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Sample records for circular languages generated

  1. Achromatic circular polarization generation for ultra-intense lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, Briggs W.; Schollmeier, Marius; Bennett, Guy R.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kimmel, Mark W.

    2010-05-01

    Generating circular polarization for ultra-intense lasers requires solutions beyond traditional transmissive waveplates which have insufficient bandwidth and pose nonlinear phase (B-integral) problems. We demonstrate a reflective design employing 3 metallic mirrors to generate circular polarization.

  2. Natural language generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  3. Circular Seating Arrangements: Approaching the Social Crux in Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Circular seating arrangements can help instill a sense of belonging within classroom communities with overall positive effects on learning, emotions, and well-being. Yet students and their teachers within certain language classroom contexts, due to sociocultural limitations, may be relegated to learning in antisocial environments instilled partly…

  4. Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi

    2015-04-15

    An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.

  5. Analysis of aerodynamic noise generated from inclined circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haramoto, Yasutake; Yasuda, Shouji; Matsuzaki, Kazuyoshi; Munekata, Mizue; Ohba, Hideki

    2000-06-01

    Making clear the generation mechanism of fluid dynamic noise is essential to reduce noise deriving from turbomachinery. The analysis of the aerodynamic noise generated from circular cylinder is carried out numerically and experimentally in a low noise wind tunnel. In this study, aerodynamic sound radiated from a circular cylinder in uniform flow is predicted numerically by the following two step method. First, the three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is solved using the high order accurate upwind scheme. Next, the sound pressure level at the observed point is calculated from the fluctuating surface pressure on the cylinder, based on modified Lighthill-Curl’s equation. It is worth to note that the noise generated from the model is reduced rapidly when it is inclined against the mean flow. In other words, the peak level of the radiated noise decreases rapidly with inclination of the circular cylinder. The simulated SPL for the inclined circular cylinder is compared with the measured value, and good agreement is obtained for the peak spectrum frequency of the sound pressure level and tendency of noise reduction. So we expect that the change of flow structures makes reduction of the aerodynamic noise from the inclined models.

  6. Generative Studies in Romance Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casagrande, Jean, Ed.; Saciuk, Bohdan, Ed.

    This book represents, in part, the written record of the "Linguistic Symposium of Romance Languages: Application of Generative Grammar to Their Description and Teaching," held at the University of Florida, Gainesville, in February 1971. The aim of the Symposium was to bring forth contributions in the description of Romance languages, to draw…

  7. Generative Studies in Romance Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casagrande, Jean, Ed.; Saciuk, Bohdan, Ed.

    This book represents, in part, the written record of the "Linguistic Symposium of Romance Languages: Application of Generative Grammar to Their Description and Teaching," held at the University of Florida, Gainesville, in February 1971. The aim of the Symposium was to bring forth contributions in the description of Romance languages, to draw…

  8. Natural Language Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    34 "* Generalization of the Work to Multiple Media ................................ 48 "* Toward Multimodal Presentation Planning...support human-computer interactions of the most powerful kind: using human language and additional media , as natural and appropriate. The work presented in...within normal English texts. The study involved 3ome hundreds of paragraphs (ranging over advertisements , scientific articles, letters, newspaper texts

  9. Generation of circular polarization of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batebi, S.; Mohammadi, R.; Ruffini, R.; Tizchang, S.; Xue, S.-S.

    2016-09-01

    The generation of the circular polarization of gamma ray burst (GRB) photons is discussed in this paper via their interactions with astroparticles in the presence or absence of background fields such as magnetic fields and noncommutative space-time geometry. Solving the quantum Boltzmann equation for GRB photons as a photon ensemble, we discuss the generation of circular polarization (as Faraday conversion phase shift Δ ϕFC) of GRBs in the following cases: (i) intermediate interactions, i.e., the Compton scattering of GRBs in the galaxy cluster magnetic field and in the presence of noncommutative space-time geometry, as well as the scattering of GRBs in the cosmic neutrino background (CNB) and cosmic microwave background (CMB); (ii) interactions with particles and fields in shockwaves, i.e., the Compton scattering of GRBs with accelerated charged particles in the presence of magnetic fields. We found that (i) after shockwave crossing, the greatest contribution of Δ ϕFC for energetic GRBs (of the order of GeV and larger) comes from GRB-CMB interactions, but for low-energy GRBs the contributions of the Compton scattering of GRBs in the galaxy cluster magnetic field dominate; (ii) in shockwave crossing, the magnetic field has significant effects on converting a GRB's linear polarization to a circular one, and this effect can be used to better understand the magnetic profile in shockwaves. The main aim of this work is to study and measure the circular polarization of GRBs for a better understanding of the physics and mechanism of the generation of GRBs and their interactions before reaching us.

  10. Next Generation Systems Languages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Smith, Dan Grossman, Greg Morrisett, Luke Hornof, and Trevor Jim. Compiling for template-based run-time code generation. Journal of Functional...Cyclone. Intel Research Lab, Berkeley, CA. October 2006. Honors and Awards G. Morrisett: "* Sloan Fellow (1998). e NSF Faculty Early Career Development

  11. Three-dimensional structural imaging of starch granules by second-harmonic generation circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, G-Y; Lee, H; Hsu, K-J; Huttunen, M J; Kauranen, M; Lin, Y-Y; Chu, S-W

    2014-03-01

    Chirality is one of the most fundamental and essential structural properties of biological molecules. Many important biological molecules including amino acids and polysaccharides are intrinsically chiral. Conventionally, chiral species can be distinguished by interaction with circularly polarized light, and circular dichroism is one of the best-known approaches for chirality detection. As a linear optical process, circular dichroism suffers from very low signal contrast and lack of spatial resolution in the axial direction. It has been demonstrated that by incorporating nonlinear interaction with circularly polarized excitation, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism can provide much higher signal contrast. However, previous circular dichroism and second-harmonic generation circular dichroism studies are mostly limited to probe chiralities at surfaces and interfaces. It is known that second-harmonic generation, as a second-order nonlinear optical effect, provides excellent optical sectioning capability when combined with a laser-scanning microscope. In this work, we combine the axial resolving power of second-harmonic generation and chiral sensitivity of second-harmonic generation circular dichroism to realize three-dimensional chiral detection in biological tissues. Within the point spread function of a tight focus, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism could arise from the macroscopic supramolecular packing as well as the microscopic intramolecular chirality, so our aim is to clarify the origins of second-harmonic generation circular dichroism response in complicated three-dimensional biological systems. The sample we use is starch granules whose second-harmonic generation-active molecules are amylopectin with both microscopic chirality due to its helical structure and macroscopic chirality due to its crystallized packing. We found that in a starch granule, the second-harmonic generation for right-handed circularly polarized excitation is

  12. On the generation of helical waves in circular pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landman, Michael J.

    1990-05-01

    The question of the existence of helical waves in fluid flow through a circular pipe is discussed. In the case of pipe flow forced only by an axial pressure gradient, direct simulations have failed to find any self-sustaining helical waves. The effect of residual swirl in the inlet flow is investigated, by performing linear stability calculations and direct simulations of a forced basic flow. The results are qualitatively similar to that of flow in a rotating pipe, in which stable helical waves are known to exist. These results suggest that residual rotation may be an important mechanism in triggering laminar-turbulent transition in circular pipe flow.

  13. Generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses by intense ultrashort laser pulses from extended asymmetric molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, Andre D.

    2011-08-15

    We present a method for generation of single circularly polarized attosecond pulses in extended asymmetric HHe{sup 2+} molecular ions. By employing an intense ultrashort circularly polarized laser pulse with intensity 4.0x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, wavelength 400 nm, and duration 10 optical cycles, molecular high-order-harmonic generation (MHOHG) spectra with multiple plateaus exhibit characters of circular polarization. Using a classical laser-induced collision model, double collisions of continuum electrons first with neighboring ions and then second with parent ions are presented at a particular internuclear distance and confirmed from numerical solutions of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We analyze the MHOHG spectra with a Gabor time window and find that, due to the asymmetry of HHe{sup 2+}, a single collision trajectory of continuum electrons with ions can produce circularly polarized harmonics, leading to single circularly polarized attosecond pulses for specific internuclear distances.

  14. Metazoan tRNA introns generate stable circular RNAs in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhipeng; Filonov, Grigory S.; Noto, John J.; Schmidt, Casey A.; Hatkevich, Talia L.; Wen, Ying; Jaffrey, Samie R.; Matera, A. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a class of abundant circular noncoding RNAs that are produced during metazoan tRNA splicing. These transcripts, termed tRNA intronic circular (tric)RNAs, are conserved features of animal transcriptomes. Biogenesis of tricRNAs requires anciently conserved tRNA sequence motifs and processing enzymes, and their expression is regulated in an age-dependent and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, we exploited this biogenesis pathway to develop an in vivo expression system for generating “designer” circular RNAs in human cells. Reporter constructs expressing RNA aptamers such as Spinach and Broccoli can be used to follow the transcription and subcellular localization of tricRNAs in living cells. Owing to the superior stability of circular vs. linear RNA isoforms, this expression system has a wide range of potential applications, from basic research to pharmaceutical science. PMID:26194134

  15. Magnetic Field Generation through Angular Momentum Exchange between Circularly Polarized Radiation and Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch; J.-M. Rax

    2002-01-18

    The interaction between circularly polarized (CP) radiation and charged particles can lead to generation of magnetic field through an inverse Faraday effect. The spin of the circularly polarized electromagnetic wave can be converted into the angular momentum of the charged particles so long as there is dissipation. We demonstrate this by considering two mechanisms of angular momentum absorption relevant for laser-plasma interactions: electron-ion collisions and ionization. The precise dissipative mechanism, however, plays a role in determining the efficiency of the magnetic field generation.

  16. Sound representation in higher language areas during language generation

    PubMed Central

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Aromataris, Giuseppe; Cabrini, Alessandro; Annovazzi-Lodi, Valerio; Moro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    How language is encoded by neural activity in the higher-level language areas of humans is still largely unknown. We investigated whether the electrophysiological activity of Broca’s area correlates with the sound of the utterances produced. During speech perception, the electric cortical activity of the auditory areas correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances. In our experiment, we compared the electrocorticogram recorded during awake neurosurgical operations in Broca’s area and in the dominant temporal lobe with the sound envelope of single words versus sentences read aloud or mentally by the patients. Our results indicate that the electrocorticogram correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances, starting before any sound is produced and even in the absence of speech, when the patient is reading mentally. No correlations were found when the electrocorticogram was recorded in the superior parietal gyrus, an area not directly involved in language generation, or in Broca’s area when the participants were executing a repetitive motor task, which did not include any linguistic content, with their dominant hand. The distribution of suprathreshold correlations across frequencies of cortical activities varied whether the sound envelope derived from words or sentences. Our results suggest the activity of language areas is organized by sound when language is generated before any utterance is produced or heard. PMID:25624479

  17. Sound representation in higher language areas during language generation.

    PubMed

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Aromataris, Giuseppe; Cabrini, Alessandro; Annovazzi-Lodi, Valerio; Moro, Andrea

    2015-02-10

    How language is encoded by neural activity in the higher-level language areas of humans is still largely unknown. We investigated whether the electrophysiological activity of Broca's area correlates with the sound of the utterances produced. During speech perception, the electric cortical activity of the auditory areas correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances. In our experiment, we compared the electrocorticogram recorded during awake neurosurgical operations in Broca's area and in the dominant temporal lobe with the sound envelope of single words versus sentences read aloud or mentally by the patients. Our results indicate that the electrocorticogram correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances, starting before any sound is produced and even in the absence of speech, when the patient is reading mentally. No correlations were found when the electrocorticogram was recorded in the superior parietal gyrus, an area not directly involved in language generation, or in Broca's area when the participants were executing a repetitive motor task, which did not include any linguistic content, with their dominant hand. The distribution of suprathreshold correlations across frequencies of cortical activities varied whether the sound envelope derived from words or sentences. Our results suggest the activity of language areas is organized by sound when language is generated before any utterance is produced or heard.

  18. Circularly polarized high harmonic generation for element-selective probing of magnetic materials on a tabletop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grychtol, Patrick; Turgut, Emrah; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Knut, Ronny; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin; Kfir, Ofer; Fleischer, Avner; Cohen, Oren

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast short wavelength sources based on high harmonic upconversion of femtosecond lasers are unique in their ability to simultaneously probe the magnetically-sensitive M absorption edges of the 3d ferromagnets Fe, Co and Ni. This novel capability to capture the fastest spin dynamics in materials has uncovered a wealth of new fundamental understanding about spin scattering and transport on few-femtosecond timescales. However, to date these investigations have used linearly polarized higher harmonics, since it has not been possible to generate circularly polarized harmonics with sufficient flux for scientific applications. In this contribution, we present a simple setup that enables the efficient generation of circularly polarized harmonics, and demonstrates that they are bright enough for studies of magnetic materials. The fundamental and second harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser are focused into a gas filled waveguide under good phase matching conditions, with opposite chirality circular polarizations. Thus, circularly-polarized harmonics are produced that are then used to perform magnetic circular dichroism studies in the extreme ultraviolet photon energy range.

  19. Radiation characteristics and generation of higher-order modes of circular microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G.; Shafai, L.

    1984-08-01

    The characteristics of higher-order modes of circular microstrip antennas, such as radiation pattern, directivity, bandwidth, efficiency, and location of the feedpoint to match a 50 ohm line, are studied, and the effects of varying the substrate parameters are investigated. A multifeed technique to generate any particular mode is also presented.

  20. Optical generation of a circular harmonic filter for rotation and translation invariant optical pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yeou-Yen

    1987-01-01

    A new method to generate a circular harmonic filter with both rotation and translation invariance is described, which is based on a phase-shifted double-exposure (PSDE) technique. An expression for the peak correlation intensity at the origin for the correlation plane as a function of target orientation for the PSDE filter is derived. Experimental results confirming the theoretical predictions are provided.

  1. Bibliography of Research in Natural Language Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    Artficial Intelligence , pages 295- [506], pages 613-615. 304. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985. [5251 Shun Ishizaki. Generating Japanese text from [540...Report RS-87-181, March 1987.@15 of quits who have existential misconcep- don Artficial Intelligence , 50(3):331-383, Au- [698] William C. Mann...generation workshops (IWNLGS, ENLGWS), natural language processing conferences (ANLP, TINLAP, SPEECH), artificial intelligence conferences (AAAI, SCA

  2. Input Generation by Young Second Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathcart-Strong, Ruth L.

    1986-01-01

    Examined spontaneous communicative acts (requests for information, calls for attention, intention statements, etc.) of a group of young second-language learners and their native-speaker interlocutors in three play situations. Results showed that, while the response rate to some types of utterances was predictable, others did not generate the…

  3. Arbitrary grammars generating context-free languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, B. S.

    1972-01-01

    If G is a grammar such that in each noncontext-free rule of G, the right side contains a string of terminals longer than any terminal string appearing between two nonterminals in the left side; then the language generated by G is context-free. Six previous results follow as simple corollaries of this theorem.

  4. Ellipticity-tunable attosecond XUV pulse generation with a rotating bichromatic circularly polarized laser field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Xi; Wang, Dian; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-03-15

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate a method to generate attosecond XUV pulses with tunable ellipticity from aligned molecules irradiated by a bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized (BCCP) driving laser field. By rotating the BCCP field, the attoseond XUV pulse varies from being left elliptically polarized to right elliptically polarized. The rotation of the BCCP field can be easily achieved by adjusting the relative phases between the two circularly polarized components. This scheme will benefit a broad range of applications, including the exploration of chiral-sensitive properties of the light-matter interaction and time-resolved imaging of magnetic structures.

  5. Anomalous circular dichroism in high harmonic generation of stereoisomers with two chiral centers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Xi; Lan, Pengfei; Wang, Dian; Zhang, Qingbin; Li, Wei; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-10-31

    When a molecule has more than one chiral center, it can be either a chiral molecule or a meso isomer. High harmonic generation (HHG) of stereoisomers with two chiral centers driven by circularly polarized (CP) laser pulses is investigated. Counterintuitively, it is found that the HHG exhibits prominent circular dichroism for the meso isomer, while the harmonic spectra with left and right CP laser pulses are nearly the same for the chiral isomers. We show that the anomalous circular dichroism is attributed to the characteristic recollision dynamics of HHG. This feature makes the HHG a promising tool to discriminate the meso isomer and racemic mixture, where no optical activity can be found in both cases. Similar dichroism responses are also found by applying the counter-rotating bicircular laser pulses.

  6. Natural Language Generation in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Cawsey, Alison J.; Webber, Bonnie L.; Jones, Ray B.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Good communication is vital in health care, both among health care professionals, and between health care professionals and their patients. And well-written documents, describing and/or explaining the information in structured databases may be easier to comprehend, more edifying, and even more convincing than the structured data, even when presented in tabular or graphic form. Documents may be automatically generated from structured data, using techniques from the field of natural language generation. These techniques are concerned with how the content, organization and language used in a document can be dynamically selected, depending on the audience and context. They have been used to generate health education materials, explanations and critiques in decision support systems, and medical reports and progress notes. PMID:9391935

  7. Circularly polarized magnetic field generated by two microfabricated crossed coplanar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, I.; Soeno, Y.; Roppongi, T.; Nozaki, Y.

    2017-05-01

    We generate a circularly polarized (CP) magnetic field using two crossed coplanar waveguides (TCCWs). By using the CP field, we selectively excite a ferromagnetic resonance between positively and negatively magnetized Co/Ni multilayers. The CP field arises from a superposition of Ampere fields generated by microwaves orthogonally propagating along the crossed arms of the TCCWs. The polarity of the magnetic field can be tuned continuously from circular to linear by exploiting a phase delay between the orthogonal microwaves. From a local measurement of the magneto-optical Kerr effect, we also find that the ellipticity of the CP field is distributed over the intersection of the TCCWs. These results indicate that TCCWs have great potential as CP-field generators that can be integrated into micron-scale electrical devices.

  8. Stable UV to IR supercontinuum generation in calcium fluoride with conserved circular polarization states.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip J M; Prokhorenko, Valentyn I; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2009-11-23

    The supercontinuum generated with a linearly polarized near-IR (775 nm) pump in rotated calcium fluoride is shown to have intrinsic intensity and polarization modulations. To mask the rotation of the crystal plate, we circularly polarize the pump and find greatly improved output parameters for the generated white light: intensity fluctuations of 0.5% limited only by pump laser stability, and a circular polarization state-matching that of the pump-over the entire visible spectrum. This polarization conservation allows the return of the supercontinuum to a linear polarization state or to a pair of linearly polarized beams with correlated intensity fluctuations. We were also able to extend the supercontinuum source deep into the ultraviolet with a frequency doubled (387 nm) pump, to serve as an new source to probe the region where most molecular photochemistry occurs.

  9. Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Daniel; Rudolf, Denis Juschkin, Larissa; Weier, Christian; Adam, Roman; Schneider, Claus M.; Winkler, Gerrit; Frömter, Robert; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Bergmann, Klaus; Grützmacher, Detlev

    2014-10-15

    Generation of circularly polarized light in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (about 25 eV–250 eV) is highly desirable for applications in spectroscopy and microscopy but very challenging to achieve in a small-scale laboratory. We present a compact apparatus for generation of linearly and circularly polarized EUV radiation from a gas-discharge plasma light source between 50 eV and 70 eV photon energy. In this spectral range, the 3p absorption edges of Fe (54 eV), Co (60 eV), and Ni (67 eV) offer a high magnetic contrast often employed for magneto-optical and electron spectroscopy as well as for magnetic imaging. We simulated and designed an instrument for generation of linearly and circularly polarized EUV radiation and performed polarimetric measurements of the degree of linear and circular polarization. Furthermore, we demonstrate first measurements of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Co 3p absorption edge with a plasma-based EUV light source. Our approach opens the door for laboratory-based, element-selective spectroscopy of magnetic materials and spectro-microscopy of ferromagnetic domains.

  10. Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel; Rudolf, Denis; Weier, Christian; Adam, Roman; Winkler, Gerrit; Frömter, Robert; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Bergmann, Klaus; Grützmacher, Detlev; Schneider, Claus M; Juschkin, Larissa

    2014-10-01

    Generation of circularly polarized light in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (about 25 eV-250 eV) is highly desirable for applications in spectroscopy and microscopy but very challenging to achieve in a small-scale laboratory. We present a compact apparatus for generation of linearly and circularly polarized EUV radiation from a gas-discharge plasma light source between 50 eV and 70 eV photon energy. In this spectral range, the 3p absorption edges of Fe (54 eV), Co (60 eV), and Ni (67 eV) offer a high magnetic contrast often employed for magneto-optical and electron spectroscopy as well as for magnetic imaging. We simulated and designed an instrument for generation of linearly and circularly polarized EUV radiation and performed polarimetric measurements of the degree of linear and circular polarization. Furthermore, we demonstrate first measurements of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Co 3p absorption edge with a plasma-based EUV light source. Our approach opens the door for laboratory-based, element-selective spectroscopy of magnetic materials and spectro-microscopy of ferromagnetic domains.

  11. Generation of Bright Phase-matched Circularly-polarized Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-08

    molecular decay dynamics2, the direct measurement of quantum phases (for example, Berry’s phase and pseudo- spin ) in graphene and topological insulators3,4 and...Lett. 12, 3900–3904 (2012). 4. Xu, S.-Y. et al. Hedgehog spin texture and Berry’s phase tuning in a magnetic topological insulator. Nature Phys. 8, 616...Mauger, F., Bandrauk, A. D., Kamor, A., Uzer, T. & Chandre, C. Quantum - classical correspondence in circularly polarized high harmonic generation. J. Phys

  12. Uniform electric field generation in circular multi-well culture plates using polymeric inserts

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsieh-Fu; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chang, Hui-Fang; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Shen, Amy Q.

    2016-01-01

    Applying uniform electric field (EF) in vitro in the physiological range has been achieved in rectangular shaped microchannels. However, in a circular-shaped device, it is difficult to create uniform EF from two electric potentials due to different electrical resistances originated from the length difference between the diameter of the circle and the length of any parallel chord of the bottom circular chamber where cells are cultured. To address this challenge, we develop a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided designed (CAD) polymeric insert to create uniform EF in circular shaped multi-well culture plates. A uniform EF with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.2% in the 6-well plate can be generated with an effective stimulation area percentage of 69.5%. In particular, NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells are used to validate the performance of the 3D designed Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) inserts in a circular-shaped 6-well plate. The CAD based inserts can be easily scaled up (i.e., 100 mm dishes) to further increase effective stimulation area percentages, and also be implemented in commercially available cultureware for a wide variety of EF-related research such as EF-cell interaction and tissue regeneration studies. PMID:27193911

  13. Uniform electric field generation in circular multi-well culture plates using polymeric inserts.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Fu; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chang, Hui-Fang; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Shen, Amy Q

    2016-05-19

    Applying uniform electric field (EF) in vitro in the physiological range has been achieved in rectangular shaped microchannels. However, in a circular-shaped device, it is difficult to create uniform EF from two electric potentials due to different electrical resistances originated from the length difference between the diameter of the circle and the length of any parallel chord of the bottom circular chamber where cells are cultured. To address this challenge, we develop a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided designed (CAD) polymeric insert to create uniform EF in circular shaped multi-well culture plates. A uniform EF with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.2% in the 6-well plate can be generated with an effective stimulation area percentage of 69.5%. In particular, NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells are used to validate the performance of the 3D designed Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) inserts in a circular-shaped 6-well plate. The CAD based inserts can be easily scaled up (i.e., 100 mm dishes) to further increase effective stimulation area percentages, and also be implemented in commercially available cultureware for a wide variety of EF-related research such as EF-cell interaction and tissue regeneration studies.

  14. Uniform electric field generation in circular multi-well culture plates using polymeric inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Fu; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chang, Hui-Fang; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Shen, Amy Q.

    2016-05-01

    Applying uniform electric field (EF) in vitro in the physiological range has been achieved in rectangular shaped microchannels. However, in a circular-shaped device, it is difficult to create uniform EF from two electric potentials due to different electrical resistances originated from the length difference between the diameter of the circle and the length of any parallel chord of the bottom circular chamber where cells are cultured. To address this challenge, we develop a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided designed (CAD) polymeric insert to create uniform EF in circular shaped multi-well culture plates. A uniform EF with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.2% in the 6-well plate can be generated with an effective stimulation area percentage of 69.5%. In particular, NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells are used to validate the performance of the 3D designed Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) inserts in a circular-shaped 6-well plate. The CAD based inserts can be easily scaled up (i.e., 100 mm dishes) to further increase effective stimulation area percentages, and also be implemented in commercially available cultureware for a wide variety of EF-related research such as EF-cell interaction and tissue regeneration studies.

  15. Experimental Array for Generating Dual Circularly-Polarized Dual-Mode OAM Radio Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xu-Dong; Liang, Xian-Ling; Sun, Yun-Tao; Hu, Peng-Cheng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Kun; Geng, Jun-Ping; Jin, Rong-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Recently, vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) for radio communications has attracted much attention for its potential of transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at the same frequency, which can be used to increase the channel capacity. However, most of the methods for getting multi-mode OAM radio beams are of complicated structure and very high cost. This paper provides an effective solution of generating dual circularly-polarized (CP) dual-mode OAM beams. The antenna consists of four dual-CP elements which are sequentially rotated 90 degrees in the clockwise direction. Different from all previous published research relating to OAM generation by phased arrays, the four elements are fed with the same phase for both left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). The dual-mode operation for OAM is achieved through the opposite phase differences generated for LHCP and RHCP, when the dual-CP elements are sequentially rotated in the clockwise direction. The measured results coincide well with the simulated ones, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  16. Experimental Array for Generating Dual Circularly-Polarized Dual-Mode OAM Radio Beams

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xu-Dong; Liang, Xian-Ling; Sun, Yun-Tao; Hu, Peng-Cheng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Kun; Geng, Jun-Ping; Jin, Rong-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Recently, vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) for radio communications has attracted much attention for its potential of transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at the same frequency, which can be used to increase the channel capacity. However, most of the methods for getting multi-mode OAM radio beams are of complicated structure and very high cost. This paper provides an effective solution of generating dual circularly-polarized (CP) dual-mode OAM beams. The antenna consists of four dual-CP elements which are sequentially rotated 90 degrees in the clockwise direction. Different from all previous published research relating to OAM generation by phased arrays, the four elements are fed with the same phase for both left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). The dual-mode operation for OAM is achieved through the opposite phase differences generated for LHCP and RHCP, when the dual-CP elements are sequentially rotated in the clockwise direction. The measured results coincide well with the simulated ones, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed design. PMID:28071662

  17. Experimental Array for Generating Dual Circularly-Polarized Dual-Mode OAM Radio Beams.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xu-Dong; Liang, Xian-Ling; Sun, Yun-Tao; Hu, Peng-Cheng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Kun; Geng, Jun-Ping; Jin, Rong-Hong

    2017-01-10

    Recently, vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) for radio communications has attracted much attention for its potential of transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at the same frequency, which can be used to increase the channel capacity. However, most of the methods for getting multi-mode OAM radio beams are of complicated structure and very high cost. This paper provides an effective solution of generating dual circularly-polarized (CP) dual-mode OAM beams. The antenna consists of four dual-CP elements which are sequentially rotated 90 degrees in the clockwise direction. Different from all previous published research relating to OAM generation by phased arrays, the four elements are fed with the same phase for both left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). The dual-mode operation for OAM is achieved through the opposite phase differences generated for LHCP and RHCP, when the dual-CP elements are sequentially rotated in the clockwise direction. The measured results coincide well with the simulated ones, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  18. Generative and Item-Specific Knowledge of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Emily Ida Popper

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate novel utterances compositionally using generative knowledge is a hallmark property of human language. At the same time, languages contain non-compositional or idiosyncratic items, such as irregular verbs, idioms, etc. This dissertation asks how and why language achieves a balance between these two systems--generative and…

  19. Generative and Item-Specific Knowledge of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Emily Ida Popper

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate novel utterances compositionally using generative knowledge is a hallmark property of human language. At the same time, languages contain non-compositional or idiosyncratic items, such as irregular verbs, idioms, etc. This dissertation asks how and why language achieves a balance between these two systems--generative and…

  20. Language Attitudes in the Second Generation Japanese Group in Melbourne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasu, Tsuneo

    This study investigated language attitudes and Japanese language maintenance among a group of second-generation Japanese in Melbourne (Australia). Subjects were 66 Japanese high school students (second-generation) attending Japanese-language schools and 109 Japanese mothers (first-generation) self-identified as Japanese-identity,…

  1. Circularly polarized carrier-envelope-phase stable attosecond pulse generation based on coherent undulator radiation.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gy; Tibai, Z; Nagy-Csiha, Zs; Márton, Zs; Almási, G; Hebling, J

    2015-09-15

    In this Letter, we present a new method for generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses. According to our calculations, shape-controlled, carrier-envelope-phase stable pulses of several hundred nanojoule energy could be produced by exploitation of the coherent undulator radiation of an electron bunch. Our calculations are based on an existing particle accelerator system (FLASH II in DESY, Germany). We investigated the energy dependence of the attosecond pulses on the energy of electrons and the parameters of the radiator undulator, which generate the electromagnetic radiation.

  2. An improved prediction method for the noise generated in flight by circular jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Montegani, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    A semi-empirical model for predicting the noise generated by jets exhausting from circular nozzles is presented and compared with small-scale static and simulated-flight data. The present method is an updated version of that part of the original NASA aircraft noise prediction program relating to circular jet noise. The earlier method agreed reasonably well with experimental static and flight data for jet velocities up to approximately 520 m/sec. The poorer agreement at higher jet velocities appeared to be due primarily to the manner in which supersonic convection effects were formulated. The purely empirical supersonic convection formulation is replaced in the present method by one based on theoretical considerations. Other improvements of an empirical nature were included based on model-jet/free-jet simulated-flight tests. The effects of nozzle size, jet velocity, jet temperature, and flight are included.

  3. Behavior-Based Language Generation for Believable Agents,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    further bring out some of the requirements on believable language and action producing agents, let us examine four seconds from the film Casablanca [5...could be extended to support language generation. Second , the extensions to Hap to support language generation might be useful in expressing...Behavior-based Language Generation for Believable Agents A. Bryan Loyall Joseph Bates March 1995 CMU-CS-95-139 School of Computer Science

  4. Experimental investigation of propeller type swirl generator for a circular pipe flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, T.; Ayhan, T.

    1999-01-01

    Energy and material savings considerations, as well as economic incentives, have led to concerted efforts during the past forty years to produce more efficient heat exchange equipment. The objective of this paper is to introduce the subject of heat transfer augmentation by inserting a propeller type swirl generator in a circular pipe. The propeller type swirl generator creates a flow pattern which is like a decaying swirl flow. This flow pattern is observed for laminar flow. The main advantage of this type of swirl generator is that it is easy to install the device into a circular pipe. Average and local Nusselt numbers were calculated by the method explained in detail in the main text. Comparison of the local Nusselt numbers for swirl flow considered in this study and local Nusselt numbers for flow in a smooth pipe revealed that the local Nusselt number increases substantially when the swirl generator is used. The swirl related heat transfer enhancement becomes stronger as Reynolds number increases.

  5. Uniform magnetic fields generated by circular current-carrying coils. [for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, V. L.; Cain, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study described was carried out to evaluate known systems of circular coils with a view toward their application on board the space probes Ranger 1, Ranger 2, and Explorer 10. Particular attention is given to a new method, developed during the investigation, for determining the constants of systems composed of 6 to 8 coils. Such systems were found to generate magnetic fields of very high uniformity. By using advanced computational techniques, it proved possible to evaluate the field uniformity of various systems without recourse to complex analytical methods. Means of evaluating the influence of coil dimensions on the uniformity of the field of any system are described.

  6. Offset angles of photocurrents generated in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinlei; Fu, Yongsheng; Chen, Wenbo; Lü, Zhihui; Zhao, Jing; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhao, Zengxiu

    2017-03-01

    Photocurrents generated in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields are investigated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and by means of classical-trajectory Monte Carlo simulations. After confirming the offset angles of the total final currents and electron spectra to be the same, we illustrate the effects of the Coulomb potential and ground state depletion on the offset angles of the total final current, by analyzing how electrons’ trajectories and momenta change with laser intensities. Using various atom systems at different laser wavelengths, we find that the behaviors of currents’ offset angles as a function of laser intensities seem to be universal.

  7. Generation of conical patterns from circular patch antennas and their performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G.; Shafai, L.

    1985-07-01

    The input and radiation characteristics of circular microstrip antennas operated at higher order modes to generate conical patterns are studied. The effects of varying the substrate parameters on characteristics such as radiation pattern, directivity, bandwidth, efficiency and location of the feedpoint to match a 50 ohm line are investigated. Also, a multifeed technique to operate the antenna at any particular higher order mode is proposed. Successful experiments have used this technique to operate the antenna at the desired higher order modes and the experimental results are in close agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  8. Uniform magnetic fields generated by circular current-carrying coils. [for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, V. L.; Cain, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study described was carried out to evaluate known systems of circular coils with a view toward their application on board the space probes Ranger 1, Ranger 2, and Explorer 10. Particular attention is given to a new method, developed during the investigation, for determining the constants of systems composed of 6 to 8 coils. Such systems were found to generate magnetic fields of very high uniformity. By using advanced computational techniques, it proved possible to evaluate the field uniformity of various systems without recourse to complex analytical methods. Means of evaluating the influence of coil dimensions on the uniformity of the field of any system are described.

  9. Chiral imaging of collagen by second-harmonic generation circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H.; Huttunen, M. J.; Hsu, K.-J.; Partanen, M.; Zhuo, G.-Y.; Kauranen, M.; Chu, S.-W.

    2013-01-01

    We provide evidence that the chirality of collagen can give rise to strong second-harmonic generation circular dichroism (SHG-CD) responses in nonlinear microscopy. Although chirality is an intrinsic structural property of collagen, most of the previous studies ignore that property. We demonstrate chiral imaging of individual collagen fibers by using a laser scanning microscope and type-I collagen from pig ligaments. 100% contrast level of SHG-CD is achieved with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. As a new contrast mechanism for imaging chiral structures in bio-tissues, this technique provides information about collagen morphology and three-dimensional orientation of collagen molecules. PMID:23761852

  10. Chiral imaging of collagen by second-harmonic generation circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Lee, H; Huttunen, M J; Hsu, K-J; Partanen, M; Zhuo, G-Y; Kauranen, M; Chu, S-W

    2013-06-01

    We provide evidence that the chirality of collagen can give rise to strong second-harmonic generation circular dichroism (SHG-CD) responses in nonlinear microscopy. Although chirality is an intrinsic structural property of collagen, most of the previous studies ignore that property. We demonstrate chiral imaging of individual collagen fibers by using a laser scanning microscope and type-I collagen from pig ligaments. 100% contrast level of SHG-CD is achieved with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. As a new contrast mechanism for imaging chiral structures in bio-tissues, this technique provides information about collagen morphology and three-dimensional orientation of collagen molecules.

  11. Resolution and contrast enhancement of subtractive second harmonic generation microscopy with a circularly polarized vortex beam

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Nian; Fu, Ling; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    We extend the subtractive imaging method to label-free second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to enhance the spatial resolution and contrast. This method is based on the intensity difference between two images obtained with circularly polarized Gaussian and doughnut-shaped beams, respectively. By characterizing the intensity and polarization distributions of the two focused beams, we verify the feasibility of the subtractive imaging method in polarization dependent SHG microscopy. The resolution and contrast enhancement in different biological samples is demonstrated. This work will open a new avenue for the applications of SHG microscopy in biomedical research. PMID:26364733

  12. In-line production of a bi-circular field for generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kfir, Ofer; Bordo, Eliyahu; Ilan Haham, Gil; Lahav, Oren; Fleischer, Avner; Cohen, Oren

    2016-05-01

    The recent demonstration of bright circularly polarized high-order harmonics of a bi-circular pump field gave rise to new opportunities in ultrafast chiral science. In previous works, the required nontrivial bi-circular pump field was produced using a relatively complicated and sensitive Mach-Zehnder-like interferometer. We propose a compact and stable in-line apparatus for converting a quasi-monochromatic linearly polarized ultrashort driving laser field into a bi-circular field and employ it for generation of helically polarized high-harmonics. Furthermore, utilizing the apparatus for a spectroscopic spin-mixing measurement, we identify the photon spins of the bi-circular weak component field that are annihilated during the high harmonics process.

  13. Compact motorized circular wheel of polarization optics for ultra-broadband polarization state generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Chun-Jen; Liu, Da-Ren; Hsu, Ken-Yuh; Chen, Yung-Fu

    2012-10-01

    This study proposes an innovative optical mechanism with a miniature motorized circular wheel for polarization optics for an ultra-broadband polarization state generator. The proposed apparatus can be suitable for a polarimetric microspectrophotometer for measurements of micro optics and metamaterials with circular dichroism and linear dichroism. Different types of micro optics have their own wavelength dependence, meaning different curves in the broadband range of light. This study presents an ultra-broadband platform for measuring and identifying micro optics such as chiral metamaterials, plasmonics, micro polarizers, and patterned retarders. The key component of a polarimetric microspectrophotometer is a polarization state generator (PSG). A simple PSG consists of a polarizer and a waveplate. An arbitrary polarization state can be created by rotating either the polarizer or the waveplate. Sheet polarizers and achromatic waveplates have a limited bandwidth range. For the ultra-broadband measurement range of 400 nm to 1700 nm, the PSG needs at least three sheet polarizers and three achromatic waveplates: 400 nm-700 nm, 700 nm-1000 nm, and 1000 nm-1700 nm. This optical mechanism, which consists of only one control motor and two high precision unidirectional bearings, includes several polarizers and waveplates arranged in a matrix on a circular wheel. This apparatus can shift one of the polarizers and waveplates to a predetermined position and rotate all the polarizers to change the polarization status. An ultra-broadband polarimetric microspectrophotometer with a compact motorized wheel is an advanced polarization optical instrument for research on chiral metamaterials, plasmonics, micro polarization optics, green optics, and bio optics.

  14. Generating Language Activities in Real-Time for English Learners Using Language Muse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill; Madnani, Nitin; Sabatini, John; McCaffrey, Dan; Biggers, Kietha; Dreier, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    K-12 education standards in the U.S. require all students to read complex texts across many subject areas. The "Language Muse™ Activity Palette" is a web-based language-instruction application that uses NLP algorithms and lexical resources to automatically generate language activities and support English language learners' content…

  15. Generation and electric control of spin-valley-coupled circular photogalvanic current in WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongtao; Wang, Xinqiang; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Haijun; Fang, Xianfa; Shen, Bo; Xu, Gang; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Hwang, Harold Y.; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    The valley degree of freedom in layered transition-metal dichalcogenides provides an opportunity to extend the functionalities of spintronics and valleytronics devices. The achievement of spin-coupled valley polarization induced by the non-equilibrium charge-carrier imbalance between two degenerate and inequivalent valleys has been demonstrated theoretically and by optical experiments. However, the generation of a valley and spin current with the valley polarization in transition-metal dichalcogenides remains elusive. Here we demonstrate a spin-coupled valley photocurrent, within an electric-double-layer transistor based on WSe2, whose direction and magnitude depend on the degree of circular polarization of the incident radiation and can be further modulated with an external electric field. This room-temperature generation and electric control of a valley and spin photocurrent provides a new property of electrons in transition-metal dichalcogenide systems, and thereby enables additional degrees of control for quantum-confined spintronic devices.

  16. Generating circularly polarized radiation in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range at the free-electron laser FLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Weder, David; Noll, Tino; Pfau, Bastian; Hennecke, Martin; Strüber, Christian; Radu, Ilie; Schneider, Michael; Staeck, Steffen; Günther, Christian M.; Lüning, Jan; Merhe, Alaa el dine; Buck, Jens; Hartmann, Gregor; Viefhaus, Jens; Treusch, Rolf; Eisebitt, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    A new device for polarization control at the free electron laser facility FLASH1 at DESY has been commissioned for user operation. The polarizer is based on phase retardation upon reflection off metallic mirrors. Its performance is characterized in three independent measurements and confirms the theoretical predictions of efficient and broadband generation of circularly polarized radiation in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range from 35 eV to 90 eV. The degree of circular polarization reaches up to 90% while maintaining high total transmission values exceeding 30%. The simple design of the device allows straightforward alignment for user operation and rapid switching between left and right circularly polarized radiation.

  17. Semi-analytical modelling of guided waves generation on composite structures using circular piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostiguy, Pierre-Claude; Quaegebeur, Nicolas; Bilodeau, Maxime; Masson, Patrice

    2015-03-01

    In Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), classical imaging techniques rely on the use of analytical formulations to predict the propagation and interaction of guided waves generated using piezoceramic (PZT) transducers. For the implementation of advanced imaging approaches on composites structures, analytical formulations need to consider (1) the dependency of phase velocity and damping as a function of angle (2) the steering effect on guided wave propagation caused by the anisotropy of the structure and (3) the full transducer dynamics. In this paper, the analytical modeling of guided waves generation by a circular PZT and propagation on composite structures is investigated. This work, based on previous work from the authors, is intended to extend a semi- analytical formulation from isotropic to transversely isotropic plate-like structures. The formulation considers the dependency of the interfacial shear stress under the PZT as a function of radius, angular frequency and orientation on the composite structure. Validation is conducted for a unidirectional transversely isotropic structure with a bonded circular PZT of 10 mm in diameter. Amplitude curves and time domain signals of the A0 and S0 modes obtained from the proposed formulation and the classical pin-force model are first compared to Finite Element Model simulations. Experimental validation is then conducted using a 3D laser Doppler vibrometer for a non- principal direction on the composite. The results show the interest of considering a semi-analytical formulation for which the transducer dynamics where the shear stress distribution under the transducer is considered in order to reproduce more precisely the generation of guided waves on composite structures.

  18. On the effect of fractal generated turbulence on the heat transfer of circular impinging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astarita, Tommaso; Cafiero, Gioacchino; Discetti, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The intense local heat transfer achieved by circular impinging jets is exploited in countless industrial applications (cooling of turbine blades, paper drying, tempering of glass and metals, etc). The heat transfer rate depends mainly on the Reynolds number, the nozzle-to-plate distance and the upstream turbulence. It is possible to enhance the heat transfer by exciting/altering the large scale structures embedded within the jet. In this work turbulent energy is injected by using a fractal grid at the nozzle exit. Fractal grids can generate more intense turbulence with respect to regular grids with the same blockage ratio by enhancing the jet turbulence over different scales. Consequently, they are expected to improve the convective heat transfer. The results outline that a significant improvement is achieved (for small nozzle-to-plate distances up to 100% at the stagnation point and more than 10% on the integral heat transfer over a circular area of 3 nozzle diameters) under the same power input.

  19. From Generation to Generation: Survival and Maintenance of Canada's Aboriginal Languages, within Families, Communities and Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Mary Jane

    2004-01-01

    The survival and maintenance of Aboriginal languages in Canada depend on their transmission from generation to generation. Children are the future speakers of a language. This paper demonstrates that the family and the community together play critical roles in the transmission of language from parent to child. On their own, neither family capacity…

  20. Molecular Order of Arterial Collagen Using Circular Polarization Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Raphaël; Mattson, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Juwell W.; Zhang, Yanhang; Lin, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) originates from the interaction between upconverted fields from individual scatterers. This renders SHG microscopy highly sensitive to molecular distribution. Here, we aim to take advantage of the difference in SHG between aligned and partially aligned molecules to probe the degree of molecular order during biomechanical testing, independently of the absolute orientation of the scattering molecules. Toward this goal, we implemented a circular polarization SHG imaging approach and used it to quantify the intensity change associated with collagen fibers straightening in the arterial wall during mechanical stretching. We were able to observe the delayed alignment of collagen fibers during mechanical loading, thus demonstrating a simple method to characterize molecular distribution using intensity information alone. PMID:26806883

  1. Computation of Sound Generated by Flow Over a Circular Cylinder: An Acoustic Analogy Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Cox, Jared S.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Younis, Bassam A.

    1997-01-01

    The sound generated by viscous flow past a circular cylinder is predicted via the Lighthill acoustic analogy approach. The two dimensional flow field is predicted using two unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solvers. Flow field computations are made for laminar flow at three Reynolds numbers (Re = 1000, Re = 10,000, and Re = 90,000) and two different turbulent models at Re = 90,000. The unsteady surface pressures are utilized by an acoustics code that implements Farassat's formulation 1A to predict the acoustic field. The acoustic code is a 3-D code - 2-D results are found by using a long cylinder length. The 2-D predictions overpredict the acoustic amplitude; however, if correlation lengths in the range of 3 to 10 cylinder diameters are used, the predicted acoustic amplitude agrees well with experiment.

  2. Transverse circular-polarized Bessel beam generation by inward cylindrical aperture distribution.

    PubMed

    Pavone, S C; Ettorre, M; Casaletti, M; Albani, M

    2016-05-16

    In this paper the focusing capability of a radiating aperture implementing an inward cylindrical traveling wave tangential electric field distribution directed along a fixed polarization unit vector is investigated. In particular, it is shown that such an aperture distribution generates a non-diffractive Bessel beam whose transverse component (with respect to the normal of the radiating aperture) of the electric field takes the form of a zero-th order Bessel function. As a practical implementation of the theoretical analysis, a circular-polarized Bessel beam launcher, made by a radial parallel plate waveguide loaded with several slot pairs, arranged on a spiral pattern, is designed and optimized. The proposed launcher performance agrees with the theoretical model and exhibits an excellent polarization purity.

  3. Understanding of Foreign Language Learning of Generation Y

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2016-01-01

    Different generations are constituted depending on social changes and they are designed sociologically as traditional, baby boomer, X, Y and Z. Many studies have been reported on understanding of foreign language learning generation Y. This study aims to realise the gap in and contribute to the research on language learning understanding of…

  4. Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an…

  5. Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an…

  6. Mid-infrared Plasmonic Circular Dichroism Generated by Graphene Nanodisk Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Zhao, Runbo; Wang, Zhiming; Govorov, Alexander O.

    2017-08-01

    It is very interesting to bring plasmonic circular dichroism spectroscopy to the mid-infrared spectral interval, and there are two reasons for this. This spectral interval is very important for thermal bio-imaging and, simultaneously, this spectral range includes vibrational lines of many chiral biomolecules. Here we demonstrate that graphene plasmons indeed offer such opportunity. In particular, we show that chiral graphene assemblies consisting of a few graphene nanodisks can generate strong circular dichroism (CD) in the mid-infrared interval. The CD signal is generated due to the plasmon-plasmon coupling between adjacent nanodisks in the specially designed chiral graphene assemblies. Because of the large dimension mismatch between the thickness of a graphene layer and the incoming light's wavelength, three-dimensional configurations with a total height of a few hundred nanometers are necessary to obtain a strong CD signal in the mid-infrared range. The mid-infrared CD strength is mainly governed by the total dimensions (total height and helix scaffold radius) of the graphene nanodisk assembly, and by the plasmon-plasmon interaction strength between its constitutive nanodisks. Both positive and negative CD bands can be observed in the graphene assembly array. The frequency interval of the plasmonic CD spectra overlaps with the vibrational modes of some important biomolecules, such as DNA and many different peptides, giving rise to the possibility of enhancing the vibrational optical activity of these molecular species by attaching them to the graphene assemblies. Simultaneously the spectral range of chiral mid-infrared plasmons in our structures appears near the typical wavelength of the human-body thermal radiation and, therefore, our chiral metastructures can be potentially utilized as optical components in thermal imaging devices.

  7. Mid-infrared Plasmonic Circular Dichroism Generated by Graphene Nanodisk Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Zhao, Runbo; Wang, Zhiming; Govorov, Alexander O

    2017-08-09

    It is very interesting to bring plasmonic circular dichroism spectroscopy to the mid-infrared spectral interval, and there are two reasons for this. This spectral interval is very important for thermal bioimaging, and simultaneously, this spectral range includes vibrational lines of many chiral biomolecules. Here we demonstrate that graphene plasmons indeed offer such opportunity. In particular, we show that chiral graphene assemblies consisting of a few graphene nanodisks can generate strong circular dichroism (CD) in the mid-infrared interval. The CD signal is generated due to the plasmon-plasmon coupling between adjacent nanodisks in the specially designed chiral graphene assemblies. Because of the large dimension mismatch between the thickness of a graphene layer and the incoming light's wavelength, three-dimensional configurations with a total height of a few hundred nanometers are necessary to obtain a strong CD signal in the mid-infrared range. The mid-infrared CD strength is mainly governed by the total dimensions (total height and helix scaffold radius) of the graphene nanodisk assembly and by the plasmon-plasmon interaction strength between its constitutive nanodisks. Both positive and negative CD bands can be observed in the graphene assembly array. The frequency interval of the plasmonic CD spectra overlaps with the vibrational modes of some important biomolecules, such as DNA and many different peptides, giving rise to the possibility of enhancing the vibrational optical activity of these molecular species by attaching them to the graphene assemblies. Simultaneously the spectral range of chiral mid-infrared plasmons in our structures appears near the typical wavelength of the human-body thermal radiation, and therefore, our chiral metastructures can be potentially utilized as optical components in thermal imaging devices.

  8. Generation and electric control of spin-valley-coupled circular photogalvanic current in WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongtao; Hwang, Harold Y.; Cui, Yi

    2015-03-01

    Compared to the weak spin-orbit-interaction (SOI) in graphene, layered transitionmetal chalcogenides MX2 have heavy 4d/5d elements with strong atomic SOI, providing a unique way to extend functionalities of novel spintronics and valleytronics devices. Such a valley polarization achieved via valley-selective circular dichroism has been predicted theoretically and demonstrated with optical experiments in MX2 systems. Despite the exciting progresses, the generation of a valley/spin current by valley polarization in MX2 remains elusive and a great challenge. A spin/valley current in MX2 compounds caused by such a valley polarization has never been observed, nor its electric-field control. In this talk, we demonstrated, within an electric-double-layer transistor based on WSe2, the manipulation of a spin-coupled valley photocurrent whose direction and magnitude depend on the degree of circular polarization of the incident radiation and can be further greatly modulated with an external electric field. Such room temperature generation and electric control of valley/spin photocurrent provides a new property of electrons in MX2 systems, thereby enabling new degrees of control for quantum-confined spintronics devices. (In collaboration with S.C. Zhang, Y.L. Chen, Z.X. Shen, B Lian, H.J. Zhang, G Xu, Y Xu, B Zhou, X.Q. Wang, B Shen X.F. Fang) Acknowledge the support from DoE, BES, Division of MSE under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. Acknowledge the support from DoE, BES, Division of MSE under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  9. A System for Natural Language Sentence Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levison, Michael; Lessard, Gregory

    1992-01-01

    Describes the natural language computer program, "Vinci." Explains that using an attribute grammar formalism, Vinci can simulate components of several current linguistic theories. Considers the design of the system and its applications in linguistic modelling and second language acquisition research. Notes Vinci's uses in linguistics…

  10. Language Distance Learning for the Digital Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran-Cerda, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to shed light on the potential of distance learning to overcome challenges in distance, space, time, and human and economic resources that limit access to language learning opportunities in cultural, literary, historical, geographical, and cross-cultural frames. Language and literature educators collectively have…

  11. Selecting tense, aspect, and connecting words in language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.; Dorr, B.

    1995-12-31

    Generating language that reflects the temporal organization of represented knowledge requires a language generation model that integrates contemporary theories of tense and aspect, temporal representations, and methods to plan text. This paper presents a model that produces complex sentences that reflect temporal relations present in underlying temporal concepts. The main result of this work is the successful application of constrained linguistic theories of tense and aspect to a generator which produces meaningful event combinations and selects appropriate connecting words that relate them.

  12. Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

  13. Effect of initial condition on the sound generation by flow past a rotary-oscillating circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Osamu

    2006-11-01

    Effects of forced rotary oscillation on the generation of the sound from a circular cylinder in a uniform flow are investigated by direct solution of the two-dimensional, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results show that the effect on the sound generation of rotary oscillation with frequency f is equivalent to that of periodic blowing and suction with frequency 2f; the sound field is determined by the interaction between the monopole generated by rotary oscillation and the dipole generated by vortex shedding from the cylinder. Results also show that, depending on initial conditions, different sound fields as well as flow fields can be generated for same flow parameters.

  14. A computer program for estimating the power-density spectrum of advanced continuous simulation language generated time histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program for performing frequency analysis of time history data is presented. The program uses circular convolution and the fast Fourier transform to calculate power density spectrum (PDS) of time history data. The program interfaces with the advanced continuous simulation language (ACSL) so that a frequency analysis may be performed on ACSL generated simulation variables. An example of the calculation of the PDS of a Van de Pol oscillator is presented.

  15. A graphical language for reliability model generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Sandra V.; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    A graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP) is described. The graphics-oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault tree gates, including sequence dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. With this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing.

  16. A graphical language for reliability model generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Sandra V.; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    A graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP) is described. The graphics-oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault tree gates, including sequence dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. With this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing.

  17. White light generation using photonic crystal fiber with sub-micron circular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghaei, Hamed; Ghanbari, Ashkan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with circular lattice and engineer linear and nonlinear parameters by varying the diameter of air-holes. It helps us obtain low and high zero dispersion wavelengths in the visible and nearinfrared regions. We numerically demonstrate that by launching 100 fs input pulses of 1, 2, and 5 kW peak powers with center wavelength of 532 nm from an unamplified Ti:sapphire laser into a 100 mm length of the engineered PCF, supercontinua as wide as 290, 440 and 830 nm can be obtained, respectively. The spectral broadening is due to the combined action of self-phase modulation, stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave-mixing generation of the pump pulses. The third and the widest spectrum covers the entire visible range and a part of near infrared region making it a suitable source for both white light applications and optical coherence tomography to measure retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation.

  18. Generation of vortex circular Airy beam through binary amplitude digital hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Ren, Yu-Xuan; Lu, Rong-De

    2016-02-01

    Airy beam is a kind of wavepacket existing in the form of photons, electrons, and plasmonics. Well known as diffraction-free beam, optical Airy beam tends to accelerate in transverse space with a parabolic trajectory, and exhibits self-healing property when partially blocked. Those properties have attracted a great deal of research interests and applications. Circular Airy beam, exhibiting cylindrically symmetric intensity pattern and abruptly autofocusing characteristics in the linear media, is a variant of Airy-like wave. Optical vortex, on the other hand, is a kind of phase singularity. We present to shape the autofocusing Airy beam with a vortex phase structure, which was realized through the binary amplitude modulation with a digital micromirror device (DMD). Each mirror on the DMD could be electronically addressed to situate at either of the two solid positional states corresponding to on and off. Shaping the light into a specific mode requires the calculation of the amplitude pattern for display on the DMD. By reshaping individual DMD pixels into giant pixels, the complex field of the vortex Airy beam could be encoded with a super-pixel method. The propagation property of the vortex Airy beam was investigated through numerical simulation for different topological charges. Furthermore, the propagation characteristics of this beam in free space were verified and discussed through the experiments. We anticipate that the proposed vortex Airy beam in particle trapping, biological field and optical communications. This method with DMD can also be used to generate other beams with different characteristics.

  19. Automatic Item Generation via Frame Semantics: Natural Language Generation of Math Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen

    This paper is an exploration of the conceptual issues that have arisen in the course of building a natural language generation (NLG) system for automatic test item generation. While natural language processing techniques are applicable to general verbal items, mathematics word problems are particularly tractable targets for natural language…

  20. Natural-language interface generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.W.; Ross, K.M.

    1987-08-18

    A method is described for generating a context-free grammar comprising the steps of: (a) generating a domain-independent core grammar; (b) generating a domain-independent core lexicon; (c) generating a domain specification directed to a predetermined application; and (d) inserting the domain specification into the domain-independent core grammar and lexicon to define a domain dependent context-free grammar.

  1. Random number generation in native and foreign languages.

    PubMed

    Strenge, Hans; Bohm, Jessica

    2004-06-01

    The effects of different levels of language proficiency on random number generation were examined in this study. 16 healthy right-handed students (7 women, 9 men; aged 22 to 25 years, M=23.8, SD=.83) attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9 at pacing frequencies of 1, 1.5, and 2 Hz. Randomization was done in German (native language L1), English (first foreign language L2), and French (second foreign language L3). There was a pattern of redundancy and seriation tendencies, increasing with speed of generation for all languages (L1-L3). While using L2 and L3, responses slowed and the number of errors committed increased. Further, there was a peculiar pattern of dissociation in nonrandom performance with an increase of habitual counting in ones and a strong reduction of counting in twos. All effects were most pronounced when subjects used L3 and 2-Hz pacing rates. Slowing and nonrandomness was not correlated with self-assessment parameters regarding language proficiency. We suggest that in a task involving number activation in a nonnative language, lack of proficiency will interfere with random number generation, leading to interruptions and rule breaking, at least when reaching the limits of attentional capacity at higher pacing rates.

  2. What makes single-helical metamaterials generate "pure" circularly polarized light?

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Yang, ZhenYu; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Peng; Lu, ZeQing; Yu, Yang; Li, ShengXi; Yuan, XiuHua

    2012-01-16

    Circular polarizers with left-handed helical metamaterials can transmit right-handed circularly polarized (RCP) light with few losses. But a certain amount of left-handed circularly polarized (LCP) light will occur in the transmitted light, which is the noise of the circular polarizer. Therefore, we defined the ratio of the RCP light intensity to the LCP light intensity as the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. In our previous work, it's found that circular polarizers with multi-helical metamaterials have two orders higher S/N ratios than that of single-helical metamaterials. However, it has been a great challenge to fabricate such multi-helical structures with micron or sub-micron feature sizes. Is it possible for the single-helical metamaterials to obtain equally high S/N ratios as the multi-helical ones? To answer this question, we systematically investigated the influences of structure parameters of single-helical metamaterials on the S/N ratios using the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method. It was found that the single-helical metamaterials can also reach about 30dB S/N ratios, which are equal to the multi-helical ones. Furthermore, we explained the phenomenon by the antenna theory and optimized the performances of the single-helical circular polarizers.

  3. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…

  4. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…

  5. Natural Language Generation: Complexities and Techniques,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    designed with such efficiency concerns in mind. Before leaving this section, it is important to point out that recent work by Tony Patten (1985) uses a...example of a class, "locative-relation", developed originally for use with Jeff Conklin’s program for describing pictures of house scenes (see Conklin...McKeown K. (1985) Text Generation, Cambridge University Press. Patten T. (1985) A Problem Solving Approach to Generating Text from Systemic Grammars

  6. Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kfir, Ofer; Grychtol, Patrik; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin M.; Fleischer, Avner; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren

    2015-02-01

    Circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet and X-ray radiation is useful for analysing the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such radiation has only been available at large-scale X-ray facilities such as synchrotrons. Here, we demonstrate the first bright, phase-matched, extreme ultraviolet circularly-polarized high harmonics source. The harmonics are emitted when bi-chromatic counter-rotating circularly-polarized laser pulses field-ionize a gas in a hollow-core waveguide. We use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of Co. We show that phase-matching of circularly-polarized harmonics is unique and robust, producing a photon flux comparable to linearly polarized high harmonic sources. This work represents a critical advance towards the development of table-top systems for element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatial and temporal resolution.

  7. Final Report for CORBA for Fourth Generation Language

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlana Shasharina

    2005-06-28

    The standard for object based networking is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). However, CORBA is not available for Fourth Generation Languages (4GL's) such as Visual Numerics? PV-WAVE or Research Systems? Interactive Data Language (RSI-IDL), which are widely used by scientists and engineers for data visualization and analysis. The proposed work would provide a set of tools to allow 4GL's to interoperate with CORBA.

  8. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    PubMed

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  9. Parallel constraint-based generative theories of language.

    PubMed

    Jackendoff

    1999-10-01

    A re-evaluation of the goals and techniques of generative grammar since the mid-1960s suggests that its mentalistic/biological program for describing language is still sound and has been borne out by subsequent developments. Likewise, the idea of a generative system of combinatorial rules has led to a tremendous expansion of our understanding of linguistic phenomena. However, certain fundamental features of the versions of generative grammar based on Chomsky's work prevent the theory from making deep liaisons with related fields such as language processing and neuroscience. Perhaps the most prominent of these is the assumption that all creative aspects of language stem from syntactic structure. In this article, I propose a model of generative grammar that generalizes features of several, alternative, non-Chomskyan generative frameworks. In this model, language is seen as composed of three independent generative components (phonological, syntactic, and semantic/conceptual structure), whose respective structures are placed in correspondence by 'interface components'. Besides being able to incorporate a host of purely linguistic facts, this view leads to a more direct relationship between the theory of grammar and the theory of lexical and grammatical processing.

  10. Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an investigation of definitions and approaches to the term “response generalization” that appear in the literature suggests that it does not do so. We argue that a more promising candidate for the role of key process underlying language generativity is derived relational responding. We introduce the latter concept and describe empirical research showing its connection with language. We subsequently present a relational frame theory (RFT) conceptualization of derived relations as contextually controlled generalized relational responding. We then review a series of recent studies on derived manding in developmentally delayed children and adults that arguably demonstrate the applied utility of a derived relations-based approach with respect to the phenomenon of generative language. PMID:23814374

  11. Quantitative image analysis of the shape and size of circular wound sites generated by vertically stamped scratches.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Young; Jang, In Hyuk; Han, Dong Yeol; Lee, Won Gu

    2017-10-01

    A protocol for quantitative image analysis of wound generation is important to better understand the integrative process of wound healing and the closure mechanism. Here, we present a method for quantitative analysis of microscopic images of circular wound sites generated by vertically stamped scratches. To demonstrate proof-of-concept validation, we used two types of mechanical stamping tools, a mechanical pencil lead (type 1; brittle) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pillars (type 2; ductile), to create circular wound sites. We also present a method for analysis of microscopic images of the generated wound sites by suggesting new parameters, such as controlled area transfer ratio, modified shape factor, and roundness index, specifically to investigate the shape and size of wounds via house-coded image processing. We believe that this approach can be potentially useful by providing a better way of studying vertical wound generation for future skin wound generation and care applications compared with its counterpart, conventional horizontal wound generation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Helical Gears with Circular Arc Teeth: Generation, Geometry, Precision and Adjustment to Errors, Computer Aided Simulation of Conditions of Meshing, and Bearing Contact.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    09 171 HELICAL GEARS NITH CIRCULAR ARC TEETH: GENERATION / GEOMETRY PRECISION AND (U) ILLINOIS UNIV AT CHICAGO CIRCLE F L LITYN ET AL OCT 87 NASA-CR...34",’ . " "" . ".- , ", ", " ",, -. ". , ’.,.,L jILI ..EILE.GO ;. - - . .. . AVSCOM .--NASA Contractor Report�.--TcnclRpr ZC1 i < Helical Gears With Circular Arc Teeth: Generation...AVSCOM Contractor Report 4089 Technical Report 87-C-18 Helical Gears With Circular Arc Teeth: Generation, Geometry, Precision and Adjustment to Errors

  13. A Hierarchical Generative Framework of Language Processing: Linking Language Perception, Interpretation, and Production Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Language and thought dysfunction are central to the schizophrenia syndrome. They are evident in the major symptoms of psychosis itself, particularly as disorganized language output (positive thought disorder) and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and they also manifest as abnormalities in both high-level semantic and contextual processing and low-level perception. However, the literatures characterizing these abnormalities have largely been separate and have sometimes provided mutually exclusive accounts of aberrant language in schizophrenia. In this review, we propose that recent generative probabilistic frameworks of language processing can provide crucial insights that link these four lines of research. We first outline neural and cognitive evidence that real-time language comprehension and production normally involve internal generative circuits that propagate probabilistic predictions to perceptual cortices — predictions that are incrementally updated based on prediction error signals as new inputs are encountered. We then explain how disruptions to these circuits may compromise communicative abilities in schizophrenia by reducing the efficiency and robustness of both high-level language processing and low-level speech perception. We also argue that such disruptions may contribute to the phenomenology of thought-disordered speech and false perceptual inferences in the language system (i.e., AVHs). This perspective suggests a number of productive avenues for future research that may elucidate not only the mechanisms of language abnormalities in schizophrenia, but also promising directions for cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:26640435

  14. Generation of radially and azimuthally polarized light by optical transmission through concentric circular nanoslits in Ag films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Xiao, Min; Sun, Kai; Wei, Qi-Huo

    2010-01-04

    Optical transmission through concentric circular nanoslits is studied in experiments and numerical simulations. Polarized optical microscopic imaging shows that the optical transmission through these apertures is spatially inhomogeneous, exhibiting colored fan texture patterns. Numerical simulations show that these colored fan texture patterns originate from the cylindrical vector polarization of the transmitted beam. Specifically, the transmitted light is in-phase radially polarized at long wavelengths due to the predominant transmission of the transverse magnetic (TM) waveguide modes; and in-phase azimuthally polarized at short wavelengths due to the increased optical transmission of the transverse electric (TE) waveguide modes. Additionally, the transmission shows a peak at the wavelength of Wood anomaly and a dip at the resonant wavelength of surface plasmon excitation; and the transmitted light at these wavelengths is a mixture of azimuthally and radially polarized fields. These interesting optical transmission behaviors of circular nanoslits provide a miniaturized way to generating radially and azimuthally polarized light.

  15. Surface spin-polarized currents generated in topological insulators by circularly polarized synchrotron radiation and their photoelectron spectroscopy indication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikin, A. M.; Klimovskikh, I. I.; Filyanina, M. V.; Rybkina, A. A.; Pudikov, D. A.; Kokh, K. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.

    2016-08-01

    A new method for generating spin-polarized currents in topological insulators has been proposed and investigated. The method is associated with the spin-dependent asymmetry of the generation of holes at the Fermi level for branches of topological surface states with the opposite spin orientation under the circularly polarized synchrotron radiation. The result of the generation of holes is the formation of compensating spin-polarized currents, the value of which is determined by the concentration of the generated holes and depends on the specific features of the electronic and spin structures of the system. The indicator of the formed spin-polarized current can be a shift of the Fermi edge in the photoelectron spectra upon photoexcitation by synchrotron radiation with the opposite circular polarization. The topological insulators with different stoichiometric compositions (Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.8Se1.2 and PbBi2Se2Te2) have been investigated. It has been found that there is a correlation in the shifts and generated spin-polarized currents with the specific features of the electronic spin structure. Investigations of the graphene/Pt(111) system have demonstrated the possibility of using this method for other systems with a spin-polarized electronic structure.

  16. An empirical generative framework for computational modeling of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Heidi R; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of generative grammars from raw CHILDES data and give an account of the generative performance of the acquired grammars. Next, we summarize findings from recent longitudinal and experimental work that suggests how certain statistically prominent structural properties of child-directed speech may facilitate language acquisition. We then present a series of new analyses of CHILDES data indicating that the desired properties are indeed present in realistic child-directed speech corpora. Finally, we suggest how our computational results, behavioral findings, and corpus-based insights can be integrated into a next-generation model aimed at meeting the four requirements of our modeling framework.

  17. Soliton Generation in a Semiconductor Circular Ring Laser with a Y-Junction Coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Ming Chang; Wang, Shih Chang; Ho, Chang En; Su, Wei Chun; Chen, Sheng Tsung; Shei, Ho Ming; Tien, Chih Wei; Wu, Sheng Min

    2009-04-01

    We report the observation of the emission of solitons from a semiconductor circular ridge waveguide ring laser with a Y-junction coupler. The light-current (L-I) characteristics of the soliton emission through the nonwaveguide region, which refers to the photovoltaic solitons, has a low threshold value and a high quantum efficiency compare to the emission from the Y-junction coupler, and the spectrum of the soliton emission is similar to that of a linear strip laser with multimode emission. The feedback light from the end facet of the Y-junction coupling section continuously enhances the excitation of the photovoltaic solitons through the nonwaveguide region until the lasing condition is reached. It is suggested that the circular ring laser can be an alternative channel to light wave control in integrated optoelectronic system.

  18. Efficient GeV ion generation by ultraintense circularly polarized laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying; Wang Fengchao; Wen Meng

    2007-12-15

    The interaction of an ultraintense circularly polarized laser pulse and a solid target is studied by one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Ions at the front of the target are reflected by a moving quasisteady electrostatic field and obtain a relativistic velocity. At a laser intensity of 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}, almost half of the laser energy is transferred to ions and GeV ions are obtained. Effects of laser polarization state and target thickness on the laser energy conversion are investigated. It is found that a circularly polarized laser pulse can accelerate ions more efficiently than a linearly polarized laser pulse at the same laser and target parameters. A monoenergetic ion bunch is obtained for the ultrathin target, which is accelerated as a single entity.

  19. Circularly polarized harmonic generation by intense bicircular laser pulses: electron recollision dynamics and frequency dependent helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Mauger, François; Yuan, Kai-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations for one and two electron cyclic molecules {{{H}}}nq+ exposed to intense bichromatic circularly polarized laser pulses of frequencies {ω }1 and {ω }2, such that {ω }1/{ω }2={n}1/{n}2 (integer) produce circularly polarized high order harmonics with a cut-off recollision maximum energy at and greater than the linear polarization law (in atomic units) {N}m{ω }1={I}p+3.17{U}p, where I p is the ionization potential and {U}p={(2{E}0)}2/4{ω }2 is the ponderomotive energy defined by the field E 0 (intensity I={{cE}}02/8π ) from each pulse and mean frequency ω =({ω }1+{ω }2)/2 . An electron recollision model in a rotating frame at rotating frequency {{Δ }}ω =({ω }1-{ω }2)/2 predicts this simple result as a result of recollision dynamics in a combination of bichromatic circularly polarized pulses. The harmonic helicities and their intensities are shown to depend on compatible symmetries of the net pulse electric fields with that of the molecules.

  20. Installing an Integrated System and a Fourth-Generation Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, David; Ferguson, Linda

    1987-01-01

    In the spring of 1986 Indiana State University converted to the Series Z software of Information Associates, an IBM mainframe, and Information Builders' FOCUS fourth-generation language. The beginning of the planning stage to product selection, training, and implementation is described. (Author/MLW)

  1. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  2. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  3. Non-context-free grammars generating context-free languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    If G is a grammar such that in each non-context-free rule of G, the right side contains a string of terminals longer than any terminal string appearing between two nonterminals in the left side, then the language generated by G is context free. Six previous results follow as corollaries of this theorem.

  4. Non-context-free grammars generating context-free languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    If G is a grammar such that in each non-context-free rule of G, the right side contains a string of terminals longer than any terminal string appearing between two nonterminals in the left side, then the language generated by G is context free. Six previous results follow as corollaries of this theorem.

  5. Determination of three-dimensional molecular orientation of type-I collagen by circularly-polarized second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Hung, Wei-Han; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2017-04-01

    The content of collagen is up to 30% existing in mammals. It supports the main component of connective tissues such as skin, ligament, and cartilage. Among various types of collagen, type-I collagen is of the most abundance and has been broadly studied due to the importance in bioscience. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is an effective tool used to study the collagen organization without labeling. In this study, we used circular polarization instead of linear polarization to retrieve three-dimensional (3D) molecular orientation of type-I collagen with only two cross polarized SHG images without acquiring an image stack of varying polarization.

  6. Multistaged acceleration of ions by circularly polarized laser pulse: Monoenergetic ion beam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying; Wang Fengchao

    2007-07-15

    A multiple-staged ion acceleration mechanism in the interaction of a circularly polarized laser pulse with a solid target is studied by one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The ions are accelerated from rest to several MeV monoenergetically at the front surface of the target. After all the plasma ions are accelerated, the acceleration process is repeated on the resulting monoenergetic ions. Under suitable conditions multiple repetitions can be realized and a high-energy quasi-monoenergetic ion beam can be obtained.

  7. Augmenting a database knowledge representation for natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, K.F.

    1982-01-01

    The knowledge representation is an important factor in natural language generation since it limits the semantic capabilities of the generation system. This paper identifies several information types in a knowledge representation that can be used to generate meaningful responses to questions about database structure. Creating such a knowledge representation, however, is a long and tedious process. A system is presented which uses the contents of the database to form part of this knowledge representation automatically. It employs three types of world knowledge axioms to ensure that the representation formed is meaningful and contains salient information. 7 references.

  8. Self-Assembled Luminescent Quantum Dots To Generate Full-Color and White Circularly Polarized Light.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shengwei; Duan, Pengfei; Jiao, Tifeng; Peng, Qiuming; Liu, Minghua

    2017-09-25

    The design and fabrication of quantum dots (QDs) with circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) has been a great challenge in developing chiroptical materials. We herein propose an alternative to the use of chiral capping reagents on QDs for the fabrication of CPL-active QDs that is based on the supramolecular self-assembly of achiral QDs with chiral gelators. Full-color-tunable CPL-active QDs were obtained by simple mixing or gelation of a chiral gelator and achiral 3-mercaptopropionic acid capped QDs. In addition, the handedness of the CPL can be controlled by the supramolecular chirality of the gels. Moreover, QDs with circularly polarized white light emission were fabricated for the first time by tuning the blending ratio of colorful QDs in the gel. The chirality transfer in the co-assembly of the achiral QDs with the gelator and the spacer effect of the capping reagents on the QD surface are also discussed. This work provides new insight into the design of functional chiroptical materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Deaf-And-Mute Sign Language Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hideo; Tamura, Shinichi

    1984-08-01

    We have developed a system which can recognize speech and generate the corresponding animation-like sign language sequence. The system is implemented in a popular personal computer. This has three video-RAM's and a voice recognition board which can recognize only registered voice of a specific speaker. Presently, fourty sign language patterns and fifty finger spellings are stored in two floppy disks. Each sign pattern is composed of one to four sub-patterns. That is, if the pattern is composed of one sub-pattern, it is displayed as a still pattern. If not, it is displayed as a motion pattern. This system will help communications between deaf-and-mute persons and healthy persons. In order to display in high speed, almost programs are written in a machine language.

  10. High-order harmonic generation of N2 molecule in two-color circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Du; Jun, Zhang; Shuai, Ben; Hui-Ying, Zhong; Tong-Tong, Xu; Jing, Guo; Xue-Shen, Liu

    2016-04-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics and the attosecond pulse of the N2 molecule in two-color circularly polarized laser fields are investigated by the strong-field Lewenstein model. We show that the plateau of spectra is dramatically extended and a continuous harmonic spectrum with the bandwidth of 113 eV is obtained. When a static field is added to the x direction, the quantum path control is realized and a supercontinuum spectrum can be obtained, which is beneficial to obtain a shorter attosecond pulse. The underlying physical mechanism is well explained by the time-frequency analysis and the semi-classical three-step model with a finite initial transverse velocity. By superposing several orders of harmonics in the combination of two-color circularly polarized laser fields and a static field, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of 30 as can be generated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61575077, 11271158, and 11574117).

  11. Theoretical investigations on radiation generation of TEM, linearly or circularly polarized TEn1 coaxial waveguide mode in relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Shi, Di-Fu; Qian, Bao-Liang; Wang, Hong-Gang; Li, Wei; Du, Guang-Xing

    2017-05-04

    The physical mechanism of the radiation generation of all possible output modes of the relativistic magnetron (RM) with all cavity-magnetron axial extraction technique is theoretically analysed, and the necessary conditions for generating these modes are obtained respectively. Assuming that n 0 is the number of the electron spokes, N ≥ 4 as the total number of the cavities is an even number, and k is a nonnegative integer, some conclusions can be drawn as follows. If n 0 = kN is true, no mode can be excited in the coaxial waveguide; if n 0 = (2k + 1)N/4 is true, the linearly polarized modes can be excited in the coaxial waveguide; if n 0 = (4k + 2)N/4 is true, the TEM mode and the linearly polarized modes can be excited in the coaxial waveguide; if n 0 takes other value, the left and right circularly polarized modes can be excited in the coaxial waveguide and the directions of rotation of the circularly polarized modes can be reversed with the reversion of the direction of rotation of the electron spokes; in addition, some other regular characteristics of the corresponding mode excitation are presented in detail in this paper. Such unique attractive properties that have been verified by the cold and hot simulations in this paper make it possible for this type of RM to meet application requirements of various high power microwave (HPM) modes.

  12. Concentric Circular Grating Generated by the Patterning Trapping of Nanoparticles in an Optofluidic Chip

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hailang; Cao, Zhuangqi; Wang, Yuxing; Li, Honggen; Sang, Minghuang; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Fan; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Due to the field enhancement effect of the hollow-core metal-cladded optical waveguide chip, massive nanoparticles in a solvent are effectively trapped via exciting ultrahigh order modes. A concentric ring structure of the trapped nanoparticles is obtained since the excited modes are omnidirectional at small incident angle. During the process of solvent evaporation, the nanoparticles remain well trapped since the excitation condition of the optical modes is still valid, and a concentric circular grating consisting of deposited nanoparticles can be produced by this approach. Experiments via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and diffraction of a probe laser confirmed the above hypothesis. This technique provides an alternative strategy to enable effective trapping of dielectric particles with low-intensity nonfocused illumination, and a better understanding of the correlation between the guided modes in an optical waveguide and the nanoparticles in a solvent. PMID:27550743

  13. Helicity reversion in high-order-harmonic generation driven by bichromatic counter-rotating circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Liang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the polarization properties of high harmonics generated with the bichromatic counter-rotating circularly polarized (BCCP) laser fields by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). It is found that the helicity of the elliptically polarized harmonic emission is reversed at particular harmonic orders. Based on the time-frequency analysis and the classical three-step model, the correspondence between the positions of helicity reversions and the classical trajectories of continuum electrons is established. It is shown that the electrons ionized at one lobe of laser field can be divided into different groups based on the different lobes they recombine at, and the harmonics generated by adjacent groups have opposite helicities. Our study performs a detailed analysis of high harmonics in terms of electron trajectories and depicts a clear and intuitive physical picture of the HHG process in BCCP laser fields.

  14. A flexible, parallel model of natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a structured connectionist system for natural language generation. FIG, short for Flexible Incremental Generator, is based on a single network which encodes lexical knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and world knowledge. In the initial state, some nodes representing concepts are sources of activation: this represents the input. Activation flows from these nodes to nodes representing words via the various knowledge structures of the network. When the network settles, the most high activated word is selected and emitted, activation levels are updated to represent the current state. This process of settle, emit, and update repeats until all of the input has been conveyed. An utterance is simply the result of successive word choices.

  15. Description directed control: its implications for natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper proposes a very specifically constrained virtual machine design for goal-directed natural language generation based on a refinement of the technique of data-directed control that the author has termed description-directed control. Important psycholinguistic properties of generation follow inescapably from the use of this control technique, including: efficient runtimes, bounded lookahead, indelible decisions, incremental production of the text, and inescapable adherence to gramaticality. The technique also provides a possible explanation for some well-known universal constraints, though this cannot be confirmed without further empirical investigation. 29 references.

  16. Generation of 4.3 fs, 1 mJ laser pulses via compression of circularly polarized pulses in a gas-filled hollow-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowei; Jullien, Aurélie; Malvache, Arnaud; Canova, Lorenzo; Borot, Antonin; Trisorio, Alexandre; Durfee, Charles G; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo

    2009-05-15

    We report the generation of 4.3 fs, 1 mJ pulses at 1 kHz using a hollow-core fiber compressor seeded with circularly polarized laser pulses. We observe up to 30% more energy throughput compared to the case of linearly polarized laser input, together with significantly improved output spectral stability. Seeding with circularly polarized pulses proves to be an effective approach for high-energy operation of the hollow-fiber compression technique.

  17. Ionization and high-order harmonic generation in aligned benzene by a short intense circularly polarized laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Roi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Zdanska, Petra R.; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2003-10-01

    We present a first-principles study of ionization and high-order harmonic generation by benzene aligned in the polarization plane of a short circularly polarized laser pulse. Time-dependent density-functional theory within the adiabatic local-density approximation is employed to describe the 30 valence-electron dynamics in three dimensions. The multielectron approach enables us to study the effect of very strong laser fields, 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}, where multiple ionization and high-order harmonic generation interplay. Large ionization currents are formed, causing ionization of 1-4 electron charges, while strong high-order harmonic generation is observed. The well-known recollision mechanism of high-order harmonic generation plays a part for moderate laser intensities but is fully suppressed for strong laser fields. The harmonic generation spectra are characterized by two distinguishable plateaus, where the structure of the first plateau is dominated by the 6k{+-}1 (k=0,1,...) selection rule. The number of harmonics in the second plateau is insensitive to the duration of the pulse. The peaks appear in pairs or in threesomes, depending on the pulse duration.

  18. Generation of 360° three-dimensional display using circular-aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2015-02-09

    A 360° all-around multiview three-dimensional (3D) display system is proposed by using coarse-pitch circular-aligned OLED microdisplays. The magnified virtual color images projected from microdisplays serve as stereo images, which can create separate eyeboxes for the viewer. Through inserting baffles, a transitional stereo image assembled by two spatially complementary segments from adjacent stereo images is presented to a complementary fusing zone (CFZ) which locates between adjacent eyeboxes. For a moving observation point, the spatial ratio of the two complementary segments evolves gradually, resulting in continuously changing transitional stereo images and thus overcoming the problem of discontinuous moving parallax. Such a controllable light-ray fusing technology, assured by the inherent large divergent angle of OLED pixels, decreases the required number of display panels for 360° multiview 3D display greatly. A prototype display system with only 67 full-color OLED microdisplays is set up to demonstrate the 360° 3D color display. The develop system is freed from the dependence on mechanical moving elements, high-speed components and diffusion screens.

  19. Generation of solid-density ultraintense ion beams by a picosecond laser pulse of circular polarization.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, S; Badziak, J

    2012-02-01

    This contribution reports particle-in-cell numerical studies of deuteron beam acceleration by a picosecond laser pulse of circular polarization. The effect of laser wavelength λ and the I(L)λ(2) product (I(L) is laser intensity) on the ion beam parameters is investigated. It is shown that at the I(L)λ(2) product fixed, the beam parameters (, I(i), F(i)) as well as the laser-ions energy conversion efficiency quickly increase with a decrease in the laser wavelength and the best results are achieved for a KrF laser (λ = 0.248 μm). In particular, a 2-ps KrF laser pulse of I(L)λ(2) ∼ 2 × 10(20) Wcm(-2) μm(2) interacting with a 10-μm deuteron target produces a quasi-monoenergetic, solid-density deuteron beam of parameters approaching those required for inertial confinement fusion fast ignition.

  20. Sensor-Generated Time Series Events: A Definition Language

    PubMed Central

    Anguera, Aurea; Lara, Juan A.; Lizcano, David; Martínez, Maria Aurora; Pazos, Juan

    2012-01-01

    There are now a great many domains where information is recorded by sensors over a limited time period or on a permanent basis. This data flow leads to sequences of data known as time series. In many domains, like seismography or medicine, time series analysis focuses on particular regions of interest, known as events, whereas the remainder of the time series contains hardly any useful information. In these domains, there is a need for mechanisms to identify and locate such events. In this paper, we propose an events definition language that is general enough to be used to easily and naturally define events in time series recorded by sensors in any domain. The proposed language has been applied to the definition of time series events generated within the branch of medicine dealing with balance-related functions in human beings. A device, called posturograph, is used to study balance-related functions. The platform has four sensors that record the pressure intensity being exerted on the platform, generating four interrelated time series. As opposed to the existing ad hoc proposals, the results confirm that the proposed language is valid, that is generally applicable and accurate, for identifying the events contained in the time series.

  1. Mode converters for generating the HE11 (gaussian-like) mode from TE01 in circular waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, J.L.

    1982-09-01

    The HE11 mode in corrugated waveguide has a field distribution very close to that of an ideal gaussian mode. Its radiation pattern is symmetric about the waveguide axis and exhibits virtually no cross polarization. This work reports measurements on mode converters to transform the TE01 mode into HE11 for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) experiments. The first mode converter is a 28 degree bend in 1.094-inch I.D. circular waveguide which generates TM11 from TE01 with a measured efficiency of over 95% at 60 GHz. A second converter consists of a straight corrugated waveguide section of the same I.D. in which the corrugation depth increases gradually from zero to nominally a quarter wavelength. This section converts TM11 to HE11 with an efficiency of about 97%. The overall efficiency of conversion from TE01 to HE11 exceeds 91% over a measured range of 59.2 to 60.1 GHz.

  2. Generating high-current monoenergetic proton beams by a circularly polarized laser pulse in the phase-stable acceleration regime.

    PubMed

    Yan, X Q; Lin, C; Sheng, Z M; Guo, Z Y; Liu, B C; Lu, Y R; Fang, J X; Chen, J E

    2008-04-04

    A new ion acceleration method, namely, phase-stable acceleration, using circularly-polarized laser pulses is proposed. When the initial target density n(0) and thickness D satisfy a(L) approximately (n(0)/n(c))D/lambda(L) and D>l(s) with a(L), lambda(L), l(s), and n(c) the normalized laser amplitude, the laser wavelength in vacuum, the plasma skin depth, and the critical density of the incident laser pulse, respectively, a quasiequilibrium for the electrons is established by the light pressure and the space charge electrostatic field at the interacting front of the laser pulse. The ions within the skin depth of the laser pulse are synchronously accelerated and bunched by the electrostatic field, and thereby a high-intensity monoenergetic proton beam can be generated. The proton dynamics is investigated analytically and the results are verified by one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  3. Mechanism of tonal noise generation from circular cylinder with spiral fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Ryo; Hayashi, Hidechito; Okumura, Tetsuya; Hamakawa, Hiromitsu

    2014-12-01

    The pitch of the spiral finned tube influences seriously to the acoustic resonance in the heat exchanger. In this research, the flow characteristics in relating to the aeolian tone from the finned cylinder are studied by the numerical simulation. It is observed that the tonal noise generated from the finned tube at two pitch spaces. The ratio of the fin pitch to the cylinder diameter is changed at 0.11 and 0.27. The tone level increases and the frequency decreases with the pitch shorter. The separation flow from the cylinder generates the span-wise vortices, Karman vortices, and the separation flow from the fin generates the stream-wise vortices. When the fin pitch ratio is small, the stream-wise vortices line up to span-wise and become weak rapidly. Only the Karman vortices are remained and integrate in span. So the Karman vortex became large. This causes the low frequency and the large aeolian tone.

  4. Language Maintenance and Language Shift among Chinese Immigrant Parents and Their Second-Generation Children in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the language experiences of two distinct Chinese immigrant groups in the U.S.: a Mandarin-speaking group and a Fujianese-speaking group across two generations. The different language trajectories of the parents' generation, along with their social class and different settlement patterns in the U.S., shaped the second-generation…

  5. Language Maintenance and Language Shift among Chinese Immigrant Parents and Their Second-Generation Children in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the language experiences of two distinct Chinese immigrant groups in the U.S.: a Mandarin-speaking group and a Fujianese-speaking group across two generations. The different language trajectories of the parents' generation, along with their social class and different settlement patterns in the U.S., shaped the second-generation…

  6. Circularly polarized molecular high-order harmonic generation in H{sub 2}{sup +} with intense laser pulses and static fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, Andre D.

    2011-06-15

    Molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) by a combined intense circularly polarized laser pulse and static electric field has been studied from the appropriate time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for the H{sub 2}{sup +} molecular ion. It is found that for a particular static field strength derived from a classical model, efficient MHOHG spectra are obtained with maximum energy I{sub p} + 9.05U{sub p}, where I{sub p} is the ionization potential and U{sub p}=E{sub 0}{sup 2}/4m{sub e{omega}0}{sup 2} is the ponderomotive energy at amplitude E{sub 0} and frequency {omega}{sub 0} of the circularly polarized laser pulse. The static field controls recollision of the electron with parent ions and is confirmed by numerical solutions of the H{sub 2}{sup +} TDSE at equilibrium. To produce circularly polarized MHOHG spectra, a combination of an elliptically polarized pulse and a static electric field is found to be most efficient. A time-frequency analysis obtained via Gabor transforms is employed to identify electron recollision times responsible for the generation of these high-order harmonics. It is found that only single recollision trajectories contribute to the circularly polarized harmonics, thus generating new sources for high-frequency circularly polarized attosecond pulses.

  7. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements. PMID:28090380

  8. An intelligent simulation generator with a natural language interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    What the decision maker needs is the ability to construct computer, simulation models in less time and with fewer resources. In order to accomplish this more intelligence needs to be added to programs that construct simulation programs. This is where knowledge-based systems techniques can contribute greatly. In this research, a knowledge-based systems approach to generating simulation code is suggested. Also, a prototype system is built which is called the Intelligent Simulation Generator (ISG). This system uses knowledge of how simulation models are formulated and knowledge about the SIMAN simulation language in producing computer, simulation models from a constrained, natural language description. The methodology is detailed and two test scenarios are given to substantiate the ability of the ISG. While this approach has proven fruitful, there are some severe limitations that must be overcome in order to advance the capabilities of the system. In essence, a better understanding of model formulation is necessary and then this knowledge must be captured and incorporated into the ISG.

  9. Rotman Lens-Based Circular Array for Generating Five-mode OAM Radio Beams

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xu-Dong; Liang, Xian-Ling; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Kun; Geng, Jun-Ping; Jin, Rong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) for radio communications has attracted much attention for its potential of transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at the same frequency, which can be used to increase the channel capacity. However, most of the methods for getting multi-mode OAM radio beams remain up to now mainly at simulation level, since their implementations are of complicated structure and very high cost. This paper provides an effective design of generating five-mode OAM radio beams by using the Rotman lens-fed antenna array. The Rotman lens is a viable beamforming approach instead of electronically scanned arrays for its low cost and the ease of implementation. The lens-fed array employs a two-layer structure for size reduction, and the lens body and the antenna array are segregated by a common ground plane to eliminate spurious radiation and thus improve the performance of the OAM beams. The measured results coincide with the simulated ones, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed design for generating multi-mode OAM beams. PMID:27283738

  10. Rotman Lens-Based Circular Array for Generating Five-mode OAM Radio Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xu-Dong; Liang, Xian-Ling; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Kun; Geng, Jun-Ping; Jin, Rong-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Recently, vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) for radio communications has attracted much attention for its potential of transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at the same frequency, which can be used to increase the channel capacity. However, most of the methods for getting multi-mode OAM radio beams remain up to now mainly at simulation level, since their implementations are of complicated structure and very high cost. This paper provides an effective design of generating five-mode OAM radio beams by using the Rotman lens-fed antenna array. The Rotman lens is a viable beamforming approach instead of electronically scanned arrays for its low cost and the ease of implementation. The lens-fed array employs a two-layer structure for size reduction, and the lens body and the antenna array are segregated by a common ground plane to eliminate spurious radiation and thus improve the performance of the OAM beams. The measured results coincide with the simulated ones, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed design for generating multi-mode OAM beams.

  11. Rotman Lens-Based Circular Array for Generating Five-mode OAM Radio Beams.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xu-Dong; Liang, Xian-Ling; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Kun; Geng, Jun-Ping; Jin, Rong-Hong

    2016-06-10

    Recently, vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) for radio communications has attracted much attention for its potential of transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at the same frequency, which can be used to increase the channel capacity. However, most of the methods for getting multi-mode OAM radio beams remain up to now mainly at simulation level, since their implementations are of complicated structure and very high cost. This paper provides an effective design of generating five-mode OAM radio beams by using the Rotman lens-fed antenna array. The Rotman lens is a viable beamforming approach instead of electronically scanned arrays for its low cost and the ease of implementation. The lens-fed array employs a two-layer structure for size reduction, and the lens body and the antenna array are segregated by a common ground plane to eliminate spurious radiation and thus improve the performance of the OAM beams. The measured results coincide with the simulated ones, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed design for generating multi-mode OAM beams.

  12. CFD analysis to study effect of circular vortex generator placed in inlet section to investigate heat transfer aspects of solar air heater.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Vipin B; Dhoble, A S; Zodpe, D B

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate.

  13. CFD Analysis to Study Effect of Circular Vortex Generator Placed in Inlet Section to Investigate Heat Transfer Aspects of Solar Air Heater

    PubMed Central

    Gawande, Vipin B.; Dhoble, A. S.; Zodpe, D. B.

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate. PMID:25254251

  14. High-order elliptically polarized harmonic generation in extended molecules with ultrashort intense bichromatic circularly polarized laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, Andre D.

    2010-06-15

    Numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for a two-dimensional H{sub 2}{sup +} molecule excited by a bichromatic ultrashort intense circularly polarized laser pulse with frequencies {omega}{sub 0} and 2{omega}{sub 0} and relative carrier envelope phase {phi} are used to explore the generation of high-order elliptically polarized harmonics as a function of internuclear distance R. Optimal values of {phi} and R for efficient and maximum molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) are determined from a classical model of collision with neighboring ions and confirmed from the TDSE nonperturbative simulations. Maximum elliptically polarized harmonic energies of I{sub p}+13.5U{sub p} are found, where I{sub p} is the ionization potential and U{sub p}=I{sub 0}/4m{sub e{omega}0}{sup 2} is the ponderomotive energy at intensity I{sub 0} and frequency {omega}{sub 0}. The polarization properties of MHOHG, phase difference {delta}, ellipticity {epsilon}, and orientation angle {phi} are presented as well. The high efficiency of the proposed MHOHG scheme should be useful for production of elliptically polarized attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses.

  15. Circular Coinduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore; Goguen, Joseph; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Circular coinduction is a technique for behavioral reasoning that extends cobasis coinduction to specifications with circularities. Because behavioral satisfaction is not recursively enumerable, no algorithm can work for every behavioral statement. However. algorithms using circular coinduction can prove every practical behavioral result that we know. This paper proves the correctness of circular coinduction and some consequences.

  16. Circular free-electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Kurnit, Norman A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency, free electron laser utilizing a circular relativistic electron beam accelerator and a circular whispering mode optical waveguide for guiding optical energy in a circular path in the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator such that the circular relativistic electron beam and the optical energy are spatially contiguous in a resonant condition for free electron laser operation. Both a betatron and synchrotron are disclosed for use in the present invention. A free electron laser wiggler is disposed around the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator for generating a periodic magnetic field to transform energy from the circular relativistic electron beam to optical energy.

  17. Generation Mechanisms of Quasi-parallel and Quasi-circular Flare Ribbons in a Confined Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Perez, Aaron; Thalmann, Julia K.; Veronig, Astrid M.; Su, Yang; Gömöry, Peter; Dickson, Ewan C.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze a confined multiple-ribbon M2.1 flare (SOL2015-01-29T11:42) that originated from a fan-spine coronal magnetic field configuration, within active region NOAA 12268. The observed ribbons form in two steps. First, two primary ribbons form at the main flare site, followed by the formation of secondary ribbons at remote locations. We observe a number of plasma flows at extreme-ultraviolet temperatures during the early phase of the flare (as early as 15 minutes before the onset) propagating toward the formation site of the secondary ribbons. The secondary ribbon formation is co-temporal with the arrival of the pre-flare generated plasma flows. The primary ribbons are co-spatial with Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) hard X-ray sources, whereas no enhanced X-ray emission is detected at the secondary ribbon sites. The (E)UV emission, associated with the secondary ribbons, peaks ∼1 minute after the last RHESSI hard X-ray enhancement. A nonlinear force-free model of the coronal magnetic field reveals that the secondary flare ribbons are not directly connected to the primary ribbons, but to regions nearby. Detailed analysis suggests that the secondary brightenings are produced due to dissipation of kinetic energy of the plasma flows (heating due to compression), and not due to non-thermal particles accelerated by magnetic reconnection, as is the case for the primary ribbons.

  18. Generation of circularly permuted fluorescent-protein-based indicators for in vitro and in vivo detection of citrate.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yuki; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2013-01-01

    Indicators for citrate, particularly those applicable to its in vivo detection and quantitation, have attracted much interest in both biochemical studies and industrial applications since citrate is a key metabolic intermediate playing important roles in living cells. We generated novel fluorescence indicators for citrate by fusing the circularly permuted fluorescent protein (cpFP) and the periplasmic domain of the bacterial histidine kinase CitA, which can bind to citrate with high specificity. The ratiometric fluorescent signal change was observed with one of these cpFP-based indicators, named CF98: upon addition of citrate, the excitation peak at 504 nm increased proportionally to the decrease in the peak at 413 nm, suitable for build-in quantitative estimation of the binding compound. We confirmed that CF98 can be used for detecting citrate in vitro at millimolar levels in the range of 0.1 to 50 mM with high selectivity; even in the presence of other organic acids such as isocitrate and malate, the fluorescence intensity of CF98 remains unaffected. We finally demonstrated the in vivo applicability of CF98 to estimation of the intracellular citrate concentration in Escherichia coli co-expressing the genes encoding CF98 and the citrate carrier CitT. The novel indicator CF98 can be a specific and simple detection tool for citrate in vitro and a non-invasive tool for real-time estimation of intracellular concentrations of the compound in vivo.

  19. Text generation from Taiwanese Sign Language using a PST-based language model for augmentative communication.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Hsien; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Guo, Chi-Shiang

    2004-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to the generation of Chinese sentences from ill-formed Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL) for people with hearing impairments. First, a sign icon-based virtual keyboard is constructed to provide a visualized interface to retrieve sign icons from a sign database. A proposed language model (LM), based on a predictive sentence template (PST) tree, integrates a statistical variable n-gram LM and linguistic constraints to deal with the translation problem from ill-formed sign sequences to grammatical written sentences. The PST tree trained by a corpus collected from the deaf schools was used to model the correspondence between signed and written Chinese. In addition, a set of phrase formation rules, based on trigger pair category, was derived for sentence pattern expansion. These approaches improved the efficiency of text generation and the accuracy of word prediction and, therefore, improved the input rate. For the assessment of practical communication aids, a reading-comprehension training program with ten profoundly deaf students was undertaken in a deaf school in Tainan, Taiwan. Evaluation results show that the literacy aptitude test and subjective satisfactory level are significantly improved.

  20. English Gain vs. Spanish Loss? Language Assimilation among Second-Generation Latinos in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Van C.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing three waves of data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey, this article explores the process of language assimilation among second-generation Latinos. Although previous studies have focused on the shift from mother tongue to English across immigrant generations, few have examined change in language proficiency over time…

  1. A Language-Related Comparison of Generation 1.5 and L1 Student Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    "Generation 1.5" is a term being used to describe a type of second language (L2) long-term U.S. resident who may demonstrate persistent language-related challenges (Roberge, Siegel, & Harklau, 2009). Among the difficulties commonly noted with Generation 1.5 students are problems in controlling the academic register expected in…

  2. Automated benchmark generation based upon a specification language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, N.; Feteih, S. E.; Saito, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of validating and verifying digital flight control system (DFCS) software is addressed in this paper. A new specification language DIVERS is proposed, and is the keystone of the approach. This language consists of keywords where each keyword represents an element in the block diagram of a DFCS. DIVERS has a dictionary which contains all the keywords a DFCS designer might need. Translator programs convert the system specifications into an executable, high-level language program. The features of translators are discussed and are elucidated by examples. This language is used to describe a typical flight software module.

  3. Helical gears with circular arc teeth: Generation, geometry, precision and adjustment to errors, computer aided simulation of conditions of meshing and bearing contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Tsay, Chung-Biau

    1987-01-01

    The authors have proposed a method for the generation of circular arc helical gears which is based on the application of standard equipment, worked out all aspects of the geometry of the gears, proposed methods for the computer aided simulation of conditions of meshing and bearing contact, investigated the influence of manufacturing and assembly errors, and proposed methods for the adjustment of gears to these errors. The results of computer aided solutions are illustrated with computer graphics.

  4. Second-Generation Language Maintenance and Identity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decapua, Andrea; Wintergerst, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    While the benefits of bilingualism have been widely acknowledged, parents face many hurdles raising children bilingually. Factors such as consistency in language use, family, school, and social support networks, issues of ethnic and social identity, and the prestige value of language have contributed to successful bilingualism. This paper presents…

  5. Second-Generation Language Maintenance and Identity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decapua, Andrea; Wintergerst, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    While the benefits of bilingualism have been widely acknowledged, parents face many hurdles raising children bilingually. Factors such as consistency in language use, family, school, and social support networks, issues of ethnic and social identity, and the prestige value of language have contributed to successful bilingualism. This paper presents…

  6. Generating and Executing Complex Natural Language Queries across Linked Data.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Thierry; Mougin, Fleur; Grabar, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    With the recent and intensive research in the biomedical area, the knowledge accumulated is disseminated through various knowledge bases. Links between these knowledge bases are needed in order to use them jointly. Linked Data, SPARQL language, and interfaces in Natural Language question-answering provide interesting solutions for querying such knowledge bases. We propose a method for translating natural language questions in SPARQL queries. We use Natural Language Processing tools, semantic resources, and the RDF triples description. The method is designed on 50 questions over 3 biomedical knowledge bases, and evaluated on 27 questions. It achieves 0.78 F-measure on the test set. The method for translating natural language questions into SPARQL queries is implemented as Perl module available at http://search.cpan.org/ thhamon/RDF-NLP-SPARQLQuery.

  7. The effect of shape of winglet vortex generator on the thermal-hydrodynamic performance of a circular tube bank fin heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wanling; Wang, Liangbi; Guan, Yong; Hu, Wenju

    2017-09-01

    In real application, the shape of the vortex generator has great influence on the heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of tube bank fin heat exchanger. Therefore, the effect of the shape of the vortex generator on heat transfer performance of such heat exchanger should be considered. In this paper, the effect of three different shaped vortex generators (i.e. delta winglet, rectangular winglet and trapezoid winglet) on heat transfer intensity and secondary flow intensity of a circular tube bank fin heat exchanger was numerically studied. The results show that with increasing Re, overall average Nu and the non-dimensional secondary flow intensity Se m increase however friction factor f decreases. A corresponding relationship can be found between Nu and Se m, which indicates that the secondary flow intensity determines the heat transfer intensity in the fin-side channel of circular tube bank fin heat exchanger with different shaped vortex generators on the fin surfaces. Under the identical pumping power constrain, the optimal shape of the vortex generators is the delta winglet vortex generators for the studied cases.

  8. A strategy for automatically generating programs in the lucid programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for automatically generating and verifying simple computer programs is described. The programs are specified by a precondition and a postcondition in predicate calculus. The programs generated are in the Lucid programming language, a high-level, data-flow language known for its attractive mathematical properties and ease of program verification. The Lucid programming is described, and the automatic program generation strategy is described and applied to several example problems.

  9. REACT - A Third Generation Language For Autonomous Robot Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, Maxwell J.; Owens, John; Allen, Charles R.; Ratcliff, Karl

    1990-03-01

    REACT is a language under development at Newcastle for the programming of autonomous robot systems, which uses AI constructs and sensor information to respond to failures in assumptions about the real-world by replanning a task. This paper describes the important features of a REACT programmed robotic system, and the results of some initial studies made on defining an executive language using a concept called visiblity sets. Several examples from the language are then applied to specific examples e.g. a white line follower and a railway network controller. The applicability of visibility sets to autonomous robots is evaluated.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Language Production in Parkinson's Disease Using a Cued Sentence Generation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; De Letter, Miet; Corthals, Paul; Van Borsel, John; Santens, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined language production skills in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. A unique cued sentence generation task was created in order to reduce demands on memory and attention. Differences in sentence production abilities according to disease severity and cognitive impairments were assessed. Language samples were obtained from 20…

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Language Production in Parkinson's Disease Using a Cued Sentence Generation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; De Letter, Miet; Corthals, Paul; Van Borsel, John; Santens, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined language production skills in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. A unique cued sentence generation task was created in order to reduce demands on memory and attention. Differences in sentence production abilities according to disease severity and cognitive impairments were assessed. Language samples were obtained from 20…

  12. What Holds Back the Second Generation? The Intergenerational Transmission of Language Human Capital among Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee

    2008-01-01

    In 2000 Census microdata, various outcomes of second-generation immigrants are related to their parents' age at arrival in the United States, and in particular whether that age fell within the "critical period" of language acquisition. We interpret this as an effect of the parents' English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for…

  13. The Language Socialization and Identity Negotiations of Generation 1.5 Korean-Canadian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jean; Duff, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article, based on a larger longitudinal multiple-case study of Generation 1.5 Korean-Canadians, explores two female students' experiences in high school and then university. Foregrounding aspects of language socialization (Duff & Hornberger, 2008) and identity (Norton, 2000) in language-learning and use, the study examines the contextual…

  14. Distance Language Learning: Interactivity and Fourth-Generation Internet-Based Videoconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuping

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a report on NetMeeting as an appropriate fourth-generation tool for interactive language learning in distance mode. It follows on earlier research by Wang and Sun (2000, 2001) on the most urgent problem facing distance language education--lack of provision of oral-visual interaction and the emergence of a fourth-generation…

  15. Between-language repetition priming in antonym generation: evidence that translation-equivalent adjectives have shared conceptual representations across languages.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Randolph S; Francis, Wendy S

    2017-03-01

    Previous literature has demonstrated conceptual repetition priming across languages in bilinguals. This between-language priming effect is taken as evidence that translation equivalents have shared conceptual representations across languages. However, the vast majority of this research has been conducted using only concrete nouns as stimuli. The present experiment examined conceptual repetition priming within and between languages in adjectives, a part of speech not previously investigated in studies of bilingual conceptual representation. The participants were 100 Spanish-English bilinguals who had regular exposure to both languages. At encoding, participants performed a shallow processing task and a deep-processing task on English and Spanish adjectives. At test, they performed an antonym-generation task in English, in which the target responses were either adjectives presented at encoding or control adjectives not previously presented. The measure of priming was the response time advantage for producing repeated adjectives relative to control adjectives. Significant repetition priming was observed both within and between languages under deep, but not shallow, encoding conditions. The results indicate that the conceptual representations of adjective translation equivalents are shared across languages.

  16. Back from the Brink: Innovative Language Program Involves Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Fort Belknap College has embarked on an ambitious project in Montana to pull the Gros Ventre and the Assiniboine languages back from the brink. On the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, where there are two principal tribes, only a handful of Gros Ventre, or White Clay, members are still fluent in the traditional tongue. The "tribal…

  17. Language Proficiency, Home-Language Status, and English Vocabulary Development: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of the Word Generation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Joshua F.; Capotosto, Lauren; Branum-Martin, Lee; White, Claire; Snow, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal quasi-experimental study examines the effects of Word Generation, a middle-school vocabulary intervention, on the learning, maintenance, and consolidation of academic vocabulary for students from English-speaking homes, proficient English speakers from language-minority homes, and limited English-proficiency students. Using…

  18. A Case Study: The Role of Student-Generated Vidcasts in K-12 Language Learner Academic Language and Content Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lucy Santos; Inan, Fethi A.; Maushak, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the integration of vidcasts as student-generated products in English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. We collected qualitative data through observations, student artifacts, and semistructured interviews from 16 reading students at a public middle school located in the southwestern United States. Study…

  19. Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a period-long activity using battery powered cars rolling in a circular motion on a tile floor. Students measure the time and distance as the car moves to derive the equation for centripetal acceleration. (MVL)

  20. Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a period-long activity using battery powered cars rolling in a circular motion on a tile floor. Students measure the time and distance as the car moves to derive the equation for centripetal acceleration. (MVL)

  1. New generation chiral metamaterials with small and flat chirality over a certain frequency band based on circular split ring resonators for microwave filter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, Furkan; Akgol, Oguzhan; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Unal, Emin; Demirel, Ekrem; Sabah, Cumali

    2016-02-01

    There are many studies in literature on chiral metamaterials (MTMs) to obtain large chiralities with dynamic optical activities. With this regard, this new generation planar chiral MTM study focuses on a small, non-dispersive (constant/flat) chirality admittance over an indicated frequency band which has not been investigated so far in literature. This new generation planar chiral MTM provides a small and a constant/fixed chirality which is mostly ignored by the scientists. This study numerically and experimentally investigates and examines these new generation MTMs based on circular split ring resonators (SRRs) with an increased capacitance in details. Obtained results show that the suggested structure can provide a small and constant/flat chirality admittance over a certain frequency band and hence it can be used to design myriad novel electromagnetic (EM) devices such as transmission and antireflection filters, polarization rotators for any desired frequency regions.

  2. Computer Generation of Natural Language from a Deep Conceptual Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    and conceptual domain. The final sentence generated is a result of a ’linearization’ of the syntax net by the grammar . Many paraphrases can be...notion of "performance" grammar . They have long since given up debugging their creation, and should not be hel liable for those "competence...limited to MACHINE generation» no attempt is made to cover the literature of generative grammar , as developed by theoretical linguistics over the

  3. Circularly polarized high harmonics generated by a bicircular field from inert atomic gases in the p state: A tool for exploring chirality-sensitive processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    S -matrix theory of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) is generalized to multielectron atoms. In the multielectron case the harmonic power is expressed via a coherent sum of the time-dependent dipoles, while for the one-electron models a corresponding incoherent sum appears. This difference is important for the inert atomic gases having a p ground state as used in a recent HHG experiment with a bicircular field [Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015), 10.1038/nphoton.2014.293]. We investigate HHG by such a bicircular field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequency r ω and s ω . Selection rules for HHG by a bicircular field are analyzed from the aspects of dynamical symmetry of the system, conservation of the projection of the angular momentum on a fixed quantization axis, and the quantum number of the initial and final atomic ground states. A distinction is made between the selection rules for atoms with closed [J. Phys. B 48, 171001 (2015), 10.1088/0953-4075/48/17/171001] and nonclosed shells. An asymmetry in emission of the left- and right-circularly polarized harmonics is found and explained by using a semiclassical model and the electron probability currents which are related to a nonzero magnetic quantum number. This asymmetry can be important for the application of such harmonics to the exploration of chirality-sensitive processes and for generation of elliptic or even circular attosecond pulse trains. Such attosecond pulse trains are analyzed for longer wavelengths than in Opt. Lett. 40, 2381 (2015), 10.1364/OL.40.002381, and for various field-component intensities.

  4. An Adaptation of the ADA Language for Machine Generated Compilers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    grammar. Machine generated compiler tools such as LEX and YACC, available under the UNIX operating system, are then used to implement the scanner and the...Machine generated compiling tools such as LEX and YACC, available under the UNIX operating system, are then used to implement the scanner and the parser...8a B. YACC AND LEX--------------------------------------- 12 III. UNIX TOOLS---------------------------------------------- 17 A

  5. Rapid whole genome sequencing of Miyazaki-Bali/2007 Pteropine orthoreovirus by modified rolling circular amplification with adaptor ligation – next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpal; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Tani, Hideki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuma, Aiko; Yang, Ming; Sugamata, Masami; Shimojima, Masayuki; Saijo, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of orthoreoviruses as the causative agent of human respiratory illness over the past few years has led to a demand to determine their viral genome sequences. The whole genome sequencing of such RNA viruses using traditional methods, such as Sanger dideoxy sequencing following rapid amplification of cDNA ends presents a laborious challenge due to the numerous preparatory steps required before sequencing can commence. We developed a practical, time-efficient novel combination method capable of reducing the total time required from months to less than a week in the determination of whole genome sequence of Pteropine orthoreoviruses (PRV); through a combination of viral RNA purification and enrichment, adaptor ligation, reverse transcription, cDNA circularization and amplification, and next generation sequencing. We propose to call the method “modified rolling circular amplification with adaptor ligation – next generation sequencing (mRCA-NGS)”. Here, we describe the technological focus and advantage of mRCA-NGS and its expansive application, exemplified through the phylogenetic understanding of the Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV. PMID:26558341

  6. Language Shift or Maintenance? An Examination of Language Usage across Four Generations as Self-Reported by University Age Students in Belarus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, N. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the degree to which language shift or maintenance is obtained across four generations in Belarus. Linguistic homogeneity and heterogeneity receive particular attention as potential contributing factors to language shift or maintenance in the home, arguably the last bastion in terms of language maintenance. In an effort to…

  7. Ribonuclease T1 generates circular RNA molecules from viroid-specific RNA transcripts by cleavage and intramolecular ligation.

    PubMed Central

    Tsagris, M; Tabler, M; Sänger, H L

    1991-01-01

    A 406 nucleotide long potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)-specific linear RNA transcript was synthesized in vitro and subjected to limited digestion with ribonuclease (RNase) T1. Under certain conditions this guanosine-specific endoribonuclease proved to be capable of processing the longer-than-unit-length, precursor-like viroid RNA transcript by cleaving out a linear 358 nucleotide long product and ligating that to a circular RNA molecule. The new finding that RNase T1 acts as an RNA processing enzyme and, in particular, as an RNA 'circulase' can be explained by the unique structural preconditions inherent in the viroid-specific substrate and by the well characterized two-step cleavage mechanism of the enzyme. These in vitro potentials of RNase T1 suggest that also in vivo procaryotic and eucaryotic RNases with a similar reaction mechanism might not only be involved in RNA degradation and trimming, but also in processing, ligation and recombination of RNA. Images PMID:1709278

  8. Generation of circularly polarized waves based on electro inductive-wave (EIW) coupling to chains of complementary split ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Noelia; Crespo, Gonzalo; Iriarte, Juan Carlos; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    In this work, Electro-Inductive wave (EIW) propagation phenomenon is employed in order to introduce a polarization rotation capability in a rectangular patch antenna. The EIW propagation phenomenon is used to master the field distribution within the rectangular patch, and hence, to change the polarization of a patch antenna, which is shown to change from linear to circular polarization. EIW propagation is supported by a chain of Complementary Split Ring Resonators printed in a rectangular patch antenna at specific locations. This principle of operation is demonstrated with the design, fabrication, and measurement of antenna prototypes. Experimental results confirm numerical analysis, providing a simple antenna configuration with polarization variation capabilities, extendable to multiple configurations, in radiated waves as well as in guided wave phenomena.

  9. Generation of Covalently Closed Circular DNA of Hepatitis B Viruses via Intracellular Recycling Is Regulated in a Virus Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Köck, Josef; Rösler, Christine; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Blum, Hubert E.; Nassal, Michael; Thoma, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection requires covalently closed circular (ccc)DNA formation and amplification, which can occur via intracellular recycling of the viral polymerase-linked relaxed circular (rc) DNA genomes present in virions. Here we reveal a fundamental difference between HBV and the related duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in the recycling mechanism. Direct comparison of HBV and DHBV cccDNA amplification in cross-species transfection experiments showed that, in the same human cell background, DHBV but not HBV rcDNA converts efficiently into cccDNA. By characterizing the distinct forms of HBV and DHBV rcDNA accumulating in the cells we find that nuclear import, complete versus partial release from the capsid and complete versus partial removal of the covalently bound polymerase contribute to limiting HBV cccDNA formation; particularly, we identify genome region-selectively opened nuclear capsids as a putative novel HBV uncoating intermediate. However, the presence in the nucleus of around 40% of completely uncoated rcDNA that lacks most if not all of the covalently bound protein strongly suggests a major block further downstream that operates in the HBV but not DHBV recycling pathway. In summary, our results uncover an unexpected contribution of the virus to cccDNA formation that might help to better understand the persistence of HBV infection. Moreover, efficient DHBV cccDNA formation in human hepatoma cells should greatly facilitate experimental identification, and possibly inhibition, of the human cell factors involved in the process. PMID:20824087

  10. Science and Language for English Language Learners in Relation to Next Generation Science Standards and with Implications for Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Quinn, Helen; Valdes, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Council (2011) released "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" that is guiding the development of the Next Generation Science Standards, which are expected to be finalized in early 2013. This article addresses language demands and opportunities that are embedded in the science and engineering practices delineated in the…

  11. Science and Language for English Language Learners in Relation to Next Generation Science Standards and with Implications for Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Quinn, Helen; Valdes, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Council (2011) released "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" that is guiding the development of the Next Generation Science Standards, which are expected to be finalized in early 2013. This article addresses language demands and opportunities that are embedded in the science and engineering practices delineated in the…

  12. Circularly Polarized MHOHG with Bichromatic Circularly Polarized Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Mauger, Francois; Uzer, Turgay

    2016-05-01

    Circularly polarized MHOHG-Molecular High Order Harmonic Generation is shown to occur efficiently with intense ultrashort bichromatic circularly polarized pulses due to frequent electron-parent -ion recollision with co-or counter-rotating incident circular pulses as predicted in 1995. We show in this context that molecules offer a very robust and efficient frameworkfor the production of circularly polarized harmonics for the generation of single circularly polarized ``attosecond'' pulses. The efficiency of such new MHOHG is shown to depend on the compatibility of the symmetry of the molecular medium with the net electric field generated by the combination of the laser pulses.Using a time-dependent symmetry analysis with concrete examples such as H 2 + vs H 3 + we show how all the features(harmonic order and ∧ polarization) of MHOHG can be explained and predicted.

  13. CHARGE Image Generator: Theory of Operation and Author Language Support.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CAI(Computer Administered Instruction), Computer administered instruction, CHARGE(Color Halftone Area Graphics Environment), Color halftone area...graphics environment, *Image generators, Halftones , Gray scales, Catalist project, Impact project

  14. Repetition priming within and between languages in verb generation: evidence for shared verb concepts.

    PubMed

    de la Riva López, Eva M; Francis, Wendy S; García, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Although translation equivalents for concrete nouns are known to have shared core conceptual representations in bilingual memory (Francis, 1999), the status of translation-equivalent verbs has not been systematically tested. Three repetition-priming experiments using a verb generation task were used to determine whether verbs have shared representations across languages and to identify the processes facilitated in repeated verb generation. In Experiment 1 fluent Spanish-English bilingual speakers exhibited repetition priming both within and between languages, but between-language priming was weaker. In Experiment 2 performance of non-bilingual English and Spanish speakers was equivalent to that of bilingual speakers responding in their dominant language. Experiment 3 used manipulations meant to isolate noun comprehension, verb concept selection, and verb production. The between-language priming in Experiments 1 and 3 indicates that verb concepts are shared across languages and that verb concept selection exhibits facilitation. Experiment 3 showed that the greater within-language priming was due primarily to facilitation of verb production processes.

  15. An efficient grid sectoring method for calculations of the near-field pressure generated by a circular piston

    PubMed Central

    McGough, Robert J.; Samulski, Thaddeus V.; Kelly, James F.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical expression is derived for time-harmonic calculations of the near-field pressure produced by a circular piston. The near-field pressure is described by an efficient integral that eliminates redundant calculations and subtracts the singularity, which in turn reduces the computation time and the peak numerical error. The resulting single integral expression is then combined with an approach that divides the computational grid into sectors that are separated by straight lines. The integral is computed with Gauss quadrature in each sector, and the number of Gauss abscissas in each sector is determined by a linear mapping function that prevents large errors from occurring in the axial region. By dividing the near-field region into 10 sectors, the raw computation time is reduced by nearly a factor of 2 for each expression evaluated in this grid. The grid sectoring approach is most effective when the computation time is reduced without increasing the peak error, and this is consistently accomplished with the efficient integral formulation. Of the four single integral expressions evaluated with grid sectoring, the efficient formulation that eliminates redundant calculations and subtracts the singularity demonstrates the smallest computation time for a specified value of the maximum error. PMID:15139603

  16. An efficient grid sectoring method for calculations of the near-field pressure generated by a circular piston.

    PubMed

    McGough, Robert J; Samulski, Thaddeus V; Kelly, James F

    2004-05-01

    An analytical expression is derived for time-harmonic calculations of the near-field pressure produced by a circular piston. The near-field pressure is described by an efficient integral that eliminates redundant calculations and subtracts the singularity, which in turn reduces the computation time and the peak numerical error. The resulting single integral expression is then combined with an approach that divides the computational grid into sectors that are separated by straight lines. The integral is computed with Gauss quadrature in each sector, and the number of Gauss abscissas in each sector is determined by a linear mapping function that prevents large errors from occurring in the axial region. By dividing the near-field region into 10 sectors, the raw computation time is reduced by nearly a factor of 2 for each expression evaluated in this grid. The grid sectoring approach is most effective when the computation time is reduced without increasing the peak error, and this is consistently accomplished with the efficient integral formulation. Of the four single integral expressions evaluated with grid sectoring, the efficient formulation that eliminates redundant calculations and subtracts the singularity demonstrates the smallest computation time for a specified value of the maximum error.

  17. Second Language Teaching and Learning in the Net Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Raquel, Ed.; Oxford, Jeffrey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Today's young people--the Net Generation--have grown up with technology all around them. However, teachers cannot assume that students' familiarity with technology in general transfers successfully to pedagogical settings. This volume examines various technologies and offers concrete advice on how each can be successfully implemented in the second…

  18. Second Language Teaching and Learning in the Net Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Raquel, Ed.; Oxford, Jeffrey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Today's young people--the Net Generation--have grown up with technology all around them. However, teachers cannot assume that students' familiarity with technology in general transfers successfully to pedagogical settings. This volume examines various technologies and offers concrete advice on how each can be successfully implemented in the second…

  19. Generating Knowledge of Academic Language among Urban Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Catherine E.; Lawrence, Joshua F.; White, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study in which academic word-learning by students in five schools implementing the Word Generation program was compared to academic word-learning by students in three schools within the same system that did not choose to implement the program. Because the implementing schools were those that volunteered for the…

  20. Ab initio study of the circular intensity difference in electric-field-induced second harmonic generation of chiral natural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Antonio; Agren, Hans

    2013-01-28

    We present a systematic computational study of circular intensity difference (CID) in electric-field-induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) of some representative chiral natural amino acids (Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic Acid, Cysteine and Tryptophan), taking into account the electric-dipole, electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole interactions. The calculations are performed by applying cubic response theory at both Hartree-Fock and Density Functional theory levels, the latter with the popular Becke-three parameters, Lee, Yang and Parr (B3LYP) functional. Special focus is given to the basis set, electron correlation and origin dependence of the properties. The full set of molecular parameters defined by Lam and Thirunamachandran in their reference theoretical paper published in 1982 [J. Chem. Phys., 1982, 77, 3810] is obtained and discussed. This permits the prediction of the CID observable for different possible experimental setups.

  1. Next Generation Phenotyping Using the Unified Medical Language System

    PubMed Central

    Shimoyama, Naoki; Shimoyama, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background Structured information within patient medical records represents a largely untapped treasure trove of research data. In the United States, privacy issues notwithstanding, this has recently become more accessible thanks to the increasing adoption of electronic health records (EHR) and health care data standards fueled by the Meaningful Use legislation. The other side of the coin is that it is now becoming increasingly more difficult to navigate the profusion of many disparate clinical terminology standards, which often span millions of concepts. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a methodology for integrating large amounts of structured clinical information that is both terminology agnostic and able to capture heterogeneous clinical phenotypes including problems, procedures, medications, and clinical results (such as laboratory tests and clinical observations). In this context, we define phenotyping as the extraction of all clinically relevant features contained in the EHR. Methods The scope of the project was framed by the Common Meaningful Use (MU) Dataset terminology standards; the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), RxNorm, the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC), the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), the Health care Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS), the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), and the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM). The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) was used as a mapping layer among the MU ontologies. An extract, load, and transform approach separated original annotations in the EHR from the mapping process and allowed for continuous updates as the terminologies were updated. Additionally, we integrated all terminologies into a single UMLS derived ontology and further optimized it to make the relatively large concept graph manageable. Results

  2. Generating structure from experience: A retrieval-based model of language processing.

    PubMed

    Johns, Brendan T; Jones, Michael N

    2015-09-01

    Standard theories of language generally assume that some abstraction of linguistic input is necessary to create higher level representations of linguistic structures (e.g., a grammar). However, the importance of individual experiences with language has recently been emphasized by both usage-based theories (Tomasello, 2003) and grounded and situated theories (e.g., Zwaan & Madden, 2005). Following the usage-based approach, we present a formal exemplar model that stores instances of sentences across a natural language corpus, applying recent advances from models of semantic memory. In this model, an exemplar memory is used to generate expectations about the future structure of sentences, using a mechanism for prediction in language processing (Altmann & Mirković, 2009). The model successfully captures a broad range of behavioral effects-reduced relative clause processing (Reali & Christiansen, 2007), the role of contextual constraint (Rayner & Well, 1996), and event knowledge activation (Ferretti, Kutas, & McRae, 2007), among others. We further demonstrate how perceptual knowledge could be integrated into this exemplar-based framework, with the goal of grounding language processing in perception. Finally, we illustrate how an exemplar memory system could have been used in the cultural evolution of language. The model provides evidence that an impressive amount of language processing may be bottom-up in nature, built on the storage and retrieval of individual linguistic experiences.

  3. Concurrent word generation and motor performance: further evidence for language-motor interaction.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Amy D; McCabe, Matthew L; Nocera, Joe R; Reilly, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Embodied/modality-specific theories of semantic memory propose that sensorimotor representations play an important role in perception and action. A large body of evidence supports the notion that concepts involving human motor action (i.e., semantic-motor representations) are processed in both language and motor regions of the brain. However, most studies have focused on perceptual tasks, leaving unanswered questions about language-motor interaction during production tasks. Thus, we investigated the effects of shared semantic-motor representations on concurrent language and motor production tasks in healthy young adults, manipulating the semantic task (motor-related vs. nonmotor-related words) and the motor task (i.e., standing still and finger-tapping). In Experiment 1 (n = 20), we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to affect postural control. In Experiment 2 (n = 40), we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to facilitate word generation and finger tapping. We conclude that engaging semantic-motor representations can have a reciprocal influence on motor and language production. Our study provides additional support for functional language-motor interaction, as well as embodied/modality-specific theories.

  4. Concurrent Word Generation and Motor Performance: Further Evidence for Language-Motor Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Amy D.; McCabe, Matthew L.; Nocera, Joe R.; Reilly, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Embodied/modality-specific theories of semantic memory propose that sensorimotor representations play an important role in perception and action. A large body of evidence supports the notion that concepts involving human motor action (i.e., semantic-motor representations) are processed in both language and motor regions of the brain. However, most studies have focused on perceptual tasks, leaving unanswered questions about language-motor interaction during production tasks. Thus, we investigated the effects of shared semantic-motor representations on concurrent language and motor production tasks in healthy young adults, manipulating the semantic task (motor-related vs. nonmotor-related words) and the motor task (i.e., standing still and finger-tapping). In Experiment 1 (n = 20), we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to affect postural control. In Experiment 2 (n = 40), we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to facilitate word generation and finger tapping. We conclude that engaging semantic-motor representations can have a reciprocal influence on motor and language production. Our study provides additional support for functional language-motor interaction, as well as embodied/modality-specific theories. PMID:22615907

  5. Perspectives vs. Reality of Heritage Language Development: Voices from Second-Generation Korean-American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Little empirical research has examined the cause of language shift or the factors related to the heritage language (HL) development of language minority groups. This study investigates the factors that facilitate or inhibit the HL development of second-generation Korean Americans, with a focus on adolescent HL learners, who go through phases in…

  6. A circular dichroism sensor for selective detection of Cd(2+) and S(2-) based on the in-situ generation of chiral CdS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sianglam, Pradthana; Kulchat, Sirinan; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2017-08-05

    We demonstrate an advance in the fabrication of circular dichroism (CD) sensors for detection of Cd(2+) and S(2-) based on chiral CdS quantum dots (QDs) generated by a facile in-situ reaction. The chiral quantum dots are generated in solutions composed of Cd(2+), S(2-), cysteamine (CA) and L-penicillamine (L-PA), with the number of the generated particles limited by either the Cd(2+) or S(2-) concentration. We show that the magnitude of the CD signal produced by the QDs is linearly related to the initial concentration of Cd(2+) and S(2-), with excellent selectivity over other ions. Our sensor functions over concentration ranges of 65-200μM and 7-125μM with detection limits of 59.7 and 1.6μM for Cd(2+) and S(2-), respectively. The sensor is applied in real water samples with results comparing favorably with those obtained from ICP-OES (for Cd(2+)) and HPLC (for S(2-)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A circular dichroism sensor for selective detection of Cd2 + and S2 - based on the in-situ generation of chiral CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sianglam, Pradthana; Kulchat, Sirinan; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate an advance in the fabrication of circular dichroism (CD) sensors for detection of Cd2 + and S2 - based on chiral CdS quantum dots (QDs) generated by a facile in-situ reaction. The chiral quantum dots are generated in solutions composed of Cd2 +, S2 -, cysteamine (CA) and L-penicillamine (L-PA), with the number of the generated particles limited by either the Cd2 + or S2 - concentration. We show that the magnitude of the CD signal produced by the QDs is linearly related to the initial concentration of Cd2 + and S2 -, with excellent selectivity over other ions. Our sensor functions over concentration ranges of 65-200 μM and 7-125 μM with detection limits of 59.7 and 1.6 μM for Cd2 + and S2 -, respectively. The sensor is applied in real water samples with results comparing favorably with those obtained from ICP-OES (for Cd2 +) and HPLC (for S2 -).

  8. Diabetes risk in older Mexican Americans: effects of language acculturation, generation and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Afable-Munsuz, Aimee; Gregorich, Steven E; Markides, Kyriakos S; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2013-09-01

    The effect of language acculturation, socioeconomic status (SES), and immigrant generation on development of diabetes among Mexican Americans was evaluated in the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (HEPESE). HEPESE is a longitudinal cohort study of 3,050 non-institutionalized Mexican Americans aged 65 years at baseline (1993-1994) from 5 Southwestern states. Diabetes incidence was ascertained in 4 follow-up surveys to 2004-05 by respondent self-reported physician-diagnosis of diabetes, high blood glucose, or sugar in the urine. Language of interview, immigrant generation, gender, age, education, family history of diabetes, smoking status, alcohol use, health insurance type and self-reported height and weight were assessed. High socioeconomic status (SES) was defined by high school graduation and non-Medicaid insurance. Cox's proportional hazards models were fit to evaluate the effects of language acculturation, generation and SES on incident diabetes. 845 of 3,050 (27.7%) Mexican Americans had diabetes at baseline and were younger, more educated, and more likely to have health insurance than those without diabetes. Risk of developing diabetes increased for Spanish-speaking respondents with low SES from 1st to 3rd generation (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.02-3.03) and from 2nd to 3rd generation (HR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.20-3.84). Among English-speaking, high SES participants, generation had a protective effect on developing diabetes: HR = 0.45 (95% CI = 0.22-0.91) when comparing 3rd versus 1st generation. The effect of language acculturation and immigrant generation on incident diabetes is moderated by SES status in HEPESE participants.

  9. Diabetes Risk in Mexican Americans: Effects of Language Acculturation, Generation and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Afable-Munsuz, Aimee; Gregorich, Steven E.; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of language acculturation, socioeconomic status (SES), and immigrant generation on development of diabetes among Mexican Americans was evaluated in the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (HEPESE). Methods HEPESE is a longitudinal cohort study of 3,050 non-institutionalized Mexican Americans aged 65 years at baseline (1993–1994) from 5 Southwestern states. Diabetes incidence was ascertained in 4 follow-up surveys to 2004–05 by respondent self-reported physician-diagnosis of diabetes, high blood glucose, or sugar in the urine. Language of interview, immigrant generation, gender, age, education, family history of diabetes, smoking status, alcohol use, health insurance type and self-reported height and weight were assessed. High socioeconomic status (SES) was defined by high school graduation and non-Medicaid insurance. Cox's proportional hazards models were fit to evaluate the effects of language acculturation, generation and SES on incident diabetes. Results 845 of 3,050 (27.7%) Mexican Americans had diabetes at baseline and were younger, more educated, and more likely to have health insurance than those without diabetes. Risk of developing diabetes increased for Spanish-speaking respondents with low SES from 1st to 3rd generation (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.02–3.03) and from 2nd to 3rd generation (HR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.20–3.84). Among English-speaking, high SES participants, generation had a protective effect on developing diabetes: HR = 0.45 (95% CI = 0.22–0.91) when comparing 3rd versus 1st generation Conclusion The effect of language acculturation and immigrant generation on incident diabetes is moderated by SES status in HEPESE participants. PMID:23990075

  10. Language and Interactional Discourse: Deconstrusting the Talk-Generating Machinery in Natural Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyi, Amaechi Uneke

    2015-01-01

    The study entitled "Language and Interactional Discourse: Deconstructing the Talk-Generating Machinery in Natural Conversation" is an analysis of spontaneous and informal conversation. The study, carried out in the theoretical and methodological tradition of Ethnomethodology, was aimed at explicating how ordinary talk is organized and…

  11. Optionality in Second Language Acquisition: A Generative, Processing-Oriented Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2006-01-01

    The simultaneous presence in a learner's grammar of two features that should be mutually exclusive (optionality) typifies second language acquisition. But generative approaches have no good means of accommodating the phenomenon. The paper proposes one approach, based on Truscott and Sharwood Smith's (2004) MOGUL framework. In this framework,…

  12. CHARGE Image Generator: Theory of Operation and Author Language Support. Technical Report 75-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunwaldsen, Roger L.

    The image generator function and author language software support for the CHARGE (Color Halftone Area Graphics Environment) Interactive Graphics System are described. Designed initially for use in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems, the CHARGE Interactive Graphics System can provide graphic displays for various applications including…

  13. Language Shift and Vitality Perceptions amongst London's Second-Generation Bangladeshis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2013-01-01

    With more than 64,500 members, the Bangladeshi community in London is one of the largest in the UK. Originating from a wave of immigration during the 1970s, a considerable part of the community now consists of a second, UK-born generation. This explorative study seeks to address, first, the extent of the intergenerational language shift from…

  14. Generative Perspectives on Language Acquisition: Empirical Findings, Theoretical Considerations, and Crosslinguistic Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald, Ed.

    The collection of essays and studies concerning generative grammar and first and second language acquisition includes: "The Optional-Infinitive Stage in Child English: Evidence from Negation" (Tony Harris, Ken Wexler); "Towards a Structure-Building Model of Acquisition" (Andrew Radford); "The Underspecification of…

  15. Generative Perspectives on Language Acquisition: Empirical Findings, Theoretical Considerations, and Crosslinguistic Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald, Ed.

    The collection of essays and studies concerning generative grammar and first and second language acquisition includes: "The Optional-Infinitive Stage in Child English: Evidence from Negation" (Tony Harris, Ken Wexler); "Towards a Structure-Building Model of Acquisition" (Andrew Radford); "The Underspecification of…

  16. An intermediate language and machine-independent optimization issues in automatic code generation for vector processors

    SciTech Connect

    Youssefi, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The underlying architecture of a vector processor is different from that of a sequential machine. Therefore, new software must be developed which run on these machines. High-level languages for vector processors can be classified into two groups. The first includes sequential languages such as Fortran, Pascal, C, etc. These languages do not explicitly specify vector operations; hence, it becomes the task of the compiler to construct vector operations from the sequential code. The second group simplifies the task of compiler by allowing the programmer to explicitly specify vector operations. In the process of implementing linear algebra operations such as matrix multiplication and first-order linear recurrences in current high-level languages and generating code on different vector processors, the author sees that efficient code cannot always be generated. By identifying these operations at the intermediate level, he shows how to generate optimal sequences of instructions for a particular machine. He specifies a vector intermediate language, VIL, as well as machine-independent optimization issues for vector processors. He explains how efficient code can be generated from these intermediate operations to different machines. He shows how these intermediate operations can be used in a model of automatic code generation. In machine-independent optimization he explores four issues. Firstly, he considers the application of known optimization techniques for sequential machines to vector processors. Secondly, he discusses new optimization techniques that can be applied to intermediate operations. Thirdly, he discusses the application of lazy evaluation to operations such as rotation and transposition at the intermediate level. Finally, he shows that when the parser can determine some idioms about the shape or the contents of a matrix or a vector, then a considerable amount of space and time can be saved.

  17. Exploring the effects of communication intervention for developmental pragmatic language impairments: a signal-generation study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Catherine; Lloyd, Julian; Aldred, Catherine; Baxendale, Janet

    2006-01-01

    The remediation of pragmatic problems forms a significant part of the caseload for professionals working with children with communication problems. There is little systematic evidence that demonstrates the benefits of speech and language therapy for children whose difficulties lie primarily within the pragmatic domain or which indicates whether changes in pragmatic behaviours, which are a result of a specific intervention, can be measured over time. To generate a signal of change in pragmatic and other language behaviours for children with pragmatic language impairments; to gauge the magnitude and nature of the signal and to make recommendations for future studies. A case series of six children with pragmatic language impairments without diagnosis of autism received 8 weeks of individual intensive speech and language therapy supported in a mainstream educational setting in the UK. Measures of pragmatic behaviours in conversation were made at seven data points before and after therapy using Bishop's ALICC procedure. Conversation coders were blind to the point of assessment. Inferential comprehension, narrative, sentence formulation and sentence recall skills were also tested before and after therapy. The opinions of teachers and parents were sought regarding any change in communication and social abilities of the children over time. All children showed change in communication behaviour on some conversational measures, even if the child functioned at the ceiling on standardized language testing. Some conversation measures had more utility as outcome measures than others. Most children showed substantial change on standardized language measures, but there are limitations on the use of these due to heterogeneity within the group. Overall, the intervention produced a signal for change in pragmatics and/or language behaviour in all children. Parent/teacher opinion reported demonstrable change in communication behaviour and engagement in the curriculum. There is a strong

  18. Comparing Language Use in the Writing of Developmental Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 Tertiary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental composition courses serve a sizable and growing number of Generation 1.5 students, or long-term U.S. resident language learners, and it is believed that language challenges may be part of Generation 1.5 writers' difficulty in controlling the academic register. The current study investigates possible similarities and differences…

  19. Comparing Language Use in the Writing of Developmental Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 Tertiary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental composition courses serve a sizable and growing number of Generation 1.5 students, or long-term U.S. resident language learners, and it is believed that language challenges may be part of Generation 1.5 writers' difficulty in controlling the academic register. The current study investigates possible similarities and differences…

  20. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Martin; Sanchez-Soriano, Javier; Corcho, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia) to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural language. The results of the evaluation of our method in a hydrologic national sensor network showed that this approach is feasible and capable of generating adequate sensor descriptions with a lower development effort compared to other approaches. In the paper we also analyze certain problems that we found in public databases (e.g., heterogeneity, non-standard use of labels, or rigid search methods) and their impact in the generation of sensor descriptions. PMID:26151211

  1. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Molina, Martin; Sanchez-Soriano, Javier; Corcho, Oscar

    2015-07-03

    Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia) to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural language. The results of the evaluation of our method in a hydrologic national sensor network showed that this approach is feasible and capable of generating adequate sensor descriptions with a lower development effort compared to other approaches. In the paper we also analyze certain problems that we found in public databases (e.g., heterogeneity, non-standard use of labels, or rigid search methods) and their impact in the generation of sensor descriptions.

  2. Generation, language, body mass index, and activity patterns in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Taverno, Sharon E; Rollins, Brandi Y; Francis, Lori A

    2010-02-01

    The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children's relative weight and activity patterns. To investigate associations among generation and language with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (i.e., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Participants included 2012 Hispanic children aged 6-11 years from the cross-sectional 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (first, second, or third), and the primary language spoken in the home (English versus non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Compared to third-generation, English speakers, first- and second-generation, non-English speakers were more than two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, first-generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both first- and second-generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to second- and third-generation, English speakers. Overall, non-English-speaking groups reported less screen time compared to third-generation, English speakers. The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Generation, Language, Body Mass Index, and Activity Patterns in Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Taverno, Sharon E.; Rollins, Brandi Y.; Francis, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children’s relative weight and activity patterns. Purpose The association between generation and language was investigated with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (e.g., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Methods Participants included 2,012 Hispanic children aged 6–11 years from the cross-sectional, 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (1st, 2nd or 3rd), and the primary language spoken in the home (English vs non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Results Compared to 3rd generation, English speakers, 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were over two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, 1st generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to 2nd and 3rd generation, English speakers. Overall, all non–English speaking groups reported less screen time compared to 3rd generation, English speakers. Conclusions The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. PMID:20117570

  4. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Theoretical study on the generation of a low-noise plasmonic hotspot by means of a trench-assisted circular nano-slit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuntai; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Koo, Sukmo; Kim, Jinseob; Park, Kyoungyoon; Lee, Dongyeul; Vazquez-Zuniga, Luis Alonso; Park, Namkyoo; Lee, Byoungho; Jeong, Yoonchan

    2014-11-03

    We propose a novel trench-assisted circular metal nano-slit (CMNS) structure implementable on a fiber platform for the generation of a low-noise cylindrical surface plasmon (CSP) hotspot. We design trench structures based on a multi-pole cancellation method in order that a converging surface plasmon signal is well separated from co-propagating non-confined diffracted light (NCDL) at the hotspot location. In fact, the secondary radiation by the quasi-pole oscillation at the edge of the trench cancels the primary NCDL, thereby enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the CSP hotspot. In particular, we investigate two types of trench structures: a rectangular-trench (RT) structure and an asymmetric-parabolic-trench (APT) structure, which are considered for the sake of the simplicity of fabrication and of the maximal enhancement of the SNR, respectively. In comparison with a conventional CMNS having no trenches, we highlight that the mean SNR of the CSP hotspot is enhanced by 6.97 and 11.89 dB in case of the optimized RT and APT CMNSs, respectively. The proposed schemes are expected to be useful for increasing the SNR of plasmonic devices that are interfered by NCDL, such as various types of nano-slits for generating high-resolution plasmonic signals, for example.

  6. Factor Analysis of the ESL/EFL Strategy Inventory for Language Learning: Generation 1.5 Korean Immigrant College Students' Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Misook; Stoffa, Rosa; Kush, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors related to the language learning strategies of second language learners, specifically Generation 1.5 Korean immigrant students--the seventh-largest and one of the fastest growing foreign-born groups in the USA. Participants in this study were members of the Korean communities located in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia who…

  7. Factor Analysis of the ESL/EFL Strategy Inventory for Language Learning: Generation 1.5 Korean Immigrant College Students' Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Misook; Stoffa, Rosa; Kush, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors related to the language learning strategies of second language learners, specifically Generation 1.5 Korean immigrant students--the seventh-largest and one of the fastest growing foreign-born groups in the USA. Participants in this study were members of the Korean communities located in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia who…

  8. Functional test generation for digital circuits described with a declarative language: LUSTRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahrous, Mazen

    1990-08-01

    A functional approach to the test generation problem starting from a high level description is proposed. The circuit tested is modeled, using the LUSTRE high level data flow description language. The different LUSTRE primitives are translated to a SATAN format graph in order to evaluate the testability of the circuit and to generate test sequences. Another method of testing the complex circuits comprising an operative part and a control part is defined. It consists of checking experiments for the control part observed through the operative part. It was applied to the automata generated from a LUSTRE description of the circuit.

  9. Cognitive and language skills of Turkish children in Germany: a comparison of the second and third generation and mixed generational groups.

    PubMed

    Becker, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The paper compares several generational groups of Turkish children in Germany with respect to cognitive skills and German language skills at an early age. Empirically, children of inter-marriages outperform the other groups of Turkish children in both tests while children with a first generation mother and a second generation father score worse than all others. All group differences regarding children’s cognitive skills can be explained by the families’ socio-economic status and educational resources. In contrast, with respect to children’s language skills also parents’ endowment with receiving country specific resources (e.g., parental German language proficiency) needs to be taken into account.

  10. Spanish language generation engine to enhance the syntactic quality of AAC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narváez A., Cristian; Sastoque H., Sebastián.; Iregui G., Marcela

    2015-12-01

    People with Complex Communication Needs (CCN) face difficulties to communicate their ideas, feelings and needs. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) approaches aim to provide support to enhance socialization of these individuals. However, there are many limitations in current applications related with systems operation, target scenarios and language consistency. This work presents an AAC approach to enhance produced messages by applying elements of Natural Language Generation. Specifically, a Spanish language engine, composed of a grammar ontology and a set of linguistic rules, is proposed to improve the naturalness in the communication process, when persons with CCN tell stories about their daily activities to non-disabled receivers. The assessment of the proposed method confirms the validity of the model to improve messages quality.

  11. Efficient generation of 3D hologram for American Sign Language using look-up table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joo-Sup; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2010-02-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is one of the languages giving the greatest help for communication of the hearing impaired person. Current 2-D broadcasting, 2-D movies are used the ASL to give some information, help understand the situation of the scene and translate the foreign language. These ASL will not be disappeared in future three-dimensional (3-D) broadcasting or 3-D movies because the usefulness of the ASL. On the other hands, some approaches for generation of CGH patterns have been suggested like the ray-tracing method and look-up table (LUT) method. However, these methods have some drawbacks that needs much time or needs huge memory size for look-up table. Recently, a novel LUT (N-LUT) method for fast generation of CGH patterns of 3-D objects with a dramatically reduced LUT without the loss of computational speed was proposed. Therefore, we proposed the method to efficiently generate the holographic ASL in holographic 3DTV or 3-D movies using look-up table method. The proposed method is largely consisted of five steps: construction of the LUT for each ASL images, extraction of characters in scripts or situation, call the fringe patterns for characters in the LUT for each ASL, composition of hologram pattern for 3-D video and hologram pattern for ASL and reconstruct the holographic 3D video with ASL. Some simulation results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method in efficient generation of CGH patterns for ASL.

  12. Effect of Groundboard Height on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Lifting Circular Cylinder Using Tangential Blowing from Surface Slots for Lift Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Vernard E.

    1961-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the ground effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting circular cylinder using tangential blowing from surface slots to generate high lift coefficients. The tests were made on a semispan model having a length 4 times the cylinder diameter and an end plate of 2.5 diameters. The tests were made at low speeds at a Reynolds number of approximately 290,000, over a range of momentum coefficients from 0.14 to 4.60, and over a range of groundboard heights from 1.5 to 10 cylinder diameters. The investigation showed an earlier stall angle and a large loss of lift coefficient as the groundboard was brought close to the cylinder when large lift coefficients were being generated. For example, at a momentum coefficient of 4.60 the maximum lift coefficient was reduced from a value of 20.3 at a groundboard height of 10 cylinder diameters to a value of 8.7 at a groundboard height of 1.5 cylinder diameters. In contrast to this there was little effect on the lift characteristics of changes in groundboard height when lift coefficients of about 4.5 were being generated. At a height of 1.5 cylinder diameters the drag coefficients generally increased rapidly when the slot position angle for maximum lift was exceeded. Slightly below the slot position angle for maximum lift, the groundboard had a beneficial effect, that is, the drag for a given lift was less near the groundboard than away from the groundboard. The variation of maximum circulation lift coefficient (maximum lift coefficient minus momentum coefficient) obtained in this investigation is in general agreement with a theory developed for a jet-flap wing which assumes that the loss in circulation is the result of blockage of the main stream beneath the wing.

  13. An ontology model for nursing narratives with natural language generation technology.

    PubMed

    Min, Yul Ha; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Jeon, Eunjoo; Lee, Joo Yun; Jo, Soo Jung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an ontology model to generate nursing narratives as natural as human language from the entity-attribute-value triplets of a detailed clinical model using natural language generation technology. The model was based on the types of information and documentation time of the information along the nursing process. The typesof information are data characterizing the patient status, inferences made by the nurse from the patient data, and nursing actions selected by the nurse to change the patient status. This information was linked to the nursing process based on the time of documentation. We describe a case study illustrating the application of this model in an acute-care setting. The proposed model provides a strategy for designing an electronic nursing record system.

  14. A program code generator for multiphysics biological simulation using markup languages.

    PubMed

    Amano, Akira; Kawabata, Masanari; Yamashita, Yoshiharu; Rusty Punzalan, Florencio; Shimayoshi, Takao; Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Kunieda, Yoshitoshi

    2012-01-01

    To cope with the complexity of the biological function simulation models, model representation with description language is becoming popular. However, simulation software itself becomes complex in these environment, thus, it is difficult to modify the simulation conditions, target computation resources or calculation methods. In the complex biological function simulation software, there are 1) model equations, 2) boundary conditions and 3) calculation schemes. Use of description model file is useful for first point and partly second point, however, third point is difficult to handle for various calculation schemes which is required for simulation models constructed from two or more elementary models. We introduce a simulation software generation system which use description language based description of coupling calculation scheme together with cell model description file. By using this software, we can easily generate biological simulation code with variety of coupling calculation schemes. To show the efficiency of our system, example of coupling calculation scheme with three elementary models are shown.

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Family Language Policy and Heritage Language Knowledge among Second Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila

    2008-01-01

    The family unit and home domain have been and remain important in heritage language maintenance efforts. There are complex relationships between parental language attitudes, their application in everyday language management activities and the children's knowledge of home language vocabulary. The present large-scale study examined the family policy…

  16. Wavelength-Dependent Second Harmonic Generation Circular Dichroism for Differentiation of Col I and Col III Isoforms in Stromal Models of Ovarian Cancer Based on Intrinsic Chirality Differences.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kirby R; Campagnola, Paul J

    2017-03-02

    Extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs in many epithelial cancers. For example, in ovarian cancer, upregulation of collagen isoform type III has been linked to invasive forms of the disease, and this change may be a potential biomarker. To examine this possibility, we implemented wavelength-dependent second harmonic generation circular dichroism (SHG-CD) imaging microscopy to quantitatively determine changes in chirality in ECM models comprised of different Col I/Col III composition. In these models, Col III was varied between 0 and 40%, and we found increasing Col III results in reduced net chirality, consistent with structural biology studies of Col I and III in tissues where the isoforms comingle in the same fibrils. We further examined the wavelength dependence of the SHG-CD to both optimize the response and gain insight into the underlying mechanism. We found using shorter SHG excitation wavelengths resulted in increased SHG-CD sensitivity, where this is consistent with the electric-dipole-coupled oscillator model suggested previously for the nonlinear chirality response from thin films. Moreover, the sensitivity is further consistent with the wavelength dependency of SHG intensity fit to a two-state model of the two-photon absorption in collagen. We also provide experimental calibration protocols to implement the SHG-CD modality on a laser scanning microscope. We last suggest that the technique has broad applicability in probing a wide range of diseased states with changes in collagen molecular structure.

  17. Magnetic field effect on natural convection and entropy generation in a half-moon shaped cavity with semi-circular bottom heater having different ferrofluid inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojumder, Satyajit; Rabbi, Khan Md.; Saha, Sourav; Hasan, MN; Saha, Suvash C.

    2016-06-01

    In this study magneto-hydrodynamic convection in a half-moon shaped cavity filled with ferrofluid has been analyzed numerically. The cavity has two semi-circular bottom heaters and effect of the distance between these two heaters (λ = 0.1 , 0.4) has been thoroughly investigated. Numerical simulation has been carried out for a wide range of Rayleigh number (Ra =103 ∼107), Hartmann number (Ha = 0 ∼ 100) and inclination angle of magnetic field (γ = 0 ° ∼ 90 °) to understand the flow field, thermal field and entropy generation respectively. Cobalt-kerosene and Fe3 O4 -water ferrofluids are used for the present investigation and considered as a single phase fluid. Galerkin weighted residual method of finite element analysis has been used for numerical solution. The code validation and grid independency test have been carried out to justify the numerical accuracy. It has been observed that increment of magnetic field reduces the heat transfer rate, whereas increment of heater distance augments the heat transfer rate significantly. Results are discussed on the basis of Nusselt number (Nu), Bejan number (Be) and shown by contours and 3D plots. It has also been found that λ = 0.4 always shows better heat transfer rate and entropy optimization.

  18. Heat transfer characteristics of decaying swirl flow through a circular tube with co/counter dual twisted-tape swirl generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changcharoen, W.; Samruaisin, P.; Eiamsa-ard, P.; Eiamsa-ard, S.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of co/counter dual-twisted tapes (CoT/CT) on heat transfer rate in a circular tube has been investigated experimentally. In the experiment, the dual-twisted tapes are placed at the entry of the test tube in two arrangements: (1) each of dual twisted tape was twisted in the same direction that can produce co-swirl flow at the entry and (2) each of dual twisted tape was twisted in the opposite direction that can produce counter-swirl flow. Dual tapes were twisted in three different twist ratios ( y/w = 3, 4, and 5) for generating different swirl intensities at the entry of the test section while the single twisted tape (ST) was also the test for comparison. The aim at using the dual twisted tapes is to create co/counter-rotating swirl flows having a significant influence on the flow turbulence intensity at the entry section leading to higher heat transfer enhancement. Average Nusselt numbers of CoT/CT are determined and also compared with those obtained from other similar cases, i.e., ST. The experimental results on the heat transfer rates indicated that the tubes with the dual twisted tapes (CoT/CT) are higher than those with the single tape at the entry section ( x/D = 0 to 10). The heat transfer rates at longer distance became lower due to high interaction of each swirl. In addition, the mean Nusselt number and friction factor for the swirl generator created by the CT is nearly similar to CoT results.

  19. Generation of Natural-Language Textual Summaries from Longitudinal Clinical Records.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ayelet; Shahar, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are required to interpret, abstract and present in free-text large amounts of clinical data in their daily tasks. This is especially true for chronic-disease domains, but holds also in other clinical domains. We have recently developed a prototype system, CliniText, which, given a time-oriented clinical database, and appropriate formal abstraction and summarization knowledge, combines the computational mechanisms of knowledge-based temporal data abstraction, textual summarization, abduction, and natural-language generation techniques, to generate an intelligent textual summary of longitudinal clinical data. We demonstrate our methodology, and the feasibility of providing a free-text summary of longitudinal electronic patient records, by generating summaries in two very different domains - Diabetes Management and Cardiothoracic surgery. In particular, we explain the process of generating a discharge summary of a patient who had undergone a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation, and a brief summary of the treatment of a diabetes patient for five years.

  20. Evaluation of an Expert System for the Generation of Speech and Language Therapy Plans.

    PubMed

    Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; López-Nores, Martín; García-Duque, Jorge; Pazos-Arias, José J; Arévalo-Lucero, Daysi

    2016-07-01

    Speech and language pathologists (SLPs) deal with a wide spectrum of disorders, arising from many different conditions, that affect voice, speech, language, and swallowing capabilities in different ways. Therefore, the outcomes of Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) are highly dependent on the accurate, consistent, and complete design of personalized therapy plans. However, SLPs often have very limited time to work with their patients and to browse the large (and growing) catalogue of activities and specific exercises that can be put into therapy plans. As a consequence, many plans are suboptimal and fail to address the specific needs of each patient. We aimed to evaluate an expert system that automatically generates plans for speech and language therapy, containing semiannual activities in the five areas of hearing, oral structure and function, linguistic formulation, expressive language and articulation, and receptive language. The goal was to assess whether the expert system speeds up the SLPs' work and leads to more accurate, consistent, and complete therapy plans for their patients. We examined the evaluation results of the SPELTA expert system in supporting the decision making of 4 SLPs treating children in three special education institutions in Ecuador. The expert system was first trained with data from 117 cases, including medical data; diagnosis for voice, speech, language and swallowing capabilities; and therapy plans created manually by the SLPs. It was then used to automatically generate new therapy plans for 13 new patients. The SLPs were finally asked to evaluate the accuracy, consistency, and completeness of those plans. A four-fold cross-validation experiment was also run on the original corpus of 117 cases in order to assess the significance of the results. The evaluation showed that 87% of the outputs provided by the SPELTA expert system were considered valid therapy plans for the different areas. The SLPs rated the overall accuracy, consistency

  1. Evaluation of an Expert System for the Generation of Speech and Language Therapy Plans

    PubMed Central

    López-Nores, Martín; García-Duque, Jorge; Pazos-Arias, José J; Arévalo-Lucero, Daysi

    2016-01-01

    Background Speech and language pathologists (SLPs) deal with a wide spectrum of disorders, arising from many different conditions, that affect voice, speech, language, and swallowing capabilities in different ways. Therefore, the outcomes of Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) are highly dependent on the accurate, consistent, and complete design of personalized therapy plans. However, SLPs often have very limited time to work with their patients and to browse the large (and growing) catalogue of activities and specific exercises that can be put into therapy plans. As a consequence, many plans are suboptimal and fail to address the specific needs of each patient. Objective We aimed to evaluate an expert system that automatically generates plans for speech and language therapy, containing semiannual activities in the five areas of hearing, oral structure and function, linguistic formulation, expressive language and articulation, and receptive language. The goal was to assess whether the expert system speeds up the SLPs’ work and leads to more accurate, consistent, and complete therapy plans for their patients. Methods We examined the evaluation results of the SPELTA expert system in supporting the decision making of 4 SLPs treating children in three special education institutions in Ecuador. The expert system was first trained with data from 117 cases, including medical data; diagnosis for voice, speech, language and swallowing capabilities; and therapy plans created manually by the SLPs. It was then used to automatically generate new therapy plans for 13 new patients. The SLPs were finally asked to evaluate the accuracy, consistency, and completeness of those plans. A four-fold cross-validation experiment was also run on the original corpus of 117 cases in order to assess the significance of the results. Results The evaluation showed that 87% of the outputs provided by the SPELTA expert system were considered valid therapy plans for the different areas. The SLPs

  2. Building Language Educators: The Implications of Case-Based Pedagogy Using Practicum-Based Student-Teacher-Generated Cases for Pre-Service Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    This case study investigated case-based pedagogy using student-teacher-generated cases as an instructional tool in the preparation of 12 pre-service ESL, Bilingual, and Modern Foreign Language teachers enrolled in a Student Teaching Seminar at a post-secondary institution. In the fall methods course, each participant generated a case study based…

  3. Building Language Educators: The Implications of Case-Based Pedagogy Using Practicum-Based Student-Teacher-Generated Cases for Pre-Service Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    This case study investigated case-based pedagogy using student-teacher-generated cases as an instructional tool in the preparation of 12 pre-service ESL, Bilingual, and Modern Foreign Language teachers enrolled in a Student Teaching Seminar at a post-secondary institution. In the fall methods course, each participant generated a case study based…

  4. Story Grammar Ability in Children with and without Language Disorder: Story Generation, Story Retelling, and Story Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Donna DiSegna; Liles, Betty Z.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty language-impaired and 20 unimpaired children, aged 9-11, generated and retold stories and answered comprehension questions. The stories produced by language-disordered children contained fewer complete story episodes, fewer main and subordinate clauses per complete episode, and a lower frequency of use of story grammar components than those…

  5. An Exploration into the Writing Ability of Generation 1.5 and International Second Language Writers: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Gennaro, Kristen K.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the writing ability of international second language learners (IL2) and US-resident second language learners, also referred to as Generation 1.5 (G1.5), differs, despite a dearth of substantial empirical evidence supporting such claims. The present study provides much-needed empirical evidence concerning…

  6. Zum Ausgleich von generativer und energetischer Sprachbetrachtung (A Comparison of the "Generative" and "Energetic" Views of Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Leo

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of two basic conceptions: Wilhelm von Humboldt's idea of language as energeia'' existing within and without man, and Noam Chomsky's idea of language generated by the speaker according to an innate apparatus. Revised version of lectures presented at the University of Bonn, West Germany in August 1971. (RS)

  7. Zum Ausgleich von generativer und energetischer Sprachbetrachtung (A Comparison of the "Generative" and "Energetic" Views of Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Leo

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of two basic conceptions: Wilhelm von Humboldt's idea of language as energeia'' existing within and without man, and Noam Chomsky's idea of language generated by the speaker according to an innate apparatus. Revised version of lectures presented at the University of Bonn, West Germany in August 1971. (RS)

  8. An Exploration into the Writing Ability of Generation 1.5 and International Second Language Writers: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Gennaro, Kristen K.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the writing ability of international second language learners (IL2) and US-resident second language learners, also referred to as Generation 1.5 (G1.5), differs, despite a dearth of substantial empirical evidence supporting such claims. The present study provides much-needed empirical evidence concerning…

  9. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…

  10. Generation of Signs within Semantic and Phonological Categories: Data from Deaf Adults and Children Who Use American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Figueroa, Daileen M.

    2017-01-01

    Two key areas of language development include semantic and phonological knowledge. Semantic knowledge relates to word and concept knowledge. Phonological knowledge relates to how language parameters combine to create meaning. We investigated signing deaf adults' and children's semantic and phonological sign generation via one-minute tasks,…

  11. BT-Nurse: computer generation of natural language shift summaries from complex heterogeneous medical data.

    PubMed

    Hunter, James; Freer, Yvonne; Gatt, Albert; Reiter, Ehud; Sripada, Somayajulu; Sykes, Cindy; Westwater, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The BT-Nurse system uses data-to-text technology to automatically generate a natural language nursing shift summary in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The summary is solely based on data held in an electronic patient record system, no additional data-entry is required. BT-Nurse was tested for two months in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh NICU. Nurses were asked to rate the understandability, accuracy, and helpfulness of the computer-generated summaries; they were also asked for free-text comments about the summaries. The nurses found the majority of the summaries to be understandable, accurate, and helpful (p<0.001 for all measures). However, nurses also pointed out many deficiencies, especially with regard to extra content they wanted to see in the computer-generated summaries. In conclusion, natural language NICU shift summaries can be automatically generated from an electronic patient record, but our proof-of-concept software needs considerable additional development work before it can be deployed.

  12. Rotation and generation of mental imagery in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Guarnera, Maria; Commodari, Elena; Peluso, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between mental imagery and specific language impairment (SLI) and explore the assumption that children with SLI are less able to generate mental images and/or convert them, when compared to typical development (TD) children of the same age. Twenty-four children, aged six to eight, took part in two tests to see how well they generated and rotated mental images. The participants were 12 SLI children (six boys and six girls) and 12 TD children (six boys and six girls), matched by age and gender. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups when it came to generating mental imagery. However, there were no significant differences with regard to rotating mental imagery. The results suggest imagery deficit in language-impaired children is not caused by mental rotation, but by other aspects of image processing, such as generation, maintenance and interpretation of visual images. ©2013 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. ng: What next-generation languages can teach us about HENP frameworks in the manycore era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2011-12-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed. A 'single-thread' execution model naturally emerged from that environment, however, this no longer fits into the processing model on the dawn of the manycore era. Although previous work focused on minimizing the changes to be applied to the LHC frameworks (because of the data taking phase) while still trying to reap the benefits of the parallel-enhanced CPU architectures, this paper explores what new languages could bring to the design of the next-generation frameworks. Parallel programming is still in an intensive phase of R&D and no silver bullet exists despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject. Yet, several parallel programming styles have emerged: actors, message passing, communicating sequential processes, task-based programming, data flow programming, ... to name a few. We present the work of the prototyping of a next-generation framework in new and expressive languages (python and Go) to investigate how code clarity and robustness are affected and what are the downsides of using languages younger than FORTRAN/C/C++.

  14. Language Socialisation and Language Shift in the 1b Generation: A Study of Moroccan Adolescents in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Lucca, Lucia; Masiero, Giovanna; Pallotti, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal ethnographic study of the language socialisation of a group of Moroccan adolescents who migrated to Italy in the late 1990s. The approach is based on the notion of language socialisation, which sees the process of acquiring a language as linked to that of becoming a member of a culture. The participants live in…

  15. Language Socialisation and Language Shift in the 1b Generation: A Study of Moroccan Adolescents in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Lucca, Lucia; Masiero, Giovanna; Pallotti, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal ethnographic study of the language socialisation of a group of Moroccan adolescents who migrated to Italy in the late 1990s. The approach is based on the notion of language socialisation, which sees the process of acquiring a language as linked to that of becoming a member of a culture. The participants live in…

  16. What Holds Back the Second Generation? The Intergenerational Transmission of Language Human Capital Among Immigrants*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee

    2007-01-01

    In 2000 Census microdata, various outcomes of second-generation immigrants are related to their parents' age at arrival to the United States, and in particular whether that age fell within the “critical period” of language acquisition. We interpret this as an effect of the parent's English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for parental English proficiency. Estimates of the effect of parent's English-speaking proficiency using two-stage least squares yield significant, positive results for children's English-speaking proficiency and preschool attendance, and significant, negative results for dropping out of high school and being below age-appropriate grade. (JEL J13, J24, J62) PMID:18584062

  17. Parallelism and the Penman natural-language-generation system. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Y.W.; Matthiessen, C.; Sondheimer, N.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses parallel processing for the Penman natural-language-generation system. The authors first analyze the computational requirement of the generation process. They then identify aspects of this computation that could benefit from being carried out in parallel. The Penman generator is composed of a systemic grammar, the Nigel grammar, and its environment. These two components are functionally separated and interface to each other via an inquiry mechanism. This implies that Nigel and its environment can be processed in a distributed way. We also illustrate how both Nigel and the major part of its environment, the KL-TWO knowledge base, can each be processed in parallel. In the Nigel grammar, the systems, choosers and realization statements can be activated simultaneously according to some computational dependency that resembles the system network. The KL-TWO knowledge base can be implemented as a parallel computing system, and two existing approaches, using Classifier Systems and Connectionist Models, respectively, are analyzed and assessed.

  18. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Richard R.; Kretschmer, Laura W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses language in use, focusing on English, including definitions of language as well as how it has been and how it should be taught inside and outside the classroom. Impact of this information on the process of evaluation of hearing-impaired students' language is also considered. (Author/PB)

  19. Language Shift or Maintenance within Three Generations: Examples from Three Turkish-Arabic-Speaking Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofu, Hatice

    2009-01-01

    Where there are two or more languages in contact, language shift is inevitable. Shift or maintenance happens at individual or societal levels due to social and psychological conditions in which community members are in. Pattern of language use in a family and the attitudes of family members towards heritage language or the language of the wider…

  20. The Effect of Language Specific Factors on Early Written Composition: The Role of Spelling, Oral Language and Text Generation Skills in a Shallow Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfé, Barbara; Dockrell, Julie E.; De Bernardi, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Spelling skills have been identified as one of the major barriers to written text production in young English writers. By contrast oral language skills and text generation have been found to be less influential in the texts produced by beginning writers. To date, our understanding of the role of spelling skills in transparent orthographies is…

  1. The Effect of Language Specific Factors on Early Written Composition: The Role of Spelling, Oral Language and Text Generation Skills in a Shallow Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfé, Barbara; Dockrell, Julie E.; De Bernardi, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Spelling skills have been identified as one of the major barriers to written text production in young English writers. By contrast oral language skills and text generation have been found to be less influential in the texts produced by beginning writers. To date, our understanding of the role of spelling skills in transparent orthographies is…

  2. Generating natural language explanations in a computer-aided design system

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowski, M.A.; Cullingford, R.E.; Krueger, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    CADHELP is a graphics-based computer-aided design system which contains detailed knowledge bases intended to support three different types of intelligent behavior: (1) the generation of natural-language explanations concerning the operation of the graphical features, for use by naive users; (2) an animated display coordinated with the explanation, simulating the feature's use; and (3) control of the operation of the CAD system itself, by interpretation of knowledge structures describing the system's operation. This final report is a detailed description of the knowledge-base summarization and generation methods developed for CADHELP, which are the basis for the three different sources of knowledge. The Explanation Mechanism devised for CADHELP describes the CAD commands CADHELP can execute using test and graphical animation. A unique feature of this system is that neither the text nor the animation are stored, but are generated from a representation of knowledge about how to use CADHELP. This representation, called a feature script, is a set of concepts linked by causal relations. Since the feature scripts developed were very detailed to enable the animator to work, a means of pruning the script to produce natural-sounding text was needed. A selector mechanism, called HELPCON, was developed to select concepts for expression from the feature scripts using rules on how to conduct an explanation. The concepts thus selected are generated as English sentences by another module called OGEN, which prunes a concept to express it in a concise form much as HELPCON does.

  3. Comparison of Conversation, Freeplay, and Story Generation as Methods of Language Sample Elicitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwood, Frenette; Russell, Ann F.

    2004-01-01

    The spontaneous language sample forms an important part of the language evaluation protocol (M. Dunn, J. Flax, M. Sliwinski, & D. Aram, 1996; J. L. Evans & H. K. Craig, 1992; L. E. Evans & J. Miller, 1999) because of the limitations of standardized language tests and their unavailability in certain languages, such as Afrikaans. This study examined…

  4. Comparison of Conversation, Freeplay, and Story Generation as Methods of Language Sample Elicitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwood, Frenette; Russell, Ann F.

    2004-01-01

    The spontaneous language sample forms an important part of the language evaluation protocol (M. Dunn, J. Flax, M. Sliwinski, & D. Aram, 1996; J. L. Evans & H. K. Craig, 1992; L. E. Evans & J. Miller, 1999) because of the limitations of standardized language tests and their unavailability in certain languages, such as Afrikaans. This study examined…

  5. Speech recognition training for enhancing written language generation by a traumatic brain injury survivor.

    PubMed

    Manasse, N J; Hux, K; Rankin-Erickson, J L

    2000-11-01

    Impairments in motor functioning, language processing, and cognitive status may impact the written language performance of traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. One strategy to minimize the impact of these impairments is to use a speech recognition system. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of mild dysarthria and mild cognitive-communication deficits secondary to TBI on a 19-year-old survivor's mastery and use of such a system-specifically, Dragon Naturally Speaking. Data included the % of the participant's words accurately perceived by the system over time, the participant's accuracy over time in using commands for navigation and error correction, and quantitative and qualitative changes in the participant's written texts generated with and without the use of the speech recognition system. Results showed that Dragon NaturallySpeaking was approximately 80% accurate in perceiving words spoken by the participant, and the participant quickly and easily mastered all navigation and error correction commands presented. Quantitatively, the participant produced a greater amount of text using traditional word processing and a standard keyboard than using the speech recognition system. Minimal qualitative differences appeared between writing samples. Discussion of factors that may have contributed to the obtained results and that may affect the generalization of the findings to other TBI survivors is provided.

  6. HF-Explain: a natural language generation system for explaining a medical expert system.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    Causal models have been used, with considerable success, to reason in the medical domain. While these systems typically have a robust reasoning mechanism and knowledge base about their specific area of expertise, their ability to satisfactorily explain their results in a meaningful, coherent and concise manner has been less impressive then their diagnostic capabilities. This paper describes a program, HF-Explain, that generates natural language explanations of one such system--the Heart Failure Program. HF-Explain, is loosely based on work done by McKeown in the Text system, using augmented transition networks (ATN) as a formalism to guide the explanation process. The result is a coherent, concise, accurate and rich explanation of Heart Failure Programs' diagnostic hypotheses. PMID:1807682

  7. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  8. Music and language side by side in the brain: a PET study of the generation of melodies and sentences.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven; Martinez, Michael J; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2006-05-01

    Parallel generational tasks for music and language were compared using positron emission tomography. Amateur musicians vocally improvised melodic or linguistic phrases in response to unfamiliar, auditorily presented melodies or phrases. Core areas for generating melodic phrases appeared to be in left Brodmann area (BA) 45, right BA 44, bilateral temporal planum polare, lateral BA 6, and pre-SMA. Core areas for generating sentences seemed to be in bilateral posterior superior and middle temporal cortex (BA 22, 21), left BA 39, bilateral superior frontal (BA 8, 9), left inferior frontal (BA 44, 45), anterior cingulate, and pre-SMA. Direct comparisons of the two tasks revealed activations in nearly identical functional brain areas, including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, Broca's area, anterior insula, primary and secondary auditory cortices, temporal pole, basal ganglia, ventral thalamus, and posterior cerebellum. Most of the differences between melodic and sentential generation were seen in lateralization tendencies, with the language task favouring the left hemisphere. However, many of the activations for each modality were bilateral, and so there was significant overlap. While clarification of this overlapping activity awaits higher-resolution measurements and interventional assessments, plausible accounts for it include component sharing, interleaved representations, and adaptive coding. With these and related findings, we outline a comparative model of shared, parallel, and distinctive features of the neural systems supporting music and language. The model assumes that music and language show parallel combinatoric generativity for complex sound structures (phonology) but distinctly different informational content (semantics).

  9. Experimental Effects of Word Generation on Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Perspective Taking in High Poverty Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, James; LaRusso, Maria; Kim, Ha Yeon; Selman, Robert; Uccelli, Paola; Barnes, Sophie; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Word Generation (WG) is a research-based vocabulary program for middle school students designed to teach words through language arts, math, science, and social studies classes. The program consists of weekly units that introduce 5 high-utility target words through brief passages designed to spark active examination and discussion of contemporary…

  10. Communication, Culture, and Curiosity: Using Target-Culture and Student-Generated Art in the Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berho, Deborah L.; Defferding, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Studying art from the target culture and student creation of original artwork in the second language (L2) classroom have many benefits. Both provide a springboard for discussion of the culture(s) under study as well as one's own. These activities also positively change the classroom atmosphere, generating student curiosity and lowering the…

  11. Latino and Asian Students' Perceptions of the Quality of Their Educators: The Role of Generational Status and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Adam M.; Melde, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Extant research has primarily assessed the quality of the American school experience for immigrant students by focusing on performance-based outcomes (e.g., grade point average [GPA]). Unlike such research, the current study examines the impact of generational status and language proficiency on Latino and Asian students' (n = 2,261) attitudes…

  12. Framework for English Language Proficiency Development Standards Corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many states have begun the process of developing or adapting English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards to align with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the forthcoming Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). This need stems not only from a desire to ensure that "all" students receive the rigorous and systematic education…

  13. Towards natural language question generation for the validation of ontologies and mappings.

    PubMed

    Ben Abacha, Asma; Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Mrabet, Yassine; Pruski, Cédric; Da Silveira, Marcos

    2016-08-08

    The increasing number of open-access ontologies and their key role in several applications such as decision-support systems highlight the importance of their validation. Human expertise is crucial for the validation of ontologies from a domain point-of-view. However, the growing number of ontologies and their fast evolution over time make manual validation challenging. We propose a novel semi-automatic approach based on the generation of natural language (NL) questions to support the validation of ontologies and their evolution. The proposed approach includes the automatic generation, factorization and ordering of NL questions from medical ontologies. The final validation and correction is performed by submitting these questions to domain experts and automatically analyzing their feedback. We also propose a second approach for the validation of mappings impacted by ontology changes. The method exploits the context of the changes to propose correction alternatives presented as Multiple Choice Questions. This research provides a question optimization strategy to maximize the validation of ontology entities with a reduced number of questions. We evaluate our approach for the validation of three medical ontologies. We also evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of our mappings validation approach in the context of ontology evolution. These experiments are performed with different versions of SNOMED-CT and ICD9. The obtained experimental results suggest the feasibility and adequacy of our approach to support the validation of interconnected and evolving ontologies. Results also suggest that taking into account RDFS and OWL entailment helps reducing the number of questions and validation time. The application of our approach to validate mapping evolution also shows the difficulty of adapting mapping evolution over time and highlights the importance of semi-automatic validation.

  14. Underspecification-Based Grammatical Feedback Generation Tailored to the Learner's Current Acquisition Level in an e-Learning System for German as Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbusch, Karin; Cameran, Christel-Joy; Härtel, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We present a new feedback strategy implemented in a natural language generation-based e-learning system for German as a second language (L2). Although the system recognizes a large proportion of the grammar errors in learner-produced written sentences, its automatically generated feedback only addresses errors against rules that are relevant at…

  15. [Circular migration in Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Mantra, I B

    1979-12-01

    The author examines circular migration in Indonesia, with primary focus on the 1970s. It is found that circular, or repeated return migration, generally occurs over short distances and for short periods and is more frequent than lifetime migration. The relationships between improvements in the national transport system, access to labor force opportunities in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and circular migration are discussed.

  16. Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language 1.0: Reporting next generation sequencing-based HLA and KIR genotyping.

    PubMed

    Milius, Robert P; Heuer, Michael; Valiga, Daniel; Doroschak, Kathryn J; Kennedy, Caleb J; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Schneider, Joel; Pollack, Jane; Kim, Hwa Ran; Cereb, Nezih; Hollenbach, Jill A; Mack, Steven J; Maiers, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We present an electronic format for exchanging data for HLA and KIR genotyping with extensions for next-generation sequencing (NGS). This format addresses NGS data exchange by refining the Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language (HML) to conform to the proposed Minimum Information for Reporting Immunogenomic NGS Genotyping (MIRING) reporting guidelines (miring.immunogenomics.org). Our refinements of HML include two major additions. First, NGS is supported by new XML structures to capture additional NGS data and metadata required to produce a genotyping result, including analysis-dependent (dynamic) and method-dependent (static) components. A full genotype, consensus sequence, and the surrounding metadata are included directly, while the raw sequence reads and platform documentation are externally referenced. Second, genotype ambiguity is fully represented by integrating Genotype List Strings, which use a hierarchical set of delimiters to represent allele and genotype ambiguity in a complete and accurate fashion. HML also continues to enable the transmission of legacy methods (e.g. site-specific oligonucleotide, sequence-specific priming, and Sequence Based Typing (SBT)), adding features such as allowing multiple group-specific sequencing primers, and fully leveraging techniques that combine multiple methods to obtain a single result, such as SBT integrated with NGS.

  17. Qualitative spatial logic descriptors from 3D indoor scenes to generate explanations in natural language.

    PubMed

    Falomir, Zoe; Kluth, Thomas

    2017-06-24

    The challenge of describing 3D real scenes is tackled in this paper using qualitative spatial descriptors. A key point to study is which qualitative descriptors to use and how these qualitative descriptors must be organized to produce a suitable cognitive explanation. In order to find answers, a survey test was carried out with human participants which openly described a scene containing some pieces of furniture. The data obtained in this survey are analysed, and taking this into account, the QSn3D computational approach was developed which uses a XBox 360 Kinect to obtain 3D data from a real indoor scene. Object features are computed on these 3D data to identify objects in indoor scenes. The object orientation is computed, and qualitative spatial relations between the objects are extracted. These qualitative spatial relations are the input to a grammar which applies saliency rules obtained from the survey study and generates cognitive natural language descriptions of scenes. Moreover, these qualitative descriptors can be expressed as first-order logical facts in Prolog for further reasoning. Finally, a validation study is carried out to test whether the descriptions provided by QSn3D approach are human readable. The obtained results show that their acceptability is higher than 82%.

  18. Toroidal circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybould, T. A.; Fedotov, V. A.; Papasimakis, N.; Kuprov, I.; Youngs, I. J.; Chen, W. T.; Tsai, D. P.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that the induced toroidal dipole, represented by currents flowing on the surface of a torus, makes a distinct and indispensable contribution to circular dichroism. We show that toroidal circular dichroism supplements the well-known mechanism involving electric dipole and magnetic dipole transitions. We illustrate this with rigorous analysis of the experimentally measured polarization-sensitive transmission spectra of an artificial metamaterial, constructed from elements of toroidal symmetry. We argue that toroidal circular dichroism will be found in large biomolecules with elements of toroidal symmetry and should be taken into account in the interpretation of circular dichroism spectra of organics.

  19. A new Matlab coder for generating Structured Text Language from matrix expression for PLC and PAC controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buciakowski, Mariusz; Witczak, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new Matlab toolbox for synthesis of Structured Text (ST) code for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) and Programmable Automation Controller (PAC). This tool can directly generate IEC 61131-3 Structured Text Language from Matlab script for selected Integrated Development Environments (IDEs). The generated code can be verified and compared with the results obtained with Matlab simulation. After this, generated code can be used in IDEs, compiled and uploaded to a PLC or PAC controller for final verification. This approach leaves all available Matlab toolboxes for programmers use, thus allowing fast and easy synthesis developed algorithms.

  20. Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process-Level Model of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given…

  1. Business with Words: Language Programs That Generate Revenue and Impact Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the "business" of language programs. In particular, it focuses on the economic impact of English as a Second language programs physically located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada which draw and serve foreign students. The impact such programs have on the wider community will also be explored. A bibliography is included.…

  2. Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process-Level Model of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given…

  3. Generation of Signs Within Semantic and Phonological Categories: Data from Deaf Adults and Children Who Use American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S; Figueroa, Daileen M

    2017-04-01

    Two key areas of language development include semantic and phonological knowledge. Semantic knowledge relates to word and concept knowledge. Phonological knowledge relates to how language parameters combine to create meaning. We investigated signing deaf adults' and children's semantic and phonological sign generation via one-minute tasks, including animals, foods, and specific handshapes. We investigated the effects of chronological age, age of sign language acquisition/years at school site, gender, presence of a disability, and geographical location (i.e., USA and Puerto Rico) on participants' performance and relations among tasks. In general, the phonological task appeared more difficult than the semantic tasks, students generated more animals than foods, age, and semantic performance correlated for the larger sample of U.S. students, and geographical variation included use of fingerspelling and specific signs. Compared to their peers, deaf students with disabilities generated fewer semantic items. These results provide an initial snapshot of students' semantic and phonological sign generation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Verbal creativity in autism: comprehension and generation of metaphoric language in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and typical development

    PubMed Central

    Kasirer, Anat; Mashal, Nira

    2014-01-01

    Studies on creativity in participants with autism generally show impoverished performance as well as deficient comprehension of metaphoric language. However, very little is known about the ability to generate metaphors in this population. The present study examines verbal creativity in adults with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) through tasks that rely on novel metaphoric language. Seventeen adults with ASD (mean age = 21.06) and 17 typically developing peers (mean age = 22.71) participated in the study. A multiple-choice questionnaire consisting of conventional and novel metaphors was used to test comprehension, and a sentence completion questionnaire was used to test generation of creative language. Results show similar performance in comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors in both groups, whereas adults with ASD generated more creative metaphors relative to the control group. Scores on tests of vocabulary and naming contributed to the prediction of conventional metaphor comprehension, while scores on tests of mental flexibility contributed to the prediction of novel metaphor comprehension. In addition, scores on a test of non-verbal intelligence contributed to the prediction of metaphor generation. The study points to unique verbal creativity in ASD. PMID:25157225

  5. The proactive bilingual brain: Using interlocutor identity to generate predictions for language processing

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Clara D.; Molnar, Monika; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel interlocutors who were either monolingual or bilingual. Then, the participants completed an audio-visual lexical decision task in which all the interlocutors uttered words and pseudo-words. Critically, the speech onset started about 350 ms after the beginning of the video. ERP waves between the onset of the visual presentation of the interlocutors and the onset of their speech significantly differed for trials where the language was not predictable (bilingual interlocutors) and trials where the language was predictable (monolingual interlocutors), revealing that visual interlocutor identity can in fact function as a cue for language prediction, even before the onset of the auditory-linguistic signal. PMID:27173937

  6. The proactive bilingual brain: Using interlocutor identity to generate predictions for language processing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Clara D; Molnar, Monika; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-05-13

    The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel interlocutors who were either monolingual or bilingual. Then, the participants completed an audio-visual lexical decision task in which all the interlocutors uttered words and pseudo-words. Critically, the speech onset started about 350 ms after the beginning of the video. ERP waves between the onset of the visual presentation of the interlocutors and the onset of their speech significantly differed for trials where the language was not predictable (bilingual interlocutors) and trials where the language was predictable (monolingual interlocutors), revealing that visual interlocutor identity can in fact function as a cue for language prediction, even before the onset of the auditory-linguistic signal.

  7. Partial-wave series expansions in spherical coordinates for the acoustic field of vortex beams generated from a finite circular aperture.

    PubMed

    Mitri, F

    2014-12-01

    Stemming from the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld surface integral, the addition theorems for the spherical wave and Legendre functions, and a weighting function describing the behavior of the radial component vp1 of the normal velocity at the surface of a finite circular radiating source, partial-wave series expansions are derived for the incident field of acoustic spiraling (vortex) beams in a spherical coordinate system centered on the axis of wave propagation. Examples for vortex beams, comprising ρ-vortex, zeroth-order and higher order Bessel-Gauss and Bessel, truncated Neumann-Gauss and Hankel- Gauss, Laguerre-Gauss, and other Gaussian-type vortex beams are considered. The mathematical expressions are exact solutions of the Helmholtz equation. The results presented here are particularly useful to accurately evaluate analytically and compute numerically the acoustic scattering and other mechanical effects of finite vortex beams, such as the axial and 3-D acoustic radiation force and torque components on a sphere of any (isotropic, anisotropic, etc.) material (fluid, elastic, viscoelastic, etc.), either centered on the beam's axis of wave propagation, or placed off-axially. Numerical predictions allow optimal design of parameters in applications including but not limited to acoustical tweezers, acousto-fluidics, beamforming design, and imaging, to name a few.

  8. Making A Circular-Harmonic Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yeou Yen

    1989-01-01

    Optical image-correlating system made rotationally invariant. Experiment shows circular-harmonic filter generated optically. Hologram made by phase-shifted-double-exposure procedure. Filter used in optical image-recognition system based on correlation between target (image to be recognized) and matched spatial filter. In addition to usual invariance under translation of target, circular harmonic filter invariant under rotation of target; peak intensity of illumination at origin of correlation plane does not vary when target rotated about optical axis.

  9. 2. Northwest circular bastion, seen from edge of southwest circular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northwest circular bastion, seen from edge of southwest circular bastion wall. Metal roof beams extend up to form peak. World War II gun installation at right. - Fort Hamilton, Northwest Circular Bastion, Rose Island, Newport, Newport County, RI

  10. Circularly polarized Hankel vortices.

    PubMed

    Kotlyar, Victor V; Kovalev, Alexey A

    2017-04-03

    We discuss vector Hankel beams with circular polarization. These beams appear as a generalization of a spherical wave with an embedded optical vortex with topological charge n. Explicit analytical relations to describe all six projections of the E- and H-field are derived. The relations are shown to satisfy Maxwell's equations. Hankel beams with clockwise and anticlockwise circular polarization are shown to have peculiar features while propagating in free space. Relations for the Poynting vector projections and the angular momentum in the far field are also obtained. It is shown that a Hankel beam with clockwise circular polarization has radial divergence (ratio between the radial and longitudinal projections of the Poynting vector) similar to that of the spherical wave, while the beam with the anticlockwise circular polarization has greater radial dependence. At n = 0, the circularly polarized Hankel beam has non-zero spin angular momentum. At n = 1, power flow of the Hankel beam with anticlockwise polarization consists of two parts: right-handed helical flow near the optical axis and left-handed helical flow in periphery. At n ≥2, power flow is directed along the right-handed helix regardless of the direction of the circular polarization. Power flow along the optical axis is the same for the Hankel beams of both circular polarizations, if they have the same topological charge.

  11. Visual Meta-Programming Language Graphical User Interface for Generative Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    background, there is a need to define a grammar and language of symbols that all people involved in the same project understand . Like any language, one...variable of type Edit_Strip -- OUTPUT: The string representing the expression type -- PRECONDITIONS: An existing edit strip -- DESCRIPTION: This funtion ...edit strip -- DESCRIPTION: This funtion returns either a user entered -- string or the default string if nothing is entered in the -- expression field

  12. Early infant neuromotor assessment is associated with language and nonverbal cognitive function in toddlers: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J; Sincer, Isil; de Groot, Laila; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies in high-risk populations established that variations in infant neuromotor development predict poor cognitive function. It is unclear whether this association is found in the general population. Moreover, previous population-based studies mostly focused on motor milestone achievement. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Neuromotor development was assessed with an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination when infants (1205 males, 1278 females) were on average 12 weeks old (standard deviation 1, range, 9-15 weeks). To measure language function at age 1.5 years, the MacArthur Short Form Vocabulary Checklist was used. At 2.5 years, mothers completed the Language Development Survey and the Parent Report of Children's Abilities measuring language and nonverbal cognitive functioning, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, less optimal neuromotor development, that is, more low tone symptoms, was associated with a delay in receptive language at 1.5 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.34) and in expressive language at multiple time points (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.21). Higher scores on overall neuromotor development, indicating a less optimal neuromotor development, was associated with an increased risk of a delay in nonverbal cognitive function at 2.5 years (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.35). The results of this study suggest that infants with more low tone symptoms, indicating minor deviances from normal neuromotor development, are somewhat more vulnerable to language delays than those infants who do not have these symptoms.

  13. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, C. Glen; Simmons, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  14. Squaring a Circular Segment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Consider a circular segment (the smaller portion of a circle cut off by one of its chords) with chord length c and height h (the greatest distance from a point on the arc of the circle to the chord). Is there a simple formula involving c and h that can be used to closely approximate the area of this circular segment? Ancient Chinese and Egyptian…

  15. Squaring a Circular Segment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Consider a circular segment (the smaller portion of a circle cut off by one of its chords) with chord length c and height h (the greatest distance from a point on the arc of the circle to the chord). Is there a simple formula involving c and h that can be used to closely approximate the area of this circular segment? Ancient Chinese and Egyptian…

  16. Childcare, Language-Use, and Vocabulary of Second-Generation Latino Immigrant Children Growing up in a New Immigrant Enclave in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda K.; Simpson Baird, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    We utilize a within-group framework to understand the association between childcare type and the language-use and vocabulary of second-generation Latino immigrant children. The sample was drawn from a study of a suburban/rural immigrant community to study the role of home experiences on the early language and literacy of young Latino preschoolers…

  17. Globularity and language-readiness: generating new predictions by expanding the set of genes of interest

    PubMed Central

    Boeckx, Cedric; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on the hypothesis put forth in Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco (2014), according to which the developmental changes expressed at the levels of brain morphology and neural connectivity that resulted in a more globular braincase in our species were crucial to understand the origins of our language-ready brain. Specifically, this paper explores the links between two well-known ‘language-related’ genes like FOXP2 and ROBO1 implicated in vocal learning and the initial set of genes of interest put forth in Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco (2014), with RUNX2 as focal point. Relying on the existing literature, we uncover potential molecular links that could be of interest to future experimental inquiries into the biological foundations of language and the testing of our initial hypothesis. Our discussion could also be relevant for clinical linguistics and for the interpretation of results from paleogenomics. PMID:25505436

  18. Globularity and language-readiness: generating new predictions by expanding the set of genes of interest.

    PubMed

    Boeckx, Cedric; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on the hypothesis put forth in Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco (2014), according to which the developmental changes expressed at the levels of brain morphology and neural connectivity that resulted in a more globular braincase in our species were crucial to understand the origins of our language-ready brain. Specifically, this paper explores the links between two well-known 'language-related' genes like FOXP2 and ROBO1 implicated in vocal learning and the initial set of genes of interest put forth in Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco (2014), with RUNX2 as focal point. Relying on the existing literature, we uncover potential molecular links that could be of interest to future experimental inquiries into the biological foundations of language and the testing of our initial hypothesis. Our discussion could also be relevant for clinical linguistics and for the interpretation of results from paleogenomics.

  19. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; ...

    2015-11-03

    Here, we demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantummore » trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.« less

  20. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  1. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hogle, Craig W.; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Milošević, Dejan B.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A.; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  2. Generating Language through Media: Audio-Visual Production by the ESL Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Linda New

    This paper describes some teaching techniques developed in the author's middle school and high school ESL classes. The techniques described here use audio-visual devices and student production of media as a motivational tool as well as a method of providing for spontaneous language practice and communicative competence. Some of the techniques and…

  3. An Intersection of Interests: The Millennial Generation and an Alternative World Language Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Gwynne E.; Coolican, Maria J.; Wolfgang, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The Ann Arbor Languages Partnership (A2LP) between Ann Arbor Public Schools and the University of Michigan's School of Education recruits Spanish-speaking undergraduates from many academic majors to teach Spanish in the district's 3rd and 4th grade classrooms during the academic year. The partnership allows the district to offer students a world…

  4. An Automated Method to Generate e-Learning Quizzes from Online Language Learner Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Brendan; Yin, Chengjiu; Hirokawa, Sachio; Hashimoto, Kiyota; Tabata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the entries of Lang-8, which is a Social Networking Site (SNS) site for learning and practicing foreign languages, were analyzed and found to contain similar rates of errors for most error categories reported in previous research. These similarly rated errors were then processed using an algorithm to determine corrections suggested…

  5. On Some Contested Suppositions of Generative Linguistics about the Scientific Study of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Terry

    1977-01-01

    The author accepts some of the technical comments in Dresher and Hornstein's article on artificial intelligence (AI), (EJ 161 384, Cognition, December 1976), but disagrees with several other comments. Although Dresher and Hornstein unquestioningly adopt Noam Chomsky's paradigm for the study of language, their real point is that AI researchers are…

  6. On Some Contested Suppositions of Generative Linguistics about the Scientific Study of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Terry

    1977-01-01

    The author accepts some of the technical comments in Dresher and Hornstein's article on artificial intelligence (AI), (EJ 161 384, Cognition, December 1976), but disagrees with several other comments. Although Dresher and Hornstein unquestioningly adopt Noam Chomsky's paradigm for the study of language, their real point is that AI researchers are…

  7. Computer Generated Feedback on Vowel Production by Learners of English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, David

    2004-01-01

    The acquisition of new vowel sounds is one of the most challenging tasks for the adult learner of a second language. It is also an aspect which requires a great deal of time and individual attention. Learners of English are particularly hampered by the irregular orthographic representation of vowel sounds. This paper reports on research in…

  8. The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

  9. Pu'a i ka 'Olelo, Ola ka 'Ohana: Three Generations of Hawaiian Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai'ae'a, Keiki K. C.; Housman, Alohalani Kaluhiokalani; Alencastre, Makalapua

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the Hawaiian language had reached its low point with fewer than 50 native speakers of Hawaiian under the age of 18. Outside of the Ni'ihau community, a small group of families in Honolulu and Hilo were raising their children through Hawaiian. This article shares the perspectives of three pioneering families of the Hawaiian…

  10. Classification of Scientific Documents by Means of Self-Generated Groups Employing Free Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, R. D.; Kwok, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    A study was undertaken to classify mechanically a document collection using the free-language words in titles and abstracts of physics research papers. Using a clustering algorithm, results were obtained which closely duplicated clusters obtained by previous experiments with citations. A brief comparison is made with a traditional manual…

  11. The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

  12. An Automated Method to Generate e-Learning Quizzes from Online Language Learner Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Brendan; Yin, Chengjiu; Hirokawa, Sachio; Hashimoto, Kiyota; Tabata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the entries of Lang-8, which is a Social Networking Site (SNS) site for learning and practicing foreign languages, were analyzed and found to contain similar rates of errors for most error categories reported in previous research. These similarly rated errors were then processed using an algorithm to determine corrections suggested…

  13. Models for circular-linear and circular-circular data constructed from circular distributions based on nonnegative trigonometric sums.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Durán, J J

    2007-06-01

    Johnson and Wehrly (1978, Journal of the American Statistical Association 73, 602-606) and Wehrly and Johnson (1980, Biometrika 67, 255-256) show one way to construct the joint distribution of a circular and a linear random variable, or the joint distribution of a pair of circular random variables from their marginal distributions and the density of a circular random variable, which in this article is referred to as joining circular density. To construct flexible models, it is necessary that the joining circular density be able to present multimodality and/or skewness in order to model different dependence patterns. Fernández-Durán (2004, Biometrics 60, 499-503) constructed circular distributions based on nonnegative trigonometric sums that can present multimodality and/or skewness. Furthermore, they can be conveniently used as a model for circular-linear or circular-circular joint distributions. In the current work, joint distributions for circular-linear and circular-circular data constructed from circular distributions based on nonnegative trigonometric sums are presented and applied to two data sets, one for circular-linear data related to the air pollution patterns in Mexico City and the other for circular-circular data related to the pair of dihedral angles between consecutive amino acids in a protein.

  14. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: On the bifurcation of the circular polarisation of the fifth and seventh pump-field harmonics generated in the plasma produced by the ionisation of a gas of excited hydrogen-like atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silin, Viktor P.; Silin, Pavel V.

    2006-05-01

    Within the framework of the Bethe ionisation model we considered theoretically the dependences of the degree of circular polarisation of the fifth and seventh pump-field harmonics, which are generated due to bremsstrahlung, on the electric intensity of the pump field, the degree of its circular polarisation, and the principal quantum number of the excited states of hydrogen-like atoms of a gas ionised by the pump field. A bifurcation of the circular polarisation of these harmonics was discovered, which confirms our previous hypothesis that this effect is common for harmonics generated due to the bremsstrahlung in the pump field when the plasma electrons oscillate in this field. We determined how the relationships under consideration are scaled with VEn/VZ, the product of electron oscillation velocity and the principal quantum number of the excited electron divided by the Coulomb velocity.

  15. Compact waveguide circular polarizer

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-08-16

    A multi-port waveguide is provided having a rectangular waveguide that includes a Y-shape structure with first top arm having a first rectangular waveguide port, a second top arm with second rectangular waveguide port, and a base arm with a third rectangular waveguide port for supporting a TE.sub.10 mode and a TE.sub.20 mode, where the end of the third rectangular waveguide port includes rounded edges that are parallel to a z-axis of the waveguide, a circular waveguide having a circular waveguide port for supporting a left hand and a right hand circular polarization TE.sub.11 mode and is coupled to a base arm broad wall, and a matching feature disposed on the base arm broad wall opposite of the circular waveguide for terminating the third rectangular waveguide port, where the first rectangular waveguide port, the second rectangular waveguide port and the circular waveguide port are capable of supporting 4-modes of operation.

  16. Numerical simulation of nonlinear feedback model of saccade generation circuit implemented in the LabView graphical programming language.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M E; Gnadt, J W

    1999-03-01

    The object-oriented graphical programming language LabView was used to implement the numerical solution to a computational model of saccade generation in primates. The computational model simulates the activity and connectivity of anatomical strictures known to be involved in saccadic eye movements. The LabView program provides a graphical user interface to the model that makes it easy to observe and modify the behavior of each element of the model. Essential elements of the source code of the LabView program are presented and explained. A copy of the model is available for download from the internet.

  17. 76 FR 62148 - Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Federal Transit Administration Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular...; Proposed Circular'' and ``Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For... Circular'' (76 FR 60593) and ``Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular'' (76 FR 60590). Corrections The...

  18. 3D multiple optical trapping of Au-nanoparticles and prokaryote E. coli using intra-cavity generated non-circular beam of inhomogeneous intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Shakher, C.; Mehta, D. S.

    2010-06-01

    We report 3D multiple trapping of dielectric polystyrene (PS) beads and gold nano-particles (GNPs) in single beam optical tweezers system using an asymmetric beam of inhomogeneous intensity distribution. This special kind of beam of quasi-TEM11 profile was generated from intra-cavity CW-laser source operating at 532 nm. Multiple trapping of both the low refractive index rod-like Escherichia coli bacteria and 253 nm plasmonic GNPs dispersed in 1.025 μm PS beads which were homogenized in de-ionized water was realized utilizing this spatial beam. Laser-GNPs interaction rendered the enhancement of local surface plasmon resonance field around GNPs causing long-range aggregation of PS beads. The multiple trapping of plasmonic GNPs by the present simple method might find applications for micro- and nano-connectors, underlying physical processes in light-matter interaction assays for inter-particle force analysis, cancer diagnostic and photothermolysis, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, and surface plasmon based biological and chemical sensors.

  19. Korean Language Generation in an Interlingua-Based Speech Translation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-21

    Air Force Contract F19628-95-C-0002. Approved for puhlic release; distribution is unlimited. 19960410 053 This report is based on studies performed...using the ILT approach [1]. 1.2 CCLINC Common Coalition language at LINColn Laboratory (CCLINC) is a system architecture and concept demonstration ...who are accepted are up to and including you When the attachment happens, the preceding words do not alter their endings, unless they are pronouns

  20. Spiral Bevel and Circular Arc Helical Gears: Tooth Contact Analysis and the Effect of Misalignment on Circular Arc Helical Gears.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    AD-AI59 738 SPIRAL BEVEL AND CIRCULAR ARC HELICAL BEARS: TOOTH Loll CONTACT ANALYSIS AND T..(U) NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION...STANDARDS -1963A -_L177- 7 7 71 7 -777 , AD-A 158 738 NASA USAAVSCOM Technical Memorandum 87013 Technical Report 85-C-6 Spiral Bevel and Circular Arc Helical ...this paper cover the generation of (1) spiral bevel gears with almost zero kinematic errors, and (2) helical gears with circular arc teeth

  1. Examining the contribution of motor movement and language dominance to increased left lateralization during sign generation in native signers.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Payne, Heather; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2016-08-01

    The neural systems supporting speech and sign processing are very similar, although not identical. In a previous fTCD study of hearing native signers (Gutierrez-Sigut, Daws, et al., 2015) we found stronger left lateralization for sign than speech. Given that this increased lateralization could not be explained by hand movement alone, the contribution of motor movement versus 'linguistic' processes to the strength of hemispheric lateralization during sign production remains unclear. Here we directly contrast lateralization strength of covert versus overt signing during phonological and semantic fluency tasks. To address the possibility that hearing native signers' elevated lateralization indices (LIs) were due to performing a task in their less dominant language, here we test deaf native signers, whose dominant language is British Sign Language (BSL). Signers were more strongly left lateralized for overt than covert sign generation. However, the strength of lateralization was not correlated with the amount of time producing movements of the right hand. Comparisons with previous data from hearing native English speakers suggest stronger laterality indices for sign than speech in both covert and overt tasks. This increased left lateralization may be driven by specific properties of sign production such as the increased use of self-monitoring mechanisms or the nature of phonological encoding of signs.

  2. How evolution generates complexity without design: language as an instructional metaphor.

    PubMed

    Gillings, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    One of the major stumbling blocks to understanding evolution is the difficulty in reconciling the emergence of complexity with the apparently undirected forces that drive evolutionary processes. This difficulty was originally framed as the "Watch and Watchmaker" argument and more recently revived by proponents of "intelligent design." Undergraduates in particular often attribute purpose and forethought as the driving force behind biological phenomena, and have difficulty understanding evolutionary processes. To demonstrate that complexity can arise solely through mutations that fix in populations via natural selection or drift, we can use analogies where processes can be observed across short time frames and where the key data are accessible to those without specialized biological knowledge. The evolution of language provides such an example. Processes of natural selection, mutation, genetic drift, acquisition of new functions, punctuated equilibria, and lateral gene transfer can be illustrated using examples of changing spellings, neologism, and acquisition of words from other languages. The examples presented in this article are readily accessible, and demonstrate to students that languages have dynamically increased in complexity, simply driven by the usage patterns of their speakers. © 2011 The Author. Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Next-generation DNA sequencing identifies novel gene variants and pathways involved in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowei Sylvia; Reader, Rose H.; Hoischen, Alexander; Veltman, Joris A.; Simpson, Nuala H.; Francks, Clyde; Newbury, Dianne F.; Fisher, Simon E.

    2017-01-01

    A significant proportion of children have unexplained problems acquiring proficient linguistic skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. Developmental language disorders are highly heritable with substantial societal impact. Molecular studies have begun to identify candidate loci, but much of the underlying genetic architecture remains undetermined. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 43 unrelated probands affected by severe specific language impairment, followed by independent validations with Sanger sequencing, and analyses of segregation patterns in parents and siblings, to shed new light on aetiology. By first focusing on a pre-defined set of known candidates from the literature, we identified potentially pathogenic variants in genes already implicated in diverse language-related syndromes, including ERC1, GRIN2A, and SRPX2. Complementary analyses suggested novel putative candidates carrying validated variants which were predicted to have functional effects, such as OXR1, SCN9A and KMT2D. We also searched for potential “multiple-hit” cases; one proband carried a rare AUTS2 variant in combination with a rare inherited haplotype affecting STARD9, while another carried a novel nonsynonymous variant in SEMA6D together with a rare stop-gain in SYNPR. On broadening scope to all rare and novel variants throughout the exomes, we identified biological themes that were enriched for such variants, including microtubule transport and cytoskeletal regulation. PMID:28440294

  4. Circular Fibonacci gratings.

    PubMed

    Gao, Nan; Zhang, Yuchao; Xie, Changqing

    2011-11-01

    We introduce circular Fibonacci gratings (CFGs) that combine the concept of circular gratings and Fibonacci structures. Theoretical analysis shows that the diffraction pattern of CFGs is composed of fractal distributions of impulse rings. Numerical simulations are performed with two-dimensional fast Fourier transform to reveal the fractal behavior of the diffraction rings. Experimental results are also presented and agree well with the numerical results. The fractal nature of the diffraction field should be of great theoretical interest, and shows potential to be further developed into practical applications, such as in laser measurement with wideband illumination.

  5. Intellectual function evaluation of first generation immigrant children with sickle cell disease: the role of language and sociodemographic factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease worldwide. Neurological events are among the most worrisome clinical complications of SCD and are frequently accompanied by cognitive impairment. Intellectual function in SCD may vary according to genetic and environmental factors. Immigrant children with SCD are increasing at a global level and display specific health care needs. The aim of our multicenter study was to describe the intellectual function of first generation African immigrants with SCD and the influence of sociodemographic factors on its characteristics. Methods The Wechsler Intelligence Scales were administered to evaluate broad intellectual functions in children with SCD and in age-matched healthy siblings. Patients’ clinical, socio-demographic, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Angiography (MRA) data were correlated to intellectual function scores. Results 68 children, mean age 8.95 years were evaluated. 72% spoke three languages, 21% two. FSIQ was <75 in 25% of the children. Mean VIQ was lower than PIQ in 75%. Mean verbal subtest scores were lower than performance scores. Female gender, number of languages spoken at home and mother’s employment were associated with single subtest performances (p < 0.05). MRA was abnormal in 73.4% and MRI in 35.9%. No significant correlation was established between silent lesions and intellectual function, even if patients with lesions performed worse. Fifteen siblings performed better than patients on cognitive domains, including language (p < 0.05). Conclusions Immigrant bilingual children with SCD seem to display a rate of cognitive impairment similar to their monolingual counterparts but a more pronounced and precocious onset of language difficulties. Adjunctive tests need to be considered in this group of patients to better define their specific deficits. PMID:23735165

  6. Circular tapered tape fabrication: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stockdale, D.A.

    1988-04-01

    A new approach to producing tapered tapes has been developed involving generating a tapered tape in a circular configuration on a lathe rather than a mill. This approach is more cost-effective and the redesigned slot configuration induced less stress on the tapes during installation and removal.

  7. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  8. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  9. Copyright Basics. Circular 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    This circular answers some of the questions that are frequently asked about copyright, a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship" including library, dramatic musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. The Copyright Act of 1976 (title 17 of the United States…

  10. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-03-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a bicycle wheel.

  11. Effects of Elementary School Home Language, Immigrant Generation, Language Classification, and School's English Learner Concentration on Latinos' High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Maria Estela; Pineda, Claudia G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Relying largely on high school measures of home language use, the literature examining immigrant incorporation in schools provides contradictory evidence of home language effects on educational outcomes. More recent research has demonstrated that home language use is dynamic and thus it is important to examine the implications…

  12. Zernike vs. Bessel circular functions in visual optics.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Juan P; Gómez-Correa, Jesus E; Iskander, D Robert; Chávez-Cerda, Sabino

    2013-07-01

    We propose the Bessel Circular Functions as alternatives of the Zernike Circle Polynomials to represent relevant circular ophthalmic surfaces. We assess the fitting capabilities of the orthogonal Bessel Circular Functions by comparing them to Zernike Circle Polynomials for approximating a variety of computationally generated surfaces which can represent ophthalmic surfaces. The Bessel Circular Functions showed better modelling capabilities for surfaces with abrupt variations such as the anterior eye surface at the limbus region, and influence functions. From our studies we find that the Bessel Circular Functions can be more suitable for studying particular features of post surgical corneal surfaces. We show that given their boundary conditions and free oscillating properties, the Bessel Circular Functions are an alternative for representing specific wavefronts and can be better than the Zernike Circle Polynomials for some important cases of corneal surfaces, influence functions and the complete anterior corneal surface. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  13. Circular and Elliptic Submerged Impinging Water Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudey, Eric; Benedicto, Olivier; Ravier, Emmanuel; Gutmark, Ephraim

    1999-11-01

    Experiments and CFD have been performed to study circular and elliptic jets in a submerged water jet facility. The tests included discharge coefficient measurement to evaluate pressure losses encountered in noncircular nozzles compared to circular ones. Three-dimensional pressure mappings on the impingement surface and PIV measurement of the jet mean and turbulent velocity have been performed at different compound impingement angles relative to the impingement surface and at different stand-off distances. The objective was to investigate the effect of the non-circular geometry on the flow field and on the impact region. The tests were performed in a close loop system in which the water was pumped through the nozzles into a clear Plexiglas tank. The Reynolds numbers were typically in the range of 250000. Discharge coefficients of the elliptic nozzle was somewhat lower than that of the circular jet but spreading rate and turbulence level were higher. Pressure mapping showed that the nozzle exit geometry had an effect on the pressure distribution in the impact region and that high-pressure zones were generated at specific impact points. PIV measurements showed that for a same total exit area, the elliptic jets affected a surface area that is 8the equivalent circular. The turbulence level in the elliptic jet tripled due to the nozzle design. Results of the CFD model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Salience: the key to the selection problem in natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, E.J.; McDonald, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors argue that in domains where a strong notion of salience can be defined, it can be used to provide: (1) an elegant solution to the selection problem, i.e. the problem of how to decide whether a given fact should or should not be mentioned in the text; and (2) a simple and direct control framework for the entire deep generation process, coordinating proposing, planning, and realization. (Deep generation involves reasoning about conceptual and rhetorical facts, as opposed to the narrowly linguistic reasoning that takes place during realization.) The authors report on an empirical study of salience in pictures of natural scenes, and its use in a computer program that generates descriptive paragraphs comparable to those produced by people. 13 references.

  15. Mapping Critical Language Sites in Children Performing Verb Generation: Whole-Brain Connectivity and Graph Theoretical Analysis in MEG.

    PubMed

    Youssofzadeh, Vahab; Williamson, Brady J; Kadis, Darren S

    2017-01-01

    A classic left frontal-temporal brain network is known to support language processes. However, the level of participation of constituent regions, and the contribution of extra-canonical areas, is not fully understood; this is particularly true in children, and in individuals who have experienced early neurological insult. In the present work, we propose whole-brain connectivity and graph-theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) source estimates to provide robust maps of the pediatric expressive language network. We examined neuromagnetic data from a group of typically-developing young children (n = 15, ages 4-6 years) and adolescents (n = 14, 16-18 years) completing an auditory verb generation task in MEG. All source analyses were carried out using a linearly-constrained minimum-variance (LCMV) beamformer. Conventional differential analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05, corrected) low-beta (13-23 Hz) event related desynchrony (ERD) focused in the left inferior frontal region (Broca's area) in both groups, consistent with previous studies. Connectivity analyses were carried out in broadband (3-30 Hz) on time-course estimates obtained at the voxel level. Patterns of connectivity were characterized by phase locking value (PLV), and network hubs identified through eigenvector centrality (EVC). Hub analysis revealed the importance of left perisylvian sites, i.e., Broca's and Wernicke's areas, across groups. The hemispheric distribution of frontal and temporal lobe EVC values was asymmetrical in most subjects; left dominant EVC was observed in 20% of young children, and 71% of adolescents. Interestingly, the adolescent group demonstrated increased critical sites in the right cerebellum, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left putamen. Here, we show that whole brain connectivity and network analysis can be used to map critical language sites in typical development; these methods may be useful for defining the margins of eloquent tissue in neurosurgical

  16. Mapping Critical Language Sites in Children Performing Verb Generation: Whole-Brain Connectivity and Graph Theoretical Analysis in MEG

    PubMed Central

    Youssofzadeh, Vahab; Williamson, Brady J.; Kadis, Darren S.

    2017-01-01

    A classic left frontal-temporal brain network is known to support language processes. However, the level of participation of constituent regions, and the contribution of extra-canonical areas, is not fully understood; this is particularly true in children, and in individuals who have experienced early neurological insult. In the present work, we propose whole-brain connectivity and graph-theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) source estimates to provide robust maps of the pediatric expressive language network. We examined neuromagnetic data from a group of typically-developing young children (n = 15, ages 4–6 years) and adolescents (n = 14, 16–18 years) completing an auditory verb generation task in MEG. All source analyses were carried out using a linearly-constrained minimum-variance (LCMV) beamformer. Conventional differential analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05, corrected) low-beta (13–23 Hz) event related desynchrony (ERD) focused in the left inferior frontal region (Broca’s area) in both groups, consistent with previous studies. Connectivity analyses were carried out in broadband (3–30 Hz) on time-course estimates obtained at the voxel level. Patterns of connectivity were characterized by phase locking value (PLV), and network hubs identified through eigenvector centrality (EVC). Hub analysis revealed the importance of left perisylvian sites, i.e., Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, across groups. The hemispheric distribution of frontal and temporal lobe EVC values was asymmetrical in most subjects; left dominant EVC was observed in 20% of young children, and 71% of adolescents. Interestingly, the adolescent group demonstrated increased critical sites in the right cerebellum, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left putamen. Here, we show that whole brain connectivity and network analysis can be used to map critical language sites in typical development; these methods may be useful for defining the margins of eloquent tissue in

  17. Circular Polarization of Transmitted Light by Sapphirinidae Copepods

    PubMed Central

    Baar, Yuval; Rosen, Joseph; Shashar, Nadav

    2014-01-01

    Circularly polarized light, rare in the animal kingdom, has thus far been documented in only a handful of animals. Using a rotating circular polarization (CP) analyzer we detected CP in linearly polarized light transmitted through epipelagic free living Sapphirina metallina copepods. Both left and right handedness of CP was detected, generated from specific organs of the animal's body, especially on the dorsal cephalosome and prosome. Such CP transmittance may be generated by phase retardance either in the muscle fibers or in the multilayer membrane structure found underneath the cuticle. Although the role, if any, played by circularly polarized light in Sapphirinidae has yet to be clarified, in other animals it was suggested to take part in mate choice, species recognition, and other forms of communication. Highlights Planktonic Sapphirinidae copepods were found to circularly polarize the light passing through them. Circular polarization may be created by unique, multilayered features of the membrane structure found under their cuticle or by organized muscle fibers. PMID:24465916

  18. Generation of polarized 4He ion beam by optical pumping using circularly and linearly polarized radiation tuned to D0 line (He metastables 2S1→2P0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yamauchi, Y.

    2007-06-01

    It is demonstrated that simultaneous optical pumping (OP) by circularly and linearly polarized 1083 nm radiation tuned to the D0 line (He metastables 23S1→23P0 transition) substantially improves the polarization of the He+ ion beam, compared with conventional OP by the circularly polarized D1 ( 23S1→23P1) or D2 ( 23S1→23P2) line.

  19. Training a new generation of speech-language pathologists with competences in the management of literacy disorders and learning disabilities in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Kevin C P

    2014-01-01

    One of the recent developments in the education of speech-language pathology is to include literacy disorders and learning disabilities as key training components in the training curriculum. Disorders in reading and writing are interwoven with disorders in speaking and listening, which should be managed holistically, particularly in children and adolescents. With extensive training in clinical linguistics, language disorders, and other theoretical knowledge and clinical skills, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are the best equipped and most competent professionals to screen, identify, diagnose, and manage individuals with literacy disorders. To tackle the challenges of and the huge demand for services in literacy as well as language and learning disorders, the Hong Kong Institute of Education has recently developed the Master of Science Programme in Educational Speech-Language Pathology and Learning Disabilities, which is one of the very first speech-language pathology training programmes in Asia to blend training components of learning disabilities, literacy disorders, and social-emotional-behavioural-developmental disabilities into a developmentally and medically oriented speech-language pathology training programme. This new training programme aims to prepare a new generation of SLPs to be able to offer comprehensive support to individuals with speech, language, literacy, learning, communication, and swallowing disorders of different developmental or neurogenic origins, particularly to infants and adolescents as well as to their family and educational team.

  20. Visual language and handwriting movement: functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 tesla during generation of ideographic characters.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Tanaka, S; Sugio, T; Matsuzawa, M; Inui, T; Moriya, T; Glover, G H; Nakai, T

    2001-07-01

    A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment at 3 tesla was performed to investigate the collaborative mechanism between visuospatial processing and motor execution in performing visual language generation tasks. Japanese Kanji, ideographic characters, were utilized to design tasks. The bilateral border portions between the inferior parietal lobule and the occipital lobe were involved during a Kanji puzzle task, which required subjects to combine several parts into a Kanji. The higher motor areas, such as the premotor areas and the pre-supplementary motor areas, were also activated bilaterally during the puzzle task. The parieto-occipital activation may be related to analysis of configuration or segmentation/integration of Kanji figures. Activation in the higher motor areas may be induced by cognitive components related to motor function to perform the visuospatial language task, such as intense reference for displayed characters and finding a proper character for puzzle solution. A collaborative mechanism in these areas may explain the effectiveness of tactile reading in letter recognition by patients with pure alexia or kinesthetic facilitation by Kanji users when recalling difficult Kanji.

  1. Suspended between Languages: Stories from the Biliterate Lives of Hmong Generation 1.5 University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huster, Kimberli A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. higher education institutions are enrolling increasing numbers of long-term immigrant students, who belong to Generation 1.5. Essentially beginning college while still in the process of learning English, these students often struggle in higher education, and they present new challenges to college writing instructors. This study explored the…

  2. Mapping Sensorimotor Sequences to Word Sequences: A Connectionist Model of Language Acquisition and Sentence Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takac, Martin; Benuskova, Lubica; Knott, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a neural network model of sentence generation. The network has both technical and conceptual innovations. Its main technical novelty is in its semantic representations: the messages which form the input to the network are structured as sequences, so that message elements are delivered to the network one at a time. Rather…

  3. Suspended between Languages: Stories from the Biliterate Lives of Hmong Generation 1.5 University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huster, Kimberli A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. higher education institutions are enrolling increasing numbers of long-term immigrant students, who belong to Generation 1.5. Essentially beginning college while still in the process of learning English, these students often struggle in higher education, and they present new challenges to college writing instructors. This study explored the…

  4. Educational Achievement, Language-Minority Students, and the New Second Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Carol L.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews contributing factors of uneven absorption and educational achievement in second generation immigrants, primarily from Asia and Latin America. Argues factors are external and include economic opportunities, racial and ethnic status, group reception, and intrinsic factors like human and social capital, family structure, community…

  5. Messaging, Gaming, Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Bob

    2005-01-01

    The next generation's enthusiasm for instant messaging, videogames, and peer-to-peer file swapping is likely to be dismissed by their elders as so many ways to waste time and avoid the real worlds of work or school. But these activities may not be quite as vapid as they may seem from the perspective of outsiders--or educators. Researchers point…

  6. Mapping Sensorimotor Sequences to Word Sequences: A Connectionist Model of Language Acquisition and Sentence Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takac, Martin; Benuskova, Lubica; Knott, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a neural network model of sentence generation. The network has both technical and conceptual innovations. Its main technical novelty is in its semantic representations: the messages which form the input to the network are structured as sequences, so that message elements are delivered to the network one at a time. Rather…

  7. Messaging, Gaming, Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Bob

    2005-01-01

    The next generation's enthusiasm for instant messaging, videogames, and peer-to-peer file swapping is likely to be dismissed by their elders as so many ways to waste time and avoid the real worlds of work or school. But these activities may not be quite as vapid as they may seem from the perspective of outsiders--or educators. Researchers point…

  8. Generation And Understanding Of Natural Language Using Information In A Frame Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Walton A.

    1989-03-01

    Many expert systems and relational database systems store factual information in the form of attributes values of objects. Problems arise in transforming from that attribute (frame) database representation into English surface structure and in transforming the English surface structure into a representation that references information in the frame database. In this paper we consider mainly the generation process, as it is this area in which we have made the most significant progress. In its interaction with the user, the expert system must generate questions, declarations, and uncertain declarations. Attributes such as COLOR, LENGTH, and ILLUMINATION can be referenced using the template: " of " for both questions and declarations. However, many other attributes, such as RATTLES, in "What is RATTLES of the light bulb?", and HAS_STREP_THROAT in, "HAS_STREP_THROAT of Dan is true." do not fit this template. We examined over 300 attributes from several knowledge bases and have grouped them into 16 classes. For each class there is one "question" template, one "declaration" template, and one "uncertain declaration" template for generating English surface structure. The internal databases identifiers (e.g., HAS_STREP_THROAT and DISEASE_35) must also be replaced by output synonyms. Classifying each attribute in combination with synonym translation remarkably improved the English surface structure that the system generated. In the area of understanding, synonym translation and knowledge of the attribute properties, such as legal values, has resulted in a robust database query capability.

  9. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1991-03-21

    This invention is comprised of a circular, zig-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  10. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1992-06-09

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes is disclosed. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal. 10 figs.

  11. Circular inferences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Denève, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    A considerable number of recent experimental and computational studies suggest that subtle impairments of excitatory to inhibitory balance or regulation are involved in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The current paper aims to relate, specifically and quantitatively, excitatory to inhibitory imbalance with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering that the brain constructs hierarchical causal models of the external world, we show that the failure to maintain the excitatory to inhibitory balance results in hallucinations as well as in the formation and subsequent consolidation of delusional beliefs. Indeed, the consequence of excitatory to inhibitory imbalance in a hierarchical neural network is equated to a pathological form of causal inference called 'circular belief propagation'. In circular belief propagation, bottom-up sensory information and top-down predictions are reverberated, i.e. prior beliefs are misinterpreted as sensory observations and vice versa. As a result, these predictions are counted multiple times. Circular inference explains the emergence of erroneous percepts, the patient's overconfidence when facing probabilistic choices, the learning of 'unshakable' causal relationships between unrelated events and a paradoxical immunity to perceptual illusions, which are all known to be associated with schizophrenia.

  12. Efficient circular thresholding.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Kun; Rosin, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Otsu's algorithm for thresholding images is widely used, and the computational complexity of determining the threshold from the histogram is O(N) where N is the number of histogram bins. When the algorithm is adapted to circular rather than linear histograms then two thresholds are required for binary thresholding. We show that, surprisingly, it is still possible to determine the optimal threshold in O(N) time. The efficient optimal algorithm is over 300 times faster than traditional approaches for typical histograms and is thus particularly suitable for real-time applications. We further demonstrate the usefulness of circular thresholding using the adapted Otsu criterion for various applications, including analysis of optical flow data, indoor/outdoor image classification, and non-photorealistic rendering. In particular, by combining circular Otsu feature with other colour/texture features, a 96.9% correct rate is obtained for indoor/outdoor classification on the well known IITM-SCID2 data set, outperforming the state-of-the-art result by 4.3%.

  13. A graphically oriented specification language for automatic code generation. GRASP/Ada: A Graphical Representation of Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II; Morrison, Kelly I.; May, Charles H., Jr.; Waddel, Kathryn C.

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of a three-phase effort to develop a new graphically oriented specification language which will facilitate the reverse engineering of Ada source code into graphical representations (GRs) as well as the automatic generation of Ada source code is described. A simplified view of the three phases of Graphical Representations for Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) with respect to three basic classes of GRs is presented. Phase 1 concentrated on the derivation of an algorithmic diagram, the control structure diagram (CSD) (CRO88a) from Ada source code or Ada PDL. Phase 2 includes the generation of architectural and system level diagrams such as structure charts and data flow diagrams and should result in a requirements specification for a graphically oriented language able to support automatic code generation. Phase 3 will concentrate on the development of a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of this new specification language.

  14. Generating executable knowledge for evidence-based medicine using natural language and semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Borlawsky, Tara; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A

    2006-01-01

    With an increase in the prevalence of patients having multiple medical conditions, along with the increasing number of medical information sources, an intelligent approach is required to integrate the answers to physicians' patient-related questions into clinical practice in the shortest, most specific way possible. Cochrane Scientific Reviews are currently considered to be the "gold standard" for evidence-based medicine (EBM), because of their well-defined systematic approach to assessing the available medical information. In order to develop semantic approaches for enabling the reuse of these Reviews, a system for producing executable knowledge was designed using a natural language processing (NLP) system we developed (BioMedLEE), and semantic processing techniques. Though BioMedLEE was not designed for or trained over the Cochrane Reviews, this study shows that disease, therapy and drug concepts can be extracted and correlated with an overall recall of 80.3%, coding precision of 94.1%, and concept-concept relationship precision of 87.3%.

  15. Learning for Semantic Parsing and Natural Language Generation Using Statistical Machine Translation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    well (Lapata and Brew , 1999). In this case, the fact that a chair is a physical GOAL makes it more likely that tied means “to physically attach”. These...Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel. Katrin Erk (2005). Frame assignment as word sense disambiguation. In Proceed- ings of the Sixth...Generation (INLG-2002), pp. 17–24. Harriman, NY. Maria Lapata and Chris Brew (1999). Using subcategorization to resolve verb class ambiguity. In

  16. Mapping sensorimotor sequences to word sequences: a connectionist model of language acquisition and sentence generation.

    PubMed

    Takac, Martin; Benuskova, Lubica; Knott, Alistair

    2012-11-01

    In this article we present a neural network model of sentence generation. The network has both technical and conceptual innovations. Its main technical novelty is in its semantic representations: the messages which form the input to the network are structured as sequences, so that message elements are delivered to the network one at a time. Rather than learning to linearise a static semantic representation as a sequence of words, our network rehearses a sequence of semantic signals, and learns to generate words from selected signals. Conceptually, the network's use of rehearsed sequences of semantic signals is motivated by work in embodied cognition, which posits that the structure of semantic representations has its origin in the serial structure of sensorimotor processing. The rich sequential structure of the network's semantic inputs also allows it to incorporate certain Chomskyan ideas about innate syntactic knowledge and parameter-setting, as well as a more empiricist account of the acquisition of idiomatic syntactic constructions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bibles and Other Sacred Writings in Special Media. Reference Circular.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, Ruth, Comp.; O'Connor, Catherine, Comp.; Herndon, James, Comp.; Emanuel, Shirley, Comp.

    This reference circular lists Bibles and sacred texts of many world religions, in a variety of languages, translations, and versions, that are available in special media. Commentaries, concordances, liturgies, prayer books, hymnals, and magazines are also listed. Priority was given to citing complete works; portions of works are listed if they are…

  18. Informatics in radiology: RADTF: a semantic search-enabled, natural language processor-generated radiology teaching file.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew; Biswal, Sandip; Kamaya, Aya; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-11-01

    Storing and retrieving radiology cases is an important activity for education and clinical research, but this process can be time-consuming. In the process of structuring reports and images into organized teaching files, incidental pathologic conditions not pertinent to the primary teaching point can be omitted, as when a user saves images of an aortic dissection case but disregards the incidental osteoid osteoma. An alternate strategy for identifying teaching cases is text search of reports in radiology information systems (RIS), but retrieved reports are unstructured, teaching-related content is not highlighted, and patient identifying information is not removed. Furthermore, searching unstructured reports requires sophisticated retrieval methods to achieve useful results. An open-source, RadLex(®)-compatible teaching file solution called RADTF, which uses natural language processing (NLP) methods to process radiology reports, was developed to create a searchable teaching resource from the RIS and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The NLP system extracts and de-identifies teaching-relevant statements from full reports to generate a stand-alone database, thus converting existing RIS archives into an on-demand source of teaching material. Using RADTF, the authors generated a semantic search-enabled, Web-based radiology archive containing over 700,000 cases with millions of images. RADTF combines a compact representation of the teaching-relevant content in radiology reports and a versatile search engine with the scale of the entire RIS-PACS collection of case material. ©RSNA, 2010

  19. Second and Third Generation Heritage Language Speakers: HL Scholarship's Relevance to the Research Needs and Future Directions of TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Debra

    2007-01-01

    A growing population of English Language Learners (ELLs) is U.S.-born, a phenomenon that raises new questions for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). This paper proposes the need for an improved understanding of how the research literature on heritage language speakers can inform ESL education. (Contains 1 figure and 5 notes.)

  20. A Vibrant & Vital Language Is Passed Down to a New Generation: The Punana Leo Immersion Schools in Hawai'i.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Punana Leo Immersion Schools in Hawai'i, founded in 1983 by a group of Hawai'ian-language educators concerned about the impending extinction of their language. A second part describes two of the teachers and their philosophy about imparting language skill through spirit and culture. Sidebar describes the Advocates for Indigenous…

  1. A Survey on Language Use, Attitudes, and Identity in Relation to Philippine English among Young Generation Filipinos: An Initial Sample from a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borlongan, Ariane Macalinga

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at the language use, attitudes, and identity in relation to Philippine English among young generation Filipinos through a questionnaire survey of a selected group of students from a Philippine private university. The survey findings would reveal that most domains of use and verbal activities are dominated by English as the…

  2. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  3. Toward a Better Understanding of First Language Vocabulary Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the first language (L1) vocabulary knowledge in a large-scale sample (n = 70) of second-generation Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel. The interest in this research population follows from the unique demographic, sociocultural, linguistic, and psychological distinctiveness of RJ immigration in Israel.…

  4. Toward a Better Understanding of First Language Vocabulary Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the first language (L1) vocabulary knowledge in a large-scale sample (n = 70) of second-generation Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel. The interest in this research population follows from the unique demographic, sociocultural, linguistic, and psychological distinctiveness of RJ immigration in Israel.…

  5. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  6. Next-Generation Summative English Language Proficiency Assessments for English Learners: Priorities for Policy and Research. Research Report. ETS RR-16-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Hauck, Maurice Cogan

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series concerning English language proficiency (ELP) assessments for K-12 English learners (ELs). The series, produced from Educational Testing Service (ETS), is intended to provide theory- and evidence-based principles and recommendations for improving next-generation ELP assessment systems, policies, and practices…

  7. Partially coherent sources with circular coherence: comment.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Milo W; Bose-Pillai, Santasri R

    2017-08-15

    In [Opt. Lett.42, 1512 (2017)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.42.001512], the authors present a new class of non-uniformly correlated sources with circular coherence. They also describe a basic experimental setup for synthesizing this class of sources, which uses the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem. Here, we present an alternative way to analyze these sources and a different way to generate them.

  8. Speaking the same language: Cross-sectional assessment of perceived contributors to professionalism across generations.

    PubMed

    Strowd, Roy E; Saylor, Deanna; Salas, Rachel Marie E; Thorpe, Roland; Cruz, Tiana E; Gamaldo, Charlene E

    2016-06-01

    Professionalism is integral to medical training and practice. Recent studies suggest generational differences in perceptions of professionalism, which have not been adequately explored in academic neurology. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe perceptions of professionalism among representative physicians across the academic training spectrum of neurology. A self-report questionnaire adapted from a published instrument was distributed to students, residents, fellows, and faculty in neurology at a single institution. Responders rated 4 domains of professionalism: Personal Characteristics, Interactions with Patients, Social Responsibility, and Interactions with the Health Care Team (5-point Likert scale, not at all important to very important), and selected the "top 2" characteristics critical to professional behavior in each domain. A total of 296 of 312 (95%) responded, including 228 students, 24 residents, 19 fellows, and 25 faculty. Respondents ranked the following components to be important/very important contributors to the expression of professional behavior: Personal Characteristics (98%, mean rating 4.6 ± 0.3), Interactions with Patients (97%, 4.6 ± 0.4), and Interactions with the Health Care Team (96%, 4.6 ± 0.5). Although mean ratings were high for Social Responsibility (4.3 ± 0.6), only 82% indicated that this was important/very important in the expression of professionalism, with a gradual decline from students (4.4 ± 0.6) to residents (3.99 ± 0.8, p = 0.02). The "top 2" contributors to each domain were similar across responders. Professionalism was perceived as critically important across the academic training spectrum in neurology, and the view regarding the top contributors to the expression of professionalism remained consistent among the respondents.

  9. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  10. EXPHER (EXperimental PHysics ERror analysis): a Declaration Language and a Program Generator for the Treatment of Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Philippe; Taupin, Daniel

    1995-05-01

    EXPHER refers to both a package — program generating compiler and library — which facilitates the treatment of a set of experimental data associated to a physical model, and a specification language describing the behaviour of the experimental devices, EXPHER yields a compilable program whose execution determines the most likely values of the parameters involved in the physical model, but also their error bars and their comprehensive error matrix. EXPHER est à la fois un logiciel — compilateur et générateur de programme, avec une bibliothèque associée — facilitant le traitement d'une série de données expérimentales associée à un modèle de physique et un langage de spécification du comportement de l'appareillage expérimental. À partir de cette description de l'appareillage, EXPHER produit un programme compilable dont l'exécution détermine les valeurs les plus probables de paramètres du modèle physique, leur barre d'erreur et la matrice d'erreurs finale.

  11. Supermarkets and unhealthy food marketing: An international comparison of the content of supermarket catalogues/circulars.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Emma L; Kähkönen, Laila A; Sacks, Gary; Cameron, Adrian J

    2015-12-01

    Supermarket marketing activities have a major influence on consumer food purchases. This study aimed to assess and compare the contents of supermarket marketing circulars from a range of countries worldwide from an obesity prevention perspective. The contents of supermarket circulars from major supermarket chains in 12 non-random countries were collected and analysed over an eight week period from July to September 2014 (n=89 circulars with 12,563 food products). Circulars were largely English language and from countries representing most continents. Food products in 25 sub-categories were categorised as discretionary or non-discretionary (core) food or drinks based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The total number of products in each subcategory in the whole circular, and on front covers only, was calculated. Circulars from most countries advertised a high proportion of discretionary foods. The only exceptions were circulars from the Philippines (no discretionary foods) and India (11% discretionary food). Circulars from six countries advertised more discretionary foods than core foods. Front covers tended to include a much greater proportion of healthy products than the circulars overall. Supermarket circulars in most of the countries examined include a high percentage of discretionary foods, and therefore promote unhealthy eating behaviours that contribute to the global obesity epidemic. A clear opportunity exists for supermarket circulars to promote rather than undermine healthy eating behaviours of populations. Governments need to ensure that supermarket marketing is included as part of broader efforts to restrict unhealthy food marketing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Circular dichroism beamline B23 at the Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well established technique in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline, dedicated to circular dichroism, at Diamond Light Source Ltd, a third-generation synchrotron facility in south Oxfordshire, UK, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein the main characteristics of the B23 SRCD beamline, the ancillary facilities available for users, and some of the recent advances achieved are summarized.

  13. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  14. Circular chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-03-13

    A circular chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of electrodes is fabricated on an electrically insulating substrate. The pattern of electrodes is arranged in a circle-filling geometry, such as a concentric, dual-track spiral design, or a circular interdigitated design. A drop of a chemically sensitive polymer (i.e., chemiresistive ink) is deposited on the insulating substrate on the electrodes, which spreads out into a thin, circular disk contacting the pair of electrodes. This circularly-shaped electrode geometry maximizes the contact area between the pair of electrodes and the polymer deposit, which provides a lower and more stable baseline resistance than with linear-trace designs. The circularly-shaped electrode pattern also serves to minimize batch-to-batch variations in the baseline resistance due to non-uniform distributions of conductive particles in the chemiresistive polymer film.

  15. Are Emojis Creating a New or Old Visual Language for New Generations? A Socio-Semiotic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshenqeeti, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of emojis, digital images that can represent a word or feeling in a text or email, and the fact that they can be strung together to create a sentence with real and full meaning raises the question of whether they are creating a new language amongst technologically savvy youth, or devaluing existing language. There is however a…

  16. Natural Language Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    W. Germany, visited the project. Dr. Erich Steiner , Mr. Joerg Schiitz, and Ms. Elke Teich are members of Eurotra-D, the German team of the European...Chrysanne DiMarco, Uni Toronto 36 - July 10: Dr. David Farwell, CRL at NMSU, Las Cruces - August 9: Prof. Erich Neuhold, IPSI of GMD, Darmstadt - Sepember 6...Colorado at Boulder 8 Selected Publications Funded by this Work References [Bateman et al. 89a] Bateman, J.A., Kasper, R.T., Schlitz, J. and Steiner

  17. Natural Language Generation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    modified with adverbs or adjectives, or elaborated by subordinated clauses. The natural recourse in this situation is to use a phrasal lexicon. This notion...Representation of Grammatical Relations, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1984. 171 G. Brown, Some Problems in German to English Machine Translation, MIT LCS TR 142

  18. Emerging Functions of Circular RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-López, Mariela; Miura, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Many thousands of Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have recently been identified in metazoan genomes by transcriptome-wide sequencing. Most circRNAs are generated by back-splicing events from exons of protein-coding genes. A great deal of progress has recently been made in understanding the genome-wide expression patterns, biogenesis, and regulation of circRNAs. To date, however, few functions of circRNAs have been identified. CircRNAs are preferentially expressed in neural tissues and some are found at synapses, suggesting possible functions in the nervous system. Several circRNAs have been shown to function as microRNA “sponges” to counteract microRNA mediated repression of mRNA. New functions for circRNAs are arising, including protein sequestration, transcriptional regulation, and potential functions in cancer. Here, we highlight the recent progress made in understanding the biogenesis and regulation of circRNAs, discuss newly uncovered circRNA functions, and explain the methodological approaches that could reveal more exciting and unexpected roles for these RNAs. PMID:28018143

  19. Terahertz circular Airy vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changming; Liu, Jinsong; Niu, Liting; Wei, Xuli; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang

    2017-06-20

    Vortex beams have received considerable research interests both in optical and millimeter-wave domain since its potential to be utilized in the wireless communications and novel imaging systems. Many well-known optical beams have been demonstrated to carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), such as Laguerre-Gaussian beams and high-order Bessel beams. Recently, the radially symmetric Airy beams that exhibit an abruptly autofocusing feature are also demonstrated to be capable of carrying OAM in the optical domain. However, due to the lack of efficient devices to manipulate terahertz (THz) beams, it could be a challenge to demonstrate the radially symmetric Airy beams in the THz domain. Here we demonstrate the THz circular Airy vortex beams (CAVBs) with a 0.3-THz continuous wave through 3D printing technology. Assisted by the rapidly 3D-printed phase plates, individual OAM states with topological charge l ranging from l = 0 to l = 3 and a multiplexed OAM state are successfully imposed into the radially symmetric Airy beams. We both numerically and experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of the generated THz CAVBs, and the simulations agree well with the observations.

  20. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  1. Circular Scan Streak Tube Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1980-01-01

    A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

  2. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  3. Towards future circular colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) presently provides proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics program will extend through the second half of the 2030's. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ˜100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCCee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3 S n superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly-efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. Following the FCC concept, the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing has initiated a parallel design study for an e + e - Higgs factory in China (CEPC), which is to be succeeded by a high-energy hadron collider (SPPC). At present a tunnel circumference of 54 km and a hadron collider c.m. energy of about 70 TeV are being considered. After a brief look at the LHC, this article reports the motivation and the present status of the FCC study, some of the primary design challenges and R&D subjects, as well as the emerging global collaboration.

  4. Beam Rounders for Circular Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    A. Burov; S. Nagaitsev; Ya. Derbenev

    2001-07-01

    By means of linear optics, an arbitrary uncoupled beam can be locally transformed into a round (rotation-invariant) state and then back. This provides an efficient way to round beams in the interaction region of circular colliders.

  5. Beam rounders for circular colliders

    SciTech Connect

    A. Burov and S. Nagaitsev

    2002-12-10

    By means of linear optics, an arbitrary uncoupled beam can be locally transformed into a round (rotation-invariant) state and then back. This provides an efficient way to round beams in the interaction region of circular colliders.

  6. Fixed field circular accelerator designs

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C.; Wan, W.; Garren, A.

    2000-01-06

    The rapid rate and cycle time required to efficiently accelerate muons precludes conventional circular accelerators. Recirculating linacs provide one option, but the separate return arcs per acceleration pass may prove costly. Recent work on muon acceleration schemes has concentrated on designing fixed-field circular accelerators whose strong superconducting fields can sustain a factor of 4 increase in energy from injection to extraction. A 4 to 16 GeV fixed-field circular accelerator has been designed which allows large orbit excursions and the tune to vary as a function of momentum. Acceleration is .6 GeV per turn so the entire cycle consists of only 20 turns. In addition, a 16 to 64 GeV fixed-field circular accelerator has been designed which is more in keeping with the traditional Fixed Field Alternating Gradient machines. In this work the two machine designs are described.

  7. Propulsion by Helical Strips in Circular Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilyurt, Serhat; Demir, Ebru

    2016-11-01

    Progress in manufacturing techniques avails the production of artificial micro swimmers (AMS) in various shapes and sizes. There are numerous studies on the generation of efficient locomotion by means of helical tails with circular cross-sections. This work focuses on locomotion with helical strips in circular channels. A CFD model is used to analyze the effects of geometric parameters and the radius of the channel on swimming velocity of infinite helical-strips in circular channels. Results show that there is an optimum wavelength that depends on thickness to channel radius ratio, suggesting that these parameters need to be optimized simultaneously. With constant torque, thinner strips swim faster, whereas under constant angular velocity application, thicker strips (in radial direction) prevail. As width approaches the wavelength, velocity decreases under both conditions, unless a magnetically coated tail is simulated, for which width has an optimum value. Increasing channel radius to helix amplitude ratio increases the velocity up to a maximum and after a slight drop, saturation occurs as bulk swimming conditions are approached.

  8. Beach vortices near circular topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinds, A. K.; Johnson, E. R.; McDonald, N. R.

    2016-10-01

    Finite-area monopolar vortices which propagate around topography without change in shape are computed for circular seamounts and wells including the limiting cases of each: islands and infinitely deep wells. The time-dependent behaviour of vortex pairs propagating toward circular topography is also examined. Trajectories of point-vortex pairs exterior to the topography are found and compared to trajectories of vortex patches computed using contour dynamics.

  9. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J; Besteiro, Lucas V; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O; Valentine, Jason

    2015-09-22

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform.

  10. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O.; Valentine, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform. PMID:26391292

  11. Chiral surface waves for enhanced circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Giovanni; Finazzi, Marco; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    We present a novel chiral sensing platform that combines a one-dimensional photonic crystal design with a birefringent surface defect. The platform sustains simultaneous transverse electric and transverse magnetic surface modes, which are exploited to generate chiral surface waves. The present design provides homogeneous and superchiral fields of both handednesses over arbitrarily large areas in a wide spectral range, resulting in the enhancement of the circular dichroism signal by more than two orders of magnitude, thus paving the road toward the successful combination of surface-enhanced spectroscopies and electromagnetic superchirality.

  12. 78 FR 14620 - Joint Development: Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Federal Transit Administration Joint Development: Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration... the form of a circular, on joint development. This circular provides guidance to recipients of Federal... joint development. This circular: (1) Defines the term ``joint development''; ] (2) explains how to...

  13. Circular dichroism techniques: biomolecular and nanostructural analyses- a review.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Bijan; Gill, Pooria

    2009-08-01

    This paper reviews the best known techniques using circular dichroism spectroscopy such as conventional circular dichroism (i.e. electronic circular dichroism), magnetic circular dichroisms (magnetic vibrational circular dichroism, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism), fluorescence detected circular dichroism, near-infrared circular dichroism, vibrational circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared circular dichroism, high pressure liquid chromatography circular dichroism, stopped-flow circular dichroism, and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Also, we have described here the most important applications of circular dichroism spectroscopy in structural biochemistry and nanoscience.

  14. Circular RNAs in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Yvan; Creemers, Esther E; Boon, Reinier A; Werfel, Stanislas; Thum, Thomas; Engelhardt, Stefan; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Squire, Iain

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease, and particularly heart failure, is still a serious health care issue for which novel treatments and biomarkers are needed. The RNA family comprises different subgroups, among which the small-sized microRNAs and the larger long non-coding RNAs have shown some potential to aid in moving personalized health care of heart failure patients a step forward. Here, members of the Cardiolinc network review the recent findings suggesting that the less well-known circular RNAs may constitute a novel reservoir of therapeutic targets and biomarkers of heart failure. The knowledge of the mode of biogenesis of circular RNAs will first be reported, followed by a description of different features that make these RNA molecules of interest for the heart failure community. The functions of circular RNAs in the heart will be described, with some emphasis given to their regulation in the failing heart. Circulating in the bloodstream, circular RNAs have appeared as potential biomarkers and recent findings associated with the use of circular RNAs as heart failure biomarkers will be discussed. Finally, some directions for future research will be provided. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  15. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 C3 maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes.

  16. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C.; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400–800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72–24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally. PMID:25568813

  17. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-12-02

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400-800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72-24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally.

  18. The Predicament of Generation 1.5 English Language Learners: Three Disjunctures and a Possible Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecter, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports key findings from a project that focused on the academic literacy development of children who are born and/or begin their formal schooling in Canada but are raised in homes where the societally dominant language is not the primary idiom. Analyses involved characterizing students' home ecological environments; assessing the…

  19. Generation Y, Learner Autonomy and the Potential of Web 2.0 Tools for Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the development of learner autonomy and the application of Web 2.0 tools in the language classroom. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken is that of qualitative action research within an explicit theoretical framework and the data were collected via surveys and…

  20. Revenue-Generating Language Programs at Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: Emerging Themes from a Documentation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim

    2008-01-01

    This presentation identifies emerging themes in a study combining documentation analysis (Atkinson & Coffey, 2004) and interviews that examine policy statements, promotional materials and various institutional documents from selected English as a Second Language (ESL) programs at one Canadian University. It looks at how and why ESL programs…

  1. Building a Framework for a Next-Generation English Language Proficiency Assessment System. Research Report. ETS RR-14-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Everson, Phil; Lopez, Alexis; Hauck, Maurice; Pooler, Emilie; Wang, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Currently, states are moving forward with developing or adopting new English language proficiency (ELP) assessments aligned with the new academic standards in order to meet accountability requirements. In this transition, it is essential to identify areas of improvement for current ELP assessment practices and discuss ways to implement effective…

  2. Generation Y, Learner Autonomy and the Potential of Web 2.0 Tools for Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the development of learner autonomy and the application of Web 2.0 tools in the language classroom. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken is that of qualitative action research within an explicit theoretical framework and the data were collected via surveys and…

  3. Investing in Our Next Generation: A Funder's Guide to Addressing the Educational Opportunities and Challenges Facing English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    More than one in ten preK-12 students in the U.S. are English Language Learners (ELLs), yet a sizable achievement gap exists between these more than 5.3 million ELL students and their English-proficient peers. In June 2010, Grantmakers for Education (GFE) convened funders, researchers, policymakers and practitioners to examine the role of…

  4. Biliterate Voices of Hmong Generation 1.5 College Women: Suspended between Languages in the US Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huster, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This narrative research study involving 13 Hmong college women reveals some of the challenges that multilingual students may face in the American educational system. Using stories told by the participants about their language- and literacy-development experiences, the author identifies commonalities in those experiences. The similarities in their…

  5. Photoelectron circular dichroism of isopropanolamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catone, D.; Turchini, S.; Contini, G.; Prosperi, T.; Stener, M.; Decleva, P.; Zema, N.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopies based on circular polarized light are sensitive to the electronic and structural properties of chiral molecules. Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) is a powerful technique that combines the chiral sensitivity of the circular polarized light and the electronic information obtained by photoelectron spectroscopy. An experimental and theoretical PECD study of the outer valence and C 1s core states of 1-amino-2-propanol in the gas phase is presented. The experimental dichroic dispersions in the photoelectron kinetic energy are compared with theoretical calculations employing a multicentric basis set of B-spline functions and a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. In order to understand analogies and differences in the dichroism of structural isomers bearing the same functional groups, a comparison with previous PECD study of valence band of 2-amino-1-propanol is carried out.

  6. Circular piezoelectric bender laser tuners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. H.; Thompson, P. E.; Walker, H. E.; Johnson, E. H.; Radecki, D. J.; Reynolds, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The circular piezoelectric bender laser tuner to replace conventional laser tuners when mirror diameters up to 0.50 inch are sufficient is described. The circular piezoelectric bender laser tuner offers much higher displacements per applied volt and permits laser control circuits to be fabricated using standard operational amplifiers, rather than the expensive high-voltage amplifiers required by conventional tuners. The cost of the device is more than one order of magnitude lower than conventional tuners and the device is very rugged with all mechanical resonances easily designed to be greater than 3kHz. In addition to its use as a laser frequency tuner, the circular bender tuner should find many applications in interferometers and similar devices.

  7. Cognitive Language and Content Standards: Language Inventory of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Kathleen M.; Mi Choi, Kyong; Hand, Brian

    2016-01-01

    STEM education is a current focus of many educators and policymakers and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) with the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM) are foundational documents driving curricular and instructional decision making for teachers and students in K-8 classrooms across the United States. Thus, practitioners…

  8. Circular Dichroism Studies on Plasmonic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Tang, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, optical chirality of plasmonic nanostructures has aroused great interest because of innovative fundamental understanding as well as promising potential applications in optics, catalysis and sensing. Herein, state-of-the-art studies on circular dichroism (CD) characteristics of plasmonic nanostructures are summarized. The hybrid of achiral plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) and chiral molecules is explored to generate a new CD response at the plasmon resonance as well as the enhanced CD intensity of chiral molecules in the UV region, owing to the Coulomb static and dynamic dipole interactions between plasmonic NPs and chiral molecules. As for chiral assembly of plasmonic NPs, plasmon-plasmon interactions between the building blocks are found to induce generation of intense CD response at the plasmon resonance. Three-dimensional periodical arrangement of plasmonic NPs into macroscale chiral metamaterials is further introduced from the perspective of negative refraction and photonic bandgap. A strong CD signal is also discerned in achiral planar plasmonic nanostructures under illumination of circular polarized plane wave at oblique incidence or input vortex beam at normal incidence. Finally perspectives, especially on future investigation of time-resolved CD responses, are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Paired circularly polarized heterodyne ellipsometer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.-J.; Lin, C.-E.; Yu, L.-P.; Chou, C

    2009-02-01

    We develop a paired circularly polarized heterodyne ellipsometer (PCPHE), in which a heterodyne interferometer based on a two-frequency circularly polarized laser beam is set up. It belongs to an amplitude-sensitive ellipsometer that is able to provide not only a wider dynamic range of polarization modulation frequency but also a higher detection sensitivity than that of a conventional photometric ellipsometer. A real-time and precise measurement of ellipsometric parameters, which demonstrated an accuracy of less than 1 nm on thickness measurement of SiO2 thin film deposited on silicon substrate, can be applied with the PCPHE.

  10. Logistic regression for circular data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Daffaie, Kadhem; Khan, Shahjahan

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers the relationship between a binary response and a circular predictor. It develops the logistic regression model by employing the linear-circular regression approach. The maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters. The Newton-Raphson numerical method is used to find the estimated values of the parameters. A data set from weather records of Toowoomba city is analysed by the proposed methods. Moreover, a simulation study is considered. The R software is used for all computations and simulations.

  11. The Private Language Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

  12. Maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J; Pellegrini, Marco; Pirillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-21

    We determine here the number and the list of maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. We prove that there is no maximal dinucleotide circular code having strictly less than 6 elements (maximum size of dinucleotide circular codes). On the other hand, a computer calculus shows that there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with less than 20 elements (maximum size of trinucleotide circular codes). More precisely, there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 elements and no maximal trinucleotide circular code having less than 14 elements. We give the same information for the maximal self-complementary dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. The amino acid distribution of maximal trinucleotide circular codes is also determined.

  13. Identification of a novel circular DNA virus in pig feces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Metagenomic analysis of fecal samples collected from a swine with diarrhea detected sequences encoding a replicase (Rep) protein typically found in small circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses. The complete 3,062 nucleotide genome was generated and found to encode two bi-directionally trans...

  14. Researches Regarding The Circular Interpolation Algorithms At CNC Laser Cutting Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tîrnovean, Mircea Sorin

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an integrated simulation approach for studying the circular interpolation regime of CNC laser cutting machines. The circular interpolation algorithm is studied, taking into consideration the numerical character of the system. A simulation diagram, which is able to generate the kinematic inputs for the feed drives of the CNC laser cutting machine is also presented.

  15. Class IIc or Circular Bacteriocins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Visscher, Leah A.; van Belkum, Marco J.; Vederas, John C.

    The circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria represent a diverse class of antimicrobial peptides. These bacteriocins display enhanced stability compared to linear bacteriocins, which arises from their characteristic circular backbone. Currently, eight unique circular bacteriocins have been identified, and analysis of their gene clusters indicates that they likely utilize complex mechanisms for maturation and secretion, as well as for immunity. These bacteriocins target the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells, leading to pore formation that results in loss of ions, dissipation of membrane potential, and ultimately, cell death. Structural studies suggest that despite variation in their sequences, most of these bacteriocins likely adopt a common three-dimensional architecture, consisting of four or five tightly packed helices encompassing a hydrophobic core. There are many mysteries surrounding the biosynthesis of these peptides, particularly in regard to the mechanism by which they are cyclized. Elucidation of such a mechanism may provide exciting new approaches to the bioengineering of new, stable, and antimicrobially active circular peptides.

  16. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-12-14

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  17. A Circular Education Organizational Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The circular nonhierarchical organization of the Hishkoonikun local education authority in Kashechewan, Ontario (Canada), makes students the central focus of educational decision making, provides equality and improves accountability and responsibility among various educational stakeholders, and reflects Native cultural values and traditions. (SV)

  18. Stress Analysis of Circular Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahlbusch, H; Wegner, W

    1941-01-01

    The stresses in circular frames of constant bending stiffnesses, as encountered in thin-wall shells, are investigated from the point of view of finite depth of sectional area of frame. The solution is carried out for four fundamental load conditions. The method is illustrated on a worked out example.

  19. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-11-10

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  20. MATURE: A Model Driven bAsed Tool to Automatically Generate a langUage That suppoRts CMMI Process Areas spEcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musat, David; Castaño, Víctor; Calvo-Manzano, Jose A.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Many companies have achieved a higher quality in their processes by using CMMI. Process definition may be efficiently supported by software tools. A higher automation level will make process improvement and assessment activities easier to be adapted to customer needs. At present, automation of CMMI is based on tools that support practice definition in a textual way. These tools are often enhanced spreadsheets. In this paper, following the Model Driven Development paradigm (MDD), a tool that supports automatic generation of a language that can be used to specify process areas practices is presented. The generation is performed from a metamodel that represents CMMI. This tool, differently from others available, can be customized according to user needs. Guidelines to specify the CMMI metamodel are also provided. The paper also shows how this approach can support other assessment methods.

  1. Negative circular polarization as a universal property of quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Matthew W.; Spencer, Peter; Murray, Ray

    2015-03-23

    This paper shows that negative circular polarization, a spin flip of polarized carriers resulting in emission of opposite helicity, can be observed in undoped, n-doped, and p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots. These results contradict the usual interpretation of the effect. We show using power dependent and time resolved spectroscopy that the generation of negative circular polarization correlates with excited state emission. Furthermore, a longer spin lifetime of negatively polarized excitons is observed where emission is largely ground state in character.

  2. Shuttle on-orbit rendezvous targeting: Circular orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The strategy and logic used in a space shuttle on-orbit rendezvous targeting program are described. The program generates ascent targeting conditions for boost to insertion into an intermediate parking orbit, and generates on-orbit targeting and timeline bases for each maneuver to effect rendezvous with a space station. Time of launch is determined so as to eliminate any plane change, and all work was performed for a near-circular space station orbit.

  3. 21 CFR 606.122 - Instruction circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... instruction circular shall contain: (1) Instructions to administer a suitable plasma volume expander if Red... circular shall contain: (1) The approximate volume of plasma from which a sample unit of Platelets is... entering the container. (m) For Plasma, the instruction circular shall contain: (1) A warning against...

  4. A novel replicating circular DNAzyme

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Ruijian; Li, Zhe; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Yanhong; Hao, Dongyun; Zhang, Jin

    2004-01-01

    10–23 DNAzyme has the potential to suppress gene expressions through sequence-specific mRNA cleavage. However, the dependence on exogenous delivery limits its applications. The objective of this work is to establish a replicating DNAzyme in bacteria using a single-stranded DNA vector. By cloning the 10–23 DNAzyme into the M13mp18 vector, we constructed two circular DNAzymes, C-Dz7 and C-Dz482, targeting the β-lactamase mRNA. These circular DNAzymes showed in vitro catalytic efficiencies (kcat/KM) of 7.82 × 106 and 1.36 × 107 M–1·min–1, respectively. Their dependence on divalent metal ions is similar to that found with linear 10–23 DNAzyme. Importantly, the circular DNAzymes were not only capable of replicating in bacteria but also exhibited high activities in inhibiting β-lactamase and bacterial growth. This study thus provides a novel strategy to produce replicating DNAzymes which may find widespread applications. PMID:15115797

  5. Circular on planned parenthood, 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    In 1987 fourteen units of the Government of Henan issued a Circular stating that: "Planned parenthood must be publicized deep into the grass roots and among the people, and importance must be attached to results." The Circular stresses: "In the propaganda drive, it is necessary to successfully grasp three key links: 1. It is necessary to disseminate intensively the important directive on population problems that is contained in the report of the 13th CPC National Congress and the seriousness of the population situation of our country and province so that the cadres and the masses can understand the relationship between population control and the achievement of the strategic target of the three big steps, understand the reason for carrying out planned parenthood, understand that the one-child policy is still advocated, and conscientiously carry out planned parenthood. 2. It is essential to succeed in propagating knowledge of contraception, sterilization, childbirth, and child care and in conducting ideological education for those who undergo operations and for their family members. 3. It is imperative to visit those who have undergone operations and to help them solve practically their difficulties in making a living." The Circular concludes by demanding that under the unified leadership of party committees and governments at all levels, the propaganda drive be carried out by relying on the efforts of all of society. In conjunction with their own work, departments, including the propaganda, education, public health, and cultural departments, must carry out propaganda and education for planned parenthood.

  6. Propagation of light in a circular array of elliptical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Milione, G.; Pogrebnaya, A. O.; Yavorsky, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    We have studied transformation of discrete light beams in circular arrays of elliptical fibres, in which the orientation of ellipses' axes linearly depends on the angular position of the fibre in the array and makes an half-integer number p of full rotations while tracing along its contour. We have derived analytical expressions for the spectra and supermodes that allow for evanescent coupling between the fibres in the next-neighbour approximation. We have studied the transformative properties of such an array and shown that it can generate cylindrical vector beams (CVBs) of TE and TM types. We have shown that the type of generated beam depends on the orientation of linear polarization of the incident beam. In this way, the circular array of strongly elliptical fibres enables polarization control over the type of the generated CVB. We have also shown that such arrays can change the topological charge of an incoming discrete optical vortex by the doubled array's index p.

  7. Fano-Induced Circular Dichroism in Three-Dimensional Plasmonic Chiral Metamolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Khai Q.

    2017-10-01

    This paper introduces a three-dimensional (3-D) artificial chiral nanostructure, which has variant total optical loss spectroscopies under left- and right-handed circularly polarized (LCP and RCP) incident light. The resulting circular dichroism is induced by Fano resonance generated by the engineered chiral metamolecule, which consists of asymmetrically arranged gold (Au) nanoparticles in three dimensions. The Fano resonance generation is a consequence of modal interference between bright and dark plasmonic modes of asymmetric constituent dimers of the metamolecule.

  8. Immigrant Stories: Generation 1.5 Mexican American Students and English Language Learning in an Illinois Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    The number of recent immigrants to the United States has increased dramatically in the last few years, and more of these immigrants are members of a group often designated as "Generation 1.5" students. These immigrant students were born in another country, came to the United States at the age of 13 or older, and graduated from high school in this…

  9. Immigrant Stories: Generation 1.5 Mexican American Students and English Language Learning in an Illinois Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    The number of recent immigrants to the United States has increased dramatically in the last few years, and more of these immigrants are members of a group often designated as "Generation 1.5" students. These immigrant students were born in another country, came to the United States at the age of 13 or older, and graduated from high school in this…

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among First-Generation Latino Youths in an English as a Second Language School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archuleta, Adrian J.; Lakhwani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    First-generation Latino youths and their families may encounter significant challenges as they experience changes in their culture after migrating to a new country. Some Latino youths enter the United States having experienced trauma through premigration, migration, and postmigration stages of their transition. Many symptoms and behaviors…

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among First-Generation Latino Youths in an English as a Second Language School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archuleta, Adrian J.; Lakhwani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    First-generation Latino youths and their families may encounter significant challenges as they experience changes in their culture after migrating to a new country. Some Latino youths enter the United States having experienced trauma through premigration, migration, and postmigration stages of their transition. Many symptoms and behaviors…

  12. Comparison of a semi-automatic annotation tool and a natural language processing application for the generation of clinical statement entries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Heng; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Lai, Wei-Shao; Liou, Der-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Electronic medical records with encoded entries should enhance the semantic interoperability of document exchange. However, it remains a challenge to encode the narrative concept and to transform the coded concepts into a standard entry-level document. This study aimed to use a novel approach for the generation of entry-level interoperable clinical documents. Methods Using HL7 clinical document architecture (CDA) as the example, we developed three pipelines to generate entry-level CDA documents. The first approach was a semi-automatic annotation pipeline (SAAP), the second was a natural language processing (NLP) pipeline, and the third merged the above two pipelines. We randomly selected 50 test documents from the i2b2 corpora to evaluate the performance of the three pipelines. Results The 50 randomly selected test documents contained 9365 words, including 588 Observation terms and 123 Procedure terms. For the Observation terms, the merged pipeline had a significantly higher F-measure than the NLP pipeline (0.89 vs 0.80, p<0.0001), but a similar F-measure to that of the SAAP (0.89 vs 0.87). For the Procedure terms, the F-measure was not significantly different among the three pipelines. Conclusions The combination of a semi-automatic annotation approach and the NLP application seems to be a solution for generating entry-level interoperable clinical documents. PMID:25332357

  13. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing: How You Can Get More From Those Electronic Notes You Are Generating.

    PubMed

    Kimia, Amir A; Savova, Guergana; Landschaft, Assaf; Harper, Marvin B

    2015-07-01

    Electronically stored clinical documents may contain both structured data and unstructured data. The use of structured clinical data varies by facility, but clinicians are familiar with coded data such as International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms codes, and commonly other data including patient chief complaints or laboratory results. Most electronic health records have much more clinical information stored as unstructured data, for example, clinical narrative such as history of present illness, procedure notes, and clinical decision making are stored as unstructured data. Despite the importance of this information, electronic capture or retrieval of unstructured clinical data has been challenging. The field of natural language processing (NLP) is undergoing rapid development, and existing tools can be successfully used for quality improvement, research, healthcare coding, and even billing compliance. In this brief review, we provide examples of successful uses of NLP using emergency medicine physician visit notes for various projects and the challenges of retrieving specific data and finally present practical methods that can run on a standard personal computer as well as high-end state-of-the-art funded processes run by leading NLP informatics researchers.

  14. Development of a Natural Language Processing Engine to Generate Bladder Cancer Pathology Data for Health Services Research.

    PubMed

    Schroeck, Florian R; Patterson, Olga V; Alba, Patrick R; Pattison, Erik A; Seigne, John D; DuVall, Scott L; Robertson, Douglas J; Sirovich, Brenda; Goodney, Philip P

    2017-09-12

    To take a first step towards assembling population based cohorts of bladder cancer patients with longitudinal pathology data, we developed and validated a natural language processing (NLP) engine that abstracts pathology data from full text pathology reports. Using 600 bladder pathology reports randomly selected from the Department of Veterans Affairs, we developed and validated an NLP engine to abstract data on histology, invasion (presence versus absence and depth), grade, presence of muscularis propria, and presence of carcinoma in situ. Our gold standard was based on independent review of reports by two urologists, followed by adjudication. We assessed NLP performance by calculating accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and sensitivity. We subsequently applied the NLP engine to pathology reports from 10,725 bladder cancer patients. When comparing the NLP output to the gold standard, NLP achieved the highest accuracy (0.98) for presence versus absence of carcinoma in situ. Accuracy for histology, invasion (presence versus absence), grade, and presence of muscularis propria ranged from 0.83 to 0.96. The most challenging variable was depth of invasion (accuracy 0.68), with acceptable PPV for lamina propria (0.82) and muscularis propria (0.87) invasion. The validated engine was capable of abstracting pathologic characteristics for 99% of bladder cancer patients. NLP had high accuracy for five of six variables and abstracted data for the vast majority of patients. This now allows for assembly of population based cohorts with longitudinal pathology data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. FUCHS—towards full circular RNA characterization using RNAseq

    PubMed Central

    Czaja-Hasse, Lisa F.; Reinhardt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) belong to a recently re-discovered species of RNA that emerge during RNA maturation through a process called back-splicing. A downstream 5′ splice site is linked to an upstream 3′ splice site to form a circular transcript instead of a canonical linear transcript. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have brought circRNAs back into the focus of many scientists. Since then, several studies reported that circRNAs are differentially expressed across tissue types and developmental stages, implying that they are actively regulated and not merely a by-product of splicing. Though functional studies have shown that some circRNAs could act as miRNA-sponges, the function of most circRNAs remains unknown. To expand our understanding of possible roles of circular RNAs, we propose a new pipeline that could fully characterizes candidate circRNA structure from RNAseq data—FUCHS: FUll CHaracterization of circular RNA using RNA-Sequencing. Currently, most computational prediction pipelines use back-spliced reads to identify circular RNAs. FUCHS extends this concept by considering all RNA-seq information from long reads (typically >150 bp) to learn more about the exon coverage, the number of double break point fragments, the different circular isoforms arising from one host-gene, and the alternatively spliced exons within the same circRNA boundaries. This new knowledge will enable the user to carry out differential motif enrichment and miRNA seed analysis to determine potential regulators during circRNA biogenesis. FUCHS is an easy-to-use Python based pipeline that contributes a new aspect to the circRNA research. PMID:28265491

  16. FUCHS-towards full circular RNA characterization using RNAseq.

    PubMed

    Metge, Franziska; Czaja-Hasse, Lisa F; Reinhardt, Richard; Dieterich, Chistoph

    2017-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) belong to a recently re-discovered species of RNA that emerge during RNA maturation through a process called back-splicing. A downstream 5' splice site is linked to an upstream 3' splice site to form a circular transcript instead of a canonical linear transcript. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have brought circRNAs back into the focus of many scientists. Since then, several studies reported that circRNAs are differentially expressed across tissue types and developmental stages, implying that they are actively regulated and not merely a by-product of splicing. Though functional studies have shown that some circRNAs could act as miRNA-sponges, the function of most circRNAs remains unknown. To expand our understanding of possible roles of circular RNAs, we propose a new pipeline that could fully characterizes candidate circRNA structure from RNAseq data-FUCHS: FUll CHaracterization of circular RNA using RNA-Sequencing. Currently, most computational prediction pipelines use back-spliced reads to identify circular RNAs. FUCHS extends this concept by considering all RNA-seq information from long reads (typically >150 bp) to learn more about the exon coverage, the number of double break point fragments, the different circular isoforms arising from one host-gene, and the alternatively spliced exons within the same circRNA boundaries. This new knowledge will enable the user to carry out differential motif enrichment and miRNA seed analysis to determine potential regulators during circRNA biogenesis. FUCHS is an easy-to-use Python based pipeline that contributes a new aspect to the circRNA research.

  17. Longitudinal motion in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    A general description is given of the longitudinal motion of an idealized synchronous particle, exactly in step with the radiofrequency field of a circular accelerator, and a domain in phase and energy, called a bucket, around this particle within which particles are focused around the synchronous particle. This general picture is then made more precise and quantitative. The equations of longitudinal motion and their solutions and the resulting motion are discussed, followed by applications and amplication of the theory. 7 refs., 8 figs. (LEW)

  18. Helicity-Selective Enhancement and Polarization Control of Attosecond High Harmonic Waveforms Driven by Bichromatic Circularly Polarized Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorney, Kevin M.; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Brooks, Nathan; Fan, Tingting; Fan, Guangyu; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2017-08-01

    High harmonics driven by two-color counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields are a unique source of bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet, and soft x-ray beams, where the individual harmonics themselves are completely circularly polarized. Here, we demonstrate the ability to preferentially select either the right or left circularly polarized harmonics simply by adjusting the relative intensity ratio of the bichromatic circularly polarized driving laser field. In the frequency domain, this significantly enhances the harmonic orders that rotate in the same direction as the higher-intensity driving laser. In the time domain, this helicity-dependent enhancement corresponds to control over the polarization of the resulting attosecond waveforms. This helicity control enables the generation of circularly polarized high harmonics with a user-defined polarization of the underlying attosecond bursts. In the future, this technique should allow for the production of bright highly elliptical harmonic supercontinua as well as the generation of isolated elliptically polarized attosecond pulses.

  19. Room temperature high circular dichroism ultraviolet lasing from planar spiral metal-GaN nanowire cavity (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Min-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    Circularly polarized light and chiroptical effect have received considerable attention in advanced photonic and electronic technologies including optical spintronics, quantum-based optical information processing and communication, and high-efficiency liquid crystal display backlights. Moreover, the development of circularly polarized photon sources has played a major role in circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, which is important for analyses of optically active molecules, chiral synthesis in biology and chemistry, and ultrafast magnetization control. However, the conventional collocation of light-emitting devices and additional circular-polarization converters that produce circularly polarized beams makes the setup bulky and hardly compatible with nanophotonic devices in ultrasmall scales. In fact, the direct generation of circularly polarized photons may simplify the system integration, compact the setup, lower the cost of external components, and perhaps enhance the power efficiency. In this work, with the spiral-type metal-gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire cavity, we demonstrated an ultrasmall semiconductor laser capable of emitting circularly-polarized photons. The left- and right-hand spiral metal nanowire cavities with varied periods were designed at ultraviolet wavelengths to achieve the high quality factor circular dichroism metastructures. The dissymmetry factors characterizing the degrees of circular polarizations of the left- and right-hand chiral lasers were 1.4 and -1.6 (2 if perfectly circular polarized), respectively. The results show that the chiral cavities with only 5 spiral periods can achieve lasing signals with decently high degrees of circular polarizations.

  20. Assessment of accumulated damage in circular tubes using nonlinear circumferential guided wave approach: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Deng, Mingxi; Gao, Guangjian; Xiang, Yanxun; Li, Mingliang

    2017-03-01

    The feasibility of using the nonlinear effect of primary Circumferential Guided Wave (CGW) propagation for assessing accumulated damage in circular tubes has been investigated. For a given circular tube, an appropriate mode pair of fundamental and double frequency CGWs is chosen to enable that the second harmonic of the primary wave mode can accumulate along the circumferential direction. After the given circular tube is subjected to compression-compression repeated loading for different numbers of loading cycles, the corresponding ultrasonic measurements are conducted. It is found that there is a direct correlation between the acoustic nonlinearity parameter measured with CGWs propagating through one full circumference and the level of accumulated damage in the circular tube. The experimental result obtained validates the feasibility for quantitative assessment of the accumulated damage in circular tubes using the effect of second-harmonic generation by CGW propagation.

  1. Food waste biorefinery: Sustainable strategy for circular bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Shikha; Kumar, A Naresh; Shanthi Sravan, J; Chatterjee, Sulogna; Sarkar, Omprakash; Mohan, S Venkata

    2017-08-02

    Enormous quantity of food waste (FW) is becoming a global concern. To address this persistent problem, sustainable interventions with green technologies are essential. FW can be used as potential feedstock in biological processes for the generation of various biobased products along with its remediation. Enabling bioprocesses like acidogenesis, fermentation, methanogenesis, solventogenesis, photosynthesis, oleaginous process, bio-electrogenesis, etc., that yields various products like biofuels, platform chemicals, bioelectricity, biomaterial, biofertilizers, animal feed, etc can be utilized for FW valorisation. Integrating these bioprocesses further enhances the process efficiency and resource recovery sustainably. Adapting biorefinery strategy with integrated approach can lead to the development of circular bioeconomy. The present review highlights the various enabling bioprocesses that can be employed for the generation of energy and various commodity chemicals in an integrated approach addressing sustainability. The waste biorefinery approach for FW needs optimization of the cascade of the individual bioprocesses for the transformation of linear economy to circular bioeconomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unitary circular code motifs in genomes of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    El Soufi, Karim; Michel, Christian J

    A set X of 20 trinucleotides was identified in genes of bacteria, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses, which has in average the highest occurrence in reading frame compared to its two shifted frames (Michel, 2015; Arquès and Michel, 1996). This set X has an interesting mathematical property as X is a circular code (Arquès and Michel, 1996). Thus, the motifs from this circular code X, called X motifs, have the property to always retrieve, synchronize and maintain the reading frame in genes. The origin of this circular code X in genes is an open problem since its discovery in 1996. Here, we first show that the unitary circular codes (UCC), i.e. sets of one word, allow to generate unitary circular code motifs (UCC motifs), i.e. a concatenation of the same motif (simple repeats) leading to low complexity DNA. Three classes of UCC motifs are studied here: repeated dinucleotides (D(+) motifs), repeated trinucleotides (T(+) motifs) and repeated tetranucleotides (T(+) motifs). Thus, the D(+), T(+) and T(+) motifs allow to retrieve, synchronize and maintain a frame modulo 2, modulo 3 and modulo 4, respectively, and their shifted frames (1 modulo 2; 1 and 2 modulo 3; 1, 2 and 3 modulo 4 according to the C(2), C(3) and C(4) properties, respectively) in the DNA sequences. The statistical distribution of the D(+), T(+) and T(+) motifs is analyzed in the genomes of eukaryotes. A UCC motif and its comp lementary UCC motif have the same distribution in the eukaryotic genomes. Furthermore, a UCC motif and its complementary UCC motif have increasing occurrences contrary to their number of hydrogen bonds, very significant with the T(+) motifs. The longest D(+), T(+) and T(+) motifs in the studied eukaryotic genomes are also given. Surprisingly, a scarcity of repeated trinucleotides (T(+) motifs) in the large eukaryotic genomes is observed compared to the D(+) and T(+) motifs. This result has been investigated and may be explained by two outcomes. Repeated trinucleotides (T(+) motifs

  3. Borges, immortality and the circular ruins.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Catalina

    2002-06-01

    The author explores ideas surrounding immortality and death focusing on the interplay between their development in two stories by Borges ('The circular ruins' and 'The immortal') and their manifestation in a patient. With the help of Borges's stories, the author addresses the desperate necessity experienced by some individuals to search for immortality. This is not just an expression of the universal wish to live forever but, at a deeper level, arises from the impossibility of bearing the mental pain of experiencing ordinary human vulnerability and loss - death being the ultimate expression of such vulnerability. It is suggested that the relentless pursuit of immortality in such individuals expresses an omnipotent phantasy of ridding the self of the emotional pain and fear that arises through being alive. It leads to a denial of the emotional significance of passage of time, of separation and sexual differences. In actuality, the individual's state of not feeling approximates to a complete loss of human identity and emotional death, with no place for any meaningful others. The individual him/herself becomes a 'mere image', living in a delusional world peopled by him/herself and his/ her projections, and ending up trapped inside the circular ruins he/she has generated. The horror experienced at the stark awareness of the individual's emotional death and the wish to re-establish contact with the good internal objects that have been attacked sets in motion the long process of searching for the recovery of a sense of temporality (that would still include the wish for immortality) and, with it, a sense of identity.

  4. Language translation, doman specific languages and ANTLR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craymer, Loring; Parr, Terence

    2002-01-01

    We will discuss the features of ANTLR that make it an attractive tool for rapid developement of domain specific language translators and present some practical examples of its use: extraction of information from the Cassini Command Language specification, the processing of structured binary data, and IVL--an English-like language for generating VRML scene graph, which is used in configuring the jGuru.com server.

  5. Dinucleotide circular codes and bijective transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-12-07

    The presence of circular codes in mRNA coding sequences is postulated to be involved in informational mechanisms aimed at detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame during protein synthesis. Most of the recent research is focused on trinucleotide circular codes. However, also dinucleotide circular codes are important since dinucleotides are ubiquitous in genomes and associated to important biological functions. In this work we adopt the group theoretic approach used for trinucleotide codes in Fimmel et al. (2015) to study dinucleotide circular codes and highlight their symmetry properties. Moreover, we characterize such codes in terms of n-circularity and provide a graph representation that allows to visualize them geometrically. The results establish a theoretical framework for the study of the biological implications of dinucleotide circular codes in genomic sequences.

  6. Using circular questions as a tool in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nicola; Whitcombe, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Circular questions are used within systematic family therapy as a tool to generate multiple explanations and stories from a family situation and as a means to stimulate the curiosity of the therapist while avoiding their temptation to seek a one definitive explanation. To consider the potential for using this approach in qualitative research, with researchers using carefully crafted questions to invite respondents to provide information about the meanings behind a phenomenon or consider how relationships between people contribute to it. Drawing on examples from a study into children's mental health services, this paper discusses the application of the technique of circular questioning from systemic family therapy to qualitative research. The use of circular questions is a technique that qualitative researchers could employ in the field when conducting interviews with individuals or groups, or when engaged in participant observation as a means to obtain rich sources of data. Circular questioning can help to promote curiosity in the researcher and invite responses that illuminate relational issues between participants in a study.

  7. General description of circularly symmetric Bessel beams of arbitrary order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia Jie; Wriedt, Thomas; Lock, James A.; Mädler, Lutz

    2016-11-01

    A general description of circularly symmetric Bessel beams of arbitrary order is derived in this paper. This is achieved by analyzing the relationship between different descriptions of polarized Bessel beams obtained using different approaches. It is shown that a class of circularly symmetric Davis Bessel beams derived using the Hertz vector potentials possesses the same general functional dependence as the aplanatic Bessel beams generated using the angular spectrum representation (ASR). This result bridges the gap between different descriptions of Bessel beams and leads to a general description of circularly symmetric Bessel beams, such that the Davis Bessel beams and the aplanatic Bessel beams are merely the two simplest cases of an infinite number of possible circularly symmetric Bessel beams. Additionally, magnitude profiles of the electric and magnetic fields, the energy density and the Poynting vector are displayed for Bessel beams in both paraxial and nonparaxial cases. The results presented in this paper provide a fresh perspective on the description of Bessel beams and cast some insights into the light scattering and light-matter interactions problems in practice.

  8. Code-Switching as a Result of Language Acquisition: A Case Study of a 1.5 Generation Child from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yalun; Wei, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Despite individual differences, all bilinguals share the ability to act in their native language, in their second language, and to switch back and forth between the two languages they know (Van Hell, 1998). Chinese is the largest Asian American ethnic group in the United States. Their use of code-switching is an increasingly important issue in…

  9. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  10. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  11. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  12. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  13. Circular photogalvanic effect in silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Sajal; Mele, E. J.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    Circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), the generation of a photocurrent whose magnitude and polarity depends on chirality of optical excitation, is demonstrated in the visible optical range in silicon nanowires, a bulk non-gyrotropic material with weak spin-orbit coupling. CPGE, which is absent in bulk Si is found to arise from interband transitions only at the metal-semiconductor contacts to Si nanowires where inversion symmetry is broken by a Schottky electric field. Furthermore, by applying a bias voltage that modulates this field, the sign and magnitude of the CPGE can be controlled. From excitation energy dependent measurements and symmetry considerations, it is argued that the [10] surface states due to Si chains that are not aligned with the nanowire growth direction and the Schottky field produce an artificial gyrotropic optical medium that supports CPGE. This work reveals the role of the surface states in the generation of chirality-dependent photocurrents in silicon with a purely orbital-based mechanism, and also opens up new possibilities of engineering new functionalities in Si that can be integrated with conventional electronics.

  14. Unveiling the Veiled and Veiling the Unveiled: Revealing the Underlying Linguistic Ideologies and Their Impact on Persian Language Loss and Maintenance among Second-Generation Iranian-American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramezanzadeh, Farah S.

    2010-01-01

    This study adopted an interpretive/qualitative methodology to explore the issues and challenges of developing and maintaining Persian/Farsi as a heritage language in homes and neighborhoods for second-generation Iranian-American youth living in a major US metropolitan area with a sizable concentration of Iranian immigrants. The purpose of the…

  15. Tests on Stiffened Circular Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Marshall

    1941-01-01

    Compressive tests were made of two series of stiffened circular cylindrical shells under axial load. All the shells were 16 inches in diameter by 24 inches in length and were made of aluminum-alloy sheet curved to the proper radius and welded with one longitudinal weld. The ratios of diameter to thickness of shell wall in the two series of specimens were 258 and 572. Strains were measured with Huggenberger tensometers at a number of gage lines on the stiffeners and shell. The results of these tests indicate that a spacing of circumferential stiffeners equal to 0.67 times the radius is too great to strengthen the shell wall appreciably. The results are not inclusive enough to show the optimum in stiffeners. Plain cylinders without stiffeners developed ultimate strengths approximately half as great as the buckling strengths computed by the equation resulting from the classical theory and slightly greater than those computed by Donnell's large deflection theory.

  16. Circumferential alignment of vascular smooth muscle cells in a circular microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Seob; Piao, Yunxian; Seo, Tae Seok

    2014-01-01

    The circumferential alignment of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) in an orthogonally micropatterned circular microfluidic channel is reported to form an in vivo-like smooth muscle cell layer. To construct a biomimetic smooth muscle cell layer which is aligned perpendicular to the axis of blood vessel, a half-circular polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel is first fabricated by soft lithography using a convex PDMS mold. Then, the orthogonally microwrinkle patterns are generated inside the half-circular microchannel by a strain responsive wrinkling method. During the UV treatment on a PDMS substrate with uniaxial 40% stretch and a subsequent strain releasing step, the microwrinkle patterns perpendicular to the axial direction of the circular microchannel are generated, which can guide the circumferential alignment of HASMCs during cultivation. The analysis of orientation angle, shape index, and contractile protein marker expression indicates that the cultured HASMCs reveal the in vivo-like cell phenotype. Finally, a fully circular microchannel is produced by bonding two half-circular microchannels, and the HASMCs are cultured circumferentially inside the channels with high alignment and viability for 5 days. These results demonstrated the creation of an in vivo-like 3D smooth muscle cell layer in the circular microfluidic channel which can provide a bioassay platforms for in-depth study of HASMC biology and vascular function.

  17. Circular dichroism and superdiffusive transport at the surface of BiTeI.

    PubMed

    Mauchain, J; Ohtsubo, Y; Hajlaoui, M; Papalazarou, E; Marsi, M; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A; Faure, J; Kokh, K A; Tereshchenko, O E; Eremeev, S V; Chulkov, E V; Perfetti, L

    2013-09-20

    We investigate the electronic states of BiTeI after the optical pumping with circularly polarized photons. Our data show that photoexcited electrons reach an internal thermalization within 300 fs of the arrival of the pump pulse. Instead, the dichroic contrast generated by the circularly polarized light relaxes on a time scale shorter than 80 fs. This result implies that orbital and spin polarization created by the circular pump pulse rapidly decays via manybody interaction. The persistent dichroism at longer delay times is due to the helicity dependence of superdiffussive transport. We ascribe it to the lack of inversion symmetry in an electronic system far from equilibrium conditions.

  18. Controlling Nonsequential Double Ionization in Two-Color Circularly Polarized Femtosecond Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Christopher A.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Chaloupka, Jan L.; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dollar, Franklin J.; Knut, Ronny; Grychtol, Patrik; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2016-09-01

    Atoms undergoing strong-field ionization in two-color circularly polarized femtosecond laser fields exhibit unique two-dimensional photoelectron trajectories and can emit bright circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet and soft-x-ray beams. In this Letter, we present the first experimental observation of nonsequential double ionization in these tailored laser fields. Moreover, we can enhance or suppress nonsequential double ionization by changing the intensity ratio and helicity of the two driving laser fields to maximize or minimize high-energy electron-ion rescattering. Our experimental results are explained through classical simulations, which also provide insight into how to optimize the generation of circularly polarized high harmonic beams.

  19. 76 FR 60590 - Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Federal Transit Administration Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit... guidance in the form of a Circular on incorporating environmental justice principles into plans, projects... recipients of FTA funds on how to fully engage environmental justice populations in the public transportation...

  20. A Random Walk on a Circular Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, W.-K.; Lee, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This short note introduces an interesting random walk on a circular path with cards of numbers. By using high school probability theory, it is proved that under some assumptions on the number of cards, the probability that a walker will return to a fixed position will tend to one as the length of the circular path tends to infinity.

  1. A Random Walk on a Circular Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, W.-K.; Lee, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This short note introduces an interesting random walk on a circular path with cards of numbers. By using high school probability theory, it is proved that under some assumptions on the number of cards, the probability that a walker will return to a fixed position will tend to one as the length of the circular path tends to infinity.

  2. Creation operators for Cartesian and circular beams.

    PubMed

    Siguenza-Torres, Anibal; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2016-05-01

    Creation operators of fractional order, to derive the general Cartesian beams and circular beams from the lowest-order Gaussian beam, are introduced and discussed. Finding the creation operator for these general cases is a way to find the creation operator of all the special cases of Cartesian and circular beams.

  3. Characterization of Viral Populations by Using Circular Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Zachary J.

    2016-01-01

    With the enormous sizes viral populations reach, many variants are at too low a frequency to be detected by conventional next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods. Circular sequencing (CirSeq) is a method by which the error rate of next-generation sequencing is decreased so that even low-frequency viral variants can be accurately detected. The ability to visualize almost the entire genetic makeup of a viral swarm has implications for epidemiology, viral evolution, and vaccine design. Here we discuss experimental planning, analysis, and recent insights using CirSeq. PMID:27440878

  4. Gauge-Invariant Formulation of Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Nathaniel; de Boeij, Paul L; Romaniello, Pina; Berger, J A

    2016-07-12

    Standard formulations of magnetic response properties, such as circular dichroism spectra, are plagued by gauge dependencies, which can lead to unphysical results. In this work, we present a general gauge-invariant and numerically efficient approach for the calculation of circular dichroism spectra from the current density. First we show that in this formulation the optical rotation tensor, the response function from which circular dichroism spectra can be obtained, is independent of the origin of the coordinate system. We then demonstrate that its trace is independent of the gauge origin of the vector potential. We also show how gauge invariance can be retained in practical calculations with finite basis sets. As an example, we explain how our method can be applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory. Finally, we report gauge-invariant circular dichroism spectra obtained using the adiabatic local-density approximation. The circular dichroism spectra we thus obtain are in good agreement with experiment.

  5. Circular motion in NUT space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefremov, Paul I.; Perlick, Volker

    2016-12-01

    We consider circular motion in the NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) space-time. Among other things, we determine the location of circular time-like geodesic orbits, in particular of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) and of the marginally bound circular orbit. Moreover, we discuss the von Zeipel cylinders with respect to the stationary observers and with respect to the zero angular momentum observers (ZAMOs). We also investigate the relation of von Zeipel cylinders to inertial forces, in particular in the ultra-relativistic limit. Finally, we generalise the construction of thick accretion tori (‘Polish doughnuts’) which are well known on the Schwarzschild or Kerr background to the case of the NUT metric. We argue that, in principle, an NUT source could be distinguished from a Schwarzschild or Kerr source by observing the features of circular matter flows in its neighbourhood.

  6. Circular permutation of a synthetic eukaryotic chromosome with the telomerator

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Leslie A.; Boeke, Jef D.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome engineering is a major focus in the fields of systems biology, genetics, synthetic biology, and the functional analysis of genomes. Here, we describe the “telomerator,” a new synthetic biology device for use in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The telomerator is designed to inducibly convert circular DNA molecules into mitotically stable, linear chromosomes replete with functional telomeres in vivo. The telomerator cassette encodes convergent yeast telomere seed sequences flanking the I-SceI homing endonuclease recognition site in the center of an intron artificially transplanted into the URA3 selectable/counterselectable auxotrophic marker. We show that inducible expression of the homing endonuclease efficiently generates linear molecules, identified by using a simple plate-based screening method. To showcase its functionality and utility, we use the telomerator to circularly permute a synthetic yeast chromosome originally constructed as a circular molecule, synIXR, to generate 51 linear variants. Many of the derived linear chromosomes confer unexpected phenotypic properties. This finding indicates that the telomerator offers a new way to study the effects of gene placement on chromosomes (i.e., telomere proximity). However, that the majority of synIXR linear derivatives support viability highlights inherent tolerance of S. cerevisiae to changes in gene order and overall chromosome structure. The telomerator serves as an important tool to construct artificial linear chromosomes in yeast; the concept can be extended to other eukaryotes. PMID:25378705

  7. CIG-P: Circular Interaction Graph for Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Christopher K; Leung, Michelle; Tsang, Herbert H; Ebhardt, H Alexander

    2014-10-31

    A typical affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiment includes the purification of a target protein (bait) using an antibody and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of all proteins co-purifying with the bait (aka prey proteins). Like any other systems biology approach, AP-MS experiments generate a lot of data and visualization has been challenging, especially when integrating AP-MS experiments with orthogonal datasets. We present Circular Interaction Graph for Proteomics (CIG-P), which generates circular diagrams for visually appealing final representation of AP-MS data. Through a Java based GUI, the user inputs experimental and reference data as file in csv format. The resulting circular representation can be manipulated live within the GUI before exporting the diagram as vector graphic in pdf format. The strength of CIG-P is the ability to integrate orthogonal datasets with each other, e.g. affinity purification data of kinase PRPF4B in relation to the functional components of the spliceosome. Further, various AP-MS experiments can be compared to each other. CIG-P aids to present AP-MS data to a wider audience and we envision that the tool finds other applications too, e.g. kinase - substrate relationships as a function of perturbation. CIG-P is available under: http://sourceforge.net/projects/cig-p/

  8. Aspiring to Unintended Consequences of Natural Language Processing: A Review of Recent Developments in Clinical and Consumer-Generated Text Processing.

    PubMed

    Demner-Fushman, D; Elhadad, N

    2016-11-10

    This paper reviews work over the past two years in Natural Language Processing (NLP) applied to clinical and consumer-generated texts. We included any application or methodological publication that leverages text to facilitate healthcare and address the health-related needs of consumers and populations. Many important developments in clinical text processing, both foundational and task-oriented, were addressed in community- wide evaluations and discussed in corresponding special issues that are referenced in this review. These focused issues and in-depth reviews of several other active research areas, such as pharmacovigilance and summarization, allowed us to discuss in greater depth disease modeling and predictive analytics using clinical texts, and text analysis in social media for healthcare quality assessment, trends towards online interventions based on rapid analysis of health-related posts, and consumer health question answering, among other issues. Our analysis shows that although clinical NLP continues to advance towards practical applications and more NLP methods are used in large-scale live health information applications, more needs to be done to make NLP use in clinical applications a routine widespread reality. Progress in clinical NLP is mirrored by developments in social media text analysis: the research is moving from capturing trends to addressing individual health-related posts, thus showing potential to become a tool for precision medicine and a valuable addition to the standard healthcare quality evaluation tools.

  9. Longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language skill in low-income Canadian children to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S; Perry, Robert L; Benzies, Karen M

    2016-08-02

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Effects of culture (Aboriginal, other Canadian-born, and recent immigrant), and gender of the children were explored. Between programme intake and age 10, scores improved significantly, F(3, 75) = 21.11, p < .0005. There were significant differences among cultural groups at all time-points except age 10. Scores differed significantly for girls, but not boys, at age 10, F = 5.11, p = .01. Recent immigrant boys reached the Canadian average, while girls were two-thirds of the standard deviation below average. Early intervention programmes must include a focus on the unique circumstances of recent immigrant girls; supportive transition workers in schools are one recommendation.

  10. Longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language skill in low-income Canadian children to age 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Effects of culture (Aboriginal, other Canadian-born, and recent immigrant), and gender of the children were explored. Between programme intake and age 10, scores improved significantly, F(3, 75) = 21.11, p < .0005. There were significant differences among cultural groups at all time-points except age 10. Scores differed significantly for girls, but not boys, at age 10, F = 5.11, p = .01. Recent immigrant boys reached the Canadian average, while girls were two-thirds of the standard deviation below average. Early intervention programmes must include a focus on the unique circumstances of recent immigrant girls; supportive transition workers in schools are one recommendation. PMID:27453625

  11. Magnetized Weibel filaments as a source of circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Ujjwal; Martins, Joana; Vieira, Jorge; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis

    2015-11-01

    We investigate radiation spectra of plasma particles trapped in Weibel filaments generated from multidimensional particle in cell simulations with OSIRIS in magnetized and unmagnetized plasmas. We show that an important parameter determining polarization of emitted radiation is the magnetization of ambient media. Polarization of radiation emitted during counter-propagating plasma flows with different magnetizations is explored by extracting trajectories of particles sampled from PIC simulations and computing their radiation spectrum. Particle trajectories in magnetized plasmas undergo EXB drift at Weibel boundaries leading to a preferential drift direction, whereas, in unmagnetized case the particles have no net drift. As a result, significant fraction of radiated energy from magnetized filament is circularly polarized (CP). Energy attributed to different polarizations is calculated by measuring degree of polarizations. With increasing magnetization, the fraction of radiated energy attributed to CP increases. The direction of circular polarization also changes with direction of applied magnetic field. The study is of significance for understanding radiation from Gamma Ray Bursts.

  12. circlize Implements and enhances circular visualization in R.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zuguang; Gu, Lei; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Brors, Benedikt

    2014-10-01

    Circular layout is an efficient way for the visualization of huge amounts of genomic information. Here we present the circlize package, which provides an implementation of circular layout generation in R as well as an enhancement of available software. The flexibility of this package is based on the usage of low-level graphics functions such that self-defined high-level graphics can be easily implemented by users for specific purposes. Together with the seamless connection between the powerful computational and visual environment in R, circlize gives users more convenience and freedom to design figures for better understanding genomic patterns behind multi-dimensional data. circlize is available at the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN): http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/circlize/ © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Focusing light with orbital angular momentum by circular array antenna.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Takashi; Morimoto, Shohei; Tanaka, Koichiro

    2017-06-12

    We experimentally demonstrated focusing of light with orbital angular momentum (OAM) using an 8-element circular array of linear antennas. A spiral phase plate was used to generate a vortex beam with an OAM of ħ in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. We used THz near-field microscope to directly measure the phase vortex. A beam profile with a center dark spot and 2π phase rotation was observed in the small center gap region of the circular array antenna after the vortex beam excitation. The beam size is reduced by a factor of 3.4 ± 0.2. Half-wave resonance of the antenna element is responsible for the focusing function, indicating the scalability of this method to other frequency regions. This method will enable deep subwavelength focusing of light with OAM and eliminate the obstacle for the observation of the dipole forbidden transition with finite OAM of the vortex beam.

  14. Determination of crossed language dominance: dissociation of language lateralization within the temporoparietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Andreas; Müller, Stephanie; Bedenbender, Johannes; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder M; Kircher, Tilo; Sommer, Jens

    2013-08-01

    'Crossed language dominance' is a rare form of language lateralization, characterized by a dissociation of anterior and posterior language regions. We present the case of a healthy subject whose language lateralization pattern, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging, is reliably characterized as crossed language dominance based on a word generation task, but typical left-lateralized when a semantic decision task is applied. A single language task is therefore not sufficient to characterize language lateralization, at least not for subjects with rare forms of language dominance. In the pre-surgical diagnostic of language lateralization, several language tasks tapping into different aspects of language functions should be applied.

  15. Inverse Batschelet distributions for circular data.

    PubMed

    Jones, M C; Pewsey, Arthur

    2012-03-01

    We provide four-parameter families of distributions on the circle which are unimodal and display the widest ranges of both skewness and peakedness yet available. Our approach is to transform the scale of a generating distribution, such as the von Mises, using various nontrivial extensions of an approach first used in Batschelet's (1981, Circular Statistics in Biology) book. The key is to employ inverses of Batschelet-type transformations in certain ways; these exhibit considerable advantages over direct Batschelet transformations. The skewness transformation is especially appealing as it has no effect on the normalizing constant. As well as a variety of interesting theoretical properties, when likelihood inference is explored these distributions display orthogonality between elements of a pairing of parameters into (location, skewness) and (concentration, peakedness). Further, the location parameter can sometimes be made approximately orthogonal to all the other parameters. Profile likelihoods come to the fore in practice. Two illustrative applications, one concerning the locomotion of a Drosophila fly larva, the other analyzing a large set of sudden infant death syndrome data, are investigated. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Drops with non-circular footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzoli, Pablo D.; González, Alejandro G.; Diez, Javier A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study the morphology of drops formed on partially wetting substrates, whose footprint is not circular. These drops are consequence of the breakup processes occurring in thin films when anisotropic contact line motions take place. The anisotropy is basically due to the hysteresis of the contact angle since there is a wetting process in some parts of the contact line, while a dewetting occurs in other parts. Here, we obtain a characteristic drop shape from the rupture of a long liquid filament sitting on a solid substrate. We analyze its shape and contact angles by means of goniometric and refractive techniques. We also find a non-trivial steady state solution for the drop shape within the long wave approximation (lubrication theory), and we compare most of its features with experimental data. This solution is presented both in Cartesian and polar coordinates, whose constants must be determined by a certain group of measured parameters. Besides, we obtain the dynamics of the drop generation from numerical simulations of the full Navier-Stokes equation, where we emulate the hysteretic effects with an appropriate spatial distribution of the static contact angle over the substrate.

  17. Circular on family planning, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside."

  18. Revival of circular variable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabib, Dario; Lavi, Moshe; Orr, Henry

    2010-10-01

    Up to about a decade or more ago Circular Variable Filters (CVF) were a commercial optical component useful in the visible and infrared wavelength ranges and were being produced and sold by the US company Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. The CVF was used as a monochromator and its advantage was in its ease of use for spectroscopy especially in remote sensing applications. Based on the idea of multilayer interference coating with linearly varying thickness on the circumference of a rotating wheel, it worked as a continuously variable center-wavelength narrowbandpass filter with 1-2% spectral resolution. One spin of the wheel placed on the optical path of a light beam provided a full scan in the wavelength range and allowed a detector to record a full spectrum in that range. Since then this component was discontinued and companies used old remaining stocks from previous production batches. CI is now reconstructing the technology to be able to produce the CVF again and is building new radiometers for new applications based on it. In this paper we review the history of the CVF and its use by CI and we provide some details on the characteristics of the CVF as planned and as preliminarily tested.

  19. Onset of three-dimensional flow instabilities in lid-driven circular cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, L. M.; Ferrer, E.; Díaz-Ojeda, H. R.

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional instabilities for two circular lid-driven cavities are investigated by a linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations using high order spectral techniques. Two circular geometries have been analysed and compared: a circular cavity with a horizontal top boundary and a circular cavity with a circular lid. Compared to more classic results for squared and rectangular lid driven cavities, the corners of these rounded geometries have been partially or totally removed. Critical Reynolds numbers, neutral curves, and three dimensional structures associated with the least stable modes have been identified by the linear stability analysis and then confirmed by spectral direct numerical simulations. We show that the geometries that present fewer sharp corners have enhanced stability: the circular cavity with a flat lid presents the first bifurcation at (R ec,kc ) ≈(1362 ,25 ) whilst the circular lid bifurcates at (R ec,kc ) ≈(1438 ,18 ) , where Rec is the critical Reynolds number based on the cavity diameter and lid tangential velocity, and kc is the spanwise wavenumber. Neutral curves and properties of the leading three-dimensional flow structures are documented, and analogies to instabilities in other lid-driven cavities are discussed. Additionally, we include results for the adjoint problem and the structural sensitivity 3D iso-maps (i.e., wavemaker regions), to show that the cavity corners play a relevant role in the generation of 3D instabilities.

  20. Fabrication of a circular PDMS microchannel for constructing a three-dimensional endothelial cell layer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Seob; Piao, Yunxian; Seo, Tae Seok

    2013-12-01

    We describe a simple and efficient fabrication method for generating microfluidic channels with a circular cross-sectional geometry by exploiting the reflow phenomenon of a thick positive photoresist. Initial rectangular shaped positive photoresist micropatterns on a silicon wafer, which were fabricated by a conventional photolithography process, were converted into a half-circular shape by tuning the temperature to around 105 °C. Through optimization of the reflow conditions, we could obtain a perfect circular micropattern of the positive photoresist, and control the diameter in a range from 100 to 400 μm. The resultant convex half-circular photoresist was used as a template for fabricating a concave polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a replica molding process, and a circular PDMS microchannel was produced by bonding two half-circular PDMS layers. A variety of channel dimensions and patterns can be easily prepared, including straight, S-curve, X-, Y-, and T-shapes to mimic an in vivo vascular network. To form an endothelial cell layer, we cultured primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells inside circular PDMS microchannels, and demonstrated successful cell adhesion, proliferation, and alignment along the channel.

  1. Noncontact ultrasonic transportation of small objects in a circular trajectory in air by flexural vibrations of a circular disc.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2010-06-01

    We have developed a noncontact ultrasonic technique for transporting small objects with a linear trajectory over long distances using a bending vibrating plate and a reflector. In this paper, noncontact transportation of small particles around a circular trajectory was investigated. A circular aluminum plate with a piezoelectric ring was employed as a vibrating plate. On the basis of finite element analysis (FEA) calculations, the electrodes of the piezoelectric ring were divided into 24 pieces to generate a flexural vibration mode with one nodal circle and four nodal lines at the resonance frequency of 47.8 kHz. A circular plate having the same dimensions as the vibrating plate was installed parallel to the vibrator. It was used as a reflector to generate an acoustic standing wave in the air between the two plates. The acoustic field between the vibrating plate and reflector was calculated by FEA and the distribution of the acoustic radiation force acting on a small rigid particle was calculated to predict the position of the trapped particle. Using a prototype of the vibrating plate, polystyrene particles with diameters of several millimeters could be trapped at regular intervals along the horizontal nodal line of the standing wave. The sound pressure distribution between the vibrating plate and reflector was measured by a fiber optic probe and the experimental and calculated results showed good agreement. By switching the driving conditions of the divided electrodes in the circumferential direction, the nodal lines of the vibrating plate could be rotated and the trapped particle could be manipulated with a circular trajectory in air.

  2. Inference Generation during Discourse and Its Relation to Social Competence: An Online Investigation of Abilities of Children with and without Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Janet A.; Milosky, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether young children with typical language development (TL) and children with language impairment (LI) make emotion inferences online during the process of discourse comprehension, identified variables that predict emotion inferencing, and explored the relationship of these variables to social competence. Method:…

  3. Sibling Variation and Family Language Policy: The Role of Birth Order in the Spanish Proficiency and First Names of Second-Generation Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parada, Maryann

    2013-01-01

    The effects of birth order have been debated in many disciplines and have been shown to be important for a number of outcomes. However, studies examining the significance of birth order in language development and practices, particularly with regard to minority languages, are few. This article reports on two sets of data collected among Spanish…

  4. Sibling Variation and Family Language Policy: The Role of Birth Order in the Spanish Proficiency and First Names of Second-Generation Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parada, Maryann

    2013-01-01

    The effects of birth order have been debated in many disciplines and have been shown to be important for a number of outcomes. However, studies examining the significance of birth order in language development and practices, particularly with regard to minority languages, are few. This article reports on two sets of data collected among Spanish…

  5. Inference Generation during Discourse and Its Relation to Social Competence: An Online Investigation of Abilities of Children with and without Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Janet A.; Milosky, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether young children with typical language development (TL) and children with language impairment (LI) make emotion inferences online during the process of discourse comprehension, identified variables that predict emotion inferencing, and explored the relationship of these variables to social competence. Method:…

  6. Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

  7. Socio-Linguistic Factors in Second Language Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Children of Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The factors affecting the mastery of the host country's language by the children of immigrants are important in the study of immigration-related issues. This exploratory study analyses the possible link between parental socio-linguistic background factors (parent-child language choice, parental proficiency in L2, educational level, socio-economic…

  8. Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

  9. Socio-Linguistic Factors in Second Language Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Children of Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The factors affecting the mastery of the host country's language by the children of immigrants are important in the study of immigration-related issues. This exploratory study analyses the possible link between parental socio-linguistic background factors (parent-child language choice, parental proficiency in L2, educational level, socio-economic…

  10. Circular photon drag effect in bulk semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalygin, V. A.; Moldavskaya, M. D.; Danilov, S. N.; Farbshtein, I. I.; Golub, L. E.

    2017-06-01

    We report on the observation of the circular photon drag effect in a bulk semiconductor. The photocurrent caused by a transfer of both linear and angular momenta of photons to charge carriers is detected in tellurium. Dependencies of the photocurrent on the light polarization and on the incidence angle agree with the symmetry analysis of the circular photon drag effect. Experimental spectral data on the photocurrent in mid-infrared range qualitatively agree with a microscopic model of the circular photon drag effect considering intersubband optical transitions of holes in tellurium.

  11. Function of longitudinal vs circular muscle fibers in esophageal peristalsis, deduced with mathematical modeling

    PubMed Central

    Brasseur, James G; Nicosia, Mark A; Pal, Anupam; Miller, Larry S

    2007-01-01

    We summarize from previous works the functions of circular vs. longitudinal muscle in esophageal peristaltic bolus transport using a mix of experimental data, the conservation laws of mechanics and mathematical modeling. Whereas circular muscle tone generates radial closure pressure to create a local peristaltic closure wave, longitudinal muscle tone has two functions, one physiological with mechanical implications, and one purely mechanical. Each of these functions independently reduces the tension of individual circular muscle fibers to maintain closure as a consequence of shortening of longitudinal muscle locally coordinated with increasing circular muscle tone. The physiological function is deduced by combining basic laws of mechanics with concurrent measurements of intraluminal pressure from manometry, and changes in cross sectional muscle area from endoluminal ultrasound from which local longitudinal shortening (LLS) can be accurately obtained. The purely mechanical function of LLS was discovered from mathematical modeling of peristaltic esophageal transport with the axial wall motion generated by LLS. Physiologically, LLS concentrates circular muscle fibers where closure pressure is highest. However, the mechanical function of LLS is to reduce the level of pressure required to maintain closure. The combined physiological and mechanical consequences of LLS are to reduce circular muscle fiber tension and power by as much as 1/10 what would be required for peristalsis without the longitudinal muscle layer, a tremendous benefit that may explain the existence of longitudinal muscle fiber in the gut. We also review what is understood of the role of longitudinal muscle in esophageal emptying, reflux and pathology. PMID:17457963

  12. Fission yeast RecQ helicase Rqh1 is required for the maintenance of circular chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Nanbu, Tomoko; Takahashi, Katsunori; Murray, Johanne M; Hirata, Naoya; Ukimori, Shinobu; Kanke, Mai; Masukata, Hisao; Yukawa, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Eiko; Ueno, Masaru

    2013-03-01

    Protection of telomeres protein 1 (Pot1) binds to single-stranded telomere overhangs and protects chromosome ends. RecQ helicases regulate homologous recombination at multiple stages, including resection, strand displacement, and resolution. Fission yeast pot1 and RecQ helicase rqh1 double mutants are synthetically lethal, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show that the synthetic lethality of pot1Δ rqh1Δ double mutants is due to inappropriate homologous recombination, as it is suppressed by the deletion of rad51(+). The expression of Rad51 in the pot1Δ rqh1Δ rad51Δ triple mutant, which has circular chromosomes, is lethal. Reduction of the expression of Rqh1 in a pot1 disruptant with circular chromosomes caused chromosome missegregation, and this defect was partially suppressed by the deletion of rad51(+). Taken together, our results suggest that Rqh1 is required for the maintenance of circular chromosomes when homologous recombination is active. Crossovers between circular monomeric chromosomes generate dimers that cannot segregate properly in Escherichia coli. We propose that Rqh1 inhibits crossovers between circular monomeric chromosomes to suppress the generation of circular dimers.

  13. Persian Language & Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir-Djalali, Elahe

    Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…

  14. Aboriginal Languages in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara J.

    This report outlines the basic characteristics of native languages in Ontario, the degree to which they are being maintained, and the aspirations of native people for their future development. The report covers only the Algonquian and Iroquoian families of languages spoken in Ontario for many generations and still spoken at present, including…

  15. The use of circular optical grating for measuring angular rotation of mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, H. M.; Toh, S. L.; Fu, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

    2001-11-01

    This paper explores the feasible use of circular optical grating for measuring the rotation of mirrors that are commonly found in micro-systems. Both theoretical and experimental results show that distortion of the circular grating that is projected onto the mirror surface is a simple function of the angular rotation of the mirror. The circular grating may readily be generated using a standard Michelson interferometer or an LCD projector. Through manipulating the distance between the interferometer and the mirror surface, the diameter of the optical grating may be varied. Furthermore, the additional use of a converging lens enables a significant reduction in the size of the grating: with simple laboratory facility, small circular grating of about 400 μm is achieved for use on micro-systems. With the use of more sophisticated optical elements, the angular rotation of even smaller micro-mirrors may be measured.

  16. Wave trains induced by circularly polarized electric fields in cardiac tissues

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Juan-Mei; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, cardiac fibrillation caused by spiral and turbulent waves can be terminated by globally resetting electric activity in cardiac tissues with a single high-voltage electric shock, but it is usually associated with severe side effects. Presently, a promising alternative uses wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a sequence of low-voltage uniform electric field pulses. Nevertheless, this method can only emit waves locally near obstacles in turbulent waves and thereby requires multiple obstacles to globally synchronize myocardium and thus to terminate fibrillation. Here we propose a new approach using wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a low-voltage circularly polarized electric field (i.e., a rotating uniform electric field). We find that, this approach can generate circular wave trains near obstacles and they propagate outwardly. We study the characteristics of such circular wave trains and further find that, the higher-frequency circular wave trains can effectively suppress spiral turbulence. PMID:26302781

  17. Circular polarization of primordial gravitational waves in string-inspired inflationary cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Masaki; Soda, Jiro; Kanno, Sugumi

    2008-01-15

    We study a mechanism to produce the circular polarization of primordial gravitational waves. The circular polarization is generated during the superinflation driven by the Gauss-Bonnet term in the string-inspired cosmology. The instability in the tensor mode caused by the Gauss-Bonnet term and the parity violation due to the gravitational Chern-Simons term are the essential ingredients of the mechanism. We also discuss detectability of the produced circular polarization of gravitational waves. It turns out that the simple model of single-field inflation contradicts cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose a two-field inflation model. In this two-field model, the circular polarization of gravitational waves is created in the frequency range designed by the big-bang observer (BBO) or the deci-hertz gravitational-wave observatory (DECIGO)

  18. Wave trains induced by circularly polarized electric fields in cardiac tissues.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Juan-Mei; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2015-08-25

    Clinically, cardiac fibrillation caused by spiral and turbulent waves can be terminated by globally resetting electric activity in cardiac tissues with a single high-voltage electric shock, but it is usually associated with severe side effects. Presently, a promising alternative uses wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a sequence of low-voltage uniform electric field pulses. Nevertheless, this method can only emit waves locally near obstacles in turbulent waves and thereby requires multiple obstacles to globally synchronize myocardium and thus to terminate fibrillation. Here we propose a new approach using wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a low-voltage circularly polarized electric field (i.e., a rotating uniform electric field). We find that, this approach can generate circular wave trains near obstacles and they propagate outwardly. We study the characteristics of such circular wave trains and further find that, the higher-frequency circular wave trains can effectively suppress spiral turbulence.

  19. Circular Phonon Dichroism in Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Donghao; Shi, Junren

    2017-08-01

    We derive the phonon dynamics of magnetic metals in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. We show that both a dissipationless viscosity and a dissipative viscosity arise in the dynamics. While the dissipationless viscosity splits the dispersion of left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized phonons, the dissipative viscosity damps them differently, inducing circular phonon dichroism. The effect offers a new degree of manipulation of phonons, i.e., the control of the phonon polarization. We investigate the effect in Weyl semimetals. We find that there exists strong circular phonon dichroism in Weyl semimetals breaking both the time-reversal and the inversion symmetry, making them potential materials for realizing the acoustic circular polarizer.

  20. Large Circular Basin Flooded and then Cratered

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-05

    As NASA Mariner 10 passed by Mercury on its second encounter with the planet on Sept. 21, 1974, this picture of a large circular 350 kilometer, 220 mile diameter basin was obtained near the morning terminator.

  1. Polarisation vision: beetles see circularly polarised light.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J

    2010-07-27

    It has long been known that the iridescent cuticle of many scarab beetles reflects circularly polarised light. It now turns out that scarabs can also see this light, potentially using it as a covert visual signal.

  2. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  3. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  4. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  5. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  6. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  7. Depth perception through circular movements of dots.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Elements that move with velocity gradients have been shown to give the impression of depth. In this study, it was found that dots in circular motion around a line of sight give a depth impression corresponding to the gradients of the angular velocities of circular motion on a screen. The results of two experiments show that depth perception through circular motion is as effective as that through expansion or spiral motion, but less effective than that through lateral motion parallax when the local speed distributions on the screen are matched. The present depth effect shows that expansion-contraction, spiral, and circular motions are a continuum in terms of producing depth effects; they differ from lateral motion parallax.

  8. Circularly polarized laser emission induced in isotropic and achiral dye systems

    PubMed Central

    Cerdán, Luis; García-Moreno, Sara; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; de la Moya, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The production of efficient, tunable, and switchable circularly polarized laser emission would have far reaching implications in optical communications or biophotonics. In this work, it is demonstrated the direct generation of circularly polarized (CP) laser emission in achiral and isotropic dye laser systems without the use of extracavity polarizing elements, and without resorting to chiral dyes, chiral liquid crystal matrices, or interferometric methods. The origin of this ellipticity arises from the dynamic birefringence induced by the strong and polarized laser pumping and the subsequent orientation anisotropy of the excited molecular dipoles. A complete polarimetric characterization of the polarization state of conventional dye laser oscillators as a function of different experimental parameters is performed and it is shown that the generated light always possesses a certain level of circularity that changes in a distinctive way with pump energy and polarization. These results demonstrate that it is possible to generate and modulate CP laser light from efficient and photostable conventional laser dyes. PMID:27350073

  9. Circularly polarized laser emission induced in isotropic and achiral dye systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdán, Luis; García-Moreno, Sara; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; de La Moya, Santiago

    2016-06-01

    The production of efficient, tunable, and switchable circularly polarized laser emission would have far reaching implications in optical communications or biophotonics. In this work, it is demonstrated the direct generation of circularly polarized (CP) laser emission in achiral and isotropic dye laser systems without the use of extracavity polarizing elements, and without resorting to chiral dyes, chiral liquid crystal matrices, or interferometric methods. The origin of this ellipticity arises from the dynamic birefringence induced by the strong and polarized laser pumping and the subsequent orientation anisotropy of the excited molecular dipoles. A complete polarimetric characterization of the polarization state of conventional dye laser oscillators as a function of different experimental parameters is performed and it is shown that the generated light always possesses a certain level of circularity that changes in a distinctive way with pump energy and polarization. These results demonstrate that it is possible to generate and modulate CP laser light from efficient and photostable conventional laser dyes.

  10. New type non-lantibiotic bacteriocins: circular and leaderless bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Zendo, T; Sonomoto, K

    2012-03-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides that are ribosomally synthesised by bacteria. Bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, are under focus as the next generation of safe natural biopreservatives and as therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics. Recently, two novel types of non-lantibiotic class II bacteriocins have been reported with unique characteristics in their structure and biosynthesis mechanism. One is a circular bacteriocin that contains a head-to-tail structure in the mature form, and the other is a leaderless bacteriocin without an N-terminal extension in the precursor peptide. A circular structure can provide the peptide with remarkable stability against various stresses; indeed, circular bacteriocins are known to possess higher stability than general linear bacteriocins. Leaderless bacteriocins are distinct from general bacteriocins, because they do not contain N-terminal leader sequences, which are responsible for the recognition process during secretion and for inactivation of bacteriocins inside producer cells. Leaderless bacteriocins do not require any post-translational processing for activity. These two novel types of bacteriocins are promising antimicrobial compounds, and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected to be applied in synthetic biology to design new peptides and for new mass production systems. However, many questions remain about their biosynthesis. In this review, we introduce recent studies on these types of bacteriocins and their potential to open a new world of antimicrobial peptides.

  11. Propagation of photosensitive chemical waves on the circular routes.

    PubMed

    Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Akiko; Nakata, Satoshi; Ichino, Takatoshi

    2005-06-09

    The propagation of chemical waves in the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction was investigated using an excitable field in the shape of a circular ring or figure "8" that was drawn by computer software and then projected on a film soaked with BZ solution using a liquid-crystal projector. For a chemical wave in a circular reaction field, the shape of the chemical wave was investigated depending on the ratio of the inner and outer radii. When two chemical waves were generated on a field shaped like a figure "8" (one chemical wave in each circle) as the initial condition, the location of the collision of the waves either was constant or alternated depending on the degree of overlap of the two circular rings. These experimental results were analyzed on the basis of a geometrical discussion and theoretically reproduced on the basis of a reaction-diffusion system using a modified Oregonator model. These results suggest that the photosensitive BZ reaction may be useful for creating spatio-temporal patterns depending on the geometric arrangement of excitable fields.

  12. Broadband Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna and Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-16

    300152 1 of 14 BROADBAND CIRCULARLY POLARIZED PATCH ANTENNA AND METHOD STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may...thereon or therefor. CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The...present invention provides a method and apparatus for a broadband circularly polarized patch antenna. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] A

  13. CIRCULAR RIBBON FLARES AND HOMOLOGOUS JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang

    2012-12-01

    Solar flare emissions in the chromosphere often appear as elongated ribbons on both sides of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), which has been regarded as evidence of a typical configuration of magnetic reconnection. However, flares having a circular ribbon have rarely been reported, although it is expected in the fan-spine magnetic topology involving reconnection at a three-dimensional (3D) coronal null point. We present five circular ribbon flares with associated surges, using high-resolution and high-cadence H{alpha} blue wing observations obtained from the recently digitized films of Big Bear Solar Observatory. In all the events, a central parasitic magnetic field is encompassed by the opposite polarity, forming a circular PIL traced by filament material. Consequently, a flare kernel at the center is surrounded by a circular flare ribbon. The four homologous jet-related flares on 1991 March 17 and 18 are of particular interest, as (1) the circular ribbons brighten sequentially, with cospatial surges, rather than simultaneously, (2) the central flare kernels show an intriguing 'round-trip' motion and become elongated, and (3) remote brightenings occur at a region with the same magnetic polarity as the central parasitic field and are co-temporal with a separate phase of flare emissions. In another flare on 1991 February 25, the circular flare emission and surge activity occur successively, and the event could be associated with magnetic flux cancellation across the circular PIL. We discuss the implications of these observations combining circular flare ribbons, homologous jets, and remote brightenings for understanding the dynamics of 3D magnetic restructuring.

  14. MARS: improving multiple circular sequence alignment using refined sequences.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Lorraine A K; Pissis, Solon P

    2017-01-14

    A fundamental assumption of all widely-used multiple sequence alignment techniques is that the left- and right-most positions of the input sequences are relevant to the alignment. However, the position where a sequence starts or ends can be totally arbitrary due to a number of reasons: arbitrariness in the linearisation (sequencing) of a circular molecular structure; or inconsistencies introduced into sequence databases due to different linearisation standards. These scenarios are relevant, for instance, in the process of multiple sequence alignment of mitochondrial DNA, viroid, viral or other genomes, which have a circular molecular structure. A solution for these inconsistencies would be to identify a suitable rotation (cyclic shift) for each sequence; these refined sequences may in turn lead to improved multiple sequence alignments using the preferred multiple sequence alignment program. We present MARS, a new heuristic method for improving Multiple circular sequence Alignment using Refined Sequences. MARS was implemented in the C++ programming language as a program to compute the rotations (cyclic shifts) required to best align a set of input sequences. Experimental results, using real and synthetic data, show that MARS improves the alignments, with respect to standard genetic measures and the inferred maximum-likelihood-based phylogenies, and outperforms state-of-the-art methods both in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Our results show, among others, that the average pairwise distance in the multiple sequence alignment of a dataset of widely-studied mitochondrial DNA sequences is reduced by around 5% when MARS is applied before a multiple sequence alignment is performed. Analysing multiple sequences simultaneously is fundamental in biological research and multiple sequence alignment has been found to be a popular method for this task. Conventional alignment techniques cannot be used effectively when the position where sequences start is arbitrary. We present

  15. A method for calculating the average solid angle subtended by a circular disk from uniformly distributed points within a coaxial circular plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryka, Stanislaw

    1999-10-01

    Methods for calculating the solid angles subtended at a point by closed contours of some given objects are required in many areas of optical and nuclear physics to estimate the fluxes or particle beams of radiation. It is therefore of interest to derive solid angle equations for various closed contours and the location of such contours with respect to a single point or some points. In this article two methods are described for calculating the solid angles for objects having the shape of a circular disk. In the first method the formula for calculating the solid angle at a point subtended by a circular disk was presented in a more general form than the expressions reported by S. Tryka [Opt. Commun. 137, 317 (1997)]. In the second method this formula was used to derive another formula for calculating the average solid angle subtended by a circular disk from uniformly distributed multiple points lying on the planar circular surface coaxial to the disk. Both of these formulas were represented by superpositions of simple elementary functions with the complete Legendre-Jacobi elliptic integrals. These superpositions were given as dependencies on the radii of the disk and of the circular surface and on the distance between the disk and the surface. The influences of these radii and distance on the solid angle value were illustrated graphically by some three-dimensional surface plots. Some representative results were calculated to eight decimal places and given in tabular form. In addition, a similar table of results computed for the solid angle at a point subtended by a circular disk was included. It was shown that the formulas obtained are simple and directly applicable in some high-language programs. As an example of such an application all plots and calculations in this article were performed using MATHEMATICA 2.2.3 software.

  16. Circular Data Images for Directional Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morpet, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Directional data includes vectors, points on a unit sphere, axis orientation, angular direction, and circular or periodic data. The theoretical statistics for circular data (random points on a unit circle) or spherical data (random points on a unit sphere) are a recent development. An overview of existing graphical methods for the display of directional data is given. Cross-over occurs when periodic data are measured on a scale for the measurement of linear variables. For example, if angle is represented by a linear color gradient changing uniformly from dark blue at -180 degrees to bright red at +180 degrees, the color image will be discontinuous at +180 degrees and -180 degrees, which are the same location. The resultant color would depend on the direction of approach to the cross-over point. A new graphical method for imaging directional data is described, which affords high resolution without color discontinuity from "cross-over". It is called the circular data image. The circular data image uses a circular color scale in which colors repeat periodically. Some examples of the circular data image include direction of earth winds on a global scale, rocket motor internal flow, earth global magnetic field direction, and rocket motor nozzle vector direction vs. time.

  17. Adult Language Learning: A Survey of Welsh for Adults in the Context of Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin; Andrews, Hunydd; Gruffydd, Ifor; Lewis, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of adult language learning when a minority language is threatened. Language acquisition planning attempts to reproduce the language across generations. The research context is Wales with its strong history of adults learning Welsh. The history of the Welsh language shows a decline in the last century, but…

  18. Adult Language Learning: A Survey of Welsh for Adults in the Context of Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin; Andrews, Hunydd; Gruffydd, Ifor; Lewis, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of adult language learning when a minority language is threatened. Language acquisition planning attempts to reproduce the language across generations. The research context is Wales with its strong history of adults learning Welsh. The history of the Welsh language shows a decline in the last century, but…

  19. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

  20. SDL: A Surface Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maple, Raymond C.

    1992-01-01

    A new interpreted language specifically designed for surface grid generation is introduced. Many unique aspects of the language are discussed, including the farray, vector, curve, and surface data types and the operators used to manipulate them. Custom subroutine libraries written in the language are used to easily build surface grids for generic missile shapes.