice, which are arrhythmic…

  12. Possible molecular mechanism underlying cadmium-induced circadian rhythms disruption in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Chen, Tian-Ming; Zhong, Yingbin

    2016-12-09

    This study was aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced circadian rhythms disruption. Two groups of zebrafish larvae treated with or without 5 ppm CdCl2 were incubated in a photoperiod of 14-h light/10-h dark conditions. The mRNA levels of clock1a, bmal1b, per2 and per1b in two groups were determined. Microarray data were generated in two group of samples. Differential expression of genes were identified and the changes in expression level for some genes were validated by RT-PCR. Finally, Gene Ontology functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were performed. In comparison with normal group, the mRNA levels of clock1a, bmal1b, and per2 were significantly changed and varied over the circadian cycle in CdCl2-treated group. DEGs were obtained from the light (84 h, ZT12) and dark (88 h, ZT16) phase. In addition, G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway and immune response were both enriched by DEGs in both groups. While, proteolysis and amino acid metabolism were found associated with DEGs in light phase, and Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and oxidation-reduction process were significantly enriched by DEGs in dark phase. Besides, the expression pattern of genes including hsp70l and or115-11 obtained by RT-PCR were consistent with those obtained by microarray analysis. As a consequence, cadmium could make significant effects on circadian rhythms through immune response and G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. Besides, between the dark and the light phase, the mechanism by which cadmium inducing disruption of circadian rhythms were different to some extent.

  13. Translational Profiling of Clock Cells Reveals Circadianly Synchronized Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanmei; Ainsley, Joshua A.; Reijmers, Leon G.; Jackson, F. Rob

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide studies of circadian transcription or mRNA translation have been hindered by the presence of heterogeneous cell populations in complex tissues such as the nervous system. We describe here the use of a Drosophila cell-specific translational profiling approach to document the rhythmic “translatome” of neural clock cells for the first time in any organism. Unexpectedly, translation of most clock-regulated transcripts—as assayed by mRNA ribosome association—occurs at one of two predominant circadian phases, midday or mid-night, times of behavioral quiescence; mRNAs encoding similar cellular functions are translated at the same time of day. Our analysis also indicates that fundamental cellular processes—metabolism, energy production, redox state (e.g., the thioredoxin system), cell growth, signaling and others—are rhythmically modulated within clock cells via synchronized protein synthesis. Our approach is validated by the identification of mRNAs known to exhibit circadian changes in abundance and the discovery of hundreds of novel mRNAs that show translational rhythms. This includes Tdc2, encoding a neurotransmitter synthetic enzyme, which we demonstrate is required within clock neurons for normal circadian locomotor activity. PMID:24348200

  14. The CREB-binding protein affects the circadian regulation of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Christian; Winter, Tobias; Chen, Siwei; Hung, Hsiu-Cheng; Weber, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Rhythmic changes in light and temperature conditions form the primary environmental cues that synchronize the molecular circadian clock of most species with the external cycles of day and night. Previous studies established a role for the CREB-binding protein (CBP) in molecular clock function by coactivation of circadian transcription. Here, we report that moderately increased levels of CBP strongly dampen circadian behavioural rhythms without affecting molecular oscillations of circadian transcription. Interestingly, light-dark cycles as well as high temperature facilitated a circadian control of behavioural activity. Based on these observations we propose that in addition to its coactivator function for circadian transcription, CBP is involved in the regulation of circadian behaviour down-stream of the circadian clock.

  15. Ketogenic diet and fasting induce the expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein with time-dependent hypothermia in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Yamamoto, Saori; Uchida, Daisuke; Doi, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRBP) induced by cold stress modulates the molecular circadian clock in vitro. The present study examines the effect of a ketogenic diet (KD) and fasting on Cirbp expression in the mouse liver. Chronic KD administration induced time-dependent Cirbp expression with hypothermia in mice. The circadian expression of clock genes such as Bmal1 and Clock was phase-advanced and augmented in the liver of mice fed with a KD. Transient food deprivation also induced time-dependent Cirbp expression with hypothermia in mice. These findings suggest that hypothermia is involved in the increased expression of Cirbp under ketogenic or fasting conditions.

  16. A Long Noncoding RNA Perturbs the Circadian Rhythm of Hepatoma Cells to Facilitate Hepatocarcinogenesis12

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Zheng, Minying; Sun, Baodi; Wang, Yue; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Clock circadian regulator (CLOCK)/brain and muscle arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) complex governs the regulation of circadian rhythm through triggering periodic alterations of gene expression. However, the underlying mechanism of circadian clock disruption in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we report that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC), contributes to the perturbations in circadian rhythm of hepatoma cells. Our observations showed that HULC was able to heighten the expression levels of CLOCK and its downstream circadian oscillators, such as period circadian clock 1 and cryptochrome circadian clock 1, in hepatoma cells. Strikingly, HULC altered the expression pattern and prolonged the periodic expression of CLOCK in hepatoma cells. Mechanistically, the complementary base pairing between HULC and the 5' untranslated region of CLOCK mRNA underlay the HULC-modulated expression of CLOCK, and the mutants in the complementary region failed to achieve the event. Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated that the levels of CLOCK were elevated in HCC tissues, and the expression levels of HULC were positively associated with those of CLOCK in clinical HCC samples. In functional experiments, our data exhibited that CLOCK was implicated in the HULC-accelerated proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data show that an lncRNA, HULC, is responsible for the perturbations in circadian rhythm through upregulating circadian oscillator CLOCK in hepatoma cells, resulting in the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which lncRNA accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis through disturbing circadian rhythm of HCC. PMID:25622901

  17. A long noncoding RNA perturbs the circadian rhythm of hepatoma cells to facilitate hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming; Zheng, Minying; Sun, Baodi; Wang, Yue; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Clock circadian regulator (CLOCK)/brain and muscle arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) complex governs the regulation of circadian rhythm through triggering periodic alterations of gene expression. However, the underlying mechanism of circadian clock disruption in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we report that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC), contributes to the perturbations in circadian rhythm of hepatoma cells. Our observations showed that HULC was able to heighten the expression levels of CLOCK and its downstream circadian oscillators, such as period circadian clock 1 and cryptochrome circadian clock 1, in hepatoma cells. Strikingly, HULC altered the expression pattern and prolonged the periodic expression of CLOCK in hepatoma cells. Mechanistically, the complementary base pairing between HULC and the 5' untranslated region of CLOCK mRNA underlay the HULC-modulated expression of CLOCK, and the mutants in the complementary region failed to achieve the event. Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated that the levels of CLOCK were elevated in HCC tissues, and the expression levels of HULC were positively associated with those of CLOCK in clinical HCC samples. In functional experiments, our data exhibited that CLOCK was implicated in the HULC-accelerated proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data show that an lncRNA, HULC, is responsible for the perturbations in circadian rhythm through upregulating circadian oscillator CLOCK in hepatoma cells, resulting in the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which lncRNA accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis through disturbing circadian rhythm of HCC.

  18. Postnatal ontogeny of the circadian expression of the adrenal clock genes and corticosterone rhythm in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Roa, Silvia Liliana; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Martins, Clarissa Silva; Antonini, Sonir Rauber; de Castro, Margaret; Moreira, Ayrton Custódio

    2017-01-25

    The postnatal synchronization of the circadian variation of the adrenal clock genes in mammals remains unknown. We evaluated the postnatal ontogeny of daily variation of clock genes (Clock/Bmal1/Per1/Per2/Per3/Cry1/Cry2/Rorα/Rev-Erbα) and steroidogenesis-related genes (Star and Mc2r) in rat adrenals and its relationship with the emergence of plasma corticosterone rhythm using Cosinor analysis. Plasma corticosterone circadian rhythm was detected from postnatal day (P) P1, with morning acrophase, between zeitgeber time (ZT) ZT0 and ZT2. From P14, there was a nocturnal acrophase of corticosterone at ZT20, which was associated with pups' eye opening. Since P3 there was a circadian variation of the mRNA expression of Bmal1, Per2, Per3, Cry1 genes with morning acrophase whereas Rev-Erbα had nocturnal acrophase. From P14, Bmal1, Per2, Per3, Cry1 acrophases advanced by approximately 10h, as compared to early neonatal days, becoming vespertine-nocturnal. In all postnatal ages, Per2 and Cry1 circadian profiles were synchronized in phase while Bmal1 was in antiphase with the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Adult-like Star circadian rhythm profile was observed only from P21. In conclusion, our original data demonstrated a progressive postnatal maturation of the circadian variation of the adrenal clock genes in synchrony with the development of the corticosterone circadian rhythm in rats.

  19. Circadian Rhythm Disruption Promotes Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Bauer, Matthew R; Davidson, Shawn M; Heimann, Megan; Subbaraj, Lakshmipriya; Bhutkar, Arjun; Bartlebaugh, Jordan; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Jacks, Tyler

    2016-08-09

    Circadian rhythms are 24-hr oscillations that control a variety of biological processes in living systems, including two hallmarks of cancer, cell division and metabolism. Circadian rhythm disruption by shift work is associated with greater risk for cancer development and poor prognosis, suggesting a putative tumor-suppressive role for circadian rhythm homeostasis. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma, we have characterized the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on lung tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that both physiologic perturbation (jet lag) and genetic mutation of the central circadian clock components decreased survival and promoted lung tumor growth and progression. The core circadian genes Per2 and Bmal1 were shown to have cell-autonomous tumor-suppressive roles in transformation and lung tumor progression. Loss of the central clock components led to increased c-Myc expression, enhanced proliferation, and metabolic dysregulation. Our findings demonstrate that both systemic and somatic disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to cancer progression.

  20. Potential Conservation of Circadian Clock Proteins in the phylum Nematoda as Revealed by Bioinformatic Searches

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Andrés; Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Goya, María Eugenia; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel; Golombek, Diego Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Although several circadian rhythms have been described in C. elegans, its molecular clock remains elusive. In this work we employed a novel bioinformatic approach, applying probabilistic methodologies, to search for circadian clock proteins of several of the best studied circadian model organisms of different taxa (Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Neurospora crassa, Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechoccocus elongatus) in the proteomes of C. elegans and other members of the phylum Nematoda. With this approach we found that the Nematoda contain proteins most related to the core and accessory proteins of the insect and mammalian clocks, which provide new insights into the nematode clock and the evolution of the circadian system. PMID:25396739

  1. Potential conservation of circadian clock proteins in the phylum Nematoda as revealed by bioinformatic searches.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Andrés; Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Goya, María Eugenia; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel; Golombek, Diego Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Although several circadian rhythms have been described in C. elegans, its molecular clock remains elusive. In this work we employed a novel bioinformatic approach, applying probabilistic methodologies, to search for circadian clock proteins of several of the best studied circadian model organisms of different taxa (Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Neurospora crassa, Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechoccocus elongatus) in the proteomes of C. elegans and other members of the phylum Nematoda. With this approach we found that the Nematoda contain proteins most related to the core and accessory proteins of the insect and mammalian clocks, which provide new insights into the nematode clock and the evolution of the circadian system.

  2. Rhythmicity of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by gender and the host circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xue; Bushman, Frederic D.; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, multiple physiological, metabolic, and behavioral processes are subject to circadian rhythms, adapting to changing light in the environment. Here we analyzed circadian rhythms in the fecal microbiota of mice using deep sequencing, and found that the absolute amount of fecal bacteria and the abundance of Bacteroidetes exhibited circadian rhythmicity, which was more pronounced in female mice. Disruption of the host circadian clock by deletion of Bmal1, a gene encoding a core molecular clock component, abolished rhythmicity in the fecal microbiota composition in both genders. Bmal1 deletion also induced alterations in bacterial abundances in feces, with differential effects based on sex. Thus, although host behavior, such as time of feeding, is of recognized importance, here we show that sex interacts with the host circadian clock, and they collectively shape the circadian rhythmicity and composition of the fecal microbiota in mice. PMID:26240359

  3. Assembly of a Comprehensive Regulatory Network for the Mammalian Circadian Clock: A Bioinformatics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Robert; Abreu, Monica; Fuhr, Luise; Herzel, Hanspeter; Leser, Ulf; Relógio, Angela

    2015-01-01

    By regulating the timing of cellular processes, the circadian clock provides a way to adapt physiology and behaviour to the geophysical time. In mammals, a light-entrainable master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls peripheral clocks that are present in virtually every body cell. Defective circadian timing is associated with several pathologies such as cancer and metabolic and sleep disorders. To better understand the circadian regulation of cellular processes, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline encompassing the analysis of high-throughput data sets and the exploitation of published knowledge by text-mining. We identified 118 novel potential clock-regulated genes and integrated them into an existing high-quality circadian network, generating the to-date most comprehensive network of circadian regulated genes (NCRG). To validate particular elements in our network, we assessed publicly available ChIP-seq data for BMAL1, REV-ERBα/β and RORα/γ proteins and found strong evidence for circadian regulation of Elavl1, Nme1, Dhx6, Med1 and Rbbp7 all of which are involved in the regulation of tumourigenesis. Furthermore, we identified Ncl and Ddx6, as targets of RORγ and REV-ERBα, β, respectively. Most interestingly, these genes were also reported to be involved in miRNA regulation; in particular, NCL regulates several miRNAs, all involved in cancer aggressiveness. Thus, NCL represents a novel potential link via which the circadian clock, and specifically RORγ, regulates the expression of miRNAs, with particular consequences in breast cancer progression. Our findings bring us one step forward towards a mechanistic understanding of mammalian circadian regulation, and provide further evidence of the influence of circadian deregulation in cancer. PMID:25945798

  4. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM REPROGRAMMING DURING LUNG INFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    Haspel, Jeffrey A.; Chettimada, Sukrutha; Shaik, Rahamthulla S.; Chu, Jen-Hwa; Raby, Benjamin A.; Cernadas, Manuela; Carey, Vincent; Process, Vanessa; Hunninghake, G. Matthew; Ifedigbo, Emeka; Lederer, James A.; Englert, Joshua; Pelton, Ashley; Coronata, Anna; Fredenburgh, Laura E.; Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to regulate immune responses in healthy animals, but it is unclear whether they persist during acute illnesses where clock gene expression is disrupted by systemic inflammation. Here, we use a genome-wide approach to investigate circadian gene and metabolite expression in the lungs of endotoxemic mice and find that novel cellular and molecular circadian rhythms are elicited in this setting. The endotoxin-specific circadian program exhibits unique features, including a divergent group of rhythmic genes and metabolites compared to the basal state and a distinct periodicity and phase distribution. At the cellular level endotoxin treatment also alters circadian rhythms of leukocyte counts within the lung in a bmal1-dependent manner, such that granulocytes rather than lymphocytes become the dominant oscillating cell type. Our results show that inflammation produces a complex reorganization of cellular and molecular circadian rhythms that are relevant to early events in lung injury. PMID:25208554

  5. Circadian rhythm reprogramming during lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Haspel, Jeffrey A; Chettimada, Sukrutha; Shaik, Rahamthulla S; Chu, Jen-Hwa; Raby, Benjamin A; Cernadas, Manuela; Carey, Vincent; Process, Vanessa; Hunninghake, G Matthew; Ifedigbo, Emeka; Lederer, James A; Englert, Joshua; Pelton, Ashley; Coronata, Anna; Fredenburgh, Laura E; Choi, Augustine M K

    2014-09-11

    Circadian rhythms are known to regulate immune responses in healthy animals, but it is unclear whether they persist during acute illnesses where clock gene expression is disrupted by systemic inflammation. Here we use a genome-wide approach to investigate circadian gene and metabolite expression in the lungs of endotoxemic mice and find that novel cellular and molecular circadian rhythms are elicited in this setting. The endotoxin-specific circadian programme exhibits unique features, including a divergent group of rhythmic genes and metabolites compared with the basal state and a distinct periodicity and phase distribution. At the cellular level, endotoxin treatment also alters circadian rhythms of leukocyte counts within the lung in a bmal1-dependent manner, such that granulocytes rather than lymphocytes become the dominant oscillating cell type. Our results show that inflammation produces a complex re-organization of cellular and molecular circadian rhythms that are relevant to early events in lung injury.

  6. Circadian rhythm of the Leydig cells endocrine function is attenuated during aging.

    PubMed

    Baburski, Aleksandar Z; Sokanovic, Srdjan J; Bjelic, Maja M; Radovic, Sava M; Andric, Silvana A; Kostic, Tatjana S

    2016-01-01

    Although age-related hypofunction of Leydig cells is well illustrated across species, its circadian nature has not been analyzed. Here we describe changes in circadian behavior in Leydig cells isolated from adult (3-month) and aged (18- and 24-month) rats. The results showed reduced circadian pattern of testosterone secretion in both groups of aged rats despite unchanged LH circadian secretion. Although arrhythmic, the expression of Insl3, another secretory product of Leydig cells, was decreased in both groups. Intracellular cAMP and most important steroidogenic genes (Star, Cyp11a1 and Cyp17a1), together with positive steroidogenic regulator (Nur77), showed preserved circadian rhythm in aging although rhythm robustness and expression level were attenuated in both aged groups. Aging compromised cholesterol mobilization and uptake by Leydig cells: the oscillatory transcription pattern of genes encoding HDL-receptor (Scarb1), hormone sensitive lipase (Lipe, enzyme that converts cholesterol esters from lipid droplets into free cholesterol) and protein responsible for forming the cholesterol esters (Soat2) were flattened in 24-month group. The majority of examined clock genes displayed circadian behavior in expression but only a few of them (Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Per3 and Rev-Erba) were reduced in 24-month-old group. Furthermore, aging reduced oscillatory expression pattern of Sirt1 and Nampt, genes encoding key enzymes that connect cellular metabolism and circadian network. Altogether circadian amplitude of Leydig cell's endocrine function decreased during aging. The results suggest that clock genes are more resistant to aging than genes involved in steroidogenesis supporting the hypothesis about peripheral clock involvement in rhythm maintenance during aging.

  7. Disruption of Sirtuin 1-Mediated Control of Circadian Molecular Clock and Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongwei; Sundar, Isaac K; Huang, Yadi; Gerloff, Janice; Sellix, Michael T; Sime, Patricia J; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth most common cause of death, and it is characterized by abnormal inflammation and lung function decline. Although the circadian molecular clock regulates inflammatory responses, there is no information available regarding the impact of COPD on lung molecular clock function and its regulation by sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). We hypothesize that the molecular clock in the lungs is disrupted, leading to increased inflammatory responses in smokers and patients with COPD and its regulation by SIRT1. Lung tissues, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and sputum cells were obtained from nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with COPD for measurement of core molecular clock proteins (BMAL1, CLOCK, PER1, PER2, and CRY1), clock-associated nuclear receptors (REV-ERBα, REV-ERBβ, and RORα), and SIRT1 by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot. PBMCs were treated with the SIRT1 activator SRT1720 followed by LPS treatment, and supernatant was collected at 6-hour intervals. Levels of IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α released from PBMCs were determined by ELISA. Expression of BMAL1, PER2, CRY1, and REV-ERBα was reduced in PBMCs, sputum cells, and lung tissues from smokers and patients with COPD when compared with nonsmokers. SRT1720 treatment attenuated LPS-mediated reduction of BMAL1 and REV-ERBα in PBMCs from nonsmokers. Additionally, LPS differentially affected the timing and amplitude of cytokine (IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α) release from PBMCs in nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with COPD. Moreover, SRT1720 was able to inhibit LPS-induced cytokine release from cultured PBMCs. In conclusion, disruption of the molecular clock due to SIRT1 reduction contributes to abnormal inflammatory response in smokers and patients with COPD.

  8. Disruption of Sirtuin 1–Mediated Control of Circadian Molecular Clock and Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hongwei; Sundar, Isaac K.; Huang, Yadi; Gerloff, Janice; Sellix, Michael T.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth most common cause of death, and it is characterized by abnormal inflammation and lung function decline. Although the circadian molecular clock regulates inflammatory responses, there is no information available regarding the impact of COPD on lung molecular clock function and its regulation by sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). We hypothesize that the molecular clock in the lungs is disrupted, leading to increased inflammatory responses in smokers and patients with COPD and its regulation by SIRT1. Lung tissues, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and sputum cells were obtained from nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with COPD for measurement of core molecular clock proteins (BMAL1, CLOCK, PER1, PER2, and CRY1), clock-associated nuclear receptors (REV-ERBα, REV-ERBβ, and RORα), and SIRT1 by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot. PBMCs were treated with the SIRT1 activator SRT1720 followed by LPS treatment, and supernatant was collected at 6-hour intervals. Levels of IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α released from PBMCs were determined by ELISA. Expression of BMAL1, PER2, CRY1, and REV-ERBα was reduced in PBMCs, sputum cells, and lung tissues from smokers and patients with COPD when compared with nonsmokers. SRT1720 treatment attenuated LPS-mediated reduction of BMAL1 and REV-ERBα in PBMCs from nonsmokers. Additionally, LPS differentially affected the timing and amplitude of cytokine (IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α) release from PBMCs in nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with COPD. Moreover, SRT1720 was able to inhibit LPS-induced cytokine release from cultured PBMCs. In conclusion, disruption of the molecular clock due to SIRT1 reduction contributes to abnormal inflammatory response in smokers and patients with COPD. PMID:25905433

  9. Common Genetic Variation in Circadian Rhythm Genes and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC)

    PubMed Central

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Sieh, Weiva; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Vierkant, Robert A.; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Thomsen, Lotte; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Palmieri Weber, Rachel; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Schernhammer, Eva; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Amankwah, Ernest; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Ramus, Susan J.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Goode, Ellen L.; Narod, Steven A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption in circadian gene expression, whether due to genetic variation or environmental factors (e.g., light at night, shiftwork), is associated with increased incidence of breast, prostate, gastrointestinal and hematologic cancers and gliomas. Circadian genes are highly expressed in the ovaries where they regulate ovulation; circadian disruption is associated with several ovarian cancer risk factors (e.g., endometriosis). However, no studies have examined variation in germline circadian genes as predictors of ovarian cancer risk and invasiveness. The goal of the current study was to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian genes BMAL1, CRY2, CSNK1E, NPAS2, PER3, REV1 and TIMELESS and downstream transcription factors KLF10 and SENP3 as predictors of risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and histopathologic subtypes. The study included a test set of 3,761 EOC cases and 2,722 controls and a validation set of 44,308 samples including 18,174 (10,316 serous) cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Analysis of genotype data from 36 genotyped SNPs and 4600 imputed SNPs indicated that the most significant association was rs117104877 in BMAL1 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68–0.90, p = 5.59 × 10−4]. Functional analysis revealed a significant down regulation of BMAL1 expression following cMYC overexpression and increasing transformation in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells as well as alternative splicing of BMAL1 exons in ovarian and granulosa cells. These results suggest that variation in circadian genes, and specifically BMAL1, may be associated with risk of ovarian cancer, likely through disruption of hormonal pathways. PMID:26807442

  10. Common Genetic Variation in Circadian Rhythm Genes and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC).

    PubMed

    Jim, Heather S L; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja Kh; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Sieh, Weiva; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Vierkant, Robert A; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Thomsen, Lotte; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Palmieri Weber, Rachel; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Schernhammer, Eva; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Amankwah, Ernest; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Kelemen, Linda E; Ramus, Susan J; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Goode, Ellen L; Narod, Steven A; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    Disruption in circadian gene expression, whether due to genetic variation or environmental factors (e.g., light at night, shiftwork), is associated with increased incidence of breast, prostate, gastrointestinal and hematologic cancers and gliomas. Circadian genes are highly expressed in the ovaries where they regulate ovulation; circadian disruption is associated with several ovarian cancer risk factors (e.g., endometriosis). However, no studies have examined variation in germline circadian genes as predictors of ovarian cancer risk and invasiveness. The goal of the current study was to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian genes BMAL1, CRY2, CSNK1E, NPAS2, PER3, REV1 and TIMELESS and downstream transcription factors KLF10 and SENP3 as predictors of risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and histopathologic subtypes. The study included a test set of 3,761 EOC cases and 2,722 controls and a validation set of 44,308 samples including 18,174 (10,316 serous) cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Analysis of genotype data from 36 genotyped SNPs and 4600 imputed SNPs indicated that the most significant association was rs117104877 in BMAL1 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68-0.90, p = 5.59 × 10(-4)]. Functional analysis revealed a significant down regulation of BMAL1 expression following cMYC overexpression and increasing transformation in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells as well as alternative splicing of BMAL1 exons in ovarian and granulosa cells. These results suggest that variation in circadian genes, and specifically BMAL1, may be associated with risk of ovarian cancer, likely through disruption of hormonal pathways.

  11. Circadian and ultradian rhythms of clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of freely moving mice

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Daisuke; Honma, Ken-ichi; Honma, Sato

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the temporal order of physiology and behavior is primarily regulated by the circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Rhythms are generated in cells by an auto-regulatory transcription/translation feedback loop, composed of several clock genes and their protein products. Taking advantage of bioluminescence reporters, we have succeeded in continuously monitoring the expression of clock gene reporters Per1-luc, PER2::LUC and Bmal1-ELuc in the SCN of freely moving mice for up to 3 weeks in constant darkness. Bioluminescence emitted from the SCN was collected with an implanted plastic optical fiber which was connected to a cooled photomultiplier tube. We found robust circadian rhythms in the clock gene expression, the phase-relation of which were the same as those observed ex vivo. The circadian rhythms were superimposed by episodic bursts which had ultradian periods of approximately 3.0 h. Episodic bursts often accompanied activity bouts, but stoichiometric as well as temporal analyses revealed no causality between them. Clock gene expression in the SCN in vivo is regulated by the circadian pacemaker and ultradian rhythms of unknown origin. PMID:26194231

  12. Circadian and ultradian rhythms of clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of freely moving mice.

    PubMed

    Ono, Daisuke; Honma, Ken-ichi; Honma, Sato

    2015-07-21

    In mammals, the temporal order of physiology and behavior is primarily regulated by the circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Rhythms are generated in cells by an auto-regulatory transcription/translation feedback loop, composed of several clock genes and their protein products. Taking advantage of bioluminescence reporters, we have succeeded in continuously monitoring the expression of clock gene reporters Per1-luc, PER2::LUC and Bmal1-ELuc in the SCN of freely moving mice for up to 3 weeks in constant darkness. Bioluminescence emitted from the SCN was collected with an implanted plastic optical fiber which was connected to a cooled photomultiplier tube. We found robust circadian rhythms in the clock gene expression, the phase-relation of which were the same as those observed ex vivo. The circadian rhythms were superimposed by episodic bursts which had ultradian periods of approximately 3.0 h. Episodic bursts often accompanied activity bouts, but stoichiometric as well as temporal analyses revealed no causality between them. Clock gene expression in the SCN in vivo is regulated by the circadian pacemaker and ultradian rhythms of unknown origin.

  13. The mammalian clock component PERIOD2 coordinates circadian output by interaction with nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Isabelle; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Baeriswyl-Aebischer, Stéphanie; Albrecht, Urs

    2010-02-15

    Mammalian circadian clocks provide a temporal framework to synchronize biological functions. To obtain robust rhythms with a periodicity of about a day, these clocks use molecular oscillators consisting of two interlocked feedback loops. The core loop generates rhythms by transcriptional repression via the Period (PER) and Cryptochrome (CRY) proteins, whereas the stabilizing loop establishes roughly antiphasic rhythms via nuclear receptors. Nuclear receptors also govern many pathways that affect metabolism and physiology. Here we show that the core loop component PER2 can coordinate circadian output with the circadian oscillator. PER2 interacts with nuclear receptors including PPARalpha and REV-ERBalpha and serves as a coregulator of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription. Consequently, PER2 is rhythmically bound at the promoters of nuclear receptor target genes in vivo. In this way, the circadian oscillator can modulate the expression of nuclear receptor target genes like Bmal1, Hnf1alpha, and Glucose-6-phosphatase. The concept that PER2 may propagate clock information to metabolic pathways via nuclear receptors adds an important facet to the clock-dependent regulation of biological networks.

  14. Circadian Rhythms, the Molecular Clock, and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lefta, Mellani; Wolff, Gretchen; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Almost all organisms ranging from single cell bacteria to humans exhibit a variety of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical rhythms. In mammals, circadian rhythms control the timing of many physiological processes over a 24-h period, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, feeding, and hormone production. This body of research has led to defined characteristics of circadian rhythms based on period length, phase, and amplitude. Underlying circadian behaviors is a molecular clock mechanism found in most, if not all, cell types including skeletal muscle. The mammalian molecular clock is a complex of multiple oscillating networks that are regulated through transcriptional mechanisms, timed protein turnover, and input from small molecules. At this time, very little is known about circadian aspects of skeletal muscle function/metabolism but some progress has been made on understanding the molecular clock in skeletal muscle. The goal of this chapter is to provide the basic terminology and concepts of circadian rhythms with a more detailed review of the current state of knowledge of the molecular clock, with reference to what is known in skeletal muscle. Research has demonstrated that the molecular clock is active in skeletal muscles and that the muscle-specific transcription factor, MyoD, is a direct target of the molecular clock. Skeletal muscle of clock-compromised mice, Bmal1−/− and ClockΔ19 mice, are weak and exhibit significant disruptions in expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. We suggest that the interaction between the molecular clock, MyoD, and metabolic factors, such as PGC-1, provide a potential system of feedback loops that may be critical for both maintenance and adaptation of skeletal muscle. PMID:21621073

  15. Circadian rhythms, Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR alpha/gamma profiles in diseases with primary or secondary cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lecarpentier, Yves; Claes, Victor; Duthoit, Guillaume; Hébert, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clock mechanisms are far-from-equilibrium dissipative structures. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) play a key role in metabolic regulatory processes, particularly in heart muscle. Links between circadian rhythms (CRs) and PPARs have been established. Mammalian CRs involve at least two critical transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1 (Gekakis et al., 1998; Hogenesch et al., 1998). PPAR gamma plays a major role in both glucose and lipid metabolisms and presents circadian properties which coordinate the interplay between metabolism and CRs. PPAR gamma is a major component of the vascular clock. Vascular PPAR gamma is a peripheral regulator of cardiovascular rhythms controlling circadian variations in blood pressure and heart rate through BMAL1. We focused our review on diseases with abnormalities of CRs and with primary or secondary cardiac dysfunction. Moreover, these diseases presented changes in the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and PPARs, according to two opposed profiles. Profile 1 was defined as follows: inactivation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway with increased expression of PPAR gamma. Profile 2 was defined as follows: activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway with decreased expression of PPAR gamma. A typical profile 1 disease is arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a genetic cardiac disease which presents mutations of the desmosomal proteins and is mainly characterized by fatty acid accumulation in adult cardiomyocytes mainly in the right ventricle. The link between PPAR gamma dysfunction and desmosomal genetic mutations occurs via inactivation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway presenting oscillatory properties. A typical profile 2 disease is type 2 diabetes, with activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and decreased expression of PPAR gamma. CRs abnormalities are present in numerous pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, sympathetic/parasympathetic dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes

  16. CIRCADIAN CLOCK AND CELL CYCLE GENE EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Richard P.; Qu, Xiaoyu; Laffin, Brian; Earnest, David; Porter, Weston W.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse mammary epithelial cells (HC-11) and mammary tissues were analyzed for developmental changes in circadian clock, cellular proliferation and differentiation marker genes. Expression of the clock genes, Per1 and Bmal1, were elevated in differentiated HC-11 cells whereas Per2 mRNA levels were higher in undifferentiated cells. This differentiation-dependent profile of clock gene expression was consistent with that observed in mouse mammary glands as Per1 and Bmal1 mRNA levels were elevated in late pregnant and lactating mammary tissues, while Per2 expression was higher in proliferating virgin and early pregnant glands. In both HC-11 cells and mammary glands, elevated Per2 expression was positively correlated with c-Myc and Cyclin D1 mRNA levels while Per1 and Bmal1 expression changed in conjunction with ß-casein mRNA levels. Interestingly, developmental stage had differential effects on rhythms of clock gene expression in the mammary gland. These data suggest that circadian clock genes may play a role in mouse mammary gland development and differentiation. PMID:16261617

  17. Protein phosphatase PHLPP1 controls the light-induced resetting of the circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Masubuchi, Satoru; Gao, Tianyan; O'Neill, Audrey; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin; Newton, Alexandra C.; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1) differentially attenuates Akt, PKC, and ERK1/2 signaling, thereby controlling the duration and amplitude of responses evoked by these kinases. PHLPP1 is expressed in the mammalian central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, where it oscillates in a circadian fashion. To explore the role of PHLPP1 in vivo, we have generated mice with a targeted deletion of the PHLPP1 gene. Here we show that PHLPP1-null mice, although displaying normal circadian rhythmicity, have a drastically impaired capacity to stabilize the circadian period after light-induced resetting, producing a large phase shift after light resetting. Our findings reveal that PHLPP1 exerts a previously unappreciated role in circadian control, governing the consolidation of circadian periodicity after resetting. PMID:20080691

  18. MicroRNA-433 Dampens Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling, Impacting Circadian Rhythm and Osteoblastic Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Smith, Spenser S; Dole, Neha S; Franceschetti, Tiziana; Hrdlicka, Henry C; Delany, Anne M

    2016-10-07

    Serum glucocorticoids play a critical role in synchronizing circadian rhythm in peripheral tissues, and multiple mechanisms regulate tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In the skeleton, circadian rhythm helps coordinate bone formation and resorption. Circadian rhythm is regulated through transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops that include microRNAs. How microRNAs regulate circadian rhythm in bone is unexplored. We show that in mouse calvaria, miR-433 displays robust circadian rhythm, peaking just after dark. In C3H/10T1/2 cells synchronized with a pulse of dexamethasone, inhibition of miR-433 using a tough decoy altered the period and amplitude of Per2 gene expression, suggesting that miR-433 regulates rhythm. Although miR-433 does not directly target the Per2 3'-UTR, it does target two rhythmically expressed genes in calvaria, Igf1 and Hif1α. miR-433 can target the glucocorticoid receptor; however, glucocorticoid receptor protein abundance was unaffected in miR-433 decoy cells. Rather, miR-433 inhibition dramatically enhanced glucocorticoid signaling due to increased nuclear receptor translocation, activating glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional targets. Last, in calvaria of transgenic mice expressing a miR-433 decoy in osteoblastic cells (Col3.6 promoter), the amplitude of Per2 and Bmal1 mRNA rhythm was increased, confirming that miR-433 regulates circadian rhythm. miR-433 was previously shown to target Runx2, and mRNA for Runx2 and its downstream target, osteocalcin, were also increased in miR-433 decoy mouse calvaria. We hypothesize that miR-433 helps maintain circadian rhythm in osteoblasts by regulating sensitivity to glucocorticoid receptor signaling.

  19. Early doors (Edo) mutant mouse reveals the importance of period 2 (PER2) PAS domain structure for circadian pacemaking

    PubMed Central

    Militi, Stefania; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Sandate, Colby R.; Chesham, Johanna E.; Parsons, Michael J.; Vibert, Jennifer L.; Joynson, Greg M.; Partch, Carrie L.; Hastings, Michael H.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) defines 24 h of time via a transcriptional/posttranslational feedback loop in which transactivation of Per (period) and Cry (cryptochrome) genes by BMAL1–CLOCK complexes is suppressed by PER–CRY complexes. The molecular/structural basis of how circadian protein complexes function is poorly understood. We describe a novel N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutation, early doors (Edo), in the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain dimerization region of period 2 (PER2) (I324N) that accelerates the circadian clock of Per2Edo/Edo mice by 1.5 h. Structural and biophysical analyses revealed that Edo alters the packing of the highly conserved interdomain linker of the PER2 PAS core such that, although PER2Edo complexes with clock proteins, its vulnerability to degradation mediated by casein kinase 1ε (CSNK1E) is increased. The functional relevance of this mutation is revealed by the ultrashort (<19 h) but robust circadian rhythms in Per2Edo/Edo; Csnk1eTau/Tau mice and the SCN. These periods are unprecedented in mice. Thus, Per2Edo reveals a direct causal link between the molecular structure of the PER2 PAS core and the pace of SCN circadian timekeeping. PMID:26903623

  20. The Circadian Clock Modulates Enamel Development

    PubMed Central

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Hacia, Joseph G.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Boyde, Alan; Lei, Yaping; Xu, Yucheng; Miller, Joseph D.; Paine, Michael L.; Snead, Malcolm L.

    2012-01-01

    Fully mature enamel is about 98% mineral by weight. While mineral crystals appear very early during its formative phase, the newly secreted enamel is a soft gel-like matrix containing several enamel matrix proteins of which the most abundant is amelogenin (Amelx). Histological analysis of mineralized dental enamel reveals markings called cross-striations associated with daily increments of enamel formation, as evidenced by injections of labeling dyes at known time intervals. The daily incremental growth of enamel has led to the hypothesis that the circadian clock might be involved in the regulation of enamel development. To identify daily rhythms of clock genes and Amelx, we subjected murine ameloblast cells to serum synchronization to analyze the expression of the circadian transcription factors Per2 and Bmal1 by real-time PCR. Results indicate that these key genetic regulators of the circadian clock are expressed in synchronized murine ameloblast cell cultures and that their expression profile follows a circadian pattern with acrophase and bathyphase for both gene transcripts in antiphase. Immunohistological analysis confirms the protein expression of Bmal and Cry in enamel cells. Amelx expression in 2-day postnatal mouse molars dissected every 4 hours for a duration of 48 hours oscillated with an approximately 24-hour period, with a significant approximately 2-fold decrease in expression during the dark period compared to the light period. The expression of genes involved in bicarbonate production (Car2) and transport (Slc4a4), as well as in enamel matrix endocytosis (Lamp1), was greater during the dark period, indicating that ameloblasts express these proteins when Amelx expression is at the nadir. The human and mouse Amelx genes each contain a single nonconserved E-box element within 10 kb upstream of their respective transcription start sites. We also found that within 2 kb of the transcription start site of the human NFYA gene, which encodes a positive

  1. Circadian and feeding rhythms differentially affect rhythmic mRNA transcription and translation in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Atger, Florian; Gobet, Cédric; Marquis, Julien; Martin, Eva; Wang, Jingkui; Weger, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Grégory; Descombes, Patrick; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression are a hallmark of rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Such oscillations are controlled by the interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms. Although rhythmic mRNA accumulation has been extensively studied, comparatively less is known about their transcription and translation. Here, we quantified simultaneously temporal transcription, accumulation, and translation of mouse liver mRNAs under physiological light–dark conditions and ad libitum or night-restricted feeding in WT and brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)-deficient animals. We found that rhythmic transcription predominantly drives rhythmic mRNA accumulation and translation for a majority of genes. Comparison of wild-type and Bmal1 KO mice shows that circadian clock and feeding rhythms have broad impact on rhythmic gene expression, Bmal1 deletion affecting surprisingly both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Translation efficiency is differentially regulated during the diurnal cycle for genes with 5′-Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract (5′-TOP) sequences and for genes involved in mitochondrial activity, many harboring a Translation Initiator of Short 5′-UTR (TISU) motif. The increased translation efficiency of 5′-TOP and TISU genes is mainly driven by feeding rhythms but Bmal1 deletion also affects amplitude and phase of translation, including TISU genes. Together this study emphasizes the complex interconnections between circadian and feeding rhythms at several steps ultimately determining rhythmic gene expression and translation. PMID:26554015

  2. Circadian and feeding rhythms differentially affect rhythmic mRNA transcription and translation in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Atger, Florian; Gobet, Cédric; Marquis, Julien; Martin, Eva; Wang, Jingkui; Weger, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Grégory; Descombes, Patrick; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2015-11-24

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression are a hallmark of rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Such oscillations are controlled by the interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms. Although rhythmic mRNA accumulation has been extensively studied, comparatively less is known about their transcription and translation. Here, we quantified simultaneously temporal transcription, accumulation, and translation of mouse liver mRNAs under physiological light-dark conditions and ad libitum or night-restricted feeding in WT and brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)-deficient animals. We found that rhythmic transcription predominantly drives rhythmic mRNA accumulation and translation for a majority of genes. Comparison of wild-type and Bmal1 KO mice shows that circadian clock and feeding rhythms have broad impact on rhythmic gene expression, Bmal1 deletion affecting surprisingly both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Translation efficiency is differentially regulated during the diurnal cycle for genes with 5'-Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract (5'-TOP) sequences and for genes involved in mitochondrial activity, many harboring a Translation Initiator of Short 5'-UTR (TISU) motif. The increased translation efficiency of 5'-TOP and TISU genes is mainly driven by feeding rhythms but Bmal1 deletion also affects amplitude and phase of translation, including TISU genes. Together this study emphasizes the complex interconnections between circadian and feeding rhythms at several steps ultimately determining rhythmic gene expression and translation.

  3. Identification of a Circadian Clock in the Inferior Colliculus and Its Dysregulation by Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-sub; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Basinou, Vasiliki; Meltser, Inna; Lundkvist, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms regulate bodily functions within 24 h and long-term disruptions in these rhythms can cause various diseases. Recently, the peripheral auditory organ, the cochlea, has been shown to contain a self-sustained circadian clock that regulates differential sensitivity to noise exposure throughout the day. Animals exposed to noise during the night are more vulnerable than when exposed during the day. However, whether other structures throughout the auditory pathway also possess a circadian clock remains unknown. Here, we focus on the inferior colliculus (IC), which plays an important role in noise-induced pathologies such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, and audiogenic seizures. Using PER2::LUC transgenic mice and real-time bioluminescence recordings, we revealed circadian oscillations of Period 2 protein in IC explants for up to 1 week. Clock genes (Cry1, Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Rev-erbα, and Dbp) displayed circadian molecular oscillations in the IC. Averaged expression levels of early-induced genes and clock genes during 24 h revealed differential responses to day or night noise exposure. Rev-erbα and Dbp genes were affected only by day noise exposure, whereas Per1 and Per2 were affected only by night noise exposure. However, the expression of Bdnf was affected by both day and night noise exposure, suggesting that plastic changes are unlikely to be involved in the differences in day or night noise sensitivity in the IC. These novel findings highlight the importance of circadian responses in the IC and emphasize the importance of circadian mechanisms for understanding central auditory function and disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent findings identified the presence of a circadian clock in the inner ear. Here, we present novel findings that neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), a central auditory relay structure involved in sound processing, express a circadian clock as evidenced at both the mRNA and protein levels. Using a reporter mouse that expresses a

  4. Circadian Dysfunction Induces Leptin Resistance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kettner, Nicole M; Mayo, Sara A; Hua, Jack; Lee, Choogon; Moore, David D; Fu, Loning

    2015-09-01

    Circadian disruption is associated with obesity, implicating the central clock in body weight control. Our comprehensive screen of wild-type and three circadian mutant mouse models, with or without chronic jet lag, shows that distinct genetic and physiologic interventions differentially disrupt overall energy homeostasis and Leptin signaling. We found that BMAL1/CLOCK generates circadian rhythm of C/EBPα-mediated leptin transcription in adipose. Per and Cry mutant mice show similar disruption of peripheral clock and deregulation of leptin in fat, but opposite body weight and composition phenotypes that correlate with their distinct patterns of POMC neuron deregulation in the arcuate nucleus. Chronic jet lag is sufficient to disrupt the endogenous adipose clock and also induce central Leptin resistance in wild-type mice. Thus, coupling of the central and peripheral clocks controls Leptin endocrine feedback homeostasis. We propose that Leptin resistance, a hallmark of obesity in humans, plays a key role in circadian dysfunction-induced obesity and metabolic syndromes.

  5. LGR4 acts as a link between the peripheral circadian clock and lipid metabolism in liver.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xianfeng; Wang, Jiqiu; Chen, Maopei; Fan, Nengguang; Ma, Qinyun; Liu, Ruixin; Wang, Rui; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Mingyao; Ning, Guang

    2014-04-01

    The circadian clock plays an important role in the liver by regulating the major aspects of energy metabolism. Currently, it is assumed that the circadian clock regulates metabolism mostly by regulating the expression of liver enzymes at the transcriptional level, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we showed that Lgr4 homozygous mutant (Lgr4(m/m)) mice showed alteration in the rhythms of the respiratory exchange ratio. We further detected impaired plasma triglyceride rhythms in Lgr4(m/m) mice. Although no significant changes in plasma cholesterol rhythms were observed in the Lgr4(m/m) mice, their cholesterol levels were obviously lower. This phenotype was further confirmed in the context of ob/ob mice, in which lack of LGR4 dampened circadian rhythms of triglyceride. We next demonstrated that Lgr4 expression exhibited circadian rhythms in the liver tissue and primary hepatocytes in mice, but we did not detect changes in the expression levels or circadian rhythms of classic clock genes, such as Clock, Bmal1 (Arntl), Pers, Rev-erbs, and Crys, in Lgr4(m/m) mice compared with their littermates. Among the genes related to the lipid metabolism, we found that the diurnal expression pattern of the Mttp gene, which plays an important role in the regulation of plasma lipid levels, was impaired in Lgr4(m/m) mice and primary Lgr4(m/m) hepatocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LGR4 plays an important role in the regulation of plasma lipid rhythms, partially through regulating the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. These data provide a possible link between the peripheral circadian clock and lipid metabolism.

  6. The orphan receptor Rev-erbα gene is a target of the circadian clock pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Triqueneaux, Gérard; Thenot, Sandrine; Kakizawa, Tomoko; Antoch, Marina P; Safi, Rachid; Takahashi, Joseph S; Delaunay, Franck; Laudet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Rev-erbα is a ubiquitously expressed orphan nuclear receptor which functions as a constitutive transcriptional repressor and is expressed in vertebrates according to a robust circadian rhythm. We report here that two Rev-erbα mRNA isoforms, namely Rev-erbα1 and Rev-erbα2, are generated through alternative promoter usage and that both show a circadian expression pattern in an in vitro system using serum-shocked fibroblasts. Both promoter regions P1 (Rev-erbα1) and P2 (Rev-erbα2) contain several E-box DNA sequences, which function as response elements for the core circadian-clock components: CLOCK and BMAL1. The CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimer stimulates the activity of both P1 and P2 promoters in transient transfection assay by 3–6-fold. This activation was inhibited by the overexpression of CRY1, a component of the negative limb of the circadian transcriptional loop. Critical E-box elements were mapped within both promoters. This regulation is conserved in vertebrates since we found that the CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimer also regulates the zebrafish Rev-erbα gene. In line with these data Rev-erbα circadian expression was strongly impaired in the livers of Clock mutant mice and in the pineal glands of zebrafish embryos treated with Clock and Bmal1 antisense oligonucleotides. Together these data demonstrate that CLOCK is a critical regulator of Rev-erbα circadian gene expression in evolutionarily distant vertebrates and suggest a role for Rev-erbα in the circadian clock output. PMID:15591021

  7. Toward a detailed computational model for the mammalian circadian clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, Jean-Christophe; Goldbeter, Albert

    2003-06-01

    We present a computational model for the mammalian circadian clock based on the intertwined positive and negative regulatory loops involving the Per, Cry, Bmal1, Clock, and Rev-Erb genes. In agreement with experimental observations, the model can give rise to sustained circadian oscillations in continuous darkness, characterized by an antiphase relationship between Per/Cry/Rev-Erb and Bmal1 mRNAs. Sustained oscillations correspond to the rhythms autonomously generated by suprachiasmatic nuclei. For other parameter values, damped oscillations can also be obtained in the model. These oscillations, which transform into sustained oscillations when coupled to a periodic signal, correspond to rhythms produced by peripheral tissues. When incorporating the light-induced expression of the Per gene, the model accounts for entrainment of the oscillations by light-dark cycles. Simulations show that the phase of the oscillations can then vary by several hours with relatively minor changes in parameter values. Such a lability of the phase could account for physiological disorders related to circadian rhythms in humans, such as advanced or delayed sleep phase syndrome, whereas the lack of entrainment by light-dark cycles can be related to the non-24h sleep-wake syndrome. The model uncovers the possible existence of multiple sources of oscillatory behavior. Thus, in conditions where the indirect negative autoregulation of Per and Cry expression is inoperative, the model indicates the possibility that sustained oscillations might still arise from the negative autoregulation of Bmal1 expression.

  8. CUL1 regulates TOC1 protein stability in the Arabidopsis circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Frank; Imaizumi, Takato; Gray, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The circadian clock is the endogenous timer that coordinates physiological processes with daily and seasonal environmental changes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, establishment of the circadian period relies on targeted degradation of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) by the 26S proteasome. ZEITLUPE (ZTL) is the F-box protein that associates with the SCF (Skp/Cullin/F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase that is responsible for marking TOC1 for turnover. CULLIN1 (CUL1) is a core component of SCF complexes and is involved in multiple signaling pathways. To assess the contribution of CUL1-containing SCF complexes to signaling within the plant oscillator, circadian rhythms were examined in the recessive, temperature-sensitive CUL1 allele axr6-3. The activity of CUL1 in this mutant declines progressively with increasing ambient temperature, resulting in more severe defects in CUL1-dependent activities at elevated temperature. Examination of circadian rhythms in axr6-3 revealed circadian phenotypes comparable to those observed in ztl null mutants; namely, lengthened circadian period, altered expression of core oscillator genes, and limited degradation of TOC1. In addition, treatment of seedlings with exogenous auxin did not alter TOC1 stability. These results demonstrate that CUL1 is required for TOC1 degradation and further suggest that this protein is the functional cullin for the SCFZTL complex. PMID:18433436

  9. Biotinylation: a novel posttranslational modification linking cell autonomous circadian clocks with metabolism.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Hamm, J Austin; Reddy, Alex; Sams, David; Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A; McGinnis, Graham R; Bailey, Shannon M; Chow, Chi-Wing; Rowe, Glenn C; Chatham, John C; Young, Martin E

    2016-06-01

    Circadian clocks are critical modulators of metabolism. However, mechanistic links between cell autonomous clocks and metabolic processes remain largely unknown. Here, we report that expression of the biotin transporter slc5a6 gene is decreased in hearts of two distinct genetic mouse models of cardiomyocyte-specific circadian clock disruption [i.e., cardiomyocyte-specific CLOCK mutant (CCM) and cardiomyocyte-specific BMAL1 knockout (CBK) mice]. Biotinylation is an obligate posttranslational modification for five mammalian carboxylases: acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα), ACCβ, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). We therefore hypothesized that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock impacts metabolism through biotinylation. Consistent with decreased slc5a6 expression, biotinylation of all carboxylases is significantly decreased (10-46%) in CCM and CBK hearts. In association with decreased biotinylated ACC, oleate oxidation rates are increased in both CCM and CBK hearts. Consistent with decreased biotinylated MCC, leucine oxidation rates are significantly decreased in both CCM and CBK hearts, whereas rates of protein synthesis are increased. Importantly, feeding CBK mice with a biotin-enriched diet for 6 wk normalized myocardial 1) ACC biotinylation and oleate oxidation rates; 2) PCC/MCC biotinylation (and partially restored leucine oxidation rates); and 3) net protein synthesis rates. Furthermore, data suggest that the RRAGD/mTOR/4E-BP1 signaling axis is chronically activated in CBK and CCM hearts. Finally we report that the hepatocyte circadian clock also regulates both slc5a6 expression and protein biotinylation in the liver. Collectively, these findings suggest that biotinylation is a novel mechanism by which cell autonomous circadian clocks influence metabolic pathways.

  10. Circadian Misalignment Increases C-Reactive Protein and Blood Pressure in Chronic Shift Workers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Mistretta, Joseph; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-03-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classical risk factors. Shift workers' behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers, independent of differences in work stress, food quality, and other factors that are likely to differ between night and day shifts. Thus, our objectives were to determine the independent effect of circadian misalignment on 24-h high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; a marker of systemic inflammation) and blood pressure levels-cardiovascular disease risk factors-in chronic shift workers. Chronic shift workers undertook two 3-day laboratory protocols that simulated night work, comprising 12-hour inverted behavioral and environmental cycles (circadian misalignment) or simulated day work (circadian alignment), using a randomized, crossover design. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h hs-CRP by 11% ( p < 0.0001). Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 1.4 mmHg and 0.8 mmHg, respectively (both p ≤ 0.038). The misalignment-mediated increase in 24-h SBP was primarily explained by an increase in SBP during the wake period (+1.7 mmHg; p = 0.017), whereas the misalignment-mediated increase in 24-h DBP was primarily explained by an increase in DBP during the sleep opportunity (+1.8 mmHg; p = 0.005). Circadian misalignment per se increases hs-CRP and blood pressure in shift workers. This may help explain the increased inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers.

  11. Codon usage affects the structure and function of the Drosophila circadian clock protein PERIOD

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jingjing; Murphy, Katherine A.; Zhou, Mian; Li, Ying H.; Lam, Vu H.; Tabuloc, Christine A.; Chiu, Joanna C.; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Codon usage bias is a universal feature of all genomes, but its in vivo biological functions in animal systems are not clear. To investigate the in vivo role of codon usage in animals, we took advantage of the sensitivity and robustness of the Drosophila circadian system. By codon-optimizing parts of Drosophila period (dper), a core clock gene that encodes a critical component of the circadian oscillator, we showed that dper codon usage is important for circadian clock function. Codon optimization of dper resulted in conformational changes of the dPER protein, altered dPER phosphorylation profile and stability, and impaired dPER function in the circadian negative feedback loop, which manifests into changes in molecular rhythmicity and abnormal circadian behavioral output. This study provides an in vivo example that demonstrates the role of codon usage in determining protein structure and function in an animal system. These results suggest a universal mechanism in eukaryotes that uses a codon usage “code” within genetic codons to regulate cotranslational protein folding. PMID:27542830

  12. Circadian molecular clock in lung pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Isaac K; Yao, Hongwei; Sellix, Michael T; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-11-15

    Disrupted daily or circadian rhythms of lung function and inflammatory responses are common features of chronic airway diseases. At the molecular level these circadian rhythms depend on the activity of an autoregulatory feedback loop oscillator of clock gene transcription factors, including the BMAL1:CLOCK activator complex and the repressors PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME. The key nuclear receptors and transcription factors REV-ERBα and RORα regulate Bmal1 expression and provide stability to the oscillator. Circadian clock dysfunction is implicated in both immune and inflammatory responses to environmental, inflammatory, and infectious agents. Molecular clock function is altered by exposomes, tobacco smoke, lipopolysaccharide, hyperoxia, allergens, bleomycin, as well as bacterial and viral infections. The deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates the timing of the clock through acetylation of BMAL1 and PER2 and controls the clock-dependent functions, which can also be affected by environmental stressors. Environmental agents and redox modulation may alter the levels of REV-ERBα and RORα in lung tissue in association with a heightened DNA damage response, cellular senescence, and inflammation. A reciprocal relationship exists between the molecular clock and immune/inflammatory responses in the lungs. Molecular clock function in lung cells may be used as a biomarker of disease severity and exacerbations or for assessing the efficacy of chronotherapy for disease management. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of clock-controlled cellular and molecular functions in the lungs and highlight the repercussions of clock disruption on the pathophysiology of chronic airway diseases and their exacerbations. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for the molecular clock as a novel chronopharmacological target for the management of lung pathophysiology.

  13. Circadian molecular clock in lung pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Isaac K.; Yao, Hongwei; Sellix, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted daily or circadian rhythms of lung function and inflammatory responses are common features of chronic airway diseases. At the molecular level these circadian rhythms depend on the activity of an autoregulatory feedback loop oscillator of clock gene transcription factors, including the BMAL1:CLOCK activator complex and the repressors PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME. The key nuclear receptors and transcription factors REV-ERBα and RORα regulate Bmal1 expression and provide stability to the oscillator. Circadian clock dysfunction is implicated in both immune and inflammatory responses to environmental, inflammatory, and infectious agents. Molecular clock function is altered by exposomes, tobacco smoke, lipopolysaccharide, hyperoxia, allergens, bleomycin, as well as bacterial and viral infections. The deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates the timing of the clock through acetylation of BMAL1 and PER2 and controls the clock-dependent functions, which can also be affected by environmental stressors. Environmental agents and redox modulation may alter the levels of REV-ERBα and RORα in lung tissue in association with a heightened DNA damage response, cellular senescence, and inflammation. A reciprocal relationship exists between the molecular clock and immune/inflammatory responses in the lungs. Molecular clock function in lung cells may be used as a biomarker of disease severity and exacerbations or for assessing the efficacy of chronotherapy for disease management. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of clock-controlled cellular and molecular functions in the lungs and highlight the repercussions of clock disruption on the pathophysiology of chronic airway diseases and their exacerbations. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for the molecular clock as a novel chronopharmacological target for the management of lung pathophysiology. PMID:26361874

  14. Degradation of the Neurospora circadian clock protein FREQUENCY through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Liu, Y

    2005-11-01

    Phosphorylation of the Neurospora circadian clock protein FREQUENCY (FRQ) promotes its degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Ubiquitination of FRQ requires FWD-1 (F-box/WD-40 repeat-containing protein-1), which is the substrate-recruiting subunit of an SCF (SKP/Cullin/F-box)-type ubiquitin ligase. In the fwd-1 mutant strains, FRQ degradation is defective, resulting in the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated FRQ and the loss of the circadian rhythmicities. The CSN (COP9 signalosome) promotes the function of SCF complexes in vivo. But in vitro, deneddylation of cullins by CSN inhibits SCF activity. In Neurospora, the disruption of the csn-2 subunit impairs FRQ degradation and compromises the normal circadian functions. These defects are due to the dramatically reduced levels of FWD-1 in the csn-2 mutant, a result of its rapid degradation. Other components of the SCF(FWD-1) complex, SKP-1 and CUL-1 are also unstable in the mutant. These results establish important roles for SCF(FWD-1) and CSN in the circadian clock of Neurospora and suggest that they are conserved components of the eukaryotic circadian clocks. In addition, these findings resolve the CSN paradox and suggest that the major function of CSN is to maintain the stability of SCF ubiquitin ligases in vivo.

  15. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) shows circadian oscillations in crayfish Procambarus clarkii putative pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María de la Paz; Escamilla-Chimal, Elsa G

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies of glia have examined glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and its relationship to the circadian rhythms of different organisms, they have not explored the daily GFAP oscillations in the putative pacemakers of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii or in other crustaceans. In this study we investigated the daily variations in GFAP concentrations in the eyestalk and brain, which are considered to be putative pacemakers in adult P. clarkii. In both structures, the glial GFAP was quantified using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and double labeling immunofluorescence was used to detect it and its co-localization with protein Period (PER), an important component of the circadian clock, in various regions of both structures. The ELISA results were analyzed using Cosinor and one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni and Scheffé's post hoc tests. The results of this analysis showed that the GFAP levels present circadian oscillations in both structures. Moreover, GFAP was localized in different structures of the eyestalk and brain; however, co-localization with PER occurred only in the lamina ganglionaris, specifically in the cartridges of the eyestalk and in some of the cluster 9 brain cells. These results suggest that as in other invertebrates and vertebrates, glial cells could be involved in the circadian system of P. clarkii; however, thus far we cannot know whether the glial cells are only effectors, participate in afferent pathways, or are part of the circadian clock.

  16. The Transcription Factor Runx2 Is under Circadian Control in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Functions in the Control of Rhythmic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Meghan E.; Webb, Ian C.; Wang, Xu; Baltazar, Ricardo M.; Coolen, Lique M.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Runx2, a member of the family of runt-related transcription factors, is rhythmically expressed in bone and may be involved in circadian rhythms in bone homeostasis and osteogenesis. Runx2 is also expressed in the brain, but its function is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that in the brain, Runx2 may interact with clock-controlled genes to regulate circadian rhythms in behavior. First, we demonstrated diurnal and circadian rhythms in the expression of Runx2 in the mouse brain. Expression of Runx2 mRNA and protein mirrored that of the core clock genes, Period1 and Period2, in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the paraventricular nucleus and the olfactory bulb. The rhythm of Runx2 expression was eliminated in the SCN of Bmal1−/− mice. Moreover, by crossbreeding mPer2Luc mice with Runx2+/− mice and recording bioluminescence rhythms, a significant lengthening of the period of rhythms was detected in cultured SCN of Runx2−/− animals compared to either Runx2+/− or Runx2+/+ mice. Behavioral analyses of Runx2 mutant mice revealed that Runx2+/− animals displayed a significantly lengthened free-running period of running wheel activity compared to Runx2+/+ littermates. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for clock gene-mediated rhythmic expression of Runx2, and its functional role in regulating circadian period at the level of the SCN and behavior. PMID:23372705

  17. Robust circadian clocks from coupled protein-modification and transcription-translation cycles.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, David; Lubensky, David K; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2010-12-28

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus uses both a protein phosphorylation cycle and a transcription-translation cycle to generate circadian rhythms that are highly robust against biochemical noise. We use stochastic simulations to analyze how these cycles interact to generate stable rhythms in growing, dividing cells. We find that a protein phosphorylation cycle by itself is robust when protein turnover is low. For high decay or dilution rates (and compensating synthesis rates), however, the phosphorylation-based oscillator loses its integrity. Circadian rhythms thus cannot be generated with a phosphorylation cycle alone when the growth rate, and consequently the rate of protein dilution, is high enough; in practice, a purely posttranslational clock ceases to function well when the cell doubling time drops below the 24-h clock period. At higher growth rates, a transcription-translation cycle becomes essential for generating robust circadian rhythms. Interestingly, although a transcription-translation cycle is necessary to sustain a phosphorylation cycle at high growth rates, a phosphorylation cycle can dramatically enhance the robustness of a transcription-translation cycle at lower protein decay or dilution rates. In fact, the full oscillator built from these two tightly intertwined cycles far outperforms not just each of its two components individually, but also a hypothetical system in which the two parts are coupled as in textbook models of coupled phase oscillators. Our analysis thus predicts that both cycles are required to generate robust circadian rhythms over the full range of growth conditions.

  18. Robust circadian clocks from coupled protein-modification and transcription–translation cycles

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, David; Lubensky, David K.; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2010-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus uses both a protein phosphorylation cycle and a transcription–translation cycle to generate circadian rhythms that are highly robust against biochemical noise. We use stochastic simulations to analyze how these cycles interact to generate stable rhythms in growing, dividing cells. We find that a protein phosphorylation cycle by itself is robust when protein turnover is low. For high decay or dilution rates (and compensating synthesis rates), however, the phosphorylation-based oscillator loses its integrity. Circadian rhythms thus cannot be generated with a phosphorylation cycle alone when the growth rate, and consequently the rate of protein dilution, is high enough; in practice, a purely posttranslational clock ceases to function well when the cell doubling time drops below the 24-h clock period. At higher growth rates, a transcription–translation cycle becomes essential for generating robust circadian rhythms. Interestingly, although a transcription–translation cycle is necessary to sustain a phosphorylation cycle at high growth rates, a phosphorylation cycle can dramatically enhance the robustness of a transcription–translation cycle at lower protein decay or dilution rates. In fact, the full oscillator built from these two tightly intertwined cycles far outperforms not just each of its two components individually, but also a hypothetical system in which the two parts are coupled as in textbook models of coupled phase oscillators. Our analysis thus predicts that both cycles are required to generate robust circadian rhythms over the full range of growth conditions. PMID:21149676

  19. The Circadian Clock Protein Timeless Regulates Phagocytosis of Bacteria in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Janelle S.; Pham, Linh N.; Ziauddin, Junaid; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi M.

    2012-01-01

    Survival of bacterial infection is the result of complex host-pathogen interactions. An often-overlooked aspect of these interactions is the circadian state of the host. Previously, we demonstrated that Drosophila mutants lacking the circadian regulatory proteins Timeless (Tim) and Period (Per) are sensitive to infection by S. pneumoniae. Sensitivity to infection can be mediated either by changes in resistance (control of microbial load) or tolerance (endurance of the pathogenic effects of infection). Here we show that Tim regulates resistance against both S. pneumoniae and S. marcescens. We set out to characterize and identify the underlying mechanism of resistance that is circadian-regulated. Using S. pneumoniae, we found that resistance oscillates daily in adult wild-type flies and that these oscillations are absent in Tim mutants. Drosophila have at least three main resistance mechanisms to kill high levels of bacteria in their hemolymph: melanization, antimicrobial peptides, and phagocytosis. We found that melanization is not circadian-regulated. We further found that basal levels of AMP gene expression exhibit time-of-day oscillations but that these are Tim-independent; moreover, infection-induced AMP gene expression is not circadian-regulated. We then show that phagocytosis is circadian-regulated. Wild-type flies exhibit up-regulated phagocytic activity at night; Tim mutants have normal phagocytic activity during the day but lack this night-time peak. Tim appears to regulate an upstream event in phagocytosis, such as bacterial recognition or activation of phagocytic hemocytes. Interestingly, inhibition of phagocytosis in wild type flies results in survival kinetics similar to Tim mutants after infection with S. pneumoniae. Taken together, these results suggest that loss of circadian oscillation of a specific immune function (phagocytosis) can have significant effects on long-term survival of infection. PMID:22253593

  20. The ticking tail: daily oscillations in mRNA poly(A) tail length drive circadian cycles in protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gotic, Ivana; Schibler, Ueli

    2012-12-15

    In this issue of Genes & Development, Kojima and colleagues (pp. 2724-2736) examined the impact of mRNA poly(A) tail length on circadian gene expression. Their study demonstrates how dynamic changes in transcript poly(A) tail length can lead to rhythmic protein expression, irrespective of whether mRNA accumulation is circadian or constitutive.

  1. Similarity of the C. elegans developmental timing protein LIN-42 to circadian rhythm proteins.

    PubMed

    Jeon, M; Gardner, H F; Miller, E A; Deshler, J; Rougvie, A E

    1999-11-05

    The Caenorhabditis elegans heterochronic genes control the relative timing and sequence of many events during postembryonic development, including the terminal differentiation of the lateral hypodermis, which occurs during the final (fourth) molt. Inactivation of the heterochronic gene lin-42 causes hypodermal terminal differentiation to occur precociously, during the third molt. LIN-42 most closely resembles the Period family of proteins from Drosophila and other organisms, proteins that function in another type of biological timing mechanism: the timing of circadian rhythms. Per mRNA levels oscillate with an approximately 24-hour periodicity. lin-42 mRNA levels also oscillate, but with a faster rhythm; the oscillation occurs relative to the approximately 6-hour molting cycles of postembryonic development.

  2. MYC/MIZ1-dependent gene repression inversely coordinates the circadian clock with cell cycle and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Shostak, Anton; Ruppert, Bianca; Ha, Nati; Bruns, Philipp; Toprak, Umut H.; Lawerenz, Chris; Lichter, Peter; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Eils, Jürgen; Brors, Benedikt; Radomski, Sylwester; Scholz, Ingrid; Richter, Gesine; Siebert, Reiner; Wagner, Susanne; Haake, Andrea; Richter, Julia; Aukema, Sietse; Ammerpohl, Ole; Lopez, Christina; Nagel, Inga; Vater, Inga; Wagner, Rabea; Borst, Christoph; Haas, Siegfried; Rohde, Marius; Burkhardt, Birgit; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Claviez, Alexander; Dreyling, Martin; Eberth, Sonja; Trümper, Lorenz; Kube, Dieter; Stadler, Christina; Einsele, Hermann; Frickhofen, Norbert; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Karsch, Dennis; Kneba, Michael; Mantovani-Löffler, Luisa; Staib, Peter; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Ott, German; Küppers, Ralf; Weniger, Marc; Hummel, Michael; Lenze, Dido; Szczepanowski, Monika; Klapper, Wolfram; Kostezka, Ulrike; Möller, Peter; Rosenwald, Andreas; Leich, Ellen; Pischimariov, Jordan; Binder, Vera; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hezaveh, Kebria; Hoell, Jessica; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schilhabel, Markus; Schreiber, Stefan; Bernhart, Stephan H.; Doose, Gero; Hoffmann, Steve; Kretzmer, Helene; Langenberger, David; Binder, Hans; Hopp, Lydia; Kreuz, Markus; Loeffler, Markus; Rosolowski, Maciej; Korbel, Jan; Sungalee, Stefanie; Stadler, Peter F.; Zenz, Thorsten; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Diernfellner, Axel; Brunner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock and the cell cycle are major cellular systems that organize global physiology in temporal fashion. It seems conceivable that the potentially conflicting programs are coordinated. We show here that overexpression of MYC in U2OS cells attenuates the clock and conversely promotes cell proliferation while downregulation of MYC strengthens the clock and reduces proliferation. Inhibition of the circadian clock is crucially dependent on the formation of repressive complexes of MYC with MIZ1 and subsequent downregulation of the core clock genes BMAL1 (ARNTL), CLOCK and NPAS2. We show furthermore that BMAL1 expression levels correlate inversely with MYC levels in 102 human lymphomas. Our data suggest that MYC acts as a master coordinator that inversely modulates the impact of cell cycle and circadian clock on gene expression. PMID:27339797

  3. Differential effects of omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and palmitate on the circadian transcriptional profile of clock genes in immortalized hypothalamic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Greco, James A.; Oosterman, Johanneke E.

    2014-01-01

    Diets high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are associated with the development of circadian dysregulation, obesity, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conversely, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have recently been identified to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce weight gain, and relieve obesity-induced inflammation. While saturated fatty acids, such as the prevalent dietary fatty acid palmitate, have been implicated in circadian disruption, there is a paucity of studies regarding the effects of PUFAs on circadian parameters. Therefore, the immortalized murine neuronal model, mHypoE-37, was utilized to examine the effects of the SFA palmitate and omega-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on circadian rhythms. The mHypoE-37 neurons express the core clock genes, Bmal1, Per2, and Rev-erbα, in a circadian manner. 25 μM of palmitate significantly increased the transcriptional expression of Bmal1, without altering the expression of inflammatory markers TLR4, IκBα, and IL-6, nor the orexigenic neuropeptide AgRP, suggesting that the observed disruption of the molecular clock is the result of a mechanism distinct from that of hypothalamic cellular inflammation. Furthermore, treatment with the PUFA DHA resulted in alterations in the circadian expression profile of Bmal1, although differentially from the effects of palmitate. In the presence of DHA, the disruptive effects of palmitate on Bmal1 were less pronounced, suggesting a protective effect of DHA. These studies are the first to identify the potential for omega-3 PUFAs to protect against palmitate-mediated dysregulation of circadian parameters and will ultimately improve the understanding of circadian control mechanisms. PMID:25144192

  4. Taurine Treatment Modulates Circadian Rhythms in Mice Fed A High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Ana Lucia C.; Figueiredo, Hugo; Rebuffat, Sandra A.; Vieira, Elaine; Gomis, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Close ties have been made among certain nutrients, obesity, type 2 diabetes and circadian clocks. Among nutrients, taurine has been documented as being effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of taurine on circadian clocks has not been elucidated. We investigated whether taurine can modulate or correct disturbances in daily rhythms caused by a high-fat diet in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided in four groups: control (C), control + taurine (C+T), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD + taurine (HFD+T). They were administered 2% taurine in their drinking water for 10 weeks. Mice were euthanized at 6:00, 12:00, 18:00, and 24:00. HFD mice increased body weight, visceral fat and food intake, as well as higher levels of glucose, insulin and leptin, throughout the 24 h. Taurine prevented increments in food intake, body weight and visceral fat, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and reduced disturbances in the 24 h patterns of plasma insulin and leptin. HFD downregulated the expression of clock genes Rev-erbα, Bmal1, and Per1 in pancreatic islets. Taurine normalized the gene and protein expression of PER1 in beta-cells, which suggests that it could be beneficial for the correction of daily rhythms and the amelioration of obesity and diabetes. PMID:27857215

  5. Activity and circadian rhythm influence synaptic Shank3 protein levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Tasnuva; Chhabra, Resham; Vilella, Antonietta; Boeckers, Tobias M; Zoli, Michele; Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2016-09-01

    Various recent studies revealed that the proteins of the Shank family act as major scaffold organizing elements in the post-synaptic density of excitatory synapses and that their expression level is able to influence synapse formation, maturation and ultimately brain plasticity. An imbalance in Shank3 protein levels has been associated with a variety of neuropsychological and neurodegenerative disorders including autism spectrum disorders and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Given that sleep disorders and low melatonin levels are frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders, and that circadian rhythms may be able to modulate Shank3 signaling and thereby synaptic function, here, we performed in vivo studies on CBA mice using protein biochemistry to investigate the synaptic expression levels of Shank3α during the day in different brain regions. Our results show that synaptic Shank3 protein concentrations exhibit minor oscillations during the day in hippocampal and striatal brain regions that correlate with changes in serum melatonin levels. Furthermore, as circadian rhythms are tightly connected to activity levels in mice, we increased physical activity using running wheels. The expression of Shank3α increases rapidly by induced activity in thalamus and cortex, but decreases in striatum, superimposing the circadian rhythms of different brain regions. We conclude that synaptic Shank3 proteins build highly dynamic platforms that are modulated by the light:dark cycles but even more so driven by activity. Using wild-type CBA mice, we show that Shank3 is a highly dynamic and activity-regulated protein at synapses. In the hippocampus, changes in synaptic Shank3 levels are influenced by circadian rhythm/melatonin concentration, while running activity increases and decreases levels of Shank3 in the cortex and striatum respectively.

  6. Circadian molecular clocks and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Fergal C; Rao, Aparna; Maguire, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Physiological processes such as the sleep-wake cycle, metabolism and hormone secretion are controlled by a circadian rhythm adapted to 24h day-night periodicity. This circadian synchronisation is in part controlled by ambient light decreasing melatonin secretion by the pineal gland and co-ordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Peripheral cell autonomous circadian clocks controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master regulator, exist within every cell of the body and are comprised of at least twelve genes. These include the basic helix-loop-helix/PAS domain containing transcription factors; Clock, BMal1 and Npas2 which activate transcription of the periodic genes (Per1 and Per2) and cryptochrome genes (Cry1 and Cry2). Points of coupling exist between the cellular clock and the cell cycle. Cell cycle genes which are affected by the molecular circadian clock include c-Myc, Wee1, cyclin D and p21. Therefore the rhythm of the circadian clock and cancer are interlinked. Molecular examples exist including activation of Per2 leads to c-myc overexpression and an increased tumor incidence. Mice with mutations in Cryptochrome 1 and 2 are arrhythmic (lack a circadian rhythm) and arrhythmic mice have a faster rate of growth of implanted tumors. Epidemiological finding of relevance include 'The Nurses' Health Study' where it was established that women working rotational night shifts have an increased incidence of breast cancer. Compounds that affect circadian rhythm exist with attendant future therapeutic possibilities. These include casein kinase I inhibitors and a candidate small molecule KL001 that affects the degradation of cryptochrome. Theoretically the cell cycle and malignant disease may be targeted vicariously by selective alteration of the cellular molecular clock.

  7. Emergence of Noise-Induced Oscillations in the Central Circadian Pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Buhr, Ethan D.; Liu, Andrew C.; Zhang, Eric E.; Ralph, Martin R.; Kay, Steve A.; Forger, Daniel B.; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    Bmal1 is an essential transcriptional activator within the mammalian circadian clock. We report here that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of Bmal1-null mutant mice, unexpectedly, generates stochastic oscillations with periods that overlap the circadian range. Dissociated SCN neurons expressed fluctuating levels of PER2 detected by bioluminescence imaging but could not generate circadian oscillations intrinsically. Inhibition of intercellular communication or cyclic-AMP signaling in SCN slices, which provide a positive feed-forward signal to drive the intracellular negative feedback loop, abolished the stochastic oscillations. Propagation of this feed-forward signal between SCN neurons then promotes quasi-circadian oscillations that arise as an emergent property of the SCN network. Experimental analysis and mathematical modeling argue that both intercellular coupling and molecular noise are required for the stochastic rhythms, providing a novel biological example of noise-induced oscillations. The emergence of stochastic circadian oscillations from the SCN network in the absence of cell-autonomous circadian oscillatory function highlights a previously unrecognized level of circadian organization. PMID:20967239

  8. Endotoxin Disrupts Circadian Rhythms in Macrophages via Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yusi; Pati, Paramita; Xu, Yiming; Chen, Feng; Stepp, David W; Huo, Yuqing; Rudic, R Daniel; Fulton, David J R

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a transcriptional network that functions to regulate the expression of genes important in the anticipation of changes in cellular and organ function. Recent studies have revealed that the recognition of pathogens and subsequent initiation of inflammatory responses are strongly regulated by a macrophage-intrinsic circadian clock. We hypothesized that the circadian pattern of gene expression might be influenced by inflammatory stimuli and that loss of circadian function in immune cells can promote pro-inflammatory behavior. To investigate circadian rhythms in inflammatory cells, peritoneal macrophages were isolated from mPer2luciferase transgenic mice and circadian oscillations were studied in response to stimuli. Using Cosinor analysis, we found that LPS significantly altered the circadian period in peritoneal macrophages from mPer2luciferase mice while qPCR data suggested that the pattern of expression of the core circadian gene (Bmal1) was disrupted. Inhibition of TLR4 offered protection from the LPS-induced impairment in rhythm, suggesting a role for toll-like receptor signaling. To explore the mechanisms involved, we inhibited LPS-stimulated NO and superoxide. Inhibition of NO synthesis with L-NAME had no effect on circadian rhythms. In contrast, inhibition of superoxide with Tempol or PEG-SOD ameliorated the LPS-induced changes in circadian periodicity. In gain of function experiments, we found that overexpression of NOX5, a source of ROS, could significantly disrupt circadian function in a circadian reporter cell line (U2OS) whereas iNOS overexpression, a source of NO, was ineffective. To assess whether alteration of circadian rhythms influences macrophage function, peritoneal macrophages were isolated from Bmal1-KO and Per-TKO mice. Compared to WT macrophages, macrophages from circadian knockout mice exhibited altered balance between NO and ROS release, increased uptake of oxLDL and increased adhesion and migration. These results

  9. Tissue-intrinsic dysfunction of circadian clock confers transplant arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Anea, Ciprian B; Yao, Lin; Chen, Feng; Patel, Vijay; Merloiu, Ana; Pati, Paramita; Caldwell, R William; Fulton, David J; Rudic, R Daniel

    2011-10-11

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain is the circadian center, relaying rhythmic environmental and behavioral information to peripheral tissues to control circadian physiology. As such, central clock dysfunction can alter systemic homeostasis to consequently impair peripheral physiology in a manner that is secondary to circadian malfunction. To determine the impact of circadian clock function in organ transplantation and dissect the influence of intrinsic tissue clocks versus extrinsic clocks, we implemented a blood vessel grafting approach to surgically assemble a chimeric mouse that was part wild-type (WT) and part circadian clock mutant. Arterial isografts from donor WT mice that had been anastamosed to common carotid arteries of recipient WT mice (WT:WT) exhibited no pathology in this syngeneic transplant strategy. Similarly, when WT grafts were anastamosed to mice with disrupted circadian clocks, the structural features of the WT grafts immersed in the milieu of circadian malfunction were normal and absent of lesions, comparable to WT:WT grafts. In contrast, aortic grafts from Bmal1 knockout (KO) or Period-2,3 double-KO mice transplanted into littermate control WT mice developed robust arteriosclerotic disease. These lesions observed in donor grafts of Bmal1-KO were associated with up-regulation in T-cell receptors, macrophages, and infiltrating cells in the vascular grafts, but were independent of hemodynamics and B and T cell-mediated immunity. These data demonstrate the significance of intrinsic tissue clocks as an autonomous influence in experimental models of arteriosclerotic disease, which may have implications with regard to the influence of circadian clock function in organ transplantation.

  10. Circadian rhythm in QT interval is preserved in mice deficient of potassium channel interacting protein 2.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Lisa A; Lubberding, Anniek; Larsen, Anders Peter; Thomsen, Morten B

    2017-01-01

    Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) is suggested to be responsible for the circadian rhythm in repolarization duration, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. We investigated the hypothesis that there is no circadian rhythm in QT interval in the absence of KChIP2. Implanted telemetric devices recorded electrocardiogram continuously for 5 days in conscious wild-type mice (WT, n = 9) and KChIP2(-/-) mice (n = 9) in light:dark periods and in complete darkness. QT intervals were determined from all RR intervals and corrected for heart rate (QT100 = QT/(RR/100)(1/2)). Moreover, QT intervals were determined from complexes within the RR range of mean-RR ± 1% in the individual mouse (QTmean-RR). We find that RR intervals are 125 ± 5 ms in WT and 123 ± 4 ms in KChIP2(-/-) (p = 0.81), and QT intervals are 52 ± 1 and 52 ± 1 ms, respectively(p = 0.89). No ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac deaths were observed. We find similar diurnal (light:dark) and circadian (darkness) rhythms of RR intervals in WT and KChIP2(-/-) mice. Circadian rhythms in QT100 intervals are present in both groups, but at physiological small amplitudes: 1.6 ± 0.2 and 1.0 ± 0.3 ms in WT and KChIP2(-/-), respectively (p = 0.15). A diurnal rhythm in QT100 intervals was only found in WT mice. QTmean-RR intervals display clear diurnal and circadian rhythms in both WT and KChIP2(-/-). The amplitude of the circadian rhythm in QTmean-RR is 4.0 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 ms in WT and KChIP2(-/-), respectively (p = 0.16). In conclusion, KChIP2 expression does not appear to underlie the circadian rhythm in repolarization duration.

  11. Neurotoxic protein expression reveals connections between the circadian clock and mating behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kadener, Sebastian; Villella, Adriana; Kula, Elzbieta; Palm, Kristyna; Pyza, Elzbieta; Botas, Juan; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Rosbash, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the functions of circadian neurons, we added two strategies to the standard Drosophila behavioral genetics repertoire. The first was to express a polyglutamine-expanded neurotoxic protein (MJDtr78Q; MJD, Machado–Joseph disease) in the major timeless (tim)-expressing cells of the adult brain. These Tim-MJD flies were viable, in contrast to the use of cell-death gene expression for tim neuron inactivation. Moreover, they were more arrhythmic than flies expressing other neurotoxins and had low but detectable tim mRNA levels. The second extended standard microarray technology from fly heads to dissected fly brains. By combining the two approaches, we identified a population of Tim-MJD-affected mRNAs. Some had been previously identified as sex-specific and relevant to courtship, including mRNAs localized to brain-proximal fat-body tissue and brain courtship centers. Finally, we found a decrease in the number of neurons that expressed male-specific forms of the fruitless protein in the laterodorsal region of the brain. The decrease was not a consequence of toxic protein expression within these specialized cells but a likely effect of communication with neighboring TIM-expressing neurons. The data suggest a functional interaction between adjacent circadian and mating circuits within the fly brain, as well as an interaction between circadian circuits and brain-proximal fat body. PMID:16938865

  12. miRNAs Do Not Regulate Circadian Protein Synthesis in the Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve; Beauchemin, Mathieu; Morse, David

    2017-01-01

    Dinoflagellates have been shown to express miRNA by bioinformatics and RNA blot (Northern) analyses. However, it is not yet known if miRNAs are able to alter gene expression in this class of organisms. We have assessed the possibility that miRNA may mediate circadian regulation of gene expression in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum using the Luciferin Binding Protein (LBP) as a specific example. LBP is a good candidate for regulation by miRNA since mRNA levels are constant over the daily cycle while protein synthesis is restricted by the circadian clock to a period of several hours at the start of the night phase. The transcriptome contains a potential DICER and an ARGONAUTE, suggesting the machinery for generating miRNAs is present. Furthermore, a probe directed against an abundant Symbiodinium miRNA cross reacts on Northern blots. However, L. polyedrum has no small RNAs detectable by ethidium bromide staining, even though higher plant miRNAs run in parallel are readily observed. Illumina sequencing of small RNAs showed that the majority of reads did not have a match in the L. polyedrum transcriptome, and those that did were almost all sense strand mRNA fragments. A direct search for 18–26 nucleotide long RNAs capable of forming duplexes with a 2 base 3’ overhang detected 53 different potential miRNAs, none of which was able to target any of the known circadian regulated genes. Lastly, a microscopy-based test to assess synthesis of the naturally fluorescent LBP in single cells showed that neither double-stranded nor antisense lbp RNA introduced into cells by microparticle bombardment prior to the time of LBP synthesis were able to reduce the amount of LBP produced. Taken together, our results indicate that circadian control of protein synthesis in L. polyedrum is not mediated by miRNAs. PMID:28103286

  13. Circadian and photic regulation of MAP kinase by Ras- and protein phosphatase-dependent pathways in the chick pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Sanada, K; Fukada, Y

    2001-02-23

    Chick pineal mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) exhibits circadian activation and light-dependent deactivation at nighttime. Here we report that, in the chick pineal gland, levels of active forms of MAPK, MEK, Raf-1 and Ras exhibited synchronous circadian rhythms with peaks during the subjective night, suggesting a sequential activation of components in the classical Ras-MAPK pathway in a circadian manner. In contrast, the light-dependent deactivation of MAPK was not accompanied by any change of MEK activity, but it was attributed to the light-dependent activation of protein phosphatase dephosphorylating MAPK. These results indicate that the photic and clock signals regulate MAPK activity via independent pathways, and suggest a pivotal role of MAPK in photic entrainment and maintenance of the circadian oscillation.

  14. Gpr176 is a Gz-linked orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that sets the pace of circadian behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Masao; Murai, Iori; Kunisue, Sumihiro; Setsu, Genzui; Uchio, Naohiro; Tanaka, Rina; Kobayashi, Sakurako; Shimatani, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Hida; Chao, Hsu-Wen; Nakagawa, Yuuki; Takahashi, Yukari; Hotta, Yunhong; Yasunaga, Jun-ichirou; Matsuoka, Masao; Hastings, Michael H.; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) participate in a broad range of physiological functions. A priority for fundamental and clinical research, therefore, is to decipher the function of over 140 remaining orphan GPCRs. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the brain's circadian pacemaker, governs daily rhythms in behaviour and physiology. Here we launch the SCN orphan GPCR project to (i) search for murine orphan GPCRs with enriched expression in the SCN, (ii) generate mutant animals deficient in candidate GPCRs, and (iii) analyse the impact on circadian rhythms. We thereby identify Gpr176 as an SCN-enriched orphan GPCR that sets the pace of circadian behaviour. Gpr176 is expressed in a circadian manner by SCN neurons, and molecular characterization reveals that it represses cAMP signalling in an agonist-independent manner. Gpr176 acts independently of, and in parallel to, the Vipr2 GPCR, not through the canonical Gi, but via the unique G-protein subclass Gz. PMID:26882873

  15. The tumor-associated YB-1 protein: new player in the circadian control of cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Cristina; Martino, Orsola di; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Guarino, Andrea Maria; Mueller, Nathalie; Siauciunaite, Rima; Reischl, Markus; Foulkes, Nicholas Simon; Vallone, Daniela; Calabrò, Viola

    2017-01-01

    Correct spatial and temporal control of cell proliferation is of fundamental importance for tissue homeostasis. Its deregulation has been associated with several pathological conditions. In common with almost every aspect of plant and animal biology, cell proliferation is dominated by day-night rhythms generated by the circadian clock. However, our understanding of the crosstalk between the core clock and cell cycle control mechanisms remains incomplete. In this study, using zebrafish as a vertebrate model system, we show that the nuclear localization of the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1), a regulator of cyclin expression and a hallmark of certain cancers, is robustly regulated by the circadian clock. We implicate clock-controlled changes in YB-1 SUMOylation as one of the mechanisms regulating its periodic nuclear entry at the beginning of the light phase. Furthermore, we demonstrate that YB-1 nuclear protein is able to downregulate cyclin A2 mRNA expression in zebrafish via its direct interaction with the cyclin A2 promoter. Thus, by acting as a direct target of cyclic posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, YB-1 serves as one bridge between the circadian clock and its cell cycle control. PMID:28008157

  16. Heme Binding to the Mammalian Circadian Clock Protein Period 2 is Non-Specific†

    PubMed Central

    Airola, Michael V.; Du, Jing; Dawson, John H.; Crane, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock synchronizes physical and metabolic activity with the diurnal cycle through a transcriptional-posttranslational feedback loop. An additional feedback mechanism regulating clock timing has been proposed to involve oscillation in heme availability. Period 2 (PER2), an integral component in the negative feedback loop that establishes circadian rhythms in mammals, has been identified as a heme binding protein. However, the majority of evidence for heme binding is based upon in vitro heme binding assays. We sought to ascertain if these largely spectral assays could distinguish between specific and non-specific heme interactions. Heme binding properties by a number of other well-characterized proteins, all with no known biological role involving heme interaction, corresponded to those displayed by PER2. Site-directed mutants of putative heme-binding residues identified by MCD were unable to locate a specific heme-binding site on PER2. Protein film electrochemistry also indicates that heme binds PER2 non-specifically on the protein surface. Our results establish the inability of typical in vitro assays to easily distinguish between specific and non-specific heme binding. We conclude that heme binding to PER2 is likely to be non-specific and does not involve the hydrophobic pocket within the PER2 PAS domains that in other PAS proteins commonly recognizes cofactors. These findings also question the significance of in vivo studies that implicate heme interactions with the clock proteins PER2 and nPAS2 in biological function. PMID:20411915

  17. Cellular clocks in AVP neurons of the SCN are critical for interneuronal coupling regulating circadian behavior rhythm.

    PubMed

    Mieda, Michihiro; Ono, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Emi; Okamoto, Hitoshi; Honma, Ken-Ichi; Honma, Sato; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2015-03-04

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals, is a network structure composed of multiple types of neurons. Here, we report that mice with a Bmal1 deletion specific to arginine vasopressin (AVP)-producing neurons showed marked lengthening in the free-running period and activity time of behavior rhythms. When exposed to an abrupt 8-hr advance of the light/dark cycle, these mice reentrained faster than control mice did. In these mice, the circadian expression of genes involved in intercellular communications, including Avp, Prokineticin 2, and Rgs16, was drastically reduced in the dorsal SCN, where AVP neurons predominate. In slices, dorsal SCN cells showed attenuated PER2::LUC oscillation with highly variable and lengthened periods. Thus, Bmal1-dependent oscillators of AVP neurons may modulate the coupling of the SCN network, eventually coupling morning and evening behavioral rhythms, by regulating expression of multiple factors important for the network property of these neurons.

  18. Machine Learning Helps Identify CHRONO as a Circadian Clock Component

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Anand; Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Kavakli, Ibrahim H.; Hughes, Michael E.; Baggs, Julie E.; Growe, Jacqueline; Liu, Andrew C.; Kim, Junhyong; Hogenesch, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, researchers have characterized a set of “clock genes” that drive daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. This arduous work has yielded results with far-reaching consequences in metabolic, psychiatric, and neoplastic disorders. Recent attempts to expand our understanding of circadian regulation have moved beyond the mutagenesis screens that identified the first clock components, employing higher throughput genomic and proteomic techniques. In order to further accelerate clock gene discovery, we utilized a computer-assisted approach to identify and prioritize candidate clock components. We used a simple form of probabilistic machine learning to integrate biologically relevant, genome-scale data and ranked genes on their similarity to known clock components. We then used a secondary experimental screen to characterize the top candidates. We found that several physically interact with known clock components in a mammalian two-hybrid screen and modulate in vitro cellular rhythms in an immortalized mouse fibroblast line (NIH 3T3). One candidate, Gene Model 129, interacts with BMAL1 and functionally represses the key driver of molecular rhythms, the BMAL1/CLOCK transcriptional complex. Given these results, we have renamed the gene CHRONO (computationally highlighted repressor of the network oscillator). Bi-molecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation demonstrate that CHRONO represses by abrogating the binding of BMAL1 to its transcriptional co-activator CBP. Most importantly, CHRONO knockout mice display a prolonged free-running circadian period similar to, or more drastic than, six other clock components. We conclude that CHRONO is a functional clock component providing a new layer of control on circadian molecular dynamics. PMID:24737000

  19. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I, the circadian clock, sleep and learning.

    PubMed

    Feil, Robert; Hölter, Sabine M; Weindl, Karin; Wurst, Wolfgang; Langmesser, Sonja; Gerling, Andrea; Feil, Susanne; Albrecht, Urs

    2009-07-01

    The second messenger cGMP controls cardiovascular and gastrointestinal homeostasis in mammals. However, its physiological relevance in the nervous system is poorly understood.1 Now, we have reported that the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PRKG1) is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness.2Prkg1 mutant mice showed altered distribution of sleep and wakefulness as well as reduction in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) duration and in non-REMS consolidation. Furthermore, the ability to sustain waking episodes was compromised. These observations were also reflected in wheel-running and drinking activity. A decrease in electroencephalogram power in the delta frequency range (1-4 Hz) under baseline conditions was observed, which was normalized after sleep deprivation. Together with the finding that circadian clock amplitude is reduced in Prkg1 mutants these results indicate a decrease of the wake-promoting output of the circadian system affecting sleep. Because quality of sleep might affect learning we tested Prkg1 mutants in several learning tasks and find normal spatial learning but impaired object recognition memory in these animals. Our findings indicate that Prkg1 impinges on circadian rhythms, sleep and distinct aspects of learning.

  20. An RNAi Screen To Identify Protein Phosphatases That Function Within the Drosophila Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Parul; Hardin, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks in eukaryotes keep time via cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops. A well-characterized example of such a transcriptional feedback loop is in Drosophila, where CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) complexes activate transcription of period (per) and timeless (tim) genes, rising levels of PER-TIM complexes feed-back to repress CLK-CYC activity, and degradation of PER and TIM permits the next cycle of CLK-CYC transcription. The timing of CLK-CYC activation and PER-TIM repression is regulated posttranslationally, in part through rhythmic phosphorylation of CLK, PER, and TIM. Previous behavioral screens identified several kinases that control CLK, PER, and TIM levels, subcellular localization, and/or activity, but two phosphatases that function within the clock were identified through the analysis of candidate genes from other pathways or model systems. To identify phosphatases that play a role in the clock, we screened clock cell-specific RNA interference (RNAi) knockdowns of all annotated protein phosphatases and protein phosphatase regulators in Drosophila for altered activity rhythms. This screen identified 19 protein phosphatases that lengthened or shortened the circadian period by ≥1 hr (p ≤ 0.05 compared to controls) or were arrhythmic. Additional RNAi lines, transposon inserts, overexpression, and loss-of-function mutants were tested to independently confirm these RNAi phenotypes. Based on genetic validation and molecular analysis, 15 viable protein phosphatases remain for future studies. These candidates are expected to reveal novel features of the circadian timekeeping mechanism in Drosophila that are likely to be conserved in all animals including humans. PMID:27784754

  1. An RNAi Screen To Identify Protein Phosphatases That Function Within the Drosophila Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Parul; Hardin, Paul E

    2016-12-07

    Circadian clocks in eukaryotes keep time via cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops. A well-characterized example of such a transcriptional feedback loop is in Drosophila, where CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) complexes activate transcription of period (per) and timeless (tim) genes, rising levels of PER-TIM complexes feed-back to repress CLK-CYC activity, and degradation of PER and TIM permits the next cycle of CLK-CYC transcription. The timing of CLK-CYC activation and PER-TIM repression is regulated posttranslationally, in part through rhythmic phosphorylation of CLK, PER, and TIM. Previous behavioral screens identified several kinases that control CLK, PER, and TIM levels, subcellular localization, and/or activity, but two phosphatases that function within the clock were identified through the analysis of candidate genes from other pathways or model systems. To identify phosphatases that play a role in the clock, we screened clock cell-specific RNA interference (RNAi) knockdowns of all annotated protein phosphatases and protein phosphatase regulators in Drosophila for altered activity rhythms. This screen identified 19 protein phosphatases that lengthened or shortened the circadian period by ≥1 hr (p ≤ 0.05 compared to controls) or were arrhythmic. Additional RNAi lines, transposon inserts, overexpression, and loss-of-function mutants were tested to independently confirm these RNAi phenotypes. Based on genetic validation and molecular analysis, 15 viable protein phosphatases remain for future studies. These candidates are expected to reveal novel features of the circadian timekeeping mechanism in Drosophila that are likely to be conserved in all animals including humans.

  2. Class IIa Histone Deacetylases Are Conserved Regulators of Circadian Function*

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Paul C. M.; O'Neill, John S.; Dobrzycki, Tomasz; Calvert, Shaun; Lord, Emma C.; McIntosh, Rebecca L. L.; Elliott, Christopher J. H.; Sweeney, Sean T.; Hastings, Michael H.; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the activity of many transcription factors to influence liver gluconeogenesis and the development of specialized cells, including muscle, neurons, and lymphocytes. Here, we describe a conserved role for class IIa HDACs in sustaining robust circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila and cellular rhythms in mammalian cells. In mouse fibroblasts, overexpression of HDAC5 severely disrupts transcriptional rhythms of core clock genes. HDAC5 overexpression decreases BMAL1 acetylation on Lys-537 and pharmacological inhibition of class IIa HDACs increases BMAL1 acetylation. Furthermore, we observe cyclical nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC5 in mouse fibroblasts that is characteristically circadian. Mutation of the Drosophila homolog HDAC4 impairs locomotor activity rhythms of flies and decreases period mRNA levels. RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 in Drosophila clock cells also dampens circadian function. Given that the localization of class IIa HDACs is signal-regulated and influenced by Ca2+ and cAMP signals, our findings offer a mechanism by which extracellular stimuli that generate these signals can feed into the molecular clock machinery. PMID:25271152

  3. Cycles in spatial and temporal chromosomal organization driven by the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Arnal, Lorena; Hakim, Ofir; Patel, Vishal R; Baldi, Pierre; Hager, Gordon L; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Dynamic transitions in the epigenome have been associated with regulated patterns of nuclear organization. The accumulating evidence that chromatin remodeling is implicated in circadian function prompted us to explore whether the clock may control nuclear architecture. We applied the chromosome conformation capture on chip technology in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to demonstrate the presence of circadian long-range interactions using the clock-controlled Dbp gene as bait. The circadian genomic interactions with Dbp were highly specific and were absent in MEFs whose clock was disrupted by ablation of the Bmal1 gene (also called Arntl). We establish that the Dbp circadian interactome contains a wide variety of genes and clock-related DNA elements. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated circadian and clock-dependent shaping of the nuclear landscape.

  4. Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 modulates photic entrainment of the suprachiasmatic circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ruifeng; Butcher, Greg Q; Karelina, Kate; Arthur, J Simon; Obrietan, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The master circadian clock in mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is under the entraining influence of the external light cycle. At a mechanistic level, intracellular signaling via the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway appears to play a central role in light-evoked clock entrainment; however, the precise downstream mechanisms by which this pathway influences clock timing are not known. Within this context, we have previously reported that light stimulates activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase effector mitogen-stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) in the SCN. In this study, we utilised MSK1(-/-) mice to further investigate the potential role of MSK1 in circadian clock timing and entrainment. Locomotor activity analysis revealed that MSK1 null mice entrained to a 12 h light/dark cycle and exhibited circadian free-running rhythms in constant darkness. Interestingly, the free-running period in MSK1 null mice was significantly longer than in wild-type control animals, and MSK1 null mice exhibited a significantly greater variance in activity onset. Further, MSK1 null mice exhibited a significant reduction in the phase-delaying response to an early night light pulse (100 lux, 15 min), and, using an 8 h phase-advancing 'jet-lag' experimental paradigm, MSK1 knockout animals exhibited a significantly delayed rate of re-entrainment. At the molecular level, early night light-evoked cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, histone phosphorylation and Period1 gene expression were markedly attenuated in MSK1(-/-) animals relative to wild-type mice. Together, these data provide key new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which MSK1 affects the SCN clock.

  5. Characterization of peripheral circadian clocks in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Zvonic, Sanjin; Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Conrad, Steven A; Scott, L Keith; Floyd, Z Elizabeth; Kilroy, Gail; Wu, Xiying; Goh, Brian C; Mynatt, Randall L; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2006-04-01

    First described in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, circadian clocks have since been found in several peripheral tissues. Although obesity has been associated with dysregulated circadian expression profiles of leptin, adiponectin, and other fat-derived cytokines, there have been no comprehensive analyses of the circadian clock machinery in adipose depots. In this study, we show robust and coordinated expression of circadian oscillator genes (Npas2, Bmal1, Per1-3, and Cry1-2) and clock-controlled downstream genes (Rev-erb alpha, Rev-erb beta, Dbp, E4bp4, Stra13, and Id2) in murine brown, inguinal, and epididymal (BAT, iWAT, and eWAT) adipose tissues. These results correlated with respective gene expression in liver and the serum markers of circadian function. Through Affymetrix microarray analysis, we identified 650 genes that shared circadian expression profiles in BAT, iWAT, and liver. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that temporally restricted feeding causes a coordinated phase-shift in circadian expression of the major oscillator genes and their downstream targets in adipose tissues. The presence of circadian oscillator genes in fat has significant metabolic implications, and their characterization may have potential therapeutic relevance with respect to the pathogenesis and treatment of diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Altered dynamics in the circadian oscillation of clock genes in dermal fibroblasts of patients suffering from idiopathic hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Julian; Halfter, Hartmut; Heidbreder, Anna; Röhr, Dominik; Gess, Burkhard; Boentert, Mathias; Osada, Nani; Young, Peter

    2014-01-01

    From single cell organisms to the most complex life forms, the 24-hour circadian rhythm is important for numerous aspects of physiology and behavior such as daily periodic fluctuations in body temperature and sleep-wake cycles. Influenced by environmental cues - mainly by light input -, the central pacemaker in the thalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) controls and regulates the internal clock mechanisms which are present in peripheral tissues. In order to correlate modifications in the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythm with the pathophysiology of idiopathic hypersomnia, this study aimed to investigate the dynamics of the expression of circadian clock genes in dermal fibroblasts of idiopathic hypersomniacs (IH) in comparison to those of healthy controls (HC). Ten clinically and polysomnographically proven IH patients were recruited from the department of sleep medicine of the University Hospital of Muenster. Clinical diagnosis was done by two consecutive polysomnographies (PSG) and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Fourteen clinical healthy volunteers served as control group. Dermal fibroblasts were obtained via punch biopsy and grown in cell culture. The expression of circadian clock genes was investigated by semiquantitative Reverse Transcriptase-PCR qRT-PCR analysis, confirming periodical oscillation of expression of the core circadian clock genes BMAL1, PER1/2 and CRY1/2. The amplitude of the rhythmically expressed BMAL1, PER1 and PER2 was significantly dampened in dermal fibroblasts of IH compared to HC over two circadian periods whereas the overall expression of only the key transcriptional factor BMAL1 was significantly reduced in IH. Our study suggests for the first time an aberrant dynamics in the circadian clock in IH. These findings may serve to better understand some clinical features of the pathophysiology in sleep - wake rhythms in IH.

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase is a functional component of the autonomous circadian system in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Makoto; Hayasaka, Naoto; Yamazaki, Shin; Node, Koichi

    2008-04-30

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian pacemaker driving behavioral and physiological rhythms in mammals. Circadian activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK; also known as ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase)] is observed in vivo in the SCN under constant darkness, although the biological significance of this remains unclear. To elucidate this question, we first examined whether MAPK was autonomously activated in ex vivo SCN slices. Moreover, we investigated the effect of MAPK inhibition on circadian clock gene expression and neuronal firing rhythms using SCN-slice culture systems. We show herein that MAPK is autonomously activated in the SCN, and our data demonstrate that inhibition of the MAPK activity results in dampened rhythms and reduced basal levels in circadian clock gene expression at the SCN single-neuron level. Furthermore, MAPK inhibition attenuates autonomous circadian neuronal firing rhythms in the SCN. Thus, our data suggest that light-independent MAPK activity contributes to the robustness of the SCN autonomous circadian system.

  8. A Ras GTPase associated protein is involved in the phototropic and circadian photobiology responses in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Polaino, Silvia; Villalobos-Escobedo, José M.; Shakya, Viplendra P. S.; Miralles-Durán, Alejandro; Chaudhary, Suman; Sanz, Catalina; Shahriari, Mahdi; Luque, Eva M.; Eslava, Arturo P.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Idnurm, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Light is an environmental signal perceived by most eukaryotic organisms and that can have major impacts on their growth and development. The MadC protein in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus (Mucoromycotina) has been postulated to form part of the photosensory input for phototropism of the fruiting body sporangiophores, but the madC gene has remained unidentified since the 1960s when madC mutants were first isolated. In this study the madC gene was identified by positional cloning. All madC mutant strains contain loss-of-function point mutations within a gene predicted to encode a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Ras. The madC gene complements the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras-GAP ira1 mutant and the encoded MadC protein interacts with P. blakesleeanus Ras homologs in yeast two-hybrid assays, indicating that MadC is a regulator of Ras signaling. Deletion of the homolog in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa affects the circadian clock output, yielding a pattern of asexual conidiation similar to a ras-1 mutant that is used in circadian studies in N. crassa. Thus, MadC is unlikely to be a photosensor, yet is a fundamental link in the photoresponses from blue light perceived by the conserved White Collar complex with Ras signaling in two distantly-related filamentous fungal species. PMID:28322269

  9. Circadian expression of the light-harvesting complex protein genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Piechulla, B

    1999-03-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the important processes that enable life on earth. To optimize photosynthesis reactions during a solar day, most of them are timed to be active during the light phase. This includes the components of the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts. Prominent representatives are the proteins of the light-harvesting complex (LHC). The synthesis of both the Lhc mRNA and the LHC protein occurs during the day and is regulated by the circadian clock, exhibiting the following pattern: increasing levels after sunrise, reaching a maximum around noon, and decreasing levels in the afternoon. To elucidate the involved control elements and regulatory circuits, the following strategies were applied: (1) analysis of promoters of Lhc genes, (2) analysis of DNA binding proteins, and (3) screening and investigation of mutants. The most promising elements found so far that may be involved in mediating the circadian rhythmicity of Lhc mRNA oscillations are a myb-like transcription factor CCA1 (Wang et al. 1997) and the corresponding DNA binding sequence (Piechulla et al. 1998).

  10. Regulation of behavioral circadian rhythms and clock protein PER1 by the deubiquitinating enzyme USP2

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaoming; Duguay, David; Bédard, Nathalie; Rachalski, Adeline; Baquiran, Gerardo; Na, Chan Hyun; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Storch, Kai-Florian; Peng, Junmin; Wing, Simon S.; Cermakian, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Endogenous 24-hour rhythms are generated by circadian clocks located in most tissues. The molecular clock mechanism is based on feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. Post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, are important for regulating the clock feedback mechanism. Previous work has focused on the role of ubiquitin ligases in the clock mechanism. Here we show a role for the rhythmically-expressed deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin specific peptidase 2 (USP2) in clock function. Mice with a deletion of the Usp2 gene (Usp2 KO) display a longer free-running period of locomotor activity rhythms and altered responses of the clock to light. This was associated with altered expression of clock genes in synchronized Usp2 KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts and increased levels of clock protein PERIOD1 (PER1). USP2 can be coimmunoprecipitated with several clock proteins but directly interacts specifically with PER1 and deubiquitinates it. Interestingly, this deubiquitination does not alter PER1 stability. Taken together, our results identify USP2 as a new core component of the clock machinery and demonstrate a role for deubiquitination in the regulation of the circadian clock, both at the level of the core pacemaker and its response to external cues. PMID:23213472

  11. A Combined Experimental and Mathematical Approach for Molecular-based Optimization of Irinotecan Circadian Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Annabelle; Dulong, Sandrine; Abbara, Chadi; Cohen, Boris; Okyar, Alper; Clairambault, Jean; Levi, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Circadian timing largely modifies efficacy and toxicity of many anticancer drugs. Recent findings suggest that optimal circadian delivery patterns depend on the patient genetic background. We present here a combined experimental and mathematical approach for the design of chronomodulated administration schedules tailored to the patient molecular profile. As a proof of concept we optimized exposure of Caco-2 colon cancer cells to irinotecan (CPT11), a cytotoxic drug approved for the treatment of colorectal cancer. CPT11 was bioactivated into SN38 and its efflux was mediated by ATP-Binding-Cassette (ABC) transporters in Caco-2 cells. After cell synchronization with a serum shock defining Circadian Time (CT) 0, circadian rhythms with a period of 26 h 50 (SD 63 min) were observed in the mRNA expression of clock genes REV-ERBα, PER2, BMAL1, the drug target topoisomerase 1 (TOP1), the activation enzyme carboxylesterase 2 (CES2), the deactivation enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1), and efflux transporters ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2 and ABCG2. DNA-bound TOP1 protein amount in presence of CPT11, a marker of the drug PD, also displayed circadian variations. A mathematical model of CPT11 molecular pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) was designed and fitted to experimental data. It predicted that CPT11 bioactivation was the main determinant of CPT11 PD circadian rhythm. We then adopted the therapeutics strategy of maximizing efficacy in non-synchronized cells, considered as cancer cells, under a constraint of maximum toxicity in synchronized cells, representing healthy ones. We considered exposure schemes in the form of an initial concentration of CPT11 given at a particular CT, over a duration ranging from 1 to 27 h. For any dose of CPT11, optimal exposure durations varied from 3h40 to 7h10. Optimal schemes started between CT2h10 and CT2h30, a time interval corresponding to 1h30 to 1h50 before the nadir of CPT11 bioactivation rhythm in healthy cells

  12. A combined experimental and mathematical approach for molecular-based optimization of irinotecan circadian delivery.

    PubMed

    Ballesta, Annabelle; Dulong, Sandrine; Abbara, Chadi; Cohen, Boris; Okyar, Alper; Clairambault, Jean; Levi, Francis

    2011-09-01

    Circadian timing largely modifies efficacy and toxicity of many anticancer drugs. Recent findings suggest that optimal circadian delivery patterns depend on the patient genetic background. We present here a combined experimental and mathematical approach for the design of chronomodulated administration schedules tailored to the patient molecular profile. As a proof of concept we optimized exposure of Caco-2 colon cancer cells to irinotecan (CPT11), a cytotoxic drug approved for the treatment of colorectal cancer. CPT11 was bioactivated into SN38 and its efflux was mediated by ATP-Binding-Cassette (ABC) transporters in Caco-2 cells. After cell synchronization with a serum shock defining Circadian Time (CT) 0, circadian rhythms with a period of 26 h 50 (SD 63 min) were observed in the mRNA expression of clock genes REV-ERBα, PER2, BMAL1, the drug target topoisomerase 1 (TOP1), the activation enzyme carboxylesterase 2 (CES2), the deactivation enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1), and efflux transporters ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2 and ABCG2. DNA-bound TOP1 protein amount in presence of CPT11, a marker of the drug PD, also displayed circadian variations. A mathematical model of CPT11 molecular pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) was designed and fitted to experimental data. It predicted that CPT11 bioactivation was the main determinant of CPT11 PD circadian rhythm. We then adopted the therapeutics strategy of maximizing efficacy in non-synchronized cells, considered as cancer cells, under a constraint of maximum toxicity in synchronized cells, representing healthy ones. We considered exposure schemes in the form of an initial concentration of CPT11 given at a particular CT, over a duration ranging from 1 to 27 h. For any dose of CPT11, optimal exposure durations varied from 3h40 to 7h10. Optimal schemes started between CT2h10 and CT2h30, a time interval corresponding to 1h30 to 1h50 before the nadir of CPT11 bioactivation rhythm in healthy cells.

  13. Timing Matters: Circadian Rhythm in Sepsis, Obstructive Lung Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Truong, Kimberly K; Lam, Michael T; Grandner, Michael A; Sassoon, Catherine S; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-07-01

    Physiological and cellular functions operate in a 24-hour cyclical pattern orchestrated by an endogenous process known as the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms represent intrinsic oscillations of biological functions that allow for adaptation to cyclic environmental changes. Key clock genes that affect the persistence and periodicity of circadian rhythms include BMAL1/CLOCK, Period 1, Period 2, and Cryptochrome. Remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of circadian rhythms and their role in common medical conditions. A critical review of the literature supports the association between circadian misalignment and adverse health consequences in sepsis, obstructive lung disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and malignancy. Circadian misalignment plays an important role in these disease processes and can affect disease severity, treatment response, and survivorship. Normal inflammatory response to acute infections, airway resistance, upper airway collapsibility, and mitosis regulation follows a robust circadian pattern. Disruption of normal circadian rhythm at the molecular level affects severity of inflammation in sepsis, contributes to inflammatory responses in obstructive lung diseases, affects apnea length in obstructive sleep apnea, and increases risk for cancer. Chronotherapy is an underused practice of delivering therapy at optimal times to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity. This approach has been shown to be advantageous in asthma and cancer management. In asthma, appropriate timing of medication administration improves treatment effectiveness. Properly timed chemotherapy may reduce treatment toxicities and maximize efficacy. Future research should focus on circadian rhythm disorders, role of circadian rhythm in other diseases, and modalities to restore and prevent circadian disruption.

  14. Immunoreactivities to three circadian clock proteins in two ground crickets suggest interspecific diversity of the circadian clock structure.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qi-Miao; Sehadová, Hana; Ichihara, Naoyuki; Sehnal, Frantisek; Takeda, Makio

    2006-04-01

    The closely related crickets Dianemobius nigrofasciatus and Allonemobius allardi exhibit similar circadian rhythms and photoperiodic responses, suggesting that they possess similar circadian and seasonal clocks. To verify this assumption, antisera to Period (PER), Doubletime (DBT), and Cryptochrome (CRY) were used to visualize circadian clock neurons in the cephalic ganglia. Immunoreactivities referred to as PER-ir, DBT-ir, and CRY-ir were distributed mainly in the optic lobes (OL), pars intercerebralis (PI), dorsolateral protocerebrum, and the subesophageal ganglion (SOG). A system of immunoreactive cells in the OL dominates in D. nigrofasciatus, while immunoreactivities in the PI and SOG prevail in A. allardi. Each OL of D. nigrofasciatus contains 3 groups of cells that coexpress PER-ir and DBT-ir and send processes over the frontal medulla face to the inner lamina surface, suggesting functional linkage to the compound eye. Only 2 pairs of PER-ir cells (no DBT-ir) were found in the OL of A. allardi. Several groups of PER-ir cells occur in the brain of both species. The PI also contains DBT-ir and CRY-ir cells, but in A. allardi, most of the DBT-ir is confined to the SOG. Most immunoreactive cells in the PI and in the dorsolateral brain send their fibers to the contralateral corpora cardiaca and corpora allata. The proximity and, in some cases, proven identity of the PER-ir, DBT-ir, and CRY-ir perikarya are consistent with presumed interactions between the examined clock components. The antigens were always found in the cytoplasm, and no diurnal oscillations in their amounts were detected. The photoperiod, which controls embryonic diapause, the rate of larval development, and the wing length of crickets, had no discernible effect on either distribution or the intensity of the immunostaining.

  15. Identification and temporal expression of putative circadian clock transcripts in the amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Joseph F.; Hoelters, Laura S.; Swain, Martin T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species. Methods We harvested brain tissue from animals expressing robust circadian activity rhythms and used homology cloning and Illumina RNAseq approaches to sequence and identify the core circadian clock and clock-related genes in these samples. We assessed the temporal expression of these genes in time-course samples from rhythmic animals using RNAseq. Results We identified a comprehensive suite of circadian clock gene homologues in T. saltator including the ‘core’ clock genes period (Talper), cryptochrome 2 (Talcry2), timeless (Taltim), clock (Talclk), and bmal1 (Talbmal1). In addition we describe the sequence and putative structures of 23 clock-associated genes including two unusual, extended isoforms of pigment dispersing hormone (Talpdh). We examined time-course RNAseq expression data, derived from tissues harvested from behaviourally rhythmic animals, to reveal rhythmic expression of these genes with approximately circadian period in Talper and Talbmal1. Of the clock-related genes, casein kinase IIβ (TalckIIβ), ebony (Talebony), jetlag (Taljetlag), pigment dispensing hormone (Talpdh), protein phosphatase 1 (Talpp1), shaggy (Talshaggy), sirt1 (Talsirt1), sirt7 (Talsirt7) and supernumerary limbs (Talslimb) show temporal changes in expression. Discussion We report the sequences of principle genes that comprise the circadian clock of T. saltator and highlight the conserved structural and functional domains of their deduced cognate proteins. Our

  16. Functional significance of FRH in regulating the phosphorylation and stability of Neurospora circadian clock protein FRQ.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinhu; Cheng, Ping; Liu, Yi

    2010-04-09

    FREQUENCY (FRQ) is the central component of the Neurospora circadian clock. All FRQ proteins form the FFC complex with FRH (FRQ-interacting RNA helicase) that acts as the negative element in the circadian negative feedback loop by repressing frq mRNA levels. To understand the function of the FRQ-FRH interaction, we mapped and identified the minimal FRQ region that is required for FRQ-FRH interaction. We demonstrated that the FRQ-FRH complex formation is required for the interaction between FRQ and the White Collar Complex (WCC) and clock function. On the other hand, in the FRQ-FRH complex, FRQ is also required for the FRH-WCC interaction. Disruption of FRQ-FRH interaction or down-regulation of FRH results in hypophosphorylation, rapid degradation of FRQ, as well as low levels of WHITE COLLAR-1 and WHITE COLLAR-2. Furthermore, we showed that the rapid FRQ degradation in the absence of FRH is independent of FWD-1, the ubiquitin E3 ligase of FRQ under normal conditions, thus uncovering an alternative pathway for FRQ degradation.

  17. Circadian Rhythms

    MedlinePlus

    ... chronobiology. Are circadian rhythms the same thing as biological clocks? No, but they are related. Our biological clocks drive our circadian rhythms. What are biological clocks? The biological clocks that control circadian rhythms ...

  18. [Physiological and pathophysiological role of the circadian clock system].

    PubMed

    Halmos, Tamás; Suba, Ilona

    2012-09-02

    It has been well known for ages that in living organisms the rhythmicity of biological processes is linked to the ~ 24-hour light-dark cycle. However, the exact function of the circadian clock system has been explored only in the past decades. It came to light that the photosensitive primary "master clock" is situated in the suprachiasmatic photosensitive nuclei of the special hypothalamic region, and that it is working according to ~24-hour changes of light and darkness. The master clock sends its messages to the peripheral "slave clocks". In many organs, like pancreatic β-cells, the slave clocks have autonomic functions as well. Two essential components of the clock system are proteins encoded by the CLOCK and BMAL1 genes. CLOCK genes are in interaction with endonuclear receptors such as peroxisoma-proliferator activated receptors and Rev-erb-α, as well as with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, regulating the adaptation to stressors, energy supply, metabolic processes and cardiovascular system. Melatonin, the product of corpus pineale has a significant role in the functions of the clock system. The detailed discovery of the clock system has changed our previous knowledge about the development of many diseases. The most explored fields are hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic processes, mental disorders, cancers, sleep apnoe and joint disorders. CLOCK genes influence ageing as well. The recognition of the periodicity of biological processes makes the optimal dosing of certain drugs feasible. The more detailed discovery of the interaction of the clock system might further improve treatment and prevention of many disorders.

  19. Acute melatonin treatment alters dendritic morphology and circadian clock gene expression in the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-02-01

    In the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters, dendritic length and dendritic complexity increase in the CA1 region whereas dendritic spine density decreases in the dentate gyrus region at night. However, the underlying mechanism of the diurnal rhythmicity in hippocampal neuronal remodeling is unknown. In mammals, most daily rhythms in physiology and behaviors are regulated by a network of circadian clocks. The central clock, located in the hypothalamus, controls melatonin secretion at night and melatonin modifies peripheral clocks by altering expression of circadian clock genes. In this study, we examined the effects of acute melatonin treatment on the circadian clock system as well as on morphological changes of hippocampal neurons. Male Siberian hamsters were injected with melatonin in the afternoon; 4 h later, mRNA levels of hypothalamic and hippocampal circadian clock genes and hippocampal neuron dendritic morphology were assessed. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment did not alter Period1 and Bmal1 expression. However, melatonin treatment increased both Period1 and Bmal1 expression in the hippocampus, suggesting that melatonin affected molecular oscillations in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment also induced rapid remodeling of hippocampal neurons; melatonin increased apical dendritic length and dendritic complexity in the CA1 region and reduced the dendritic spine density in the dentate gyrus region. These data suggest that structural changes in hippocampal neurons are regulated by a circadian clock and that melatonin functions as a nighttime signal to coordinate the diurnal rhythm in neuronal remodeling.

  20. MicroRNAs function as cis- and trans-acting modulators of peripheral circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Shende, Vikram R; Kim, Sam-Moon; Neuendorff, Nichole; Earnest, David J

    2014-08-25

    Based on their extracellular expression and targeting of the clock gene Bmal1, miR-142-3p and miR-494 were analyzed for evidence of vesicle-mediated communication between cells and intracellular functional activity. Our studies demonstrate that: miR-142-3p+miR-494 overexpression decreases endogenous BMAL1 levels, increases the period of Per2 oscillations, and increases extracellular miR-142-3p/miR-494 abundance in conditioned medium; miRNA-enriched medium increases intracellular expression of miR-142-3p and represses Bmal1 3'-UTR activity in naïve cells; and inhibitors of vesicular trafficking modulate intercellular communication of these miRNAs and ensemble Per2 rhythms. Thus, miR-142-3p and miR-494 may function as cis- and trans-acting signals contributing to local temporal coordination of cell-autonomous circadian clocks.

  1. A dual-color luciferase assay system reveals circadian resetting of cultured fibroblasts by co-cultured adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Takako; Ikeda, Masaaki; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Nakajima, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, circadian rhythms of various organs and tissues are synchronized by pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal glands can synchronize circadian rhythms in other tissues. Many hormones show circadian rhythms in their plasma concentrations; however, whether organs outside the SCN can serve as master synchronizers to entrain circadian rhythms in target tissues is not well understood. To further delineate the function of the adrenal glands and the interactions of circadian rhythms in putative master synchronizing organs and their target tissues, here we report a simple co-culture system using a dual-color luciferase assay to monitor circadian rhythms separately in various explanted tissues and fibroblasts. In this system, circadian rhythms of organs and target cells were simultaneously tracked by the green-emitting beetle luciferase from Pyrearinus termitilluminans (ELuc) and the red-emitting beetle luciferase from Phrixothrix hirtus (SLR), respectively. We obtained tissues from the adrenal glands, thyroid glands, and lungs of transgenic mice that expressed ELuc under control of the promoter from a canonical clock gene, mBmal1. The tissues were co-cultured with Rat-1 fibroblasts as representative target cells expressing SLR under control of the mBmal1 promoter. Amplitudes of the circadian rhythms of Rat-1 fibroblasts were potentiated when the fibroblasts were co-cultured with adrenal gland tissue, but not when co-cultured with thyroid gland or lung tissue. The phases of Rat-1 fibroblasts were reset by application of adrenal gland tissue, whereas the phases of adrenal gland tissue were not influenced by Rat-1 fibroblasts. Furthermore, the effect of the adrenal gland tissue on the fibroblasts was blocked by application of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids are strong circadian synchronizers for fibroblasts and that this co

  2. [Synchronization and genetic redundancy in circadian clocks].

    PubMed

    Dardente, Hugues

    2008-03-01

    A network of feedback loops constitutes the basis for circadian timing in mammals. Complex transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational events are also involved in the ticking of circadian clocks, allowing them to run autonomously with their characteristic, near-24h period. Central to the molecular mechanism is the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer of transcription factors. Recent data using Clock knock-out mice however suggest that CLOCK may not be as mandatory as initially suggested from data gathered in the Clock mutant mouse model. Indeed, it appears that the Clock homolog Npas2 is able to functionally compensate for Clock genetic ablation. Furthermore, real-time imaging techniques using different clock genes knock-out lines established on a PER2 ::Luc knock-in background now demonstrate that persistent rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nuclei likely arises as a consequence of combined genetic redundancy and strong intercellular coupling, the latter characteristic being likely weakened in peripheral tissues such as liver or lung. The present review aims at summarizing current knowledge of the molecular basis of circadian clocks and possible differences between central and peripheral clocks in light of recent findings in Clock knock-out mice.

  3. Inhibitory role of REV-ERBα in the expression of bone morphogenetic protein gene family in rat uterus endometrium stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, Hirotaka; Zhao, Lijia; Isayama, Keishiro; Chen, Huatao; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi; Hashimoto, Seiichi; Hattori, Masa-aki

    2015-04-01

    Uterus circadian rhythms have been implicated in the gestation processes of mammals through entraining of the clock proteins to numerous downstream genes. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), having clock-controlled regulatory sites in their gene promoters, are expressed in the uterus during decidualization, but the regulation of the Bmp gene expression is poorly understood. The present study was designed to dissect the physiological roles of the uterus oscillators in the Bmp expression using the uterus endometrial stromal cells (UESCs) isolated from Per2-dLuc transgenic rats on day 4.5 of gestation. The in vitro decidualization of UESCs was induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate and 2-O-dibutyryl cAMP. A significant decline of Per2-dLuc bioluminescence activity was induced in decidual cells, and concomitantly, the expression of canonical clock genes was downregulated. Conversely, the expression of the core Bmp genes Bmp2, Bmp4, Bmp6, and Bmp7 was upregulated. In UESCs transfected with Bmal1-specific siRNA, in which Rev-erbα expression was downregulated, Bmp genes, such as Bmp2, Bmp4, and Bmp6 were upregulated. However, Bmp1, Bmp7, and Bmp8a were not significantly affected by Bmal1 silencing. The expression of all Bmp genes was enhanced after treatment with the REV-ERBα antagonist (SR8278), although their rhythmic profiles were differed from each other. The binding of REV-ERBα to the proximal regions of the Bmp2 and Bmp4 promoters was revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR analysis. Collectively, these results indicate that the Bmp genes are upregulated by the attenuation of the cellular circadian clock; in particular, its core component REV-ERBα functions as a transcriptional silencer in the Bmp gene family.

  4. Circadian clock components in the rat neocortex: daily dynamics, localization and regulation.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Møller, Morten

    2013-03-01

    The circadian master clock of the mammalian brain resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. At the molecular level, the clock of the SCN is driven by a transcriptional/posttranslational autoregulatory network with clock gene products as core elements. Recent investigations have shown the presence of peripheral clocks in extra-hypothalamic areas of the central nervous system. However, knowledge on the clock gene network in the cerebral cortex is limited. We here show that the mammalian clock genes Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Cry2, Bmal1, Clock, Nr1d1 and Dbp are expressed in the rat neocortex. Among these, Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Bmal1, Nr1d1 and Dbp were found to exhibit daily rhythms. The amplitude of circadian oscillation in neocortical clock gene expression was damped and the peak delayed as compared with the SCN. Lesions of the SCN revealed that rhythmic clock gene expression in the neocortex is dependent on the SCN. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that products of the canonical clock gene Per2 are located in perikarya throughout all areas of the neocortex. These findings show that local circadian oscillators driven by the SCN reside within neurons of the neocortex.

  5. Dietary protein modulates circadian changes in core body temperature and metabolic rate in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Ippei; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Miki, Takanori; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2008-02-01

    We assessed the contribution of dietary protein to circadian changes in core body temperature (Tb) and metabolic rate in freely moving rats. Daily changes in rat intraperitoneal temperature, locomotor activity (LMA), whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured before and during 4 days of consuming a 20% protein diet (20% P), a protein-free diet (0% P), or a pair-fed 20% P diet (20% P-R). Changes in Tb did not significantly differ between the 20% P and 20% P-R groups throughout the study. The Tb in the 0% P group remained elevated during the dark (D) phase throughout the study, but VO2, VCO2, and LMA increased late in the study when compared with the 20% P-R group almost in accordance with elevated Tb. By contrast, during the light (L) phase in the 0% P group, Tb became elevated early in the study and thereafter declined with a tendency to accompany significantly lower VO2 and VCO2 when compared with the 20% P group, but not the 20% P-R group. The respiratory quotient (RQ) in the 0% P group declined throughout the D phase and during the early L phase. By contrast, RQ in the 20% P-R group consistently decreased from the late D phase to the end of the L phase. Our findings suggest that dietary protein contributes to the maintenance of daily oscillations in Tb with modulating metabolic rates during the D phase. However, the underlying mechanisms of Tb control during the L phase remain obscure.

  6. Protein synthesis is a required process for the optic lobe circadian clock in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, K

    2000-03-01

    The effects of a translation inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), on the circadian neuronal activity rhythm of the optic lamina-medulla compound eye complex cultured in vitro were investigated in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. When the complex was treated with 10(-5) M CHX for 6 h, the rhythm exhibited a marked phase shift. The magnitude and direction of the phase shift were dependent on the phase at which the complex was treated with CHX; phase delays occurred during the late subjective day to early subjective night, whereas phase advances occurred around the late subjective night. Continuous application of CHX abolished circadian rhythms of both the spontaneous neuronal activity and the visually evoked response. However, it abolished neither the spontaneous activity nor the visually evoked response. As washed with fresh medium after CHX treatment, the rhythm soon reappeared and the subsequent phase was clearly correlated to the termination time of the treatment. These results suggest that protein synthesis is also involved in the cricket optic lobe circadian clock, and that the clock-related protein synthesis may be active during the late subjective day to subjective night.

  7. Suprachiasmatic nucleus function and circadian entrainment are modulated by G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying (GIRK) channels

    PubMed Central

    Hablitz, L M; Molzof, H E; Paul, J R; Johnson, R L; Gamble, K L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract G protein signalling within the central circadian oscillator, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is essential for conveying time-of-day information. We sought to determine whether G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) modulate SCN physiology and circadian behaviour. We show that GIRK current and GIRK2 protein expression are greater during the day. Pharmacological inhibition of GIRKs and genetic loss of GIRK2 depolarized the day-time resting membrane potential of SCN neurons compared to controls. Behaviourally, GIRK2 knockout (KO) mice failed to shorten free running period in response to wheel access in constant darkness and entrained more rapidly to a 6 h advance of a 12 h:12 h light–dark (LD) cycle than wild-type (WT) littermate controls. We next examined whether these effects were due to disrupted signalling of neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is known to mediate non-photic phase shifts, attenuate photic phase shifts and activate GIRKs. Indeed, GIRK2 KO SCN slices had significantly fewer silent cells in response to NPY, likely contributing to the absence of NPY-induced phase advances of PER2::LUC rhythms in organotypic SCN cultures from GIRK2 KO mice. Finally, GIRK channel activation is sufficient to cause a non-photic-like phase advance of PER2::LUC rhythms on a Per2Luc+/− background. These results suggest that rhythmic regulation of GIRK2 protein and channel function in the SCN contributes to day-time resting membrane potential, providing a mechanism for the fine tuning responses to non-photic and photic stimuli. Further investigation could provide insight into disorders with circadian disruption comorbidities such as epilepsy and addiction, in which GIRK channels have been implicated. PMID:25217379

  8. Suprachiasmatic nucleus function and circadian entrainment are modulated by G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying (GIRK) channels.

    PubMed

    Hablitz, L M; Molzof, H E; Paul, J R; Johnson, R L; Gamble, K L

    2014-11-15

    G protein signalling within the central circadian oscillator, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is essential for conveying time-of-day information. We sought to determine whether G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) modulate SCN physiology and circadian behaviour. We show that GIRK current and GIRK2 protein expression are greater during the day. Pharmacological inhibition of GIRKs and genetic loss of GIRK2 depolarized the day-time resting membrane potential of SCN neurons compared to controls. Behaviourally, GIRK2 knockout (KO) mice failed to shorten free running period in response to wheel access in constant darkness and entrained more rapidly to a 6 h advance of a 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle than wild-type (WT) littermate controls. We next examined whether these effects were due to disrupted signalling of neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is known to mediate non-photic phase shifts, attenuate photic phase shifts and activate GIRKs. Indeed, GIRK2 KO SCN slices had significantly fewer silent cells in response to NPY, likely contributing to the absence of NPY-induced phase advances of PER2::LUC rhythms in organotypic SCN cultures from GIRK2 KO mice. Finally, GIRK channel activation is sufficient to cause a non-photic-like phase advance of PER2::LUC rhythms on a Per2(Luc+/-) background. These results suggest that rhythmic regulation of GIRK2 protein and channel function in the SCN contributes to day-time resting membrane potential, providing a mechanism for the fine tuning responses to non-photic and photic stimuli. Further investigation could provide insight into disorders with circadian disruption comorbidities such as epilepsy and addiction, in which GIRK channels have been implicated.

  9. Circadian expression of the presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot in the lamina of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta; Makuch, Renata; Stefan, Joanna; Görlich, Alicja; Semik, Danuta; Pyza, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    In the fly's visual system, the morphology of cells and the number of synapses change during the day. In the present study we show that in the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila melanogaster, a presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot (BRP) exhibits a circadian rhythm in abundance. In day/night (or light/dark, LD) conditions the level of BRP increases two times, in the morning and in the evening. The same pattern of changes in the BRP level was detected in whole brain homogenates, thus indicating that the majority of synapses in the brain peaks twice during the day. However, these two peaks in BRP abundance, measured as the fluorescence intensity of immunolabeling, seem to be regulated differently. The peak in the morning is predominantly regulated by light and involves the transduction pathway in the retina photoreceptors. This peak is present neither in wild-type Canton-S flies in constant darkness (DD), nor in norpA(7) phototransduction mutant in LD. However, it also depends on the clock gene per, because it is abolished in the per(0) arrhythmic mutant. In turn, the peak of BRP in the evening is endogenously regulated by an input from the pacemaker located in the brain. This peak is present in Canton-S flies in DD, as well as in the norpA(7) mutant in LD, but is absent in per(01), tim,(01) and cry(01) mutants in LD. In addition both peaks seem to depend on clock gene-expressing photoreceptors and glial cells of the visual system.

  10. Human skeletal myotubes display a cell-autonomous circadian clock implicated in basal myokine secretion

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Laurent; Loizides-Mangold, Ursula; Skarupelova, Svetlana; Pulimeno, Pamela; Chanon, Stephanie; Robert, Maud; Bouzakri, Karim; Modoux, Christine; Roux-Lombard, Pascale; Vidal, Hubert; Lefai, Etienne; Dibner, Charna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Circadian clocks are functional in all light-sensitive organisms, allowing an adaptation to the external world in anticipation of daily environmental changes. In view of the potential role of the skeletal muscle clock in the regulation of glucose metabolism, we aimed to characterize circadian rhythms in primary human skeletal myotubes and investigate their roles in myokine secretion. Methods We established a system for long-term bioluminescence recording in differentiated human myotubes, employing lentivector gene delivery of the Bmal1-luciferase and Per2-luciferase core clock reporters. Furthermore, we disrupted the circadian clock in skeletal muscle cells by transfecting siRNA targeting CLOCK. Next, we assessed the basal secretion of a large panel of myokines in a circadian manner in the presence or absence of a functional clock. Results Bioluminescence reporter assays revealed that human skeletal myotubes, synchronized in vitro, exhibit a self-sustained circadian rhythm, which was further confirmed by endogenous core clock transcript expression. Moreover, we demonstrate that the basal secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 by synchronized skeletal myotubes has a circadian profile. Importantly, the secretion of IL-6 and several additional myokines was strongly downregulated upon siClock-mediated clock disruption. Conclusions Our study provides for the first time evidence that primary human skeletal myotubes possess a high-amplitude cell-autonomous circadian clock, which could be attenuated. Furthermore, this oscillator plays an important role in the regulation of basal myokine secretion by skeletal myotubes. PMID:26629407

  11. Ras-Mediated Deregulation of the Circadian Clock in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Relógio, Angela; Thomas, Philippe; Medina-Pérez, Paula; Reischl, Silke; Bervoets, Sander; Gloc, Ewa; Riemer, Pamela; Mang-Fatehi, Shila; Maier, Bert; Schäfer, Reinhold; Leser, Ulf; Herzel, Hanspeter; Kramer, Achim; Sers, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are essential to the temporal regulation of molecular processes in living systems and as such to life itself. Deregulation of these rhythms leads to failures in biological processes and eventually to the manifestation of pathological phenotypes including cancer. To address the questions as to what are the elicitors of a disrupted clock in cancer, we applied a systems biology approach to correlate experimental, bioinformatics and modelling data from several cell line models for colorectal and skin cancer. We found strong and weak circadian oscillators within the same type of cancer and identified a set of genes, which allows the discrimination between the two oscillator-types. Among those genes are IFNGR2, PITX2, RFWD2, PPARγ, LOXL2, Rab6 and SPARC, all involved in cancer-related pathways. Using a bioinformatics approach, we extended the core-clock network and present its interconnection to the discriminative set of genes. Interestingly, such gene signatures link the clock to oncogenic pathways like the RAS/MAPK pathway. To investigate the potential impact of the RAS/MAPK pathway - a major driver of colorectal carcinogenesis - on the circadian clock, we used a computational model which predicted that perturbation of BMAL1-mediated transcription can generate the circadian phenotypes similar to those observed in metastatic cell lines. Using an inducible RAS expression system, we show that overexpression of RAS disrupts the circadian clock and leads to an increase of the circadian period while RAS inhibition causes a shortening of period length, as predicted by our mathematical simulations. Together, our data demonstrate that perturbations induced by a single oncogene are sufficient to deregulate the mammalian circadian clock. PMID:24875049

  12. Role of Inflammatory Signaling in the Differential Effects of Saturated and Poly-unsaturated Fatty Acids on Peripheral Circadian Clocks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sam-Moon; Neuendorff, Nichole; Chapkin, Robert S; Earnest, David J

    2016-05-01

    Inflammatory signaling may play a role in high-fat diet (HFD)-related circadian clock disturbances that contribute to systemic metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, palmitate, the prevalent proinflammatory saturated fatty acid (SFA) in HFD and the anti-inflammatory, poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were analyzed for effects on circadian timekeeping and inflammatory responses in peripheral clocks. Prolonged palmitate, but not DHA, exposure increased the period of fibroblast Bmal1-dLuc rhythms. Acute palmitate treatment produced phase shifts of the Bmal1-dLuc rhythm that were larger in amplitude as compared to DHA. These phase-shifting effects were time-dependent and contemporaneous with rhythmic changes in palmitate-induced inflammatory responses. Fibroblast and differentiated adipocyte clocks exhibited cell-specific differences in the time-dependent nature of palmitate-induced shifts and inflammation. DHA and other inhibitors of inflammatory signaling (AICAR, cardamonin) repressed palmitate-induced proinflammatory responses and phase shifts of the fibroblast clock, suggesting that SFA-mediated inflammatory signaling may feed back to modulate circadian timekeeping in peripheral clocks.

  13. Rats with minimal hepatic encephalopathy show reduced cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity in hypothalamus correlating with circadian rhythms alterations.

    PubMed

    Felipo, Vicente; Piedrafita, Blanca; Barios, Juan A; Agustí, Ana; Ahabrach, Hanan; Romero-Vives, María; Barrio, Luis C; Rey, Beatriz; Gaztelu, Jose M; Llansola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis show disturbances in sleep and in its circadian rhythms which are an early sign of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The mechanisms of these disturbances are poorly understood. Rats with porta-caval shunt (PCS), a model of MHE, show sleep disturbances reproducing those of cirrhotic patients. The aims of this work were to characterize the alterations in circadian rhythms in PCS rats and analyze the underlying mechanisms. To reach these aims, we analyzed in control and PCS rats: (a) daily rhythms of spontaneous and rewarding activity and of temperature, (b) timing of the onset of activity following turning-off the light, (c) synchronization to light after a phase advance and (d) the molecular mechanisms contributing to these alterations in circadian rhythms. PCS rats show altered circadian rhythms of spontaneous and rewarding activities (wheel running). PCS rats show more rest bouts during the active phase, more errors in the onset of motor activity and need less time to re-synchronize after a phase advance than control rats. Circadian rhythm of body temperature is also slightly altered in PCS rats. The internal period length (tau) of circadian rhythm of motor activity is longer in PCS rats. We analyzed some mechanisms by which hypothalamus modulate circadian rhythms. PCS rats show increased content of cGMP in hypothalamus while the activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase was reduced by 41% compared to control rats. Altered cGMP-PKG pathway in hypothalamus would contribute to altered circadian rhythms and synchronization to light.

  14. Shifting the feeding of mice to the rest phase creates metabolic alterations, which, on their own, shift the peripheral circadian clocks by 12 hours.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Atish; Kobiita, Ahmad; Chambon, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the events through which alterations in diurnal activities impinge on peripheral circadian clocks (PCCs), and reciprocally how the PCCs affect metabolism, thereby generating pathologies, are still poorly understood. Here, we deciphered how switching the diurnal feeding from the active to the rest phase, i.e., restricted feeding (RF), immediately creates a hypoinsulinemia during the active phase, which initiates a metabolic reprogramming by increasing FFA and glucagon levels. In turn, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activation by free fatty acid (FFA), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation by glucagon, lead to further metabolic alterations during the circadian active phase, as well as to aberrant activation of expression of the PCC components nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1/RevErbα), Period (Per1 and Per2). Moreover, hypoinsulinemia leads to an increase in glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity that, through phosphorylation, stabilizes and increases the level of the RevErbα protein during the active phase. This increase then leads to an untimely repression of expression of the genes containing a RORE DNA binding sequence (DBS), including the Bmal1 gene, thereby initiating in RF mice a 12-h PCC shift to which the CREB-mediated activation of Per1, Per2 by glucagon modestly contributes. We also show that the reported corticosterone extraproduction during the RF active phase reflects an adrenal aberrant activation of CREB signaling, which selectively delays the activation of the PPARα-RevErbα axis in muscle and heart and accounts for the retarded shift of their PCCs.

  15. Noncanonical FK506-binding Protein BDBT Binds DBT to Enhance its Circadian Function and Forms Foci at Night

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jin-Yuan; Agyekum, Boadi; Venkatesan, Anandakrishnan; Hall, David R.; Keightley, Andrew; Bjes, Edward S.; Bouyain, Samuel; Price, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The kinase DOUBLETIME is a master regulator of the Drosophila circadian clock, yet the mechanisms regulating its activity remain unclear. A proteomic analysis of DOUBLETIME interactors led to the identification of an unstudied protein designated CG17282. RNAi-mediated knock-down of CG17282 produced behavioral arrhythmicity and long periods, high levels of hypophosphorylated nuclear PERIOD and phosphorylated DOUBLETIME. Overexpression of DOUBLETIME in flies suppresses these phenotypes and overexpression of CG17282 in S2 cells enhances DOUBLETIME-dependent PERIOD degradation, indicating that CG17282 stimulates DOUBLETIME’s circadian function. In photoreceptors, CG17282 accumulates rhythmically in PERIOD- and DOUBLETIME-dependent cytosolic foci. Finally, structural analyses demonstrated CG17282 is a noncanonical FK506-binding protein with an inactive peptide prolyl-isomerase domain that binds DOUBLETIME and tetratricopeptide repeats that may promote assembly of larger protein complexes. We have named CG17282 Bride of Doubletime and established it as a mediator of DOUBLETIME’s effects on PERIOD, most likely in cytosolic foci that regulate PERIOD nuclear accumulation. PMID:24210908

  16. Peripheral circadian clocks--a conserved phenotype?

    PubMed

    Weigl, Yuval; Harbour, Valerie L; Robinson, Barry; Dufresne, Line; Amir, Shimon

    2013-05-01

    The circadian system of mammals regulates the timing of occurrence of behavioral and physiological events, thereby optimizing adaptation to their surroundings. This system is composed of a single master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and a population of peripheral clocks. The SCN integrates time information from exogenous sources and, in turn, synchronizes the downstream peripheral clocks. It is assumed that under normal conditions, the circadian phenotype of different peripheral clocks would be conserved with respect to its period and robustness. To study this idea, we measured the daily wheel-running activity (WRA; a marker of the SCN output) in 84 male inbred LEW/Crl rats housed under a 12 h:12 h light-dark cycle. In addition, we assessed the mRNA expression of two clock genes, rPer2 and rBmal1, and one clock-controlled gene, rDbp, in four tissues that have the access to time cues other than those emanating from the SCN: olfactory bulbs (OBs), liver, tail skin, and white blood cells (WBCs). In contrast with the assumption stated above, we found that circadian clocks in peripheral tissues differ in the temporal pattern of the expression of circadian clock genes, in the robustness of the rhythms, and possibly in the number of functional ~24-h-clock cells. Based on the tissue diversity in the robustness of the clock output, the hepatic clock is likely to house the highest number of functional ~24-h-clock cells, and the OBs, the fewest number. Thus, the phenotype of the circadian clock in the periphery is tissue specific and may depend not only on the SCN but also on the sensitivity of the tissue to non-SCN-derived time cues. In the OBs and liver, the circadian clock phenotypes seem to be dominantly shaped by the SCN output. However, in the tail skin and WBC, other time cues participate in the phenotype design. Finally, our study suggests that the basic phenotype of the circadian clock is constructed at the transcript level of the core clock

  17. Heterologous protein-DNA interactions lead to biased allelic expression of circadian clock genes in interspecific hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Danny W-K.; Chen, Helen H. Y.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Genomic interactions in allopolyploids create expression variation of homoeologous alleles through protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. However, the molecular basis for this is largely unknown. Here we investigated the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions among homoeologous transcription factors in the circadian-clock feedback loop, consisting of CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), plus the interaction with a chromatin factor, HISTONE DEACETYLASE1 (HD1). In the allotetraploids formed between A. thaliana (At) and Arabidopsis arenosa (Aa), AtCCA1 is expressed at lower levels than AaCCA1, which could alter clock output traits. The reduced AtCCA1 expressions in the allotetraploids are consistent with the biochemical data that AaCHE showed preferential binding to the AtCCA1 promoter, in which AaCHE interacts with a higher affinity to AtHD1 than AtCHE. AaCHE also showed a higher affinity to TOC1 than AtCHE, consistent with the effect of TOC1 on repressing CCA1. Thus, stronger AaCHE-TOC1 and AaCHE-AtHD1 interactions reduce AtCC1 allelic expression. Our current data suggest a biochemical basis for protein interactions in trans with a preference to the cis-acting elements in heterologous combinations to reduce AtCCA1 expression, while altered CCA1 expression has been shown to affect metabolic and biomass heterosis in interspecific hybrids or allotetraploids. PMID:28345627

  18. A PTH-responsive circadian clock operates in ex vivo mouse femur fracture healing site.

    PubMed

    Kunimoto, Tatsuya; Okubo, Naoki; Minami, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Hosokawa, Toshihiro; Asada, Maki; Oda, Ryo; Kubo, Toshikazu; Yagita, Kazuhiro

    2016-02-29

    The circadian clock contains clock genes including Bmal1 and Period2, and it maintains an interval rhythm of approximately 24 hours (the circadian rhythm) in various organs including growth plate and articular cartilage. As endochondral ossification is involved not only in growth plate but also in fracture healing, we investigated the circadian clock functions in fracture sites undergoing healing. Our fracture models using external fixation involved femurs of Period2::Luciferase knock-in mice which enables the monitoring of endogenous circadian clock state via bioluminescence. Organ culture was performed by collecting femurs, and fracture sites were observed using bioluminescence imaging systems. Clear bioluminescence rhythms of 24-hour intervals were revealed in fracture healing sites. When parathyroid hormone (PTH) was administered to fractured femurs in organ culture, peak time of Period2::Luciferase activity in fracture sites and growth plates changed, indicating that PTH-responsive circadian clock functions in the mouse femur fracture healing site. While PTH is widely used in treating osteoporosis, many studies have reported that it contributes to improvement of fracture healing. Future studies of the role of this local clock in wound healing may reveal a novel function of the circadian timing mechanism in skeletal cells.

  19. PPAR{alpha} is a potential therapeutic target of drugs to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Hidenori; Oishi, Katsutaka; Kudo, Takashi; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ishida, Norio . E-mail: n.ishida@aist.go.jp

    2007-06-08

    Recent progress at the molecular level has revealed that nuclear receptors play an important role in the generation of mammalian circadian rhythms. To examine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in the regulation of circadian behavioral rhythms in mammals, we evaluated the locomotor activity of mice administered with the hypolipidemic PPAR{alpha} ligand, bezafibrate. Circadian locomotor activity was phase-advanced about 3 h in mice given bezafibrate under light-dark (LD) conditions. Transfer from LD to constant darkness did not change the onset of activity in these mice, suggesting that bezafibrate advanced the phase of the endogenous clock. Surprisingly, bezafibrate also advanced the phase in mice with lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN; the central clock in mammals). The circadian expression of clock genes such as period2, BMAL1, and Rev-erb{alpha} was also phase-advanced in various tissues (cortex, liver, and fat) without affecting the SCN. Bezafibrate also phase-advanced the activity phase that is delayed in model mice with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) due to a Clock gene mutation. Our results indicated that PPAR{alpha} is involved in circadian clock control independently of the SCN and that PPAR{alpha} could be a potent target of drugs to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders including DSPS.

  20. Food Entrainment of Circadian Gene Expression Altered in PPARα−/− Brown Fat and Heart

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Brian C.; Wu, Xiying; Evans, Ann E.; Johnson, Meagan L.; Hill, Molly R.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The circadian clock is subject to food entrainment. Since PPARα exhibits a circadian expression profile, we hypothesized that PPARα deficiency would alter the food entrainable response of adipose, cardiac, and liver tissues. Wild type and PPARα null mice were compared under ad libitum or restricted food access for the expression of circadian transcription factor-encoding mRNAs. Temporally restricted food access caused between a mean 5.8 to 11.5 hour phase shift in the expression profiles of the circadian genes Bmal1, Per3, and Rev-erbα in all tissues of control mice. In contrast, these same conditions phase shifted the circadian genes in tissues of PPARα null mice between a mean of 10.8 to 14.2 hr with amplitude attenuation. The food entrained phase shifts in the brown adipose and cardiac tissue circadian transcription factors of the PPARα null mice were prolonged significantly relative to wild type controls. Likewise, PPARα responsive genes in the livers of PPARα null mice exhibited a significantly prolonged phase shift relative to control mice. These findings confirm and extend recent observations in the literature.. PMID:17624301

  1. Mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) modulates photic entrainment of the suprachiasmatic circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ruifeng; Butcher, Greg Q.; Karelina, Kate; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Obrietan, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The master circadian clock in mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is under the entraining influence of the external light cycle. At a mechanistic level, intracellular signaling via the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway appears to play a central role in light-evoked clock entrainment; however, the precise downstream mechanisms by which this pathway influences clock timing are not known. Within this context, we have previously reported that light stimulates activation of the MAPK effector mitogen stress activated kinase 1 (MSK1) in the SCN. In this study we utilized MSK1-/- mice to further investigate the potential role of MSK1 in circadian clock timing and entrainment. Locomotor activity analysis revealed that MSK1 null mice entrained to a 12h light/dark cycle and exhibited circadian free-running rhythms in constant darkness. Interestingly, the free running period in MSK1 null mice was significantly longer than WT control animals, and MSK1 null mice exhibited a significantly greater variance in activity onset. Further, MSK1 null mice exhibited a significant reduction in the phase delaying response to an early night light pulse (100 lux, 15 min), and, using an 8-hr phase-advancing “jet-lag” experimental paradigm MSK1 knockout animals exhibited a significantly delayed rate of re-entrainment. At the molecular level, early night light-evoked CREB phosphorylation, histone phosphorylation and Period1 gene expression were markedly attenuated in MSK1-/- animals relative to WT mice. Together, these data provide key new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which MSK1 affects the SCN clock. PMID:23127194

  2. Disrupting Circadian Homeostasis of Sympathetic Signaling Promotes Tumor Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Susie; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Herron, Alan J.; Moore, David D.; Fu, Loning

    2010-01-01

    Background Cell proliferation in all rapidly renewing mammalian tissues follows a circadian rhythm that is often disrupted in advanced-stage tumors. Epidemiologic studies have revealed a clear link between disruption of circadian rhythms and cancer development in humans. Mice lacking the circadian genes Period1 and 2 (Per) or Cryptochrome1 and 2 (Cry) are deficient in cell cycle regulation and Per2 mutant mice are cancer-prone. However, it remains unclear how circadian rhythm in cell proliferation is generated in vivo and why disruption of circadian rhythm may lead to tumorigenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice lacking Per1 and 2, Cry1 and 2, or one copy of Bmal1, all show increased spontaneous and radiation-induced tumor development. The neoplastic growth of Per-mutant somatic cells is not controlled cell-autonomously but is dependent upon extracellular mitogenic signals. Among the circadian output pathways, the rhythmic sympathetic signaling plays a key role in the central-peripheral timing mechanism that simultaneously activates the cell cycle clock via AP1-controlled Myc induction and p53 via peripheral clock-controlled ATM activation. Jet-lag promptly desynchronizes the central clock-SNS-peripheral clock axis, abolishes the peripheral clock-dependent ATM activation, and activates myc oncogenic potential, leading to tumor development in the same organ systems in wild-type and circadian gene-mutant mice. Conclusions/Significance Tumor suppression in vivo is a clock-controlled physiological function. The central circadian clock paces extracellular mitogenic signals that drive peripheral clock-controlled expression of key cell cycle and tumor suppressor genes to generate a circadian rhythm in cell proliferation. Frequent disruption of circadian rhythm is an important tumor promoting factor. PMID:20539819

  3. Circadian rhythms, the molecular clock, and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Brianna D; Schroder, Elizabeth A; Esser, Karyn A

    2015-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle.

  4. Circadian Rhythms, the Molecular Clock, and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Harfmann, Brianna D.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle. PMID:25512305

  5. Solanum tuberosum ZPR1 encodes a light-regulated nuclear DNA-binding protein adjusting the circadian expression of StBBX24 to light cycle.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka; Czarnecka, Jagoda; Banachowicz, Ewa; Rey, Pascal; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    ZPR1 proteins belong to the C4-type of zinc finger coordinators known in animal cells to interact with other proteins and participate in cell growth and proliferation. In contrast, the current knowledge regarding plant ZPR1 proteins is very scarce. Here, we identify a novel potato nuclear factor belonging to this family and named StZPR1. StZPR1 is specifically expressed in photosynthetic organs during the light period, and the ZPR1 protein is located in the nuclear chromatin fraction. From modelling and experimental analyses, we reveal the StZPR1 ability to bind the circadian DNA cis motif 'CAACAGCATC', named CIRC and present in the promoter of the clock-controlled double B-box StBBX24 gene, the expression of which peaks in the middle of the day. We found that transgenic lines silenced for StZPR1 expression still display a 24 h period for the oscillation of StBBX24 expression but delayed by 4 h towards the night. Importantly, other BBX genes exhibit altered circadian regulation in these lines. Our data demonstrate that StZPR1 allows fitting of the StBBX24 circadian rhythm to the light period and provide evidence that ZPR1 is a novel clock-associated protein in plants necessary for the accurate rhythmic expression of specific circadian-regulated genes.

  6. Structural characterization of the circadian clock protein complex composed of KaiB and KaiC by inverse contrast-matching small-angle neutron scattering

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Yagi, Hirokazu; Ishii, Kentaro; Porcar, Lionel; Martel, Anne; Oyama, Katsuaki; Noda, Masanori; Yunoki, Yasuhiro; Murakami, Reiko; Inoue, Rintaro; Sato, Nobuhiro; Oba, Yojiro; Terauchi, Kazuki; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The molecular machinery of the cyanobacterial circadian clock consists of three proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. Through interactions among the three Kai proteins, the phosphorylation states of KaiC generate circadian oscillations in vitro in the presence of ATP. Here, we characterized the complex formation between KaiB and KaiC using a phospho-mimicking mutant of KaiC, which had an aspartate substitution at the Ser431 phosphorylation site and exhibited optimal binding to KaiB. Mass-spectrometric titration data showed that the proteins formed a complex exclusively in a 6:6 stoichiometry, indicating that KaiB bound to the KaiC hexamer with strong positive cooperativity. The inverse contrast-matching technique of small-angle neutron scattering enabled selective observation of KaiB in complex with the KaiC mutant with partial deuteration. It revealed a disk-shaped arrangement of the KaiB subunits on the outer surface of the KaiC C1 ring, which also serves as the interaction site for SasA, a histidine kinase that operates as a clock-output protein in the regulation of circadian transcription. These data suggest that cooperatively binding KaiB competes with SasA with respect to interaction with KaiC, thereby promoting the synergistic release of this clock-output protein from the circadian oscillator complex. PMID:27752127

  7. Moderate Changes in the Circadian System of Alzheimer's Disease Patients Detected in Their Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Weissová, Kamila; Bartoš, Aleš; Sládek, Martin; Nováková, Marta; Sumová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease often accompanied with disruption of sleep-wake cycle. The sleep-wake cycle is controlled by mechanisms involving internal timekeeping (circadian) regulation. The aim of our present pilot study was to assess the circadian system in patients with mild form of AD in their home environment. In the study, 13 elderly AD patients and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (the patient's spouses) were enrolled. Sleep was recorded for 21 days by sleep diaries in all participants and checked by actigraphy in 4 of the AD patient/control couples. The samples of saliva and buccal mucosa were collected every 4 hours during the same 24 h-interval to detect melatonin and clock gene (PER1 and BMAL1) mRNA levels, respectively. The AD patients exhibited significantly longer inactivity interval during the 24 h and significantly higher number of daytime naps than controls. Daily profiles of melatonin levels exhibited circadian rhythms in both groups. Compared with controls, decline in amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in AD patients was not significant, however, in AD patients more melatonin profiles were dampened or had atypical waveforms. The clock genes PER1 and BMAL1 were expressed rhythmically with high amplitudes in both groups and no significant differences in phases between both groups were detected. Our results suggest moderate differences in functional state of the circadian system in patients with mild form of AD compared with healthy controls which are present in conditions of their home dwelling. PMID:26727258

  8. Overexpression of circadian clock protein cryptochrome (CRY) 1 alleviates sleep deprivation-induced vascular inflammation in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bing; Deng, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance of the circadian clock by sleep deprivation has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of inflammation. However, the underlying mechanism of circadian oscillator components in regulating the pro-inflammatory process during sleep deprivation remains poorly understood. Using a sleep deprivation mouse model, we showed here that sleep deprivation increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and decreased the expression of cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) in vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, the adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin were elevated in vascular endothelial cells and the monocytes binding to vascular endothelial cells were also increased by sleep deprivation. Interestingly, overexpression of CRY1 in a mouse model by adenovirus vector significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules, and NF-κB signal pathway activation, as well as the binding of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we found that CRY1 could repress the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that overexpression of CRY1 inhibited the basal concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to decreased protein kinase A activity, which resulted in decreased phosphorylation of p65. Taken together, these results suggested that the overexpression of CRY1 inhibited sleep deprivation-induced vascular inflammation that might be associated with NF-κB and cAMP/PKA pathways.

  9. Structure of the frequency-interacting RNA helicase: a protein interaction hub for the circadian clock

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Karen S.; Hurley, Jennifer M.; Widom, Joanne; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Crane, Brian R.

    2016-06-23

    In the Neurospora crassa circadian clock, a protein complex of frequency (FRQ), casein kinase 1a (CK1a), and the FRQ-interacting RNA Helicase (FRH) rhythmically represses gene expression by the white-collar complex (WCC). FRH crystal structures in several conformations and bound to ADP/RNA reveal differences between FRH and the yeast homolog Mtr4 that clarify the distinct role of FRH in the clock. The FRQ-interacting region at the FRH N-terminus has variable structure in the absence of FRQ. A known mutation that disrupts circadian rhythms (R806H) resides in a positively charged surface of the KOW domain, far removed from the helicase core. Here, we show that changes to other similarly located residues modulate interactions with the WCC and FRQ. A V142G substitution near the N-terminus also alters FRQ and WCC binding to FRH, but produces an unusual short clock period. Finally, these data support the assertion that FRH helicase activity does not play an essential role in the clock, but rather FRH acts to mediate contacts among FRQ, CK1a and the WCC through interactions involving its N-terminus and KOW module.

  10. CSL encodes a leucine-rich-repeat protein implicated in red/violet light signaling to the circadian clock in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Ayumi; Niwa, Yoshimi; Onai, Kiyoshi; Yamano, Takashi; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Ishiura, Masahiro; Matsuo, Takuya

    2017-03-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii shows various light responses in behavior and physiology. One such photoresponse is the circadian clock, which can be reset by external light signals to entrain its oscillation to daily environmental cycles. In a previous report, we suggested that a light-induced degradation of the clock protein ROC15 is a trigger to reset the circadian clock in Chlamydomonas. However, light signaling pathways of this process remained unclear. Here, we screened for mutants that show abnormal ROC15 diurnal rhythms, including the light-induced protein degradation at dawn, using a luciferase fusion reporter. In one mutant, ROC15 degradation and phase resetting of the circadian clock by light were impaired. Interestingly, the impairments were observed in response to red and violet light, but not to blue light. We revealed that an uncharacterized gene encoding a protein similar to RAS-signaling-related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins is responsible for the mutant phenotypes. Our results indicate that a previously uncharacterized red/violet light signaling pathway is involved in the phase resetting of circadian clock in Chlamydomonas.

  11. CSL encodes a leucine-rich-repeat protein implicated in red/violet light signaling to the circadian clock in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Ayumi; Niwa, Yoshimi; Onai, Kiyoshi; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Ishiura, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii shows various light responses in behavior and physiology. One such photoresponse is the circadian clock, which can be reset by external light signals to entrain its oscillation to daily environmental cycles. In a previous report, we suggested that a light-induced degradation of the clock protein ROC15 is a trigger to reset the circadian clock in Chlamydomonas. However, light signaling pathways of this process remained unclear. Here, we screened for mutants that show abnormal ROC15 diurnal rhythms, including the light-induced protein degradation at dawn, using a luciferase fusion reporter. In one mutant, ROC15 degradation and phase resetting of the circadian clock by light were impaired. Interestingly, the impairments were observed in response to red and violet light, but not to blue light. We revealed that an uncharacterized gene encoding a protein similar to RAS-signaling-related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins is responsible for the mutant phenotypes. Our results indicate that a previously uncharacterized red/violet light signaling pathway is involved in the phase resetting of circadian clock in Chlamydomonas. PMID:28333924

  12. Circadian systems biology in Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Ling; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-11-01

    Systems biology, which can be defined as integrative biology, comprises multistage processes that can be used to understand components of complex biological systems of living organisms and provides hierarchical information to decoding life. Using systems biology approaches such as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, it is now possible to delineate more complicated interactions between circadian control systems and diseases. The circadian rhythm is a multiscale phenomenon existing within the body that influences numerous physiological activities such as changes in gene expression, protein turnover, metabolism and human behavior. In this review, we describe the relationships between the circadian control system and its related genes or proteins, and circadian rhythm disorders in systems biology studies. To maintain and modulate circadian oscillation, cells possess elaborative feedback loops composed of circadian core proteins that regulate the expression of other genes through their transcriptional activities. The disruption of these rhythms has been reported to be associated with diseases such as arrhythmia, obesity, insulin resistance, carcinogenesis and disruptions in natural oscillations in the control of cell growth. This review demonstrates that lifestyle is considered as a fundamental factor that modifies circadian rhythm, and the development of dysfunctions and diseases could be regulated by an underlying expression network with multiple circadian-associated signals.

  13. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  14. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis. PMID:27413249

  15. microRNA modulation of circadian clock period and entrainment

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hai-Ying M.; Papp, Joseph W.; Varlamova, Olga; Dziema, Heather; Russell, Brandon; Curfman, John P.; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Shimizu, Kimiko; Okamura, Hitoshi; Impey, Soren; Obrietan, Karl

    2007-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding, RNAs that regulate the stability or translation of mRNA transcripts. Although recent work has implicated miRNAs in development and in disease, the expression and function of miRNAs in the adult mammalian nervous system has not been extensively characterized. Here, we examine the role of two brain-specific miRNAs, miR-219 and miR-132, in modulating the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. miR-219 is a target of the CLOCK/BMAL1 complex, exhibits robust circadian rhythms of expression and the in vivo knockdown of miR-219 lengthens the circadian period. miR-132 is induced by photic entrainment cues via a MAPK/CREB-dependent mechanism, modulates clock gene expression, and attenuates the entraining effects of light. Collectively, these data reveal miRNAs as clock- and light-regulated genes and provide a mechanistic examination of their roles as effectors of pacemaker activity and entrainment. PMID:17553428

  16. Dietary oleanolic acid mediates circadian clock gene expression in liver independently of diet and animal model but requires apolipoprotein A1.

    PubMed

    Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Martínez-Beamonte, Roberto; Ríos, José L; Navarro, María A; Surra, Joaquín C; Arnal, Carmen; Rodríguez-Yoldi, María J; Osada, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Oleanolic acid is a triterpene widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom and present in virgin olive oil at a concentration of 57 mg/kg. To test the hypotheses that its long-term administration could modify hepatic gene expression in several animal models and that this could be influenced by the presence of APOA1-containing high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), diets including 0.01% oleanolic acid were provided to Apoe- and Apoa1-deficient mice and F344 rats. Hepatic transcriptome was analyzed in Apoe-deficient mice fed long-term semipurified Western diets differing in the oleanolic acid content. Gene expression changes, confirmed by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction, were sought for their implication in hepatic steatosis. To establish the effect of oleanolic acid independently of diet and animal model, male rats were fed chow diet with or without oleanolic acid, and to test the influence of HDL, Apoa1-deficient mice consuming the latter diet were used. In Apoe-deficient mice, oleanolic acid intake increased hepatic area occupied by lipid droplets with no change in oxidative stress. Bmal1 and the other core component of the circadian clock, Clock, together with Elovl3, Tubb2a and Cldn1 expressions, were significantly increased, while Amy2a5, Usp2, Per3 and Thrsp were significantly decreased in mice receiving the compound. Bmal1 and Cldn1 expressions were positively associated with lipid droplets. Increased Clock and Bmal1 expressions were also observed in rats, but not in Apoa1-deficient mice. The core liver clock components Clock-Bmal1 are a target of oleanolic acid in two animal models independently of the diets provided, and this compound requires APOA1-HDL for its hepatic action.

  17. Fibroblast PER2 Circadian Rhythmicity Depends on Cell Density

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Takako; Wang, Lexie L.; Welsh, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Like neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian pacemaker in the brain, single fibroblasts can function as independent oscillators. In the SCN, synaptic and paracrine signaling among cells creates a robust, synchronized circadian oscillation, whereas there is no evidence for such integration in fibroblast cultures. However, interactions among single-cell fibroblast oscillators cannot be completely excluded, because fibroblasts were not isolated in previous work. In this study, we tested the autonomy of fibroblasts as single-cell circadian oscillators in high and low density culture, by single-cell imaging of cells from PER2::LUC circadian reporter mice. We found greatly reduced PER2::LUC rhythmicity in low density cultures, which could result from lack of either constitutive or rhythmic paracrine signals from neighboring fibroblasts. To discriminate between these two possibilities, we mixed PER2::LUC wild type (WT) cells with non-luminescent, non-rhythmic Bmal1−/− cells, so that density of rhythmic cells was low but overall cell density remained high. In this condition, WT cells showed clear rhythmicity similar to high density cultures. We also mixed PER2::LUC WT cells with non-luminescent, long period Cry2−/− cells. In this condition, WT cells showed a period no different from cells cultured with rhythmic WT cells or non-rhythmic Bmal1−/− cells. In previous work, we found that low K+ suppresses fibroblast rhythmicity, and we and others have found that either low K+ or low Ca2+ suppresses SCN rhythmicity. Therefore, we attempted to rescue rhythmicity of low density fibroblasts with high K+ (21 mM), high Ca2+ (3.6 mM), or conditioned medium. Conditioned medium from high density fibroblast cultures rescued rhythmicity of low density cultures, whereas high K+ or Ca2+ medium did not consistently rescue rhythmicity. These data suggest that fibroblasts require paracrine signals from adjacent cells for normal expression of rhythmicity

  18. Circadian regulation of lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gooley, Joshua J

    2016-11-01

    The circadian system temporally coordinates daily rhythms in feeding behaviour and energy metabolism. The objective of the present paper is to review the mechanisms that underlie circadian regulation of lipid metabolic pathways. Circadian rhythms in behaviour and physiology are generated by master clock neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN and its efferent targets in the hypothalamus integrate light and feeding signals to entrain behavioural rhythms as well as clock cells located in peripheral tissues, including the liver, adipose tissue and muscle. Circadian rhythms in gene expression are regulated at the cellular level by a molecular clock comprising a core set of clock genes/proteins. In peripheral tissues, hundreds of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid oxidation are rhythmically activated and repressed by clock proteins, hence providing a direct mechanism for circadian regulation of lipids. Disruption of clock gene function results in abnormal metabolic phenotypes and impaired lipid absorption, demonstrating that the circadian system is essential for normal energy metabolism. The composition and timing of meals influence diurnal regulation of metabolic pathways, with food intake during the usual rest phase associated with dysregulation of lipid metabolism. Recent studies using metabolomics and lipidomics platforms have shown that hundreds of lipid species are circadian-regulated in human plasma, including but not limited to fatty acids, TAG, glycerophospholipids, sterol lipids and sphingolipids. In future work, these lipid profiling approaches can be used to understand better the interaction between diet, mealtimes and circadian rhythms on lipid metabolism and risk for obesity and metabolic diseases.

  19. Poor Sleep Quality Is Associated with Dawn Phenomenon and Impaired Circadian Clock Gene Expression in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Tao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Aims. We investigated whether poor sleep quality is associated with both dawn phenomenon and impaired circadian clock gene expression in subjects with diabetes. Methods. 81 subjects with diabetes on continuous glucose monitoring were divided into two groups according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The magnitude of dawn phenomenon was quantified by its increment from nocturnal nadir to prebreakfast. Peripheral leucocytes were sampled from 81 subjects with diabetes and 28 normal controls at 09:00. Transcript levels of circadian clock genes (BMAL1, PER1, PER2, and PER3) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results. The levels of HbA1c and fasting glucose and the magnitude of dawn phenomenon were significantly higher in the diabetes group with poor sleep quality than that with good sleep quality. Peripheral leucocytes from subjects with poor sleep quality expressed significantly lower transcript levels of BMAL1 and PER1 compared with those with good sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was significantly correlated with magnitude of dawn phenomenon. Multiple linear regression showed that sleep quality and PER1 were significantly independently correlated with dawn phenomenon. Conclusions. Dawn phenomenon is associated with sleep quality. Furthermore, mRNA expression of circadian clock genes is dampened in peripheral leucocytes of subjects with poor sleep quality. PMID:28352282

  20. The circadian protein period 1 contributes to blood pressure control and coordinately regulates renal sodium transport genes.

    PubMed

    Stow, Lisa R; Richards, Jacob; Cheng, Kit-Yan; Lynch, I Jeanette; Jeffers, Lauren A; Greenlee, Megan M; Cain, Brian D; Wingo, Charles S; Gumz, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    The circadian clock protein period 1 (Per1) contributes to the regulation of expression of the α subunit of the renal epithelial sodium channel at the basal level and in response to the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. The goals of the present study were to define the role of Per1 in the regulation of additional renal sodium handling genes in cortical collecting duct cells and to evaluate blood pressure (BP) in mice lacking functional Per1. To determine whether Per1 regulates additional genes important in renal sodium handling, a candidate gene approach was used. Immortalized collecting duct cells were transfected with a nontarget small interfering RNA or a Per1-specific small interfering RNA. Expression of the genes for α-epithelial sodium channel and Fxyd5, a positive regulator of Na, K-ATPase activity, decreased in response to Per1 knockdown. Conversely, mRNA expression of caveolin 1, Ube2e3, and ET-1, all negative effectors of epithelial sodium channel, was induced after Per1 knockdown. These results led us to evaluate BP in Per1 KO mice. Mice lacking Per1 exhibit significantly reduced BP and elevated renal ET-1 levels compared with wild-type animals. Given the established role of renal ET-1 in epithelial sodium channel inhibition and BP control, elevated renal ET-1 is one possible explanation for the lower BP observed in Per1 KO mice. These data support a role for the circadian clock protein Per1 in the coordinate regulation of genes involved in renal sodium reabsorption. Importantly, the lower BP observed in Per1 KO mice compared with wild-type mice suggests a role for Per1 in BP control as well.

  1. Regulation of MAPK/ERK Signaling and Photic Entrainment of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Circadian Clock by Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Antoun, Ghadi; Cannon, Pascale Bouchard; Cheng, Hai-Ying Mary

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a key event that couples light to circadian clock entrainment. However, we do not fully understand the mechanisms that shape the properties of MAPK/ERK signaling in the SCN, and how these mechanisms may influence overt circadian rhythms. Here we show that Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) controls the kinetics of light-induced MAPK/ERK activity in the SCN and photic entrainment of behavioral rhythms. Light triggers robust phosphorylation of RKIP in the murine SCN and dissociation of RKIP and c-Raf. Overexpression of a nonphosphorylatable form of RKIP in the SCN of transgenic mice blocks light-induced ERK1/2 activation in the SCN and severely dampens light-induced phase delays in behavioral rhythms. Conversely, in RKIP knock-out (RKIP−/−) mice, light-induced ERK1/2 activity in the SCN is prolonged in the early and late subjective night, resulting in augmentation of the phase-delaying and -advancing effects of light. Reentrainment to an advancing light cycle was also accelerated in RKIP−/− mice. In relation to the molecular clockwork, genetic deletion of RKIP potentiated light-evoked PER1 and PER2 protein expression in the SCN in the early night. Additionally, RKIP−/− mice displayed enhanced transcriptional activation of mPeriod1 and the immediate early gene c-Fos in the SCN in response to a phase-delaying light pulse. Collectively, our data reveal an important role of RKIP in the regulation of MAPK/ERK signaling in the SCN and photic entrainment of the SCN clock. PMID:22492043

  2. Negative reciprocal regulation between Sirt1 and Per2 modulates the circadian clock and aging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Hong; Zhao, Tingrui; Cui, Kairong; Hu, Gangqing; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Weiping; Wang, Xin-Wei; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Zhao, Keji; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in both aging and circadian-clock regulation, yet the link between the two processes in relation to SIRT1 function is not clear. Using Sirt1-deficient mice, we found that Sirt1 and Period 2 (Per2) constitute a reciprocal negative regulation loop that plays important roles in modulating hepatic circadian rhythmicity and aging. Sirt1-deficient mice exhibited profound premature aging and enhanced acetylation of histone H4 on lysine16 (H4K16) in the promoter of Per2, the latter of which leads to its overexpression; in turn, Per2 suppresses Sirt1 transcription through binding to the Sirt1 promoter at the Clock/Bmal1 site. This negative reciprocal relationship between SIRT1 and PER2 was also observed in human hepatocytes. We further demonstrated that the absence of Sirt1 or the ectopic overexpression of Per2 in the liver resulted in a dysregulated pace of the circadian rhythm. The similar circadian rhythm was also observed in aged wild type mice. The interplay between Sirt1 and Per2 modulates aging gene expression and circadian-clock maintenance. PMID:27346580

  3. Timing of circadian genes in mammalian tissues

    PubMed Central

    Korenčič, Anja; Košir, Rok; Bordyugov, Grigory; Lehmann, Robert; Rozman, Damjana; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks are endogenous oscillators driving daily rhythms in physiology. The cell-autonomous clock is governed by an interlocked network of transcriptional feedback loops. Hundreds of clock-controlled genes (CCGs) regulate tissue specific functions. Transcriptome studies reveal that different organs (e.g. liver, heart, adrenal gland) feature substantially varying sets of CCGs with different peak phase distributions. To study the phase variability of CCGs in mammalian peripheral tissues, we develop a core clock model for mouse liver and adrenal gland based on expression profiles and known cis-regulatory sites. ‘Modulation factors’ associated with E-boxes, ROR-elements, and D-boxes can explain variable rhythms of CCGs, which is demonstrated for differential regulation of cytochromes P450 and 12 h harmonics. By varying model parameters we explore how tissue-specific peak phase distributions can be generated. The central role of E-boxes and ROR-elements is confirmed by analysing ChIP-seq data of BMAL1 and REV-ERB transcription factors. PMID:25048020

  4. Smith-Magenis syndrome results in disruption of CLOCK gene transcription and reveals an integral role for RAI1 in the maintenance of circadian rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen R; Zies, Deborah; Mullegama, Sureni V; Grotewiel, Michael S; Elsea, Sarah H

    2012-06-08

    Haploinsufficiency of RAI1 results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a disorder characterized by intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, obesity, neurobehavioral abnormalities, and a disrupted circadian sleep-wake pattern. An inverted melatonin rhythm (i.e., melatonin peaks during the day instead of at night) and associated sleep-phase disturbances in individuals with SMS, as well as a short-period circadian rhythm in mice with a chromosomal deletion of Rai1, support SMS as a circadian-rhythm-dysfunction disorder. However, the molecular cause of the circadian defect in SMS has not been described. The circadian oscillator temporally orchestrates metabolism, physiology, and behavior largely through transcriptional modulation. Data support RAI1 as a transcriptional regulator, but the genes it might regulate are largely unknown. Investigation into the role that RAI1 plays in the regulation of gene transcription and circadian maintenance revealed that RAI1 regulates the transcription of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), a key component of the mammalian circadian oscillator that transcriptionally regulates many critical circadian genes. Data further show that haploinsufficiency of RAI1 and Rai1 in SMS fibroblasts and the mouse hypothalamus, respectively, results in the transcriptional dysregulation of the circadian clock and causes altered expression and regulation of multiple circadian genes, including PER2, PER3, CRY1, BMAL1, and others. These data suggest that heterozygous mutation of RAI1 and Rai1 leads to a disrupted circadian rhythm and thus results in an abnormal sleep-wake cycle, which can contribute to an abnormal feeding pattern and dependent cognitive performance. Finally, we conclude that RAI1 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CLOCK, pinpointing a novel and important role for this gene in the circadian oscillator.

  5. Chronic Maternal Low-Protein Diet in Mice Affects Anxiety, Night-Time Energy Expenditure and Sleep Patterns, but Not Circadian Rhythm in Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Sangeetha K.; Fiorotto, Marta L.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2017-01-01

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure. C57BL/6J dams were fed a protein restricted (8%protein, MLP) or a control protein (20% protein, C) diet from four weeks before mating until weaning of offspring. Male offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet (20% protein) and single-housed until 8–12 weeks of age. We examined body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous rearing activity and sleep patterns and performed behavioral assays for anxiety (open field activity, elevated plus maze [EPM], light/dark exploration), depression (tail suspension and forced swim test), sociability (three-chamber), repetitive (marble burying), learning and memory (fear conditioning), and circadian behavior (wheel-running activity during light-dark and constant dark cycles). We also measured circadian gene expression in hypothalamus and liver at different Zeitgeber times (ZT). Male offspring from separate MLP exposed dams had significantly greater body fat (P = 0.03), less energy expenditure (P = 0.004), less rearing activity (P = 0.04) and a greater number of night-time rest/sleep bouts (P = 0.03) compared to control. MLP offspring displayed greater anxiety-like behavior in the EPM (P<0.01) but had no learning and memory deficit in fear-conditioning assay (P = 0.02). There was an effect of time on Per1, Per 2 and Clock circadian gene expression in the hypothalamus but not on circadian behavior. Thus, transplacental and early developmental exposure of dams to chronic MLP reduces

  6. Molecular structure, expression patterns, and localization of the circadian transcription modulator CYCLE in the cricket, Dianemobius nigrofasciatus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qi-Miao; Bembenek, Jadwiga; Trang, Le Thi Dieu; Hiragaki, Susumu; Takeda, Makio

    2008-02-01

    CYCLE (CYC), also known as BMAL1 in vertebrate nomenclature, is a transcription modulator of the circadian genes period and timeless of Drosophila melanogaster. We cloned a cDNA encoding a CYC homologue from the head of the ground cricket, Dianemobius nigrofasciatus (Dncyc), the first CYC from Hemimetabola. The deduced sequence corresponded to a 601 amino-acid polypeptide, with well-defined bHLH, PAS-A, PAS-B, PAC, and BTCR domains. The amino-acid sequence showed 70.7% identity with the CYC protein of Athalia rosae, 63.8% with D. melanogaster, and 52% identity with the human homologue. A cyc transcript of around 3.6kb occurs in the brain, midgut, testis, fatbody, and muscle. An additional band of around 1.1kb gave a hybridization signal in the head. No temporal oscillation in cyc mRNA abundance was observed in the head of the adult cricket when investigated by Northern blot analysis. CYC-like immunohistochemical reactivity (ir) and its dimerization partner CLOCK (CLK)-ir appeared in the pars intercerebralis (PI), tritocerebrum, dorsolateral protocerebrum, and subesophageal ganglion (SOG), but no CYC-ir was observed in the optic lobe (OL) that showed CLK-ir. The deutocerebrum showed a unique CLK-ir but no CYC-ir pattern. Double-labelling experiments showed that both antigens were co-localized in the mandibular and maxillary neuromeres of the SOG. CYC-ir showed no daily oscillation in intensity and the staining pattern was always cytoplasmic. CLK-ir occurred in the nucleus at ZT 16, but was cytoplasmic at other ZT times. A neuronal network equivalent to adult system occurred in the second nymphal stadium.

  7. On the Role of Histamine Receptors in the Regulation of Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Rozov, Stanislav V.; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a regulatory role of histamine in circadian rhythms, but little is known about signaling pathways that would be involved in such a putative role. The aim of this study was to examine whether histamine mediates its effects on the circadian system through Hrh1 or Hrh3 receptors. We assessed both diurnal and free-running locomotor activity rhythms of Hrh1-/- and Hrh3-/- mice. We also determined the expression of Per1, Per2 and Bmal1 genes in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, several areas of the cerebral cortex and striatum under symmetric 24 h light-dark cycle at zeitgeber times 14 and 6 by using radioactive in situ hybridization. We found no differences between Hrh1-/- and wild type mice in the length, amplitude and mesor of diurnal and free-running activity rhythms as well as in expression of Per1, Per2 and Bmal1 genes in any of the examined brain structures. The amplitude of free-running activity rhythm of the Hrh3-/- mice was significantly flattened, whereas the expression of the clock genes in Hrh3-/- mice was similar to the wild type animals in all of the assessed brain structures. Therefore, the knockout of Hrh1 receptor had no effects on the circadian rhythm of spontaneous locomotion, and a knockout of Hrh3 receptor caused a substantial reduction of free-running activity rhythm amplitude, but none of these knockout models affected the expression patterns of the core clock genes in any of the studied brain structures. PMID:26660098

  8. Circadian rhythms and molecular noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonze, Didier; Goldbeter, Albert

    2006-06-01

    Circadian rhythms, characterized by a period of about 24h, are the most widespread biological rhythms generated autonomously at the molecular level. The core molecular mechanism responsible for circadian oscillations relies on the negative regulation exerted by a protein on the expression of its own gene. Deterministic models account for the occurrence of autonomous circadian oscillations, for their entrainment by light-dark cycles, and for their phase shifting by light pulses. Stochastic versions of these models take into consideration the molecular fluctuations that arise when the number of molecules involved in the regulatory mechanism is low. Numerical simulations of the stochastic models show that robust circadian oscillations can already occur with a limited number of mRNA and protein molecules, in the range of a few tens and hundreds, respectively. Various factors affect the robustness of circadian oscillations with respect to molecular noise. Besides an increase in the number of molecules, entrainment by light-dark cycles, and cooperativity in repression enhance robustness, whereas the proximity of a bifurcation point leads to less robust oscillations. Another parameter that appears to be crucial for the coherence of circadian rhythms is the binding/unbinding rate of the inhibitory protein to the promoter of the clock gene. Intercellular coupling further increases the robustness of circadian oscillations.

  9. Impaired Leukocyte Trafficking and Skin Inflammatory Responses in Hamsters Lacking a Functional Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Brian J.; Cable, Erin J.; Patel, Priyesh N.; Pyter, Leah M.; Onishi, Kenneth G.; Stevenson, Tyler J.; Ruby, Norman F.; Bradley, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    The immune system is under strong circadian control, and circadian desynchrony is a risk factor for metabolic disorders, inflammatory responses and cancer. Signaling pathways that maintain circadian rhythms (CRs) in immune function in vivo, and the mechanisms by which circadian desynchrony impairs immune function, remain to be fully-identified. These experiments tested the hypothesis that the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives CRs in the immune system, using a non-invasive model of SCN circadian arrhythmia. Robust CRs in blood leukocyte trafficking, with a peak during the early light phase (ZT4) and nadir in the early dark phase (ZT18), were absent in arrhythmic hamsters, as were CRs in spleen clock gene (per1, bmal1) expression, indicating that a functional pacemaker in the SCN is required for the generation of CRs in leukocyte trafficking and for driving peripheral clocks in secondary lymphoid organs. Pinealectomy was without effect on CRs in leukocyte trafficking, but abolished CRs in spleen clock gene expression, indicating that nocturnal melatonin secretion is necessary for communicating circadian time information to the spleen. CRs in trafficking of antigen presenting cells (CD11c+ dendritic cells) in the skin were abolished, and antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin inflammatory responses were markedly impaired in arrhythmic hamsters. The SCN drives robust CRs in leukocyte trafficking and lymphoid clock gene expression; the latter of which is not expressed in the absence of melatonin. Robust entrainment of the circadian pacemaker provides a signal critical to diurnal rhythms in immunosurveilliance and optimal memory T-cell dependent immune responses. PMID:23474187

  10. The Liver Clock Controls Cholesterol Homeostasis through Trib1 Protein-mediated Regulation of PCSK9/Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) Axis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Di; Liu, Tongyu; Chang, Lin; Rui, Crystal; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Li, Siming; Hogenesch, John B; Chen, Y Eugene; Lin, Jiandie D

    2015-12-25

    Disruption of the body clock has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. How the circadian pacemaker interacts with the genetic factors associated with plasma lipid traits remains poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified an expanding list of genetic variants that influence plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Here we analyzed circadian regulation of lipid-associated candidate genes in the liver and identified two distinct groups exhibiting rhythmic and non-rhythmic patterns of expression during light-dark cycles. Liver-specific inactivation of Bmal1 led to elevated plasma LDL/VLDL cholesterol levels as a consequence of the disruption of the PCSK9/LDL receptor regulatory axis. Ablation of the liver clock perturbed diurnal regulation of lipid-associated genes in the liver and markedly reduced the expression of the non-rhythmically expressed gene Trib1. Adenovirus-mediated rescue of Trib1 expression lowered plasma PCSK9 levels, increased LDL receptor protein expression, and restored plasma cholesterol homeostasis in mice lacking a functional liver clock. These results illustrate an unexpected mechanism through which the biological clock regulates cholesterol homeostasis through its regulation of non-rhythmic genes in the liver.

  11. A new role for AMP-activated protein kinase in the circadian regulation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in late-stage embryonic retinal photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cathy C Y; Shi, Liheng; Lin, Chia-Hung; Kim, Andy Jeesu; Ko, Michael L; Ko, Gladys Y-P

    2015-11-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor, which is activated when the intracellular ATP production decreases. The activities of AMPK display circadian rhythms in various organs and tissues, indicating that AMPK is involved in the circadian regulation of cellular metabolism. In vertebrate retina, the circadian clocks regulate many aspects of retinal function and physiology, including light/dark adaption, but whether and how AMPK was involved in the retinal circadian rhythm was not known. We hypothesized that the activation of AMPK (measured as phosphorylated AMPK) in the retina was under circadian control, and AMPK might interact with other intracellular signaling molecules to regulate photoreceptor physiology. We combined ATP assays, western blots, immunostaining, patch-clamp recordings, and pharmacological treatments to decipher the role of AMPK in the circadian regulation of photoreceptor physiology. We found that the overall retinal ATP content displayed a diurnal rhythm that peaked at early night, which was nearly anti-phase to the diurnal and circadian rhythms of AMPK phosphorylation. AMPK was also involved in the circadian phase-dependent regulation of photoreceptor L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs), the ion channel essential for sustained neurotransmitter release. The activation of AMPK dampened the L-VGCC currents at night with a corresponding decrease in protein expression of the L-VGCCα1 pore-forming subunit, while inhibition of AMPK increased the L-VGCC current during the day. AMPK appeared to be upstream of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) but downstream of adenylyl cyclase in regulating the circadian rhythm of L-VGCCs. Hence, as a cellular energy sensor, AMPK integrates into the cell signaling network to regulate the circadian rhythm of photoreceptor physiology. We found that in chicken embryonic retina, the activation of AMP-activated protein

  12. Anabaena circadian clock proteins KaiA and KaiB reveal a potential common binding site to their partner KaiC

    PubMed Central

    Garces, Robert G; Wu, Ning; Gillon, Wanda; Pai, Emil F

    2004-01-01

    The cyanobacterial clock proteins KaiA and KaiB are proposed as regulators of the circadian rhythm in cyanobacteria. Mutations in both proteins have been reported to alter or abolish circadian rhythmicity. Here, we present molecular models of both KaiA and KaiB from the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp PCC7120 deduced by crystal structure analysis, and we discuss how clock-changing or abolishing mutations may cause their resulting circadian phenotype. The overall fold of the KaiA monomer is that of a four-helix bundle. KaiB, on the other hand, adopts an alpha–beta meander motif. Both proteins purify and crystallize as dimers. While the folds of the two proteins are clearly different, their size and some surface features of the physiologically relevant dimers are very similar. Notably, the functionally relevant residues Arg 69 of KaiA and Arg 23 of KaiB align well in space. The apparent structural similarities suggest that KaiA and KaiB may compete for a potential common binding site on KaiC. PMID:15071498

  13. Expressions of Tight Junction Proteins Occludin and Claudin-1 Are under the Circadian Control in the Mouse Large Intestine: Implications in Intestinal Permeability and Susceptibility to Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Oh-oka, Kyoko; Kono, Hiroshi; Ishimaru, Kayoko; Miyake, Kunio; Kubota, Takeo; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Nakao, Atsuhito

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The circadian clock drives daily rhythms in behavior and physiology. A recent study suggests that intestinal permeability is also under control of the circadian clock. However, the precise mechanisms remain largely unknown. Because intestinal permeability depends on tight junction (TJ) that regulates the epithelial paracellular pathway, this study investigated whether the circadian clock regulates the expression levels of TJ proteins in the intestine. Methods The expression levels of TJ proteins in the large intestinal epithelium and colonic permeability were analyzed every 4, 6, or 12 hours between wild-type mice and mice with a mutation of a key clock gene Period2 (Per2; mPer2m/m). In addition, the susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was compared between wild-type mice and mPer2m/m mice. Results The mRNA and protein expression levels of Occludin and Claudin-1 exhibited daily variations in the colonic epithelium in wild-type mice, whereas they were constitutively high in mPer2m/m mice. Colonic permeability in wild-type mice exhibited daily variations, which was inversely associated with the expression levels of Occludin and Claudin-1 proteins, whereas it was constitutively low in mPer2m/m mice. mPer2m/m mice were more resistant to the colonic injury induced by DSS than wild-type mice. Conclusions Occludin and Claudin-1 expressions in the large intestine are under the circadian control, which is associated with temporal regulation of colonic permeability and also susceptibility to colitis. PMID:24845399

  14. Peripheral circadian clocks are diversely affected by adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Soták, M; Bryndová, J; Ergang, P; Vagnerová, K; Kvapilová, P; Vodička, M; Pácha, J; Sumová, A

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are considered to synchronize the rhythmicity of clock genes in peripheral tissues; however, the role of circadian variations of endogenous glucocorticoids is not well defined. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral circadian clocks were impaired by adrenalectomy. To achieve this, we tested the circadian rhythmicity of core clock genes (Bmal1, Per1-3, Cry1, RevErbα, Rora), clock-output genes (Dbp, E4bp4) and a glucocorticoid- and clock-controlled gene (Gilz) in liver, jejunum, kidney cortex, splenocytes and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Adrenalectomy did not affect the phase of clock gene rhythms but distinctly modulated clock gene mRNA levels, and this effect was partially tissue-dependent. Adrenalectomy had a significant inhibitory effect on the level of Per1 mRNA in VAT, liver and jejunum, but not in kidney and splenocytes. Similarly, adrenalectomy down-regulated mRNA levels of Per2 in splenocytes and VAT, Per3 in jejunum, RevErbα in VAT and Dbp in VAT, kidney and splenocytes, whereas the mRNA amounts of Per1 and Per2 in kidney and Per3 in VAT and splenocytes were up-regulated. On the other hand, adrenalectomy had minimal effects on Rora and E4bp4 mRNAs. Adrenalectomy also resulted in decreased level of Gilz mRNA but did not alter the phase of its diurnal rhythm. Collectively, these findings suggest that adrenalectomy alters the mRNA levels of core clock genes and clock-output genes in peripheral organs and may cause tissue-specific modulations of their circadian profiles, which are reflected in changes of the amplitudes but not phases. Thus, the circulating corticosteroids are necessary for maintaining the high-amplitude rhythmicity of the peripheral clocks in a tissue-specific manner.

  15. Reciprocal Regulation between the Circadian Clock and Hypoxia Signaling at the Genome Level in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaling; Tang, Dingbin; Liu, Na; Xiong, Wei; Huang, Huanwei; Li, Yang; Ma, Zhixiong; Zhao, Haijiao; Chen, Peihao; Qi, Xiangbing; Zhang, Eric Erquan

    2017-01-10

    Circadian regulation is critically important in maintaining metabolic and physiological homeostasis. However, little is known about the possible influence of the clock on physiological abnormalities occurring under pathological conditions. Here, we report the discovery that hypoxia, a condition that causes catastrophic bodily damage, is gated by the circadian clock in vivo. Hypoxia signals conversely regulate the clock by slowing the circadian cycle and dampening the amplitude of oscillations in a dose-dependent manner. ChIP-seq analyses of hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1A and the core clock component BMAL1 revealed crosstalk between hypoxia and the clock at the genome level. Further, severe consequences caused by acute hypoxia, such as those that occur with heart attacks, were correlated with defects in circadian rhythms. We propose that the clock plays functions in fine-tuning hypoxic responses under pathophysiological conditions. We argue that the clock can, and likely should, be exploited therapeutically to reduce the severity of fatal hypoxia-related diseases.

  16. Association study of eight circadian genes with bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mansour, H A; Wood, J; Logue, T; Chowdari, K V; Dayal, M; Kupfer, D J; Monk, T H; Devlin, B; Nimgaonkar, V L

    2006-03-01

    We hypothesize that circadian dysfunction could underlie, at least partially, the liability for bipolar 1 disorder (BD1). Our hypothesis motivated tests for the association between the polymorphisms of genes that mediate circadian function and liability for BD1. The US Caucasian patients with BD1 (DSM-IV criteria) and available parents were recruited from Pittsburgh and surrounding areas (n = 138 cases, 196 parents) and also selected from the NIMH Genetics Collaborative Initiative (n = 96 cases, 192 parents). We assayed 44 informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight circadian genes in the BD1 samples. A population-based sample, specifically cord blood samples from local live births, served as community-based controls (n = 180). It was used as a contrast for genotype and haplotype distributions with those of patients. US patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SZA, n = 331) and available parents from Pittsburgh (n = 344) were assayed for a smaller set of SNPs based on the results from the BD1 samples. Modest associations with SNPs at ARNTL (BmaL1) and TIMELESS genes were observed in the BD1 samples. The associations were detected using family-based and case-control analyses, albeit with different SNPs. Associations with TIMELESS and PERIOD3 were also detected in the Pittsburgh SZ/SZA group. Thus far, evidence for association between specific SNPs at the circadian gene loci and BD1 is tentative. Additional studies using larger samples are required to evaluate the associations reported here.

  17. Catabolic cytokines disrupt the circadian clock and the expression of clock-controlled genes in cartilage via an NFкB-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, B.; Yang, N.; Borysiewicz, E.; Dudek, M.; Williams, J.L.; Li, J.; Maywood, E.S.; Adamson, A.; Hastings, M.H.; Bateman, J.F.; White, M.R.H.; Boot-Handford, R.P.; Meng, Q.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To define how the catabolic cytokines (Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)) affect the circadian clock mechanism and the expression of clock-controlled catabolic genes within cartilage, and to identify the downstream pathways linking the cytokines to the molecular clock within chondrocytes. Methods Ex vivo cartilage explants were isolated from the Cry1-luc or PER2::LUC clock reporter mice. Clock gene dynamics were monitored in real-time by bioluminescence photon counting. Gene expression changes were studied by qRT-PCR. Functional luc assays were used to study the function of the core Clock/BMAL1 complex in SW-1353 cells. NFкB pathway inhibitor and fluorescence live-imaging of cartilage were performed to study the underlying mechanisms. Results Exposure to IL-1β severely disrupted circadian gene expression rhythms in cartilage. This effect was reversed by an anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone, but not by other clock synchronizing agents. Circadian disruption mediated by IL-1β was accompanied by disregulated expression of endogenous clock genes and clock-controlled catabolic pathways. Mechanistically, NFкB signalling was involved in the effect of IL-1β on the cartilage clock in part through functional interference with the core Clock/BMAL1 complex. In contrast, TNFα had little impact on the circadian rhythm and clock gene expression in cartilage. Conclusion In our experimental system (young healthy mouse cartilage), we demonstrate that IL-1β (but not TNFα) abolishes circadian rhythms in Cry1-luc and PER2::LUC gene expression. These data implicate disruption of the chondrocyte clock as a novel aspect of the catabolic responses of cartilage to pro-inflammatory cytokines, and provide an additional mechanism for how chronic joint inflammation may contribute to osteoarthritis (OA). PMID:26521744

  18. Prediction of the protein components of a putative Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian signaling system using a de novo assembled transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Fontanilla, Tiana M.; Nesbit, Katherine T.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2013-01-01

    Diel vertical migration and seasonal diapause are critical life history events for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. While much is known about these behaviors phenomenologically, little is known about their molecular underpinnings. Recent studies in insects suggest that some circadian genes/proteins also contribute to the establishment of seasonal diapause. Thus, it is possible that in Calanus these distinct timing regimes share some genetic components. To begin to address this possibility, we used the well-established Drosophila melanogaster circadian system as a reference for mining clock transcripts from a 200,000+ sequence Calanus transcriptome; the proteins encoded by the identified transcripts were also deduced and characterized. Sequences encoding homologs of the Drosophila core clock proteins CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS were identified, as was one encoding CRYPTOCHROME 2, a core clock protein in ancestral insect systems, but absent in Drosophila. Calanus transcripts encoding proteins known to modulate the Drosophila core clock were also identified and characterized, e.g. CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, SHAGGY and VRILLE. Alignment and structural analyses of the deduced Calanus proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Interestingly, reverse BLAST analyses of these sequences against all arthropod proteins typically revealed non-Drosophila isoforms to be most similar to the Calanus queries. This, in combination with the presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 (a clock input pathway protein) and CRYPTOCHROME 2 in Calanus, suggests that the organization of the copepod circadian system is an ancestral one, more similar to that of insects like Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila. PMID:23727418

  19. Prediction of the protein components of a putative Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian signaling system using a de novo assembled transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Nesbit, Katherine T; Lenz, Petra H

    2013-09-01

    Diel vertical migration and seasonal diapause are critical life history events for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. While much is known about these behaviors phenomenologically, little is known about their molecular underpinnings. Recent studies in insects suggest that some circadian genes/proteins also contribute to the establishment of seasonal diapause. Thus, it is possible that in Calanus these distinct timing regimes share some genetic components. To begin to address this possibility, we used the well-established Drosophila melanogaster circadian system as a reference for mining clock transcripts from a 200,000+ sequence Calanus transcriptome; the proteins encoded by the identified transcripts were also deduced and characterized. Sequences encoding homologs of the Drosophila core clock proteins CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS were identified, as was one encoding CRYPTOCHROME 2, a core clock protein in ancestral insect systems, but absent in Drosophila. Calanus transcripts encoding proteins known to modulate the Drosophila core clock were also identified and characterized, e.g. CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, SHAGGY and VRILLE. Alignment and structural analyses of the deduced Calanus proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Interestingly, reverse BLAST analyses of these sequences against all arthropod proteins typically revealed non-Drosophila isoforms to be most similar to the Calanus queries. This, in combination with the presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 (a clock input pathway protein) and CRYPTOCHROME 2 in Calanus, suggests that the organization of the copepod circadian system is an ancestral one, more similar to that of insects like Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila.

  20. Ribonucleoprotein complexes that control circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongni; Liang, Xiaodi; Chen, Xianyun; Guo, Jinhu

    2013-04-25

    Circadian clocks are internal molecular time-keeping mechanisms that enable organisms to adjust their physiology and behavior to the daily surroundings. Misalignment of circadian clocks leads to both physiological and health impairment. Post-transcriptional regulation and translational regulation of circadian clocks have been extensively investigated. In addition, accumulating evidence has shed new light on the involvement of ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) in the post-transcriptional regulation of circadian clocks. Numerous RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and RNPs have been implicated in the post-transcriptional modification of circadian clock proteins in different model organisms. Herein, we summarize the advances in the current knowledge on the role of RNP complexes in circadian clock regulation.

  1. Role for Protein Kinase A in the Neurospora Circadian Clock by Regulating White Collar-Independent frequency Transcription through Phosphorylation of RCM-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Hongda; Liu, Qingqing; Niu, Yanling; Hu, Qiwen; Deng, Haiteng; Cha, Joonseok; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yi; He, Qun

    2015-06-01

    Rhythmic activation and repression of clock gene expression is essential for the eukaryotic circadian clock functions. In the Neurospora circadian oscillator, the transcription of the frequency (frq) gene is periodically activated by the White Collar (WC) complex and suppressed by the FRQ-FRH complex. We previously showed that there is WC-independent frq transcription and its repression is required for circadian gene expression. How WC-independent frq transcription is regulated is not known. We show here that elevated protein kinase A (PKA) activity results in WC-independent frq transcription and the loss of clock function. We identified RCM-1 as the protein partner of RCO-1 and an essential component of the clock through its role in suppressing WC-independent frq transcription. RCM-1 is a phosphoprotein and is a substrate of PKA in vivo and in vitro. Mutation of the PKA-dependent phosphorylation sites on RCM-1 results in WC-independent transcription of frq and impaired clock function. Furthermore, we showed that RCM-1 is associated with the chromatin at the frq locus, a process that is inhibited by PKA. Together, our results demonstrate that PKA regulates frq transcription by inhibiting RCM-1 activity through RCM-1 phosphorylation.

  2. Orexin signaling regulates both the hippocampal clock and the circadian oscillation of Alzheimer’s disease-risk genes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhixiong; Jiang, Weiliang; Zhang, Eric Erquan

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a circadian clock-related disease. However, it is not very clear whether pre-symptomatic AD leads to circadian disruption or whether malfunction of circadian rhythms exerts influence on development of AD. Here, we report a functional clock that exists in the hippocampus. This oscillator both receives input signals and maintains the cycling of the hippocampal Per2 gene. One of the potential inputs to the oscillator is orexin signaling, which can shorten the hippocampal clock period and thereby regulate the expression of clock-controlled-genes (CCGs). A 24-h time course qPCR analysis followed by a JTK_CYCLE algorithm analysis indicated that a number of AD-risk genes are potential CCGs in the hippocampus. Specifically, we found that Bace1 and Bace2, which are related to the production of the amyloid-beta peptide, are CCGs. BACE1 is inhibited by E4BP4, a repressor of D-box genes, while BACE2 is activated by CLOCK:BMAL1. Finally, we observed alterations in the rhythmic expression patterns of Bace2 and ApoE in the hippocampus of aged APP/PS1dE9 mice. Our results therefore indicate that there is a circadian oscillator in the hippocampus whose oscillation could be regulated by orexins. Hence, orexin signaling regulates both the hippocampal clock and the circadian oscillation of AD-risk genes. PMID:27796320

  3. Orexin signaling regulates both the hippocampal clock and the circadian oscillation of Alzheimer's disease-risk genes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhixiong; Jiang, Weiliang; Zhang, Eric Erquan

    2016-10-31

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a circadian clock-related disease. However, it is not very clear whether pre-symptomatic AD leads to circadian disruption or whether malfunction of circadian rhythms exerts influence on development of AD. Here, we report a functional clock that exists in the hippocampus. This oscillator both receives input signals and maintains the cycling of the hippocampal Per2 gene. One of the potential inputs to the oscillator is orexin signaling, which can shorten the hippocampal clock period and thereby regulate the expression of clock-controlled-genes (CCGs). A 24-h time course qPCR analysis followed by a JTK_CYCLE algorithm analysis indicated that a number of AD-risk genes are potential CCGs in the hippocampus. Specifically, we found that Bace1 and Bace2, which are related to the production of the amyloid-beta peptide, are CCGs. BACE1 is inhibited by E4BP4, a repressor of D-box genes, while BACE2 is activated by CLOCK:BMAL1. Finally, we observed alterations in the rhythmic expression patterns of Bace2 and ApoE in the hippocampus of aged APP/PS1dE9 mice. Our results therefore indicate that there is a circadian oscillator in the hippocampus whose oscillation could be regulated by orexins. Hence, orexin signaling regulates both the hippocampal clock and the circadian oscillation of AD-risk genes.

  4. Transcriptional repressor E4-binding protein 4 (E4BP4) regulates metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) during circadian cycles and feeding.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Muchnik, Marina; Chen, Zheng; Patel, Manish; Wu, Nan; Joshi, Shree; Rui, Liangyou; Lazar, Mitchell A; Yin, Lei

    2010-11-19

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent antidiabetic and triglyceride-lowering hormone whose hepatic expression is highly responsive to food intake. FGF21 induction in the adaptive response to fasting has been well studied, but the molecular mechanism responsible for feeding-induced repression remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a novel link between FGF21 and a key circadian output protein, E4BP4. Expression of Fgf21 displays a circadian rhythm, which peaks during the fasting phase and is anti-phase to E4bp4, which is elevated during feeding periods. E4BP4 strongly suppresses Fgf21 transcription by binding to a D-box element in the distal promoter region. Depletion of E4BP4 in synchronized Hepa1c1c-7 liver cells augments the amplitude of Fgf21 expression, and overexpression of E4BP4 represses FGF21 secretion from primary mouse hepatocytes. Mimicking feeding effects, insulin significantly increases E4BP4 expression and binding to the Fgf21 promoter through AKT activation. Thus, E4BP4 is a novel insulin-responsive repressor of FGF21 expression during circadian cycles and feeding.

  5. IgE-dependent activation of human mast cells and fMLP-mediated activation of human eosinophils is controlled by the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Anja; Feilhauer, Katharina; Bischoff, Stephan C; Froy, Oren; Lorentz, Axel

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of allergic attacks frequently exhibit diurnal variations. Accordingly, we could recently demonstrate that mast cells and eosinophils - known as major effector cells of allergic diseases - showed an intact circadian clock. Here, we analyzed the role of the circadian clock in the functionality of mast cells and eosinophils. Human intestinal mast cells (hiMC) were isolated from intestinal mucosa; human eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood. HiMC and eosinophils were synchronized by dexamethasone before stimulation every 4h around the circadian cycle by FcɛRI crosslinking or fMLP, respectively. Signaling molecule activation was examined using Western blot, mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR, and mediator release by multiplex analysis. CXCL8 and CCL2 were expressed and released in a circadian manner by both hiMC and eosinophils in response to activation. Moreover, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, known to be involved in activation of hiMC and eosinophils, showed circadian rhythms in both cell types. Interestingly, all clock genes hPer1, hPer2, hCry1, hBmal1, and hClock were expressed in a similar circadian pattern in activated and unstimulated cells indicating that the local clock controls hiMC and eosinophils and subsequently allergic reactions but not vice versa.

  6. Insulin Restores an Altered Corneal Epithelium Circadian Rhythm in Mice with Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fang; Xue, Yunxia; Dong, Dong; Liu, Jun; Fu, Ting; Xiao, Chengju; Wang, Hanqing; Lin, Cuipei; Liu, Peng; Zhong, Jiajun; Yang, Yabing; Wang, Zhaorui; Pan, Hongwei; Chen, Jiansu; Li, Yangqiu; Cai, Dongqing; Li, Zhijie

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of corneal epithelial lesions and delayed wound repair, as well as their association with diabetes mellitus, are critical issues for clinical ophthalmologists. To test whether the diabetic condition alters the circadian rhythm in a mouse cornea and whether insulin can synchronise the corneal clock, we studied the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the mitosis of epithelial cells, the recruitment of leukocytes to the cornea, and the expression of main core clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Per2, Cry1, and Rev-erbα) in the corneal epithelium. We also assessed the possible effect of insulin on these modifications. Diabetes downregulated Clock, Bmal1, and Per2 expression, upregulated Cry1 and Rev-erbα expression, reduced corneal epithelial mitosis, and increased leukocyte (neutrophils and γδ T-cells) recruitment to the cornea. Early treatments with insulin partially restored the altered rhythmicity in the diabetic cornea. In conclusion, insulin-dependent diabetes altered the normal rhythmicity of the cornea, and insulin administration had a beneficial effect on restoring normal rhythmicity in the diabetic cornea. PMID:27611469

  7. Aberrant development of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and circadian rhythms in mice lacking the homeodomain protein Six6.

    PubMed

    Clark, Daniel D; Gorman, Michael R; Hatori, Megumi; Meadows, Jason D; Panda, Satchidananda; Mellon, Pamela L

    2013-02-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus is the central pacemaker for peripheral and organismal circadian rhythms. The development of this hypothalamic structure depends on genetic programs throughout embryogenesis. We have investigated the role of the homeodomain transcription factor Six6 in the development of the SCN. We first showed that Six6 mRNA has circadian regulation in the mouse SCN. We then characterized the behavioral activity patterns of Six6-null mice under various photoperiod manipulations and stained their hypothalami using SCN-specific markers. Six6-null mice display abnormal patterns of circadian behavior indicative of SCN abnormalities. The ability of light exposure to reset rhythms correlates with the presence or absence of optic nerves, but all Six6-null mice show irregular rhythms. In contrast, wild-type mice with crushed optic nerves maintain regular rhythms regardless of light exposure. Using immunohistochemistry for arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and β-galactosidase, we demonstrated the lack of these SCN markers in all Six6-null mice regardless of the presence of optic nerve or partial circadian rhythms. Therefore, Six6 is required for the normal development of the SCN, and the Six6-null mouse can mount independent, although irregular, circadian rhythms despite the apparent absence of a histochemically defined SCN.

  8. Aberrant Development of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Circadian Rhythms in Mice Lacking the Homeodomain Protein Six6

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Daniel D.; Gorman, Michael R.; Hatori, Megumi; Meadows, Jason D.; Panda, Satchidananda; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus is the central pacemaker for peripheral and organismal circadian rhythms. The development of this hypothalamic structure depends on genetic programs throughout embryogenesis. We have investigated the role of the homeodomain transcription factor Six6 in the development of the SCN. We first showed that Six6 mRNA has circadian regulation in the mouse SCN. We then characterized the behavioral activity patterns of Six6-null mice under various photoperiod manipulations and stained their hypothalami using SCN-specific markers. Six6-null mice display abnormal patterns of circadian behavior indicative of SCN abnormalities. The ability of light exposure to reset rhythms correlates with the presence or absence of optic nerves, but all Six6-null mice show irregular rhythms. In contrast, wild-type mice with crushed optic nerves maintain regular rhythms regardless of light exposure. Using immunohistochemistry for arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and β-galactosidase, we demonstrated the lack of these SCN markers in all Six6- null mice regardless of the presence of optic nerve or partial circadian rhythms. Therefore, Six6 is required for the normal development of the SCN, and the Six6-null mouse can mount independent, although irregular, circadian rhythms despite the apparent absence of a histochemically defined SCN. PMID:23382588

  9. The fragile X mental retardation protein in circadian rhythmicity and memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Cheryl L; Broadie, Kendal

    2009-04-01

    The control of new protein synthesis provides a means to locally regulate the availability of synaptic components necessary for dynamic neuronal processes. The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding translational regulator, is a key player mediating appropriate synaptic protein synthesis in response to neuronal activity levels. Loss of FMRP causes fragile X syndrome (FraX), the most commonly inherited form of mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders. FraX-associated translational dysregulation causes wide-ranging neurological deficits including severe impairments of biological rhythms, learning processes, and memory consolidation. Dysfunction in cytoskeletal regulation and synaptic scaffolding disrupts neuronal architecture and functional synaptic connectivity. The understanding of this devastating disease and the implementation of meaningful treatment strategies require a thorough exploration of the temporal and spatial requirements for FMRP in establishing and maintaining neural circuit function.

  10. Analysis of polymorphisms in the circadian-related genes and breast cancer risk in Norwegian nurses working night shifts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Some studies have suggested that night work may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in nurses. We aimed to explore the role of circadian gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to night work-related breast cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of Norwegian nurses comprising 563 breast cancer cases and 619 controls within a cohort of 49,402 Norwegian nurses ages 35 to 74 years. We studied 60 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 genes involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm in cases and controls. The data were analyzed in relation to the two exposure variables "maximum number of consecutive night shifts ever worked" and "maximum number of consecutive night shifts worked for at least 5 years." The odds of breast cancer associated with each SNP was calculated in the main effects analysis and in relation to night shift work. The statistically significant odds ratios were tested for noteworthiness using two Bayesian tests: false positive report probability (FPRP) and Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). Results In the main effects analysis, CC carriers of rs4238989 and GG carriers of rs3760138 in the AANAT gene had increased risk of breast cancer, whereas TT carriers of BMAL1 rs2278749 and TT carriers of CLOCK rs3749474 had reduced risk. The associations were found to be noteworthy using both the FPRP and BFDP tests. With regard to the effect of polymorphisms and night work, several significant associations were observed. After applying FPRP and BFDP in women with at least four night shifts, an increased risk of breast cancer was associated with variant alleles of SNPs in the genes AANAT (rs3760138, rs4238989), BMAL1 (rs2290035, rs2278749, rs969485) and ROR-b (rs3750420). In women with three consecutive night shifts, a reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with carriage of variant alleles of SNPs in CLOCK (rs3749474), BMAL1 (rs2278749), BMAL2 (rs2306074), CSNK1E (rs5757037), NPAS2

  11. Molecular orchestration of the hepatic circadian symphony.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The circadian clock determines the rhythmic expression of many different genes throughout a 24-hour period. A recent study investigating the circadian regulation of liver proteins reveals multiple levels of regulation, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms.

  12. Circadian control of oscillations in mitochondrial rate-limiting enzymes and nutrient utilization by PERIOD proteins

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Robles, Maria S.; Aviram, Rona; Manella, Gal; Adamovich, Yaarit; Ladeuix, Benjamin; Nir, Dana; Rousso-Noori, Liat; Kuperman, Yael; Golik, Marina; Mann, Matthias; Asher, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are major suppliers of cellular energy through nutrients oxidation. Little is known about the mechanisms that enable mitochondria to cope with changes in nutrient supply and energy demand that naturally occur throughout the day. To address this question, we applied MS-based quantitative proteomics on isolated mitochondria from mice killed throughout the day and identified extensive oscillations in the mitochondrial proteome. Remarkably, the majority of cycling mitochondrial proteins peaked during the early light phase. We found that rate-limiting mitochondrial enzymes that process lipids and carbohydrates accumulate in a diurnal manner and are dependent on the clock proteins PER1/2. In this conjuncture, we uncovered daily oscillations in mitochondrial respiration that peak during different times of the day in response to different nutrients. Notably, the diurnal regulation of mitochondrial respiration was blunted in mice lacking PER1/2 or on a high-fat diet. We propose that PERIOD proteins optimize mitochondrial metabolism to daily changes in energy supply/demand and thereby, serve as a rheostat for mitochondrial nutrient utilization. PMID:26862173

  13. Circadian changes in core body temperature, metabolic rate and locomotor activity in rats on a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Ippei; Hagi, Mieko; Doi, Masako

    2009-12-01

    Ingestion of a high-protein meal results in body weight loss due to elevated energy expenditure, while also increasing satiety and decreasing subsequent food intake. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet (HPCFD) on these physiological indicators from a circadian perspective. Rats were given HPCFD or a pair-fed normal protein content diet (20% protein; NPD) for 4 d. The HPCFD group lost more body weight than the NPD group. Oxygen consumption (VO(2)) in the HPCFD group did not change during the experimental period, and tended to be higher during the light (L) phase than in the NPD group. Carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)) during the L phase was higher in the HPCFD group than in the NPD group, where VCO(2) was gradually decreased during the last dark (D) phase and throughout the L phase. The HPCFD group exhibited higher daily core body temperature (T(b)), particularly during the late D phase and throughout the L phase when compared to the NPD group. Locomotor activities during the D phase of the NPD group tended to gradually increase and were thus significantly higher than in the HPCFD group. These results suggest that HPCFD, even if energy intake is insufficient, maintains circadian changes in metabolic rates, resulting in maintenance of elevated daily T(b) and body weight reduction without increasing activity.

  14. Altered Circadian Rhythm and Metabolic Gene Profile in Rats Subjected to Advanced Light Phase Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Laura; Valcarcel, Lorea; da Silva, Crhistiane Andressa; Albert, Nerea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat; Serra, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates metabolic homeostasis and its disruption predisposes to obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the effect of phase shifts on metabolism is not completely understood. We examined whether alterations in the circadian rhythm caused by phase shifts induce metabolic changes in crucial genes that would predispose to obesity. Three-month-old rats were maintained on a standard diet under lighting conditions with chronic phase shifts consisting of advances, delays or advances plus delays. Serum leptin, insulin and glucose levels decreased only in rats subjected to advances. The expression of the clock gene Bmal 1 increased in the hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of the advanced group compared to control rats. The advanced group showed an increase in hypothalamic AgRP and NPY mRNA, and their lipid metabolism gene profile was altered in liver, WAT and BAT. WAT showed an increase in inflammation and ER stress and brown adipocytes suffered a brown-to-white transformation and decreased UCP-1 expression. Our results indicate that chronic phase advances lead to significant changes in neuropeptides, lipid metabolism, inflammation and ER stress gene profile in metabolically relevant tissues such as the hypothalamus, liver, WAT and BAT. This highlights a link between alteration of the circadian rhythm and metabolism at the transcriptional level. PMID:25837425

  15. Modulation of metabolic and clock gene mRNA rhythms by pineal and retinal circadian oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Karaganis, Stephen P.; Bartell, Paul A.; Shende, Vikram R.; Moore, Ashli F.; Cassone, Vincent M.

    2009-01-01

    Avian circadian organization involves interactions between three neural pacemakers: the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), pineal, and retina. Each of these structures is linked within a neuroendocrine loop to influence downstream processes and peripheral oscillations. However, the contribution of each structure to drive or synchronize peripheral oscillators or circadian outputs in avian species is largely unknown. To explore these interactions in the chick, we measured 2-deoxy[14C]-glucose (2DG) uptake and mRNA expression of the chick clock genes bmal1, cry1, and per3 in three brain areas and in two peripheral organs in chicks that underwent pinealectomy, enucleation, or sham surgery. We found that 2DG uptake rhythms damp under constant darkness in intact animals, while clock gene mRNA levels continue to cycle, demonstrating that metabolic rhythms are not directly driven by clock gene transcription. Moreover, 2DG rhythms are not phase-locked to rhythms of clock gene mRNA. However, pinealectomy and enucleation had similar disruptive effects on both metabolic and clock gene rhythms, suggesting that both of these oscillators act similarly to reinforce molecular and physiological rhythms in the chicken. Finally, we show that the relative phasing of at least one clock gene, cry1, varies between central and peripheral oscillators in a tissue specific manner. These data point to a complex, differential orchestration of central and peripheral oscillators in the chick, and, importantly, indicate a disconnect between canonical clock gene regulation and circadian control of metabolism. PMID:19136000

  16. Early Appearance of Nonvisual and Circadian Markers in the Developing Inner Retinal Cells of Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Nicolás M.; Morera, Luis P.; Verra, Daniela M.; Contin, María A.; Guido, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    The retina is a key component of the vertebrate circadian system; it is responsible for detecting and transmitting the environmental illumination conditions (day/night cycles) to the brain that synchronize the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). For this, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) project to the SCN and other nonvisual areas. In the chicken, intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin (Opn4) transmit photic information and regulate diverse nonvisual tasks. In nonmammalian vertebrates, two genes encode Opn4: the Xenopus (Opn4x) and the mammalian (Opn4m) orthologs. RGCs express both Opn4 genes but are not the only inner retinal cells expressing Opn4x: horizontal cells (HCs) also do so. Here, we further characterize primary cultures of both populations of inner retinal cells (RGCs and HCs) expressing Opn4x. The expression of this nonvisual photopigment, as well as that for different circadian markers such as the clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per2, and Cry1, and the key melatonin synthesizing enzyme, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), appears very early in development in both cell populations. The results clearly suggest that nonvisual Opn4 photoreceptors and endogenous clocks converge all together in these inner retinal cells at early developmental stages. PMID:24977155

  17. Mitomycin C modulates the circadian oscillation of clock gene period 2 expression through attenuating the glucocorticoid signaling in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Naoki; Matsunaga, Naoya; Kimoto, Kenichi; Akamine, Takahiro; Hamamura, Kengo; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro; Kubota, Toshiaki

    2015-11-06

    Clock gene regulates the circadian rhythm of various physiological functions. The expression of clock gene has been shown to be attenuated by certain drugs, resulting in a rhythm disorder. Mitomycin C (MMC) is often used in combination with ophthalmic surgery, especially in trabeculectomy, a glaucoma surgical procedure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of MMC on clock gene expression in fibroblasts, the target cells of MMC. Following MMC treatment, Bmal1 mRNA levels was significantly decreased, whereas Dbp, Per1, and Rev-erbα mRNA levels were significantly increased in the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 cells. Microarray analysis was performed to explore of the gene(s) responsible for MMC-induced alteration of clock gene expression, and identified Nr3c1 gene encoding glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as a candidate. MMC suppressed the induction of Per1 mRNA by dexamethasone (DEX), ligand of GR, in NIH3T3 cells. MMC also modulated the DEX-driven circadian oscillations of Per2::Luciferase bioluminescence in mouse-derived ocular fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate a previously unknown effect of MMC in GR signaling and the circadian clock system. The present findings suggest that MMC combined with trabeculectomy could increase the risk for a local circadian rhythm-disorder at the ocular surface.

  18. Disruption of the circadian clock due to the Clock mutation has discrete effects on aging and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Antoch, Marina P.; Gorbacheva, Victoria Y.; Vykhovanets, Olena; Toshkov, Illia A.; Kondratov, Roman V.; Kondratova, Anna A.; Lee, Choogon; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system has been implicated in the regulation of various biological processes including those involved in genotoxic stress responses and tumor suppression. Here we report that mice with the functional deficiency in circadian transcription factor CLOCK (Clock/Clock mutant mice) do not display predisposition to tumor formation both during their normal lifespan or when challenged by γ-radiation. This phenotype is consistent with high apoptotic and low proliferation rate in lymphoid tissues of Clock mutant mice and is supported by the gene expression profiling of a number of apoptosis and cell cycle-related genes, as well as by growth inhibition of cells with CLOCK downregulation. At the same time, Clock mutant mice respond to low-dose irradiation by accelerating their aging program, and develop phenotypes that are reminiscent of those in Bmal1-deficient mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate the dichotomy in biological consequences of the disruption of the circadian clock with respect to ageing and cancer. They also highlight the existence of a complex interconnection between ageing, carcinogenesis and individual components of the circadian clock machinery. PMID:18418054

  19. Disruption of the circadian clock due to the Clock mutation has discrete effects on aging and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Antoch, Marina P; Gorbacheva, Victoria Y; Vykhovanets, Olena; Toshkov, Illia A; Kondratov, Roman V; Kondratova, Anna A; Lee, Choogon; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2008-05-01

    The mammalian circadian system has been implicated in the regulation of various biological processes including those involved in genotoxic stress responses and tumor suppression. Here we report that mice with the functional deficiency in circadian transcription factor CLOCK (Clock/Clock mutant mice) do not display predisposition to tumor formation both during their normal lifespan or when challenged by gamma- radiation. This phenotype is consistent with high apoptotic and low proliferation rate in lymphoid tissues of Clock mutant mice and is supported by the gene expression profiling of a number of apoptosis and cell cycle-related genes, as well as by growth inhibition of cells with CLOCK downregulation. At the same time, Clock mutant mice respond to low-dose irradiation by accelerating their aging program, and develop phenotypes that are reminiscent of those in Bmal1-deficient mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate the dichotomy in biological consequences of the disruption of the circadian clock with respect to ageing and cancer. They also highlight the existence of a complex interconnection between ageing, carcinogenesis and individual components of the circadian clock machinery.

  20. [Multilayered control of the Mammalian circadian system].

    PubMed

    Ode, Koji L; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2014-06-01

    All mammals show daily rhythms in their physiological activity, for example, sleep-wake cycles. This rhythmicity is endogenously generated by a system called the circadian clock, and is composed of reactions occurring in several neural/cellular layers of multicellular organisms. Inter-cellular and inter-organ communication is important for the synchronous action of circadian rhythmicity across the whole body. The heart of the circadian system lies in the rhythmic neuronal activity of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the brain. The oscillation emerges as cell-autonomous rhythmic gene expression observed in individual SCN neurons. Inter-neuronal communication synchronizes the circadian phase of each neuron within the SCN. The integrated rhythmic SCN activity works as a pacemaker for the circadian clocks of non-SCN cells, each of which also rhythmically express clock genes. The -24-h period length of the circadian rhythm is predominantly determined by reactions at the molecular level. Cell-autonomous circadian oscillation is driven by a negative feedback loop of transcription regulation, where CRY/PER heterodimers act as the transcriptional repressors of their own genes. One of the rate limiting steps of circadian cycling is a phosphorylation of CRY and PER proteins followed by proteasome-mediated degradation of those proteins. Pharmacological and genetic perturbation of the phosphorylation or degradation pathways alters the circadian period length. This review provides a hierarchical view of the circadian system, which is important to uncover the different effects of medical or social perturbations on circadian regulation of inter-cellular synchronization, or cell-autonomous oscillation.

  1. Cold-Induced Cysts of the Photosynthetic Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Have an Arrested Circadian Bioluminescence Rhythm and Lower Levels of Protein Phosphorylation1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sougata; Letourneau, Louis; Morse, David

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microscopic, eukaryotic, and primarily marine plankton. Temporary cyst formation is a well-known physiological response of dinoflagellate cells to environmental stresses. However, the molecular underpinnings of cold-induced cyst physiology have never been described. Cultures of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum readily form temporary cysts when placed at low (8°C ± 1°C) temperature and excyst to form normal motile cells following a return to normal temperature (18°C ± 1°C). The normal circadian bioluminescence rhythm and the expected changes in Luciferin Binding Protein abundance were arrested in L. polyedrum cysts. Furthermore, after excystment, the bioluminescence rhythm initiates at a time corresponding to zeitgeber 12, independent of the time when the cells encysted. Phosphoprotein staining after two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as well as column-based phosphoprotein enrichment followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, showed cyst proteins are hypophosphorylated when compared with those from motile cells, with the most marked decreases found for predicted Casein Kinase2 target sites. In contrast to the phosphoproteome, the cyst proteome is not markedly different from motile cells, as assessed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to changes in the phosphoproteome, RNA sequencing revealed that cysts show a significant decrease in the levels of 132 RNAs. Of the 42 RNAs that were identified by sequence analysis, 21 correspond to plastid-encoded gene products and 11 to nuclear-encoded cell wall/plasma membrane components. Our data are consistent with a model in which the highly reduced metabolism in cysts is achieved primarily by alterations in the phosphoproteome. The stalling of the circadian rhythm suggests temporary cysts may provide an interesting model to address the circadian system of dinoflagellates. PMID:24335505

  2. Computational analysis of mammalian cell division gated by a circadian clock: quantized cell cycles and cell size control.

    PubMed

    Zámborszky, Judit; Hong, Christian I; Csikász Nagy, Attila

    2007-12-01

    Cell cycle and circadian rhythms are conserved from cyanobacteria to humans with robust cyclic features. Recently, molecular links between these two cyclic processes have been discovered. Core clock transcription factors, Bmal1 and Clock (Clk), directly regulate Wee1 kinase, which inhibits entry into the mitosis. We investigate the effect of this connection on the timing of mammalian cell cycle processes with computational modeling tools. We connect a minimal model of circadian rhythms, which consists of transcription-translation feedback loops, with a modified mammalian cell cycle model from Novak and Tyson (2004). As we vary the mass doubling time (MDT) of the cell cycle, stochastic simulations reveal quantized cell cycles when the activity of Wee1 is influenced by clock components. The quantized cell cycles disappear in the absence of coupling or when the strength of this link is reduced. More intriguingly, our simulations indicate that the circadian clock triggers critical size control in the mammalian cell cycle. A periodic brake on the cell cycle progress via Wee1 enforces size control when the MDT is quite different from the circadian period. No size control is observed in the absence of coupling. The issue of size control in the mammalian system is debatable, whereas it is well established in yeast. It is possible that the size control is more readily observed in cell lines that contain circadian rhythms, since not all cell types have a circadian clock. This would be analogous to an ultradian clock intertwined with quantized cell cycles (and possibly cell size control) in yeast. We present the first coupled model between the mammalian cell cycle and circadian rhythms that reveals quantized cell cycles and cell size control influenced by the clock.

  3. Disrupted light-dark cycle abolishes circadian expression of peripheral clock genes without inducing behavioral arrhythmicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Higo-Yamamoto, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Saori; Yasumoto, Yuki

    2015-03-06

    The environmental light-dark (LD) cycle entrains the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of mammals. The present study examined the effects of disrupted LD cycles on peripheral clocks in mice housed under a normal 12 h light-12 h dark cycle (LD 12:12) or an ultradian LD 3:3 cycle. Drinking behavior seemed to be free-running with a long period (26.03 h) under ultradian LD 3:3 cycles, in addition to light-induced direct suppression (masking effect). Core body temperature completely lost robust circadian rhythm and acquired a 6-h rhythm with a low amplitude under LD 3:3. Robust circadian expression of Per1, Per2, Clock and Bmal1 mRNAs was similarly flattened to intermediate levels in the liver, heart and white adipose tissue under LD 3:3. Robust circadian expression of Rev-erbα mRNA was completely damped in these tissues. Circadian expression of Dbp, a clock-controlled gene, was also disrupted in these tissues from mice housed under LD 3:3. The aberrant LD cycle seemed to induce the loss of circadian gene expression at the level of transcription, because rhythmic pre-mRNA expression of these genes was also abolished under LD 3:3. In addition to the direct effect of the aberrant LD cycle, abolished systemic time cues such as those of plasma corticosterone and body temperature might be involved in the disrupted expression of these circadian genes under LD 3:3. Our findings suggest that disrupted environmental LD cycles abolish the normal oscillation of peripheral clocks and induce internal desynchrony in mammals.

  4. Colorectal liver metastases with a disrupted circadian rhythm phase shift the peripheral clock in liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Sander A; Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Ahmadi, Ali R; Tamanini, Filippo; Ijzermans, Jan N M; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; de Bruin, Ron W F

    2015-03-01

    Circadian clock genes regulate 10-15% of the transcriptome, and might function as tumor suppressor genes. Relatively little is known about the circadian clock in tumors and its effect on surrounding healthy tissues. Therefore, we compared the 24-hr expression levels of key circadian clock genes in liver and kidney of healthy control mice with those of mice bearing C26 colorectal tumor metastases in the liver. Metastases were induced by injection of C26 colorectal carcinoma cells into the spleen. Subsequently, tumor, liver and kidney tissue was collected around the clock to compare circadian rhythmicity. Expression levels of five clock genes (Rev-Erbα, Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Cry1) and three clock-controlled genes (CCGs; Dbp, p21 and Wee1) were determined by qRT-PCR. Liver and kidney tissue of healthy control mice showed normal 24-hr oscillations of all clock genes and CCGs, consistent with normal circadian rhythmicity. In colorectal liver metastases, however, 24-hr oscillations were completely absent for all clock genes and CCGs except Cry1. Liver and kidney tissue of tumor-bearing mice showed a shift in clock periodicity relative to control mice. In the liver we observed a phase advance, whereas in the kidney the phase was delayed. These data show that hepatic metastases of C26 colon carcinoma with a disrupted circadian rhythm phase shift liver and kidney tissue clocks, which strongly suggests a systemic effect on peripheral clocks. The possibility that tumors may modify peripheral clocks to escape from ordinary circadian rhythms and in this way contribute to fatigue and sleep disorders in cancer patients is discussed.

  5. Model-based investigation of the circadian clock and cell cycle coupling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts: Prediction of RevErb-α up-regulation during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Traynard, Pauline; Feillet, Céline; Soliman, Sylvain; Delaunay, Franck; Fages, François

    2016-11-01

    Experimental observations have put in evidence autonomous self-sustained circadian oscillators in most mammalian cells, and proved the existence of molecular links between the circadian clock and the cell cycle. Some mathematical models have also been built to assess conditions of control of the cell cycle by the circadian clock. However, recent studies in individual NIH3T3 fibroblasts have shown an unexpected acceleration of the circadian clock together with the cell cycle when the culture medium is enriched with growth factors, and the absence of such acceleration in confluent cells. In order to explain these observations, we study a possible entrainment of the circadian clock by the cell cycle through a regulation of clock genes around the mitosis phase. We develop a computational model and a formal specification of the observed behavior to investigate the conditions of entrainment in period and phase. We show that either the selective activation of RevErb-α or the selective inhibition of Bmal1 transcription during the mitosis phase, allow us to fit the experimental data on both period and phase, while a uniform inhibition of transcription during mitosis seems incompatible with the phase data. We conclude on the arguments favoring the RevErb-α up-regulation hypothesis and on some further predictions of the model.

  6. cDNA cloning of the housefly pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) precursor protein and its peptide comparison among the insect circadian neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Ayami; Sato, Seiji; Chuman, Yoshiro; Takeda, Yukimasa; Yokotani, Satoru; Nose, Takeru; Tominaga, Yoshiya; Shimohigashi, Miki; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki

    2004-02-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an 18-amino acid neuropeptide, is a principal circadian neurotransmitter for the circadian rhythms of the locomotor activity in flies. Recently, two completely different types of PDF precursor were clarified; that of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and that of the last-summer cicada Meimuna opalifera. The G. bimaculatus PDF precursor is extraordinarily short and comprises a nuclear localization signal (NLS), while the M. opalifera PDF precursor is of ordinary length, comparable to that seen for the precursors of crustacean beta-PDH homologues. Although their PDF peptide regions were exactly the same, the regions containing a signal peptide combined with a PDF-associated peptide (PAP) were remarkably different from each other. Such a grouping suggested a fundamental role for the PAP peptide in the circadian clock, perhaps associated with PDF function. In the present study, the cDNA cloning of PDF from the adult brains of the housefly Musca domestica was carried out and it was found that an isolated clone (527 bp) encodes a PDF precursor protein of ordinary length. The PDF peptide shows a high sequence identity (78%-94%) and similarity (89%-100%) to insect PDFs and also to the crustacean beta-PDH peptides. In particular, there is only a single amino acid difference between the PDFs of Musca and Drosophila; at position 14 Ser for Musca PDF and Asn for Drosophila PDF. A characteristic Ser10 in Drosophila was retained in Musca, indicating the presence of a structural profile unique to these PDFs. The results of sequence analyses suggest that Musca and Drosophila PDFs are to be considered members of a single group that has evolved structurally. When the primary structure of the PAP regions was compared, the Musca PDF precursor also belonged to the same group as that to which the Drosophila PDF precursor belongs.

  7. Circadian oscillations of cytosolic and chloroplastic free calcium in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. H.; Knight, M. R.; Kondo, T.; Masson, P.; Sedbrook, J.; Haley, A.; Trewavas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Tobacco and Arabidopsis plants, expressing a transgene for the calcium-sensitive luminescent protein apoaequorin, revealed circadian oscillations in free cytosolic calcium that can be phase-shifted by light-dark signals. When apoaequorin was targeted to the chloroplast, circadian chloroplast calcium rhythms were likewise observed after transfer of the seedlings to constant darkness. Circadian oscillations in free calcium concentrations can be expected to control many calcium-dependent enzymes and processes accounting for circadian outputs. Regulation of calcium flux is therefore fundamental to the organization of circadian systems.

  8. The circadian clock of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher L.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Circadian clocks organize our inner physiology with respect to the external world providing life with the ability to anticipate and thereby better prepare for major fluctuations in its environment. Circadian systems are widely represented in nearly all major branches of life except archaebacteria, and within the eukaryotes the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa has served for nearly half a century as a durable model organism for uncovering the basic circadian physiology and molecular biology. Studies using Neurospora have clarified our fundamental understanding of the clock as nested positive and negative feedback loops regulated through transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. These feedback loops are centered on a limited number of proteins that form molecular complexes, and their regulation provides a physical explanation for nearly all clock properties. This review will introduce the basics of circadian rhythms, the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, and provide an overview of the molecular components and regulation of the circadian clock. PMID:21707668

  9. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lirong; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2012-01-01

    There have been remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular, cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying the regulation of circadian rhythms, as well as the impact of circadian dysfunction on health and disease. This information has transformed our understanding of the effect of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) on health, performance and safety. CRSDs are caused by alterations of the central circadian time-keeping system, or a misalignment of the endogenous circadian rhythm and the external environment. In this section, we provide a review of circadian biology and discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of the most commonly encountered CRSDs in clinical practice. PMID:23099133

  10. Circadian regulators of intestinal lipid absorption

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M. Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Among all the metabolites present in the plasma, lipids, mainly triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol, show extensive circadian rhythms. These lipids are transported in the plasma as part of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are synthesized primarily in the liver and intestine and their production exhibits circadian rhythmicity. Studies have shown that various proteins involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein biosynthesis show circadian expression. Further, intestinal epithelial cells express circadian clock genes and these genes might control circadian expression of different proteins involved in intestinal lipid absorption. Intestinal circadian clock genes are synchronized by signals emanating from the suprachiasmatic nuclei that constitute a master clock and from signals coming from other environmental factors, such as food availability. Disruptions in central clock, as happens due to disruptions in the sleep/wake cycle, affect intestinal function. Similarly, irregularities in temporal food intake affect intestinal function. These changes predispose individuals to various metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Here, we summarize how circadian rhythms regulate microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, apoAIV, and nocturnin to affect diurnal regulation of lipid absorption. PMID:25057097

  11. Melatonin promotes circadian rhythm-induced proliferation through Clock/histone deacetylase 3/c-Myc interaction in mouse adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Gan, Lu; Luo, Dan; Sun, Chao

    2017-05-01

    Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and controls circadian rhythm of peripheral adipose tissue, resulting in changes in body weight. Although core regulatory components of clock rhythmicity have been defined, insight into the mechanisms of circadian rhythm-mediated proliferation in adipose tissue is still limited. Here, we showed that melatonin (20 mg/kg/d) promoted circadian and proliferation processes in white adipose tissue. The circadian amplitudes of brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 1 (Bmal1, P<.05) and circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock, P<.05), period 2 (Per2, P<.05), cyclin E (P<.05), and c-Myc (P<.05) were directly increased by melatonin in adipose tissue. Melatonin also promoted cell cycle and increased cell numbers (P<.05), which was correlated with the Clock expression (P<.05). Further analysis demonstrated that Clock bound to the E-box elements in the promoter region of c-Myc and then directly stimulated c-Myc transcription. Moreover, Clock physically interacted with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and formed a complex with c-Myc to promote adipocyte proliferation. Melatonin also attenuated circadian disruption and promoted adipocyte proliferation in chronic jet-lagged mice and obese mice. Thus, our study found that melatonin promoted adipocyte proliferation by forming a Clock/HDAC3/c-Myc complex and subsequently driving the circadian amplitudes of proliferation genes. Our data reveal a novel mechanism that links circadian rhythm to cell proliferation in adipose tissue. These findings also identify a new potential means for melatonin to prevent and treat sleep deprivation-caused obesity.

  12. Physiological links between circadian rhythms, metabolism and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jonathan D

    2014-09-01

    Circadian rhythms, metabolism and nutrition are closely interlinked. A great deal of recent research has investigated not only how aspects of metabolic physiology are driven by circadian clocks, but also how these circadian clocks are themselves sensitive to metabolic change. At the cellular level, novel feedback loops have been identified that couple circadian 'clock genes' and their proteins to expression of nuclear receptors, regulation of redox state and other major pathways. Using targeted disruption of circadian clocks, mouse models are providing novel insight into the role of tissue-specific clocks in glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation. The relationship between circadian rhythms and obesity appears complex, with variable alteration of rhythms in obese individuals. However, it is clear from animal studies that the timing and nutritional composition of meals can regulate circadian rhythms, particularly in peripheral tissues. Translation of these findings to human physiology now represents an important goal.

  13. An integrated effect of protein intake at breakfast and morning exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology in Japanese infants aged 2-6 years.

    PubMed

    Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Noji, Teruki; Harada, Tetsuo

    2009-09-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) intake at breakfast promotes morning-typed circadian typology and higher sleep quality in Japanese children aged 0-6 yrs (Harada et al., 2007). This effect may be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight, which has not yet been tested. This study aimed to investigate such an effect in Japanese children. In May, 2006, an integrated questionnaire was administered to 0-6-year-old children attending one of 12 kindergartens. 906 parents answered the questionnaire for their children and themselves (response rate: 67.4%). The integrated questionnaire included the revised version for children of the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) Questionnaire and questions on sleep, nutritional balance, mental health, and sunlight exposure. Analysis was made on data from 744 children aged 2-6 (385 girls, 359 boys) whose average M-E score was 20.6+/-3.46. Children who had breakfast at regular times tended to be more morning-typed and were less frequently angry (p=0.001) and depressed (p=0.007). Children who had nutritionally well-balanced breakfasts tended to be more morning-typed (p<0.001), and woke up and fell asleep at earlier times (p<0.001). Children with higher protein intake tended to have higher M-E scores (p<0.001) and earlier bedtime and wake-up time (p=0.003). Children exposed to sunlight for 30-60 min on their way to kindergarten showed more distinctive shifting-effects to morning-type with protein intake than those exposed to sunlight for less than 20 min (p=0.006). A well-balanced breakfast might be a strong zeitgeber for circadian oscillators of children, and the morning-type driving effect of protein intake could be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight.

  14. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats affects TRPV1-related noxious heat sensation and circadian body temperature rhythm.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-06-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation channel that serves as a polymodal detector of noxious stimuli such as capsaicin. Therefore, capsaicin treatment has been used to investigate the physiological function of TRPV1. Here, we report physiological changes induced by treating neonatal rats with capsaicin. Capsaicin (50mg/kg) (cap-treated) or vehicle (vehicle-treated) was systemically administered to newborn SD rat pups within 48 h after birth. TRPV1 expression, intake volume of capsaicin water, and noxious heat sensation were measured 6 weeks after capsaicin treatment. Circadian body temperature and locomotion were recorded by biotelemetry. Expression of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Hsf1 (clock genes) was also investigated. Neonatal capsaicin treatment not only decreased TRPV1 expression but also induced desensitization to noxious heat stimuli. Circadian body temperature of cap-treated rats increased significantly compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Additionally, the amplitude of the circadian body temperature was reversed in cap-treated rats. Expression of the hypothalamic Hsf1 and liver Per2 clock genes followed a similar trend. Therefore, we suggest that these findings will be useful in studying various physiological mechanisms related to TRPV1.

  15. Daily Fasting Blood Glucose Rhythm in Male Mice: A Role of the Circadian Clock in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Kentaro; Shimba, Shigeki; Fujimura, Akio

    2016-02-01

    Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hepatic glucose production are regulated according to a circadian rhythm. An early morning increase in FBG levels, which is pronounced among diabetic patients, is known as the dawn phenomenon. Although the intracellular circadian clock generates various molecular rhythms, whether the hepatic clock is involved in FBG rhythm remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of phase shift and disruption of the hepatic clock on the FBG rhythm. In both C57BL/6J and diabetic ob/ob mice, FBG exhibited significant daily rhythms with a peak at the beginning of the dark phase. Light-phase restricted feeding altered the phase of FBG rhythm mildly in C57BL/6J mice and greatly in ob/ob mice, in concert with the phase shifts of mRNA expression rhythms of the clock and glucose production-related genes in the liver. Moreover, the rhythmicity of FBG and Glut2 expression was not detected in liver-specific Bmal1-deficient mice. Furthermore, treatment with octreotide suppressed the plasma growth hormone concentration but did not affect the hepatic mRNA expression of the clock genes or the rise in FBG during the latter half of the resting phase in C57BL/6J mice. These results suggest that the hepatic circadian clock plays a critical role in regulating the daily FBG rhythm, including the dawn phenomenon.

  16. Evidences of Polymorphism Associated with Circadian System and Risk of Pathologies: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, F. J.; Vera, J.; Venegas, C.; Muñoz, S.; Oyarce, S.; Muñoz, K.; Lagunas, C.

    2016-01-01

    The circadian system is a supraphysiological system that modulates different biological functions such as metabolism, sleep-wake, cellular proliferation, and body temperature. Different chronodisruptors have been identified, such as shift work, feeding time, long days, and stress. The environmental changes and our modern lifestyle can alter the circadian system and increase the risk of developing pathologies such as cancer, preeclampsia, diabetes, and mood disorder. This system is organized by transcriptional/tranductional feedback loops of clock genes Clock, Bmal1, Per1–3, and Cry1-2. How molecular components of the clock are able to influence the development of diseases and their risk relation with genetic components of polymorphism of clock genes is unknown. This research describes different genetic variations in the population and how these are associated with risk of cancer, metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemias, and also mood disorders such as depression, bipolar disease, excessive alcohol intake, and infertility. Finally, these findings will need to be implemented and evaluated at the level of genetic interaction and how the environment factors trigger the expression of these pathologies will be examined. PMID:27313610

  17. Identification of diverse modulators of central and peripheral circadian clocks by high-throughput chemical screening.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Park, Yong-Sung; Kim, Keon-Hee; Wei, Shuguang; Buhr, Ethan; Ye, Zeng-You; Pan, Hui-Lin; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2012-01-03

    The circadian clock coordinates daily oscillations of essential physiological and behavioral processes. Conversely, aberrant clocks with damped amplitude and/or abnormal period have been associated with chronic diseases and aging. To search for small molecules that perturb or enhance circadian rhythms, we conducted a high-throughput screen of approximately 200,000 synthetic compounds using Per2lucSV reporter fibroblast cells and validated 11 independent classes of molecules with Bmal1:luciferase reporter cells as well as with suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissue explants. Four compounds were found to lengthen the period in both central and peripheral clocks, including three compounds that inhibited casein kinase Iε in vitro and a unique benzodiazepine derivative acting through a non-GABA(A) receptor target. In addition, two compounds acutely induced Per2lucSV reporter bioluminescence, delayed the rhythm, and increased intracellular cAMP levels, but caused rhythm damping. Importantly, five compounds shortened the period of peripheral clocks; among them, four compounds also enhanced the amplitude of central and/or peripheral reporter rhythms. Taken together, these studies highlight diverse activities of drug-like small molecules in manipulating the central and peripheral clocks. These small molecules constitute a toolbox for probing clock regulatory mechanisms and may provide putative lead compounds for treatment of clock-associated diseases.

  18. Circadian rhythms, alcohol and gut interactions

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Rbin M.; Burgess, Helen J.; Swanson, Garth R.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20–30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyper-permeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in ClockΔ19 mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our

  19. Circadian rhythms, alcohol and gut interactions.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Burgess, Helen J; Swanson, Garth R; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20-30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in Clock(▵19) mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our

  20. E74-like factor inhibition induces reacquisition of hormone sensitiveness decreasing period circadian protein homolog 1 expression in prostate cancer cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Kohei; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Inamoto, Teruo; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Komura, Kazumasa; Nishida, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Initiating as an androgen-dependent adenocarcinoma, prostate cancer (PCa) gradually progresses to a castrate-resistant disease following androgen deprivation therapy with a propensity to metastasize. Methods In order to resolve the mechanism of castrate-resistant PCa, we performed a cDNA-microarray assay of two PCa cell lines, LNCaP (androgen dependent) and C4-2 (androgen independent). Among them, we focused on a novel Ets transcription factor, E74-like factor 5 (ELF5), the expression level of which was extremely high in C4-2 in comparison with LNCaP both in the microarray analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and investigated the biological role in acquisition of androgen-refractory PCa growth. Results Western blot analysis and morphological analysis using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that ELF5 was expressed mainly in cytosol both in LNCaP and C4-2. Inhibition of ELF5 expression using ELF5-small interfering RNA in C4-2 induced decreased expression of androgen receptor corepressor, period circadian protein homolog 1, and MTT assay of C4-2 after ELF5 small interfering RNA transfection showed the same cell growth pattern of LNCaP. Conclusions Our in vitro experiments of cell growth and microarray analysis have demonstrated for the first time that decreased expression of period circadian protein homolog 1 due to ELF5 inhibition may induce the possibility of reacquisition of hormone sensitiveness of PCa cells. We suggest that ELF5 could be a novel potential target for the treatment of hormone-refractory PCa patients. PMID:26288799

  1. Changes in Gene Expression Patterns of Circadian-Clock, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 and Nerve Growth Factor in Inflamed Human Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Chien-Lin; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Shieh, Kun-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythm is driven by the molecular circadian-clock system and regulates many physiological functions. Diurnal rhythms in the gastrointestinal tract are known to be related to feeding pattern, but whether these rhythms are also related to the gastrointestinal damage or injuries; for example, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is unclear. This study was conducted to determine whether expression of circadian-clock genes or factors involved in vagal stimulation or sensitization were altered in the esophagus of GERD patients. Diurnal patterns of PER1, PER2, BMAL1, CRY2, TRPV1, and NGF mRNA expression were found in patient controls, and these patterns were altered and significantly correlated to the GERD severity in GERD patients. Although levels of CRY1, TIM, CB1, NHE3, GDNF, and TAC1 mRNA expression did not show diurnal patterns, they were elevated and also correlated with GERD severity in GERD patients. Finally, strong correlations among PER1, TRPV1, NGF and CRY2 mRNA expression, and among PER2, TRPV1 and CRY2 expression were found. Expression levels of CRY1 mRNA highly correlated with levels of TIM, CB1, NHE3, GDNF and TAC1. This study suggests that the circadian rhythm in the esophagus may be important for the mediation of and/or the response to erosive damage in GERD patients. PMID:26337663

  2. Role of cardiotrophin-1 in the regulation of metabolic circadian rhythms and adipose core clock genes in mice and characterization of 24-h circulating CT-1 profiles in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects.

    PubMed

    López-Yoldi, Miguel; Stanhope, Kimber L; Garaulet, Marta; Chen, X Guoxia; Marcos-Gómez, Beatriz; Carrasco-Benso, María Paz; Santa Maria, Eva M; Escoté, Xavier; Lee, Vivien; Nunez, Marinelle V; Medici, Valentina; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo; Sáinz, Neira; Huerta, Ana E; Laiglesia, Laura M; Prieto, Jesús; Martínez, J Alfredo; Bustos, Matilde; Havel, Peter J; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J

    2017-04-01

    Cardiotrophin (CT)-1 is a regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed whether CT-1 also acts to peripherally regulate metabolic rhythms and adipose tissue core clock genes in mice. Moreover, the circadian pattern of plasma CT-1 levels was evaluated in normal-weight and overweight subjects. The circadian rhythmicity of oxygen consumption rate (Vo2) was disrupted in aged obese CT-1-deficient (CT-1(-/-)) mice (12 mo). Although circadian rhythms of Vo2 were conserved in young lean CT-1(-/-) mice (2 mo), CT-1 deficiency caused a phase shift of the acrophase. Most of the clock genes studied (Clock, Bmal1, and Per2) displayed a circadian rhythm in adipose tissue of both wild-type (WT) and CT-1(-/-) mice. However, the pattern was altered in CT-1(-/-) mice toward a lower percentage of the rhythm or lower amplitude, especially for Bmal1 and Clock. Moreover, CT-1 mRNA levels in adipose tissue showed significant circadian fluctuations in young WT mice. In humans, CT-1 plasma profile exhibited a 24-h circadian rhythm in normal-weight but not in overweight subjects. The 24-h pattern of CT-1 was characterized by a pronounced increase during the night (from 02:00 to 08:00). These observations suggest a potential role for CT-1 in the regulation of metabolic circadian rhythms.-López-Yoldi, M., Stanhope, K. L., Garaulet, M., Chen, X. G., Marcos-Gómez, B., Carrasco-Benso, M. P., Santa Maria, E. M., Escoté, X., Lee, V., Nunez, M. V., Medici, V., Martínez-Ansó, E., Sáinz, N., Huerta, A. E., Laiglesia, L. M., Prieto, J., Martínez, J. A., Bustos, M., Havel, P. J., Moreno-Aliaga, M. J. Role of cardiotrophin-1 in the regulation of metabolic circadian rhythms and adipose core clock genes in mice and characterization of 24-h circulating CT-1 profiles in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects.

  3. Circadian Mechanisms of Food Anticipatory Rhythms in Rats Fed Once or Twice Daily: Clock Gene and Endocrine Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Danica F.; Katsuyama, Ângela M.; Pavlovski, Ilya; Michalik, Mateusz; Patterson, Zachary; Parfyonov, Maksim; Smit, Andrea N.; Marchant, Elliott G.; Chung, John; Abizaid, Alfonso; Storch, Kai-Florian; de la Iglesia, Horacio; Mistlberger, Ralph E.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks in many brain regions and peripheral tissues are entrained by the daily rhythm of food intake. Clocks in one or more of these locations generate a daily rhythm of locomotor activity that anticipates a regular mealtime. Rats and mice can also anticipate two daily meals. Whether this involves 1 or 2 circadian clocks is unknown. To gain insight into how the circadian system adjusts to 2 daily mealtimes, male rats in a 12∶12 light-dark cycle were fed a 2 h meal either 4 h after lights-on or 4 h after lights-off, or a 1 h meal at both times. After 30 days, brain, blood, adrenal and stomach tissue were collected at 6 time points. Multiple clock genes from adrenals and stomachs were assayed by RT-PCR. Blood was assayed for corticosterone and ghrelin. Bmal1 expression was quantified in 14 brain regions by in situ hybridization. Clock gene rhythms in adrenal and stomach from day-fed rats oscillated in antiphase with the rhythms in night-fed rats, and at an intermediate phase in rats fed twice daily. Corticosterone and ghrelin in 1-meal rats peaked at or prior to the expected mealtime. In 2-meal rats, corticosterone peaked only prior the nighttime meal, while ghrelin peaked prior to the daytime meal and then remained elevated. The olfactory bulb, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, cerebellum and arcuate nucleus exhibited significant daily rhythms of Bmal1 in the night-fed groups that were approximately in antiphase in the day-fed groups, and at intermediate levels (arrhythmic) in rats anticipating 2 daily meals. The dissociations between anticipatory activity and the peripheral clocks and hormones in rats anticipating 2 daily meals argue against a role for these signals in the timing of behavioral rhythms. The absence of rhythmicity at the tissue level in brain regions from rats anticipating 2 daily meals support behavioral evidence that circadian clock cells in these tissues may reorganize into two populations coupled to different meals. PMID:25502949

  4. Circadian mechanisms of food anticipatory rhythms in rats fed once or twice daily: clock gene and endocrine correlates.

    PubMed

    Patton, Danica F; Katsuyama, Angela M; Pavlovski, Ilya; Michalik, Mateusz; Patterson, Zachary; Parfyonov, Maksim; Smit, Andrea N; Marchant, Elliott G; Chung, Seung Hwan; Chung, John; Abizaid, Alfonso; Storch, Kai-Florian; de la Iglesia, Horacio; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks in many brain regions and peripheral tissues are entrained by the daily rhythm of food intake. Clocks in one or more of these locations generate a daily rhythm of locomotor activity that anticipates a regular mealtime. Rats and mice can also anticipate two daily meals. Whether this involves 1 or 2 circadian clocks is unknown. To gain insight into how the circadian system adjusts to 2 daily mealtimes, male rats in a 12∶12 light-dark cycle were fed a 2 h meal either 4 h after lights-on or 4 h after lights-off, or a 1 h meal at both times. After 30 days, brain, blood, adrenal and stomach tissue were collected at 6 time points. Multiple clock genes from adrenals and stomachs were assayed by RT-PCR. Blood was assayed for corticosterone and ghrelin. Bmal1 expression was quantified in 14 brain regions by in situ hybridization. Clock gene rhythms in adrenal and stomach from day-fed rats oscillated in antiphase with the rhythms in night-fed rats, and at an intermediate phase in rats fed twice daily. Corticosterone and ghrelin in 1-meal rats peaked at or prior to the expected mealtime. In 2-meal rats, corticosterone peaked only prior the nighttime meal, while ghrelin peaked prior to the daytime meal and then remained elevated. The olfactory bulb, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, cerebellum and arcuate nucleus exhibited significant daily rhythms of Bmal1 in the night-fed groups that were approximately in antiphase in the day-fed groups, and at intermediate levels (arrhythmic) in rats anticipating 2 daily meals. The dissociations between anticipatory activity and the peripheral clocks and hormones in rats anticipating 2 daily meals argue against a role for these signals in the timing of behavioral rhythms. The absence of rhythmicity at the tissue level in brain regions from rats anticipating 2 daily meals support behavioral evidence that circadian clock cells in these tissues may reorganize into two populations coupled to different meals.

  5. NONO couples the circadian clock to the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Elzbieta; Ripperger, Juergen A; Hoegger, Dominik C; Bruegger, Pascal; Buch, Thorsten; Birchler, Thomas; Mueller, Anke; Albrecht, Urs; Contaldo, Claudio; Brown, Steven A

    2013-01-29

    Mammalian circadian clocks restrict cell proliferation to defined time windows, but the mechanism and consequences of this interrelationship are not fully understood. Previously we identified the multifunctional nuclear protein NONO as a partner of circadian PERIOD (PER) proteins. Here we show that it also conveys circadian gating to the cell cycle, a connection surprisingly important for wound healing in mice. Specifically, although fibroblasts from NONO-deficient mice showed approximately normal circadian cycles, they displayed elevated cell doubling and lower cellular senescence. At a molecular level, NONO bound to the p16-Ink4A cell cycle checkpoint gene and potentiated its circadian activation in a PER protein-dependent fashion. Loss of either NONO or PER abolished this activation and circadian expression of p16-Ink4A and eliminated circadian cell cycle gating. In vivo, lack of NONO resulted in defective wound repair. Because wound healing defects were also seen in multiple circadian clock-deficient mouse lines, our results therefore suggest that coupling of the cell cycle to the circadian clock via NONO may be useful to segregate in temporal fashion cell proliferation from tissue organization.

  6. NONO couples the circadian clock to the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kowalska, Elzbieta; Ripperger, Juergen A.; Hoegger, Dominik C.; Bruegger, Pascal; Buch, Thorsten; Birchler, Thomas; Mueller, Anke; Albrecht, Urs; Contaldo, Claudio; Brown, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian circadian clocks restrict cell proliferation to defined time windows, but the mechanism and consequences of this interrelationship are not fully understood. Previously we identified the multifunctional nuclear protein NONO as a partner of circadian PERIOD (PER) proteins. Here we show that it also conveys circadian gating to the cell cycle, a connection surprisingly important for wound healing in mice. Specifically, although fibroblasts from NONO-deficient mice showed approximately normal circadian cycles, they displayed elevated cell doubling and lower cellular senescence. At a molecular level, NONO bound to the p16-Ink4A cell cycle checkpoint gene and potentiated its circadian activation in a PER protein-dependent fashion. Loss of either NONO or PER abolished this activation and circadian expression of p16-Ink4A and eliminated circadian cell cycle gating. In vivo, lack of NONO resulted in defective wound repair. Because wound healing defects were also seen in multiple circadian clock-deficient mouse lines, our results therefore suggest that coupling of the cell cycle to the circadian clock via NONO may be useful to segregate in temporal fashion cell proliferation from tissue organization. PMID:23267082

  7. Carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption: an epigenetic viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Salavaty, Abbas

    2015-08-08

    Circadian rhythms refer to the endogenous rhythms that are generated to synchronize physiology and behavior with 24-h environmental cues. These rhythms are regulated by both external cues and molecular clock mechanisms in almost all cells. Disruption of circadian rhythms, which is called circadian disruption, affects many biological processes within the body and results in different long-term diseases, including cancer. Circadian regulatory pathways result in rhythmic epigenetic modifications and the formation of circadian epigenomes. Aberrant epigenetic modifications, such as hypermethylation, due to circadian disruption may be involved in the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. Several studies have indicated an epigenetic basis for the carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption. In this review, I first discuss some of the circadian genes and regulatory proteins. Then, I summarize the current evidence related to the epigenetic modifications that result in circadian disruption. In addition, I explain the carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption and highlight its potential role in different human cancers using an epigenetic viewpoint. Finally, the importance of chronotherapy in cancer treatment is highlighted.

  8. Interplay between cellular redox oscillations and circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Rey, G; Reddy, A B

    2015-09-01

    The circadian clock is a cellular timekeeping mechanism that helps organisms from bacteria to humans to organize their behaviour and physiology around the solar cycle. Current models for circadian timekeeping incorporate transcriptional/translational feedback loop mechanisms in the predominant model systems. However, recent evidence suggests that non-transcriptional oscillations such as metabolic and redox cycles may play a fundamental role in circadian timekeeping. Peroxiredoxins, an antioxidant protein family, undergo rhythmic oxidation on the circadian time scale in a variety of species, including bacteria, insects and mammals, but also in red blood cells, a naturally occurring, non-transcriptional system. The profound interconnectivity between circadian and redox pathways strongly suggests that a conserved timekeeping mechanism based on redox cycles could be integral to generating circadian rhythms.

  9. The role of circadian rhythm in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Shujing; Ao, Xiang; Wu, Huijian

    2013-08-01

    The circadian rhythm is an endogenous time keeping system shared by most organisms. The circadian clock is comprised of both peripheral oscillators in most organ tissues of the body and a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the central nervous system. The circadian rhythm is crucial in maintaining the normal physiology of the organism including, but not limited to, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cellular metabolism; whereas disruption of the circadian rhythm is closely related to multi-tumorigenesis. In the past several years, studies from different fields have revealed that the genetic or functional disruption of the molecular circadian rhythm has been found in various cancers, such as breast, prostate, and ovarian. In this review, we will investigate and present an overview of the current research on the influence of circadian rhythm regulating proteins on breast cancer.

  10. Aging and Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Chinoy, Evan D.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with numerous changes, including changes in sleep timing, duration, and quality. The circadian timing system interacts with a sleep-wake homeostatic system to regulate human sleep, including sleep timing and structure. Here, we review key features of the human circadian timing system, age-related changes in the circadian timing system, and how those changes may contribute to the observed alterations in sleep. PMID:26568120

  11. Genes encoding glycine-rich Arabidopsis thaliana proteins with RNA-binding motifs are influenced by cold treatment and an endogenous circadian rhythm.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, C D; Kreps, J A; Simon, A E

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized the expression of two members of a class of Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich, putative RNA-binding proteins that we denote Ccr1 and Ccr2. Southern blot analysis indicates that Ccr1 and Ccr2 are members of a small gene family. Both Ccr1 and Ccr2 mRNA levels were influenced by a circadian rhythm that has an unusual phase for plants, with maximal accumulation at 6:00 PM and minimal accumulation at 10:00 AM. The level of CCR1 protein, however, remained relatively constant throughout the cycle. The transcript accumulation patterns of the Ccr1 and Ccr2 genes differed considerably from conditions that affect the expression of similar genes from maize, sorghum, and carrot. Levels of Ccr1 and Ccr2 mRNAs were unchanged in wounded plants, increased at least 4-fold in cold-stressed plants, and decreased 2- to 3-fold in abscisic acid-treated plants. Ccr1 transcript levels decreased in response to drought, whereas Ccr2 transcript levels increased under the same conditions. Based on the presence of additional Ccr transcripts in dark-grown plants, we propose that Ccr transcripts may be subjected to a light- or dark-mediated regulation. PMID:7513083

  12. Diverse development and higher sensitivity of the circadian clocks to changes in maternal-feeding regime in a rat model of cardio-metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Olejníková, Lucie; Polidarová, Lenka; Paušlyová, Lucia; Sládek, Martin; Sumová, Alena

    2015-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) develop cardiovascular and metabolic pathology in adulthood when their circadian system exhibits significant aberrances compared with healthy control rats. This study was aimed to elucidate how the SHR circadian system develops during ontogenesis and to assess its sensitivity to changes in maternal-feeding regime. Analysis of ontogenesis of clock gene expression rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, liver and colon revealed significant differences in SHR compared with Wistar rats. In the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN) and liver, the development of a high-amplitude expression rhythm selectively for Bmal1 was delayed compared with Wistar rat. The atypical development of the SHR circadian clocks during postnatal ontogenesis might arise from differences in maternal behavior between SHR and Wistar rats that were detected soon after delivery. It may also arise from higher sensitivity of the circadian clocks in the SHR SCN, liver and colon to maternal behavior related to changes in the feeding regime because in contrast to Wistar rat, the SHR SCN and peripheral clocks during the prenatal period and the hepatic clock during the early postnatal period were phase shifted due to exposure of mothers to a restricted feeding regime. The maternal restricted feeding regime shifted the clocks despite the fact that the mothers were maintained under the light/dark cycle. Our findings of the diverse development and higher sensitivity of the developing circadian system of SHR to maternal cues might result from previously demonstrated differences in the SHR circadian genotype and may potentially contribute to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which the animal model spontaneously develops.

  13. GABA-mediated repulsive coupling between circadian clock neurons in the SCN encodes seasonal time

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Jihwan; Hong, Sungho; DeWoskin, Daniel; De Schutter, Erik; Forger, Daniel B.; Takumi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) forms not only the master circadian clock but also a seasonal clock. This neural network of ∼10,000 circadian oscillators encodes season-dependent day-length changes through a largely unknown mechanism. We show that region-intrinsic changes in the SCN fine-tune the degree of network synchrony and reorganize the phase relationship among circadian oscillators to represent day length. We measure oscillations of the clock gene Bmal1, at single-cell and regional levels in cultured SCN explanted from animals raised under short or long days. Coupling estimation using the Kuramoto framework reveals that the network has couplings that can be both phase-attractive (synchronizing) and -repulsive (desynchronizing). The phase gap between the dorsal and ventral regions increases and the overall period of the SCN shortens with longer day length. We find that one of the underlying physiological mechanisms is the modulation of the intracellular chloride concentration, which can adjust the strength and polarity of the ionotropic GABAA-mediated synaptic input. We show that increasing day-length changes the pattern of chloride transporter expression, yielding more excitatory GABA synaptic input, and that blocking GABAA signaling or the chloride transporter disrupts the unique phase and period organization induced by the day length. We test the consequences of this tunable GABA coupling in the context of excitation–inhibition balance through detailed realistic modeling. These results indicate that the network encoding of seasonal time is controlled by modulation of intracellular chloride, which determines the phase relationship among and period difference between the dorsal and ventral SCN. PMID:26130804

  14. Dissecting Daily and Circadian Expression Rhythms of Clock-Controlled Genes in Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Lech, Karolina; Ackermann, Katrin; Revell, Victoria L; Lao, Oscar; Skene, Debra J; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    The identification and investigation of novel clock-controlled genes (CCGs) has been conducted thus far mainly in model organisms such as nocturnal rodents, with limited information in humans. Here, we aimed to characterize daily and circadian expression rhythms of CCGs in human peripheral blood during a sleep/sleep deprivation (S/SD) study and a constant routine (CR) study. Blood expression levels of 9 candidate CCGs (SREBF1, TRIB1, USF1, THRA1, SIRT1, STAT3, CAPRIN1, MKNK2, and ROCK2), were measured across 48 h in 12 participants in the S/SD study and across 33 h in 12 participants in the CR study. Statistically significant rhythms in expression were observed for STAT3, SREBF1, TRIB1, and THRA1 in samples from both the S/SD and the CR studies, indicating that their rhythmicity is driven by the endogenous clock. The MKNK2 gene was significantly rhythmic in the S/SD but not the CR study, which implies its exogenously driven rhythmic expression. In addition, we confirmed the circadian expression of PER1, PER3, and REV-ERBα in the CR study samples, while BMAL1 and HSPA1B were not significantly rhythmic in the CR samples; all 5 genes previously showed significant expression in the S/SD study samples. Overall, our results demonstrate that rhythmic expression patterns of clock and selected clock-controlled genes in human blood cells are in part determined by exogenous factors (sleep and fasting state) and in part by the endogenous circadian timing system. Knowledge of the exogenous and endogenous regulation of gene expression rhythms is needed prior to the selection of potential candidate marker genes for future applications in medical and forensic settings.

  15. Cyclic Variation of Cellular Clock Proteins in the Mouse Estrous Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, George; Legge, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mammalian ovary is controlled by a number of biological rhythms, which regulate the recruitment and release of mature oocytes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the role of cellular clock proteins during follicle maturation in the mouse estrous ovary. Methods: Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies were performed on ovaries from 50 estrous staged mice culled at two time points of 09:00 [day] and 01:00 [mid-point of the dark cycle]. Six antibodies were used to identify the expression of core cellular clock proteins (BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1 and PER2) within the ovary and four follicle stages, primordial, primary, antral and corpus lutea. IHC data was scored using the Allred protocol and significance determined by Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: All four follicle stages presented greater BMAL1 and CLOCK protein scores during the day and up regulation of CRY1-2 and PER1-2 at night. In primordial follicles, BMAL1 and CLOCK increases were significant (p<0.05) and CRY-1 and PER-1 were highly significant (p<0.001), and CRY-2 did not reach significance. Primary follicles demonstrated a similar response with BMAL1 and CLOCK, and CRY-1, PER-1-2 all reaching significant expression (p<0.05; p<0.001; p<0.001 respectively). CRY-2 expression was not significant. Antral follicles did not show significant BMAL1 or CLOCK expression, CRY-1 and PER-1 were highly significant (p<0.001) and CRY-2 had a small but significant increase (p<0.05). Corpus lutea demonstrated significant BMAL1 increase but CLOCK had no significant variation. CRY-1, PER1-2 increases were highly significant (p<0.001) and CRY-2 was up regulated but failed to reach significance. Conclusion: The ovary demonstrated a cellular clock response to the light: dark cycle and in addition, as the ovarian follicles mature changes in the positive and negative arms of both clock responsive proteins were observed. PMID:27920997

  16. The Arabidopsis Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    McClung, C. Robertson; Salomé, Patrice A.; Michael, Todd P.

    2002-01-01

    Rhythms with periods of approximately 24 hr are widespread in nature. Those that persist in constant conditions are termed circadian rhythms and reflect the activity of an endogenous biological clock. Plants, including Arabidopsis, are richly rhythmic. Expression analysis, most recently on a genomic scale, indicates that the Arabidopsis circadian clock regulates a number of key metabolic pathways and stress responses. A number of sensitive and high-throughput assays have been developed to monitor the Arabidopsis clock. These assays have facilitated the identification of components of plant circadian systems through genetic and molecular biological studies. Although much remains to be learned, the framework of the Arabidopsis circadian system is coming into focus. Dedication This review is dedicated to the memory of DeLill Nasser, a wonderful mentor and an unwavering advocate of both Arabidopsis and circadian rhythms research. PMID:22303209

  17. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark.

  18. [Circadian rhythm and stroke].

    PubMed

    Terayama, Yasuo

    2013-12-01

    Studies on the relationship between stroke incidence and alterations of circadian rhythm are scarce, while pathologically reduced or abolished circadian variation has been described to cause stroke since a long time ago. Although ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are different entities and are characterized by different pathophysiological mechanisms, they share an identical pattern. A constellation of endogenous circadian rhythms and exogenous cyclic factors are involved. The staging of the circadian rhythms in vascular tone, coagulation balance including platelet function, and blood pressure plus temporal patterns in posture, physical activity, emotional stress, autonomic function, and medication effects play central and/or triggering roles. Features of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, in terms of their chronic and acute effects on cerebral vessels, and of coagulation are especially important.

  19. Ketogenic diet delays the phase of circadian rhythms and does not affect AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Genzer, Yoni; Dadon, Maayan; Burg, Chen; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren

    2015-12-05

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is used for weight loss or to treat epilepsy. KD leads to liver AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which would be expected to inhibit gluconeogenesis. However, KD leads to increased hepatic glucose output. As AMPK and its active phosphorylated form (pAMPK) show circadian oscillation, this discrepancy could stem from wrong-time-of-day sampling. The effect of KD was tested on mouse clock gene expression, AMPK, mTOR, SIRT1 and locomotor activity for 2 months and compared to low-fat diet (LFD). KD led to 1.5-fold increased levels of blood glucose and insulin. Brain pAMPK/AMPK ratio was 40% higher under KD, whereas that in liver was not affected. KD led to 40% and 20% down-regulation of the ratio of pP70S6K/P70S6K, the downstream target of mTOR, in the brain and liver, respectively. SIRT1 levels were 40% higher in the brain, but 40% lower in the liver of KD-fed mice. Clock genes showed delayed rhythms under KD. In the brain of KD-fed mice, amplitudes of clock genes were down-regulated, whereas 6-fold up-regulation was found in the liver. The metabolic state under KD indicates reduced satiety in the brain and reduced anabolism alongside increased gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  20. Chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals disturbs the hepatic expression of circadian genes in lean and obese mice.

    PubMed

    Anthérieu, Sébastien; Le Guillou, Dounia; Coulouarn, Cédric; Begriche, Karima; Trak-Smayra, Viviane; Martinais, Sophie; Porceddu, Mathieu; Robin, Marie-Anne; Fromenty, Bernard

    2014-04-01

    Drinking water can be contaminated with pharmaceuticals. However, it is uncertain whether this contamination can be harmful for the liver, especially during obesity. Hence, the goal of our study was to determine whether chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals could have deleterious effects on livers of lean and obese mice. To this end, lean and ob/ob male mice were treated for 4 months with a mixture of 11 drugs provided in drinking water at concentrations ranging from 10 to 10⁶ ng/l. At the end of the treatment, some liver and plasma abnormalities were observed in ob/ob mice treated with the cocktail containing 10⁶ ng/l of each drug. For this dosage, a gene expression analysis by microarray showed altered expression of circadian genes (e.g. Bmal1, Dbp, Cry1) in lean and obese mice. RT-qPCR analyses carried out in all groups of animals confirmed that expression of 8 different circadian genes was modified in a dose-dependent manner. For some genes, a significant modification was observed for dosages as low as 10²-10³ ng/l. Drug mixture and obesity presented an additive effect on circadian gene expression. These data were validated in an independent study performed in female mice. Thus, our study showed that chronic exposure to trace pharmaceuticals disturbed hepatic expression of circadian genes, particularly in obese mice. Because some of the 11 drugs can be found in drinking water at such concentrations (e.g. acetaminophen, carbamazepine, ibuprofen) our data could be relevant in environmental toxicology, especially for obese individuals exposed to these contaminants.

  1. Impairment of peripheral circadian clocks precedes metabolic abnormalities in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Kumazaki, Masafumi; Motosugi, Yuya; Ushijima, Kentarou; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Eiko; Fujimura, Akio

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated relationships between the dysfunction of circadian clocks and the development of metabolic abnormalities, but the chicken-and-egg question remains unresolved. To address this issue, we investigated the cause-effect relationship in obese, diabetic ob/ob mice. Compared with control C57BL/6J mice, the daily mRNA expression profiles of the clock and clock-controlled genes Clock, Bmal1, Cry1, Per1, Per2, and Dbp were substantially dampened in the liver and adipose tissue, but not the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, of 10-wk-old ob/ob mice. Four-week feeding of a low-calorie diet and administration of leptin over a 7-d period attenuated, to a significant and comparable extent, the observed metabolic abnormalities (obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia) in the ob/ob mice. However, only leptin treatment improved the impaired peripheral clocks. In addition, clock function, assessed by measuring levels of Per1, Per2, and Dbp mRNA at around peak times, was also reduced in the peripheral tissues of 3-wk-old ob/ob mice without any overt metabolic abnormalities. Collectively these results indicate that the impairment of peripheral clocks in ob/ob mice does not result from metabolic abnormalities but may instead be at least partially caused by leptin deficiency itself. Further studies are needed to clarify how leptin deficiency affects peripheral clocks.

  2. Circadian Gene Variants and Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, M. Ann; Rees, Simon D.; Hydrie, M. Zafar I.; Shera, A. Samad; Bellary, Srikanth; O’Hare, J. Paul; Kumar, Sudhesh; Taheri, Shahrad; Basit, Abdul; Barnett, Anthony H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms has been shown to increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, suggesting that circadian genes might play a role in determining disease susceptibility. We present the results of a pilot study investigating the association between type 2 diabetes and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in/near nine circadian genes. The variants were chosen based on their previously reported association with prostate cancer, a disease that has been suggested to have a genetic link with type 2 diabetes through a number of shared inherited risk determinants. Methodology/Principal Findings The pilot study was performed using two genetically homogeneous Punjabi cohorts, one resident in the United Kingdom and one indigenous to Pakistan. Subjects with (N = 1732) and without (N = 1780) type 2 diabetes were genotyped for thirteen circadian variants using a competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method. Associations between the SNPs and type 2 diabetes were investigated using logistic regression. The results were also combined with in silico data from other South Asian datasets (SAT2D consortium) and white European cohorts (DIAGRAM+) using meta-analysis. The rs7602358G allele near PER2 was negatively associated with type 2 diabetes in our Punjabi cohorts (combined odds ratio [OR] = 0.75 [0.66–0.86], p = 3.18×10−5), while the BMAL1 rs11022775T allele was associated with an increased risk of the disease (combined OR = 1.22 [1.07–1.39], p = 0.003). Neither of these associations was replicated in the SAT2D or DIAGRAM+ datasets, however. Meta-analysis of all the cohorts identified disease associations with two variants, rs2292912 in CRY2 and rs12315175 near CRY1, although statistical significance was nominal (combined OR = 1.05 [1.01–1.08], p = 0.008 and OR = 0.95 [0.91–0.99], p = 0.015 respectively). Conclusions/significance None of the selected circadian gene

  3. A circadian clock in Neurospora: how genes and proteins cooperate to produce a sustained, entrainable, and compensated biological oscillator with a period of about a day.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, J C; Loros, J J; Colot, H V; Mehra, A; Belden, W J; Shi, M; Hong, C I; Larrondo, L F; Baker, C L; Chen, C-H; Schwerdtfeger, C; Collopy, P D; Gamsby, J J; Lambreghts, R

    2007-01-01

    Neurospora has proven to be a tractable model system for understanding the molecular bases of circadian rhythms in eukaryotes. At the core of the circadian oscillatory system is a negative feedback loop in which two transcription factors, WC-1 and WC-2, act together to drive expression of the frq gene. WC-2 enters the promoter region of frq coincident with increases in frq expression and then exits when the cycle of transcription is over, whereas WC-1 can always be found there. FRQ promotes the phosphorylation of the WCs, thereby decreasing their activity, and phosphorylation of FRQ then leads to its turnover, allowing the cycle to reinitiate. By understanding the action of light and temperature on frq and FRQ expression, the molecular basis of circadian entrainment to environmental light and temperature cues can be understood, and recently a specific role for casein kinase 2 has been found in the mechanism underlying circadian temperature-compensation. These data promise molecular explanations for all of the canonical circadian properties of this model system, providing biochemical answers and regulatory logic that may be extended to more complex eukaryotes including humans.

  4. Circadian rhythm and menopause.

    PubMed

    Pines, A

    2016-12-01

    Circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock which initiates and monitors various physiological processes with a fixed time-related schedule. The master circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. The circadian clock undergoes significant changes throughout the life span, at both the physiological and molecular levels. This cyclical physiological process, which is very complex and multifactorial, may be associated with metabolic alterations, atherosclerosis, impaired cognition, mood disturbances and even development of cancer. Sex differences do exist, and the well-known sleep disturbances associated with menopause are a good example. Circadian rhythm was detected in the daily pattern of hot flushes, with a peak in the afternoons. Endogenous secretion of melatonin decreases with aging across genders, and, among women, menopause is associated with a significant reduction of melatonin levels, affecting sleep. Although it might seem that hot flushes and melatonin secretion are likely related, there are not enough data to support such a hypothesis.

  5. Calcium and SOL Protease Mediate Temperature Resetting of Circadian Clocks.

    PubMed

    Tataroglu, Ozgur; Zhao, Xiaohu; Busza, Ania; Ling, Jinli; O'Neill, John S; Emery, Patrick

    2015-11-19

    Circadian clocks integrate light and temperature input to remain synchronized with the day/night cycle. Although light input to the clock is well studied, the molecular mechanisms by which circadian clocks respond to temperature remain poorly understood. We found that temperature phase shifts Drosophila circadian clocks through degradation of the pacemaker protein TIM. This degradation is mechanistically distinct from photic CRY-dependent TIM degradation. Thermal TIM degradation is triggered by cytosolic calcium increase and CALMODULIN binding to TIM and is mediated by the atypical calpain protease SOL. This thermal input pathway and CRY-dependent light input thus converge on TIM, providing a molecular mechanism for the integration of circadian light and temperature inputs. Mammals use body temperature cycles to keep peripheral clocks synchronized with their brain pacemaker. Interestingly, downregulating the mammalian SOL homolog SOLH blocks thermal mPER2 degradation and phase shifts. Thus, we propose that circadian thermosensation in insects and mammals share common principles.

  6. Circadian systems biology: When time matters

    PubMed Central

    Fuhr, Luise; Abreu, Mónica; Pett, Patrick; Relógio, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a powerful endogenous timing system, which allows organisms to fine-tune their physiology and behaviour to the geophysical time. The interplay of a distinct set of core-clock genes and proteins generates oscillations in expression of output target genes which temporally regulate numerous molecular and cellular processes. The study of the circadian timing at the organismal as well as at the cellular level outlines the field of chronobiology, which has been highly interdisciplinary ever since its origins. The development of high-throughput approaches enables the study of the clock at a systems level. In addition to experimental approaches, computational clock models exist which allow the analysis of rhythmic properties of the clock network. Such mathematical models aid mechanistic understanding and can be used to predict outcomes of distinct perturbations in clock components, thereby generating new hypotheses regarding the putative function of particular clock genes. Perturbations in the circadian timing system are linked to numerous molecular dysfunctions and may result in severe pathologies including cancer. A comprehensive knowledge regarding the mechanistic of the circadian system is crucial to develop new procedures to investigate pathologies associated with a deregulated clock. In this manuscript we review the combination of experimental methodologies, bioinformatics and theoretical models that have been essential to explore this remarkable timing-system. Such an integrative and interdisciplinary approach may provide new strategies with regard to chronotherapeutic treatment and new insights concerning the restoration of the circadian timing in clock-associated diseases. PMID:26288701

  7. Pathogen and Circadian Controlled 1 (PCC1) Protein Is Anchored to the Plasma Membrane and Interacts with Subunit 5 of COP9 Signalosome in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Ricardo; León, José

    2014-01-01

    The Pathogen and Circadian Controlled 1 (PCC1) gene, previously identified and further characterized as involved in defense to pathogens and stress-induced flowering, codes for an 81-amino acid protein with a cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. This domain is essential for homodimerization and anchoring to the plasma membrane. Transgenic plants with the ß-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of 1.1 kb promoter sequence of PCC1 gene display a dual pattern of expression. At early post-germination, PCC1 is expressed only in the root vasculature and in the stomata guard cells of cotyledons. During the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, PCC1 is strongly expressed in the vascular tissue of petioles and basal part of the leaf, and it further spreads to the whole limb in fully expanded leaves. This developmental pattern of expression together with the late flowering phenotype of long-day grown RNA interference (iPCC1) plants with reduced PCC1 expression pointed to a regulatory role of PCC1 in the photoperiod-dependent flowering pathway. iPCC1 plants are defective in light perception and signaling but are not impaired in the function of the core CO-FT module of the photoperiod-dependent pathway. The regulatory effect exerted by PCC1 on the transition to flowering as well as on other reported phenotypes might be explained by a mechanism involving the interaction with the subunit 5 of the COP9 signalosome (CSN). PMID:24475254

  8. The circadian coordination of cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Zarrinpar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous timing mechanisms that organize cell functions in a 24-h periodicity. In mammals, the main circadian oscillator consists of transcription–translation feedback loops composed of transcriptional regulators, enzymes, and scaffolds that generate and sustain daily oscillations of their own transcript and protein levels. The clock components and their targets impart rhythmic functions to many gene products through transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational mechanisms. This, in turn, temporally coordinates many signaling pathways, metabolic activity, organelles’ structure and functions, as well as the cell cycle and the tissue-specific functions of differentiated cells. When the functions of these circadian oscillators are disrupted by age, environment, or genetic mutation, the temporal coordination of cellular functions is lost, reducing organismal health and fitness. PMID:27738003

  9. Circadian clock: Time for novel anticancer strategies?

    PubMed

    Ercolani, Luisa; Ferrari, Alessio; De Mei, Claudia; Parodi, Chiara; Wade, Mark; Grimaldi, Benedetto

    2015-10-01

    Disruption of the circadian clock is associated with a variety of human pathologies, including cancer. Rather than being a mere consequence of a global changes associated with the cancer cell transcriptome, the aberrant clock gene expression observed in many tumors may serve for cancer cell survival. This scenario suggests the provocative hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of clock-related proteins may be suitable as an effective anticancer strategy. In this review, we focus on the functions of the druggable circadian nuclear receptors, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, in cancer cell survival and describe the potential development of small molecule compounds that modulate REV-ERB activity as novel anticancer therapeutics. In addition, we debate the use of circadian rhythm-based synthetic lethal approaches to identify yet unexplored anticancer strategies.

  10. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/− and −/− mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  11. Ageing and Circadian rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.; Long, Dani M.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous molecular feedback loops that generate daily rhythms in gene expression, cellular functions, physiological processes and behavior. The mechanisms of circadian clocks are well understood in young fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster, but less is known about how circadian system changes during organismal aging. Similar as in humans, rest/activity rhythms tend to weaken with age in fruit flies, suggesting conservation of aging-related changes in the circadian system. It has been shown that aging is associated with reduced expression of core clock genes in peripheral head clocks while similar reduction may not occur in central clock neurons regulating behavioral rhythms. Arrhythmic flies with mutations in core clock genes display accelerated aging and shortened lifespan suggesting that weakened circadian rhythms may contribute to aging phenotypes. To understand whether strong circadian clocks support organism’s healthspan and lifespan, future research needs to focus on age-related changes in clock genes as well as clock-controlled genes in specific organs and tissues. PMID:26000238

  12. Disorders of the circadian clock: etiology and possible therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Wisor, J P

    2002-12-01

    The mammalian circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus conveys 24-hr rhythmicity to sleep-wake cycles, temperature, locomotor activity and virtually all other behavioral and physiological processes. In order for these cycles to be adaptive, they must be synchronized, or entrained, to the 24-hr light/dark cycle produced by the rotation of the Earth. The timing of circadian variables relative to the light/dark cycle, i.e., the phase angle of entrainment, is influenced by intrinsic circadian clock properties that are to an extent genetically determined, and thus varies between individuals. In extreme cases (advanced or delayed sleep phase syndrome) or during shift work or jet lag, the phase angle of entrainment may be incompatible with work requirements or other social demands, resulting in negative consequences to health and productivity. This review describes the etiology of circadian disorders within the context of formal circadian clock properties and summarizes studies in humans and in other species which link specific genetic loci to circadian clock function and malfunction. The proteins encoded by these genetic loci play key roles in the intracellular feedback loop that generates circadian rhythms, and thus represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of both endogenous and exogenous circadian disorders.

  13. Structures of KaiC Circadian Clock Mutant Proteins: A New Phosphorylation Site at T426 and Mechanisms of Kinase, ATPase and Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Mori, Tetsuya; Xu, Yao; Pattanayek, Sabuj; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin

    2010-09-02

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. Homo-hexameric KaiC displays kinase, phosphatase and ATPase activities; KaiA enhances KaiC phosphorylation and KaiB antagonizes KaiA. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the two known sites in the C-terminal half of KaiC subunits, T432 and S431, follow a strict order (TS {yields} pTS {yields} pTpS {yields} TpS {yields} TS) over the daily cycle, the origin of which is not understood. To address this void and to analyze the roles of KaiC active site residues, in particular T426, we determined structures of single and double P-site mutants of S. elongatus KaiC. The conformations of the loop region harboring P-site residues T432 and S431 in the crystal structures of six KaiC mutant proteins exhibit subtle differences that result in various distances between Thr (or Ala/Asn/Glu) and Ser (or Ala/Asp) residues and the ATP {gamma}-phosphate. T432 is phosphorylated first because it lies consistently closer to P{gamma}. The structures of the S431A and T432E/S431A mutants reveal phosphorylation at T426. The environments of the latter residue in the structures and functional data for T426 mutants in vitro and in vivo imply a role in dephosphorylation. We provide evidence for a third phosphorylation site in KaiC at T426. T426 and S431 are closely spaced and a KaiC subunit cannot carry phosphates at both sites simultaneously. Fewer subunits are phosphorylated at T426 in the two KaiC mutants compared to phosphorylated T432 and/or S431 residues in the structures of wt and other mutant KaiCs, suggesting that T426 phosphorylation may be labile. The structures combined with functional data for a host of KaiC mutant proteins help rationalize why S431 trails T432 in the loss of its phosphate and shed light on the mechanisms of the KaiC kinase, ATPase and phosphatase activities.

  14. Cadmium as an endocrine disruptor: correlation with anterior pituitary redox and circadian clock mechanisms and prevention by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano Barquilla, Pilar; Fernández-Mateos, Pilar; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2012-12-15

    To examine the effect of a low dose of cadmium (Cd) as an endocrine disruptor, male Wistar rats received CdCl2 (5ppm Cd) in drinking water or drinking water alone. After 1 month, the rats were euthanized at one of six time intervals around the clock and the 24-h pattern of adenohypophysial prolactin (PRL) synthesis and release, lipid peroxidation, and redox enzyme and metallothionein (MT) gene expression was examined. Cd suppressed 24-h rhythmicity in expression of the PRL gene and in circulating PRL by increasing them at early photophase only, in correlation with an augmented pituitary lipid peroxidation and redox enzyme expression. CdCl2 treatment effectively disrupted the 24-h variation in expression of every pituitary parameter tested except for MT-3. In a second experiment the effect of melatonin (3μg/ml in drinking water) was assessed at early photophase, the time of maximal endocrine-disrupting effect of Cd. Melatonin treatment blunted the effect of Cd on PRL synthesis and release, decreased Cd-induced lipid peroxidation, and counteracted the effect of Cd on expression of most redox enzymes. A third experiment was performed to examine whether melatonin could counteract Cd-induced changes in the 24-h pattern of pituitary circadian clock gene expression and plasma PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH), thyrotropin (TSH), and corticosterone levels. Rats receiving CdCl2 exhibited a suppressed daily rhythm of Clock expression and a significant disruption in daily rhythms of pituitary Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Cry1, and Cry2. The coadministration of melatonin restored rhythmicity in Clock and Bmal1 expression but shifted the maxima in pituitary Per1, Cry1, and Cry2 expression to the scotophase. Melatonin also counteracted the effect of Cd on 24-h rhythmicity of circulating PRL, LH, TSH, and corticosterone. The results highlight the occurrence of a significant endocrine disruptor effect of a low dose of Cd. Generally melatonin counteracted the effects of Cd and ameliorated

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Circadian Regulation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana; Boyle, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of the regular environmental circadian cues in addition to stringent and demanding operational schedules are two main factors that undoubtedly impact sleep patterns and vigilant performance in the astronaut crews during spaceflight. Most research is focused on the behavioral aspects of the risk of circadian desynchronization, characterized by fatigue and health and performance decrement. A common countermeasure for circadian re-entrainment utilizes blue-green light to entrain the circadian clock and mitigate this risk. However, an effective countermeasure targeting the photoreceptor system requires that the basic circadian molecular machinery remains intact during spaceflight. The molecular clock consists of sets of proteins that perform different functions within the clock machinery: circadian oscillators (genes whose expression levels cycle during the day, keep the pass of cellular time and regulate downstream effector genes), the effector or output genes (those which impact the physiology of the tissue or organism), and the input genes (responsible for sensing the environmental cues that allow circadian entrainment). The main environmental cue is light. As opposed to the known photoreceptors (rods and cones), the non-visual light stimulus is received by a subset of the population of retinal ganglion cells called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) that express melanopsin (opsin 4 -Opn4-) as the photoreceptor. We hypothesize that spaceflight may affect ipRGC and melanopsin expression, which may be a contributing cause of circadian disruption during spaceflight. To answer this question, eyes from albino Balb/cJ mice aboard STS-133 were collected for histological analysis and gene expression profiling of the retina at 1 and 7 days after landing. Both vivarium and AEM (animal enclosure module) mice were used as ground controls. Opn4 expression was analyzed by real time RT/qPCR and retinal sections were stained for Opn4

  16. Metabolic regulation of circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Haydon, Michael J; Hearn, Timothy J; Bell, Laura J; Hannah, Matthew A; Webb, Alex A R

    2013-05-01

    Circadian clocks are 24-h timekeeping mechanisms, which have evolved in plants, animals, fungi and bacteria to anticipate changes in light and temperature associated with the rotation of the Earth. The current paradigm to explain how biological clocks provide timing information is based on multiple interlocking transcription-translation negative feedback loops (TTFL), which drive rhythmic gene expression and circadian behaviour of growth and physiology. Metabolism is an important circadian output, which in plants includes photosynthesis, starch metabolism, nutrient assimilation and redox homeostasis. There is increasing evidence in a range of organisms that these metabolic outputs can also contribute to circadian timing and might also comprise independent circadian oscillators. In this review, we summarise the mechanisms of circadian regulation of metabolism by TTFL and consider increasing evidence that rhythmic metabolism contributes to the circadian network. We highlight how this might be relevant to plant circadian clock function.

  17. Effects of chronic jet lag on the central and peripheral circadian clocks in CBA/N mice.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Ayaka; Kawai, Misato; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2014-03-01

    The disruption of the circadian clock by frequent shifts in the light-dark cycle, such as shift-work or frequent jet lag, increases the risk of many diseases, including cancer. Experimental disruption of the circadian clock also increases tumor development in mice, although most studies used the strains that are genetically impaired in melatonin synthesis and secretion. Here, we examined the effects of experimental chronic jet lag with 8 h advances of the light-dark cycle every 2 days for 10 days on the central and peripheral clocks of CBA/N mice, the strain with normal profiles of melatonin synthesis and secretion. Mice were exposed to constant darkness after the 10 days of chronic jet lag. In the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), chronic jet lag shifted the temporal expression of most clock genes examined without causing total disturbance of circadian oscillations. In the liver, the temporal patterns of Per1, Bmal1, and Dbp expression were phase-shifted, and Per2 expression was significantly upregulated by chronic jet lag. Further, the expression of cell cycle-related genes, c-Myc and p53 in the liver was significantly activated by the chronic jet lag schedule with a significant positive correlation between Per2 and p53 expression. We determined the plasma concentrations of melatonin and corticosterone as candidate hormonal messengers of chronic jet lag, but their overall levels were not affected by chronic jet lag. Moreover, the expression of the MT1 melatonin and glucocorticoid receptors in the liver was suppressed by chronic jet lag. These data suggest that in CBA/N mice, frequent advances of light-dark cycles modify the phases of central clock in the SCN and disturb the peripheral clock in the liver and apoptotic functions, which may be associated with the suppression of hormone receptors.

  18. Circadian Rhythms and Mood Disorders: Are the Phenomena and Mechanisms Causally Related?

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, William

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the compelling evidence of disrupted circadian rhythms in individuals with mood disorders (major depressive disorder, seasonal affective disorder, and bipolar disorder) and that treatments such as bright light, designed to alter circadian rhythms, are effective in treating these disorders. Neurotransmitters in brain regions implicated in mood regulation exhibit circadian rhythms. A mouse model originally employed to identify a circadian gene has proven a potent model for mania. While this evidence is suggestive of an etiological role for altered circadian rhythms in mood disorders, it is compatible with other explanations, including that disrupted circadian rhythms and mood disorders are effects of a common cause and that genes and proteins implicated in both simply have pleiotropic effects. In light of this, the paper advances a proposal as to what evidence would be needed to establish a direct causal link between disruption of circadian rhythms and mood disorders. PMID:26379559

  19. Circadian Rhythms and Mood Disorders: Are the Phenomena and Mechanisms Causally Related?

    PubMed

    Bechtel, William

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the compelling evidence of disrupted circadian rhythms in individuals with mood disorders (major depressive disorder, seasonal affective disorder, and bipolar disorder) and that treatments such as bright light, designed to alter circadian rhythms, are effective in treating these disorders. Neurotransmitters in brain regions implicated in mood regulation exhibit circadian rhythms. A mouse model originally employed to identify a circadian gene has proven a potent model for mania. While this evidence is suggestive of an etiological role for altered circadian rhythms in mood disorders, it is compatible with other explanations, including that disrupted circadian rhythms and mood disorders are effects of a common cause and that genes and proteins implicated in both simply have pleiotropic effects. In light of this, the paper advances a proposal as to what evidence would be needed to establish a direct causal link between disruption of circadian rhythms and mood disorders.

  20. Circadian Rhythms in Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Life on earth is subject to daily and predictable fluctuations in light intensity, temperature, and humidity created by rotation of the earth. Circadian rhythms, generated by a circadian clock, control temporal programs of cellular physiology to facilitate adaptation to daily environmental changes. Circadian rhythms are nearly ubiquitous and are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Here we introduce the molecular mechanism of the circadian clock in the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. We review the current understanding of the cyanobacterial clock, emphasizing recent work that has generated a more comprehensive understanding of how the circadian oscillator becomes synchronized with the external environment and how information from the oscillator is transmitted to generate rhythms of biological activity. These results have changed how we think about the clock, shifting away from a linear model to one in which the clock is viewed as an interactive network of multifunctional components that are integrated into the context of the cell in order to pace and reset the oscillator. We conclude with a discussion of how this basic timekeeping mechanism differs in other cyanobacterial species and how information gleaned from work in cyanobacteria can be translated to understanding rhythmic phenomena in other prokaryotic systems. PMID:26335718

  1. Socially synchronized circadian oscillators.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Herzog, Erik D; Levine, Joel D; Schwartz, William J

    2013-08-22

    Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian 'clock'). The alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizes (entrains) these rhythms to the natural day-night cycle, and underlying mechanisms have been investigated using singly housed animals in the laboratory. But, most species ordinarily would not live out their lives in such seclusion; in their natural habitats, they interact with other individuals, and some live in colonies with highly developed social structures requiring temporal synchronization. Social cues may thus be critical to the adaptive function of the circadian system, but elucidating their role and the responsible mechanisms has proven elusive. Here, we highlight three model systems that are now being applied to understanding the biology of socially synchronized circadian oscillators: the fruitfly, with its powerful array of molecular genetic tools; the honeybee, with its complex natural society and clear division of labour; and, at a different level of biological organization, the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus, site of the brain's circadian clock, with its network of mutually coupled single-cell oscillators. Analyses at the 'group' level of circadian organization will likely generate a more complex, but ultimately more comprehensive, view of clocks and rhythms and their contribution to fitness in nature.

  2. System identification of the Arabidopsis plant circadian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Mathias; Somers, David E.; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system generates an endogenous oscillatory rhythm that governs the daily activities of organisms in nature. It offers adaptive advantages to organisms through a coordination of their biological functions with the optimal time of day. In this paper, a model of the circadian system in the plant Arabidopsis (species thaliana) is built by using system identification techniques. Prior knowledge about the physical interactions of the genes and the proteins in the plant circadian system is incorporated in the model building exercise. The model is built by using primarily experimentally-verified direct interactions between the genes and the proteins with the available data on mRNA and protein abundances from the circadian system. Our analysis reveals a great performance of the model in predicting the dynamics of the plant circadian system through the effect of diverse internal and external perturbations (gene knockouts and day-length changes). Furthermore, we found that the circadian oscillatory rhythm is robust and does not vary much with the biochemical parameters except those of a light-sensitive protein P and a transcription factor TOC1. In other words, the circadian rhythmic profile is largely a consequence of the network's architecture rather than its particular parameters. Our work suggests that the current experimental knowledge of the gene-to-protein interactions in the plant Arabidopsis, without considering any additional hypothetical interactions, seems to suffice for system-level modeling of the circadian system of this plant and to present an exemplary platform for the control of network dynamics in complex living organisms.

  3. Differential resetting process of circadian gene expression in rat pineal glands after the reversal of the light/dark cycle via a 24 h light or dark period transition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Dong, Yue; Yang, Zhiqiu; Kato, Hisanori; Ni, Yinhua; Fu, Zhengwei

    2009-07-01

    Although studies involving the circadian response to time-zone transitions indicate that the circadian clock usually takes much longer to phase advance than delay, the discrepancy between the circadian resetting induced by photoperiod alteration via a dark or light period transition has yet to be investigated. In mammals, the pineal gland is an important component in the photoneuroendocrine axis, regulating biological rhythms. However, few studies have systematically examined the resetting process of pineal clock-gene expression to date. We investigated the resetting processes of four clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, Per1, Dec1) and AANAT in the rat pineal gland after the light-dark (LD) reversal via a 24 h light or dark period transition. The resynchronization of the SCN-driven gene AANAT was nearly complete in three days in both situations, displaying similar resetting rates and processes after the differential LD reversals. The resetting processes of the clock genes were characterized by gene-specific, phase-shift modes and differential phase-shift rates between the two different LD reversal modes. The resetting processes of these clock genes were noticeably lengthened after the LD reversal via the light period transition in comparison to via the dark period transition. In addition, among the four examined clock genes, Per1 adjusted most rapidly after the differential LD reversals, while the rhythmic Cry1 expression adjusted most slowly.

  4. Circadian acetylome reveals regulation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Masri, Selma; Patel, Vishal R; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Peleg, Shahaf; Forne, Ignasi; Ladurner, Andreas G; Baldi, Pierre; Imhof, Axel; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2013-02-26

    The circadian clock is constituted by a complex molecular network that integrates a number of regulatory cues needed to maintain organismal homeostasis. To this effect, posttranslational modifications of clock proteins modulate circadian rhythms and are thought to convert physiological signals into changes in protein regulatory function. To explore reversible lysine acetylation that is dependent on the clock, we have characterized the circadian acetylome in WT and Clock-deficient (Clock(-/-)) mouse liver by quantitative mass spectrometry. Our analysis revealed that a number of mitochondrial proteins involved in metabolic pathways are heavily influenced by clock-driven acetylation. Pathways such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism were found to be highly enriched hits. The significant number of metabolic pathways whose protein acetylation profile is altered in Clock(-/-) mice prompted us to link the acetylome to the circadian metabolome previously characterized in our laboratory. Changes in enzyme acetylation over the circadian cycle and the link to metabolite levels are discussed, revealing biological implications connecting the circadian clock to cellular metabolic state.

  5. Dephosphorylation of the Core Clock Protein KaiC in the Cyanobacterial KaiABC Circadian Oscillator Proceeds via an ATP Synthase Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, Martin; Mori, Tetsuya; Pattanayek, Rekha; Xu, Yao; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl H.

    2014-10-02

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC in the presence of ATP, to tick in a temperature-compensated manner. KaiC, the central cog of this oscillator, forms a homohexamer with 12 ATP molecules bound between its N- and C-terminal domains and exhibits unusual properties. Both the N-terminal (CI) and C-terminal (CII) domains harbor ATPase activity, and the subunit interfaces between CII domains are the sites of autokinase and autophosphatase activities. Hydrolysis of ATP correlates with phosphorylation at threonine and serine sites across subunits in an orchestrated manner, such that first T432 and then S431 are phosphorylated, followed by dephosphorylation of these residues in the same order. Although structural work has provided insight into the mechanisms of ATPase and kinase, the location and mechanism of the phosphatase have remained enigmatic. From the available experimental data based on a range of approaches, including KaiC crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering models, metal ion dependence, site-directed mutagenesis (i.e., E318, the general base), and measurements of the associated clock periods, phosphorylation patterns, and dephosphorylation courses as well as a lack of sequence motifs in KaiC that are typically associated with known phosphatases, we hypothesized that KaiCII makes use of the same active site for phosphorylation and dephosphorlyation. We observed that wild-type KaiC (wt-KaiC) exhibits an ATP synthase activity that is significantly reduced in the T432A/S431A mutant. We interpret the first observation as evidence that KaiCII is a phosphotransferase instead of a phosphatase and the second that the enzyme is capable of generating ATP, both from ADP and P{sub i} (in a reversal of the ATPase reaction) and from ADP and P-T432/P-S431 (dephosphorylation). This new concept regarding the mechanism of dephosphorylation is also supported by the

  6. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

  7. Measuring stem cell circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Hrushesky, William; Rich, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that occur within a 24-h time cycle. Sleep is a prime example of a circadian rhythm and with it melatonin production. Stem cell systems also demonstrate circadian rhythms. This is particularly the case for the proliferating cells within the system. In fact, all proliferating cell populations exhibit their own circadian rhythm, which has important implications for disease and the treatment of disease. Stem cell chronobiology is particularly important because the treatment of cancer can be significantly affected by the time of day a drug is administered. This protocol provides a basis for measuring hematopoietic stem cell circadian rhythm for future stem cell chronotherapeutic applications.

  8. Circadian rhythms and sleep--the metabolic connection.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Urs

    2012-01-01

    The circadian system coordinates mammalian physiology and behavior with the environmental light-dark cycle. It allocates sleep to the inactivity phase using various mechanisms involving neurotransmitters, nuclear receptors, and protein kinases. These pathways are related to metabolism, indicating that the circadian system and sleep are connected via metabolic parameters. This suggests that organs other than the brain may "sleep." A hypothetic view on this aspect is presented providing a different perspective on sleep regulation.

  9. Diurnal regulation of lipid metabolism and applications of circadian lipidomics.

    PubMed

    Gooley, Joshua J; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin

    2014-05-20

    The circadian timing system plays a key role in orchestrating lipid metabolism. In concert with the solar cycle, the circadian system ensures that daily rhythms in lipid absorption, storage, and transport are temporally coordinated with rest-activity and feeding cycles. At the cellular level, genes involved in lipid synthesis and fatty acid oxidation are rhythmically activated and repressed by core clock proteins in a tissue-specific manner. Consequently, loss of clock gene function or misalignment of circadian rhythms with feeding cycles (e.g., in shift work) results in impaired lipid homeostasis. Herein, we review recent progress in circadian rhythms research using lipidomics, i.e., large-scale profiling of lipid metabolites, to characterize circadian-regulated lipid pathways in mammals. In mice, novel regulatory circuits involved in fatty acid metabolism have been identified in adipose tissue, liver, and muscle. Extensive diversity in circadian regulation of plasma lipids has also been revealed in humans using lipidomics and other metabolomics approaches. In future studies, lipidomics platforms will be increasingly used to better understand the effects of genetic variation, shift work, food intake, and drugs on circadian-regulated lipid pathways and metabolic health.

  10. Cycles of circadian illuminance are sufficient to entrain and maintain circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Eunjoo; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Euna; Do, Young Rag; Kim, Eun Young

    2016-11-01

    Light at night disrupts the circadian clock and causes serious health problems in the modern world. Here, we show that newly developed four-package light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide harmless lighting at night. To quantify the effects of light on the circadian clock, we employed the concept of circadian illuminance (CIL). CIL represents the amount of light weighted toward the wavelengths to which the circadian clock is most sensitive, whereas visual illuminance (VIL) represents the total amount of visible light. Exposure to 12 h:12 h cycles of white LED light with high and low CIL values but a constant VIL value (conditions hereafter referred to as CH/CL) can entrain behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms in flies. Moreover, flies re-entrain to phase shift in the CH/CL cycle. Core-clock proteins are required for the rhythmic behaviors seen with this LED lighting scheme. Taken together, this study provides a guide for designing healthful white LED lights for use at night, and proposes the use of the CIL value for estimating the harmful effects of any light source on organismal health.

  11. Cycles of circadian illuminance are sufficient to entrain and maintain circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunjoo; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Euna; Do, Young Rag; Kim, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    Light at night disrupts the circadian clock and causes serious health problems in the modern world. Here, we show that newly developed four-package light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide harmless lighting at night. To quantify the effects of light on the circadian clock, we employed the concept of circadian illuminance (CIL). CIL represents the amount of light weighted toward the wavelengths to which the circadian clock is most sensitive, whereas visual illuminance (VIL) represents the total amount of visible light. Exposure to 12 h:12 h cycles of white LED light with high and low CIL values but a constant VIL value (conditions hereafter referred to as CH/CL) can entrain behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms in flies. Moreover, flies re-entrain to phase shift in the CH/CL cycle. Core-clock proteins are required for the rhythmic behaviors seen with this LED lighting scheme. Taken together, this study provides a guide for designing healthful white LED lights for use at night, and proposes the use of the CIL value for estimating the harmful effects of any light source on organismal health. PMID:27883065

  12. Cycles of circadian illuminance are sufficient to entrain and maintain circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunjoo; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Euna; Do, Young Rag; Kim, Eun Young

    2016-11-24

    Light at night disrupts the circadian clock and causes serious health problems in the modern world. Here, we show that newly developed four-package light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide harmless lighting at night. To quantify the effects of light on the circadian clock, we employed the concept of circadian illuminance (CIL). CIL represents the amount of light weighted toward the wavelengths to which the circadian clock is most sensitive, whereas visual illuminance (VIL) represents the total amount of visible light. Exposure to 12 h:12 h cycles of white LED light with high and low CIL values but a constant VIL value (conditions hereafter referred to as CH/CL) can entrain behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms in flies. Moreover, flies re-entrain to phase shift in the CH/CL cycle. Core-clock proteins are required for the rhythmic behaviors seen with this LED lighting scheme. Taken together, this study provides a guide for designing healthful white LED lights for use at night, and proposes the use of the CIL value for estimating the harmful effects of any light source on organismal health.

  13. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  14. Chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals disturbs the hepatic expression of circadian genes in lean and obese mice

    SciTech Connect

    Anthérieu, Sébastien; Le Guillou, Dounia; Coulouarn, Cédric; Begriche, Karima; Trak-Smayra, Viviane; Martinais, Sophie; Porceddu, Mathieu; Robin, Marie-Anne; Fromenty, Bernard

    2014-04-01

    Drinking water can be contaminated with pharmaceuticals. However, it is uncertain whether this contamination can be harmful for the liver, especially during obesity. Hence, the goal of our study was to determine whether chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals could have deleterious effects on livers of lean and obese mice. To this end, lean and ob/ob male mice were treated for 4 months with a mixture of 11 drugs provided in drinking water at concentrations ranging from 10 to 10{sup 6} ng/l. At the end of the treatment, some liver and plasma abnormalities were observed in ob/ob mice treated with the cocktail containing 10{sup 6} ng/l of each drug. For this dosage, a gene expression analysis by microarray showed altered expression of circadian genes (e.g. Bmal1, Dbp, Cry1) in lean and obese mice. RT-qPCR analyses carried out in all groups of animals confirmed that expression of 8 different circadian genes was modified in a dose-dependent manner. For some genes, a significant modification was observed for dosages as low as 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} ng/l. Drug mixture and obesity presented an additive effect on circadian gene expression. These data were validated in an independent study performed in female mice. Thus, our study showed that chronic exposure to trace pharmaceuticals disturbed hepatic expression of circadian genes, particularly in obese mice. Because some of the 11 drugs can be found in drinking water at such concentrations (e.g. acetaminophen, carbamazepine, ibuprofen) our data could be relevant in environmental toxicology, especially for obese individuals exposed to these contaminants. - Highlights: • The contamination of drinking water with drugs may have harmful effects on health. • Some drugs can be more hepatotoxic in the context of obesity and fatty liver. • Effects of chronic exposure of trace drugs were studied in lean and obese mouse liver. Drugs and obesity present additive effects on circadian gene expression and toxicity. • Trace

  15. Parallel analysis of Arabidopsis circadian clock mutants reveals different scales of transcriptome and proteome regulation

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Alexander; Coman, Diana; Walsh, Sean; Flis, Anna; Stitt, Mark; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates physiological processes central to growth and survival. To date, most plant circadian clock studies have relied on diurnal transcriptome changes to elucidate molecular connections between the circadian clock and observable phenotypes in wild-type plants. Here, we have integrated RNA-sequencing and protein mass spectrometry data to comparatively analyse the lhycca1, prr7prr9, gi and toc1 circadian clock mutant rosette at the end of day and end of night. Each mutant affects specific sets of genes and proteins, suggesting that the circadian clock regulation is modular. Furthermore, each circadian clock mutant maintains its own dynamically fluctuating transcriptome and proteome profile specific to subcellular compartments. Most of the measured protein levels do not correlate with changes in their corresponding transcripts. Transcripts and proteins that have coordinated changes in abundance are enriched for carbohydrate- and cold-responsive genes. Transcriptome changes in all four circadian clock mutants also affect genes encoding starch degradation enzymes, transcription factors and protein kinases. The comprehensive transcriptome and proteome datasets demonstrate that future system-driven research of the circadian clock requires multi-level experimental approaches. Our work also shows that further work is needed to elucidate the roles of post-translational modifications and protein degradation in the regulation of clock-related processes. PMID:28250106

  16. Circadian Rhythms and Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Lauren D.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review provides a conceptual introduction to sleep and circadian research in psychiatric illness, and discusses recent experimental and intervention findings in this area. Recent Findings In this review, studies published since January 2011 on circadian disturbance and psychiatric illness have been summarized. Summary Exciting new results have increasingly utilized objective and validated instruments to measure the circadian system in experimental studies. Since 2011, treatment research has still predominantly utilized self-report measures as outcome variables. However, research in the treatment domain for sleep/circadian disturbances comorbid with psychiatric illness has advanced the field in its work to broaden the validation of existing sleep treatments to additional patient populations with comorbid sleep/circadian disruptions, address how to increase access to and affordability of treatment for sleep and circadian dysfunction for patients with psychiatric disorders, and how to combine psychosocial treatments with psychopharmacology to optimize treatment outcomes. PMID:24060916

  17. Chromatin Dynamics of Circadian Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Arnal, Lorena; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The molecular circadian clock orchestrates the daily cyclical expression of thousands of genes. Disruption of this transcriptional program leads to a variety of pathologies, including insomnia, depression and metabolic disorders. Circadian rhythms in gene expression rely on specific chromatin transitions which are ultimately coordinated by the molecular clock. As a consequence, a highly plastic and dynamic circadian epigenome can be delineated across different tissues and cell types. Intriguingly, genome topology appears to coordinate cyclic transcription at circadian interactomes, in which circadian genes are in physical contact within the cell nucleus in a time-specific manner. Moreover, the clock machinery shows functional interplays with key metabolic regulators, thereby connecting the circadian epigenome to cellular metabolism. Unraveling the molecular aspects of such interplays is likely to reveal new therapeutic strategies towards the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27014564

  18. Sleep and circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.

    1991-01-01

    Three interacting processes are involved in the preservation of circadian rhythms: (1) endogenous rhythm generation mechanisms, (2) entrainment mechanisms to keep these rhythms 'on track', and (3) exogenous masking processes stemming from changes in environment and bahavior. These processes, particularly the latter two, can be dramatically affected in individuals of advanced age and in space travelers, with a consequent disruption in sleep and daytime functioning. This paper presents results of a phase-shift experiment investigating the age-related effects of the exogeneous component of circadian rhythms in various physiological and psychological functions by comparing these functions in middle aged and old subjects. Dramatic differences were found between the two age groups in measures of sleep, mood, activation, and performance efficiency.

  19. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marcos G

    2016-07-13

    Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity.

  20. The Neurobiology of Circadian Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Sollars, Patricia J; Pickard, Gary E

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition that the coordinated timing of behavioral, physiologic, and metabolic circadian rhythms is a requirement for a healthy body and mind. In mammals, the primary circadian oscillator is the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is responsible for circadian coordination throughout the organism. Temporal homeostasis is recognized as a complex interplay between rhythmic clock gene expression in brain regions outside the SCN and in peripheral organs. Abnormalities in this intricate circadian orchestration may alter sleep patterns and contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders.

  1. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos G.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity. PMID:27420105

  2. Circadian Timing in the Lung; A Specific Role for Bronchiolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, J. E.; Beesley, S.; Plumb, J.; Singh, D.; Farrow, S.; Ray, D. W.; Loudon, A. S. I.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the core circadian oscillator, located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, numerous peripheral tissues possess self-sustaining circadian timers. In vivo these are entrained and temporally synchronized by signals conveyed from the core oscillator. In the present study, we examine circadian timing in the lung, determine the cellular localization of core clock proteins in both mouse and human lung tissue, and establish the effects of glucocorticoids (widely used in the treatment of asthma) on the pulmonary clock. Using organotypic lung slices prepared from transgenic mPER2::Luc mice, luciferase levels, which report PER2 expression, were measured over a number of days. We demonstrate a robust circadian rhythm in the mouse lung that is responsive to glucocorticoids. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to localize specific expression of core clock proteins, and the glucocorticoid receptor, to the epithelial cells lining the bronchioles in both mouse and human lung. In the mouse, these were established to be Clara cells. Murine Clara cells retained circadian rhythmicity when grown as a pure population in culture. Furthermore, selective ablation of Clara cells resulted in the loss of circadian rhythm in lung slices, demonstrating the importance of this cell type in maintaining overall pulmonary circadian rhythmicity. In summary, we demonstrate that Clara cells are critical for maintaining coherent circadian oscillations in lung tissue. Their coexpression of the glucocorticoid receptor and core clock components establishes them as a likely interface between humoral suprachiasmatic nucleus output and circadian lung physiology. PMID:18787022

  3. The clock gene cycle plays an important role in the circadian clock of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Uryu, Outa; Karpova, Svetlana G; Tomioka, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    To dissect the molecular oscillatory mechanism of the circadian clock in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, we have cloned a cDNA of the clock gene cycle (Gb'cyc) and analyzed its structure and function. Gb'cyc contains four functional domains, i.e. bHLH, PAS-A, PAS-B and BCTR domains, and is expressed rhythmically in light dark cycles, peaking at mid night. The RNA interference (RNAi) of Clock (Gb'Clk) and period (Gb'per) reduced the Gb'cyc mRNA levels and abolished the rhythmic expression, suggesting that the rhythmic expression of Gb'cyc is regulated by a mechanism including Gb'Clk and Gb'per. These features are more similar to those of mammalian orthologue of cyc (Bmal1) than those of Drosophila cyc. A single treatment with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of Gb'cyc effectively knocked down the Gb'cyc mRNA level and abolished its rhythmic expression. The cyc RNAi failed to disrupt the locomotor rhythm, but lengthened its free-running period in constant darkness (DD). It is thus likely that Gb'cyc is involved in the circadian clock machinery of the cricket. The cyc RNAi crickets showed a rhythmic expression of Gb'per and timeless (Gb'tim) in the optic lobe in DD, explaining the persistence of the locomotor rhythm. Surprisingly, cyc RNAi revealed a rhythmic expression of Gb'Clk in DD which is otherwise rather constitutively expressed in the optic lobe. These facts suggest that the cricket might have a unique clock oscillatory mechanism in which both Gb'cyc and Gb'Clk are rhythmically controlled and that under abundant expression of Gb'cyc the rhythmic expression of Gb'Clk may be concealed.

  4. Cell type-specific functions of period genes revealed by novel adipocyte and hepatocyte circadian clock models.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Xu, Haiyan; Khan, Sanjoy K; Shen, Yang; Gitis, Paula J; Welsh, David K; Hogenesch, John B; Liu, Andrew C

    2014-04-01

    In animals, circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior result from coherent rhythmic interactions between clocks in the brain and those throughout the body. Despite the many tissue specific clocks, most understanding of the molecular core clock mechanism comes from studies of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and a few other cell types. Here we report establishment and genetic characterization of three cell-autonomous mouse clock models: 3T3 fibroblasts, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and MMH-D3 hepatocytes. Each model is genetically tractable and has an integrated luciferase reporter that allows for longitudinal luminescence recording of rhythmic clock gene expression using an inexpensive off-the-shelf microplate reader. To test these cellular models, we generated a library of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against a panel of known clock genes and evaluated their impact on circadian rhythms. Knockdown of Bmal1, Clock, Cry1, and Cry2 each resulted in similar phenotypes in all three models, consistent with previous studies. However, we observed cell type-specific knockdown phenotypes for the Period and Rev-Erb families of clock genes. In particular, Per1 and Per2, which have strong behavioral effects in knockout mice, appear to play different roles in regulating period length and amplitude in these peripheral systems. Per3, which has relatively modest behavioral effects in knockout mice, substantially affects period length in the three cellular models and in dissociated SCN neurons. In summary, this study establishes new cell-autonomous clock models that are of particular relevance to metabolism and suitable for screening for clock modifiers, and reveals previously under-appreciated cell type-specific functions of clock genes.

  5. The Drosophila Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase LAR Is Required for Development of Circadian Pacemaker Neuron Processes That Support Rhythmic Activity in Constant Darkness But Not during Light/Dark Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Parul

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, a transcriptional feedback loop that is activated by CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) complexes and repressed by PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) complexes keeps circadian time. The timing of CLK-CYC activation and PER-TIM repression is regulated post-translationally, in part through rhythmic phosphorylation of CLK, PER, and TIM. Although kinases that control PER, TIM, and CLK levels, activity, and/or subcellular localization have been identified, less is known about phosphatases that control clock protein dephosphorylation. To identify clock-relevant phosphatases, clock-cell-specific RNAi knockdowns of Drosophila phosphatases were screened for altered activity rhythms. One phosphatase that was identified, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase leukocyte-antigen-related (LAR), abolished activity rhythms in constant darkness (DD) without disrupting the timekeeping mechanism in brain pacemaker neurons. However, expression of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), which mediates pacemaker neuron synchrony and output, is eliminated in the dorsal projections from small ventral lateral (sLNv) pacemaker neurons when Lar expression is knocked down during development, but not in adults. Loss of Lar function eliminates sLNv dorsal projections, but PDF expression persists in sLNv and large ventral lateral neuron cell bodies and their remaining projections. In contrast to the defects in lights-on and lights-off anticipatory activity seen in flies that lack PDF, Lar RNAi knockdown flies anticipate the lights-on and lights-off transition normally. Our results demonstrate that Lar is required for sLNv dorsal projection development and suggest that PDF expression in LNv cell bodies and their remaining projections mediate anticipation of the lights-on and lights-off transitions during a light/dark cycle. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In animals, circadian clocks drive daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. Because key circadian

  6. Crystal Structure of the Redox-Active Cofactor Dibromothymoquinone Bound to Circadian Clock Protein KaiA and Structural Basis for Dibromothymoquinone's Ability to Prevent Stimulation of KaiC Phosphorylation by KaiA

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Sidiqi, Said K.; Egli, Martin

    2013-09-19

    KaiA protein that stimulates KaiC phosphorylation in the cyanobacterial circadian clock was recently shown to be destabilized by dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB), thus revealing KaiA as a sensor of the plastoquinone (PQ) redox state and suggesting an indirect control of the clock by light through PQ redox changes. Here we show using X-ray crystallography that several DBMIBs are bound to KaiA dimer. Some binding modes are consistent with oligomerization of N-terminal KaiA pseudoreceiver domains and/or reduced interdomain flexibility. DBMIB bound to the C-terminal KaiA (C-KaiA) domain and limited stimulation of KaiC kinase activity by C-KaiA in the presence of DBMIB demonstrate that the cofactor may weakly inhibit KaiA-KaiC binding.

  7. The Catalytic and Non-catalytic Functions of the Brahma Chromatin-Remodeling Protein Collaborate to Fine-Tune Circadian Transcription in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Rosanna S.; Li, Ying H.; Lei, Anna J.; Edery, Isaac; Chiu, Joanna C.

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in gene expression play a critical role in the progression of circadian clocks, and are under regulation by transcription factor binding, histone modifications, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment and elongation, and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Although previous studies have shown that clock-controlled genes exhibit rhythmic chromatin modifications, less is known about the functions performed by chromatin remodelers in animal clockwork. Here we have identified the Brahma (Brm) complex as a regulator of the Drosophila clock. In Drosophila, CLOCK (CLK) is the master transcriptional activator driving cyclical gene expression by participating in an auto-inhibitory feedback loop that involves stimulating the expression of the main negative regulators, period (per) and timeless (tim). BRM functions catalytically to increase nucleosome density at the promoters of per and tim, creating an overall restrictive chromatin landscape to limit transcriptional output during the active phase of cycling gene expression. In addition, the non-catalytic function of BRM regulates the level and binding of CLK to target promoters and maintains transient RNAPII stalling at the per promoter, likely by recruiting repressive and pausing factors. By disentangling its catalytic versus non-catalytic functions at the promoters of CLK target genes, we uncovered a multi-leveled mechanism in which BRM fine-tunes circadian transcription. PMID:26132408

  8. Modelling Biological Clocks with Bio-PEPA: Stochasticity and Robustness for the Neurospora crassa Circadian Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, Ozgur E.; Ciocchetta, Federica; Degasperi, Andrea; Guerriero, Maria Luisa

    Circadian clocks are biochemical networks, present in nearly all living organisms, whose function is to regulate the expression of specific mRNAs and proteins to synchronise rhythms of metabolism, physiology and behaviour to the 24 hour day/night cycle. Because of their experimental tractability and biological significance, circadian clocks have been the subject of a number of computational modelling studies.

  9. Temperature compensation and temperature sensation in the circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Philip B.; Young, Michael W.; Siggia, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    All known circadian clocks have an endogenous period that is remarkably insensitive to temperature, a property known as temperature compensation, while at the same time being readily entrained by a diurnal temperature oscillation. Although temperature compensation and entrainment are defining features of circadian clocks, their mechanisms remain poorly understood. Most models presume that multiple steps in the circadian cycle are temperature-dependent, thus facilitating temperature entrainment, but then insist that the effect of changes around the cycle sums to zero to enforce temperature compensation. An alternative theory proposes that the circadian oscillator evolved from an adaptive temperature sensor: a gene circuit that responds only to temperature changes. This theory implies that temperature changes should linearly rescale the amplitudes of clock component oscillations but leave phase relationships and shapes unchanged. We show using timeless luciferase reporter measurements and Western blots against TIMELESS protein that this prediction is satisfied by the Drosophila circadian clock. We also review evidence for pathways that couple temperature to the circadian clock, and show previously unidentified evidence for coupling between the Drosophila clock and the heat-shock pathway. PMID:26578788

  10. [Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (circadian rhythm sleep disorder)].

    PubMed

    Tagaya, Hirokuni; Murayama, Norio; Fukase, Yuko

    2015-06-01

    The role of the circadian system is forecasting the daily and yearly change of environment. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (CRSWD) is defined as physical and social impairment caused by misalignment between circadian rhythm and desirable social schedule. CRSWDs are induced by medical or environmental factors as well as dysfunctions of circadian system. Clinicians should be aware that sleep-inducing medications, restless legs syndrome, delirium and less obedience to social schedule are frequent cause of CRSWD among elderly. Bright light therapy and orally administered small dose of melatonin or melatonin agonist at proper circadian phase are recommended treatments. Sleep-inducing medications should not be considered as CRSWD treatments, especially to elderly.

  11. Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  12. Circadian gene variants in cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans as diurnal beings are active during the day and rest at night. This daily oscillation of behavior and physiology is driven by an endogenous circadian clock not environmental cues. In modern societies, changes in lifestyle have led to a frequent disruption of the endogenous circadian homeostas...

  13. Melatonin, Circadian Rhythms, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, Irina V.; Tucci, Valter

    2003-05-01

    Experimental data show a close relationship among melatonin, circadian rhythms, and sleep. Low-dose melatonin treatment, increasing circulating melatonin levels to those normally observed at night, promotes sleep onset and sleep maintenance without changing sleep architecture. Melatonin treatment can also advance or delay the phase of the circadian clock if administered in the evening or in the morning, respectively. If used in physiologic doses and at appropriate times, melatonin can be helpful for those suffering from insomnia or circadian rhythm disorders. This may be especially beneficial for individuals with low melatonin production, which is established by measuring individual blood or saliva melatonin levels. However, high melatonin doses (over 0.3 mg) may cause side effects and disrupt the delicate mechanism of the circadian system, dissociating mutually dependent circadian body rhythms. A misleading labeling of the hormone melatonin as a "food supplement" and lack of quality control over melatonin preparations on the market continue to be of serious concern.

  14. Circadian temperature variation and ageing.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, an attempt is made to summarize current knowledge concerning the daily body temperature rhythm and its age-dependent alterations. Homeostatic and circadian control mechanisms are considered. Special attention is paid to the circadian system, as the mechanisms of autonomic control are the topic of another contribution to this special issue. Also, the interactions of the core body temperature rhythm with other circadian functions are discussed in detail as they constitute an essential part of the internal temporal order of living systems and thus guarantee their optimal functioning. In the second part of the paper, age-dependent changes in the circadian body temperature rhythm and their putative causes, considering circadian and homeostatic components, are described. Consequences for health and fitness and some possibilities to prevent adverse effect are mentioned in the final section.

  15. Circadian rhythms. Atomic-scale origins of slowness in the cyanobacterial circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Hiyama, Takuya B; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Son, Seyoung; Mori, Toshifumi; Saito, Shinji; Osako, Masato; Wolanin, Julie; Yamashita, Eiki; Kondo, Takao; Akiyama, Shuji

    2015-07-17

    Circadian clocks generate slow and ordered cellular dynamics but consist of fast-moving bio-macromolecules; consequently, the origins of the overall slowness remain unclear. We identified the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) catalytic region [adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)] in the amino-terminal half of the clock protein KaiC as the minimal pacemaker that controls the in vivo frequency of the cyanobacterial clock. Crystal structures of the ATPase revealed that the slowness of this ATPase arises from sequestration of a lytic water molecule in an unfavorable position and coupling of ATP hydrolysis to a peptide isomerization with high activation energy. The slow ATPase is coupled with another ATPase catalyzing autodephosphorylation in the carboxyl-terminal half of KaiC, yielding the circadian response frequency of intermolecular interactions with other clock-related proteins that influences the transcription and translation cycle.

  16. Crosstalk between components of circadian and metabolic cycles in mammals.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gad; Schibler, Ueli

    2011-02-02

    In mammals, most metabolic processes are influenced by biological clocks and feeding rhythms. The mechanisms that couple metabolism to circadian oscillators are just emerging. NAD-dependent enzymes (e.g., Sirtuins and poly[ADP-ribose] polymerases), redox- and/or temperature-dependent transcription factors (e.g., CLOCK, NPAS2, and HSF1), nutrient-sensing transcriptional regulatory proteins (e.g., CREB-CBP-CRCT2, FOXO-p300, nuclear receptors, PGC-1, and SP1 family members) and protein kinases (e.g., AMPK), are plausible candidates for conveying a cell's metabolic state to the core clock circuitry. The intertwining between these acute regulators and circadian clock components is so tight that the discrimination between metabolic and circadian oscillations may be somewhat arbitrary.

  17. Circadian Rhythms in Adipose Tissue Physiology.

    PubMed

    Kiehn, Jana-Thabea; Tsang, Anthony H; Heyde, Isabel; Leinweber, Brinja; Kolbe, Isa; Leliavski, Alexei; Oster, Henrik

    2017-03-16

    The different types of adipose tissues fulfill a wide range of biological functions-from energy storage to hormone secretion and thermogenesis-many of which show pronounced variations over the course of the day. Such 24-h rhythms in physiology and behavior are coordinated by endogenous circadian clocks found in all tissues and cells, including adipocytes. At the molecular level, these clocks are based on interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprised of a set of clock genes/proteins. Tissue-specific clock-controlled transcriptional programs translate time-of-day information into physiologically relevant signals. In adipose tissues, clock gene control has been documented for adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, lipid metabolism as well as endocrine function and other adipose oscillations are under control of systemic signals tied to endocrine, neuronal, or behavioral rhythms. Circadian rhythm disruption, for example, by night shift work or through genetic alterations, is associated with changes in adipocyte metabolism and hormone secretion. At the same time, adipose metabolic state feeds back to central and peripheral clocks, adjusting behavioral and physiological rhythms. In this overview article, we summarize our current knowledge about the crosstalk between circadian clocks and energy metabolism with a focus on adipose physiology. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:383-427, 2017.

  18. Adaptive Temperature Compensation in Circadian Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    François, Paul; Despierre, Nicolas; Siggia, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    A temperature independent period and temperature entrainment are two defining features of circadian oscillators. A default model of distributed temperature compensation satisfies these basic facts yet is not easily reconciled with other properties of circadian clocks, such as many mutants with altered but temperature compensated periods. The default model also suggests that the shape of the circadian limit cycle and the associated phase response curves (PRC) will vary since the average concentrations of clock proteins change with temperature. We propose an alternative class of models where the twin properties of a fixed period and entrainment are structural and arise from an underlying adaptive system that buffers temperature changes. These models are distinguished by a PRC whose shape is temperature independent and orbits whose extrema are temperature independent. They are readily evolved by local, hill climbing, optimization of gene networks for a common quality measure of biological clocks, phase anticipation. Interestingly a standard realization of the Goodwin model for temperature compensation displays properties of adaptive rather than distributed temperature compensation. PMID:22807663

  19. Metabolic Cycles in Yeast Share Features Conserved among Circadian Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Causton, Helen C; Feeney, Kevin A; Ziegler, Christine A; O'Neill, John S

    2015-04-20

    Cell-autonomous circadian rhythms allow organisms to temporally orchestrate their internal state to anticipate and/or resonate with the external environment. Although ∼24-hr periodicity is observed across aerobic eukaryotes, the central mechanism has been hard to dissect because few simple models exist, and known clock proteins are not conserved across phylogenetic kingdoms. In contrast, contributions to circadian rhythmicity made by a handful of post-translational mechanisms, such as phosphorylation of clock proteins by casein kinase 1 (CK1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), appear conserved among phyla. These kinases have many other essential cellular functions and are better conserved in their contribution to timekeeping than any of the clock proteins they phosphorylate. Rhythmic oscillations in cellular redox state are another universal feature of circadian timekeeping, e.g., over-oxidation cycles of abundant peroxiredoxin proteins. Here, we use comparative chronobiology to distinguish fundamental clock mechanisms from species and/or tissue-specific adaptations and thereby identify features shared between circadian rhythms in mammalian cells and non-circadian temperature-compensated respiratory oscillations in budding yeast. We find that both types of oscillations are coupled with the cell division cycle, exhibit period determination by CK1 and GSK3, and have peroxiredoxin over-oxidation cycles. We also explore how peroxiredoxins contribute to YROs. Our data point to common mechanisms underlying both YROs and circadian rhythms and suggest two interpretations: either certain biochemical systems are simply permissive for cellular oscillations (with frequencies from hours to days) or this commonality arose via divergence from an ancestral cellular clock.

  20. Circadian gene variants in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kettner, Nicole M.; Katchy, Chinenye A.; Fu, Loning

    2014-01-01

    Humans as diurnal beings are active during the day and rest at night. This daily oscillation of behavior and physiology is driven by an endogenous circadian clock not environmental cues. In modern societies, changes in lifestyle have led to a frequent disruption of the endogenous circadian homeostasis leading to increased risk of various diseases including cancer. The clock is operated by the feedback loops of circadian genes and controls daily physiology by coupling cell proliferation and metabolism, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis in peripheral tissues with physical activity, energy homeostasis, immune and neuroendocrine functions at the organismal level. Recent studies have revealed that defects in circadian genes due to targeted gene ablation in animal models or single nucleotide polymorphism, deletion, deregulation and/or epigenetic silencing in humans are closely associated with increased risk of cancer. In addition, disruption of circadian rhythm can disrupt the molecular clock in peripheral tissues in the absence of circadian gene mutations. Circadian disruption has recently been recognized as an independent cancer risk factor. Further study of the mechanism of clock-controlled tumor suppression will have a significant impact on human health by improving the efficiencies of cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:24901356

  1. Phenotyping Circadian Rhythms in Mice.

    PubMed

    Eckel-Mahan, Kristin; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Circadian rhythms take place with a periodicity of 24 hr, temporally following the rotation of the earth around its axis. Examples of circadian rhythms are the sleep/wake cycle, feeding, and hormone secretion. Light powerfully entrains the mammalian clock and assists in keeping animals synchronized to the 24-hour cycle of the earth by activating specific neurons in the "central pacemaker" of the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Absolute periodicity of an animal can deviate slightly from 24 hr as manifest when an animal is placed into constant dark or "free-running" conditions. Simple measurements of an organism's activity in free-running conditions reveal its intrinsic circadian period. Mice are a particularly useful model for studying circadian rhythmicity due to the ease of genetic manipulation, thus identifying molecular contributors to rhythmicity. Furthermore, their small size allows for monitoring locomotion or activity in their homecage environment with relative ease. Several tasks commonly used to analyze circadian periodicity and plasticity in mice are presented here including the process of entrainment, determination of tau (period length) in free-running conditions, determination of circadian periodicity in response to light disruption (e.g., jet lag studies), and evaluation of clock plasticity in non-24-hour conditions (T-cycles). Studying the properties of circadian periods such as their phase, amplitude, and length in response to photic perturbation, can be particularly useful in understanding how humans respond to jet lag, night shifts, rotating shifts, or other transient or chronic disruption of environmental surroundings.

  2. Statistical inference of regulatory networks for circadian regulation.

    PubMed

    Aderhold, Andrej; Husmeier, Dirk; Grzegorczyk, Marco

    2014-06-01

    We assess the accuracy of various state-of-the-art statistics and machine learning methods for reconstructing gene and protein regulatory networks in the context of circadian regulation. Our study draws on the increasing availability of gene expression and protein concentration time series for key circadian clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition, gene expression and protein concentration time series are simulated from a recently published regulatory network of the circadian clock in A. thaliana, in which protein and gene interactions are described by a Markov jump process based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. We closely follow recent experimental protocols, including the entrainment of seedlings to different light-dark cycles and the knock-out of various key regulatory genes. Our study provides relative network reconstruction accuracy scores for a critical comparative performance evaluation, and sheds light on a series of highly relevant questions: it quantifies the influence of systematically missing values related to unknown protein concentrations and mRNA transcription rates, it investigates the dependence of the performance on the network topology and the degree of recurrency, it provides deeper insight into when and why non-linear methods fail to outperform linear ones, it offers improved guidelines on parameter settings in different inference procedures, and it suggests new hypotheses about the structure of the central circadian gene regulatory network in A. thaliana.

  3. Neurobiology of Circadian Rhythm Regulation.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Turek, Fred W

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few decades, multilevel research has elucidated the basic neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and molecular neurobiology of the master circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The circadian timing system is composed of a large number of cellular oscillators located in the SCN, in non-SCN brain structures, and throughout the body. Cellular-level oscillations are generated by a molecular feedback loop in which circadian clock genes rhythmically regulate their own transcription, as well as that of hundreds of clock-controlled genes. The maintenance of proper coordination within this network of cellular- and tissue-level clocks is essential for health and well-being.

  4. Endocrine Effects of Circadian Disruption.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, provoked by artificial lighting at night, inconsistent sleep-wake schedules, and transmeridian air travel, is increasingly prevalent in modern society. Desynchrony of biological rhythms from environmental light cycles has dramatic consequences for human health. In particular, disrupting homeostatic oscillations in endocrine tissues and the hormones that these tissues regulate can have cascading effects on physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic disruption of circadian organization of endocrine function may lead to metabolic, reproductive, sleep, and mood disorders. This review discusses circadian control of endocrine systems and the consequences of distorting rhythmicity of these systems.

  5. Nocturia: The circadian voiding disorder

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do

    2016-01-01

    Nocturia is a prevalent condition of waking to void during the night. The concept of nocturia has evolved from being a symptomatic aspect of disease associated with the prostate or bladder to a form of lower urinary tract disorder. However, recent advances in circadian biology and sleep science suggest that it might be important to consider nocturia as a form of circadian dysfunction. In the current review, nocturia is reexamined with an introduction to sleep disorders and recent findings in circadian biology in an attempt to highlight the importance of rediscovering nocturia as a problem of chronobiology. PMID:27195315

  6. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show—by using two 8-d laboratory protocols—that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8–15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3–29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26858430

  7. Molecular targets for small-molecule modulators of circadian clocks

    PubMed Central

    He, Baokun; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Circadian clocks are endogenous timing systems that regulate various aspects of mammalian metabolism, physiology and behavior. Traditional chronotherapy refers to the administration of drugs in a defined circadian time window to achieve optimal pharmacokinetic and therapeutic efficacies. In recent years, substantial efforts have been dedicated to developing novel small-molecule modulators of circadian clocks. Methods Here, we review the recent progress in the identification of molecular targets of small-molecule clock modulators and their efficacies in clock-related disorders. Specifically, we examine the clock components and regulatory factors as possible molecular targets of small molecules, and we review several key clock-related disorders as promising venues for testing the preventive/therapeutic efficacies of these small molecules. Finally, we also discuss circadian regulation of drug metabolism. Results Small molecules can modulate the period, phase and/or amplitude of the circadian cycle. Core clock proteins, nuclear hormone receptors, and clock-related kinases and other epigenetic regulators are promising molecular targets for small molecules. Through these targets small molecules exert protective effects against clock-related disorders including the metabolic syndrome, immune disorders, sleep disorders and cancer. Small molecules can also modulate circadian drug metabolism and response to existing therapeutics. Conclusion Small-molecule clock modulators target clock components or diverse cellular pathways that functionally impinge upon the clock. Target identification of new small-molecule modulators will deepen our understanding of key regulatory nodes in the circadian network. Studies of clock modulators will facilitate their therapeutic applications, alone or in combination, for clock-related diseases. PMID:26750111

  8. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-08

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk.

  9. Chromatin remodeling as a mechanism for circadian prolactin transcription: rhythmic NONO and SFPQ recruitment to HLTF.

    PubMed

    Guillaumond, Fabienne; Boyer, Benedicte; Becquet, Denis; Guillen, Severine; Kuhn, Lauriane; Garin, Jerome; Belghazi, Maya; Bosler, Olivier; Franc, Jean-Louis; François-Bellan, Anne-Marie

    2011-08-01

    Most clock-controlled genes (CCGs) lack the specific E-box response element necessary for direct circadian regulation. This is the case for the prolactin (Prl) gene, the expression of which oscillates in individual lactotrope pituitary cells. To characterize the processes underlying this oscillation, we used a lactotrope cell line (GH4C1 cells). In these cells, Prl gene expression fluctuated significantly during 24 h (P=0.0418). Circadian Prl transcription depended on an interaction between the pituitary-specific transcription factor, PIT-1, and the helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler, shown here to bind the Prl promoter on an E-box that differs from the specific E-box preferentially bound by clock proteins. Circadian Prl transcription was further accompanied by marked daily chromatin transitions. While neither HLTF nor PIT-1 was rhythmically expressed, NONO and SFPQ, identified as HLTF-associated proteins by mass spectrometry, displayed a circadian pattern and bound rhythmically to the Prl promoter. Furthermore, NONO and SFPQ were functionally involved in circadian Prl transcription since overexpression of both proteins greatly reduced Prl promoter activity (P<0.001) and disrupted its circadian pattern. A mechanism involving a rhythm in paraspeckle protein recruitment is proposed to explain how the core oscillator can generate a circadian pattern of CCGs lacking the specific E-box response element.

  10. Circadian oscillations of a transcript encoding a germin-like protein that is associated with cell walls in young leaves of the long-day plant Sinapis alba L.

    PubMed Central

    Heintzen, C; Fischer, R; Melzer, S; Kappeler, K; Apel, K; Staiger, D

    1994-01-01

    As part of an attempt to analyze rhythmic phenomena in the long-day plant Sinapis alba L. at the molecular level, we have searched for mRNAs whose concentration varies as a function of time of day. Differential screening of a cDNA library established from mRNAs expressed at the end of the daily light phase with probes representing transcripts expressed predominantly in the morning or evening has identified one major transcript. The cDNA, Saglp, encodes a predicted 22-kD protein with an N-terminal signal sequence. The protein shows homology to germin, a protein expressed in wheat embryos after onset of germination. The Saglp mRNA level undergoes circadian oscillations in light/dark cycles with maxima between 8 and 12 PM (zeitgeber time [zt]12-zt16) and minima around 8 PM (zt0). In plants grown from seed in constant light, transcript levels are constitutive. In constant light regular temperature shifts function as an alternative "zeitgeber" to initiate Saglp transcript oscillations. At the cellular level, Saglp transcripts are expressed in the epidermis and spongy parenchyma of young leaves, and in distinct regions of the epidermis and the cortex in stems and petioles. Strong signals are observed in these tissues around zt12, whereas little expression is found around zt20, suggesting that the underlying oscillatory mechanism(s) operate(s) synchronously in different plant organs. The SaGLP steady-state protein concentration remains constant over light/dark cycles. Immunogold labeling shows that the SaGLP protein is associated with primary cell walls. PMID:7824658

  11. Role of cardiomyocyte circadian clock in myocardial metabolic adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marked circadian rhythmicities in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology exist. The cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been linked to circadian rhythms in myocardial gene expression, metabolism, and contractile function. For instance, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock is essential f...

  12. Identification of the molecular components of a Tigriopus californicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, Katherine T; Christie, Andrew E

    2014-12-01

    Copepods of the genus Tigriopus have been proposed as marine models for investigations of environmental perturbation. One rapidly increasing anthropogenic stressor for intertidal organisms is light pollution. Given the sensitivity of circadian rhythms to exogenous light, the genes/proteins of a Tigriopus circadian pacemaker represent a potential system for investigating the influences of artificial light sources on circadian behavior in an intertidal species. Here, the molecular components of a putative Tigriopus californicus circadian clock were identified using publicly accessible transcriptome data; the recently deduced circadian proteins of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were used as a reference. Transcripts encoding homologs of all commonly recognized ancestral arthropod core clock proteins were identified (i.e. CLOCK, CRYPTOCHROME 2, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS), as were ones encoding proteins likely to modulate the core clock (i.e. CASEIN KINASE II, CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 1, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A, SHAGGY, SUPERNUMERARY LIMBS and VRILLE) or to act as inputs to it (i.e. CRYPTOCHROME 1). PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 was the only circadian-associated protein not identified in Tigriopus; it appears absent in Calanus too. These data represent just the third full set of molecular components for a crustacean circadian pacemaker (Daphnia pulex and C. finmarchicus previously), and only the second obtained from transcribed sequences (C. finmarchicus previously). Given Tigriopus' proposed status as a model for investigating the influences of anthropogenic stressors in the marine environment, these data provide the first suite of gene/protein targets for understanding how light pollution may influence circadian physiology and behavior in an intertidal organism.

  13. Circadian Regulation of Cellular Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Peek, C.B; Ramsey, K.M; Levine, D.C; Marcheva, B; Perelis, M; Bass, J

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock synchronizes behavioral and physiological processes on a daily basis in anticipation of the light–dark cycle. In mammals, molecular clocks are present in both the central pacemaker neurons and in nearly all peripheral tissues. Clock transcription factors in metabolic tissues coordinate metabolic fuel utilization and storage with alternating periods of feeding and fasting corresponding to the rest–activity cycle. In vitro and in vivo biochemical approaches have led to the discovery of mechanisms underlying the interplay between the molecular clock and the metabolic networks. For example, recent studies have demonstrated that the circadian clock controls rhythmic synthesis of the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and activity of NAD+-dependent sirtuin deacetylase enzymes to regulate mitochondrial function across the circadian cycle. In this chapter, we review current state-of-the-art methods to analyze circadian cycles in mitochondrial bioenergetics, glycolysis, and nucleotide metabolism in both cell-based and animal models. PMID:25707277

  14. Impact of circadian nuclear receptor REV-ERBα on midbrain dopamine production and mood regulation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sooyoung; Lee, Eun Jeong; Yun, Seongsik; Choe, Han Kyoung; Park, Seong-Beom; Son, Hyo Jin; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Dluzen, Dean E; Lee, Inah; Hwang, Onyou; Son, Gi Hoon; Kim, Kyungjin

    2014-05-08

    The circadian nature of mood and its dysfunction in affective disorders is well recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we show that the circadian nuclear receptor REV-ERBα, which is associated with bipolar disorder, impacts midbrain dopamine production and mood-related behavior in mice. Genetic deletion of the Rev-erbα gene or pharmacological inhibition of REV-ERBα activity in the ventral midbrain induced mania-like behavior in association with a central hyperdopaminergic state. Also, REV-ERBα repressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene transcription via competition with nuclear receptor-related 1 protein (NURR1), another nuclear receptor crucial for dopaminergic neuronal function, thereby driving circadian TH expression through a target-dependent antagonistic mechanism. In conclusion, we identified a molecular connection between the circadian timing system and mood regulation, suggesting that REV-ERBα could be targeting in the treatment of circadian rhythm-related affective disorders.

  15. Cross-talk between circadian clocks, sleep-wake cycles, and metabolic networks: Dispelling the darkness.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sandipan; Reddy, Akhilesh B

    2016-04-01

    Integration of knowledge concerning circadian rhythms, metabolic networks, and sleep-wake cycles is imperative for unraveling the mysteries of biological cycles and their underlying mechanisms. During the last decade, enormous progress in circadian biology research has provided a plethora of new insights into the molecular architecture of circadian clocks. However, the recent identification of autonomous redox oscillations in cells has expanded our view of the clockwork beyond conventional transcription/translation feedback loop models, which have been dominant since the first circadian period mutants were identified in fruit fly. Consequently, non-transcriptional timekeeping mechanisms have been proposed, and the antioxidant peroxiredoxin proteins have been identified as conserved markers for 24-hour rhythms. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of interdependencies amongst circadian rhythms, sleep homeostasis, redox cycles, and other cellular metabolic networks. We speculate that systems-level investigations implementing integrated multi-omics approaches could provide novel mechanistic insights into the connectivity between daily cycles and metabolic systems.

  16. Analysis of circadian rhythms in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Paulose, Jiffin K; Rucker, Edmund B; Cassone, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Recent attention on the early development of circadian rhythms has yielded several avenues of potential study regarding molecular and physiological rhythms in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their derivatives. While general guidelines of experimental design are-as always-applicable, there are certain idiosyncrasies with respect to experiments involving circadian rhythms that will be addressed. ESCs provide a number of challenges to the circadian biologist: growth rates are normally much higher than in established cell culture systems, the cells' innate drive towards differentiation and the lack of known synchronizing input pathways are a few examples. Some of these challenges can be addressed post hoc, such as normalization to total RNA or protein for transcript abundance studies. Most others, as outlined here, require special handling of the samples before and during experimentation in order to preserve any potential circadian oscillation that is present. Failure to do so may result in a disruption of endogenous oscillation(s) or, potentially worse, generation of an artificial oscillation that has no biological basis. This chapter begins with cultured ESCs, derived from primary blastocysts or in the form of cell lines, and outlines two methods of measuring circadian rhythms: the 2DG method of measuring glucose uptake (Sokoloff et al. J Neurochem 28:897-916, 1977) and real-time measurement of molecular rhythms using transgenic bioluminescence (Yoo et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:5339-5346, 2004).

  17. Entrainment of the master circadian clock by scheduled feeding.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Marina R; Hochstetler, Kelly J; Tavernier, Ronald J; Greene, Dana M; Bult-Ito, Abel

    2004-09-01

    The master circadian clock, located in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), generates and coordinates circadian rhythmicity, i.e., internal organization of physiological and behavioral rhythms that cycle with a near 24-h period. Light is the most powerful synchronizer of the SCN. Although other nonphotic cues also have the potential to influence the circadian clock, their effects can be masked by photic cues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of scheduled feeding to entrain the SCN in the absence of photic cues in four lines of house mouse (Mus domesticus). Mice were initially housed in 12:12-h light/dark cycle with ad libitum access to food for 6 h during the light period followed by 4-6 mo of constant dark under the same feeding schedule. Wheel running behavior suggested and circadian PER2 protein expression profiles in the SCN confirmed entrainment of the master circadian clock to the onset of food availability in 100% (49/49) of the line 2 mice in contrast to only 4% (1/24) in line 3 mice. Mice from line 1 and line 4 showed intermediate levels of entrainment, 57% (8/14) and 39% (7/18), respectively. The predictability of entrainment vs. nonentrainment in line 2 and line 3 and the novel entrainment process provide a powerful tool with which to further elucidate mechanisms involved in entrainment of the SCN by scheduled feeding.

  18. CREB influences timing and entrainment of the SCN circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boyoung; Li, Aiqing; Hansen, Katelin F; Cao, Ruifeng; Yoon, Jae Hwa; Obrietan, Karl

    2010-12-01

    The transcriptional feedback circuit, which is at the core of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian (i.e., 24 h) clock, is tightly coupled to both external entrainment cues, such as light, as well as rhythmic cues that arise on a system-wide level within the SCN. One potential signaling pathway by which these cues are conveyed to the molecular clock is the CREB/CRE transcriptional cascade. In this study, we employed a tetracycline-inducible CREB repressor mouse strain, in which approximately 60% of the SCN neurons express the transgene, to test CREB functionality in the clock and its effects on overt rhythmicity. We show that attenuated CREB signaling in the SCN led to a significant reduction in light-evoked clock entrainment. An examination of circadian timing revealed that CREB repressor mice exhibited normal free-running rhythms in the absence of external lighting cues. However, under conditions of constant light, which typically leads to a lengthening of the circadian period, CREB repressor mice exhibited a dramatic arrhythmic phenotype, which could be reversed with doxycycline. At a cellular level, the repression of CREB led to a significant reduction in both the expression of the circadian clock proteins PERIOD1 and PERIOD2 and the clock output hormones AVP and VIP. Together, these data support the idea that the CRE transcriptional pathway orchestrates transcriptional events that are essential for both the maintenance of SCN timing and light entrainment of the circadian clock.

  19. Emergence of coherent oscillations in stochastic models for circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonze, Didier; Halloy, José; Goldbeter, Albert

    2004-10-01

    Most living organisms have developed the capability of generating autonomously sustained oscillations with a period close to 24 h. The mechanism responsible for these circadian rhythms relies on the negative regulation exerted by a protein on the expression of its own gene. Deterministic models for circadian rhythms account for the occurrence of autonomous oscillations of the limit cycle type, for their entrainment by light-dark cycles, and for their phase shifting by light pulses. Such models, however, do not take into consideration the molecular fluctuations which arise when the number of molecules involved in the regulatory mechanism is low. Here we resort to a stochastic description of a core model for circadian rhythms to study the emergence of coherent oscillations in gene expression in the presence of molecular noise. We show that despite the “bar code” pattern of gene activation, robust circadian oscillations can be observed. Simulations of the deterministic, fully developed version of the circadian model indicate, however, that sustained oscillations only emerge above a critical value of the rate constants characterizing the reversible binding of repressor to the gene, while below this value the system evolves towards an excitable steady state. This explains why, depending on whether or not the critical value of these rate constants is exceeded, stochastic simulations of the model produce coherent oscillations or very noisy oscillations with a highly variable period.

  20. Circadian Dysrhythmias, Physiological Aberrations, and the Link to Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Arbesman, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are core regulators of a variety of mammalian physiologic processes and oscillate in a 24-h pattern. Many peripheral organs possess endogenous rhythmicity that is then modulated by a master clock; the skin is one of these peripheral organs. The dysregulation of rhythms is associated with decreased ability to ameliorate cellular stressors at a local and global level, which then increases the propensity for the development of neoplastic growths. In this article, we review the implications of altered circadian rhythms on DNA repair as well as modified gene expression of core clock proteins with particular focus on skin models. These findings are then correlated with epidemiologic data regarding skin cancer to showcase the effects of circadian disruption on this phenomenon. PMID:27128901

  1. Circadian Rhythm of Osteocalcin in the Maxillomandibular Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gafni, Y.; Ptitsyn, A.A.; Zilberman, Y.; Pelled, G.; Gimble, J.M.; Gazit, D.

    2009-01-01

    The human body displays central circadian rhythms of activity. Recent findings suggest that peripheral tissues, such as bone, possess their own circadian clocks. Studies have shown that osteocalcin protein levels oscillate over a 24-hour period, yet the specific skeletal sites involved and its transcriptional profile remain unknown. The current study aimed to test the hypothesis that peripheral circadian mechanisms regulate transcription driven by the osteocalcin promoter. Transgenic mice harboring the human osteocalcin promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene were used. Mice of both genders and various ages were analyzed non-invasively at sequential times throughout 24-hour periods. Statistical analyses of luminescent signal intensity of osteogenic activity from multiple skeletal sites indicated a periodicity of ~ 24 hrs. The maxillomandibular complex displayed the most robust oscillatory pattern. These findings have implications for dental treatments in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery, as well as for the mechanisms underlying bone remodeling in the maxillomandibular complex. PMID:19131316

  2. Arabidopsis circadian clock and photoperiodism: time to think about location

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Takato

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Plants possess a circadian clock that enables them to coordinate internal biological events with external daily changes. Recent studies in Arabidopsis revealed that tissue specific clock components exist and that the clock network architecture also varies within different organs. These findings indicate that the makeup of circadian clock(s) within a plant is quite variable. Plants utilize the circadian clock to measure day-length changes for regulating seasonal responses, such as flowering. To ensure that flowering occurs under optimum conditions, the clock regulates diurnal CONSTANS (CO) expression. Subsequently, CO protein induces FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression which leads to flowering. It is emerging that both CO and FT expression are intricately controlled by groups of transcription factors with overlapping functions. PMID:19836294

  3. Molecular analyses of circadian gene variants reveal sex-dependent links between depression and clocks

    PubMed Central

    Shi, S-q; White, M J; Borsetti, H M; Pendergast, J S; Hida, A; Ciarleglio, C M; de Verteuil, P A; Cadar, A G; Cala, C; McMahon, D G; Shelton, R C; Williams, S M; Johnson, C H

    2016-01-01

    An extensive literature links circadian irregularities and/or sleep abnormalities to mood disorders. Despite the strong genetic component underlying many mood disorders, however, previous genetic associations between circadian clock gene variants and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been weak. We applied a combined molecular/functional and genetic association approach to circadian gene polymorphisms in sex-stratified populations of control subjects and case subjects suffering from MDD. This approach identified significant sex-dependent associations of common variants of the circadian clock genes hClock, hPer3 and hNpas2 with major depression and demonstrated functional effects of these polymorphisms on the expression or activity of the hCLOCK and hPER3 proteins, respectively. In addition, hCLOCK expression is affected by glucocorticoids, consistent with the sex-dependency of the genetic associations and the modulation of glucocorticoid-mediated stress response, providing a mechanism by which the circadian clock controls outputs that may affect psychiatric disorders. We conclude that genetic polymorphisms in circadian genes (especially hClock and hPer3, where functional assays could be tested) influence risk of developing depression in a sex- and stress-dependent manner. These studies support a genetic connection between circadian disruption and mood disorders, and confirm a key connection between circadian gene variation and major depression. PMID:26926884

  4. Molecular analyses of circadian gene variants reveal sex-dependent links between depression and clocks.

    PubMed

    Shi, S-q; White, M J; Borsetti, H M; Pendergast, J S; Hida, A; Ciarleglio, C M; de Verteuil, P A; Cadar, A G; Cala, C; McMahon, D G; Shelton, R C; Williams, S M; Johnson, C H

    2016-03-01

    An extensive literature links circadian irregularities and/or sleep abnormalities to mood disorders. Despite the strong genetic component underlying many mood disorders, however, previous genetic associations between circadian clock gene variants and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been weak. We applied a combined molecular/functional and genetic association approach to circadian gene polymorphisms in sex-stratified populations of control subjects and case subjects suffering from MDD. This approach identified significant sex-dependent associations of common variants of the circadian clock genes hClock, hPer3 and hNpas2 with major depression and demonstrated functional effects of these polymorphisms on the expression or activity of the hCLOCK and hPER3 proteins, respectively. In addition, hCLOCK expression is affected by glucocorticoids, consistent with the sex-dependency of the genetic associations and the modulation of glucocorticoid-mediated stress response, providing a mechanism by which the circadian clock controls outputs that may affect psychiatric disorders. We conclude that genetic polymorphisms in circadian genes (especially hClock and hPer3, where functional assays could be tested) influence risk of developing depression in a sex- and stress-dependent manner. These studies support a genetic connection between circadian disruption and mood disorders, and confirm a key connection between circadian gene variation and major depression.

  5. Consequences of Circadian Disruption on Neurologic Health.

    PubMed

    Videnovic, Aleksandar; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    Circadian rhythms have a major role in physiology and behavior. Circadian disruption has negative consequences for physiologic homeostasis at molecular, cellular, organ-system, and whole-organism levels. The onset of many cerebrovascular insults shows circadian temporal trends. Impaired sleep-wake cycle, the most robust output rhythms of the circadian system, is significantly affected by neurodegenerative disorders, may precede them by decades, and may also affect their progression. Emerging evidence suggests that circadian disruption may be a risk factor for these neurologic disorders. This article discusses the implications of circadian rhythms in brain disorders, with an emphasis on cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Consequences of Circadian Disruption on Neurologic Health

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Phyllis C.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms have a major role in physiology and behavior. Circadian disruption has negative consequences for physiological homeostasis at molecular, cellular, organ–system and whole-organism levels. The onset of many cerebrovascular insults exhibit circadian temporal trends. Impaired sleep-wake cycle, the most robust output rhythms of the circadian system is significantly affected by neurodegenerative disorders, may precede them by decades, and may also impact their progression. Emerging evidence suggest that circadian disruption may be a risk factor for these neurological disorders. In this review, we discuss the implications of circadian rhythms in brain disorders, with an emphasis on cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26568123

  7. Phosphoproteome Profiling Reveals Circadian Clock Regulation of Posttranslational Modifications in the Murine Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Xu, Bo; Mehta, Neel; Mayne, Janice; Sun, Warren Y L; Cheng, Kai; Ning, Zhibin; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa; Cheng, Hai-Ying Mary; Figeys, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous oscillator that drives daily rhythms in physiology, behavior, and gene expression. The underlying mechanisms of circadian timekeeping are cell-autonomous and involve oscillatory expression of core clock genes that is driven by interconnecting transcription-translation feedback loops (TTFLs). Circadian clock TTFLs are further regulated by posttranslational modifications, in particular, phosphorylation. The hippocampus plays an important role in spatial memory and the conversion of short- to long-term memory. Several studies have reported the presence of a peripheral oscillator in the hippocampus and have highlighted the importance of circadian regulation in memory formation. Given the general importance of phosphorylation in circadian clock regulation, we performed global quantitative proteome and phosphoproteome analyses of the murine hippocampus across the circadian cycle, applying spiked-in labeled reference and high accuracy mass spectrometry (MS). Of the 3,052 proteins and 2,868 phosphosites on 1,368 proteins that were accurately quantified, 1.7% of proteins and 5.2% of phosphorylation events exhibited time-of-day-dependent expression profiles. The majority of circadian phosphopeptides displayed abrupt fluctuations at mid-to-late day without underlying rhythms of protein abundance. Bioinformatic analysis of cyclic phosphorylation events revealed their diverse distribution in different biological pathways, most notably, cytoskeletal organization and neuronal morphogenesis. This study provides the first large-scale, quantitative MS analysis of the circadian phosphoproteome and proteome of the murine hippocampus and highlights the significance of rhythmic regulation at the posttranslational level in this peripheral oscillator. In addition to providing molecular insights into the hippocampal circadian clock, our results will assist in the understanding of genetic factors that underlie rhythms-associated pathological states of

  8. Phosphoproteome Profiling Reveals Circadian Clock Regulation of Posttranslational Modifications in the Murine Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Xu, Bo; Mehta, Neel; Mayne, Janice; Sun, Warren Y. L.; Cheng, Kai; Ning, Zhibin; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa; Cheng, Hai-Ying Mary; Figeys, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous oscillator that drives daily rhythms in physiology, behavior, and gene expression. The underlying mechanisms of circadian timekeeping are cell-autonomous and involve oscillatory expression of core clock genes that is driven by interconnecting transcription–translation feedback loops (TTFLs). Circadian clock TTFLs are further regulated by posttranslational modifications, in particular, phosphorylation. The hippocampus plays an important role in spatial memory and the conversion of short- to long-term memory. Several studies have reported the presence of a peripheral oscillator in the hippocampus and have highlighted the importance of circadian regulation in memory formation. Given the general importance of phosphorylation in circadian clock regulation, we performed global quantitative proteome and phosphoproteome analyses of the murine hippocampus across the circadian cycle, applying spiked-in labeled reference and high accuracy mass spectrometry (MS). Of the 3,052 proteins and 2,868 phosphosites on 1,368 proteins that were accurately quantified, 1.7% of proteins and 5.2% of phosphorylation events exhibited time-of-day-dependent expression profiles. The majority of circadian phosphopeptides displayed abrupt fluctuations at mid-to-late day without underlying rhythms of protein abundance. Bioinformatic analysis of cyclic phosphorylation events revealed their diverse distribution in different biological pathways, most notably, cytoskeletal organization and neuronal morphogenesis. This study provides the first large-scale, quantitative MS analysis of the circadian phosphoproteome and proteome of the murine hippocampus and highlights the significance of rhythmic regulation at the posttranslational level in this peripheral oscillator. In addition to providing molecular insights into the hippocampal circadian clock, our results will assist in the understanding of genetic factors that underlie rhythms-associated pathological states of

  9. FLAG tagging by CuAAC and nanogram-scale purification of the target protein for a bioactive metabolite involved in circadian rhythmic leaf movement in Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yoshiyuki; Mukai, Makoto; Ito, Satoko; Kato, Nobuki; Ueda, Minoru

    2010-01-21

    We report a stepwise FLAG-tagging strategy for the purification of target proteins for bioactive metabolites. This method realizes the microscale purification and identification of target protein from as few as 1 x 10(5) differentiated cells. Using this method, we isolated and identified MetE as a cytosolic target protein of potassium isolespedezate, a metabolite controlling plant nyctinasty.

  10. Circadian Rhythms of Isoprene Biosynthesis in Grey Poplar Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Loivamäki, Maaria; Louis, Sandrine; Cinege, Gyöngyi; Zimmer, Ina; Fischbach, Robert J.; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission varies diurnally in different species. In poplar (Populus spp.), it has recently been shown that the gene encoding the synthesizing enzyme for isoprene, isoprene synthase (ISPS), displays diurnal variation in expression. Working on shoot cultures of Grey poplar (Populus × canescens) placed under a different light regime in phytochambers, we showed that these variations in PcISPS gene expression, measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, are not only due to day-night changes, but also are linked to an internal circadian clock. Measurement of additional selected isoprenoid genes revealed that phytoene synthase (carotenoid pathway) displays similar fluctuations, whereas 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, possibly the first committed enzyme of the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway, only shows light regulation. On the protein level, it appeared that PcISPS activity and protein content became reduced under constant darkness, whereas under constant light, activity and protein content of this enzyme were kept high. In contrast, isoprene emission rates under continuous irradiation displayed circadian changes as is the case for gene expression of PcISPS. Furthermore, binding assays with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) late elongated hypocotyl, a transcription factor of Arabidopsis involved in circadian regulation, clearly revealed the presence of circadian-determining regulatory elements in the promoter region of PcISPS. PMID:17122071

  11. Phenotyping Circadian Rhythms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Eckel-Mahan, Kristin; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms take place with a periodicity of twenty-four hours, temporally following the rotation of the earth around its axis. Examples of circadian rhythms are the sleep/wake cycle, feeding, and hormone secretion. Light powerfully entrains the mammalian clock and assists in keeping animals synchronized to the 24-hour cycle of the earth by activating specific neurons in the “central pacemaker” of the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Absolute periodicity of an animal can deviate slightly from 24 hours as manifest when an animal is placed into constant dark- or “free running”- conditions. Simple measurements of an organism's activity in free running conditions reveal its intrinsic circadian period. Mice are a particularly useful model for studying circadian rhythmicity due to the ease of genetic manipulation, thus identifying molecular contributors to rhythmicity. Furthermore, their small size allows for monitoring locomotion or activity in their home cage environment with relative ease. Several tasks commonly used to analyze circadian periodicity and plasticity in mice are outlined here including the process of entrainment, determination of tau (period length) in free running conditions, determination of circadian periodicity in response to light disruption (i.e. jet lag studies), and evaluation of clock plasticity in non-twenty-four hour conditions (T-cycles). Studying the properties of circadian periods such as their phase, amplitude, and length in response to photic perturbation, can be particularly useful in understanding how humans respond to jet lag, night shifts, rotating shifts, or other transient or chronic disruption of one's environmental surroundings. PMID:26331760

  12. Predicted Role of NAD Utilization in the Control of Circadian Rhythms during DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Augustin; McFadden, Geoffrey B.; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Kohn, Kurt W.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a set of regulatory steps that oscillate with a period of approximately 24 hours influencing many biological processes. These oscillations are robust to external stresses, and in the case of genotoxic stress (i.e. DNA damage), the circadian clock responds through phase shifting with primarily phase advancements. The effect of DNA damage on the circadian clock and the mechanism through which this effect operates remains to be thoroughly investigated. Here we build an in silico model to examine damage-induced circadian phase shifts by investigating a possible mechanism linking circadian rhythms to metabolism. The proposed model involves two DNA damage response proteins, SIRT1 and PARP1, that are each consumers of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a metabolite involved in oxidation-reduction reactions and in ATP synthesis. This model builds on two key findings: 1) that SIRT1 (a protein deacetylase) is involved in both the positive (i.e. transcriptional activation) and negative (i.e. transcriptional repression) arms of the circadian regulation and 2) that PARP1 is a major consumer of NAD during the DNA damage response. In our simulations, we observe that increased PARP1 activity may be able to trigger SIRT1-induced circadian phase advancements by decreasing SIRT1 activity through competition for NAD supplies. We show how this competitive inhibition may operate through protein acetylation in conjunction with phosphorylation, consistent with reported observations. These findings suggest a possible mechanism through which multiple perturbations, each dominant during different points of the circadian cycle, may result in the phase advancement of the circadian clock seen during DNA damage. PMID:26020938

  13. Indirect effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 on the peripheral circadian clocks in mice.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Kentarou; Fujimura, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks in peripheral tissues are powerfully entrained by feeding. The mechanisms underlying this food entrainment remain unclear, although various humoral and neural factors have been reported to affect peripheral clocks. Because glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is rapidly secreted in response to food ingestion, influences multiple humoral and neural signaling pathways, we suggest that GLP-1 plays a role in the food entrainment of peripheral clocks. To test this, we compared the effects of exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on mRNA expression of the clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Nr1d1, Per1, Per2, and Cry1) with those of refeeding. In addition, we investigated whether exendin-4 could affect the rhythms of the peripheral clocks. In male C57BL/6J mice, although refeeding rapidly (within 2 h) altered mRNA levels of Per1 and Per2 in the liver and that of Per1 in adipose tissue, a single i.p. injection of exendin-4 did not cause such changes. However, unlike the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39), exendin-4 significantly influenced Per1 mRNA levels in the liver at 12 h after injection. Moreover, pretreatment with exendin-4 affected the rapid-feeding-induced change in Per1 not only in the liver, but also in adipose tissue, without effect on food intake. Furthermore, during light-phase restricted feeding, repeated dosing of exendin-4 at the beginning of the dark phase profoundly influenced both the food intake and daily rhythms of clock gene expression in peripheral tissues. Thus, these results suggest that exendin-4 modulates peripheral clocks via multiple mechanisms different from those of refeeding.

  14. Nutrition and the Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Gregory D M; Cade, Janet E; Grant, Peter J; Hardie, Laura J

    2016-01-01

    The human circadian system anticipates and adapts to daily environmental changes to optimise behaviour according to time of day and temporally partition incompatible physiological processes. At the helm of this system is a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN are primarily synchronised to the 24 hour day by the light/dark cycle; however, feeding/fasting cycles are the primary time cues for clocks in peripheral tissues. Aligning feeding/fasting cycles with clock-regulated metabolic changes optimises metabolism, and studies of other animals suggest that feeding at inappropriate times disrupts circadian system organisation and thereby contributes to adverse metabolic consequences and chronic disease development. ‘High-fat diets’ (HFDs) produce particularly deleterious effects on circadian system organisation in rodents by blunting feeding/fasting cycles. Time-of-day-restricted feeding, where food availability is restricted to a period of several hours, offsets many adverse consequences of HFDs in these animals; however, further evidence is required to assess whether the same is true in humans. Several nutritional compounds have robust effects on the circadian system. Caffeine, for example, can speed synchronisation to new time zones after jetlag. An appreciation of the circadian system has many implications for nutritional science and may ultimately help reduce the burden of chronic diseases. PMID:27221157

  15. Nutrition and the circadian system.

    PubMed

    Potter, Gregory D M; Cade, Janet E; Grant, Peter J; Hardie, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    The human circadian system anticipates and adapts to daily environmental changes to optimise behaviour according to time of day and temporally partitions incompatible physiological processes. At the helm of this system is a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN are primarily synchronised to the 24-h day by the light/dark cycle; however, feeding/fasting cycles are the primary time cues for clocks in peripheral tissues. Aligning feeding/fasting cycles with clock-regulated metabolic changes optimises metabolism, and studies of other animals suggest that feeding at inappropriate times disrupts circadian system organisation, and thereby contributes to adverse metabolic consequences and chronic disease development. 'High-fat diets' (HFD) produce particularly deleterious effects on circadian system organisation in rodents by blunting feeding/fasting cycles. Time-of-day-restricted feeding, where food availability is restricted to a period of several hours, offsets many adverse consequences of HFD in these animals; however, further evidence is required to assess whether the same is true in humans. Several nutritional compounds have robust effects on the circadian system. Caffeine, for example, can speed synchronisation to new time zones after jetlag. An appreciation of the circadian system has many implications for nutritional science and may ultimately help reduce the burden of chronic diseases.

  16. Chronic maternal low-protein diet in mice affects anxiety, night-time energy expenditure and sleep patterns, but not circadian rhythm in male offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decre...

  17. Circadian rhythms in human salivary flow rate and composition

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, C.

    1972-01-01

    1. Unstimulated whole saliva and parotid saliva stimulated at a constant flow rate of 1·0 ml./min were collected from eight subjects at about 07.00, 11.00, 14.00, 17.00 and 22.00 hr and oral temperature was recorded several times daily for time spans of between 4 and 26 days. A least-squares cosine wave was fitted to the data to test for the presence and characteristics of circadian rhythms. 2. Estimates of mean level, amplitude, acrophase and period were obtained for different components and the results were subjected to cosinor analysis. 3. Unstimulated whole saliva showed significant circadian rhythms in flow rate and in the concentrations of sodium and chloride but not in protein, potassium, calcium, phosphate or urea. 4. Stimulated parotid saliva showed significant circadian rhythms in the concentrations of protein, sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride but not in phosphate or urea 5. Oral temperature showed a circadian rhythm which, like the salivary rhythms, was of a 24.0 hr periodicity. PMID:5016036

  18. Circadian Clock, Cancer, and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a global regulatory system that interfaces with most other regulatory systems and pathways in mammalian organisms. Investigations of the circadian clock–DNA damage response connections have revealed that nucleotide excision repair, DNA damage checkpoints, and apoptosis are appreciably influenced by the clock. Although several epidemiological studies in humans and a limited number of genetic studies in mouse model systems have indicated that clock disruption may predispose mammals to cancer, well-controlled genetic studies in mice have not supported the commonly held view that circadian clock disruption is a cancer risk factor. In fact, in the appropriate genetic background, clock disruption may instead aid in cancer regression by promoting intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis. Finally, the clock may affect the efficacy of cancer treatment (chronochemotherapy) by modulating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of chemotherapeutic drugs as well as the activity of the DNA repair enzymes that repair the DNA damage caused by anticancer drugs. PMID:25302769

  19. Circadian rhythms, sleep, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenyu; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Marcheva, Biliana; Bass, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    The discovery of the genetic basis for circadian rhythms has expanded our knowledge of the temporal organization of behavior and physiology. The observations that the circadian gene network is present in most living organisms from eubacteria to humans, that most cells and tissues express autonomous clocks, and that disruption of clock genes results in metabolic dysregulation have revealed interactions between metabolism and circadian rhythms at neural, molecular, and cellular levels. A major challenge remains in understanding the interplay between brain and peripheral clocks and in determining how these interactions promote energy homeostasis across the sleep-wake cycle. In this Review, we evaluate how investigation of molecular timing may create new opportunities to understand and develop therapies for obesity and diabetes.

  20. Tissue-specific circadian clocks in plants.

    PubMed

    Endo, Motomu

    2016-02-01

    Circadian clocks affect a large proportion of differentially expressed genes in many organisms. Tissue-specific hierarchies in circadian networks in mammals have been contentiously debated, whereas little attention has been devoted to the concept in plants, owing to technical difficulties. Recently, several studies have demonstrated tissue-specific circadian clocks and their coupling in plants, suggesting that plants possess a hierarchical network of circadian clocks. The following review summarizes recent studies describing the tissue-specific functions and properties of these circadian clocks and discusses the network structure and potential messengers that might share temporal information on such a network.

  1. A constant light-genetic screen identifies KISMET as a regulator of circadian photoresponses.

    PubMed

    Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Murad, Alejandro; Rosbash, Michael; Emery, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Circadian pacemakers are essential to synchronize animal physiology and behavior with the dayrationight cycle. They are self-sustained, but the phase of their oscillations is determined by environmental cues, particularly light intensity and temperature cycles. In Drosophila, light is primarily detected by a dedicated blue-light photoreceptor: CRYPTOCHROME (CRY). Upon light activation, CRY binds to the pacemaker protein TIMELESS (TIM) and triggers its proteasomal degradation, thus resetting the circadian pacemaker. To understand further the CRY input pathway, we conducted a misexpression screen under constant light based on the observation that flies with a disruption in the CRY input pathway remain robustly rhythmic instead of becoming behaviorally arrhythmic. We report the identification of more than 20 potential regulators of CRY-dependent light responses. We demonstrate that one of them, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme KISMET (KIS), is necessary for normal circadian photoresponses, but does not affect the circadian pacemaker. KIS genetically interacts with CRY and functions in PDF-negative circadian neurons, which play an important role in circadian light responses. It also affects daily CRY-dependent TIM oscillations in a peripheral tissue: the eyes. We therefore conclude that KIS is a key transcriptional regulator of genes that function in the CRY signaling cascade, and thus it plays an important role in the synchronization of circadian rhythms with the dayrationight cycle.

  2. Human Gut Bacteria Are Sensitive to Melatonin and Express Endogenous Circadian Rhythmicity

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Jiffin K.; Wright, John M.; Patel, Akruti G; Cassone, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are fundamental properties of most eukaryotes, but evidence of biological clocks that drive these rhythms in prokaryotes has been restricted to Cyanobacteria. In vertebrates, the gastrointestinal system expresses circadian patterns of gene expression, motility and secretion in vivo and in vitro, and recent studies suggest that the enteric microbiome is regulated by the host’s circadian clock. However, it is not clear how the host’s clock regulates the microbiome. Here, we demonstrate at least one species of commensal bacterium from the human gastrointestinal system, Enterobacter aerogenes, is sensitive to the neurohormone melatonin, which is secreted into the gastrointestinal lumen, and expresses circadian patterns of swarming and motility. Melatonin specifically increases the magnitude of swarming in cultures of E. aerogenes, but not in Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae. The swarming appears to occur daily, and transformation of E. aerogenes with a flagellar motor-protein driven lux plasmid confirms a temperature-compensated circadian rhythm of luciferase activity, which is synchronized in the presence of melatonin. Altogether, these data demonstrate a circadian clock in a non-cyanobacterial prokaryote and suggest the human circadian system may regulate its microbiome through the entrainment of bacterial clocks. PMID:26751389

  3. The ancestral circadian clock of monarch butterflies: role in time-compensated sun compass orientation.

    PubMed

    Reppert, S M

    2007-01-01

    The circadian clock has a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, which contributes to navigation to the overwintering grounds. The location of circadian clock cells in monarch brain has been identified in the dorsolateral protocerebrum (pars lateralis); these cells express PERIOD, TIMELESS, and a Drosophila-like cryptochrome designated CRY1. Monarch butterflies, like all other nondrosophilid insects examined so far, express a second cry gene (designated insect CRY2) that encodes a vertebrate-like CRY that is also expressed in pars lateralis. An ancestral circadian clock mechanism has been defined in monarchs, in which CRY1 functions as a blue light photoreceptor for photic entrainment, whereas CRY2 functionswithin the clockwork as themajor transcriptional repressor of an intracellular negative transcriptional feedback loop. A CRY1-staining neural pathway has been identified that may connect the circadian (navigational) clock to polarized light input important for sun compass navigation, and a CRY2-positive neural pathway has been discovered that may communicate circadian information directly from the circadian clock to the central complex, the likely site of the sun compass. The monarch butterfly may thus use the CRY proteins as components of the circadian mechanism and also as output molecules that connect the clock to various aspects of the sun compass apparatus.

  4. Circadian Rhythms and Obesity in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Froy, Oren

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem and a major risk factor for the development of illnesses, such as insulin resistance and hypertension. Attempts to understand the causes of obesity and develop new therapeutic strategies have mostly focused on caloric intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have shown that the circadian clock controls energy homeostasis by regulating the circadian expression and/or activity of enzymes, hormones, and transport systems involved in metabolism. Moreover, disruption of circadian rhythms leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. Therefore, it is plausible that resetting of the circadian clock can be used as a new approach to attenuate obesity. Feeding regimens, such as restricted feeding (RF), calorie restriction (CR), and intermittent fasting (IF), provide a time cue and reset the circadian clock and lead to better health. In contrast, high-fat (HF) diet leads to disrupted circadian expression of metabolic factors and obesity. This paper focuses on circadian rhythms and their link to obesity. PMID:24527263

  5. Diverse roles for MAPK signaling in circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Charles S; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of genes aids cells in sensing both extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and emerging data indicate that MAPKs have fundamental, yet diverse, roles in the circadian biological clock. In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), MAPK pathways can function as inputs allowing the endogenous clock to entrain to 24h environmental cycles. MAPKs can also interact physically and/or genetically with components of the molecular circadian oscillator, implying that MAPKs can affect the cycling of the clock. Finally, circadian rhythms in MAPK pathway activation exist in many different tissue types and in model organisms, providing a mechanism to coordinately control the expression tissue-specific target genes at the proper time of day. As such, it should probably not come as a surprise that MAPK signaling pathways and circadian clocks affect similar biological processes and defects in either pathway lead to many of the same types of human diseases, highlighting the need to better define the mechanisms that link these two fundamental pathways together.

  6. Interdependence of nutrient metabolism and the circadian clock system: Importance for metabolic health

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Latre, Aleix; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background While additional research is needed, a number of large epidemiological studies show an association between circadian disruption and metabolic disorders. Specifically, obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and other signs of metabolic syndrome all have been linked to circadian disruption in humans. Studies in other species support this association and generally reveal that feeding that is not in phase with the external light/dark cycle, as often occurs with night or rotating shift workers, is disadvantageous in terms of energy balance. As food is a strong driver of circadian rhythms in the periphery, understanding how nutrient metabolism drives clocks across the body is important for dissecting out why circadian misalignment may produce such metabolic effects. A number of circadian clock proteins as well as their accessory proteins (such as nuclear receptors) are highly sensitive to nutrient metabolism. Macronutrients and micronutrients can function as zeitgebers for the clock in a tissue-specific way and can thus impair synchrony between clocks across the body, or potentially restore synchrony in the case of circadian misalignment. Circadian nuclear receptors are particularly sensitive to nutrient metabolism and can alter tissue-specific rhythms in response to changes in the diet. Finally, SNPs in human clock genes appear to be correlated with diet-specific responses and along with chronotype eventually may provide valuable information from a clinical perspective on how to use diet and nutrition to treat metabolic disorders. Scope of review This article presents a background of the circadian clock components and their interrelated metabolic and transcriptional feedback loops, followed by a review of some recent studies in humans and rodents that address the effects of nutrient metabolism on the circadian clock and vice versa. We focus on studies in which results suggest that nutrients provide an opportunity to restore or, alternatively

  7. Circadian System, Sleep and Endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Aeschbach, Daniel; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of numerous hormones vary across the day and night. Such fluctuations are not only attributable to changes in sleep/wakefulness and other behaviors but also to a biological timing system governed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Sleep has a strong effect on levels of some hormones such as growth hormone but little effect on others which are more strongly regulated by the biological timing system (e.g., melatonin). Whereas the exact mechanisms through which sleep affects circulating hormonal levels are poorly understood, more is known about how the biological timing system influences the secretion of hormones. The suprachiasmatic nucleus exerts its influence on hormones via neuronal and humoral signals but it is also now apparent that peripheral cells can rhythmically secrete hormones independent of signals from the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Under normal circumstances, behaviors and the biological timing system are synchronized and consequently hormonal systems are exquisitely regulated. However, many individuals (e.g., shift-workers) frequently undergo circadian misalignment by desynchronizing their sleep/wake cycle from the biological timing system. Recent experiments indicate that circadian misalignment has an adverse effect on metabolic and hormonal factors such as glucose and insulin. Further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanisms that cause the negative effects induced by circadian misalignment. Such research could aid the development of countermeasures for circadian misalignment. PMID:21939733

  8. Melatonin, Light and Circadian Cycles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-25

    bifida occulta, and sarcoidosis, all show loss of the melatonin circadian rhythm, with psoriasis vulgaris, spina bifida occulta, and sarcoidosis...autonomic neuro- pathy show decreased nocturnal melatonin (Checkley and Palazidou, 1988). Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turners syndrome, psoriasis vulgaris, spina

  9. Drosophila Spaghetti and Doubletime Link the Circadian Clock and Light to Caspases, Apoptosis and Tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Means, John C.; Venkatesan, Anandakrishnan; Gerdes, Bryan; Fan, Jin-Yuan; Bjes, Edward S.; Price, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    While circadian dysfunction and neurodegeneration are correlated, the mechanism for this is not understood. It is not known if age-dependent circadian dysfunction leads to neurodegeneration or vice-versa, and the proteins that mediate the effect remain unidentified. Here, we show that the knock-down of a regulator (spag) of the circadian kinase Dbt in circadian cells lowers Dbt levels abnormally, lengthens circadian rhythms and causes expression of activated initiator caspase (Dronc) in the optic lobes during the middle of the day or after light pulses at night. Likewise, reduced Dbt activity lengthens circadian period and causes expression of activated Dronc, and a loss-of-function mutation in Clk also leads to expression of activated Dronc in a light-dependent manner. Genetic epistasis experiments place Dbt downstream of Spag in the pathway, and Spag-dependent reductions of Dbt are shown to require the proteasome. Importantly, activated Dronc expression due to reduced Spag or Dbt activity occurs in cells that do not express the spag RNAi or dominant negative Dbt and requires PDF neuropeptide signaling from the same neurons that support behavioral rhythms. Furthermore, reduction of Dbt or Spag activity leads to Dronc-dependent Drosophila Tau cleavage and enhanced neurodegeneration produced by human Tau in a fly eye model for tauopathy. Aging flies with lowered Dbt or Spag function show markers of cell death as well as behavioral deficits and shortened lifespans, and even old wild type flies exhibit Dbt modification and activated caspase at particular times of day. These results suggest that Dbt suppresses expression of activated Dronc to prevent Tau cleavage, and that the circadian clock defects confer sensitivity to expression of activated Dronc in response to prolonged light. They establish a link between the circadian clock factors, light, cell death pathways and Tau toxicity, potentially via dysregulation of circadian neuronal remodeling in the optic lobes

  10. Lithium effects on circadian rhythms in fibroblasts and suprachiasmatic nucleus slices from Cry knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Takako; Lo, Kevin; Diemer, Tanja; Welsh, David K

    2016-04-21

    Lithium is widely used as a treatment of bipolar disorder, a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted circadian rhythms. Lithium is known to lengthen period and increase amplitude of circadian rhythms. One possible pathway for these effects involves inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), which regulates degradation of CRY2, a canonical clock protein determining circadian period. CRY1 is also known to play important roles in regulating circadian period and phase, although there is no evidence that it is similarly phosphorylated by GSK-3β. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that lithium affects circadian rhythms through CRYs. We cultured fibroblasts and slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian pacemaker of the brain, from Cry1-/-, Cry2-/-, or wild-type (WT) mice bearing the PER2:LUC circadian reporter. Lithium was applied in the culture medium, and circadian rhythms of PER2 expression were measured. In WT and Cry2-/- fibroblasts, 10mM lithium increased PER2 expression and rhythm amplitude but not period, and 1mM lithium did not affect either period or amplitude. In non-rhythmic Cry1-/- fibroblasts, 10mM lithium increased PER2 expression. In SCN slices, 1mM lithium lengthened period ∼1h in all genotypes, but did not affect amplitude except in Cry2-/- SCN. Thus, the amplitude-enhancing effect of lithium in WT fibroblasts was unaffected by Cry2 knockout and occurred in the absence of period-lengthening, whereas the period-lengthening effect of lithium in WT SCN was unaffected by Cry1 or Cry2 knockout and occurred in the absence of rhythm amplification, suggesting that these two effects of lithium on circadian rhythms are independent of CRYs and of each other.

  11. Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-08-01

    With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.

  12. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease Pathogenesis: A Role for Developmental Programming and Altered Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Rebeca; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Soeda, Junpei; Ray, Shuvra; Pombo, Joaquim; Saraswati, Ruma; Novelli, Marco; Fusai, Giuseppe; Rappa, Francesca; Saracino, Chiara; Pazienza, Valerio; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D.; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Oben, Jude A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Emerging evidence suggests that maternal obesity (MO) predisposes offspring to obesity and the recently described non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) but involved mechanisms remain unclear. Using a pathophysiologically relevant murine model, we here investigated a role for the biological clock - molecular core circadian genes (CCG) in the generation of NAFPD. Design Female C57BL6 mice were fed an obesogenic diet (OD) or standard chow (SC) for 6 weeks, prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation: resulting offspring were subsequently weaned onto either OD (Ob_Ob and Con_Ob) or standard chow (Ob_Con and Con_Con) for 6 months. Biochemical, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic markers associated with NAFPD were then evaluated and CCG mRNA expression in the pancreas determined. Results Offspring of obese dams weaned on to OD (Ob_Ob) had significantly increased (p≤0.05): bodyweight, pancreatic triglycerides, macrovesicular pancreatic fatty-infiltration, and pancreatic mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, α-SMA, TGF-β and increased collagen compared to offspring of control dams weaned on to control chow (Con_Con). Analyses of CCG expression demonstrated a phase shift in CLOCK (−4.818, p<0.01), REV-ERB-α (−1.4,p<0.05) and Per2 (3.27,p<0.05) in association with decreased amplitude in BMAL-1 (−0.914,p<0.05) and PER2 (1.18,p<0.005) in Ob_Ob compared to Con_Con. 2-way ANOVA revealed significant interaction between MO and post-weaning OD in expression of CLOCK (p<0.005), PER1 (p<0.005) and PER2 (p<0.05) whilst MO alone influenced the observed rhythmic variance in expression of all 5 measured CCG. Conclusions Fetal and neonatal exposure to a maternal obesogenic environment interacts with a post-natal hyper-calorific environment to induce offspring NAFPD through mechanisms involving perturbations in CCG expression. PMID:24657938

  13. Modelling and analysis of the feeding regimen induced entrainment of hepatocyte circadian oscillators using petri nets.

    PubMed

    Tareen, Samar Hayat Khan; Ahmad, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are certain periodic behaviours exhibited by living organism at different levels, including cellular and system-wide scales. Recent studies have found that the circadian rhythms of several peripheral organs in mammals, such as the liver, are able to entrain their clocks to received signals independent of other system level clocks, in particular when responding to signals generated during feeding. These studies have found SIRT1, PARP1, and HSF1 proteins to be the major influencers of the core CLOCKBMAL1:PER-CRY circadian clock. These entities, along with abstracted feeding induced signals were modelled collectively in this study using Petri Nets. The properties of the model show that the circadian system itself is strongly robust, and is able to continually evolve. The modelled feeding regimens suggest that the usual 3 meals/day and 2 meals/day feeding regimens are beneficial with any more or less meals/day negatively affecting the system.

  14. Modelling and Analysis of the Feeding Regimen Induced Entrainment of Hepatocyte Circadian Oscillators Using Petri Nets

    PubMed Central

    Tareen, Samar Hayat Khan; Ahmad, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are certain periodic behaviours exhibited by living organism at different levels, including cellular and system-wide scales. Recent studies have found that the circadian rhythms of several peripheral organs in mammals, such as the liver, are able to entrain their clocks to received signals independent of other system level clocks, in particular when responding to signals generated during feeding. These studies have found SIRT1, PARP1, and HSF1 proteins to be the major influencers of the core CLOCKBMAL1:PER-CRY circadian clock. These entities, along with abstracted feeding induced signals were modelled collectively in this study using Petri Nets. The properties of the model show that the circadian system itself is strongly robust, and is able to continually evolve. The modelled feeding regimens suggest that the usual 3 meals/day and 2 meals/day feeding regimens are beneficial with any more or less meals/day negatively affecting the system. PMID:25789928

  15. Targeted 13C enrichment of lipid and protein pools in the body reveals circadian changes in oxidative fuel mixture during prolonged fasting: a case study using Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Amaya, James A; Yang, Alice S; Erhardt, Erik B; Wolf, Blair O; Hanson, David T

    2013-12-01

    Many animals undergo extended periods of fasting. During these fasts, animals oxidize a ratio of macronutrients dependent on the nutritional, energetic, and hydric requirements of the fasting period. In this study, we use Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), a bird with natural intermediate fasting periods, to examine macronutrient use during a 6d fast. We raised groups of quail on isotopically labeled materials ((13)C-1-leucine, (13)C-U-glucose, or (13)C-1-palmitic acid) with the intent of labeling specific macronutrient/tissue pools in each treatment, and then traced their use as fuels by measuring the δ(13)C values of breath CO2. Based on changes in δ(13)C values during the fast, it appears that the carbohydrate label,(13)C-U-glucose, was largely incorporated into the lipid pool and thus breath samples ultimately reflected lipid use rather than carbohydrate use. In the lipid treatment, the (13)C-1-palmitic acid faithfully labeled the lipid pool and was reflected in the kinetics δ(13)C values in breath CO2 during the fast. Endogenous lipid oxidation peaked after 24h of fasting and remained constantly elevated thereafter. The protein label,(13)C-1-leucine, showed clear diurnal periods of protein sparing and degradation, with maximal rates of protein oxidation occurring at night and the lowest rates occurring during the day time. This stable isotope tracer method provides a noninvasive approach to study the nutrient dynamics of fasting animals and should provide new insights into how different types of animals use specific nutrient pools during fasting and possibly other non-steady physiological states.

  16. Translational Regulation of the DOUBLETIME/CKIδ/ε Kinase by LARK Contributes to Circadian Period Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanmei; McNeil, Gerard P.; Jackson, F. Rob

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila homolog of Casein Kinase I δ/ε, DOUBLETIME (DBT), is required for Wnt, Hedgehog, Fat and Hippo signaling as well as circadian clock function. Extensive studies have established a critical role of DBT in circadian period determination. However, how DBT expression is regulated remains largely unexplored. In this study, we show that translation of dbt transcripts are directly regulated by a rhythmic RNA-binding protein (RBP) called LARK (known as RBM4 in mammals). LARK promotes translation of specific alternative dbt transcripts in clock cells, in particular the dbt-RC transcript. Translation of dbt-RC exhibits circadian changes under free-running conditions, indicative of clock regulation. Translation of a newly identified transcript, dbt-RE, is induced by light in a LARK-dependent manner and oscillates under light/dark conditions. Altered LARK abundance affects circadian period length, and this phenotype can be modified by different dbt alleles. Increased LARK delays nuclear degradation of the PERIOD (PER) clock protein at the beginning of subjective day, consistent with the known role of DBT in PER dynamics. Taken together, these data support the idea that LARK influences circadian period and perhaps responses of the clock to light via the regulated translation of DBT. Our study is the first to investigate translational control of the DBT kinase, revealing its regulation by LARK and a novel role of this RBP in Drosophila circadian period modulation. PMID:25211129

  17. Circadian regulation of mTOR by the ubiquitin pathway in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Naoya; Fujioka, Takashi; Okazaki, Fumiyasu; Akagawa, Yui; Tsurudome, Yuuya; Ono, Mayumi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2014-01-15

    Circadian clock systems regulate many biologic functions, including cell division and hormone secretion in mammals. In this study, we explored the effects of circadian control on the pivot cell growth regulatory mTOR, the activity of which is deregulated in tumor cells compared with normal cells. Specifically, we investigated whether the antitumor effect of an mTOR inhibitor could be improved by changing its dosing schedule in RenCa tumor-bearing mice. Active, phosphorylated mTOR displayed a 24-hour rhythm, and levels of total mTOR protein (but not mRNA) also showed a circadian rhythm in RenCa tumor masses. Through investigations of the oscillation mechanism for mTOR expression, we identified the ubiquitination factor Fbxw7 as an mTOR regulator that oscillated in its expression in a manner opposite from mTOR. Fbxw7 transcription was regulated by the circadian regulator D-site-binding protein. Notably, administration of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus during periods of elevated mTOR improved survival in tumor-bearing mice. Our findings demonstrate that the circadian oscillation of mTOR activity is regulated by circadian clock systems, which influence the antitumor effect of mTOR inhibitors.

  18. Genomic identification of a putative circadian system in the cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Tilden, Andrea R.; McCoole, Matthew D.; Harmon, Sarah M.; Baer, Kevin N.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Essentially nothing is known about the molecular underpinnings of crustacean circadian clocks. The genome of Daphnia pulex, the only crustacean genome available for public use, provides a unique resource for identifying putative circadian proteins in this species. Here, the Daphnia genome was mined for putative circadian protein genes using Drosophila melanogaster queries. The sequences of core clock (e.g. CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD, TIMELESS and CRYPTOCHROME 2), clock input (CRYPTOCHROME 1) and clock output (PIGMENT DISPERSING HORMONE RECEPTOR) proteins were deduced. Structural analyses and alignment of the Daphnia proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Comparisons of the Daphnia proteins with other sequences showed that they are, in most cases, more similar to homologs from other species, including vertebrates, than they are to those of Drosophila. The presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 and 2 in Daphnia suggests the organization of its clock may be more similar to that of the butterfly Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila (which possesses CRYPTOCHROME 1 but not CRYPTOCHROME 2). These data represent the first description of a putative circadian system from any crustacean, and provide a foundation for future molecular, anatomical and physiological investigations of circadian signaling in Daphnia. PMID:21798832

  19. Modeling the emergence of circadian rhythms in a clock neuron network.

    PubMed

    Diambra, Luis; Malta, Coraci P

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in pacemaker cells persist for weeks in constant darkness, while in other types of cells the molecular oscillations that underlie circadian rhythms damp rapidly under the same conditions. Although much progress has been made in understanding the biochemical and cellular basis of circadian rhythms, the mechanisms leading to damped or self-sustained oscillations remain largely unknown. There exist many mathematical models that reproduce the circadian rhythms in the case of a single cell of the Drosophila fly. However, not much is known about the mechanisms leading to coherent circadian oscillation in clock neuron networks. In this work we have implemented a model for a network of interacting clock neurons to describe the emergence (or damping) of circadian rhythms in Drosophila fly, in the absence of zeitgebers. Our model consists of an array of pacemakers that interact through the modulation of some parameters by a network feedback. The individual pacemakers are described by a well-known biochemical model for circadian oscillation, to which we have added degradation of PER protein by light and multiplicative noise. The network feedback is the PER protein level averaged over the whole network. In particular, we have investigated the effect of modulation of the parameters associated with (i) the control of net entrance of PER into the nucleus and (ii) the non-photic degradation of PER. Our results indicate that the modulation of PER entrance into the nucleus allows the synchronization of clock neurons, leading to coherent circadian oscillations under constant dark condition. On the other hand, the modulation of non-photic degradation cannot reset the phases of individual clocks subjected to intrinsic biochemical noise.

  20. [Biology and genetics of circadian rhythm].

    PubMed

    Bellivier, F

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of biological clocks has grown expontentially. This has helped to guide the choice of genes studied to explain inter-individual variations seen in circadian rhythms. In recent years analysis of circadian rhythms has advanced considerably into the study of pathological circadian rhythms in human beings. These findings, combined with those obtained from studying mice whose circadian genes have been rendered incapable, have revealed the role of genetic factors in circadian rhythms. This literature review presents an overview of these findings. Beyond our understanding of the functioning of these biological clocks, this knowledge will be extremely useful to analyse genetic factors involved in morbid conditions involving circadian rhythm abnormalities.

  1. The Circadian Nature of Mitochondrial Biology.

    PubMed

    Manella, Gal; Asher, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks orchestrate the daily changes in physiology and behavior of light-sensitive organisms. These clocks measure about 24 h and tick in a self-sustained and cell-autonomous manner. Mounting evidence points toward a tight intertwining between circadian clocks and metabolism. Although various aspects of circadian control of metabolic functions have been extensively studied, our knowledge regarding circadian mitochondrial function is rudimentary. In this review, we will survey the current literature related to the circadian nature of mitochondrial biology: from mitochondrial omics studies (e.g., proteome, acetylome, and lipidome), through dissection of mitochondrial morphology, to analyses of mitochondrial processes such as nutrient utilization and respiration. We will describe potential mechanisms that are implicated in circadian regulation of mitochondrial functions in mammals and discuss the possibility of a mitochondrial-autonomous oscillator.

  2. The Circadian Nature of Mitochondrial Biology

    PubMed Central

    Manella, Gal; Asher, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks orchestrate the daily changes in physiology and behavior of light-sensitive organisms. These clocks measure about 24 h and tick in a self-sustained and cell-autonomous manner. Mounting evidence points toward a tight intertwining between circadian clocks and metabolism. Although various aspects of circadian control of metabolic functions have been extensively studied, our knowledge regarding circadian mitochondrial function is rudimentary. In this review, we will survey the current literature related to the circadian nature of mitochondrial biology: from mitochondrial omics studies (e.g., proteome, acetylome, and lipidome), through dissection of mitochondrial morphology, to analyses of mitochondrial processes such as nutrient utilization and respiration. We will describe potential mechanisms that are implicated in circadian regulation of mitochondrial functions in mammals and discuss the possibility of a mitochondrial-autonomous oscillator. PMID:28066327

  3. Circadian aspects of mammalian parturition: a review.

    PubMed

    Olcese, James

    2012-02-05

    The identification of circadian clocks in endocrine tissues has added considerable depth and complexity to our understanding of their physiology. A growing body of research reveals circadian clock gene expression in the uterus of non-pregnant and pregnant rodents. This review will focus on the mammalian uterus and its rhythmicity, particularly as it pertains to the circadian timing of parturition. This key event in the reproductive axis shows dramatic species-specific differences in its circadian phase. It is proposed here that these differences in the phasing of mammalian parturition are likely a function of opposite uterine cell responses to humoral cues. The argument will be made that melatonin fulfills many of the criteria to serve as a circadian signal in the initiation of human parturition, including specific actions on uterine smooth muscle cells that are consistent with a role for this hormone in the circadian timing of parturition.

  4. Circadian Plasticity of Mammalian Inhibitory Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons participate in all neuronal circuits in the mammalian brain, including the circadian clock system, and are indispensable for their effective function. Although the clock neurons have different molecular and electrical properties, their main function is the generation of circadian oscillations. Here we review the circadian plasticity of GABAergic interneurons in several areas of the mammalian brain, suprachiasmatic nucleus, neocortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, cerebellum, striatum, and in the retina. PMID:28367335

  5. Circadian Rhythm Control: Neurophysiological Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glotzbach, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was implicated as a primary component in central nervous system mechanisms governing circadian rhythms. Disruption of the normal synchronization of temperature, activity, and other rhythms is detrimental to health. Sleep wake disorders, decreases in vigilance and performance, and certain affective disorders may result from or be exacerbated by such desynchronization. To study the basic neurophysiological mechanisms involved in entrainment of circadian systems by the environment, Parylene-coated, etched microwire electrode bundles were used to record extracellular action potentials from the small somata of the SCN and neighboring hypothalamic nuclei in unanesthetized, behaving animals. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and chronically prepared with EEG ane EMG electrodes in addition to a moveable microdrive assembly. The majority of cells had firing rates 10 Hz and distinct populations of cells which had either the highest firing rate or lowest firing rate during sleep were seen.

  6. Circadian rhythmometry of mammalian radiosensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, E.; Halberg, F.; Loken, M. K.; Kim, Y. S.

    1974-01-01

    In the case of human bone marrow, the largest number of mitoses is seen in the evening in diurnally active men, mitotic activity being at a minimum in the morning. The opposite pattern is observed for nocturnal animals such as rats and mice on a regimen of light during the daytime alternating with darkness during the night hours. The entirety of these rhythms plays an important role in the organism's responses to environmental stimuli, including its resistance to potentially harmful agents. Conditions under which circadian rhythms can be observed and validated by inferential statistical means are discussed while emphasizing how artifacts of the laboratory environment can be shown to obscure circadian periodic variations in radiosensitivity.

  7. Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    The circadian system regulates the timing and expression of nearly all biological processes, most notably, the sleep-wake cycle, and disruption of this system can result in adverse effects on both physical and mental health. The circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) consist of 5 disorders that are due primarily to pathology of the circadian clock or to a misalignment of the timing of the endogenous circadian rhythm with the environment. This article outlines the nature of these disorders, the association of many of these disorders with psychiatric illness, and available treatment options.

  8. Sleep, Wakefulness and Circadian Rhythm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    water intake was not con oiled; meals were taken at about 07.00, 13.00 and 20.00. The subjects’ circadian periodicity was synchronized with light-on at...individuals on earth , at all times, cycles must run with precisely the length of 23, 28 and 33 days; deviations of only minutes or ’ven fractions of...regarded as stress hormones; the other adrenocortical hormones include aldosterone (the hormone that regulates electrolyte and water balance) and several

  9. The circadian clock component PERIOD2: from molecular to cerebral functions.

    PubMed

    Ripperger, Jürgen A; Albrecht, Urs

    2012-01-01

    The circadian clock is based on a molecular oscillator, which simulates the external day within nearly all of a body's cells. This "internalized" day then defines activity and rest phases for the cells and the organism by generating precise rhythms in the metabolism, physiology, and behavior. In its perfect state, this timing system allows for the synchronization of an organism to its environment and this may optimize energy handling and responses to daily recurring challenges. However, nowadays, we believe that desynchronization of an organism due to its lifestyle or problems with its circadian clock not only causes discomfort but also may aggravate conditions such as depression, metabolic syndrome, addiction, or cancer. In this review, we focus on one simple cogwheel of the mammalian circadian clock, the PERIOD2 (PER2) protein. Originally identified as an integral part of the molecular mechanism that yields overt rhythms of about 24h, more recently multiple other functions have been identified. In essence, the PER proteins, in addition to their important function within the molecular oscillator, can be seen not only as integrators on the input side of the circadian clock but also as mediators of clock output. This diversity in their function is possible, because the PER proteins can interact with a multitude of other proteins transferring oscillator timing information to the latter. In this fashion, the circadian clock synchronizes many rhythmic processes.

  10. Circadian organization in hemimetabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Kenji; Abdelsalam, Salaheldin

    2004-12-01

    The circadian system of hemimetabolous insects is reviewed in respect to the locus of the circadian clock and multioscillatory organization. Because of relatively easy access to the nervous system, the neuronal organization of the clock system in hemimetabolous insects has been studied, yielding identification of the compound eye as the major photoreceptor for entrainment and the optic lobe for the circadian clock locus. The clock site within the optic lobe is inconsistent among reported species; in cockroaches the lobula was previously thought to be a most likely clock locus but accessory medulla is recently stressed to be a clock center, while more distal part of the optic lobe including the lamina and the outer medulla area for the cricket. Identification of the clock cells needs further critical studies. Although each optic lobe clock seems functionally identical, in respect to photic entrainment and generation of the rhythm, the bilaterally paired clocks form a functional unit. They interact to produce a stable time structure within individual insects by exchanging photic and temporal information through neural pathways, in which serotonin and pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) are involved as chemical messengers. The mutual interaction also plays an important role in seasonal adaptation of the rhythm.

  11. Circadian phase-dependent effect of nitric oxide on L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in avian cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Michael L.; Shi, Liheng; Huang, Cathy Chia-Yu; Grushin, Kirill; Park, So-Young; Ko, Gladys Y.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in phase-shifting of circadian neuronal activities in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and circadian behavior activity rhythms. In the retina, NO production is increased in a light-dependent manner. While endogenous circadian oscillators in retinal photoreceptors regulate their physiological states, it is not clear whether NO also participates in the