Raiden, Silvina; Sananez, Inés; Remes-Lenicov, Federico; Pandolfi, Julieta; Romero, Cecilia; De Lillo, Leonardo; Ceballos, Ana; Geffner, Jorge; Arruvito, Lourdes
Although human airway epithelial cells are the main target of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), it also infects immune cells, such as macrophages and B cells. Whether T cells are permissive to RSV infection is unknown. We sought to analyze the permissiveness of CD4+ T cells to RSV infection. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from cord blood, healthy young children, and adults were challenged by RSV or cocultured with infected HEp-2 cells. Infection, phenotype, and cytokine production by T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of RSV antigens by circulating CD4+ T cells from infected children was analyzed by flow cytometry, and disease severity was defined by standard criteria. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were productively infected by RSV. Infection decreased interleukin 2 and interferon γ production as well as the expression of CD25 and Ki-67 by activated CD4+ T cells. Respiratory syncytial virus antigens were detected in circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during severe RSV infection of young children. Interestingly, the frequency of CD4+ RSV+ T cells positively correlated with disease severity. Respiratory syncytial virus infects CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and compromises T-cell function. The frequency of circulating CD4+ RSV+ T cells might represent a novel marker of severe infection.
Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Murray, Graeme I; Duncan, Linda; Yuecel, Raif; Shattock, Robin; Kelly, Charles; Iannelli, Francesco; Pozzi, Gianni; El-Omar, Emad M; Hold, Georgina L; Hijazi, Karolin
CD4+ T lymphocytes in the colorectal mucosa are key in HIV-1 transmission and dissemination. As such they are also the primary target for antiretroviral (ARV)-based rectal microbicides for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Drug transporters expressed in mucosal CD4+ T cells determine ARV distribution across the cell membrane and, most likely, efficacy of microbicides. We describe transporters for antiretroviral drugs in colorectal mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes and compare gene expression with circulating α4β7+CD4+ T cells, which traffic to the intestine and have been shown to be preferentially infected by HIV-1. Purified total CD4+ T cells were obtained from colorectal tissue and blood samples by magnetic separation. CD4+ T cells expressing α4β7 integrin were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers. Expressions of 15 efflux and uptake drug transporter genes were quantified using Taqman qPCR assays. Expression of efflux transporters MRP3, MRP5, and BCRP and uptake transporter CNT2 were significantly higher in colorectal CD4+ T cells compared to circulating CD4+ T cells (p = 0.01-0.03). Conversely, circulating α4β7+CD4+ T cells demonstrated significantly higher expression of OATPD compared to colorectal CD4+ T cells (p = 0.001). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of drug transporter gene expression in colorectal CD4+ and peripheral α4β7+CD4+ T cells. The qualitative and quantitative differences in drug transporter gene expression profiles between α4β7+CD4+ T cells and total mucosal CD4+ T cells may have significant implications for the efficacy of rectally delivered ARV-microbicides. Most notably, we have identified efflux drug transporters that could be targeted by selective inhibitors or beneficial drug-drug interactions to enhance intracellular accumulation of antiretroviral drugs.
Mudd, Joseph C.; Perkins, Molly R.; DiNapoli, Sarah R.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.
ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). Because these animals do not develop simian AIDS despite maintaining high viral loads, there is considerable interest in determining how these animals have evolved to avoid SIV disease progression. Unlike nonnatural hosts of SIV, adult AGMs maintain low levels of CD4+ T cells at steady states and also have a large population of virus-resistant CD8αα T cells that lack CD4 expression despite maintaining T helper cell functionalities. In recent work, we have shown that homeostatic cytokines can induce CD4 downregulation in AGM T cells in vitro. Through administering therapeutic doses of recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) to AGMs, we show here that this mechanism is operative in vivo. IL-2 therapy induced transient yet robust proliferation in all major T cell subsets. Within the CD4+ T cell population, those that were induced into cycle by IL-2 exhibited characteristics of CD4-to-CD8αα conversion. In all animals receiving IL-2, circulating CD4+ T cell counts and proportions tended to be lower and CD4− CD8αα+ T cell counts tended to be higher. Despite reductions in circulating target cells, the viral load was unaffected over the course of study. IMPORTANCE The data in this study identify that homeostatic cytokines can downregulate CD4 in vivo and, when given therapeutically, can induce AGMs to sustain very low levels of circulating CD4+ T cells without showing signs of immunodeficiency. PMID:27053558
Zhu, Zheng-Feng; Tang, Ting-Ting; Dong, Wen-Yong; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xia, Ni; Zhang, Wen-Cai; Zhou, Su-Feng; Yuan, Jing; Liao, Meng-Yang; Li, Jing-Jing; Jiao, Jiao; Nie, Shao-Fang; Wang, Qing; Tu, Xin; Xu, Cheng-Qi; Liao, Yu-Hua; Shi, Guo-Ping; Cheng, Xiang
There has been increasing evidence that chronic immune activation plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of DCM. CD4(+) LAP(+) Tregs are a newly identified T cell subset with suppressive function on the immune response. This study was designed to investigate whether the circulating frequency and function of CD4(+)LAP(+) Tregs would be impaired in patients with DCM. The results demonstrated that DCM patients had a significantly lower frequency of circulating CD4(+)LAP(+) Tregs compared with control donors. CD4(+)LAP(+) Tregs from DCM patients showed compromised function to suppress proliferation of CD4(+) LAP(-)CD25(int/low) T cells and proliferation and IgG production of B cells. Moreover, B cell proliferation and IgG subset production could be directly suppressed by CD4(+) LAP(+) Tregs. TGF-β and contact-dependent mechanisms were involved in CD4(+)LAP(+) Treg-mediated suppression. Correlation analysis suggested that CD4(+)LAP(+) Treg frequency was positively correlated with LVEF and negatively correlated with serum IgG3 and NT-proBNP concentration in patients with DCM. Our results are the first to demonstrate that the frequencies of CD4(+)LAP(+) Tregs in patients with DCM are reduced and that their suppressive function is compromised. Defective CD4(+) LAP(+) Tregs may be an underlying mechanism of immune activation in DCM patients. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
Wang, Fengming; Chen, Lei; Shen, Qiong; Liu, Tong; Jiang, Lian; Gu, Xinhua; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Jing; Liu, Cuiping
During autoimmune disease the fraction of CD4+CD28- T cells in the peripheral blood of has been found to be elevated. In the present study, peripheral blood was collected from 61 patients with Graves' disease (GD) and 30 healthy control participants. Serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin receptor autoantibody (TRAb) were measured and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) surface expression of CD4 and CD28 molecules was detected by flow cytometry. CD4+CD28- cells were sorted from six patients undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy and cultured ex vivo. The influence of TSH pretreated thyroid follicular cells on CD4+CD28- cell proliferation was evaluated using the agonist CD40 mAb 5C11, the blocking CD40L mAb 4F1 or B7-1 mAb 4E5 in 3H-TdR assays. Our data showed that the fraction of CD4+CD28- T cells was higher in GD patients than healthy donors (10.21%±8.56% vs. 2.33%±1.94%; P<0.001), and further elevated in 24 of 61 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) (7.00±6.57% vs. 15.21±8.96%; P<0.001). A higher proportion of CD4+CD28- cells was detected in patients with degree II or III goiter than those with degree I goiter (11.53±9.18% vs. 6.11±3.97%; P<0.05 and 14.50±10.41% vs. 6.11±3.97%; P<0.01). The percentage of CD4+CD28- T cells correlated positively with serum levels of FT3 (r=0.354, P<0.01) and TRAb (r=0.304, P<0.05), but did not correlate with serum FT4 or TSH. Ex vivo, 5C11 enhanced proliferation of CD4+CD28+ cells (P<0.05), but did not influence the proliferation of CD4+CD28- cells. 4F1 inhibited the proliferation of both CD4+CD28+ (P<0.05) and CD4+CD28- (P<0.01) cells, and 4E5 inhibited proliferation of CD4+CD28+ cells (P<0.05). The elevation in circulating CD4+CD28- cells in GD patients correlates with disease severity and maybe plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GD. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier
Wang, Qijin; Zhai, Xiao; Chen, Xiao; Lu, Jiancan; Zhang, Yaping; Huang, Qin
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) play critical roles in inducing B-cell activation and producing various cytokines, whereas circulating CD4+CXCR5+ T cells (CTfh) may act as a counterpart to measure Tfh cell disorders. In this study, we investigated whether Tfh could be involved in the development of T2DM by assessing CTfh in peripheral blood. CTfh and it subtypes were determined by measuring CD3, CD4, CXCR5, CXCR3, and CCR6 in 68 T2DM patients and 60 healthy controls using flow cytometry. Results showed that proportion of CTfh in the peripheral CD4+ T cells was significantly increased in T2DM patients (8.5 ± 0.5%) than in controls (4.5 ± 0.3%) (p < 0.001). Further study revealed that the balance of CTfh subtypes was greatly dysregulated, in which percentage of Th17 subtype was significantly increased in patients. Investigating the correlation between CTfh and risk factors of T2DM demonstrated that proportion of CTfh were significantly elevated in patients with body mass index (BMI) over 24.0 (p = 0.005). Interestingly, patients with abdominal obesity had further increase in CTfh than those without abdominal obesity. This study suggests the involvement of CTfh in T2DM, especially in T2DM-related obesity.
Rodríguez-Perea, Ana Lucía; Montoya, Carlos J.; Olek, Sven; Chougnet, Claire A.; Velilla, Paula A.
Statins have been shown to modulate the number and the suppressive function of CD4+FOXP3+ T cells (Treg) in inflammatory conditions. However, it is not well established whether statin could also affect Treg in absence of inflammation. To address this question, eighteen normocholesterolemic male subjects were treated with lovastatin or atorvastatin daily for 45 days. The frequency and phenotype of circulating Treg were evaluated at days 0, 7, 30, and 45. mRNA levels of FOXP3, IDO, TGF-β, and IL-10 were measured in CD4+ T cells. We found that both statins significantly increased Treg frequency and FOXP3 mRNA levels at day 30. At day 45, Treg numbers returned to baseline values; however, TGF-β and FOXP3 mRNA levels remained high, accompanied by increased percentages of CTLA-4- and GITR-expressing Treg. Treg Ki-67 expression was decreased upon statin treatment. Treg frequency positively correlated with plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), suggesting a role for HDL-c in Treg homeostasis. Therefore, statins appear to have inflammation-independent immune-modulatory effects. Thus, the increase in Treg cells frequency likely contributes to immunomodulatory effect of statins, even in healthy individuals. PMID:25759848
Mao, Xiao-Bo; Yu, Kun-Wu; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Peng-Fei; Ren, Ze-Peng; Wu, Bang-Wei; Ji, Qin-Wei; Wang, Xiang; Zeng, Qiu-Tang
Objective CD4+ latency-associated peptide (LAP)+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a newly discovered T cell subset in humans and the role of these cells in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has not been explored. We designed to investigate whether circulating frequency and function of CD4+LAP+ Tregs are defective in ACS. Methods One hundred eleven ACS patients (acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina) and 117 control patients were enrolled in the study. The control patients consisted of chronic stable angina (CSA) and chest pain syndrome (CPS). The frequencies of circulating CD4+LAP+ Tregs and the expression of the transmembrane protein glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP) on CD4+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry. The function of CD4+LAP+ Tregs was detected using thymidine uptake. Serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β protein (TGF-β) levels were detected using ELISA and expression of GARP mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was measured by real time-polymerase chain reaction. Results We found ACS patients had a significantly lower frequency of circulating CD4+LAP+ Tregs, and the function of these cells was reduced compared to controls. The expression of GARP in CD4+ T cells and the serum levels of TGF-β in ACS patients were lower than those of control patients. The serum levels of IL-10 were similar between the two cohorts. Conclusions A novel regulatory T cell subset, defined as CD4+LAP+ T cells is defective in ACS patients. PMID:24558424
Zhu, Zheng-Feng; Meng, Kai; Zhong, Yu-Cheng; Qi, Liang; Mao, Xiao-Bo; Yu, Kun-Wu; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Peng-Fei; Ren, Ze-Peng; Wu, Bang-Wei; Ji, Qin-Wei; Wang, Xiang; Zeng, Qiu-Tang
CD4(+) latency-associated peptide (LAP)(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a newly discovered T cell subset in humans and the role of these cells in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has not been explored. We designed to investigate whether circulating frequency and function of CD4(+)LAP(+) Tregs are defective in ACS. One hundred eleven ACS patients (acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina) and 117 control patients were enrolled in the study. The control patients consisted of chronic stable angina (CSA) and chest pain syndrome (CPS). The frequencies of circulating CD4(+)LAP(+) Tregs and the expression of the transmembrane protein glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP) on CD4(+) T cells were determined by flow cytometry. The function of CD4(+)LAP(+) Tregs was detected using thymidine uptake. Serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β protein (TGF-β) levels were detected using ELISA and expression of GARP mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was measured by real time-polymerase chain reaction. We found ACS patients had a significantly lower frequency of circulating CD4(+)LAP(+) Tregs, and the function of these cells was reduced compared to controls. The expression of GARP in CD4(+) T cells and the serum levels of TGF-β in ACS patients were lower than those of control patients. The serum levels of IL-10 were similar between the two cohorts. A novel regulatory T cell subset, defined as CD4(+)LAP(+) T cells is defective in ACS patients.
Collins, Nicholas; Jiang, Xiaodong; Zaid, Ali; Macleod, Bethany L.; Li, Jane; Park, Chang Ook; Haque, Ashraful; Bedoui, Sammy; Heath, William R.; Mueller, Scott N.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Gebhardt, Thomas; Carbone, Francis R.
Although memory T cells within barrier tissues can persist as permanent residents, at least some exchange with blood. The extent to which this occurs is unclear. Here we show that memory CD4+ T cells in mouse skin are in equilibrium with the circulation at steady state. These cells are dispersed throughout the inter-follicular regions of the dermis and form clusters with antigen presenting cells around hair follicles. After infection or administration of a contact sensitizing agent, there is a sustained increase in skin CD4+ T-cell content, which is confined to the clusters, with a concomitant CCL5-dependent increase in CD4+ T-cell recruitment. Skin CCL5 is derived from CD11b+ cells and CD8+ T cells, with the elimination of the latter decreasing CD4+ T-cell numbers. These results reveal a complex pattern of tissue-retention and equilibration for CD4+ memory T cells in skin, which is altered by infection and inflammation history. PMID:27160938
Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Kanai, Takanori; Shinohara, Tamako; Ito, Takashi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Lipp, Martin; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Mamoru
The egress of memory T cells from peripheral tissues, such as lung and skin, into the draining lymph nodes requires their expression of CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). In the intestine, resident memory T cells in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) do not express CCR7, indicating that they are tissue bound and do not exit the intestine. We developed a cell transfer system, using rectal administration of lymphocytes to C57BL/6 mice. Lymphotoxin α-deficient mice were crossed with RAG-2(-/-) (recombination-activating gene-2) mice to generate lymphotoxin α-deficient × RAG-2(-/-) mice. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) or RAG-2(-/-) mice given rectal administration of splenic CD4(+) T cells from normal mice developed colitis; the cells proliferated not only in the LP but also in spleen. SCID or RAG-2(-/-) mice given rectal administrations of CD4(+) T cells that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP(+)CD4(+) T cells) localized to the LP within 6 hours but were not found in the spleen until 24 hours after administration. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses detected CD4(+) T cells in the intraepithelial space just 3 hours after intrarectal administration. However, neither CCR7 deficiency nor the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist Fingolimod impaired the egress of CD4(+) T cells from LP to systemic circulation. CD4(+) T cells not only penetrate from the luminal side of the intestine to the LP but also actively egress from the LP into the circulation. We developed a rectal administration system that might be used to further investigate cell trafficking in intestinal mucosa and to develop enema-based therapeutics for intestinal diseases. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Xiaofan; Li, Zhen; Li, Qunhui; Jiao, Yanmei; Ji, Yunxia; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Zhuoming; Li, Wei; Wu, Hao
Preferential infection and depletion of gut-homing α4β7 CD4+ T cells in the blood are observed in chronic HIV/SIV infection. The dynamic change in gut-homing α4β7 CD4+ T cells and their functional subsets during the acute stages of HIV-1 infection are less documented. Therefore, we conducted a cohort study to investigate whether acute HIV-1 infection induced abnormalities in gut-homing α4β7 CD4+ T cells and their functional subsets. We examined the frequency, absolute number, and functionality of gut-homing α4β7 CD4+ T cells in 26 acute HIV-1-infected patients compared with 20 healthy individuals. We found that circulating gut-homing α4β7 CD4+ T cells were preferentially depleted during acute HIV-1 infection and were positively correlated with absolute CD4+ T-cell count in blood. Notably, Th17 and Th1 cell subsets of gut-homing CD4+ T cells were also decreased, which resulted in an imbalance of T helper cells (Th1):regulatory T cells (Treg) and Treg:Th17 ratios. Gut-homing Th17 and Th1 cells were also positively correlated with the absolute number of total CD4+ T cells and gut-homing CD4+ T cells. The gut-homing Treg:Th17 ratio was inversely correlated with the CD4+ T-cell count. Taken together, the analyses of our acute HIV-1 cohort demonstrate that gut-homing α4β7 CD4+ T cells and their functional subsets were profoundly depleted during acute HIV-1 infection, which may have resulted in the persistent loss of circulating CD4+ T cells and an imbalance of Th1:Treg and Treg:Th17 ratios and contribute to HIV-1 disease pathogenesis. PMID:26277899
Cha, Zhanshan; Qian, Guangfang; Zang, Yan; Gu, Haihui; Huang, Yanyan; Zhu, Lishuang; Li, Jinqi; Liu, Yang; Tu, Xiaohua; Song, Haihan; Qian, Baohua
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and aggressive cancer caused by the malignant transformation of B cells. Although it has been established that the follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play a central role in B cell development, little information is available on their involvement in DLBCL pathogenesis. We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh equivalent, the CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells, in DLBCL. Data showed that compared to CXCR5(-) CD4(+) T cells, CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells were significantly more effective at promoting the proliferation as well as inhibiting the apoptosis of primary autologous DLBCL tumor cells. Surprisingly, we found that at equal cell numbers, CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells in DLBCL patients secreted significantly less interleukin (IL)-21 than CXCR5(-) CD4(+) T cells, while the level of IL-10 secretion was significant elevated in the CXCR5(+) compartment compared to the CXCR5(-) compartment. Neutralization of IL-10 in the primary DLBCL-CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cell coculture compromised the CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cell-mediated pro-tumor effects, in a manner that was dependent on the concentration of anti-IL-10 antibodies. The CXCR5(+) compartment also contained significantly lower frequencies of cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells than the CXCR5(-) compartment. In conclusion, our investigations discovered a previously unknown pro-tumor role of CXCR5-expressing circulating CD4(+) T cells, which assisted the survival and proliferation of primary DLBCL cells through IL-10.
Background The NKG2D receptor confers important activating signals to NK cells via ligands expressed during cellular stress and viral infection. This receptor has generated great interest because not only is it expressed on NK cells, but it is also seen in virtually all CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and is classically considered absent in CD4+ T cells. However, recent studies have identified a distinctive population of CD4+ T cells that do express NKG2D, which could represent a particular cytotoxic effector population involved in viral infections and chronic diseases. On the other hand, increased incidence of human papillomavirus-associated lesions in CD4+ T cell-immunocompromised individuals suggests that CD4+ T cells play a key role in controlling the viral infection. Therefore, this study was focused on identifying the frequency of NKG2D-expressing CD4+ T cells in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1. Additionally, factors influencing CD4+NKG2D+ T cell expansion were also measured. Results Close to 50% of patients with CIN 1 contained at least one of the 37 HPV types detected by our genotyping system. A tendency for increased CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells and decreased NK cells was found in CIN 1 patients. The percentage of circulating CD4+ T cells co-expressing the NKG2D receptor significantly increased in women with CIN 1 versus control group. Interestingly, the increase of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells was seen in patients with CIN 1, despite the overall levels of CD4+ T cells did not significantly increase. We also found a significant increase of soluble MICB in CIN 1 patients; however, no correlation with the presence of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells was seen. While TGF-beta was significantly decreased in the group of CIN 1 patients, both TNF-alpha and IL-15 showed a tendency to increase in this group. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that the significant increase within the CD4+NKG2D+ T cell population in CIN 1 patients might be the result of a
Wang, Zhenlong; Ding, Lan; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Jinjing; Zhu, Nan; Diao, Yanqing; Demmy, Todd A; Haitsma, Jack M; Lech-Maranda, Ewa E; Bangia, Naveen N; Czuczman, Myron A; Qian, Xiaoli; Kovacs, Kalman L
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) upregulation was observed in Crohn's disease (CD) patients and was shown to contribute to ongoing mucosal inflammation in CD patients through stabilizing Th1 cell differentiation and IFN-γ production. Given the role of IL-21 in mediating adaptive B cell antibody responses in healthy individuals, we examined the effect of IL-21 upregulation in B cell responses in patients with active CD, including ileum, ileocolonic and colon subtypes, defined by the primary site of CD involvement. We first observed an upregulation of blood plasma IL-21 concentration and IL-21 production from CD4(+) T cells in CD patients compared to healthy individuals. The IL-21-expressing T cells were more concentrated in the CD4(+)CXCR5(+) compartment, both in unstimulated medium and after stimulation with SEB. ICOS and PD-1 expressions were also concentrated in the CD4(+)CXCR5(+) subset in CD patients. Since peripheral blood CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T cell-mediated antibody secretion is IL-21-dependent, we examined the plasma antibody concentration in CD patients and healthy controls. We found that CD patients had significantly higher plasma Ig level than healthy patients, with no significant differences between different CD subtypes. Higher plasma IL-21 concentration and increased IL-21 production from CD4(+) T cells were directly correlated with higher plasma antibody levels. Moreover, we found that IL-21 and CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T cells can directly enhance B cell antibody response in CD patients. Depletion of secreted IL-21 by sIL-21R addition compromised the CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T cell-mediated increase in antibody production. Together, our results demonstrated a novel role of IL-21 in mediating B cell inflammation in CD development.
Guo, Hui; Peng, Di; Yang, Xi-Ge; Wang, Ye; Xu, Bing-Chuan; Ni, Jin-Song; Meng, Wei; Jiang, Yan-Fang
Background IL-22 and IL-17A are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of IL-22+ and IL-17A+ CD4+ T cells in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is not fully understood. This study investigates serum IL-22 and IL-17A levels and determines the frequency of circulating IL-22+ CD4+ T cells in HT patients to understand their roles in the pathogenesis of HT. Methods The levels of serum IL-22, IL-17A and IFN-γ and the frequency of circulating IL-22+CD4+ and IL-17A+CD4+ T cells in 17 HT patients and 17 healthy controls (HC) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry. The levels of serum free triiodothyronine (FT4), free thyroxine (FT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay. Results The percentages of circulating IL-22+CD4+ and IL-17+CD4+ T cells (p<0.0001, p<0.0001) and the levels of serum IL-22, IL-17A and IFN-γ (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p = 0.0210) in the HT patients were significantly higher than that in the HC. The percentages of IL-22+CD4+ T cells were positively correlated with Th17 cells (r = 0.8815, p<0.0001) and IL-17A+IL-22+CD4+ T cells (r = 0.8914, p<0.0001), but were negatively correlated with Th1 cells (r = −0.6110, p<0.0092) in the HT patients. The percentages of Th22 cells, Th17 cells and IL-17A+IL-22+CD4+ T cells were negatively correlated with the levels of serum TSH in the HT patients (r = −0.8402, p<0.0001; r = −0.8589, p<0.0001; r = −0.8289 p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions A higher frequency of circulating IL-22+CD4+ and IL-17A+CD4+ T cells may be associated with the development of HT in Chinese patients. PMID:24404171
Leddon, Scott A; Richards, Katherine A; Treanor, John J; Sant, Andrea J
CD4 T-cell responses are functionally complex and regulate many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. Follicular helper (Tfh) cells are CD4 T cells specialized to support B-cell production of isotype-switched, high-affinity antibody. So far, studies of Tfh cells in humans have focused on their differentiation requirements, with little research devoted to their antigen specificity. Here, after separating circulating human memory CD4 T cells based on expression of CXCR5, a signature marker of Tfh, we have quantified and assayed the influenza protein antigen specificity of blood Tfh cells and CD4 T cells lacking this marker. Through the use of peptide pools derived from nucleoprotein (NP) or haemagglutinin (HA) and a panel of human donors, we have discovered that circulating Tfh cells preferentially recognize peptide epitopes from HA while cells lacking CXCR5 are enriched for specificity toward NP. These studies suggest that reactive CD4 T cells specific for distinct viral antigens may have generalized differences in their functional potential due to their previous stimulation history. PMID:26094691
Hoerning, A; Köhler, S; Jun, C; Lu, J; Fu, J; Tebbe, B; Dolff, S; Feldkamp, T; Kribben, A; Hoyer, P F; Witzke, O
The peripheral chemokine receptors chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) have been reported to be associated with allograft rejection. The impact of the expression of immunosuppressive drugs on peripherally circulating CD4+ T cell subsets after renal transplantion is unknown. Expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 was investigated by flow cytometry in 20 renal allograft recipients participating in a prospective, randomized trial (NCT00514514). Initial immunosuppression consisted of basiliximab, cyclosporin A (CsA), mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids. After 3 months, patients were treated either with CsA, mycophenolate sodium (MPA) plus corticosteroids (n = 6), CsA and everolimus plus corticosteroids (n = 8) or CsA-free (CsAfree) receiving everolimus, MPA and corticosteroids (n = 6). After initial reduction of CD4+forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ and CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) (P < 0·05; P < 0·01), 3-month post-transplant percentages of Tregs were reconstituted in CsAfree and CsAlo arms compared to CsAreg 12 months post transplant. Expression of CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4+FoxP3+ and CD4+FoxP3- T cells 12 months post transplant was increased in CsAfreeversus CsAreg. Increase in CCR5+CXCR3+ co-expressing CD4+FoxP3- cells between 3 and 12 months correlated negatively with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) slope/year [modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD); r = −0·59, P < 0·01]. CsA, but not everolimus, inhibits both Treg development and expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 on CD4+ T cell subsets. Increase in CCR5+CXCR3+ co-expressing CD4+FoxP3- T cells is associated with early loss in allograft function. PMID:22471287
Ono, Satoshi; Kimura, Akifumi; Hiraki, Shuhichi; Takahata, Risa; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Kinoshita, Manabu; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo; Saitoh, Daizoh
Although sepsis-induced immunosuppression has long been considered to be a factor in the late mortality of patients with sepsis, little is known about regulatory T cell (Treg)-mediated immunosuppression and the effect of polymyxin B-immobilized fiber (PMX-F) on sepsis-induced immunosuppression. We sought to investigate the role of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in septic patients, and to evaluate the effect of hemoperfusion with PMX-F on the recovery from immunosuppression owing to septic shock. Thirty-two septic patients who had an identified focus of infection in the abdominal cavity were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the septic patients were examined to evaluate the roles of Tregs and the serum cytokine levels. We also examined the effects of PMX-F therapy on CD4(+) T cells, especially Tregs and serum cytokine levels in patients with septic shock. The percentage of Tregs in the CD4(+) T-cell population, and the serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels, were significantly higher among patients with septic shock compared with those without septic shock, and PMX-F therapy significantly decreased the number of Tregs, as well as the serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Furthermore, a significant increase in the number of CD4(+) T cells, a significant decrease in the percentage of Tregs in the CD4(+) T-cell population, and a significant decrease in the serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels 24 hours after PMX-F therapy were observed in septic shock survivors compared with nonsurvivors. We found a major increase in the percentage of Tregs in peripheral blood circulating CD4(+) T cells from patients with septic shock, and observed that the removal of Tregs by hemoperfusion with PMX-F might represent a novel strategy for inducing recovery from the immunosuppression associated with sepsis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Verkasalo, M A; Arató, A; Savilahti, E; Tainio, V M
Monoclonal antibodies were used to determine the relative numbers of T lymphocyte subsets in 61 jejunal biopsies and in peripheral blood of 35 children with coeliac disease, and of 13 healthy controls. The T cell numbers in the lamina propria were unaffected by a change from gluten-free to gluten containing diet in the patients. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (where the CD8 cells predominated) were significantly raised in patients taking gluten. Ten to 20% of the patients' intraepithelial CD3 (mature T) cells expressed neither CD8 nor CD4 surface antigens. This CD4 8 T cell population persisted through gluten elimination and challenge. The circulating lymphocyte subsets showed little variation with the diet although there was a marked increase in the proportion (14.9%) of CD4 8 T cells in patients during gluten elimination. In the histologically normal jejunal mucosa from control subjects, the age of the subject showed a positive correlation with villus intraepithelial CD3+ and CD8+ cells, and crypt intraepithelial CD4+ cells. No clear cut effect of age was observed on lamina propria lymphocyte counts of the controls, or on the lymphocyte counts in jejunal mucosa of the coeliac patients. The observed CD3+4-8- lymphocytes may represent activated cells unable to present their surface antigens, or they may be gamma delta-receptor bearing T cells, which could have a significant role in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease.
Woodworth, Joshua S.; Cohen, Sara B.; Moguche, Albanus O.; Plumlee, Courtney R.; Agger, Else Marie; Urdahl, Kevin B.; Andersen, Peter
The capacity of CD4 T cells to protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is governed by their ability to localize to the lung site of infection. Subunit vaccine H56/CAF01, a liposome-adjuvanted fusion protein of Mtb antigens Ag85B, ESAT-6, and Rv2660, conferred durable protection and elicited polyfunctional CD4 T cells that preferentially localized to the lung parenchyma. These lung-resident T cells had reduced KLRG1 and increased CXCR3 expression, an intermediate state of Th1 differentiation that has been associated with Mtb protection. Importantly, KLGR1−CXCR3+ cells were also enriched in the lung vasculature and peripheral circulation of vaccinated animals, but not controls. Moreover, S1P1R blockade rapidly cleared this population from the blood and adoptive transfer of T cells recovered from the vasculature of vaccinated, but not control, mice efficiently trafficked into the Mtb-infected lung parenchyma. Thus, durable immunity elicited by H56/CAF01 vaccination is associated with the maintenance of circulating CD4 T cells that selectively home to the lung parenchyma. PMID:27554293
Woodworth, J S; Cohen, S B; Moguche, A O; Plumlee, C R; Agger, E M; Urdahl, K B; Andersen, P
The capacity of CD4 T cells to protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is governed by their ability to localize to the lung site of infection. Subunit vaccine H56/CAF01, a liposome-adjuvanted fusion protein of Mtb antigens Ag85B, ESAT-6, and Rv2660, conferred durable protection and elicited polyfunctional CD4 T cells that preferentially localized to the lung parenchyma. These lung-resident T cells had reduced KLRG1 and increased CXCR3 expression, an intermediate state of Th1 differentiation that has been associated with Mtb protection. Importantly, KLGR1(-) CXCR3(+) cells were also enriched in the lung vasculature and peripheral circulation of vaccinated animals, but not controls. Moreover, S1P1R blockade rapidly cleared this population from the blood and adoptive transfer of T cells recovered from the vasculature of vaccinated, but not control, mice efficiently trafficked into the Mtb-infected lung parenchyma. Thus, durable immunity elicited by H56/CAF01 vaccination is associated with the maintenance of circulating CD4 T cells that selectively home to the lung parenchyma.
de Melo, Karina Mescouto; Unger, Susanne; Keller, Baerbel; Gutenberger, Sylvia; Stumpf, Ina; Goldacker, Sigune; Warnatz, Klaus
This study investigated whether circulating α4β7(+) expressing T cells could serve as a potential marker for gastrointestinal (GI) disease activity in patients with CVID. The analysis of α4β7(+) T cells in the peripheral blood of 36 patients and 22 healthy donors (HD) revealed increased percentages of α4β7(+) conventional memory CD4 T cells and Tregs, but not among CD8 T-cell populations in patients with CVID compared to HD. No differences between patients with and without chronic or acute GI symptoms were observed. EUROClass smB- and 21lo patients, had higher percentages of α4β7(+) memory CD4 T cells compared to HD and smB+ or 21norm patients, respectively. In summary, the detection of α4β7(+) T cells in the peripheral blood did not correlate with active or chronic gastrointestinal disease. The increase of these cells in smB- and 21lo patients adds another piece to the immune dysregulation observed in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The level (or frequency) of circulating monocyte subpopulations such as classical (CD14hiCD16-) and non-classical (CD14dimCD16+) monocytes varies during the course of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that such variation and/or differences in the degree to which these cells expressed the immunoregulatory enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), would be associated with CD4+ T cell recovery after the initiation of ART. This hypothesis was tested in a cross-sectional study of four groups of HIV-infected subjects, including those who were seronegative, untreated virologic controllers [detectable viral load (VL) of <1000 copies/mL], untreated virologic non-controllers [VL > 10,000 copies/mL], and ART-mediated virologic controllers [VL < 75 copies/mL]. A longitudinal analysis of ART-treated subjects was also performed along with regression analysis to determine which biomarkers were associated with and/or predictive of CD4+ T cell recovery. Suppressive ART was associated with increased levels of classical monocyte subpopulations (CD14hiCD16-) and decreased levels of non-classical monocyte populations (CD14dimCD16+). Among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), HO-1 was found to be most highly up-regulated in CD14+ monocytes after ex vivo stimulation. Neither the levels of monocyte subpopulations nor of HO-1 expression in CD14+ monocytes were significantly associated with the degree of CD4+ T cell recovery. Monocyte subpopulations and HO-1 gene expression were, however, restored to normal levels by suppressive ART. These results suggest that the level of circulating monocyte subpopulations and their expression of HO-1 have no evident relationship to CD4+ T cell recovery after the initiation of ART. PMID:25180041
Sharma, Sharad K.; Casey, Janet R.
Background. An explanation for the immunologic dysfunction that causes children to be prone to repeated episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) has long been sought. Poor antibody response has been associated with the otitis-prone condition; however, there is no precise mechanistic explanation for this condition. Methods. Non–otitis-prone and otitis-prone children with AOM or nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization caused by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae were compared for pathogen-specific CD4+ T-helper memory responses by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells using 6 vaccine candidate S. pneumoniae and 3 H. influenzae protein antigens. Samples were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry. Results. Significantly reduced percentages of functional CD45RALow memory CD4+ T cells producing specific cytokines (interferon γ, interleukin [IL]–2, IL-4 and IL-17a) were observed in otitis-prone children following AOM and NP colonization with either S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G responses to the studied protein antigens were reduced, which suggests that antigen-specific B-cell function may be compromised as a result of poor T-cell help. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B stimulated similar cytokine patterns in memory CD4+T cells in both groups of children. Conclusions. Otitis-prone children have suboptimal circulating functional T-helper memory and reduced IgG responses to S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae after colonization and after AOM; this immune dysfunction causes susceptibility to recurrent AOM infections. PMID:21791667
Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Sánchez-Zúñiga, César; Gamboa-Cárdenas, Rocío V; Aliaga-Zamudio, Madeley; Zevallos, Francisco; Tineo-Pozo, Giannina; Cucho-Venegas, Jorge M; Mosqueira-Riveros, Ana; Perich-Campos, Risto A; Alfaro-Lozano, José L; Medina, Mariela; Rodríguez-Bellido, Zoila; Alarcón, Graciela S; Pastor-Asurza, Cesar A
The aim of this study was to determine whether the proportions of naive and memory CD4(+) T cell are independently associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with SLE. This cross-sectional study was conducted in SLE patients seen at our rheumatology department between September 2013 and April 2014. CD4(+) T cell subpopulations were examined by flow cytometry. The association of MetS and CD4(+) T cell subpopulations was examined by Mann-Whitney U-test and by multivariable analysis, adjusting for all possible confounding variables. One hundred and seventeen patients were evaluated. Their mean age was 44.6 years (S.D. 12.6), 109 (93.2%) were female and all patients were Mestizo (mixed Caucasian and Amerindian ancestry). Fifty-two patients (44.4%) presented with MetS. Disease duration was 7.6 years (S.D. 6.8). The percentage of naive CD4(+) T cells was 25.0 (S.D. 12.7) and memory CD4(+) T cells was 66.7 (S.D. 13.2) and the memory:naive CD4(+) T cell ratio was 4.3 (S.D. 5.6). In multivariable analysis, the percentage of naive CD4(+) T cells was negatively associated with the presence of MetS [odds ratio (OR) 0.959 (95% CI 0.923, 0.997), P = 0.033], whereas the percentage of memory CD4(+)T cells and the memory:naive CD4(+) T cell ratio were positively associated with its presence [OR 1.040 (95% CI 1.003, 1.078), P = 0.031 and OR 1.238 (95% CI 1.041, 1.472), P = 0.016, respectively]. In the SLE patients studied, a lower percentage of naive CD4(+) T cells, a higher percentage of memory CD4(+) T cells and the memory:naive CD4(+) T cell ratio were independently associated with the presence of MetS. This association could reflect the impact of immunosenescence among SLE patients with cardiovascular morbidity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Garcia-Chagollan, Mariel; Jave-Suarez, Luis Felipe; Haramati, Jesse; Bueno-Topete, Miriam Ruth; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Estrada-Chavez, Ciro; Bastidas-Ramirez, Blanca Estela; Pereira-Suarez, Ana Laura; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana
NKG2D, an activating immunoreceptor, is primarily restricted to NK cells and CD8(+) T cells. The existence of an atypical cytotoxic CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T cell population has also been found in patients with autoimmune dysfunctions. Nonetheless, contradictory evidence has categorized this population with a regulatory rather than cytotoxic role in other situations. These confounding data have led to the proposal that two distinct CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T cell subsets might exist. The immune response elicited in cervical cancer has been characterized by apparent contradictions concerning the role that T cells, in particular T-helper cells, might be playing in the control of the tumor growth. Interestingly, we recently reported a substantial increase in the frequency of CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T cells in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade-1. However, whether this particular population is also found in patients with more advanced cervical lesions or whether they express a distinctive phenotype remains still to be clarified. In this urgent study, we focused our attention on the immunophenotypic characterization of CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T cells in patients with well-established cervical carcinoma and revealed the existence of at least two separate CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T cell subsets defined by the co-expression or absence of CD28. Patients with diagnosis of invasive cervical carcinoma were enrolled in the study. A group of healthy individuals was also included. Multicolor flow cytometry was used for exploration of TCR alpha/beta, CD28, CD158b, CD45RO, HLA-DR, CD161, and CD107a. A Luminex-based cytokine kit was used to quantify the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. We found an increased percentage of CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T cells in patients with cervical cancer when compared with controls. Accordingly with an increase of CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T cells, we found decreased CD28 expression. The activating or degranulation markers HLA-DR, CD161, and CD107a were heterogeneously expressed. The
Qiao, Yu; Zhu, Lingqiao; Sofi, Hanief; Lapinski, Philip E; Horai, Reiko; Mueller, Kristen; Stritesky, Gretta L; He, Xi; Teh, Hung-Sia; Wiest, David L; Kappes, Dietmar J; King, Philip D; Hogquist, Kristin A; Schwartzberg, Pamela L; Sant'Angelo, Derek B; Chang, Cheong-Hee
MHC class II-expressing thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells can mediate CD4 T-cell selection resulting in functionally distinct thymocyte-selected CD4 (T-CD4) and epithelial-selected CD4 (E-CD4) T cells, respectively. However, little is known about how T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling influences the development of these two CD4 T-cell subsets. To study TCR signaling for T-CD4 T-cell development, we used a GFP reporter system of Nur77 in which GFP intensity directly correlates with TCR signaling strength. T-CD4 T cells expressed higher levels of GFP than E-CD4 T cells, suggesting that T-CD4 T cells received stronger TCR signaling than E-CD4 T cells during selection. Elimination of Ras GTPase-activating protein enhanced E-CD4 but decreased T-CD4 T-cell selection efficiency, suggesting a shift to negative selection. Conversely, the absence of IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase that causes poor E-CD4 T-cell selection due to insufficient TCR signaling improved T-CD4 T-cell generation, consistent with rescue from negative selection. Strong TCR signaling during T-CD4 T-cell development correlates with the expression of the transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein. However, although modulation of the signaling strength affected the efficiency of T-CD4 T-cell development during positive and negative selection, the signaling strength is not as important for the effector function of T-CD4 T cells. These findings indicate that innate T-CD4 T cells, together with invariant natural killer T cells and γδ T cells, receive strong TCR signals during their development and that signaling requirements for the development and the effector functions are distinct.
Richards, D; Chapman, M D; Sasama, J; Lee, T H; Kemeny, D M
This study addresses the question of whether human peripheral CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells possess antigen-specific immune memory. CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells were isolated by a combination of positive and negative selection. Putative CD4+ CD45RA+ cells expressed CD45RA (98.9%) and contained < 0.1% CD4+ CD45RO+ and < 0.5% CD4+ CD45RA+ CD45RO+ cells. Putative CD45RO+ cells expressed CD45RO (90%) and contained 9% CD45RA+ CD45RO+ and < 0.1% CD4+ CD45RA+ cells. The responder frequency of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-stimulated CD4+ CD45RA+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells was determined in two atopic donors and found to be 1:11,314 and 1:8031 for CD4+ CD45RA+ and 1:1463 and 1:1408 for CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells. The responder frequencies of CD4+ CD45RA+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells from two non-atopic, but exposed, donors were 1:78031 and 1:176,903 for CD4+ CD45RA+ and 1:9136 and 1:13,136 for CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells. T cells specific for D. pteronyssinus were cloned at limiting dilution following 10 days of bulk culture with D. pteronyssinus antigen. Sixty-eight clones were obtained from CD4+ CD45RO+ and 24 from CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells. All clones were CD3+ CD4+ CD45RO+ and proliferated in response to D. pteronyssinus antigens. Of 40 clones tested, none responded to Tubercule bacillus purified protein derivative (PPD). No difference was seen in the pattern of interleukin-4 (IL-4) or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) producing clones derived from CD4+ CD45RA+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ precursors, although freshly isolated and polyclonally activated CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells produced 20-30-fold lower levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma than their CD4+ CD45RO+ counterparts. Sixty per cent of the clones used the same pool of V beta genes. These data support the hypothesis that immune memory resides in CD4+ CD45RA+ as well as CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells during the chronic immune response to inhaled antigen. PMID:9301520
du Pré, M. Fleur; van Berkel, Lisette A.; Ráki, Melinda; van Leeuwen, Marieke A.; de Ruiter, Lilian F.; Broere, Femke; ter Borg, Mariëtte N.D.; Lund, Frances E.; Escher, Johanna C.; Lundin, Knut E. A.; Sollid, Ludvig M.; Kraal, Georg; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Samsom, Janneke N.
Objective The aim of this study was to identify new markers of mucosal T cells to monitor ongoing intestinal immune responses in peripheral blood. Design Expression of cell-surface markers was studied in mice on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells in the gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) after OVA feed. The effect of the local mucosal mediators retinoic acid (RA) and TGF-β on the induction of a mucosal phenotype was determined in in vitro T-cell differentiation assays with murine and human T cells. Tetramer stainings were performed to study gluten-specific T cells in the circulation of patients with celiac disease, a chronic small intestinal inflammation. Results In mice, proliferating T cells in MLN were CD62LnegCD38+ during both tolerance induction and abrogation of intestinal homeostasis. This mucosal CD62LnegCD38+ T-cell phenotype was efficiently induced by RA and TGF-β in mice, whereas for human CD4+ T cells RA alone was sufficient. The CD4+CD62LnegCD38+ T-cell phenotype could be used to identify T cells with mucosal origin in human peripheral blood, as expression of the gut-homing chemokine receptor CCR9 and β7 integrin were highly enriched in this subset whereas expression of cutaneous leukocyte associated antigen was almost absent. Tetramer staining revealed that gluten-specific T cells appearing in blood of treated celiac disease patients after oral gluten challenge were predominantly CD4+CD62LnegCD38+. The total percentage of circulating CD62LnegCD38+ of CD4 T cells was not an indicator of intestinal inflammation as percentages did not differ between pediatric celiac disease patients, inflammatory bowel disease patients and respective controls. However, the phenotypic selection of mucosal T cells allowed cytokine profiling as upon restimulation of CD62LnegCD38+ cells IL-10 and IFN-γ transcripts were readily detected in circulating mucosal T-cells. Conclusions By selecting for CD62LnegCD38+ expression which comprises 5–10% of the cells within
Porter, Brian O.; DerSimonian, Rebecca; Kovacs, Stephen B.; Thompson, William L.; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Roby, Gregg; Mican, JoAnn; Pau, Alice; Rupert, Adam; Adelsberger, Joseph; Higgins, Jeanette; Bourgeois, Jeffrey S.; Jensen, Stig M. R.; Morcock, David R.; Burbelo, Peter D.; Osnos, Leah; Maric, Irina; Natarajan, Ven; Croughs, Therese; Yao, Michael D.; Estes, Jacob D.; Sereti, Irini
Idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia (ICL) is a rare syndrome defined by low CD4 T-cell counts (<300/µL) without evidence of HIV infection or other known cause of immunodeficiency. ICL confers an increased risk of opportunistic infections and has no established treatment. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is fundamental for thymopoiesis, T-cell homeostasis, and survival of mature T cells, which provides a rationale for its potential use as an immunotherapeutic agent for ICL. We performed an open-label phase 1/2A dose-escalation trial of 3 subcutaneous doses of recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) per week in patients with ICL who were at risk of disease progression. The primary objectives of the study were to assess safety and the immunomodulatory effects of rhIL-7 in ICL patients. Injection site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events. One patient experienced a hypersensitivity reaction and developed non-neutralizing anti-IL-7 antibodies. Patients with autoimmune diseases that required systemic therapy at screening were excluded from the study; however, 1 participant developed systemic lupus erythematosus while on study and was excluded from further rhIL-7 dosing. Quantitatively, rhIL-7 led to an increase in the number of circulating CD4 and CD8 T cells and tissue-resident CD3 T cells in the gut mucosa and bone marrow. Functionally, these T cells were capable of producing cytokines after mitogenic stimulation. rhIL-7 was well tolerated at biologically active doses and may represent a promising therapeutic intervention in ICL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00839436. PMID:26675348
Maisey, Kevin; Montero, Ruth; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Valenzuela, Beatriz; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Sandino, Ana María; Zou, Jun; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J; Imarai, Mónica
This study reports the isolation and functional characterization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) CD4-1(+) T cells and the establishment of an IL-15-dependent CD4-1(+) T cell line. By using Abs specific for CD4-1 and CD3ε it was possible to isolate the double-positive T cells in spleen and head kidney. The morphology and the presence of transcripts for T cell markers in the sorted CD4-1(+)CD3ε(+) cells were studied next. Cells were found to express TCRα, TCRβ, CD152 (CTLA-4), CD154 (CD40L), T-bet, GATA-3, and STAT-1. The sorted CD4-1(+) T cells also had a distinctive functional attribute of mammalian T lymphocytes, namely they could undergo Ag-specific proliferation, using OVA as a model Ag. The OVA-stimulated cells showed increased expression of several cytokines, including IFN-γ1, IL-4/13A, IL-15, IL-17D, IL-10, and TGF-β1, perhaps indicating that T cell proliferation led to differentiation into distinct effector phenotypes. Using IL-15 as a growth factor, we have selected a lymphoid cell line derived from rainbow trout head kidney cells. The morphology, cell surface expression of CD4-1, and the presence of transcripts of T cell cytokines and transcription factors indicated that this is a CD4-1(+) T cell line. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of CD4-1(+)CD3ε(+) T cells in salmonids. As in mammals, CD4-1(+) T cells may be the master regulators of immune responses in fish, and therefore these findings and the new model T cell line developed will contribute to a greater understanding of T cell function and immune responses in teleost fish. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Dissection of a circulating and intrahepatic CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T-cell subpopulation in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: a highly informative strategy for distinguishing chronic HBV infection states.
Zhang, Mengjun; Zhou, Jijun; Zhao, Tingting; Huang, Guangyu; Tan, Yulong; Tan, Shun; Fu, Xiaolan; Niu, Wei; Meng, Gang; Chen, Xiaoling; Shang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Dong; Ni, Bing; Wang, Li; Wu, Yuzhang
The definition of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) is challenging as it relates to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recently, the heterogeneity of human CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells has been confirmed. Three circulating CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T-cell subpopulations in chronic HBV patients were identified, and their frequencies associated with clinical parameters were analyzed. Antigen specificity of Tregs was further studied. We found that circulating and intrahepatic CD4(+)CD45RA(-)Foxp3(hi)-activated Tregs (aTregs) were selectively increased in patients with chronic active hepatitis B and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) but not in asymptomatic carriers. The aTreg frequency was strongly correlated with HBV DNA load but not liver damage. In both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and livers, ACLF patients showed a dramatically elevated frequency of interleukin 17A-secreting CD45RA(-)Foxp3(lo) nonsuppressive T cells (non-Tregs), which were shown to be associated with severe liver damage. Interestingly, an HBV core antigen (HBcAg)-derived peptide could preferentially expand CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and aTregs in HLA-DR9(+) chronic active hepatitis B patients, and these Tregs required ligand-specific reactivation for suppressor function. The delineation of a CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T-cell subpopulation is a highly informative strategy for distinguishing different chronic HBV infection states. HBcAg-derived peptides may be responsible for activation of Tregs that, in turn, specifically inhibit anti-HBV immune response but not liver inflammation.
Traore, Lassina; Nikiema, Ouéogo; Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Compaore, Tegwindé Rébéca; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Diarra, Birama; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Sorgho, Pegdwendé Abel; Djigma, Florencia Wendkuuni; Bisseye, Cyrille; Yonli, Albert Théophane; Simpore, Jacques
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6) are responsible for severe diseases, particularly in immunocompromised persons. There is limited data of the infection of these opportunistic viruses in Burkina Faso. The purpose of this study was to characterize EBV and HHV-6 subtypes and to assess their impact on CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load and antiretroviral treatment in people living with HIV-1. The study population consisted of 238 HIV-positive patients with information on the CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load and HAART. Venous blood samples collected in EDTA tubes were used for EBV and HHV-6 Real Time PCR subtyping. An infection rate of 6.7% (16/238) and 7.1% (17/238) were found respectively for EBV and HHV-6 in the present study. Among EBV infections, similar prevalence was noted for both subtypes (3.9% (9/238) for EBV-1 vs 4.6% (11/238) for EBV-2) with 2.1% (5/238) of co-infection. HHV-6A infection represented 6.3% (15/238) of the study population against 5.0% (12/238) for HHV-6B. EBV-2 infection was significantly higher in patients with CD4 T cell count ≥ 500 compared to those with CD4 T cell count less than 500 cells (1.65% vs 8.56%, p = 0,011). The prevalence of EBV and HHV-6 infections was almost similar in HAART-naive and HAART-experienced patients. The present study provides information on the prevalence of EBV and HHV-6 subtypes in people living with HIV-1 in Burkina Faso. The study also suggests that HAART treatment has no effect on infection with these opportunistic viruses in people living with HIV-1.
Traore, Lassina; Nikiema, Ouéogo; Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Compaore, Tegwindé Rébéca; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Diarra, Birama; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Sorgho, Pegdwendé Abel; Djigma, Florencia Wendkuuni; Bisseye, Cyrille; Yonli, Albert Théophane; Simpore, Jacques
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6) are responsible for severe diseases, particularly in immunocompromised persons. There is limited data of the infection of these opportunistic viruses in Burkina Faso. The purpose of this study was to characterize EBV and HHV-6 subtypes and to assess their impact on CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load and antiretroviral treatment in people living with HIV-1. The study population consisted of 238 HIV-positive patients with information on the CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load and HAART. Venous blood samples collected in EDTA tubes were used for EBV and HHV-6 Real Time PCR subtyping. An infection rate of 6.7% (16/238) and 7.1% (17/238) were found respectively for EBV and HHV-6 in the present study. Among EBV infections, similar prevalence was noted for both subtypes (3.9% (9/238) for EBV-1 vs 4.6% (11/238) for EBV-2) with 2.1% (5/238) of co-infection. HHV-6A infection represented 6.3% (15/238) of the study population against 5.0% (12/238) for HHV-6B. EBV-2 infection was significantly higher in patients with CD4 T cell count ≥ 500 compared to those with CD4 T cell count less than 500 cells (1.65% vs 8.56%, p = 0,011). The prevalence of EBV and HHV-6 infections was almost similar in HAART-naive and HAART-experienced patients. The present study provides information on the prevalence of EBV and HHV-6 subtypes in people living with HIV-1 in Burkina Faso. The study also suggests that HAART treatment has no effect on infection with these opportunistic viruses in people living with HIV-1.
Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Condotta, Stephanie A.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.; Griffith, Thomas S.
Sepsis remains the primary cause of death from infection in hospital patients, despite improvements in antibiotics and intensive-care practices. Patients who survive severe sepsis can display suppressed immune function, often manifested as an increased susceptibility to (and mortality from) nosocomial infections. Not only is there a significant reduction in the number of various immune cell populations during sepsis, but there is also decreased function in the remaining lymphocytes. Within the immune system, CD4 T cells are important players in the proper development of numerous cellular and humoral immune responses. Despite sufficient clinical evidence of CD4 T cell loss in septic patients of all ages, the impact of sepsis on CD4 T cell responses is not well understood. Recent findings suggest that CD4 T cell impairment is a multipronged problem that results from initial sepsis-induced cell loss. However, the subsequent lymphopenia-induced numerical recovery of the CD4 T cell compartment leads to intrinsic alterations in phenotype and effector function, reduced repertoire diversity, changes in the composition of naive antigen-specific CD4 T cell pools, and changes in the representation of different CD4 T cell subpopulations (e.g., increases in Treg frequency). This review focuses on sepsis-induced alterations within the CD4 T cell compartment that influence the ability of the immune system to control secondary heterologous infections. The understanding of how sepsis affects CD4 T cells through their numerical loss and recovery, as well as function, is important in the development of future treatments designed to restore CD4 T cells to their presepsis state. PMID:24791959
Zelba, Henning; Weide, Benjamin; Martens, Alexander; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Bailur, Jithendra Kini; Kyzirakos, Christina; Pflugfelder, Annette; Eigentler, Thomas K; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Maio, Michele; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; de Vries, Jolanda; Sucker, Antje; Schadendorf, Dirk; Büttner, Petra; Garbe, Claus; Pawelec, Graham
We initially observed that the presence of circulating NY-ESO-1- and/or Melan-A-specific T cells in patients with stage IV melanoma was significantly associated with prolonged survival. Here, we report the ways in which the phenotypes and functions of these T cells differentially affect survival in patients preselected for NY-ESO-1 and/or Melan-A reactivity. We assayed functional antigen-reactive T cells recognizing NY-ESO-1 and/or Melan-A after in vitro stimulation using overlapping peptide pools. After restimulation, we assayed six cytokines simultaneously by intracellular cytokine staining. This allowed us to analyze the functional antigen response of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells at the single-cell level. We observed that NY-ESO-1 stimulated mainly CD4(+) T cells, whereas Melan-A more often stimulated CD8(+) T cells. NY-ESO-1 reactivity was not associated with an additional impact on survival, whether CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, or both types of T cells were responding. In contrast, recognition of Melan-A by CD4(+) T cells was associated with reduced survival in our cohort of patients preselected for NY-ESO-1 and/or Melan-A reactivity (that is, in patients with exceptionally long survival). We further observed a negative effect on survival in patients with CD4(+) T cells producing IL4 and IL17 upon Melan-A stimulation. Their prognosis was comparable to patients without any Melan-A reactivity. The nature and prognostic impact of specific T-cell responses is different according to targeted antigen. Independent from phenotype and functional aspects, NY-ESO-1 reactivity is associated with good prognosis. In terms of Melan-A, antigen-specific CD8(+) but not CD4(+) responses are associated with prolonged survival. Clin Cancer Res; 20(16); 4390-9. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Takeuchi, Arata; Saito, Takashi
CD4+ T cells with cytotoxic activity (CD4 CTL) have been observed in various immune responses. These cells are characterized by their ability to secrete granzyme B and perforin and to kill the target cells in an MHC class II-restricted fashion. Although CD4 CTLs were once thought to be an in vitro artifact associated with long-term culturing, they have since been identified in vivo and shown to play important roles in antiviral and antitumor immunity, as well as in inflammation. Functional characterization of CD4 CTL suggests their potential significance for therapeutic purposes. However, in order to develop effective CD4 CTL therapy it is necessary to understand the differentiation and generation of these cells. Although the mechanisms regulating development of various CD4+ Th subsets have been clarified in terms of the cytokine and transcription factor requirement, the CD4 CTL differentiation mechanism remains elusive. These cells are thought to be most closely related to Th1 cells secreting IFNγ and regulated by eomesodermin and/or T-bet transcription factors for their differentiation. However, our studies and those of others have identified CD4 CTLs within other CD4+ T cell subsets, including naïve T cells. We have identified class I-restricted T cell-associated molecule as a marker of CD4 CTL and, by using this marker, we detected a subset of naïve T cells that have the potential to differentiate into CD4 CTL. CD4 CTL develops at sites of infections as well as inflammation. In this review, we summarize recent findings about the generation of CD4 CTL and propose a model with several differentiation pathways. PMID:28280496
Ruffin, Nicolas; Brezar, Vedran; Ayinde, Diana; Lefebvre, Cécile; Wiesch, Julian Schulze Zur; van Lunzen, Jan; Bockhorn, Maximilian; Schwartz, Olivier; Hocini, Hakim; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Banchereau, Jacques; Levy, Yves; Seddiki, Nabila
Objectives: HIV-1 replication depends on the state of cell activation and division. It is established that SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 infection of resting CD4+ T cells. The modulation of SAMHD1 expression during T-cell activation and proliferation, however, remains unclear, as well as a role for SAMHD1 during HIV-1 pathogenesis. Methods: SAMHD1 expression was assessed in CD4+ T cells after their activation and in-vitro HIV-1 infection. We performed phenotype analyzes using flow cytometry on CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood and lymph nodes from cohorts of HIV-1-infected individuals under antiretroviral treatment or not, and controls. Results: We show that SAMHD1 expression decreased during CD4+ T-cell proliferation in association with an increased susceptibility to in-vitro HIV-1 infection. Additionally, circulating memory CD4+ T cells are enriched in cells with low levels of SAMHD1. These SAMHD1low cells are highly differentiated, exhibit a large proportion of Ki67+ cycling cells and are enriched in T-helper 17 cells. Importantly, memory SAMHD1low cells were depleted from peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals. We also found that follicular helper T cells present in secondary lymphoid organs lacked the expression of SAMHD1, which was accompanied by a higher susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in vitro. Conclusion: We demonstrate that SAMHD1 expression is decreased during CD4+ T-cell activation and proliferation. Also, CD4+ T-cell subsets known to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection, for example, T-helper 17 and follicular helper T cells, display lower levels of SAMHD1. These results pin point a role for SAMHD1 expression in HIV-1 infection and the concomitant depletion of CD4+ T cells. PMID:25715102
Farber, D L; Acuto, O; Bottomly, K
Naive and memory CD4 T cells differ in cell surface phenotype, function, activation requirements, and modes of regulation. To investigate the molecular bases for the dichotomies between naive and memory CD4 T cells and to understand how the T cell receptor (TCR) directs diverse functional outcomes, we investigated proximal signaling events triggered through the TCR/CD3 complex in naive and memory CD4 T cell subsets isolated on the basis of CD45 isoform expression. Naive CD4 T cells signal through TCR/CD3 similar to unseparated CD4 T cells, producing multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated protein species overall and phosphorylating the T cell-specific ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase which is recruited to the CD3zeta subunit of the TCR. Memory CD4 T cells, however, exhibit a unique pattern of signaling through TCR/CD3. Following stimulation through TCR/CD3, memory CD4 T cells produce fewer species of tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates and fail to phosphorylate ZAP-70, yet unphosphorylated ZAP-70 can associate with the TCR/CD3 complex. Moreover, a 26/28-kDa phosphorylated doublet is associated with CD3zeta in resting and activated memory but not in naive CD4 T cells. Despite these differences in the phosphorylation of ZAP-70 and CD3-associated proteins, the ZAP-70-related kinase, p72syk, exhibits similar phosphorylation in naive and memory T cell subsets, suggesting that this kinase could function in place of ZAP-70 in memory CD4 T cells. These results indicate that proximal signals are differentially coupled to the TCR in naive versus memory CD4 T cells, potentially leading to distinct downstream signaling events and ultimately to the diverse functions elicited by these two CD4 T cell subsets.
Yin, Yiming; Choi, Seung-Chul; Xu, Zhiwei; Perry, Daniel J.; Seay, Howard; Croker, Byron P.; Sobel, Eric S.; Brusko, Todd M.; Morel, Laurence
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which autoreactive CD4+ T cells play an essential role. CD4+ T cells rely on glycolysis for inflammatory effector functions, but recent studies have shown that mitochondrial metabolism supports their chronic activation. How these processes contribute to lupus is unclear. Here, we show that both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism are elevated in CD4+ T cells from lupus-prone B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (TC) mice as compared to non-autoimmune controls. In vitro, both the mitochondrial metabolism inhibitor metformin and the glucose metabolism inhibitor 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) reduced IFNγ production, although at different stages of activation. Metformin also restored the defective IL-2 production by TC CD4+ T cells. In vivo, treatment of TC mice and other lupus models with a combination of metformin and 2DG normalized T cell metabolism and reversed disease biomarkers. Further, CD4+ T cells from SLE patients also exhibited enhanced glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism that correlated with their activation status, and their excessive IFNγ production was significantly reduced by metformin in vitro. These results suggest that normalization of T cell metabolism through the dual inhibition of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism is a promising therapeutic venue for SLE. PMID:25673763
Zhang, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Ming-Guang; Liang, Guo-Biao; Yu, Chun-Yong; He, Wenxiu; Li, Zhi-Qing; Gao, Xu
Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and potential IA rupture are one of the direct causes of permanent brain damage and mortality. Interestingly, the major risk factors of IA development, including hemodynamic stress, hypertension, smoking, and genetic predispositions, are closely associated with a proinflammatory immune status. Therefore, we examined the roles of CD4(+) T cells in IA pathogenesis. IA patients exhibited peripheral CD4(+) T-cell imbalance, with overrepresented T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 activities and underrepresented Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) activities, including increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17 production and decreased IL-10 production from total CD4(+) T cells. Chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6 were used to identify Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell subsets, and CD4(+)CD25(hi) was used to identify Treg cells. Based on these markers, the data then showed altered cytokine production by each cell type and shifted subpopulation frequency. Moreover, this shift in frequency was directly correlated with IA severity. To examine the underlying mechanism of CD4(+) T cell skewing, we cocultured CD4(+) T cells with autologous monocytes and found that coculture with monocytes could significantly increase IFN-γ and IL-17 production through contact-independent mechanisms, demonstrating that monocytes could potentially contribute to the altered CD4(+) T cell composition in IA. Analyzing mRNA transcripts revealed significantly upregulated IL-1β and TNF-α expression by monocytes from IA patients. We found a loss of CD4(+) T cell subset balance that was likely to promote a higher state of inflammation in IA, which may exacerbate the disease through a positive feedback loop.
Redjimi, Nassima; Duperrier-Amouriaux, Karine; Raimbaud, Isabelle; Luescher, Immanuel; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Classe, Jean-Marc; Berton-Rigaud, Dominique; Frenel, Jean-Sébastien; Bourbouloux, Emmanuelle
Spontaneous CD4+ T-cell responses to the tumor-specific antigen NY-ESO-1 (ESO) are frequently found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). If these responses are of effector or/and Treg type, however, has remained unclear. Here, we have used functional approaches together with recently developed MHC class II/ESO tetramers to assess the frequency, phenotype and function of ESO-specific cells in circulating lymphocytes from EOC patients. We found that circulating ESO-specific CD4+ T cells in EOC patients with spontaneous immune responses to the antigen are prevalently TH1 type cells secreting IFN-γ but no IL-17 or IL-10 and are not suppressive. We detected tetramer+ cells ex vivo, at an average frequency of 1∶25000 memory cells, that is, significantly lower than in patients immunized with an ESO vaccine. ESO tetramer+ cells were mostly effector memory cells at advanced stages of differentiation and were not detected in circulating CD25+FOXP3+Treg. Thus, spontaneous CD4+ T-cell responses to ESO in cancer patients are prevalently of TH1 type and not Treg. Their relatively low frequency and advanced differentiation stage, however, may limit their efficacy, that may be boosted by immunogenic ESO vaccines. PMID:21829534
Redjimi, Nassima; Duperrier-Amouriaux, Karine; Raimbaud, Isabelle; Luescher, Immanuel; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Classe, Jean-Marc; Berton-Rigaud, Dominique; Frenel, Jean-Sébastien; Bourbouloux, Emmanuelle; Valmori, Danila; Ayyoub, Maha
Spontaneous CD4(+) T-cell responses to the tumor-specific antigen NY-ESO-1 (ESO) are frequently found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). If these responses are of effector or/and Treg type, however, has remained unclear. Here, we have used functional approaches together with recently developed MHC class II/ESO tetramers to assess the frequency, phenotype and function of ESO-specific cells in circulating lymphocytes from EOC patients. We found that circulating ESO-specific CD4(+) T cells in EOC patients with spontaneous immune responses to the antigen are prevalently T(H)1 type cells secreting IFN-γ but no IL-17 or IL-10 and are not suppressive. We detected tetramer(+) cells ex vivo, at an average frequency of 1:25,000 memory cells, that is, significantly lower than in patients immunized with an ESO vaccine. ESO tetramer(+) cells were mostly effector memory cells at advanced stages of differentiation and were not detected in circulating CD25(+)FOXP3(+)Treg. Thus, spontaneous CD4(+) T-cell responses to ESO in cancer patients are prevalently of T(H)1 type and not Treg. Their relatively low frequency and advanced differentiation stage, however, may limit their efficacy, that may be boosted by immunogenic ESO vaccines.
Geginat, Jens; Paroni, Moira; Maglie, Stefano; Alfen, Johanna Sophie; Kastirr, Ilko; Gruarin, Paola; De Simone, Marco; Pagani, Massimiliano; Abrignani, Sergio
Human beings are exposed to a variety of different pathogens, which induce tailored immune responses and consequently generate highly diverse populations of pathogen-specific T cells. CD4+ T cells have a central role in adaptive immunity, since they provide essential help for both cytotoxic T cell- and antibody-mediated responses. In addition, CD4+ regulatory T cells are required to maintain self-tolerance and to inhibit immune responses that could damage the host. Initially, two subsets of CD4+ helper T cells were identified that secrete characteristic effector cytokines and mediate responses against different types of pathogens, i.e., IFN-γ secreting Th1 cells that fight intracellular pathogens, and IL-4 producing Th2 cells that target extracellular parasites. It is now well established that this dichotomy is insufficient to describe the complexity of CD4+ T cell differentiation, and in particular the human CD4 compartment contains a myriad of T cell subsets with characteristic capacities to produce cytokines and to home to involved tissues. Moreover, it has become increasingly clear that these T cell subsets are not all terminally differentiated cells, but that the majority is plastic and that in particular central memory T cells can acquire different properties and functions in secondary immune responses. In addition, there is compelling evidence that helper T cells can acquire regulatory functions upon chronic stimulation in inflamed tissues. The plasticity of antigen-experienced human T cell subsets is highly relevant for translational medicine, since it opens new perspectives for immune-modulatory therapies for chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. PMID:25566245
Onodera, Hirokazu; Ninomiya, Kasumi; Yoshida, Makoto; Matsuo, Hidenori; Shibuya, Noritoshi
To control antigen (Ag)-specific immune cells is important in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In particular, controlling the immune response of autoimmune T cells is effective in the treatment of these diseases. The development of a device that can remove CD4+ T cells specifically by extracorporeal circulation is now in progress, with the aim to deplete autoimmune T cells. We developed a removal material made of polypropylene non-woven fabrics with anti human CD4 monoclonal antibody immobilized on the surface. Using a column packed with the removal material, we succeeded in removing CD4+ T cells specifically from peripheral whole blood by direct perfusion. Moreover, CD4+ T cells can be specifically removed even from blood with lower surface antigen density by in vitro activation.
Protective immunity to chronic and acute viral infection relies on both the innate and adaptive immune response. Although neutralizing antibody production by B cells and cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells are well-accepted components of the adaptive immune response to viruses, identification of the specific role of CD4+ T cells in protection has been more challenging to establish. Delineating the contribution of CD4+ T cells has been complicated by their functional heterogeneity, breadth in antigen specificity, transient appearance in circulation, and sequestration in tissue sites of infection. In this minireview, we discuss recent progress in identifying the multiple roles of CD4+ T cells in orchestrating and mediating the immune responses against viral pathogens. We highlight several recent reports, including one published in this issue, that have employed comprehensive and sophisticated approaches to provide new evidence for CD4+ T cells as direct effectors in antiviral immunity. PMID:22851641
CD4+ T cells play a central role in controlling the adaptive immune response by secreting cytokines to activate target cells. Naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into at least four subsets, Th1, Th2, Th17, and inducible regulatory T cells, each with unique functions for pathogen elimination. The differentiation of these subsets is induced in response to cytokine stimulation, which is translated into Stat activation, followed by induction of master regulator transcription factors. In addition to these factors, multiple other transcription factors, both subset specific and shared, are also involved in promoting subset differentiation. This review will focus on the network of transcription factors that control CD4+ T cell differentiation. PMID:24839135
Stephens, R; Langhorne, J
CD4 T cells play a central role in the immune response to malaria. They are required to help B cells produce the antibody that is essential for parasite clearance. They also produce cytokines that amplify the phagocytic and parasitocidal response of the innate immune system, as well as dampening this response later on to limit immunopathology. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which T helper cells are activated and the requirements for development of specific, and effective, T cell memory and immunity is essential in the quest for a malaria vaccine. In this paper on the CD4 session of the Immunology of Malaria Infections meeting, we summarize discussions of CD4 cell priming and memory in malaria and in vaccination and outline critical future lines of investigation. B. Stockinger and M.K. Jenkins proposed cutting edge experimental systems to study basic T cell biology in malaria. Critical parameters in T cell activation include the cell types involved, the route of infection and the timing and location and cell types involved in antigen presentation. A new generation of vaccines that induce CD4 T cell activation and memory are being developed with new adjuvants. Studies of T cell memory focus on differentiation and factors involved in maintenance of antigen specific T cells and control of the size of that population. To improve detection of T cell memory in the field, efforts will have to be made to distinguish antigen-specific responses from cytokine driven responses.
Hong, Jian; Zang, Ying C. Q.; Nie, Hong; Zhang, Jingwu Z.
Immunization with irradiated autologous T cells (T cell vaccination) is shown to induce regulatory T cell responses that are poorly understood. In this study, CD4+ regulatory T cell lines were generated from patients with multiple sclerosis that received immunization with irradiated autologous myelin basic protein-reactive T cells. The resulting CD4+ regulatory T cell lines had marked inhibition on autologous myelin basic protein-reactive T cells and displayed two distinctive patterns distinguishable by the expression of transcription factor Foxp3 and cytokine profile. The majority of the T cell lines had high Foxp3 expression and secreted both IFN-γ and IL-10 as compared with the other pattern characteristic of low Foxp3 expression and predominant production of IL-10 but not IFN-γ. CD4+ regulatory T cell lines of both patterns expressed CD25 and reacted with activated autologous T cells but not resting T cells, irrespective of antigen specificity of the target T cells. It was evident that they recognized preferentially a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 61–73 of the IL-2 receptor α chain. T cell vaccination correlated with increased Foxp3 expression and T cell reactivity to peptide 61–73. The findings have important implications in the understanding of the role of CD4+ regulatory T cell response induced by T cell vaccination. PMID:16547138
Zhao, X; Sun, G; Sun, X; Tian, D; Liu, K; Liu, T; Cong, M; Xu, H; Li, X; Shi, W; Tian, Y; Yao, J; Guo, H; Zhang, D
CD4+ T lymphocytes are key players in the adaptive immune system and can differentiate into a variety of effector and regulatory T cells. Here, we provide evidence that a novel differentiation pathway of CD4+ T cells shifts the balance from a destructive T-cell response to one that favors regulation in an immune-mediated liver injury model. Peripheral CD4−CD8−NK1.1− double-negative T cells (DNT) was increased following Concanavalin A administration in mice. Adoptive transfer of DNT led to significant protection from hepatocyte necrosis by direct inhibition on the activation of lymphocytes, a process that occurred primarily through the perforin-granzyme B route. These DNT converted from CD4+ rather than CD8+ T cells, a process primarily regulated by OX40. DNT migrated to the liver through the CXCR3-CXCL9/CXCL10 interaction. In conclusion, we elucidated a novel differentiation pathway from activated CD4+ T cells to regulatory DNT cells for maintaining homeostasis of the immune system in vivo, and provided key evidence that utilizing this novel differentiation pathway has potential application in the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27077809
He, Jing; Tsai, Louis M; Leong, Yew Ann; Hu, Xin; Ma, Cindy S; Chevalier, Nina; Sun, Xiaolin; Vandenberg, Kirsten; Rockman, Steve; Ding, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Wei, Wei; Wang, Changqi; Karnowski, Alexander; Belz, Gabrielle T; Ghali, Joanna R; Cook, Matthew C; Riminton, D Sean; Veillette, André; Schwartzberg, Pamela L; Mackay, Fabienne; Brink, Robert; Tangye, Stuart G; Vinuesa, Carola G; Mackay, Charles R; Li, Zhanguo; Yu, Di
Follicular B helper T (Tfh) cells support high affinity and long-term antibody responses. Here we found that within circulating CXCR5⁺ CD4⁺ T cells in humans and mice, the CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset has a partial Tfh effector phenotype, whereas CCR7(hi)PD-1(lo) cells have a resting phenotype. The circulating CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset was indicative of active Tfh differentiation in lymphoid organs and correlated with clinical indices in autoimmune diseases. Thus the CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset provides a biomarker to monitor protective antibody responses during infection or vaccination and pathogenic antibody responses in autoimmune diseases. Differentiation of both CCR7(hi)PD-1(lo) and CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subsets required ICOS and BCL6, but not SAP, suggesting that circulating CXCR5⁺ helper T cells are primarily generated before germinal centers. Upon antigen reencounter, CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) CXCR5⁺ precursors rapidly differentiate into mature Tfh cells to promote antibody responses. Therefore, circulating CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) CXCR5⁺ CD4⁺ T cells are generated during active Tfh differentiation and represent a new mechanism of immunological early memory.
Tubo, Noah J; Jenkins, Marc K
CD4(+) T cells are key cells of the adaptive immune system that use T cell antigen receptors to recognize peptides that are generated in endosomes or phagosomes and displayed on the host cell surface bound to major histocompatibility complex molecules. These T cells participate in immune responses that protect hosts from microbes such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Leishmania major, and Salmonella enterica, which have evolved to live in the phagosomes of macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we review studies indicating that CD4(+) T cells control phagosomal infections asymptomatically in most individuals by secreting cytokines that activate the microbicidal activities of infected phagocytes but in a way that inhibits the pathogen but does not eliminate it. Indeed, we make the case that localized, controlled, persistent infection is necessary to maintain large numbers of CD4(+) effector T cells in a state of activation needed to eradicate systemic and more pathogenic forms of the infection. Finally, we posit that current vaccines for phagosomal infections fail because they do not produce this "periodic reminder" form of CD4(+) T cell-mediated immune control.
In 1986, Mosmann and Coffman identified 2 subsets of activated CD4 T cells, Th1 and Th2 cells, which differed from each other in their pattern of cytokine production and their functions. Our understanding of the importance of the distinct differentiated forms of CD4 T cells and of the mechanisms through which they achieve their differentiated state has greatly expanded over the past 2 decades. Today at least 4 distinct CD4 T-cell subsets have been shown to exist, Th1, Th2, Th17, and iTreg cells. Here we summarize much of what is known about the 4 subsets, including the history of their discovery, their unique cytokine products and related functions, their distinctive expression of cell surface receptors and their characteristic transcription factors, the regulation of their fate determination, and the consequences of their abnormal activation. PMID:18725574
Laurence, J; Mitra, D; Steiner, M; Lynch, D H; Siegal, F P; Staiano-Coico, L
Progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, accompanied by opportunistic infections characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, ahs been reported in the absence of any known etiology. The pathogenesis of this syndrome, a subset of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL), is uncertain. We report that CD4+ T cells from seven of eight ICL patients underwent accelerated programmed cell death, a process facilitated by T cell receptor cross-linking. Apoptosis was associated with enhanced expression of Fas and Fas ligand in unstimulated cell populations, and partially inhibited by soluble anti-Fas mAb. In addition, apoptosis was suppressed by aurintricarboxylic acid, an inhibitor of calcium-dependent endonucleases and proteases, in cells from four of seven patients, The in vivo significance of these findings was supported by three factors: the absence of accelerated apoptosis in persons with stable, physiologic CD4 lymphopenia without clinical immune deficiency; detection of serum antihistone H2B autoantibodies, one consequence of DNA fragmentation, in some patients; and its selectivity, with apoptosis limited to the CD4 population in some, and occurring among CD8+ T cells predominantly in those individuals with marked depletion of both CD4+ T lymphocytes linked to clinical immune suppression have evidence for accelerated T cell apoptosis in vitro that may be pathophysiologic and amenable to therapy with apoptosis inhibitors. PMID:8609222
Corthay, Alexandre; Skovseth, Dag K; Lundin, Katrin U; Røsjø, Egil; Omholt, Hilde; Hofgaard, Peter O; Haraldsen, Guttorm; Bogen, Bjarne
Gene-targeted mice have recently revealed a role for lymphocytes and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) in conferring protection against cancer, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we have characterized a successful primary antitumor immune response initiated by naive CD4+ T cells. Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-negative myeloma cells injected subcutaneously into syngeneic mice were surrounded within 3 days by macrophages that captured tumor antigens. Within 6 days, naive myeloma-specific CD4+ T cells became activated in draining lymph nodes and subsequently migrated to the incipient tumor site. Upon recognition of tumor-derived antigenic peptides presented on MHC-II by macrophages, the myeloma-specific CD4+ T cells were reactivated and started to secrete cytokines. T cell-derived IFNgamma activated macrophages in close proximity to the tumor cells. Tumor cell growth was completely inhibited by such locally activated macrophages. These data indicate a mechanism for immunosurveillance of MHC-II-negative cancer cells by tumor-specific CD4+ T cells through collaboration with macrophages.
Brucklacher-Waldert, Verena; Carr, Edward J.; Linterman, Michelle A.; Veldhoen, Marc
Barrier sites such as the gastrointestinal tract are in constant contact with the environment, which contains both beneficial and harmful components. The immune system at the epithelia must make the distinction between these components to balance tolerance, protection, and immunopathology. This is achieved via multifaceted immune recognition, highly organized lymphoid structures, and the interaction of many types of immune cells. The adaptive immune response in the gut is orchestrated by CD4+ helper T (Th) cells, which are integral to gut immunity. In recent years, it has become apparent that the functional identity of these Th cells is not as fixed as initially thought. Plasticity in differentiated T cell subsets has now been firmly established, in both health and disease. The gut, in particular, utilizes CD4+ T cell plasticity to mold CD4+ T cell phenotypes to maintain its finely poised balance of tolerance and inflammation and to encourage biodiversity within the enteric microbiome. In this review, we will discuss intestinal helper T cell plasticity and our current understanding of its mechanisms, including our growing knowledge of an evolutionarily ancient symbiosis between microbiota and malleable CD4+ T cell effectors. PMID:25339956
Verselis, S J; Goust, J M
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by CD4-enriched T cells from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and normal individuals stimulated with concanavalin A (conA) and/or autologous and allogeneic B lymphoid cell lines (B-LCL) was evaluated 24, 48 and 96 h after stimulation. ConA-stimulated CD4+ cells from MS patients did not produce significantly more IL-2 than normal CD4+ cells. In contrast, autologous B-LCL-induced IL-2 production by MS CD4+ cells significantly (P = 0.026) exceeded that produced by normal CD4+ cells identically stimulated after 24 h in culture. Differences in IL-2 production by CD4+ cells from MS patients reached highest significance using allogeneic B-LCL, whose stimulatory capacity was similar, whether established from normal individuals or MS patients. This increased IL-2 production in response to B-LCL may represent a supranormal response of CD4+ cells from MS patients to class II major histocompatibility (MHC)-associated stimuli. It suggests that the deficiency of suppressor T cell functions postulated to play a role in MS does not arise from a lack of IL-2 induction and might indicate that bursts of IL-2 production could play a role in MS.
Nascimbeni, Michelina; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Chiriboga, Luis; Kleiner, David E; Rehermann, Barbara
Although an increased frequency of CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells has been observed in the peripheral blood during viral infections, their role, function, and biologic significance are still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the circulating CD4(+)CD8(+) T-cell population contains mature effector memory lymphocytes specific for antigens of multiple past, latent, and high-level persistent viral infections. Upon in vitro antigenic challenge, a higher frequency of CD4(+)CD8(+) than single-positive cells displayed a T helper 1/T cytotoxic 1 (Th1/Tc1) cytokine profile and proliferated. Ex vivo, more double-positive than single-positive cells exhibited a differentiated phenotype. Accordingly, their lower T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) content and shorter telomeres proved they had divided more frequently than single-positive cells. Consistent with expression of the tissue-homing marker CXCR3, CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells were demonstrated in situ at the site of persistent viral infection (ie, in the liver during chronic hepatitis C). Finally, a prospective analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a chimpanzee, the only animal model for HCV infection, showed a close correlation between the frequency of activated CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells and viral kinetics. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that peripheral CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells take part in the adaptive immune response against infectious pathogens and broaden the perception of the T-cell populations involved in antiviral immune responses.
Nastke, Maria-D.; Becerra, Aniuska; Yin, Liusong; Dominguez-Amorocho, Omar; Gibson, Laura; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio
Following primary infection, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) establishes a persistent infection for life. HHV-6 reactivation has been associated with transplant rejection, delayed engraftment, encephalitis, muscular dystrophy, and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. The poor understanding of the targets and outcome of the cellular immune response to HHV-6 makes it difficult to outline the role of HHV-6 in human disease. To fill in this gap, we characterized CD4 T cell responses to HHV-6 using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and T cell lines generated from healthy donors. CD4+ T cells responding to HHV-6 in peripheral blood were observed at frequencies below 0.1% of total T cells but could be expanded easily in vitro. Analysis of cytokines in supernatants of PBMC and T cell cultures challenged with HHV-6 preparations indicated that gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were appropriate markers of the HHV-6 cellular response. Eleven CD4+ T cell epitopes, all but one derived from abundant virion components, were identified. The response was highly cross-reactive between HHV-6A and HHV-6B variants. Seven of the CD4+ T cell epitopes do not share significant homologies with other known human pathogens, including the closely related human viruses human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tetramers generated with these epitopes were able to detect HHV-6-specific T cell populations. These findings provide a window into the immune response to HHV-6 and provide a basis for tracking HHV-6 cellular immune responses. PMID:22357271
Pieper, J; Johansson, S; Snir, O; Linton, L; Rieck, M; Buckner, J H; Winqvist, O; van Vollenhoven, R; Malmström, V
Proinflammatory CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells are frequently found in the circulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but are less common in the rheumatic joint. In the present study, we sought to identify functional differences between CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from blood and synovial fluid in comparison with conventional CD28-expressing CD4(+) T cells. Forty-four patients with RA, displaying a distinct CD4(+) CD28(null) T cell population in blood, were recruited for this study; the methylation status of the IFNG locus was examined in isolated T cell subsets, and intracellular cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF, IL-17) and chemokine receptor expression (CXCR3, CCR6 and CCR7) were assessed by flow cytometry on T cells from the two compartments. Circulating CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells were significantly more hypomethylated in the CNS-1 region of the IFNG locus than conventional CD4(+) CD28(+) T cells and produced higher levels of both IFN-γ and TNF after TCR cross-linking. CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from the site of inflammation expressed significantly more CXCR3 and CCR6 compared to their counterparts in blood. While IL-17A production could hardly be detected in CD4(+) CD28(null) cells from the blood, a significant production was observed in CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from synovial fluid. CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells were not only found to differ from conventional CD4(+) CD28(+) T cells in the circulation, but we could also demonstrate that synovial CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells showed additional effector functions (IL-17 coproduction) as compared to the same subset in peripheral blood, suggesting an active role for these cells in the perpetuation of inflammation in the subset of patients having a CD28(null) population.
Owen, David L.; Farrar, Michael A.
STAT5 plays a critical role in the development and function of many cell types. Here, we review the role of STAT5 in the development of T lymphocytes in the thymus and its subsequent role in the differentiation of distinct CD4 + helper and regulatory T-cell subsets. PMID:28163905
Zou, Jianghuan; Lai, Beibei; Zheng, Mingzhu; Chen, Qin; Jiang, Shujun; Song, Anying; Huang, Zan; Shi, Peiliang; Tu, Xin; Wang, Di; Lu, Linrong; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang
Body weight regain often causes failure of obesity therapies while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that immune cells, especially CD4+ T cells, mediate the 'memory' of previous obese status. In a weight gain-loss-regain model, we found that C57BL/6J mice with an obesity history showed a much faster rate of body weight regain. This obesity memory could last for at least 2 months after previously obese mice were kept at the same body weight as non-obese mice. Surprisingly, such obesity memory was abrogated by dexamethasone treatment, whereas immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) and H2A(-/-) mice failed to establish such memory. Rag1(-/-) mice repossessed the obesity memory when immune cells or CD4+ T cells isolated from previously obese mice were transferred. Furthermore, depletion of CD4+ T cells led to obesity memory ablation. Taken together, we conclude that CD4+ T cells mediate obesity memory and promote weight regain.Cellular &Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 19 June 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.36.
Romagnoli, P A; Fu, H H; Qiu, Z; Khairallah, C; Pham, Q M; Puddington, L; Khanna, K M; Lefrançois, L; Sheridan, B S
Mucosal antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses to intestinal pathogens remain incompletely understood. Here we examined the CD4 T-cell response after oral infection with an internalin A 'murinized' Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Oral Lm infection induced a robust endogenous listeriolysin O (LLO)-specific CD4 T-cell response with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics in the intestine. Circulating LLO-specific CD4 T cells transiently expressed the 'gut-homing' integrin α4β7 and accumulated in the intestinal lamina propria and epithelium where they were maintained independent of interleukin (IL)-15. The majority of intestinal LLO-specific CD4 T cells were CD27(-) Ly6C(-) and CD69(+) CD103(-) while the lymphoid LLO-specific CD4 T cells were heterogeneous based on CD27 and Ly6C expression and predominately CD69(-). LLO-specific effector CD4 T cells transitioned into a long-lived memory population that phenotypically resembled their parent effectors and displayed hallmarks of residency. In addition, intestinal effector and memory CD4 T cells showed a predominant polyfunctional Th1 profile producing IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-2 at high levels with minimal but detectable levels of IL-17A. Depletion of CD4 T cells in immunized mice led to elevated bacterial burden after challenge infection highlighting a critical role for memory CD4 T cells in controlling intestinal intracellular pathogens.
Romagnoli, PA; Fu, HH; Qiu, Z; Khairallah, C; Pham, QM; Puddington, L; Khanna, KM; Lefrançois, L; Sheridan, BS
Mucosal antigen-specific CD4 T cell responses to intestinal pathogens remain incompletely understood. Here we examined the CD4 T cell response after oral infection with an internalin A ‘murinized’ Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Oral Lm infection induced a robust endogenous listeriolysin O (LLO)-specific CD4 T cell response with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics in the intestine. Circulating LLO-specific CD4 T cells transiently expressed the ‘gut-homing’ integrin α4β7 and accumulated in the intestinal lamina propria and epithelium where they were maintained independent of IL-15. The majority of intestinal LLO-specific CD4 T cells were CD27− Ly6C− and CD69+ CD103− while the lymphoid LLO-specific CD4 T cells were heterogeneous based on CD27 and Ly6C expression and predominately CD69−. LLO-specific effector CD4 T cells transitioned into a long-lived memory population that phenotypically resembled their parent effectors and displayed hallmarks of residency. In addition, intestinal effector and memory CD4 T cells showed a predominant polyfunctional Th1 profile producing IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2 at high levels with minimal but detectable levels of IL-17A. Depletion of CD4 T cells in immunized mice led to elevated bacterial burden after challenge infection highlighting a critical role for memory CD4 T cells in controlling intestinal intracellular pathogens. PMID:27461178
Zhang, Zili; Liu, Qi; Leskov, Konstantin S; Wu, Xiumei; Duan, Jie; Zhang, Gary L; Hall, Mark; Rosenbaum, James T
T cells are essential for the development of uveitis and other autoimmune diseases. After initial activation, CD4+ lymphocytes express the co-stimulatory molecule OX40 that plays an important role in T cell proliferation. Cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CdK2) plays a pivotal role in the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. In addition, recent research has implicated CdK2 in T cell activation. Thus, we sought to test the immunosuppressive effect of roscovitine, a potent CdK2 inhibitor, on CD4+ T cell activation, proliferation, and function. Mouse CD4+ T cells were activated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. The expression of OX40, CD44, and CdK2 were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of control and roscovitine-treated T lymphocytes were measured by BrdU incorporation and annexin V assay, respectively. Furthermore, the immunoregulatory effect of roscovitine was evaluated in both ovalbumin-induced uveitis and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) models. In this study, we found that T cell activation induced OX40 expression. Cell cycle analysis showed that more CD4+OX40+ cells entered S phase than OX40- T cells. Concurrently, CD4+OX40+ cells had a higher level of CdK2 expression. Roscovitine treatment blocked activated CD4+ cells from entering S phase. In addition, roscovitine not only reduced the viability of CD4+ lymphocytes but also suppressed T cell activation and cytokine production. Finally, roscovitine significantly attenuated the severity of T cell-dependent, OX40-enhanced uveitis. These results implicate CdK2 in OX40-augmented T cell response and expansion. Furthermore, this study suggests that roscovitine is a novel, promising, therapeutic agent for treating T cell-mediated diseases such as uveitis.
Zhang, Zili; Liu, Qi; Leskov, Konstantin S.; Wu, Xiumei; Duan, Jie; Zhang, Gary L.; Hall, Mark; Rosenbaum, James T.
Background T cells are essential for the development of uveitis and other autoimmune diseases. After initial activation, CD4+ lymphocytes express the co-stimulatory molecule OX40 that plays an important role in T cell proliferation. Cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CdK2) plays a pivotal role in the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. In addition, recent research has implicated CdK2 in T cell activation. Thus, we sought to test the immunosuppressive effect of roscovitine, a potent CdK2 inhibitor, on CD4+ T cell activation, proliferation, and function. Design and Methods Mouse CD4+ T cells were activated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. The expression of OX40, CD44, and CdK2 were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of control and roscovitine-treated T lymphocytes were measured by BrdU incorporation and annexin V assay, respectively. Furthermore, the immunoregulatory effect of roscovitine was evaluated in both ovalbumin-induced uveitis and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) models. Results In this study, we found that T cell activation induced OX40 expression. Cell cycle analysis showed that more CD4+OX40+ cells entered S phase than OX40- T cells. Concurrently, CD4+OX40+ cells had a higher level of CdK2 expression. Roscovitine treatment blocked activated CD4+ cells from entering S phase. In addition, roscovitine not only reduced the viability of CD4+ lymphocytes but also suppressed T cell activation and cytokine production. Finally, roscovitine significantly attenuated the severity of T cell-dependent, OX40-enhanced uveitis. Conclusion These results implicate CdK2 in OX40-augmented T cell response and expansion. Furthermore, this study suggests that roscovitine is a novel, promising, therapeutic agent for treating T cell-mediated diseases such as uveitis. PMID:24260551
Gasper, David J.; Tejera, Melba Marie; Suresh, M.
Immunologic memory is the adaptive immune system's powerful ability to remember a previous antigen encounter and react with accelerated vigor upon antigen re-exposure. It provides durable protection against reinfection with pathogens and is the foundation for vaccine-induced immunity. Unlike the relatively restricted immunologic purview of memory B cells and CD8 T cells, the field of CD4 T-cell memory must account for multiple distinct lineages with diverse effector functions, the issue of lineage commitment and plasticity, and the variable distribution of memory cells within each lineage. Here, we discuss the evidence for lineage-specific CD4 T-cell memory and summarize the known factors contributing to memory-cell generation, plasticity, and long-term maintenance. PMID:24940912
Gasper, David J; Tejera, Melba Marie; Suresh, M
Immunologic memory is the adaptive immune system's powerful ability to remember a previous antigen encounter and react with accelerated vigor upon antigen re-exposure. It provides durable protection against reinfection with pathogens and is the foundation for vaccine-induced immunity. Unlike the relatively restricted immunologic purview of memory B cells and CD8 T cells, the field of CD4 T-cell memory must account for multiple distinct lineages with diverse effector functions, the issue of lineage commitment and plasticity, and the variable distribution of memory cells within each lineage. Here, we discuss the evidence for lineage-specific CD4 T-cell memory and summarize the known factors contributing to memory-cell generation, plasticity, and long-term maintenance.
Yoder, Alyson C; Guo, Kejun; Dillon, Stephanie M; Phang, Tzu; Lee, Eric J; Harper, Michael S; Helm, Karen; Kappes, John C; Ochsenbauer, Christina; McCarter, Martin D; Wilson, Cara C; Santiago, Mario L
Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF) HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a molecular blueprint
Abana, Chike O; Pilkinton, Mark A; Gaudieri, Silvana; Chopra, Abha; McDonnell, Wyatt J; Wanjalla, Celestine; Barnett, Louise; Gangula, Rama; Hager, Cindy; Jung, Dae K; Engelhardt, Brian G; Jagasia, Madan H; Klenerman, Paul; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Koelle, David M; Kalams, Spyros A; Mallal, Simon A
Select CMV epitopes drive life-long CD8(+) T cell memory inflation, but the extent of CD4 memory inflation is poorly studied. CD4(+) T cells specific for human CMV (HCMV) are elevated in HIV(+) HCMV(+) subjects. To determine whether HCMV epitope-specific CD4(+) T cell memory inflation occurs during HIV infection, we used HLA-DR7 (DRB1*07:01) tetramers loaded with the glycoprotein B DYSNTHSTRYV (DYS) epitope to characterize circulating CD4(+) T cells in coinfected HLA-DR7(+) long-term nonprogressor HIV subjects with undetectable HCMV plasma viremia. DYS-specific CD4(+) T cells were inflated among these HIV(+) subjects compared with those from an HIV(-) HCMV(+) HLA-DR7(+) cohort or with HLA-DR7-restricted CD4(+) T cells from the HIV-coinfected cohort that were specific for epitopes of HCMV phosphoprotein-65, tetanus toxoid precursor, EBV nuclear Ag 2, or HIV gag protein. Inflated DYS-specific CD4(+) T cells consisted of effector memory or effector memory-RA(+) subsets with restricted TCRβ usage and nearly monoclonal CDR3 containing novel conserved amino acids. Expression of this near-monoclonal TCR in a Jurkat cell-transfection system validated fine DYS specificity. Inflated cells were polyfunctional, not senescent, and displayed high ex vivo levels of granzyme B, CX3CR1, CD38, or HLA-DR but less often coexpressed CD38(+) and HLA-DR(+) The inflation mechanism did not involve apoptosis suppression, increased proliferation, or HIV gag cross-reactivity. Instead, the findings suggest that intermittent or chronic expression of epitopes, such as DYS, drive inflation of activated CD4(+) T cells that home to endothelial cells and have the potential to mediate cytotoxicity and vascular disease. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Dillon, Stephanie M.; Phang, Tzu; Lee, Eric J.; Helm, Karen; Kappes, John C.; McCarter, Martin D.
Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF) HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a molecular blueprint
Kalekar, Lokesh A.; Schmiel, Shirdi E.; Nandiwada, Sarada L.; Lam, Wing Y.; Barsness, Laura O.; Zhang, Na; Stritesky, Gretta L.; Malhotra, Deepali; Pauken, Kristen E.; Linehan, Jonathan L.; O’Sullivan, M. Gerard; Fife, Brian T.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Mueller, Daniel L.
The role that anergy, an acquired state of T cell functional unresponsiveness, plays in natural peripheral tolerance remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that anergy is selectively induced in fetal antigen-specific maternal CD4+ T cells during pregnancy. A naturally occurring subpopulation of anergic polyclonal CD4+ T cells, enriched in self antigen-specific T cell receptors, is also observed in healthy hosts. Neuropilin-1 expression in anergic conventional CD4+ T cells is associated with thymic regulatory T cell (Treg cell)-related gene hypomethylation, and this correlates with their capacity to differentiate into Foxp3+ Treg cells that suppress immunopathology. Thus, our data suggest that not only is anergy induction important in preventing autoimmunity, but it also generates the precursors for peripheral Treg cell differentiation. PMID:26829766
Stubbington, Michael Jt; Mahata, Bidesh; Svensson, Valentine; Deonarine, Andrew; Nissen, Jesper K; Betz, Alexander G; Teichmann, Sarah A
CD4(+) T cells are key regulators of the adaptive immune system and can be divided into T helper (Th) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. During an immune response Th cells mature from a naive state into one of several effector subtypes that exhibit distinct functions. The transcriptional mechanisms that underlie the specific functional identity of CD4(+) T cells are not fully understood. To assist investigations into the transcriptional identity and regulatory processes of these cells we performed mRNA-sequencing on three murine T helper subtypes (Th1, Th2 and Th17) as well as on splenic Treg cells and induced Treg (iTreg) cells. Our integrated analysis of this dataset revealed the gene expression changes associated with these related but distinct cellular identities. Each cell subtype differentially expresses a wealth of 'subtype upregulated' genes, some of which are well known whilst others promise new insights into signalling processes and transcriptional regulation. We show that hundreds of genes are regulated purely by alternative splicing to extend our knowledge of the role of post-transcriptional regulation in cell differentiation. This CD4(+) transcriptome atlas provides a valuable resource for the study of CD4(+) T cell populations. To facilitate its use by others, we have made the data available in an easily accessible online resource at www.th-express.org.
Bwana, Priska; Vojnov, Lara; Adhiambo, Maureen; Akinyi, Catherine; Mwende, Joy; Prescott, Marta; Mwau, Matilu
Objective Currently 50% of ART eligible patients are not yet receiving life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Financial constraints do not allow most developing countries to adopt a universal test and offer ART strategy. Decentralizing CD4+ T cell testing may, therefore, provide greater access to testing, ART, and better patient management. We evaluated the technical performance of a new point-of-care CD4+ T cell technology, the BD FACSPresto, in a field methods comparison study. Methods 264 HIV-positive patients were consecutively enrolled and included in the study. The BD FACSPresto POC CD4+ T cell technology was placed in two rural health care facilities and operated by health care facility staff. We compared paired finger-prick and venous samples using the BD FACSPresto and several existing reference technologies, respectively. Results The BD FACSPresto had a mean bias of 67.29 cells/ul and an r2 of 0.9203 compared to the BD FACSCalibur. At ART eligibility thresholds of 350 and 500 cells/ul, the sensitivity to define treatment eligibility were 81.5% and 77.2% and the specificities were 98.9% and 100%, respectively. Similar results were observed when the BD FACSPresto was compared to the BD FACSCount and Alere Pima. The coefficient of variation (CV) was less than 7% for both the BD FACSCalibur and BD FACSPresto. CD4+ T cell testing by nurses using the BD FACSPresto at rural health care facilities showed high technical similarity to test results generated by laboratory technicians using the BD FACSPresto in a high functioning laboratory. Conclusions The BD FACSPresto performed favorably in the laboratory setting compared to the conventional reference standard technologies; however, the lower sensitivities indicated that up to 20% of patients tested in the field in need of treatment would be missed. The BD FACSPresto is a technology that can allow for greater decentralization and wider access to CD4+ T cell testing and ART. PMID:26720601
Lanoue, Astrid; Bona, Constantin; von Boehmer, Harald; Sarukhan, Adelaida
Establishment of antigen-specific tolerance among mature T cells has been a long debated, yet poorly understood issue. In this study we have used transgenic mice bearing a class II–restricted TCR specific for the hemmagglutinin of the influenza virus in order to test the behavior of CD4+ T cells upon exposure to antigen in different forms and doses. We first studied the fate of T cells expressing the transgenic TCR (6.5) in double transgenic mice where HA was expressed as a self antigen by hemapoietic cells. In these mice, we found some mature T cells in periphery that had escaped thymic deletion and that showed signs of activation but which were anergic. Mature CD4+6.5+ cells that were transferred into antigen-containing recipients went through an initial phase of expansion after which most cells were deleted and those remaining became unresponsive, as previously described for CD8+ cells. Inducing tolerance in CD4+6.5+ cells in situ in single transgenic mice proved a difficult task: classical protocols using single doses of soluble or deaggregated antigen as well as feeding antigen all failed to induce antigen-specific unresponsiveness. It was only after decreasing cell numbers by CD4 antibody treatment and by repeatedly reintroducing antigen thereafter that unresponsiveness of 6.5+ cells was achieved and maintained. In no case could we observe the appearance of antigen-specific T cells with a Th2 cytokine profile among the remaining cells and therefore conclude that deletion and anergy represent the major mechanisms of tolerance in our studies. PMID:9053441
Bryl, Ewa; Daca, Agnieszka; Jóźwik, Agnieszka; Witkowski, Jacek M
The interest of the scientific community in regulatory CD4+ T cells has reached an enormously high level. Common agreement is that they inhibit not only the proliferation of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, but also the activities of natural killer cells and macrophages. However, very important issues concerning actual mechanism(s) and specificity of the action of regulatory T cells (Tregs) upon responder cells are still unsolved or vague. The best known marker for Tregs is the expression of transcription factor FoxP3, widely used for their enumeration. It is known that FoxP3 inhibits cytokine production so the most probable action of Tregs is direct. However, FoxP3 expression cannot be used for functional studies in humans. Therefore we identified human peripheral blood Tregs as a distinct, very well-defined population of peripheral blood T cells with reduced CD4 and high CD25 expression (CD4low CD25high), which fulfils the current phenotypic criteria identifying the Tregs by simultaneously expressing high amounts of FoxP3. We conclude that the definition of a CD4low CD25high phenotype is enough to unambiguously detect and study the regulatory function of these cells. On the functional level, the CD4low Tregs are able to non-specifically suppress the proliferation of autologous, previously polyclonally activated CD4+ and CD4− lymphocytes and to kill them by direct contact, probably utilizing intracellular granzyme B and perforin. PMID:19016909
Bryl, Ewa; Daca, Agnieszka; Jóźwik, Agnieszka; Witkowski, Jacek M
The interest of the scientific community in regulatory CD4(+) T cells has reached an enormously high level. Common agreement is that they inhibit not only the proliferation of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, but also the activities of natural killer cells and macrophages. However, very important issues concerning actual mechanism(s) and specificity of the action of regulatory T cells (Tregs) upon responder cells are still unsolved or vague. The best known marker for Tregs is the expression of transcription factor FoxP3, widely used for their enumeration. It is known that FoxP3 inhibits cytokine production so the most probable action of Tregs is direct. However, FoxP3 expression cannot be used for functional studies in humans. Therefore we identified human peripheral blood Tregs as a distinct, very well-defined population of peripheral blood T cells with reduced CD4 and high CD25 expression (CD4(low) CD25(high)), which fulfils the current phenotypic criteria identifying the Tregs by simultaneously expressing high amounts of FoxP3. We conclude that the definition of a CD4(low) CD25(high) phenotype is enough to unambiguously detect and study the regulatory function of these cells. On the functional level, the CD4(low) Tregs are able to non-specifically suppress the proliferation of autologous, previously polyclonally activated CD4(+) and CD4(-) lymphocytes and to kill them by direct contact, probably utilizing intracellular granzyme B and perforin.
Phares, Timothy W; Stohlman, Stephen A; Hwang, Mihyun; Min, Booki; Hinton, David R; Bergmann, Cornelia C
CD4 T cell activation during peripheral infections not only is essential in inducing protective CD8 T cell memory but also promotes CD8 T cell function and survival. However, the contributions of CD4 T cell help to antiviral CD8 T cell immunity during central nervous system (CNS) infection are not well established. Encephalitis induced by the sublethal coronavirus JHMV was used to identify when CD4 T cells regulate CD8 T cell responses following CNS infection. Peripheral expansion of virus-specific CD8 T cells was impaired when CD4 T cells were ablated prior to infection but not at 4 days postinfection. Delayed CD4 T cell depletion abrogated CD4 T cell recruitment to the CNS but only slightly diminished CD8 T cell recruitment. Nevertheless, the absence of CNS CD4 T cells was associated with reduced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and granzyme B expression by infiltrating CD8 T cells, increased CD8 T cell apoptosis, and impaired control of infectious virus. CD4 T cell depletion subsequent to CD4 T cell CNS migration restored CD8 T cell activity and virus control. Analysis of γc-dependent cytokine expression indicated interleukin-21 (IL-21) as a primary candidate optimizing CD8 T cell activity within the CNS. These results demonstrate that CD4 T cells play critical roles in both enhancing peripheral activation of CD8 T cells and prolonging their antiviral function within the CNS. The data highlight the necessity for temporally and spatially distinct CD4 T cell helper functions in sustaining CD8 T cell activity during CNS infection.
Lee, Ga Hye
CD28 is a primary co-stimulatory receptor that is essential for successful T cell activation, proliferation, and survival. While ubiquitously expressed on naive T cells, the level of CD28 expression on memory T cells is largely dependent on the T-cell differentiation stage in humans. Expansion of circulating T cells lacking CD28 was originally considered a hallmark of age-associated immunological changes in humans, with a progressive loss of CD28 following replicative senescence with advancing age. However, an increasing body of evidence has revealed that there is a significant age-inappropriate expansion of CD4+CD28− T cells in patients with a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, suggesting that these cells play a role in their pathogenesis. In fact, expanded CD4+CD28− T cells can produce large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α and also have cytotoxic potential, which may cause tissue damage and development of pathogenesis in many inflammatory disorders. Here we review the characteristics of CD4+CD28− T cells as well as the recent advances highlighting the contribution of these cells to several disease conditions. PMID:28035207
Tebas, Pablo; Stein, David; Tang, Winson W.; Frank, Ian; Wang, Shelley Q.; Lee, Gary; Spratt, S. Kaye; Surosky, Richard T.; Giedlin, Martin A.; Nichol, Geoff; Holmes, Michael C.; Gregory, Philip D.; Ando, Dale G.; Kalos, Michael; Collman, Ronald G.; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn; Plesa, Gabriela; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.
BACKGROUND CCR5 is the major coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated whether site-specific modification of the gene (“gene editing”) — in this case, the infusion of autologous CD4 T cells in which the CCR5 gene was rendered permanently dysfunctional by a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) — is safe. METHODS We enrolled 12 patients in an open-label, nonrandomized, uncontrolled study of a single dose of ZFN-modified autologous CD4 T cells. The patients had chronic aviremic HIV infection while they were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Six of them underwent an interruption in antiretroviral treatment 4 weeks after the infusion of 10 billion autologous CD4 T cells, 11 to 28% of which were genetically modified with the ZFN. The primary outcome was safety as assessed by treatment-related adverse events. Secondary outcomes included measures of immune reconstitution and HIV resistance. RESULTS One serious adverse event was associated with infusion of the ZFN-modified autologous CD4 T cells and was attributed to a transfusion reaction. The median CD4 T-cell count was 1517 per cubic millimeter at week 1, a significant increase from the preinfusion count of 448 per cubic millimeter (P<0.001). The median concentration of CCR5-modified CD4 T cells at 1 week was 250 cells per cubic millimeter. This constituted 8.8% of circulating peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and 13.9% of circulating CD4 T cells. Modified cells had an estimated mean half-life of 48 weeks. During treatment interruption and the resultant viremia, the decline in circulating CCR5-modified cells (−1.81 cells per day) was significantly less than the decline in unmodified cells (−7.25 cells per day) (P = 0.02). HIV RNA became undetectable in one of four patients who could be evaluated. The blood level of HIV DNA decreased in most patients. CONCLUSIONS CCR5-modified autologous CD4 T-cell infusions are safe within the limits of this study. (Funded by the National
Tebas, Pablo; Stein, David; Tang, Winson W; Frank, Ian; Wang, Shelley Q; Lee, Gary; Spratt, S Kaye; Surosky, Richard T; Giedlin, Martin A; Nichol, Geoff; Holmes, Michael C; Gregory, Philip D; Ando, Dale G; Kalos, Michael; Collman, Ronald G; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn; Plesa, Gabriela; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Levine, Bruce L; June, Carl H
CCR5 is the major coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated whether site-specific modification of the gene ("gene editing")--in this case, the infusion of autologous CD4 T cells in which the CCR5 gene was rendered permanently dysfunctional by a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)--is safe. We enrolled 12 patients in an open-label, nonrandomized, uncontrolled study of a single dose of ZFN-modified autologous CD4 T cells. The patients had chronic aviremic HIV infection while they were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Six of them underwent an interruption in antiretroviral treatment 4 weeks after the infusion of 10 billion autologous CD4 T cells, 11 to 28% of which were genetically modified with the ZFN. The primary outcome was safety as assessed by treatment-related adverse events. Secondary outcomes included measures of immune reconstitution and HIV resistance. One serious adverse event was associated with infusion of the ZFN-modified autologous CD4 T cells and was attributed to a transfusion reaction. The median CD4 T-cell count was 1517 per cubic millimeter at week 1, a significant increase from the preinfusion count of 448 per cubic millimeter (P<0.001). The median concentration of CCR5-modified CD4 T cells at 1 week was 250 cells per cubic millimeter. This constituted 8.8% of circulating peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and 13.9% of circulating CD4 T cells. Modified cells had an estimated mean half-life of 48 weeks. During treatment interruption and the resultant viremia, the decline in circulating CCR5-modified cells (-1.81 cells per day) was significantly less than the decline in unmodified cells (-7.25 cells per day) (P=0.02). HIV RNA became undetectable in one of four patients who could be evaluated. The blood level of HIV DNA decreased in most patients. CCR5-modified autologous CD4 T-cell infusions are safe within the limits of this study. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others
Barin, Jobert G; Čiháková, Daniela
This review focuses on autoimmune myocarditis and its sequela, inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMI), and the inflammatory and immune mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases. Several mouse models of myocarditis and DCMI have improved our knowledge of the pathogenesis of these diseases, informing more general problems of cardiac remodeling and heart failure. CD4(+) T cells are critical in driving the pathogenesis of myocarditis. We discuss in detail the role of T helper cell subtypes in the pathogenesis of myocarditis, the biology of T cell-derived effector cytokines, and the participation of other leukocytic effectors in mediating disease pathophysiology. We discuss interactions between these subsets in both suppressive and collaborative fashions. These findings indicate that cardiac inflammatory disease, and autoimmunity in general, may be more diverse in divergent effector mechanisms than has previously been appreciated.
Wallace, Kedra; Cornelius, Denise C; Scott, Jeremy; Heath, Judith; Moseley, Janae; Chatman, Krystal; LaMarca, Babbette
Preeclampsia is associated with oxidative stress, which is suspected to play a role in hypertension, placental ischemia, and fetal demise associated with the disease. Various cellular sources of oxidative stress, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and CD4(+) T cells have been suggested as culprits in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to examine a role of circulating and placental CD4(+) T cells in oxidative stress in response to placental ischemia during pregnancy. CD4(+) T cells and oxidative stress were measured in preeclamptic and normal pregnant women, placental ischemic and normal pregnant rats, and normal pregnant recipient rats of placental ischemic CD4(+) T cells. Women with preeclampsia had significantly increased circulating (P=0.02) and placental CD4(+) T cells (P=0.0001); lymphocyte secretion of myeloperoxidase (P=0.004); and placental reactive oxygen species (P=0.0004) when compared with normal pregnant women. CD4(+) T cells from placental ischemic rats cause many facets of preeclampsia when injected into normal pregnant recipient rats on gestational day 13. On gestational day 19, blood pressure increased in normal pregnant recipients of placental ischemic CD4(+) T cells (P=0.002) compared with that in normal pregnant rats. Similar to preeclamptic patients, CD4(+) T cells from placental ischemic rats secreted significantly more myeloperoxidase (P=0.003) and induced oxidative stress in cultured vascular cells (P=0.003) than normal pregnant rat CD4(+)Tcells. Apocynin, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate inhibitor, attenuated hypertension and all oxidative stress markers in placental ischemic and normal pregnant recipient rats of placental ischemic CD4(+)Tcells (P=0.05). These data demonstrate an important role for CD4(+) T cells in mediating another factor, oxidative stress, to cause hypertension during preeclampsia.
Wallace, Kedra; Cornelius, Denise C.; Scott, Jeremy; Heath, Judith; Moseley, Janae; Chatman, Krystal; LaMarca, Babbette
Preeclampsia is associated with oxidative stress which is suspected to play a role in hypertension, placental ischemia and fetal demise associated with the disease. Various cellular sources of oxidative stress such as neutrophils, monocytes and CD4+T cells have been suggested as culprits in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to examine a role for circulating and placental CD4+T cells in oxidative stress in response to placental ischemia during pregnancy. CD4+T cells and oxidative stress was measured in preeclamptic and normal pregnant women, placental ischemic and normal pregnant rats and normal pregnant recipient rats of placental ischemic CD4+ T cells. Preeclamptic women had significantly increased circulating (p=0.02) and placental CD4+T cells (p=0.0001); lymphocyte secretion of myeloperoxidase (p=0.004); and placental reactive oxygen species (p=0.0004) compared to normal pregnant women. CD4+T cells from placental ischemic rats cause many facets of preeclampsia when injected into normal pregnant recipient rats on gestational day 13. On gestational day 19 blood pressure increased in normal pregnant recipients of placental ischemic CD4+T cells (p=0.002) compared to normal pregnant rats. Similar to preeclamptic patients, CD4+ T cells from placental ischemic rats secreted significantly more myeloperoxidase (p=0.003) and induced oxidative stress in cultured vascular cells (p=0.003) than normal pregnant rat CD4+Tcells. Apocynin, an NADPH inhibitor, attenuated hypertension, and all oxidative stress markers in placental ischemic and normal pregnant recipient rats of placental ischemic CD4+Tcells (p=0.05). These data demonstrate an important role for CD4+T cells in mediating another factor, oxidative stress, to cause hypertension during preeclampsia. PMID:25259742
Chan, Ming Liang; Petravic, Janka; Ortiz, Alexandra M; Engram, Jessica; Paiardini, Mirko; Cromer, Deborah; Silvestri, Guido; Davenport, Miles P
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections result in chronic virus replication and progressive depletion of CD4+ T cells, leading to immunodeficiency and death. In contrast, 'natural hosts' of SIV experience persistent infection with high virus replication but no severe CD4+ T cell depletion, and remain AIDS-free. One important difference between pathogenic and non-pathogenic infections is the level of activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. We analysed the relationship between CD4+ T cell number and proliferation in HIV, pathogenic SIV in macaques, and non-pathogenic SIV in sooty mangabeys (SMs) and mandrills. We found that CD4+ T cell proliferation was negatively correlated with CD4+ T cell number, suggesting that animals respond to the loss of CD4+ T cells by increasing the proliferation of remaining cells. However, the level of proliferation seen in pathogenic infections (SIV in rhesus macaques and HIV) was much greater than in non-pathogenic infections (SMs and mandrills). We then used a modelling approach to understand how the host proliferative response to CD4+ T cell depletion may impact the outcome of infection. This modelling demonstrates that the rapid proliferation of CD4+ T cells in humans and macaques associated with low CD4+ T cell levels can act to 'fuel the fire' of infection by providing more proliferating cells for infection. Natural host species, on the other hand, have limited proliferation of CD4+ T cells at low CD4+ T cell levels, which allows them to restrict the number of proliferating cells susceptible to infection.
Song, Pingfang; Chou, Yuan K; Zhang, Xiaowei; Meza-Romero, Roberto; Yomogida, Kentaro; Benedek, Gil; Chu, Cong-Qiu
Cell type specific delivery of RNAi to T cells has remained to be a challenge. Here we describe an aptamer mediated delivery of shRNA to CD4(+) T cells targeting RORγt to suppress Th17 cells. A cDNA encoding CD4 aptamer and RORγt shRNA was constructed and the chimeric CD4 aptamer-RORγt shRNA (CD4-AshR-RORγt) was generated using in vitro T7 RNA transcription. 2'-F-dCTP and 2'-F-dUTP were incorporated into CD4-AshR-RORγt for RNase resistance. CD4-AshR-RORγt was specifically uptaken by CD4(+) Karpas 299 cells and primary human CD4(+) T cells. The RORγt shRNA moiety of CD4-AshR-RORγt chimera was cleaved and released by Dicer. Furthermore, CD4-AshR-RORγt suppressed RORγt gene expression in Karpas 299 cells and CD4(+) T cells and consequently inhibited Th17 cell differentiation and IL-17 production. These results demonstrate that aptamer-facilitated cell specific delivery of shRNA represents a novel approach for efficient RNAi delivery and is potentially to be developed for therapeutics targeting specific T cells subtypes.
Nordman, Jacob C.; Muldoon, Pretal; Clark, Sarah; Damaj, M. Imad
Smoking is a common addiction and a leading cause of disease. Chronic nicotine exposure is known to activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in immune cells. We demonstrate a novel role for α4 nAChRs in the effect of nicotine on T-cell proliferation and immunity. Using cell-based sorting and proteomic analysis we define an α4 nAChR expressing helper T-cell population (α4+CD3+CD4+) and show that this group of cells is responsive to sustained nicotine exposure. In the circulation, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus, we find that nicotine promotes an increase in CD3+CD4+ cells via its activation of the α4 nAChR and regulation of G protein subunit o, G protein regulated–inducer of neurite outgrowth, and CDC42 signaling within T cells. In particular, nicotine is found to promote a helper T cell 2 adaptive immunologic response within T cells that is absent in α4−/− mice. We thus present a new mechanism of α4 nAChR signaling and immune regulation in T cells, possibly accounting for the effect of smoking on the immune system. PMID:24107512
The ligand activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been studied for many decades in toxicology as the ligand for the environmental contaminant dioxin. However, AhR has recently emerged as a critical physiological regulator of immune responses affecting both innate and adaptive systems, and several AhR ligands with different pharmacological profiles have recently been studied. The current review discusses new insights into the role of AhR signalling and AhR ligands on the regulation of the immune system, with a focus on regulatory T cells which maintain immune tolerance. Notably, AhR is expressed and modulates the development of two induced regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets, the forkhead box P3-positive (Foxp3+) regulatory T cells (iTreg) and the IL-10-secreting type 1 regulatory T (T(R)1) cells, through different signalling pathways. We will finally discuss how AhR ligands could be exploited to alleviate human autoimmune diseases. Clearly, drugs targeted against AhR should promote the development of new strategies to fight against autoimmune diseases.
Hwang, Mihyun; Phares, Timothy W; Hinton, David R; Stohlman, Stephen A; Bergmann, Cornelia C; Min, Booki
CD4 T-cell help is not a universal requirement for effective primary CD8 T cells but is essential to generate memory CD8 T cells capable of recall responses. This study examined how CD4 T cells affect primary and secondary anti-viral CD8 T-cell responses within the central nervous system (CNS) during encephalomyelitis induced by sublethal gliatropic coronavirus. CD4 T-cell depletion before infection did not impair peripheral expansion, interferon-γ production, CNS recruitment or initial CNS effector capacity of virus-specific CD8 T cells ex vivo. Nevertheless, impaired virus control in the absence of CD4 T cells was associated with gradually diminished CNS CD8 T-cell interferon-γ production. Furthermore, within the CD8 T-cell population short-lived effector cells were increased and memory precursor effector cells were significantly decreased, consistent with higher T-cell turnover. Transfer of memory CD8 T cells to reduce viral load in CD4-depleted mice reverted the recipient CNS CD8 T-cell phenotype to that in wild-type control mice. However, memory CD8 T cells primed without CD4 T cells and transferred into infected CD4-sufficient recipients expanded less efficiently and were not sustained in the CNS, contrasting with their helped counterparts. These data suggest that CD4 T cells are dispensable for initial expansion, CNS recruitment and differentiation of primary resident memory CD8 T cells as long as the duration of antigen exposure is limited. By contrast, CD4 T cells are essential to prolong primary CD8 T-cell function in the CNS and imprint memory CD8 T cells for recall responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hwang, Mihyun; Phares, Timothy W; Hinton, David R; Stohlman, Stephen A; Bergmann, Cornelia C; Min, Booki
CD4 T-cell help is not a universal requirement for effective primary CD8 T cells but is essential to generate memory CD8 T cells capable of recall responses. This study examined how CD4 T cells affect primary and secondary anti-viral CD8 T-cell responses within the central nervous system (CNS) during encephalomyelitis induced by sublethal gliatropic coronavirus. CD4 T-cell depletion before infection did not impair peripheral expansion, interferon-γ production, CNS recruitment or initial CNS effector capacity of virus-specific CD8 T cells ex vivo. Nevertheless, impaired virus control in the absence of CD4 T cells was associated with gradually diminished CNS CD8 T-cell interferon-γ production. Furthermore, within the CD8 T-cell population short-lived effector cells were increased and memory precursor effector cells were significantly decreased, consistent with higher T-cell turnover. Transfer of memory CD8 T cells to reduce viral load in CD4-depleted mice reverted the recipient CNS CD8 T-cell phenotype to that in wild-type control mice. However, memory CD8 T cells primed without CD4 T cells and transferred into infected CD4-sufficient recipients expanded less efficiently and were not sustained in the CNS, contrasting with their helped counterparts. These data suggest that CD4 T cells are dispensable for initial expansion, CNS recruitment and differentiation of primary resident memory CD8 T cells as long as the duration of antigen exposure is limited. By contrast, CD4 T cells are essential to prolong primary CD8 T-cell function in the CNS and imprint memory CD8 T cells for recall responses. PMID:25187405
Juno, Jennifer A; van Bockel, David; Kent, Stephen J; Kelleher, Anthony D; Zaunders, John J; Munier, C Mee Ling
CD4 T cells with cytotoxic function were once thought to be an artifact due to long-term in vitro cultures but have in more recent years become accepted and reported in the literature in response to a number of viral infections. In this review, we focus on cytotoxic CD4 T cells in the context of human viral infections and in some infections that affect mice and non-human primates. We examine the effector mechanisms used by cytotoxic CD4 cells, the phenotypes that describe this population, and the transcription factors and pathways that lead to their induction following infection. We further consider the cells that are the predominant targets of this effector subset and describe the viral infections in which CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes have been shown to play a protective or pathologic role. Cytotoxic CD4 T cells are detected in the circulation at much higher levels than previously realized and are now recognized to have an important role in the immune response to viral infections.
Issa, Fadi; Wood, Kathryn J.
Purpose of review: Solid organ transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage organ failure, but the long-term outcomes remain suboptimal. CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are emerging as a potential therapy to facilitate long-term allograft survival. This review provides a general overview of the biology of CD4+ Treg and then goes on to discuss the most relevant and recent experimental and clinical evidence for their therapeutic use in solid organ transplantation. Recent findings: There have been major advances in our understanding of Treg, including improvements in methods for their isolation and expansion. Experimental models are providing very important data on the in vitro and in vivo behaviour of Treg in transplantation, while recent clinical trials of Treg cellular therapy in graft-versus-host disease are offering a valuable insight into the efficacy of Treg adoptive cellular therapy. Summary: Data in favour of Treg cellular therapy in transplantation are mounting, and we predict that their use in clinical trials is on the horizon. PMID:20881492
Sun, Jitong; Fu, Haiying; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Wufei; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei
Aire plays an important role in central immune tolerance by regulating the transcription of thousands of genes. However, the role of Aire in the peripheral immune system is poorly understood. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are considered essential for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, but the effect of Aire on Treg cells in the peripheral immune system is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of macrophages overexpressing Aire on CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells by co-culturing Aire-overexpressing RAW264.7 cells or their supernatant with splenocytes. The results show that macrophages overexpressing Aire enhanced the expression of Foxp3 mRNA and induced different subsets of Treg cells in splenocytes through cell-cell contact or a co-culture supernatants. TGF-β is a key molecule in the increases of CD4+CD45RA+Foxp3hi T cell and activating Treg (aTreg) levels observed following cell‑supernatant co-culturing. Subsets of Treg cells were induced by Aire-overexpressing macrophages, and the manipulation of Treg cells by the targeting of Aire may provide a method for the treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases.
Lancioni, Christina L; Thomas, Jeremy J; Rojas, Roxana E
Direct regulation of T cell function by microbial ligands through Toll-like receptors (TLR) is an emerging area of T cell biology. Currently either immunomagnetic cell sorting (IMACS) or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), are utilized to isolate T-cell subsets for such studies. However, it is unknown to what extent differences in T cell purity between these isolation techniques influence T cell functional assays. We compared the purity, response to mitogen, activation requirements, and response to TLR ligands between human CD4(+) T cells isolated either by IMACS (IMACS-CD4(+)) or by IMACS followed by FACS (IMACS/FACS-CD4(+)). As expected, IMACS-CD4(+) were less pure than IMACS/FACS-CD4(+) (92.5%+/-1.4% versus 99.7%+/-0.2%, respectively). Consequently, IMACS-CD4(+) proliferated and produced cytokines in response to mitogen alone and had lower activation requirements compared to IMACS/FACS-CD4(+). In addition IMACS-CD4(+) but not IMACS/FACS-CD4(+) responses were upregulated by the TLR-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). On the other hand, TLR-2 and TLR-5 engagement induced costimulation in both IMACS-CD4(+) and highly purified IMACS-/FACS-CD4(+). Altogether these results indicate that small differences in cell purity can significantly alter T cell responses to TLR ligands. This study stresses the importance of a stringent purification method when investigating the role of microbial ligands in T cell function.
Fernandez, Sonia; Tanaskovic, Sara; Helbig, Karla; Rajasuriar, Reena; Kramski, Marit; Murray, John M; Beard, Michael; Purcell, Damian; Lewin, Sharon R; Price, Patricia; French, Martyn A
Most patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who remain CD4(+) T-cell deficient on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit marked immune activation. As CD4(+) T-cell activation may be mediated by microbial translocation or interferon-alpha (IFN-α), we examined these factors in HIV patients with good or poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery on long-term ART. Messenger RNA levels for 3 interferon-stimulated genes were increased in CD4(+) T cells of patients with poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery, whereas levels in patients with good recovery did not differ from those in healthy controls. Poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery was also associated with CD4(+) T-cell expression of markers of activation, senescence, and apoptosis, and with increased serum levels of the lipopolysaccharide receptor and soluble CD14, but these were not significantly correlated with expression of the interferon-stimulated genes. Therefore, CD4(+) T-cell recovery may be adversely affected by the effects of IFN-α, which may be amenable to therapeutic intervention.
Vogel, Stephanie; Grabski, Elena; Buschjäger, Daniela; Klawonn, Frank; Döring, Marius; Wang, Junxi; Fletcher, Erika; Bechmann, Ingo; Witte, Torsten; Durisin, Martin; Schraven, Burkhart; Mangsbo, Sara M.; Schönfeld, Kurt; Czeloth, Niklas; Kalinke, Ulrich
Treatment of PBMC with the CD4-specific mAb BT-061 induces CD4 down-modulation of T cells. Here we report that addition of BT-061 to purified T cells did not confer this effect, whereas incubation of T cells in BT-061 coated wells restored CD4 down-modulation. These results implied that Fcγ receptor mediated cell-cell interactions played a role. In consistence with this hypothesis PBMC depleted of CD64+ monocytes did not confer CD4 down-modulation of BT-061 decorated T cells. Strikingly, CD4 down-modulation was observed in BT-061 treated synovial fluid punctuated from patients’ inflamed joints that comprised enhanced numbers of CD64+ cells. In contrast, in a circulating whole blood system injection of BT-061 did not induce CD4 down-modulation, due to CD64 saturation by serum IgG. Similarly, tonsil derived mononuclear cells devoid of CD64+ cells did not show CD4 down-modulation, whereas addition of blood derived monocytes restored the effect. Thus, the interaction of BT-061 decorated T cells with CD64+ cells is needed for CD4 down-modulation, implying that in patients BT-061 would primarily induce CD4 down-modulation at inflammatory sites. These results highlight the need not only to examine the interaction of a given mAb with single FcγR, but also the immunological environment that is appropriate to support such interactions. PMID:26670584
Vogel, Stephanie; Grabski, Elena; Buschjäger, Daniela; Klawonn, Frank; Döring, Marius; Wang, Junxi; Fletcher, Erika; Bechmann, Ingo; Witte, Torsten; Durisin, Martin; Schraven, Burkhart; Mangsbo, Sara M; Schönfeld, Kurt; Czeloth, Niklas; Kalinke, Ulrich
Treatment of PBMC with the CD4-specific mAb BT-061 induces CD4 down-modulation of T cells. Here we report that addition of BT-061 to purified T cells did not confer this effect, whereas incubation of T cells in BT-061 coated wells restored CD4 down-modulation. These results implied that Fcγ receptor mediated cell-cell interactions played a role. In consistence with this hypothesis PBMC depleted of CD64(+) monocytes did not confer CD4 down-modulation of BT-061 decorated T cells. Strikingly, CD4 down-modulation was observed in BT-061 treated synovial fluid punctuated from patients' inflamed joints that comprised enhanced numbers of CD64(+) cells. In contrast, in a circulating whole blood system injection of BT-061 did not induce CD4 down-modulation, due to CD64 saturation by serum IgG. Similarly, tonsil derived mononuclear cells devoid of CD64(+) cells did not show CD4 down-modulation, whereas addition of blood derived monocytes restored the effect. Thus, the interaction of BT-061 decorated T cells with CD64(+) cells is needed for CD4 down-modulation, implying that in patients BT-061 would primarily induce CD4 down-modulation at inflammatory sites. These results highlight the need not only to examine the interaction of a given mAb with single FcγR, but also the immunological environment that is appropriate to support such interactions.
Onoda, Tadashi; Rahman, Mizanur; Nara, Hidetoshi; Araki, Akemi; Makabe, Koki; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Kumagai, Izumi; Kudo, Toshio; Ishii, Naoto; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sugamura, Kazuo; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Asao, Hironobu
IL-21 regulates certain functions of T cells, B cells, NK cells and dendritic cells. Although activated CD4(+) T cells produce IL-21, data identifying the specific CD4(+) T cell subsets that produce IL-21 are conflicting. In a previous study, mouse IL-21 message was detected in T(H)2, whereas human IL-21 (hIL-21) message was found in both T(H)1 and follicular helper T cells. To identify the IL-21-secreting cell populations in human, we established a hybridoma cell line producing an anti-hIL-21 mAb. Intracellular hIL-21-staining experiments showed that hIL-21 was mainly expressed in activated CD4(+) central memory T cells and in activated CD4(+) effector memory T cells, but not in activated CD4(+) naive T cells. Moreover, IL-21 was produced upon activation by some IFN-gamma-producing T(H)1-polarized cells and some IL-17-producing T(H)17-polarized cells, but not by IL-4-producing T(H)2-polarized cells. These results suggest that specific CD4(+) T cell populations produce IL-21. In the functional analysis, we found that IL-21 significantly enhanced the cytokine-driven proliferation of CD4(+) helper T cells synergistically with IL-7 and IL-15 without T cell activation stimuli. Taken together, IL-21 produced from CD4(+) memory T cells may have a supportive role in the maintenance of CD4(+) T cell subsets.
Auten, Matthew W.; Huang, Weitao; Dai, Guixiang; Ramsay, Alistair J.
Impairment of host immunity, particularly CD4+ T cell deficiency, presents significant complications for vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. CD40 ligand (CD40L or CD154), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF), is an important co-stimulatory molecule and, through interactions with its cognate receptor CD40, plays a pivotal role in the generation of host immune responses. Exploitation of CD40L and its receptor CD40 could provide a means to enhance and potentially restore protective immune responses in CD4+ T cell deficiency. To investigate the potential adjuvanticity of CD40L, we constructed recombinant plasmid DNA and adenoviral (Ad) vaccine vectors expressing murine CD40L and the mycobacterial protein antigen 85B (Ag85B). Co-immunization of mice with CD40L and Ag85B by intranasal or intramuscular prime-boosting led to route-dependent enhancement of the magnitude of vaccine-induced circulating and lung mucosal CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in both normal (CD4-replete) and CD4+ T cell deficient animals, including polyfunctional T cell responses. The presence of CD40L alone was insufficient to enhance or restore CD4+ T cell responses in CD4-ablated animals; however, in partially-depleted animals, co-immunization with Ag85B and CD40L was capable of eliciting enhanced T cell responses, similar to those observed in normal animals, when compared to those given vaccine antigen alone. In summary, these findings show that CD40L has the capacity to enhance the magnitude of vaccine-induced polyfunctional T cell responses in CD4+ T cell deficient mice, and warrants further study as an adjuvant for immunization against opportunistic pathogens in individuals with CD4+ T cell deficiency. PMID:22349523
Measurement of Phenotype and Absolute Number of Circulating Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, and Purified Protein Derivative Antigen-Specific CD4 T Cells Can Discriminate Active from Latent Tuberculosis Infection
Barkham, Timothy M. S.; Tang, Wenying; Kemeny, David M.; Chee, Cynthia Bin-Eng; Wang, Yee T.
The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used as adjunctive tests for the evaluation of suspected cases of active tuberculosis (TB). However, a positive test does not differentiate latent from active TB. We investigated whether flow cytometric measurement of novel combinations of intracellular cytokines and surface makers on CD4 T cells could differentiate between active and latent TB after stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific proteins. Blood samples from 60 patients referred to the Singapore Tuberculosis Control Unit for evaluation for active TB or as TB contacts were stimulated with purified protein derivative (PPD), ESAT-6 and CFP-10, or heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA). The CD4 T cell cytokine response (IFN-γ, interleukin-2 [IL-2], interleukin-17A [IL-17A], interleukin-22 [IL-22], granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and surface marker expression (CD27, CXCR3, and CD154) were then measured. We found that the proportion of PPD-specific CD4 T cells, defined as CD154+ TNF-α+ cells that were negative for CD27 and positive for GM-CSF, gave the strongest discrimination between subjects with latent and those with active TB (area under the receiver operator characteristic [ROC] curve of 0.9277; P < 0.0001). Also, the proportions and absolute numbers of HBHA-specific CD4 T cells were significantly higher in those with latent TB infection, particularly CD154+ TNF-α+ IFN-γ+ IL-2+ and CD154+ TNF-α+ CXCR3+. Finally, we found that the ratio of ESAT-6- and CFP-10-responding to HBHA-responding CD4 T cells was significantly different between the two study populations. In conclusion, we found novel markers of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 cells which differentiate between active and latent TB. PMID:25520147
Long, Xin; Cheng, Qi; Liang, Huifang; Zhao, Jianping; Wang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Tomlinson, Stephen; Chen, Lin; Atkinson, Carl; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Peng
Background: Acute graft rejection mediated by alloreactive memory CD4+ T cells is a major obstacle to transplantation tolerance. It has been reported that CD8+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) have the ability to induce graft tolerance by restraining the function of activated CD4+ T cells, but not including memory T cells. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of CD8+ Tregs on alloreactive memory CD4+ T cells. Methods: We detected Qa-1 expression and performed proliferative assay on memory CD4+ T cells. All memory CD4+ T cells were purified from mice receiving skin allografts. We performed inhibitory and cytotoxic assays on CD8+ Tregs, which were isolated from a T cell vaccination mouse model, and IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were measured in co-culture supernatants by ELISA. To confirm CD8+ Tregs inhibition of memory CD4+ T cells in-vivo, we utilized a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. Results: Memory CD4+ T cells mediated acute allograft rejection, and CD8+ Tregs suppressed the proliferation of memory CD4+ T cells. In vitro, memory CD4+ T cells were inhibited and lysed by CD8+ Tregs. There was a positive correlation between IFN-γ levels, and cell lysis rate induced by CD8+ Tregs. In-vivo studies demonstrated CD8+ Tregs prolonged graft survival times, by inhibiting CD4+ memory T cells, through a Qa-1-peptide-TCR pathway. Conclusions: CD8+ Tregs inhibit CD4+ memory T cell-mediated acute murine cardiac allograft rejection, and further prolong graft survival times. These results provide new insights into immune regulation of organ rejection. PMID:28123634
Oja, Anna E.; Vieira Braga, Felipe A.; Remmerswaal, Ester B. M.; Kragten, Natasja A. M.; Hertoghs, Kirsten M. L.; Zuo, Jianmin; Moss, Paul A.; van Lier, René A. W.; van Gisbergen, Klaas P. J. M.; Hombrink, Pleun
The T cell lineage is commonly divided into CD4-expressing helper T cells that polarize immune responses through cytokine secretion and CD8-expressing cytotoxic T cells that eliminate infected target cells by virtue of the release of cytotoxic molecules. Recently, a population of CD4+ T cells that conforms to the phenotype of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells has received increased recognition. These cytotoxic CD4+ T cells display constitutive expression of granzyme B and perforin at the protein level and mediate HLA class II-dependent killing of target cells. In humans, this cytotoxic profile is found within the human cytomegalovirus (hCMV)-specific, but not within the influenza- or Epstein–Barr virus-specific CD4+ T cell populations, suggesting that, in particular, hCMV infection induces the formation of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells. We have previously described that the transcription factor Homolog of Blimp-1 in T cells (Hobit) is specifically upregulated in CD45RA+ effector CD8+ T cells that arise after hCMV infection. Here, we describe the expression pattern of Hobit in human CD4+ T cells. We found Hobit expression in cytotoxic CD4+ T cells and accumulation of Hobit+ CD4+ T cells after primary hCMV infection. The Hobit+ CD4+ T cells displayed highly overlapping characteristics with Hobit+ CD8+ T cells, including the expression of cytotoxic molecules, T-bet, and CX3CR1. Interestingly, γδ+ T cells that arise after hCMV infection also upregulate Hobit expression and display a similar effector phenotype as cytotoxic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These findings suggest a shared differentiation pathway in CD4+, CD8+, and γδ+ T cells that may involve Hobit-driven acquisition of long-lived cytotoxic effector function. PMID:28392788
Bhattacharyya, Mitra; Madden, Patrick; Henning, Nathan; Gregory, Shana; Aid, Malika; Martinot, Amanda J; Barouch, Dan H; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo
CD4 T cells help immune responses, but knowledge of how memory CD4 T cells are regulated and how they regulate adaptive immune responses and induce immunopathology is limited. Using adoptive transfer of virus-specific CD4 T cells, we show that naive CD4 T cells undergo substantial expansion following infection, but can induce lethal T helper type 1-driven inflammation. In contrast, memory CD4 T cells exhibit a biased proliferation of T follicular helper cell subsets and were able to improve adaptive immune responses in the context of minimal tissue damage. Our analyses revealed that type I interferon regulates the expansion of primary CD4 T cells, but does not seem to play a critical role in regulating the expansion of secondary CD4 T cells. Strikingly, blockade of type I interferon abrogated lethal inflammation by primary CD4 T cells following viral infection, despite that this treatment increased the numbers of primary CD4 T-cell responses. Altogether, these data demonstrate important aspects of how primary and secondary CD4 T cells are regulated in vivo, and how they contribute to immune protection and immunopathology. These findings are important for rational vaccine design and for improving adoptive T-cell therapies against persistent antigens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Eugster, Anne; Lindner, Annett; Heninger, Anne-Kristin; Wilhelm, Carmen; Dietz, Sevina; Catani, Mara; Ziegler, Anette-G; Bonifacio, Ezio
T cells have diversity in TCR, epitope recognition, and cytokine production, and can be used for immune monitoring. Furthermore, clonal expansion of TCR families in disease may provide opportunities for TCR-directed therapies. We developed methodology for sequencing expressed genes of TCR alpha and beta chains from single cells and applied this to vaccine (tetanus-toxoid)-responsive CD4(+) T cells. TCR alpha and beta chains were both successfully sequenced in 1309 (43%) of 3038 CD4(+) T cells yielding 677 different receptors. TRAV and TRBV gene usage differed between tetanus-toxoid-responsive and non-responsive cells (p=0.004 and 0.0002), and there was extensive TCR diversity in tetanus-toxoid-responsive cells within individuals. Identical TCRs could be recovered in different samples from the same subject: TCRs identified after booster vaccination were frequent in pre-booster memory T cells (31% of pre-booster TCR), and also identified in pre-booster vaccination naïve cells (6.5%). No TCR was shared between subjects, but tetanus toxoid-responsive cells sharing one of their TCR chains were observed within and between subjects. Coupling single-cell gene expression profiling to TCR sequencing revealed examples of distinct cytokine profiles in cells bearing identical TCR. Novel molecular methodology demonstrates extensive diversity of Ag-responsive CD4(+) T cells within and between individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cha, Zhanshan; Zang, Yan; Guo, Huijun; Rechlic, James R; Olasnova, Lindsay M; Gu, Haihui; Tu, Xiaohua; Song, Haihan; Qian, Baohua
Accumulating evidences indicate that immune dysregulation plays a key role in both lymphomagenesis and patient outcome of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Peripheral blood CD4+ CXCR5+ T cells, known as circulating follicular helper T cells (Tfh), can induce B cell activation and production of specific antibody responses. The aim of the study was to investigate changes of circulating Tfh in CLL. Tfh and it subtypes were tested by measuring CD4, CXCR5, CXCR3, and CCR6 in 72 CLL cases and 86 healthy controls using flow cytometry. Data showed that the percentage of Tfh in the peripheral CD4+ T cells was significantly increased in CLL (25.1%) than in controls (8.4%) (p < 0.001). Further analysis revealed that the upregulation of Tfh was contributed by Tfh-th2 subtype and Tfh-th17 subtype. Investigating staging of the cases demonstrated that the prevalence of Tfh was significantly elevated in cases with Binet stage C (37.3%) than those with stage A (20.1 %) or stage B (23.9 %). In addition, we analyzed Tfh in patients with immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IGHV) gene mutational status. Results presented that Tfh-th17 subtype had clearly higher frequency in patients with IGHV mutation compared to the unmutated cases (p = 0.035). This study suggested the involvement of Tfh in the pathogenesis and progression of CLL, and provided a potential target for treating this disease.
Naouar, Ikbel; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Ben Ahmed, Melika; Belhaj Hmida, Nabil; Gharbi, Adel; Gritli, Sami; Ben Salah, Afif; Louzir, Hechmi
The nature of effector cells and the potential immunogenicity of Leishmania major excreted/secreted proteins (LmES) were evaluated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healed zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis individuals (HZCL) and healthy controls (HC). First, we found that PBMCs from HZCL individuals proliferate and produce high levels of IFN-γ and granzyme B (GrB), used as a marker of activated cytotoxic T cells, in response to the parasite antigens. IFN-γ is produced by CD4+ T cells, but unexpectedly GrB is also produced by CD4+ T cells in response to stimulation with LmES, which were found to be as effective as soluble Leishmania antigens to induce proliferation and cytokine production by PBMCs from immune individuals. To address the question of regulatory T cell (Tregs) involvement, the frequency of circulating Tregs was assessed and found to be higher in HZCL individuals compared to that of HC. Furthermore, both CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− T cells, purified from HZCL individuals, produced IFN-γ and GrB when stimulated with LmES. Additional experiments showed that CD4+CD25+CD127dim/− Tregs were involved in GrB production. Collectively, our data indicate that LmES are immunogenic in humans and emphasize the involvement of CD4+ T cells including activated and regulatory T cells in the immune response against parasite antigens. PMID:25104882
Day, Cheryl L; Seth, Nilufer P; Lucas, Michaela; Appel, Heiner; Gauthier, Laurent; Lauer, Georg M; Robbins, Gregory K; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Casson, Deborah R; Chung, Raymond T; Bell, Shannon; Harcourt, Gillian; Walker, Bruce D; Klenerman, Paul; Wucherpfennig, Kai W
Containment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and other chronic human viral infections is associated with persistence of virus-specific CD4 T cells, but ex vivo characterization of circulating CD4 T cells has not been achieved. To further define the phenotype and function of these cells, we developed a novel approach for the generation of tetrameric forms of MHC class II/peptide complexes that is based on the cellular peptide-exchange mechanism. HLA-DR molecules were expressed as precursors with a covalently linked CLIP peptide, which could be efficiently exchanged with viral peptides following linker cleavage. In subjects who spontaneously resolved HCV viremia, but not in those with chronic progressive infection, HCV tetramer-labeled cells could be isolated by magnetic bead capture despite very low frequencies (1:1,200 to 1:111,000) among circulating CD4 T cells. These T cells expressed a set of surface receptors (CCR7+CD45RA-CD27+) indicative of a surveillance function for secondary lymphoid structures and had undergone significant in vivo selection since they utilized a restricted Vbeta repertoire. These studies demonstrate a relationship between clinical outcome and the presence of circulating CD4 T cells directed against this virus. Moreover, they show that rare populations of memory CD4 T cells can be studied ex vivo in human diseases.
Negative Correlation between Circulating CD4(+)FOXP3(+)CD127(-) Regulatory T Cells and Subsequent Antibody Responses to Infant Measles Vaccine but Not Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine Implies a Regulatory Role.
Ndure, Jorjoh; Noho-Konteh, Fatou; Adetifa, Jane U; Cox, Momodou; Barker, Francis; Le, My Thanh; Sanyang, Lady C; Drammeh, Adboulie; Whittle, Hilton C; Clarke, Ed; Plebanski, Magdalena; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L; Flanagan, Katie L
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key homeostatic role by suppressing immune responses. They have been targeted in mouse and human cancer studies to improve vaccine immunogenicity and tumor clearance. A number of commercially available drugs and experimental vaccine adjuvants have been shown to target Tregs. Infants have high numbers of Tregs and often have poor responses to vaccination, yet the role Tregs play in controlling vaccine immunogenicity has not been explored in this age group. Herein, we explore the role of CD4(+)FOXP3(+)CD127(-) Tregs in controlling immunity in infant males and females to vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP) and/or measles vaccine (MV). We find correlative evidence that circulating Tregs at the time of vaccination suppress antibody responses to MV but not DTP; and Tregs 4 weeks after DTP vaccination may suppress vaccine-specific cellular immunity. This opens the exciting possibility that Tregs may provide a future target for improved vaccine responses in early life, including reducing the number of doses of vaccine required. Such an approach would need to be safe and the benefits outweigh the risks, thus further research in this area is required.
Paris, Robert M.; Petrovas, Constantinos; Ferrando-Martinez, Sara; Moysi, Eirini; Boswell, Kristin L.; Archer, Eva; Yamamoto, Takuya; Ambrozak, David; Casazza, Joseph P.; Haubrich, Richard; Connors, Mark; Ake, Julie; Kim, Jerome H.; Koup, Richard A.
The role of PD-1 expression on CD4 T cells during HIV infection is not well understood. Here, we describe the differential expression of PD-1 in CD127high CD4 T cells within the early/intermediate differentiated (EI) (CD27highCD45RAlow) T cell population among uninfected and HIV-infected subjects, with higher expression associated with decreased viral replication (HIV-1 viral load). A significant loss of circulating PD-1highCTLA-4low CD4 T cells was found specifically in the CD127highCD27highCD45RAlow compartment, while initiation of antiretroviral treatment, particularly in subjects with advanced disease, reversed these dynamics. Increased HIV-1 Gag DNA was also found in PD-1high compared to PD-1low ED CD4 T cells. In line with an increased susceptibility to HIV infection, PD-1 expression in this CD4 T cell subset was associated with increased activation and expression of the HIV co-receptor, CCR5. Rather than exhaustion, this population produced more IFN-g, MIP1-a, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17a compared to PD-1low EI CD4 T cells. In line with our previous findings, PD-1high EI CD4 T cells were also characterized by a high expression of CCR7, CXCR5 and CCR6, a phenotype associated with increased in vitro B cell help. Our data show that expression of PD-1 on early-differentiated CD4 T cells may represent a population that is highly functional, more susceptible to HIV infection and selectively lost in chronic HIV infection. PMID:26678998
Fernandez-Ponce, Cecilia; Dominguez-Villar, Margarita; Aguado, Enrique; Garcia-Cozar, Francisco
Adaptive T cell responses are critical for controlling HCV infection. While there is clinical evidence of a relevant role for regulatory T cells in chronic HCV-infected patients, based on their increased number and function; mechanisms underlying such a phenomena are still poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that proteins from Hepatitis C virus can suppress host immune responses. We and others have shown that HCV is present in CD4+ lymphocytes from chronically infected patients and that HCV-core protein induces a state of unresponsiveness in the CD4+ tumor cell line Jurkat. Here we show that CD4+ primary T cells lentivirally transduced with HCV-core, not only acquire an anergic phenotype but also inhibit IL-2 production and proliferation of bystander CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in response to anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 stimulation. Core-transduced CD4+ T cells show a phenotype characterized by an increased basal secretion of the regulatory cytokine IL-10, a decreased IFN-γ production upon stimulation, as well as expression of regulatory T cell markers, CTLA-4, and Foxp3. A significant induction of CD4+CD25+CD127(low)PD-1(high)TIM-3(high) regulatory T cells with an exhausted phenotype was also observed. Moreover, CCR7 expression decreased in HCV-core expressing CD4+ T cells explaining their sequestration in inflamed tissues such as the infected liver. This work provides a new perspective on de novo generation of regulatory CD4+ T cells in the periphery, induced by the expression of a single viral protein.
Aguado, Enrique; Garcia-Cozar, Francisco
Adaptive T cell responses are critical for controlling HCV infection. While there is clinical evidence of a relevant role for regulatory T cells in chronic HCV-infected patients, based on their increased number and function; mechanisms underlying such a phenomena are still poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that proteins from Hepatitis C virus can suppress host immune responses. We and others have shown that HCV is present in CD4+ lymphocytes from chronically infected patients and that HCV-core protein induces a state of unresponsiveness in the CD4+ tumor cell line Jurkat. Here we show that CD4+ primary T cells lentivirally transduced with HCV-core, not only acquire an anergic phenotype but also inhibit IL-2 production and proliferation of bystander CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in response to anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 stimulation. Core-transduced CD4+ T cells show a phenotype characterized by an increased basal secretion of the regulatory cytokine IL-10, a decreased IFN-γ production upon stimulation, as well as expression of regulatory T cell markers, CTLA-4, and Foxp3. A significant induction of CD4+CD25+CD127lowPD-1highTIM-3high regulatory T cells with an exhausted phenotype was also observed. Moreover, CCR7 expression decreased in HCV-core expressing CD4+ T cells explaining their sequestration in inflamed tissues such as the infected liver. This work provides a new perspective on de novo generation of regulatory CD4+ T cells in the periphery, induced by the expression of a single viral protein. PMID:24465502
Ertelt, James M; Johanns, Tanner M; Mysz, Margaret A; Nanton, Minelva R; Rowe, Jared H; Aguilera, Marijo N; Way, Sing Sing
Typhoid fever is a persistent infection caused by host-adapted Salmonella strains adept at circumventing immune-mediated host defences. Given the importance of T cells in protection, the culling of activated CD4+ T cells after primary infection has been proposed as a potential immune evasion strategy used by this pathogen. We demonstrate that the purging of activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection requires SPI-2 encoded virulence determinants, and is not restricted only to cells with specificity to Salmonella-expressed antigens, but extends to CD4+ T cells primed to expand by co-infection with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Unexpectedly, however, the loss of activated CD4+ T cells during Salmonella infection demonstrated using a monoclonal population of adoptively transferred CD4+ T cells was not reproduced among the endogenous repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells identified with MHC class II tetramer. Analysis of T-cell receptor variable segment usage revealed the selective loss and reciprocal enrichment of defined CD4+ T-cell subsets after Salmonella co-infection that is associated with the purging of antigen-specific cells with the highest intensity of tetramer staining. Hence, virulent Salmonella triggers the selective culling of high avidity activated CD4+ T-cell subsets, which re-shapes the repertoire of antigen-specific T cells that persist later after infection.
Provine, Nicholas M.; Larocca, Rafael A.; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Borducchi, Erica N.; McNally, Anna; Parenteau, Lily R.; Kaufman, David R.
Despite the widespread use of replication-incompetent recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vectors as candidate vaccine platforms, the mechanism by which these vectors elicit CD8+ T cell responses remains poorly understood. Our data demonstrate that induction and maintenance of CD8+ T cell responses by Ad vector immunization is longitudinally dependent on CD4+ T cell help for a prolonged period. Depletion of CD4+ T cells in wild type mice within the first 8 d following Ad immunization resulted in dramatically reduced induction of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells, decreased T-bet and eomesodermin expression, impaired KLRG1+ effector differentiation, and atypical expression of the memory markers CD127, CD27, and CD62L. Moreover, these CD8+ T cells failed to protect against a lethal recombinant Listeria monocytogenes challenge. Depletion of CD4+ T cells between weeks 1 and 4 following immunization resulted in increased contraction of memory CD8+ T cells. These data demonstrate a prolonged temporal requirement for CD4+ T cell help for vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cell responses in mice. These findings have important implications in the design of vaccines aimed at eliciting CD8+ T cell responses and may provide insight into the impaired immunogenicity of vaccines in the context of AIDS and other CD4+ T cell immune deficiencies. PMID:24778441
Weng, Wen-Jun; Pan, Li; Fang, Jian-Pei; Xu, Lv-Hong
This study was purposed to compare the effect of 3 different cell components for expanding CD4(+) CD25(+) Treg in vitro, and identify their immunosuppressive function. CD4(+) T cells, CD4(+) CD25(-)T cells and CD4(+) CD25(+)T cells were isolated from mouse splenocytes by MACS and then expanded in vitro. Phenotype of the T cell lines and expression of the FOXP3 was determined by flow cytometry. The inhibitory effect of expanded CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells on CD4(+) CD25(-)T cells was tested by MLR method. The results showed that the Treg cells from all the three groups were expanded significantly after culture for 2 weeks. In the CD4(+) T cells group, the proliferation rate was (77.8 ± 5.32) folds with a percentage of Treg cells increasing from (6.61 ± 1.00)% to (15.33 ± 1.31)%. The proliferation rate in the CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells group was (95.20 ± 7.67) folds, with the percentage of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells raising from (0.37 ± 0.13)% to (9.84 ± 0.98)%. The proliferation rate in the CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells group was (41.20 ± 6.92) folds, the proportion of Treg cells decreased from (86.75 ± 1.25)% to (85.32 ± 1.62)%, and the expression of Foxp3 decreased from (76.92 ± 1.72)% to (75.33 ± 2.11)% during the culture, there were not significant differences in the cell purity and the expression of Foxp3, compared with pre-amplification. The inhibitory test showed that the expanded CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells could inhibit the proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells in vitro in a cell dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that the amplification of CD4(+) CD25(+) Treg cells is successful in vitro, especially in the CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells group, the cell purity and Foxp3 gene is not obviously changes after amplification.
Cobb, Dustin A.; Bhadra, Rajarshi
CD8, but not CD4, T cells are considered critical for control of chronic toxoplasmosis. Although CD8 exhaustion has been previously reported in Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE)–susceptible model, our current work demonstrates that CD4 not only become exhausted during chronic toxoplasmosis but this dysfunction is more pronounced than CD8 T cells. Exhausted CD4 population expressed elevated levels of multiple inhibitory receptors concomitant with the reduced functionality and up-regulation of Blimp-1, a transcription factor. Our data demonstrates for the first time that Blimp-1 is a critical regulator for CD4 T cell exhaustion especially in the CD4 central memory cell subset. Using a tamoxifen-dependent conditional Blimp-1 knockout mixed bone marrow chimera as well as an adoptive transfer approach, we show that CD4 T cell–intrinsic deletion of Blimp-1 reversed CD8 T cell dysfunction and resulted in improved pathogen control. To the best of our knowledge, this is a novel finding, which demonstrates the role of Blimp-1 as a critical regulator of CD4 dysfunction and links it to the CD8 T cell dysfunctionality observed in infected mice. The critical role of CD4-intrinsic Blimp-1 expression in mediating CD4 and CD8 T cell exhaustion may provide a rational basis for designing novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27481131
Tung, Jacqueline; Sant, Andrea J.
A detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie epitope preferences in T cell priming is important for vaccines designed to elicit a broad T cell response. Protein vaccinations generally elicit CD4 T cell responses that are skewed toward a small fraction of epitopes, a phenomenon known as immunodominance. This characteristic of T cell responses, that limits the diversity of CD4 T cell recognition, is generally attributed to intracellular antigen processing. However, we recently discovered that immunodominance hierarchies persist even after vaccination with synthetic peptides. In this study, we probed the regulatory mechanisms that cause diminished CD4 T cell responses to subdominant peptides after such multi-peptide immunization in mice. We have found that the delivery of subdominant and dominant epitopes on separate dendritic cells rescues expansion of less favored CD4 T cells. Furthermore, through the use of genetic models and inhibitors, we have found that selective losses in CD4 T cell responses are mediated by an IFN-γ-induced pathway, involving indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and that regulatory T cell (Treg) activities may also regulate preferences in CD4 T cell specificity. We propose that after multi-peptide immunization, the expansion and differentiation of dominant T cells initiate complex regulatory events that determine the final peptide specificity of the elicited CD4 T cell response. PMID:23772029
Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Zaini, Khilyat Ulin Nur
The objective of this study was to establish mean CD4+ T cell values among healthy Javanese adults in Indonesia. Two hundred forty-one healthy adults (119 women and 122 men), aged 18-65 years, were enrolled in the study. CD4+ T cells were analyzed by immunophenotyping. The mean absolute CD4+ T cell count was 753.3 ± 270.3 cells/µl (median = 725.0 cells/µl) and the mean CD4+ T cell percentage was 32.6 ± 7.7%, (median = 31.0%). Women had a slightly higher mean absolute CD4+ T cell count and CD4+ T cell percentage (779.1 ± 271.0 cells/ µl; 33.4 ± 8.2%) than men (728.2 ± 268.3 cells/µl; 31.8 ± 7.1%), but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.126, p = 0.216, respectively). The mean absolute CD4+ T cell varied significantly by age group (p = 0.002). Sixty-one point seven percent of men studied (37/60) had a CD4+ T cell count less than 500 cells/µl (OR 1.8; 95% CI = 1.001-3.300). Absolute CD4+ T cell counts among Javanese Indonesians varied significantly by age.
Ishigaki, Kazuyoshi; Shoda, Hirofumi; Kochi, Yuta; Yasui, Tetsuro; Kadono, Yuho; Tanaka, Sakae; Fujio, Keishi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune destructive arthritis associated with CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunity. Although expanded CD4(+) T cell clones (ECs) has already been confirmed, the detailed characteristics of ECs have not been elucidated in RA. Using combination of a single-cell analysis and next-generation sequencing (NGS) in TCR repertoire analysis, we here revealed the detailed nature of ECs by examining peripheral blood (PB) from 5 RA patients and synovium from 1 RA patient. When we intensively investigated the single-cell transcriptome of the most expanded clones in memory CD4(+) T cells (memory-mECs) in RA-PB, senescence-related transcripts were up-regulated, indicating circulating ECs were constantly stimulated. Tracking of the transcriptome shift within the same memory-mECs between PB and the synovium revealed the augmentations in senescence-related gene expression and the up-regulation of synovium-homing chemokine receptors in the synovium. Our in-depth characterization of ECs in RA successfully demonstrated the presence of the specific immunological selection pressure, which determines the phenotype of ECs. Moreover, transcriptome tracking added novel aspects to the underlying sequential immune processes. Our approach may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of RA.
Fahey, Laura M.; Wilson, Elizabeth B.; Elsaesser, Heidi; Fistonich, Chris D.; McGavern, Dorian B.
CD4 T cell responses are crucial to prevent and control viral infection; however, virus-specific CD4 T cell activity is considered to be rapidly lost during many persistent viral infections. This is largely caused by the fact that during viral persistence CD4 T cells do not produce the classical Th1 cytokines associated with control of acute viral infections. Considering that CD4 T cell help is critical for both CD8 T cell and B cell functions, it is unclear how CD4 T cells can lose responsiveness but continue to sustain long-term control of persistent viral replication. We now demonstrate that CD4 T cell function is not extinguished as a result of viral persistence. Instead, viral persistence and prolonged T cell receptor stimulation progressively redirects CD4 T cell development away from the Th1 response induced during an acute infection toward T follicular helper cells. Importantly, this sustained CD4 T cell functionality is critical to maintain immunity and ultimately aid in the control of persistent viral infection. PMID:21536743
Burel, Julie G.; Apte, Simon H.; Groves, Penny L.; McCarthy, James S.; Doolan, Denise L.
Pathogen-specific polyfunctional T cell responses have been associated with favorable clinical outcomes, but it is not known whether molecular differences exist between polyfunctional and monofunctional cytokine-producing T cells. Here, we report that polyfunctional CD4+ T cells induced during Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) blood-stage infection in humans have a unique transcriptomic profile compared with IFN-γ monofunctional CD4+ T cells and, thus, are molecularly distinct. The 14-gene signature revealed in P. falciparum–reactive polyfunctional T cells is associated with cytokine signaling and lymphocyte chemotaxis, and systems biology analysis identified IL-27 as an upstream regulator of the polyfunctional gene signature. Importantly, the polyfunctional gene signature is largely conserved in Influenza-reactive polyfunctional CD4+ T cells, suggesting that polyfunctional T cells have core characteristics independent of pathogen specificity. This study provides the first evidence to our knowledge that consistent molecular differences exist between polyfunctional and monofunctional CD4+ T cells. PMID:28194431
Fujiwara, Daisuke; Chen, Ling; Wei, Bo
The large (LI) and small intestine (SI) differ in patterns of susceptibility to chronic mucosal inflammation. In this study, we evaluated whether this might, in part, reflect differences in resident mucosal CD11c+ T cells. These cells comprised 39–48% (SI) and 12–17% (LI) of the intraepithelial compartment, most of which were T-cell receptor-αβ+. In the SI, the majority of these cells were CD103+ CD8+ NK1.1−, whereas the opposite phenotype prevailed in the LI. In transfer models of CD4+ T cell-induced colitis, small numbers (2.5 × 105) of SI CD11c+ CD8+ T cells suppressed proinflammatory cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and mucosa-associated lymphoid compartments (SI and LI) and protected mice from chronic inflammation. On a per-cell basis, the regulatory function of SI CD11c+ T cells in CD4+ T cell colitis was potent compared with other reported regulatory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. In contrast, neither LI CD11c+ T cells nor SI CD11c− T cells were effective in such immunoregulation. SI CD11c+ CD8+ T cells were similarly effective in suppressing CD4+CD45RBhi T cell colitis, as evidenced by inhibition of intracellular proinflammatory cytokine expression and histological inflammation. These findings indicate that SI CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are a distinct intestinal T cell population that plays an immunoregulatory role in control of proinflammatory CD4+ T cells and maintenance of intestinal mucosal homeostasis. PMID:21436315
Fujiwara, Daisuke; Chen, Ling; Wei, Bo; Braun, Jonathan
The large (LI) and small intestine (SI) differ in patterns of susceptibility to chronic mucosal inflammation. In this study, we evaluated whether this might, in part, reflect differences in resident mucosal CD11c(+) T cells. These cells comprised 39-48% (SI) and 12-17% (LI) of the intraepithelial compartment, most of which were T-cell receptor-αβ(+). In the SI, the majority of these cells were CD103(+) CD8(+) NK1.1(-), whereas the opposite phenotype prevailed in the LI. In transfer models of CD4(+) T cell-induced colitis, small numbers (2.5 × 10(5)) of SI CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells suppressed proinflammatory cytokine-producing CD4(+) T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and mucosa-associated lymphoid compartments (SI and LI) and protected mice from chronic inflammation. On a per-cell basis, the regulatory function of SI CD11c(+) T cells in CD4(+) T cell colitis was potent compared with other reported regulatory CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, neither LI CD11c(+) T cells nor SI CD11c(-) T cells were effective in such immunoregulation. SI CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells were similarly effective in suppressing CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cell colitis, as evidenced by inhibition of intracellular proinflammatory cytokine expression and histological inflammation. These findings indicate that SI CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells are a distinct intestinal T cell population that plays an immunoregulatory role in control of proinflammatory CD4(+) T cells and maintenance of intestinal mucosal homeostasis.
Fontenot, Andrew P.; Palmer, Brent E.; Sullivan, Andrew K.; Joslin, Fenneke G.; Wilson, Cara C.; Maier, Lisa A.; Newman, Lee S.; Kotzin, Brian L.
Beryllium exposure can lead to the development of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells and chronic beryllium disease (CBD), which is characterized by the presence of lung granulomas and a CD4+ T cell alveolitis. Studies have documented the presence of proliferating and cytokine-secreting CD4+ T cells in blood of CBD patients after beryllium stimulation. However, some patients were noted to have cytokine-secreting CD4+ T cells in blood in the absence of beryllium-induced proliferation, and overall, the correlation between the 2 types of responses was poor. We hypothesized that the relative proportion of memory T cell subsets determined antigen-specific proliferation. In most CBD patients, the majority of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in blood expressed an effector memory T cell maturation phenotype. However, the ability of blood cells to proliferate in the presence of beryllium strongly correlated with the fraction expressing a central memory T cell phenotype. In addition, we found a direct correlation between the percentage of beryllium-specific CD4+ TEM cells in blood and T cell lymphocytosis in the lung. Together, these findings indicate that the functional capability of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is determined by the relative proportion of memory T cell subsets, which may reflect internal organ involvement. PMID:16151531
Arnold, Kelly B; Szeto, Gregory L; Alter, Galit; Irvine, Darrell J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A
A vital defect in the immune systems of HIV-infected individuals is the loss of CD4(+) T cells, resulting in impaired immune responses. We hypothesized that there were CD4(+) T cell-dependent and CD4(+) T cell-independent alterations in the immune responses of HIV-1(+) individuals. To test this, we analyzed the secretion of cytokines and chemokines from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations from HIV(+) donors, healthy donors, and healthy donors with CD4(+) T cells experimentally depleted. Multivariate analyses of 16 cytokines and chemokines at 6 and 72 hours after three stimuli (antibody-coated beads to stimulate T cells and R848 or lipopolysaccharide to stimulate innate immune cells) enabled integrative analysis of secreted profiles. Two major effects in HIV(+) PBMCs were not reproduced upon depletion of CD4(+) T cells in healthy PBMCs: (i) HIV(+) PBMCs maintained T cell-associated secreted profiles after T cell stimulation; (ii) HIV(+) PBMCs showed impaired interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion early after innate stimulation. These changes arose from hyperactive T cells and debilitated natural killer (NK) cell, respectively. Modeling and experiments showed that early IFN-γ secretion predicted later differences in secreted profiles in vitro. This effect was recapitulated in healthy PBMCs by blocking the IFN-γ receptor. Thus, we identified a critical deficiency in NK cell responses of HIV-infected individuals, independent of CD4(+) T cell depletion, which directs secreted profiles. Our findings illustrate a broad approach for identifying key disease-associated nodes in a multicellular, multivariate signaling network. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Evans, Hayley G.; Roostalu, Urmas; Walter, Gina J.; Gullick, Nicola J.; Frederiksen, Klaus S.; Roberts, Ceri A.; Sumner, Jonathan; Baeten, Dominique L.; Gerwien, Jens G.; Cope, Andrew P.; Geissmann, Frederic; Kirkham, Bruce W.; Taams, Leonie S.
IL-17+ CD4+ T (Th17) cells contribute to the pathogenesis of several human inflammatory diseases. Here we demonstrate that TNF inhibitor (TNFi) drugs induce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in CD4+ T cells including IL-17+ CD4+ T cells. TNFi-mediated induction of IL-10 in IL-17+ CD4+ T cells is Treg-/Foxp3-independent, requires IL-10 and is overcome by IL-1β. TNFi-exposed IL-17+ CD4+ T cells are molecularly and functionally distinct, with a unique gene signature characterized by expression of IL10 and IKZF3 (encoding Aiolos). We show that Aiolos binds conserved regions in the IL10 locus in IL-17+ CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, IKZF3 and IL10 expression levels correlate in primary CD4+ T cells and Aiolos overexpression is sufficient to drive IL10 in these cells. Our data demonstrate that TNF-α blockade induces IL-10 in CD4+ T cells including Th17 cells and suggest a role for the transcription factor Aiolos in the regulation of IL-10 in CD4+ T cells.
Jaigirdar, Shafqat Ahrar; MacLeod, Megan K. L.
Immunological memory is one of the defining features of the adaptive immune system. As key orchestrators and mediators of immunity, CD4 T cells are central to the vast majority of adaptive immune responses. Generated following an immune response, memory CD4 T cells retain pertinent information about their activation environment enabling them to make rapid effector responses upon reactivation. These responses can either benefit the host by hastening the control of pathogens or cause damaging immunopathology. Here, we will discuss the diversity of the memory CD4 T cell pool, the signals that influence the transition of activated T cells into that pool, and highlight how activation requirements differ between naïve and memory CD4 T cells. A greater understanding of these factors has the potential to aid the design of more effective vaccines and to improve regulation of pathologic CD4 T cells, such as in the context of autoimmunity and allergy. PMID:26441961
Huang, Mei-Chuan; Patel, Kalpesh; Taub, Dennis D.; Longo, Dan L.; Goetzl, Edward J.
Human CD4−8− T cells are a minor subset quantitatively but potentially important in immunity because they are predominantly distributed at body surfaces, and their number and activities increase in autoimmune diseases and decrease with aging. Distinguishing characteristics of CD4−8− T cells are found to include a unique profile of cytokines, including Serpin E1, which is not generated by other T cells, MIF, and TGF-β. At 2–5% of the total in mixtures with CD4 + CD8 T cells, CD4−8− T cells enhance the generation of IFN-γ and IL-17 by up to 12- and 5-fold, respectively, without contributing either cytokine or affecting cytokine production by NK/NKT cells. CD4−8− T cell-derived MIF is their major enhancer and TGFβ their principal inhibitor of CD4 and CD8 T cell cytokine production. Decreases in CD4−8− T cell effects may diminish protective immunity in aging, whereas increases may augment the severity of autoimmune diseases.—Huang, M.-C., Patel, K., Taub, D. D., Longo, D. L., Goetzl, E. J. Human CD4−8− T cells are a distinctive immunoregulatory subset. PMID:20154266
Kannan, Arun K.; Kim, Do-Geun
Here we demonstrate that interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (Itk) signaling in cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4+) T cells promotes experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We show that Itk−/− mice exhibit reduced disease severity, and transfer of Itk−/− CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients results in lower disease severity. We observed a significant reduction of CD4+ T cells in the CNS of Itk−/− mice or recipients of Itk−/− CD4+ T cells during EAE, which is consistent with attenuated disease. Itk−/− CD4+ T cells exhibit defective response to myelin antigen stimulation attributable to displacement of filamentous actin from the CD4+ coreceptor. This results in inadequate transmigration of Itk−/− CD4+ T cells into the CNS and across brain endothelial barriers in vitro. Finally, Itk−/− CD4+ T cells show significant reduction in production of T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cytokines and exhibit skewed T effector/T regulatory cell ratios. These results indicate that signaling by Itk promotes autoimmunity and CNS inflammation, suggesting that it may be a viable target for treatment of MS. PMID:25568116
Heit, Antje; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Lahl, Katharina; Neuenhahn, Michael; Schmitz, Frank; Anderl, Florian; Wagner, Hermann; Sparwasser, Tim; Busch, Dirk H; Kastenmüller, Kathrin
Immunization with purified antigens is a safe and practical vaccination strategy but is generally unable to induce sustained CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection against intracellular pathogens. Most efforts to improve the CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines have focused on co-administration of adjuvant to support cross-presentation and dendritic cell maturation. In addition, it has been shown that CD4(+) T cell help during the priming phase contributes to the generation of protective CD8(+) memory T cells. In this report we demonstrate that the depletion of CD4(+) T cells paradoxically enhances long-lasting CD8-mediated protective immunity upon protein vaccination. Functional and genetic in vivo inactivation experiments attribute this enhancement primarily to MHC class II-restricted CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), which appear to physiologically suppress the differentiation process towards long-living effector memory T cells. Since, in functional terms, this suppression by Treg largely exceeds the positive effects of conventional CD4(+) T cell help, even the absence of all CD4(+) T cells or lack of MHC class II-mediated interactions on priming dendritic cells result in enhanced CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity. These findings have important implications for the improvement of vaccines against intracellular pathogens or tumors, especially in patients with highly active Treg.
Provine, Nicholas M.; Larocca, Rafael A.; Aid, Malika; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Borducchi, Erica N.; Yates, Kathleen B.; Abbink, Peter; Kirilova, Marinela; Ng’ang’a, David; Bramson, Jonathan; Haining, W. Nicholas
CD4+ T cell help is critical for optimal CD8+ T cell memory differentiation and maintenance in many experimental systems. In addition, many reports have identified reduced primary CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of CD4+ T cell help, which often coincides with reduced Ag or pathogen clearance. In this study, we demonstrate that absence of CD4+ T cells at the time of adenovirus vector immunization of mice led to immediate impairments in early CD8+ T cell functionality and differentiation. Unhelped CD8+ T cells exhibited a reduced effector phenotype, decreased ex vivo cytotoxicity, and decreased capacity to produce cytokines. This dysfunctional state was imprinted within 3 d of immunization. Unhelped CD8+ T cells expressed elevated levels of inhibitory receptors and exhibited transcriptomic exhaustion and anergy profiles by gene set enrichment analysis. Dysfunctional, impaired effector differentiation also occurred following immunization of CD4+ T cell–deficient mice with a poxvirus vector. This study demonstrates that following priming with viral vectors, CD4+ T cell help is required to promote both the expansion and acquisition of effector functions by CD8+ T cells, which is accomplished by preventing immediate dysfunction. PMID:27448585
Ross, Ewan A; Coughlan, Ruth E; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Bobat, Saeeda; Marshall, Jennifer L; Hussain, Khiyam; Charlesworth, James; Abhyankar, Nikita; Hitchcock, Jessica; Gil, Cristina; López-Macías, Constantino; Henderson, Ian R; Khan, Mahmood; Watson, Steve P; MacLennan, Ian C M; Buckley, Christopher D; Cunningham, Adam F
Hematopoietic cells constitutively express CD31/PECAM1, a signaling adhesion receptor associated with controlling responses to inflammatory stimuli. Although expressed on CD4(+) T cells, its function on these cells is unclear. To address this, we have used a model of systemic Salmonella infection that induces high levels of T cell activation and depends on CD4(+) T cells for resolution. Infection of CD31-deficient (CD31KO) mice demonstrates that these mice fail to control infection effectively. During infection, CD31KO mice have diminished numbers of total CD4(+) T cells and IFN-γ-secreting Th1 cells. This is despite a higher proportion of CD31KO CD4(+) T cells exhibiting an activated phenotype and an undiminished capacity to prime normally and polarize to Th1. Reduced numbers of T cells reflected the increased propensity of naive and activated CD31KO T cells to undergo apoptosis postinfection compared with wild-type T cells. Using adoptive transfer experiments, we show that loss of CD31 on CD4(+) T cells alone is sufficient to account for the defective CD31KO T cell accumulation. These data are consistent with CD31 helping to control T cell activation, because in its absence, T cells have a greater propensity to become activated, resulting in increased susceptibility to become apoptotic. The impact of CD31 loss on T cell homeostasis becomes most pronounced during severe, inflammatory, and immunological stresses such as those caused by systemic Salmonella infection. This identifies a novel role for CD31 in regulating CD4 T cell homeostasis.
Yan, Z-H; Zheng, X-F; Yi, L; Wang, J; Wang, X-J; Wei, P-J; Jia, H-Y; Zhou, L-J; Zhao, Y-L; Zhang, H-T
Upregulation of CD137 on recently activated CD8(+) T cells has been used to identify rare viral and tumour antigen-specific T cells from the peripheral blood. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CD137 for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-reactive CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood of infected individuals by flow cytometry and to investigate the characteristics of these CD137(+) CD4(+) T cells. We initially enrolled 31 active tuberculosis (TB) patients, 31 individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) and 25 healthy donors. The intracellular CD137 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by CD4(+) T cells was simultaneously detected under unstimulated and CFP10-stimulated (culture filtrate protein 10, a Mtb-specific antigen) conditions. In unstimulated CD4(+) T cells, we found that the CD137 expression in the TB group was significantly higher than that in the LTBI group. Stimulation with CFP10 largely increased the CD4(+) T cell CD137 expression in both the TB and LTBI groups. After CFP10 stimulation, the frequency of CD137(+) CD4(+) T cells was higher than that of IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) T cells in both the TB and LTBI groups. Most of the CFP10-activated IFN-γ-secreting cells were CD137-positive, but only a small fraction of the CD137-positive cells expressed IFN-γ. An additional 20 patients with TB were enrolled to characterize the CD45RO(+) CCR7(+) , CD45RO(+) CCR7(-) and CD45RO(-) subsets in the CD137(+) CD4(+) T cell populations. The Mtb-specific CD137(+) CD4(+) T cells were mainly identified as having an effector memory phenotype. In conclusion, CD137 is a useful marker that can be used for identifying Mtb-reactive CD4(+) T cells by flow cytometry. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.
Giraldo, Nicolas A.; Bolaños, Natalia I.; Cuellar, Adriana; Guzman, Fanny; Uribe, Ana Maria; Bedoya, Astrid; Olaya, Natalia; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Roa, Nubia; Rosas, Fernando; Velasco, Víctor; Puerta, Concepción J.; González, John M.
Background CD4+/CD8+ double positive (DP) T cells have been described in healthy individuals as well as in patients with autoimmune and chronic infectious diseases. In chronic viral infections, this cell subset has effector memory phenotype and displays antigen specificity. No previous studies of double positive T cells in parasite infections have been carried out. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventeen chronic chagasic patients (7 asymptomatic and 10 symptomatic) and 24 non-infected donors, including 12 healthy and 12 with non-chagasic cardiomyopathy donors were analyzed. Peripheral blood was stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, HLA-DR and CD38, and lymphocytes for intracellular perforin. Antigen specificity was assessed using HLA*A2 tetramers loaded with T. cruzi K1 or influenza virus epitopes. Surface expression of CD107 and intracellular IFN-γ production were determined in K1-specific DP T cells from 11 chagasic donors. Heart tissue from a chronic chagasic patient was stained for both CD8 and CD4 by immunochemistry. Chagasic patients showed higher frequencies of DP T cells (2.1%±0.9) compared with healthy (1.1%±0.5) and non-chagasic cardiomyopathy (1.2%±0.4) donors. DP T cells from Chagasic patients also expressed more HLA-DR, CD38 and perforin and had higher frequencies of T. cruzi K1-specific cells. IFN-γ production in K1-specific cells was higher in asymptomatic patients after polyclonal stimulation, while these cells tended to degranulate more in symptomatic donors. Immunochemistry revealed that double positive T cells infiltrate the cardiac tissue of a chagasic donor. Conclusions Chagasic patients have higher percentages of circulating double positive T cells expressing activation markers, potential effector molecules and greater class I antigenic specificity against T. cruzi. Although K1 tetramer positive DP T cell produced little IFN-γ, they displayed degranulation activity that was increased in symptomatic patients. Moreover, K1-specific DP T cells can
Zhao, X; Sun, G; Sun, X; Tian, D; Liu, K; Liu, T; Cong, M; Xu, H; Li, X; Shi, W; Tian, Y; Yao, J; Guo, H; Zhang, D
CD4(+) T lymphocytes are key players in the adaptive immune system and can differentiate into a variety of effector and regulatory T cells. Here, we provide evidence that a novel differentiation pathway of CD4(+) T cells shifts the balance from a destructive T-cell response to one that favors regulation in an immune-mediated liver injury model. Peripheral CD4(-)CD8(-)NK1.1(-) double-negative T cells (DNT) was increased following Concanavalin A administration in mice. Adoptive transfer of DNT led to significant protection from hepatocyte necrosis by direct inhibition on the activation of lymphocytes, a process that occurred primarily through the perforin-granzyme B route. These DNT converted from CD4(+) rather than CD8(+) T cells, a process primarily regulated by OX40. DNT migrated to the liver through the CXCR3-CXCL9/CXCL10 interaction. In conclusion, we elucidated a novel differentiation pathway from activated CD4(+) T cells to regulatory DNT cells for maintaining homeostasis of the immune system in vivo, and provided key evidence that utilizing this novel differentiation pathway has potential application in the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Freise, Amanda C; Zettlitz, Kirstin A; Salazar, Felix B; Lu, Xiang; Tavaré, Richard; Wu, Anna M
Molecular imaging of CD4(+) T cells throughout the body has implications for monitoring autoimmune disease and immunotherapy of cancer. Given the key role of these cells in regulating immunity, it is important to develop a biologically inert probe. GK1.5 cys-diabody (cDb), a previously developed anti-mouse CD4 antibody fragment, was tested at different doses to assess its effects on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and CD4(+) T cell viability, proliferation, CD4 expression, and function. The effect of protein dose on image contrast (lymphoid tissue-to-muscle ratio) was assessed by administering different amounts of (89)Zr-labeled GK1.5 cDb to mice followed by PET imaging and ex vivo biodistribution analysis. To assess impact of GK1.5 cDb on T cell biology, GK1.5 cDb was incubated with T cells in vitro or administered intravenously to C57BL/6 mice at multiple protein doses. CD4 expression and T cell proliferation were analyzed with flow cytometry and cytokines were assayed. For immunoPET imaging, the lowest protein dose of 2 μg of (89)Zr-labeled GK1.5 cDb resulted in significantly higher % injected dose/g in inguinal lymph nodes (ILN) and spleen compared to the 12-μg protein dose. In vivo administration of GK1.5 cDb at the high dose of 40 μg caused a transient decrease in CD4 expression in spleen, blood, lymph nodes, and thymus, which recovered within 3 days postinjection; this effect was reduced, although not abrogated, when 2 μg was administered. Proliferation was inhibited in vivo in ILN but not the spleen by injection of 40 μg GK1.5 cDb. Concentrations of GK1.5 cDb in excess of 25 nM significantly inhibited CD4(+) T cell proliferation and interferon-γ production in vitro. Overall, using low-dose GK1.5 cDb minimized biological effects on CD4(+) T cells. Low-dose GK1.5 cDb yields high-contrast immunoPET images with minimal effects on T cell biology in vitro and in vivo and may be a useful tool for investigating CD4(+) T cells in the context
CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells form the two major subsets of peripheral T lymphocytes. Helper T cells fulfill crucial roles in the activation and coordination of the immune response, while cytotoxic T cells kill virus-infected or tumor cells. Recent data suggest that the lineage identify of helper T cells is not fixed and that CD4(+) T cells under certain physiological conditions can be reprogrammed to express CD8 lineage genes and to develop into intestinal intraepithelial CD4(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes that lack the expression of the key helper T cell lineage commitment factor ThPOK. Moreover, the analysis of mice with a conditional deletion of the transcription factor ThPOK or the histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 indicated that CD8 lineage genes are actively repressed in CD4(+) T cells in order to maintain the lineage integrity of helper T cells. In this review I summarize recent studies that indicate plasticity of CD4(+) T cells towards a CTL program and that demonstrate that ThPOK and HDAC1-HDAC2 are part of a transcriptional regulatory circuit that counteracts the activity of the transcription factor Runx3 to maintain CD4(+) T cell lineage integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reiner, Steven L
The mechanisms by which thymocytes commit to becoming CD4+ T cells and how these cells subsequently can adopt various cell fates are becoming important paradigms of developmental programming. Understanding how such CD4+ T-cell diversity accommodates both immune reaction against various challenges and the suppression of undesirable responses is also revealing new therapeutic options.
Gilbert, Kathleen M; Blossom, Sarah J; Erickson, Stephen W; Broadfoot, Brannon; West, Kirk; Bai, Shasha; Li, Jingyun; Cooney, Craig A
CD4(+) T cells in female MRL+/+ mice exposed to solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) skew toward effector/memory CD4(+) T cells, and demonstrate seemingly non-monotonic alterations in IFN-γ production. In the current study we examined the mechanism for this immunotoxicity using effector/memory and naïve CD4(+) T cells isolated every 6 weeks during a 40 week exposure to TCE (0.5mg/ml in drinking water). A time-dependent effect of TCE exposure on both Ifng gene expression and IFN-γ protein production was observed in effector/memory CD4(+) T cells, with an increase after 22 weeks of exposure and a decrease after 40 weeks of exposure. No such effect of TCE was observed in naïve CD4(+) T cells. A cumulative increase in DNA methylation in the CpG sites of the promoter of the Ifng gene was observed in effector/memory, but not naïve, CD4(+) T cells over time. Also unique to the Ifng promoter was an increase in methylation variance in effector/memory compared to naïve CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, the CpG sites of the Ifng promoter in effector/memory CD4(+) T cells were especially sensitive to the effects of TCE exposure, which may help explain the regulatory effect of the chemical on this gene.
CD4 T cells are crucial in immunity to tuberculosis (TB). Polyfunctional CD4 T cells simultaneously produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including human TB. Mycobacterium bovis in...
CD4 T cells are crucial in immunity to tuberculosis (TB). Polyfunctional CD4 T cells simultaneously produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including human TB and HIV. However, the a...
CD4 T cells are crucial in immunity to tuberculosis (TB). Polyfunctional CD4 T cells simultaneously produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including human TB and HIV. Mycobacterium ...
Glennie, Nelson D; Volk, Susan W; Scott, Phillip
Tissue-resident memory T cells are required for establishing protective immunity against a variety of different pathogens, although the mechanisms mediating protection by CD4+ resident memory T cells are still being defined. In this study we addressed this issue with a population of protective skin-resident, IFNγ-producing CD4+ memory T cells generated following Leishmania major infection. We previously found that resident memory T cells recruit circulating effector T cells to enhance immunity. Here we show that resident memory CD4+ T cells mediate the delayed-hypersensitivity response observed in immune mice and provide protection without circulating T cells. This protection occurs rapidly after challenge, and requires the recruitment and activation of inflammatory monocytes, which limit parasites by production of both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Overall, these data highlight a novel role for tissue-resident memory cells in recruiting and activating inflammatory monocytes, and underscore the central role that skin-resident T cells play in immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Maggi, Jaxaira; Schafer, Carolina; Ubilla-Olguín, Gabriela; Catalán, Diego; Schinnerling, Katina; Aguillón, Juan C.
The interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells is crucial on immunity or tolerance induction. In an immature or semi-mature state, DCs induce tolerance through T-cell deletion, generation of regulatory T cells, and/or induction of T-cell anergy. Anergy is defined as an unresponsive state that retains T cells in an “off” mode under conditions in which immune activation is undesirable. This mechanism is crucial for the control of T-cell responses against self-antigens, thereby preventing autoimmunity. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs), generated in vitro from peripheral blood monocytes of healthy donors or patients with autoimmune pathologies, were shown to modulate immune responses by inducing T-cell hyporesponsiveness. Animal models of autoimmune diseases confirmed the impact of T-cell anergy on disease development and progression in vivo. Thus, the induction of T-cell hyporesponsiveness by tDCs has become a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. Here, we review recent findings in the area and discuss the potential of anergy induction for clinical purposes. PMID:26441992
Furukawa, Takahiro; Ishifune, Chieko; Tsukumo, Shin-ichi; Hozumi, Katsuto; Maekawa, Yoichi; Matsui, Naoko; Kaji, Ryuji; Yasutomo, Koji
Notch expressed on CD4+ T cells transduces signals that mediate their effector functions and survival. Although Notch signaling is known to be cis-inhibited by Notch ligands expressed on the same cells, the role of Notch ligands on T cells remains unclear. In this report we demonstrate that the CD4+ T cell Notch ligand Dll1 transduces signals required for their survival. Co-transfer of CD4+ T cells from Dll1−/− and control mice into recipient mice followed by immunization revealed a rapid decline of CD4+ T cells from Dll1−/− mice compared with control cells. Dll1−/− mice exhibited lower clinical scores of experimental autoimmune encephalitis than control mice. The expression of Notch target genes in CD4+ T cells from Dll1−/− mice was not affected, suggesting that Dll1 deficiency in T cells does not affect cis Notch signaling. Overexpression of the intracellular domain of Dll1 in Dll1-deficient CD4+ T cells partially rescued impaired survival. Our data demonstrate that Dll1 is an independent regulator of Notch-signaling important for the survival of activated CD4+ T cells, and provide new insight into the physiological roles of Notch ligands as well as a regulatory mechanism important for maintaining adaptive immune responses. PMID:27659682
Canaday, David H.
T cell hybridomas are very useful tools to investigate antigen presenting cell (APC) function. They were developed based on the fusion technology that led to monoclonal antibody section. Antigen-specific primary T cells are generated and fused to an immortal thymoma line. Unfused thymoma cells are eliminated by engineered metabolic selection. Antigen-specific hybridomas are identified and may be characterized in detail. Primary T cells are preferable for studies of the regulatory mechanisms intrinsic to T cells, but for study of antigen presentation T cell hybridomas have advantages over primary T cell clones, including their relative uniformity, stability over time, and ready availability in large numbers for extensive antigen presentation experiments. PMID:23329495
Fang, Min; Siciliano, Nicholas A.; Hersperger, Adam R.; Roscoe, Felicia; Hu, Angela; Ma, Xueying; Shamsedeen, Ahamed R.; Eisenlohr, Laurence C.; Sigal, Luis J.
CD4+ T cells are generally regarded as helpers and regulators of the immune response. Although cytolytic CD4+ T cells have been described, whether those generated during the course of a viral infection play a role in virus control remains unknown. Here we show that during acute infection with ectromelia virus, the mouse homolog of the human virus of smallpox, large numbers of CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph node and liver of resistant mice have a cytotoxic phenotype. We also show that these cells kill targets in vivo in a perforin-dependent manner and that mice with specific deficiency of perforin in CD4+ T cells have impaired virus control. Thus, perforin-dependent CD4+ T-cell killing of infected cells is an important mechanism of antiviral defense. PMID:22665800
Roberts, Ceri A.; Dickinson, Abigail K.; Taams, Leonie S.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation of the synovial lining (synovitis). The inflammation in the RA joint is associated with and driven by immune cell infiltration, synovial hyperproliferation, and excessive production of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-17, eventually resulting in damage to the cartilage and underlying bone. The RA joint harbors a wide range of immune cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells (both proinflammatory and regulatory). The interplay between CD14+ myeloid cells and CD4+ T cells can significantly influence CD4+ T cell function, and conversely, effector vs. regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets can exert profound effects on monocyte/macrophage function. In this review, we will discuss how the interplay between CD4+ T cells and monocytes/macrophages may contribute to the immunopathology of RA. PMID:26635790
Albareda, María Cecilia; Olivera, Gabriela Carina; Laucella, Susana A.; Alvarez, María Gabriela; Fernandez, Esteban Rodrigo; Lococo, Bruno; Viotti, Rodolfo; Tarleton, Rick L.; Postan, Miriam
Previously we found that the frequency of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells specific for Trypanosoma cruzi inversely correlates with disease severity in chronic human Chagas disease along with low levels of IL-2-secreting CD8+ T cells in all clinical stages. This impairment of the parasite-specific T cell responses was associated with phenotypic features of immune senescence of the CD8+ T cell compartment. These data prompted us to address the question of whether the CD4+ T cell compartment also experiences signs of exhaustion. Thus, we performed a functional and phenotypical characterization of T. cruzi-specific and overall CD4+ T cells in chronically infected subjects with different degrees of cardiac dysfunction. The results show an inverse association between disease severity and the frequency of T. cruzi-specific IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells. The high expression of CD27 and CD28 with a relative low expression of CD57 found on CD4+IFN-γ + T cells suggests that the effector T cell pool in chronic T. cruzi infection includes a high proportion of newly recruited T cells, but a low frequency of long-term memory cells. The total CD4+ T cell compartment shows signs of senescence and later stages of differentiation associated with more severe stages of the disease. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term T. cruzi infection in humans might exhaust long-lived memory T cells. PMID:19692645
Sakai, Shunsuke; Mayer-Barber, Katrin D.; Barber, Daniel L.
CD4 T cells are critical for control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and represent the best hope for vaccine-elicited protection. However, little is understood about the properties of Mtb-specific CD4 T cells that mediate control, and the lack of correlates of protection present a significant barrier to the rational development of new vaccination and therapeutic strategies which are sorely needed. Here we discuss the features of protective CD4 T cells including recent evidence for IFN-γ dependent and independent mechanisms of protection, poor protection by terminally differentiated cells and the importance of T cell migratory capacity for the control of Mtb infection. PMID:25000593
van der Geest, Kornelis S M; Abdulahad, Wayel H; Tete, Sarah M; Lorencetti, Pedro G; Horst, Gerda; Bos, Nicolaas A; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke M H
Healthy aging requires an optimal balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses. Although CD4+ T cells play an essential role in many immune responses, few studies have directly assessed the effect of aging on the balance between effector T (Teff) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Here, we determined if and how aging affects the ratio between Treg and Teff cells. Percentages of both naive Treg (nTreg; CD45RA+CD25(int)FOXP3(low)) and memory Treg (memTreg; CD45RA-CD25(high)FOXP3(high)) cells were determined by flow cytometry in peripheral blood samples of healthy individuals of various ages (20-84 years). Circulating Th1, Th2 and Th17 effector cells were identified by intracellular staining for IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17, respectively, upon in vitro stimulation with PMA and calcium ionophore. Whereas proportions of nTreg cells declined with age, memTreg cells increased. Both Th1 and Th2 cells were largely maintained in the circulation of aged humans, whereas Th17 cells were decreased. Similar to memTreg cells, the 3 Teff subsets resided primarily in the memory CD4+ T cell compartment. Overall, Treg/Teff ratios were increased in the memory CD4+ T cell compartment of aged individuals when compared to that of young individuals. Finally, the relative increase of memTreg cells in elderly individuals was associated with poor responses to influenza vaccination. Taken together, our findings imply that aging disturbs the balance between Treg cells and Teff cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bertin, Samuel; Aoki-Nonaka, Yukari; de Jong, Petrus Rudolf; Stanwood, Shawna R.; Srikanth, Sonal; Lee, Jihyung; To, Keith; Abramson, Lior; Yu, Timothy; Han, Tiffany; Touma, Ranim; Li, Xiangli; González-Navajas, José M.; Herdman, Scott; Corr, Maripat; Fu, Guo; Dong, Hui; Gwack, Yousang; Franco, Alessandra; Jefferies, Wilfred A.; Raz, Eyal
TRPV1 is a Ca2+-permeable channel mostly studied as a pain receptor in sensory neurons. However, its role in other cell types is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that TRPV1 is functionally expressed in CD4+ T cells where it acts as a non-store-operated Ca2+ channel and contributes to T cell receptor (TCR)-induced Ca2+ influx, TCR signaling and T cell activation. In models of T cell-mediated colitis, TRPV1 promotes colitogenic T cell responses and intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 in human CD4+ T cells recapitulates the phenotype of murine Trpv1−/− CD4+ T cells. These findings suggest that TRPV1 inhibition could represent a new therapeutic strategy to restrain proinflammatory T cell responses. PMID:25282159
Sun, Yu; Fu, Yajing; Zhang, Zining; Tang, Tian; Liu, Jing; Ding, Haibo; Han, Xiaoxu; Xu, Junjie; Chu, Zhenxing; Shang, Hong; Jiang, Yongjun
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to reduced CD4+T-cell counts and immune dysfunction. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV primary infection has been recommended to achieve an optimal clinical outcome, but a comprehensive study on restoration of CD4+T-cell function in primary HIV-infected individuals with ART still needs to be eluciated. We investigated longitudinal changes in the CD4+T-cell counts, phenotypes, and functions in HIV-infected individuals with early ART (initiated within 6 months after HIV infection) or later ART (initiated more than 12 months after HIV infection). Patients from early ART and later ART groups had received ART for at least 1 year. Individuals with early ART had more CD4+T cells, a faster rate of CD4+T-cell recovery than those receiving later ART; the levels of CD4+T-cell activation and senescence were lower in early ART compared to those with later ART (P = .031; P = .016), but the activation was higher than normal controls (NC) (P = .001); thymic emigrant function was more upregulated in early ART than in later ART (P = .015), but still lower than NC (P = .027); proliferative capacity and interferon-γ secretion of CD4+T cells were significantly decreased in primary infection (P < .001; P = .029), and early ART restored these CD4+T-cell functions, there is no difference with NC, later ART could partially restore the functions of CD4+T cells, but it remained lower than that of NC (P = .005; P = .019). Early ART could better improve CD4+T-cell function. PMID:28700479
Evans, Vanessa A.; Kumar, Nitasha; Filali, Ali; Procopio, Francesco A.; Yegorov, Oleg; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Saleh, Suha; Haddad, Elias K.; da Fonseca Pereira, Candida; Ellenberg, Paula C.; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Cameron, Paul U.; Lewin, Sharon R.
Latently infected resting CD4+ T cells are a major barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how latency is established, maintained and reversed is critical to identifying novel strategies to eliminate latently infected cells. We demonstrate here that co-culture of resting CD4+ T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4+ T cells. Latency was eliminated when cell-to-cell contact was prevented in the mDC-T cell co-cultures and reduced when clustering was minimised in the mDC-T cell co-cultures. Supernatants from infected mDC-T cell co-cultures did not facilitate the establishment of latency, consistent with cell-cell contact and not a soluble factor being critical for mediating latent infection of resting CD4+ T cells. Gene expression in non-proliferating CD4+ T cells, enriched for latent infection, showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular activation and interferon regulated pathways, including the down-regulation of genes controlling both NF-κB and cell cycle. We conclude that mDC play a key role in the establishment of HIV latency in resting memory CD4+ T cells, which is predominantly mediated through signalling during DC-T cell contact. PMID:24339779
Evans, Vanessa A; Kumar, Nitasha; Filali, Ali; Procopio, Francesco A; Yegorov, Oleg; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Saleh, Suha; Haddad, Elias K; da Fonseca Pereira, Candida; Ellenberg, Paula C; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Cameron, Paul U; Lewin, Sharon R
Latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells are a major barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how latency is established, maintained and reversed is critical to identifying novel strategies to eliminate latently infected cells. We demonstrate here that co-culture of resting CD4(+) T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4(+) T cells. Latency was eliminated when cell-to-cell contact was prevented in the mDC-T cell co-cultures and reduced when clustering was minimised in the mDC-T cell co-cultures. Supernatants from infected mDC-T cell co-cultures did not facilitate the establishment of latency, consistent with cell-cell contact and not a soluble factor being critical for mediating latent infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. Gene expression in non-proliferating CD4(+) T cells, enriched for latent infection, showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular activation and interferon regulated pathways, including the down-regulation of genes controlling both NF-κB and cell cycle. We conclude that mDC play a key role in the establishment of HIV latency in resting memory CD4(+) T cells, which is predominantly mediated through signalling during DC-T cell contact.
Zhong, Wu; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jia-Hao; Wang, Shi-Jun; Liao, Cun; Cai, Bin; Chen, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Yun; Cao, Yun-Fei; Gao, Feng
To investigate the abundance and potential functions of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). Proportions of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells were examined in peripheral blood and tumor/paratumor tissues of CRC patients and healthy controls using flow cytometry. Expression of phenotypic markers such as forkhead box (Fox)p3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4, chemokine CC receptor (CCR)4 and CCR5 was measured using flow cytometry. LAP(-)CD4(+) and LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells were isolated using a magnetic cell-sorting system and cell purity was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The proportion of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells was significantly higher in peripheral blood from patients (9.44% ± 3.18%) than healthy controls (1.49% ± 1.00%, P < 0.001). Among patients, the proportion of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells was significantly higher in tumor tissues (11.76% ± 3.74%) compared with paratumor tissues (3.87% ± 1.64%, P < 0.001). We also observed positive correlations between the proportion of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells and TNM stage (P < 0.001), distant metastasis (P < 0.001) and serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen (P < 0.05). Magnetic-activated cell sorting gave an overall enrichment of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells (95.02% ± 2.87%), which was similar for LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells (94.75% ± 2.76%). In contrast to LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells, LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells showed lower Foxp3 expression but significantly higher levels of CTLA-4, CCR4 and CCR5 (P < 0.01). LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells expressed significantly larger amounts of IL-10 and TGF-β but lower levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17 and interferon-γ, compared with LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells. LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells accumulated in the tumor microenvironment of CRC patients and were involved in immune evasion mediated by IL-10 and TGF-β.
Zhong, Wu; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jia-Hao; Wang, Shi-Jun; Liao, Cun; Cai, Bin; Chen, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Yun; Cao, Yun-Fei; Gao, Feng
AIM To investigate the abundance and potential functions of LAP+CD4+ T cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS Proportions of LAP+CD4+ T cells were examined in peripheral blood and tumor/paratumor tissues of CRC patients and healthy controls using flow cytometry. Expression of phenotypic markers such as forkhead box (Fox)p3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4, chemokine CC receptor (CCR)4 and CCR5 was measured using flow cytometry. LAP-CD4+ and LAP+CD4+ T cells were isolated using a magnetic cell-sorting system and cell purity was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. RESULTS The proportion of LAP+CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in peripheral blood from patients (9.44% ± 3.18%) than healthy controls (1.49% ± 1.00%, P < 0.001). Among patients, the proportion of LAP+CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in tumor tissues (11.76% ± 3.74%) compared with paratumor tissues (3.87% ± 1.64%, P < 0.001). We also observed positive correlations between the proportion of LAP+CD4+ T cells and TNM stage (P < 0.001), distant metastasis (P < 0.001) and serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen (P < 0.05). Magnetic-activated cell sorting gave an overall enrichment of LAP+CD4+ T cells (95.02% ± 2.87%), which was similar for LAP-CD4+ T cells (94.75% ± 2.76%). In contrast to LAP-CD4+ T cells, LAP+CD4+ T cells showed lower Foxp3 expression but significantly higher levels of CTLA-4, CCR4 and CCR5 (P < 0.01). LAP+CD4+ T cells expressed significantly larger amounts of IL-10 and TGF-β but lower levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17 and interferon-γ, compared with LAP-CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION LAP+CD4+ T cells accumulated in the tumor microenvironment of CRC patients and were involved in immune evasion mediated by IL-10 and TGF-β. PMID:28210081
Doherty, Rachael; Whiston, Ronan; Cormican, Paul; Finlay, Emma K.; Couldrey, Christine; Brady, Colm; O’Farrelly, Cliona; Meade, Kieran G.
We hypothesised that epigenetic regulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes contributes to a shift toward a dysfunctional T cell phenotype which may impact on their ability to clear mycobacterial infection. Combined RNA-seq transcriptomic profiling and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing identified 193 significantly differentially expressed genes and 760 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), between CD4+ T cells from M. bovis infected and healthy cattle. 196 DMRs were located within 10 kb of annotated genes, including GATA3 and RORC, both of which encode transcription factors that promote TH2 and TH17 T helper cell subsets respectively. Gene-specific DNA methylation and gene expression levels for the TNFRSF4 and Interferon-γ genes were significantly negatively correlated suggesting a regulatory relationship. Pathway analysis of DMRs identified enrichment of genes involved in the anti-proliferative TGF-β signaling pathway and TGFB1 expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood leukocytes from TB-infected cattle. This first analysis of the bovine CD4+ T cell methylome suggests that DNA methylation directly contributes to a distinct gene expression signature in CD4+ T cells from cattle infected with M. bovis. Specific methylation changes proximal to key inflammatory gene loci may be critical to the emergence of a non-protective CD4+ T cell response during mycobacterial infection in cattle. PMID:27507428
Mahic, Milada; Yaqub, Sheraz; Bryn, Tone; Henjum, Karen; Eide, Dag M; Torgersen, Knut M; Aandahl, Einar M; Taskén, Kjetil
Human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (T(R)) cells express the transcription factor forkhead box p3 (FOXP3) and have potent immunosuppressive properties. While naturally occurring T(R) cells develop in the thymus, adaptive T(R) cells develop in the periphery from naive CD4+ T cells. Adaptive T(R) cells may express cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) and suppress effector T cells by a PGE(2)-dependent mechanism, which is reversible with COX inhibitors. In this study we have characterized the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into adaptive T(R) cells in detail during 7 days of continuous antigen stimulation. After 2 days of stimulation of CD4+CD25- T cells, the cells expressed FOXP3 and COX-2 and displayed potent immunosuppressive properties. The suppressive phenotype was present at all observed time-points from Day 2, although suppression was merely present at Day 7. The adaptive T(R) cells expressed cell surface markers consistent with an activated phenotype and secreted high levels of TGF-beta, IL-10, and PGE(2). However, the suppressive phenotype was found exclusively in cells that proliferated upon activation. These data support the notion that activation of naive CD4+ T cells leads to concomitant acquisition of effector and suppressive properties.
Singh, Manisha; Basu, Sreemanti; Camell, Christina; Couturier, Jacob; Nudelman, Rodolfo J.; Medina, Miguel A.; Rodgers, John R.; Lewis, Dorothy E.
Co-stimulatory signals are important for development of effector and regulatory T cells. In this case, CD28 signaling is usually considered inert in the absence of signaling through the TCR. By contrast, mitogenic rat CD28 mAbs reportedly expand regulatory T cells without TCR stimulation. We found that a commercially available human CD28 mAb (ANC28) stimulated PBMCs without TCR co-ligation or cross-linking; ANC28 selectively expanded CD4+CD25+FoxP3−(T effector) and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ (Treg) cells. ANC28 stimulated the CD45RO+ CD4+ (memory) population whereas CD45RA+CD4+ (naïve) cells did not respond. ANC28 also induced inflammatory cytokines. Treg induced by ANC28 retain the Treg phenotype longer than did co-stimulated Treg. Treg induced by ANC28 suppressed CD25− T cells through a contact-dependent mechanism. Purity influenced the response of CD4+CD25+ cells because bead-purified CD4+CD25+ cells (85–90% pure) responded strongly to ANC28, whereas 98% pure FACS-sorted CD4+CD25 bright (T-reg) did not respond. Purified CD4+CD25int cells responded similarly to the bead-purified CD4+CD25+ cells. Thus, pre-activated CD4+ T cells (CD25int) respond to ANC28 rather than Treg (CD25bright). The ability of ANC28 to expand both effectors producing inflammatory cytokines as well as suppressive regulatory T cells might be useful for ex vivo expansion of therapeutic T cells. PMID:18446791
Huang, Mei-Chuan; Patel, Kalpesh; Taub, Dennis D; Longo, Dan L; Goetzl, Edward J
Human CD4(-)8(-) T cells are a minor subset quantitatively but potentially important in immunity because they are predominantly distributed at body surfaces, and their number and activities increase in autoimmune diseases and decrease with aging. Distinguishing characteristics of CD4(-)8(-) T cells are found to include a unique profile of cytokines, including Serpin E1, which is not generated by other T cells, MIF, and TGF-beta. At 2-5% of the total in mixtures with CD4 + CD8 T cells, CD4(-)8(-) T cells enhance the generation of IFN-gamma and IL-17 by up to 12- and 5-fold, respectively, without contributing either cytokine or affecting cytokine production by NK/NKT cells. CD4(-)8(-) T cell-derived MIF is their major enhancer and TGFbeta their principal inhibitor of CD4 and CD8 T cell cytokine production. Decreases in CD4(-)8(-) T cell effects may diminish protective immunity in aging, whereas increases may augment the severity of autoimmune diseases.
Tsuchiya, Kazuyo; Ikeda, Takuto; Batmunkh, Baatarsuren; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Ishizaki, Hidenobu; Hotokezaka, Masayuki; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Nanashima, Atsushi
Mucosal immune dysregulation associated with T cells plays a critical role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the definite significances of these cells in IBD still remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the population and expression of CD4+CD161+ T cells in the colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) in patients with IBD by analyses using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels in both LPMCs and CD4+ T cells in lamina propria (LP-CD4+ T cells) were measured using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. IL-10 production was investigated with immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that the population of CD4+CD161+ T cells was significantly decreased in active ulcerative colitis (UC) compared with inactive UC (P < 0.05). The CD4+CD161+ T cell population was inversely correlated with disease activity in patients with UC (r = −0.6326, P = 0.0055), but there was no significant correlation in those with Crohn’s disease. Over-expression of IL-10 mRNA in both LPMCs and LP-CD4+ T cells were detected in active UC. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased frequency of CD161+ cells and increased IL-10 positive cells in active UC. The frequency of CD4+CD161+ T cells and IL-10 expression was supposed to be associated with the pathological status of mucosal immunoregulation in IBD. PMID:28386147
Villadsen, L S; Skov, L; Dam, T N; Dagnaes-Hansen, F; Rygaard, J; Schuurman, J; Parren, P W H I; van de Winkel, J G J; Baadsgaard, O
CD4(+) T cells, in activated or malignant form, are involved in a number of diseases including inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, and T cell lymphomas such as the majority of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL). Targeting CD4 with an antibody that inhibits and/or eliminates disease-driving T cells in situ may therefore be a useful approach in the treatment of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells in intact inflamed human skin tissue by Zanolimumab, a fully human therapeutic monoclonal antibody (IgG1, kappa) against CD4, was studied in a human psoriasis xenograft mouse model. Zanolimumab treatment was shown to induce a significant reduction in the numbers of inflammatory mononuclear cells in upper dermis. This reduction in inflammatory mononuclear cells in situ was primarily due to a significant reduction in the numbers of skin-infiltrating CD4(+), but not CD8(+) CD3(+) T cells. The capacity of Zanolimumab to deplete the CD4(+) T cells in the skin may be of importance in diseases where CD4(+) T cells play a central role. Indeed, in a phase II clinical trial Zanolimumab has shown a dose-dependent clinical response in patients with CTCL and the antibody is currently in a phase III clinical trial for CTCL, a disease for which there is no safe and effective treatment available today.
Neumann, Katrin; Kruse, Nils; Szilagyi, Balint; Erben, Ulrike; Rudolph, Christine; Flach, Anne; Zeitz, Martin; Hamann, Alf; Klugewitz, Katja
Gut-activated T cells migrating into the liver can cause extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. T cells acquire a gut-homing phenotype dependent on retinoic acid (RA) provided by intestinal dendritic cells (DC). We investigated whether liver antigen-presenting cells can induce gut tropism supporting an enterohepatic lymphocyte circulation. Priming of CD4(+) T cells by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) supported migration into gut and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. As observed for T cells primed by intestinal DCs, this gut tropism depended on α(4) β(7) integrin and CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) expression by LSEC-primed CD4(+) T cells. The induction of gut-homing molecules was mediated by RA, a derivate of vitamin A that is stored in large amounts within the liver. LSECs expressed functional retinal dehydrogenases and could convert vitamin A to RA. Conversely, the lack of signaling via the RA receptor prevented the expression of α(4) β(7) integrin and CCR9 on LSEC-primed CD4(+) T cells, consequently reducing their in vivo migration to the intestine. Other liver antigen-presenting cells failed to support high expression of α(4) β(7) integrin on CD4(+) T cells, thus, the potential to induce gut homing is restricted to LSECs. The capacity to promote gut tropism via vitamin A use is not unique for intestinal DCs but is also a feature of LSECs. Our data support the assumption that CD4(+) T cells can migrate from the liver to the gut as one branch of a postulated enterohepatic lymphocyte circulation. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Xiao, Hong; Luo, Gang; Son, Haihang; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Wenjie
Immune dysregulation plays a key role in the development of osteosarcoma (OS). Peripheral blood CD4+CXCR5+ T cells can induce B-cell activation and produce various cytokines and therefore may play critical roles in tumorigenesis. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes of peripheral CD4+CXCR5+ T cells in OS. Peripheral CD4+CXCR5+ T cells and its subtypes were determined by measuring CD3, CD4, CXCR5, CXCR3, and CCR6 in 38 OS patients and 42 healthy controls using flow cytometry. Data demonstrated that percentage of peripheral CD4+CXCR5+ T cells was significantly increased in OS patients (13.9 %) than in controls (8.6 %, p<0.001). Further analysis identified a profound skewing of peripheral CD4+CXCR5+ T cell subsets toward Th2 and Th17 cells in OS patients. Investigating clinical status of the patients showed that prevalence of peripheral CD4+CXCR5+ T cells was significantly elevated in cases with metastasis (17.4 %) than those without metastasis (12.7 %). Similarly, patients with high tumor grade revealed increased percentage of CD4+CXCR5+ T cells compared to those with low tumor grade (15.3 versus 11.0 %). Interestingly, the upregulation of peripheral CD4+CXCR5+ T cells in patients with metastasis or high tumor grade was contributed by Th1 and Th17 subtypes. This study suggests the involvement of peripheral CD4+CXCR5+ T cells in the pathogenesis and progression of OS and provides novel knowledge for understanding this disease.
Chen, Feng-Yang; Zhou, Li-Fei; Li, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Jia-Wen; Xu, Shi-Fang; Huang, Wen-Hai; Gao, Li-Juan; Hao, Shu-Juan; Ye, Yi-Ping; Sun, Hong-Xiang
Stephanthraniline A (STA), a C21 steroid isolated from Stephanotis mucronata (Blanco) Merr., was previously shown to inhibit T cells activation and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the in vivo immunosuppressive activity of STA and to elucidate its potential mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with STA significantly attenuated concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis and reduced CD4(+) T cells activation and aggregation in hepatic tissue in mice. STA directly suppressed the activation and proliferation of Con A-induced CD4(+) T cells, and inhibited NFAT, NFκB and MAPK signaling cascades in activated CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Moreover, it was proved that STA inhibited T cells activation and proliferation through proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling- and Ca(2+) signaling-independent way. The molecular docking studies predicted that STA could tight bind to PKCθ via five hydrogen. The further findings indicated STA directly inhibited PKCθ kinase activity, and its phosphorylation in activated CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Collectively, the present study indicated that STA could protect against CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunological hepatitis in mice through PKCθ and its downstream NFAT, NFκB and MAPK signaling cascades. These results highlight the potential of STA as an effective leading compound for use in the treatment of CD4(+) T cell-mediated inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Courivaud, Cécile; Bamoulid, Jamal; Vivet, Bérengère; Chabroux, Aline; Deschamps, Marina; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Ferrand, Christophe; Chalopin, Jean-Marc; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe
Prolonged CD4 T cell lymphopenia after administration of polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulins increases the rate of posttransplantation morbidity, but whether impaired immune reconstitution affects survival is unknown. We studied the effect of CD4 T cell lymphopenia on survival in 302 consecutive prevalent renal transplant recipients and the role of thymic function in CD4 T cell reconstitution and posttransplantation outcomes in 100 consecutive incident renal transplant recipients. We followed the prevalent cohort for a mean duration of 92 months. Of these 302 patients, 81 (27%) had persistent CD4 T cell counts <300/mm3 and 36 (12%) died during follow-up. We observed a higher death rate in patients with CD4 T cell lymphopenia persisting for >1 year (24.1 versus 7.6%; P < 0.001). Furthermore, in Cox regression analysis, CD4 T cell lymphopenia associated with a nearly five-fold risk for death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.91 to 10.65; P = 0.001). In the incident cohort, we estimated thymic function by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) per 150,000 CD3+ cells, which predicted efficient CD4 T cell reconstitution. Higher pretransplantation TREC values associated with lower risks for cancer (adjusted HR 0.39; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.97; P = 0.046) and infection (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.78; P = 0.013). In summary, prolonged polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin–induced CD4 T cell lymphopenia is an independent risk factor for death. Determination of pretransplantation thymic function may identify patients at higher risk for CD4 T cell lymphopenia and posttransplantation morbidity, including cancer and infections. PMID:20203160
Ducloux, Didier; Courivaud, Cécile; Bamoulid, Jamal; Vivet, Bérengère; Chabroux, Aline; Deschamps, Marina; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Ferrand, Christophe; Chalopin, Jean-Marc; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe
Prolonged CD4 T cell lymphopenia after administration of polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulins increases the rate of posttransplantation morbidity, but whether impaired immune reconstitution affects survival is unknown. We studied the effect of CD4 T cell lymphopenia on survival in 302 consecutive prevalent renal transplant recipients and the role of thymic function in CD4 T cell reconstitution and posttransplantation outcomes in 100 consecutive incident renal transplant recipients. We followed the prevalent cohort for a mean duration of 92 months. Of these 302 patients, 81 (27%) had persistent CD4 T cell counts <300/mm3 and 36 (12%) died during follow-up. We observed a higher death rate in patients with CD4 T cell lymphopenia persisting for >1 year (24.1 versus 7.6%; P < 0.001). Furthermore, in Cox regression analysis, CD4 T cell lymphopenia associated with a nearly five-fold risk for death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.91 to 10.65; P = 0.001). In the incident cohort, we estimated thymic function by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) per 150,000 CD3+ cells, which predicted efficient CD4 T cell reconstitution. Higher pretransplantation TREC values associated with lower risks for cancer (adjusted HR 0.39; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.97; P = 0.046) and infection (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.78; P = 0.013). In summary, prolonged polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin-induced CD4 T cell lymphopenia is an independent risk factor for death. Determination of pretransplantation thymic function may identify patients at higher risk for CD4 T cell lymphopenia and posttransplantation morbidity, including cancer and infections.
Mattoo, Hamid; Stone, John H; Pillai, Shiv
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic condition of unknown cause characterized by highly fibrotic lesions, with dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates containing a preponderance of IgG4-expressing plasma cells. CD4(+) T cells and B cells constitute the major inflammatory cell populations in IgG4-RD lesions. IgG4-RD patients with active, untreated disease show a marked expansion of plasmablasts in the circulation. Although the therapeutic depletion of B cells suggests a role for these cells in the disease, a direct role for B cells or IgG4 in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is yet to be demonstrated. Among the CD4(+) T-cell subsets, Th2 cells were initially thought to contribute to IgG4-RD pathogenesis, but many previous studies were confounded by the concomitant history of allergic diseases in the patients studied and the failure to use multi-color staining to definitively identify T-cell subsets in tissue samples. More recently, using an unbiased approach to characterize CD4(+) T-cell subsets in patients with IgG4-RD - based on their clonal expansion and ability to infiltrate affected tissue sites - CD4(+) CTLs have been identified as the major CD4(+) T-cell subset in disease lesions as well as in the circulation. CD4(+) CTLs in affected tissues secrete pro-fibrotic cytokines including IL-1β, TGF-β1, and IFN-γ as well as cytolytic molecules such as perforin and granzymes A and B. In this review, we examine possible mechanisms by which activated B cells and plasmablasts may collaborate with the expanded CD4(+) CTLs in driving the fibrotic pathology of the disease and describe the lacunae in the field and in our understanding of IgG4-RD pathogenesis.
Harpaz, Idan; Bhattacharya, Udayan; Elyahu, Yehezqel; Strominger, Itai; Monsonego, Alon
Chronic low-grade inflammation and reduced lymphocyte potency are implicated in the pathogenesis of major illnesses associated with aging. Whether this immune phenotype results from a loss of cell-mediated regulation or intrinsic dysregulated function of effector T cells (Teffs) requires further research. Here, we report that, as compared with young C57BL6 mice, old mice show an increased frequency of CD4+CD62L− Teffs with a dysregulated activated phenotype and markedly increased effector functions. Analysis of the frequency and suppressive function of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) indicates an increase in the frequency of FoxP3+ T cells with aging which, however, occurs within the CD4+CD25− T cells. Furthermore, whereas Tregs from young and old mice similarly suppress Teffs from young mice, both have a compromised suppressive capacity of Teffs from old mice, a phenomenon which is partially recovered in the presence of IL-2-producing CD4+CD62L+ non-Teffs. Finally, we observed that Teff subsets from old mice are enriched with IL-17A-producing T cells and exhibit intrinsically dysregulated expression of genes encoding cell-surface molecules and transcription factors, which play a key role in T-cell activation and regulation. We, thus, demonstrate an age-related impairment in the regulation of effector CD4 T cells, which may underlie the higher risk for destructive inflammation associated with aging. PMID:28382033
Harpaz, Idan; Bhattacharya, Udayan; Elyahu, Yehezqel; Strominger, Itai; Monsonego, Alon
Chronic low-grade inflammation and reduced lymphocyte potency are implicated in the pathogenesis of major illnesses associated with aging. Whether this immune phenotype results from a loss of cell-mediated regulation or intrinsic dysregulated function of effector T cells (Teffs) requires further research. Here, we report that, as compared with young C57BL6 mice, old mice show an increased frequency of CD4+CD62L- Teffs with a dysregulated activated phenotype and markedly increased effector functions. Analysis of the frequency and suppressive function of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) indicates an increase in the frequency of FoxP3+ T cells with aging which, however, occurs within the CD4+CD25- T cells. Furthermore, whereas Tregs from young and old mice similarly suppress Teffs from young mice, both have a compromised suppressive capacity of Teffs from old mice, a phenomenon which is partially recovered in the presence of IL-2-producing CD4+CD62L+ non-Teffs. Finally, we observed that Teff subsets from old mice are enriched with IL-17A-producing T cells and exhibit intrinsically dysregulated expression of genes encoding cell-surface molecules and transcription factors, which play a key role in T-cell activation and regulation. We, thus, demonstrate an age-related impairment in the regulation of effector CD4 T cells, which may underlie the higher risk for destructive inflammation associated with aging.
Gaughan, A.; Wang, J.; Pelletier, R.P.; Nadasdy, T.; Brodsky, S.; Roy, S.; Lodder, M.; Bobek, D.; Mofatt-Bruce, S.; Fairchild, R.L.; Henry, M.L.; Hadley, G.A.
We utilized mouse models to elucidate the immunologic mechanisms of functional graft loss during mixed antibody mediated rejection of renal allografts (mixed AMR), in which humoral and cellular responses to the graft occur concomitantly. Although the majority of T cells in the graft at the time of rejection were CD8 T cells with only a minor population of CD4 T cells, depletion of CD4 but not CD8 cells prevented acute graft loss during mixed AMR. CD4 depletion eliminated anti-donor alloantibodies and conferred protection from destruction of renal allografts. ELISPOT revealed that CD4 T effectors responded to donor alloantigens by both the direct and indirect pathways of allorecognition. In transfer studies, CD4 T effectors primed to donor alloantigens were highly effective at promoting acute graft dysfunction, and exhibited the attributes of effector T cells. Laser capture microdissection and confirmatory immunostaining studies revealed that CD4 T cells infiltrating the graft produced effector molecules with graft destructive potential. Bioluminescent imaging confirmed that CD4 T effectors traffic to the graft site in immune replete hosts. These data document that host CD4 T cells can promote acute dysfunction of renal allografts by directly mediating graft injury in addition to facilitating anti-donor alloantibody responses. PMID:24410909
Perez-Mazliah, Damian; Langhorne, Jean
CD4+ T-cells have been shown to play a central role in immune control of infection with Plasmodium parasites. At the erythrocytic stage of infection, IFN-γ production by CD4+ T-cells and CD4+ T-cell help for the B-cell response are required for control and elimination of infected red blood cells. CD4+ T-cells are also important for controlling Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages through the activation of parasite-specific CD8+ T-cells. However, excessive inflammatory responses triggered by the infection have been shown to drive pathology. Early classical experiments demonstrated a biphasic CD4+ T-cell response against erythrocytic stages in mice, in which T helper (Th)1 and antibody-helper CD4+ T-cells appear sequentially during a primary infection. While IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells do play a role in controlling acute infections, and they contribute to acute erythrocytic-stage pathology, it became apparent that a classical Th2 response producing IL-4 is not a critical feature of the CD4+ T-cell response during the chronic phase of infection. Rather, effective CD4+ T-cell help for B-cells, which can occur in the absence of IL-4, is required to control chronic parasitemia. IL-10, important to counterbalance inflammation and associated with protection from inflammatory-mediated severe malaria in both humans and experimental models, was originally considered be produced by CD4+ Th2 cells during infection. We review the interpretations of CD4+ T-cell responses during Plasmodium infection, proposed under the original Th1/Th2 paradigm, in light of more recent advances, including the identification of multifunctional T-cells such as Th1 cells co-expressing IFN-γ and IL-10, the identification of follicular helper T-cells (Tfh) as the predominant CD4+ T helper subset for B-cells, and the recognition of inherent plasticity in the fates of different CD4+ T-cells. PMID:25628621
Konomi, Y; Sekine, T; Takayama, T; Fuji, M; Tanaka, T
The 51Cr-release assay is mostly applied to detecting the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells, and little is known about the activity of CD4+ T cells. Therefore, the correlation between the cytotoxic activity of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells and the incubation period with autologous tumor cells was analyzed by two methods. The incubation periods were 4 and 20 h (4 h and 20 h assay) for the 51Cr-release assay. Eight pairs of tumor cells and T cells were assayed. T cells were fractionated into CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by using magnetic beads and panning methods, and those cells were activated by culture with recombinant interleukin-2 and immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. In 6 out of 8 cases, no cytotoxic activity of CD4+ T cells was detected by the 4 h assay, whereas cytotoxic activity was detected in all cases in the 20 h assay. The cytotoxic activities in 20 h assay of CD4+ T cells were increased 67-fold in comparison with the activities in 4 h assay (range: 5-197). In the case of CD8+ T cells, cytotoxic activities were detected in 6 out of 8 cases in the 4 h assay. The lytic unit ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was calculated as 1.5 in the 20 h assay (range: 0.2- > 7.2) versus 0.4 in the 4 h assay (range: < 0.1-1.3). Cytotoxic activities in colorimetric assay using Crystal Violet with a 24 h incubation were similar to those in the 20 h 51Cr-release assay in all eight cases. These results indicate that CD4+ T cells have cytotoxic activity as strong as that of CD8+ T cells towards autologous tumor cells.
Yeste, Ada; Mascanfroni, Ivan D; Nadeau, Meghan; Burns, Evan J; Tukpah, Ann-Marcia; Santiago, Andrezza; Wu, Chuan; Patel, Bonny; Kumar, Deepak; Quintana, Francisco J
Interleukin (IL)-22 produced by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and CD4+ T cells plays an important role in host defence and mucosal homeostasis, thus it is important to investigate the mechanisms that regulate IL-22 production. We investigated the regulation IL-22 production by CD4+ T cells. Here we show that IL-21 triggers IL-22, but not IL-17 production by CD4+ T cells. STAT3, activated by IL-21, controls the epigenetic status of the il22 promoter and its interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Moreover, IL-21 and AhR signalling in T cells control IL-22 production and the development of dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in ILC-deficient mice. Thus, we have identified IL-21 as an inducer of IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo.
Lawson, Brian R.; Gonzalez-Quintial, Rosana; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Farrar, Michael A.; Miller, Stephen D.; Sauer, Karsten; McGavern, Dorian B.; Kono, Dwight H.; Baccala, Roberto; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N.
IL-7 is known to be vital for T cell homeostasis but has previously been presumed to be dispensable for TCR-induced activation. Here, we show that IL-7 is critical for the initial activation of CD4+ T cells in that it provides some of the necessary early signaling components, such as activated STAT5 and Akt. Accordingly, short-term in vivo IL-7Rα blockade inhibited the activation and expansion of autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells and, when used to treat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), prevented and ameliorated disease. Our studies demonstrate that IL-7 signaling is a prerequisite for optimal CD4+ T cell activation and that IL-7R antagonism may be effective in treating CD4+ T cell-mediated neuroinflammation and other autoimmune inflammatory conditions. PMID:26319414
Zhou, Yuetao; Shi, Xiaolong; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shaqiu; Salker, Madhuri S; Mack, Andreas F; Föller, Michael; Mak, Tak W; Singh, Yogesh; Lang, Florian
DJ-1/Park7 is a redox-sensitive chaperone protein counteracting oxidation and presumably contributing to the control of oxidative stress responses and thus inflammation. DJ-1 gene deletion exacerbates the progression of Parkinson's disease presumably by augmenting oxidative stress. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is paralleled by activation of the Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1). ROS formation in CD4(+) T cells plays a decisive role in regulating inflammatory responses. In the present study we explored whether DJ-1 is expressed in CD4(+) T cells and affects ROS production as well as NHE1 in those cells. To this end, DJ-1 and NHE1 transcript and protein levels were quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blotting respectively, intracellular pH (pHi) utilizing bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) fluorescence, NHE activity from realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, and ROS production utilizing 2',7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result DJ-1 was expressed in CD4(+) T cells. ROS formation, NHE1 transcript levels, NHE1 protein, and NHE activity were higher in CD4(+) T cells from DJ-1 deficient mice than in CD4(+) T cells from wild type mice. Antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor staurosporine decreased the NHE activity in DJ-1 deficient CD4(+) T cells, and blunted the difference between DJ-1(-/-) and DJ-1(+/+) CD4(+) T cells, an observation pointing to a role of ROS in the up-regulation of NHE1 in DJ-1(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, DJ-1 is a powerful regulator of ROS production as well as NHE1 expression and activity in CD4(+) T cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Ogoshi, Katsumi; Sasaki, Atsushi; Abe, Jun; Qu, Wei; Nakatani, Yoichiro; Ahsan, Budrul; Oshima, Kenshiro; Shand, Francis H. W.; Ametani, Akio; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kaneko, Shuichi; Wada, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Sugano, Sumio; Morishita, Shinichi; Matsushima, Kouji
Memory CD4+ T cells are central regulators of both humoral and cellular immune responses. T cell differentiation results in specific changes in chromatin structure and DNA methylation of cytokine genes. Although the methylation status of a limited number of gene loci in T cells has been examined, the genome-wide DNA methylation status of memory CD4+ T cells remains unexplored. To further elucidate the molecular signature of memory T cells, we conducted methylome and transcriptome analyses of memory CD4+ T cells generated using T cells from TCR-transgenic mice. The resulting genome-wide DNA methylation profile revealed 1144 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the murine genome during the process of T cell differentiation, 552 of which were associated with gene loci. Interestingly, the majority of these DMRs were located in introns. These DMRs included genes such as CXCR6, Tbox21, Chsy1, and Cish, which are associated with cytokine production, homing to bone marrow, and immune responses. Methylation changes in memory T cells exposed to specific Ag appeared to regulate enhancer activity rather than promoter activity of immunologically relevant genes. In addition, methylation profiles differed between memory T cell subsets, demonstrating a link between T cell methylation status and T cell differentiation. By comparing DMRs between naive and Ag-specific memory T cells, this study provides new insights into the functional status of memory T cells. PMID:23509353
Soghoian, Damien Z.; Jessen, Heiko; Flanders, Michael; Sierra-Davidson, Kailan; Cutler, Sam; Pertel, Thomas; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Lindqvist, Madelene; Davis, Isaiah; Lane, Kimberly; Rychert, Jenna; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Brass, Abraham L.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Walker, Bruce D.; Streeck, Hendrik
Early immunological events during acute HIV infection are thought to fundamentally influence long-term disease outcome. Whereas the contribution of HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses to early viral control is well established, the role of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses in the control of viral replication following acute infection is unknown. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4 T cells - besides their helper function - have the capacity to directly recognize and kill virally infected cells. In a longitudinal study of a cohort of individuals acutely infected with HIV, we observed that subjects able to spontaneously control HIV replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy showed a significant expansion of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses—but not CD8 T cell responses–compared to subjects who progressed to a high viral set point (p=0.038). Strikingly, this expansion occurred prior to differences in viral load or CD4 T cell count and was characterized by robust cytolytic activity and expression of a distinct profile of perforin and granzymes at the earliest time point. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the emergence of Granzyme A+ HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses at baseline was highly predictive of slower disease progression and clinical outcome (average days to CD4 T cell count <350/μl was 575 versus 306, p=0.001). These data demonstrate that HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses can be used during the earliest phase of HIV infection as an immunological predictor of subsequent viral set point and disease outcome. Moreover, these data suggest that expansion of Granzyme A+ HIV-specific cytolytic CD4 T cell responses early during acute HIV infection contributes substantially to the control of viral replication. PMID:22378925
Pfafferot, Katja; Heeg, Malte H.J.; Gaudieri, Silvana; Grüner, Norbert; Rauch, Andri; Gerlach, J. Tilman; Jung, Maria-Christina; Zachoval, Reinhart; Pape, Gerd R.; Schraut, Winfried; Santantonio, Teresa; Nitschko, Hans; Obermeier, Martin; Phillips, Rodney; Scriba, Thomas J.; Semmo, Nasser; Day, Cheryl; Weber, Jonathan N.; Fidler, Sarah; Thimme, Robert; Haberstroh, Anita; Baumert, Thomas F.; Klenerman, Paul; Diepolder, Helmut M.
Background CD4+ T cell help is critical in maintaining antiviral immune responses and such help has been shown to be sustained in acute resolving hepatitis C. In contrast, in evolving chronic hepatitis C CD4+ T cell helper responses appear to be absent or short-lived, using functional assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we used a novel HLA-DR1 tetramer containing a highly targeted CD4+ T cell epitope from the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 4 to track number and phenotype of hepatitis C virus specific CD4+ T cells in a cohort of seven HLA-DR1 positive patients with acute hepatitis C in comparison to patients with chronic or resolved hepatitis C. We observed peptide-specific T cells in all seven patients with acute hepatitis C regardless of outcome at frequencies up to 0.65% of CD4+ T cells. Among patients who transiently controlled virus replication we observed loss of function, and/or physical deletion of tetramer+ CD4+ T cells before viral recrudescence. In some patients with chronic hepatitis C very low numbers of tetramer+ cells were detectable in peripheral blood, compared to robust responses detected in spontaneous resolvers. Importantly we did not observe escape mutations in this key CD4+ T cell epitope in patients with evolving chronic hepatitis C. Conclusions/Significance During acute hepatitis C a CD4+ T cell response against this epitope is readily induced in most, if not all, HLA-DR1+ patients. This antiviral T cell population becomes functionally impaired or is deleted early in the course of disease in those where viremia persists. PMID:17653276
Olvera-García, Gustavo; Aguilar-García, Tania; Gutiérrez-Jasso, Fany; Imaz-Rosshandler, Iván; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Orozco, Lorena; Aguilar-Delfín, Irma; Vázquez-Pérez, Joel A; Zúñiga, Joaquín; Pérez-Patrigeon, Santiago; Espinosa, Enrique
Human central memory CD4 T cells are characterized by their capacity of proliferation and differentiation into effector memory CD4 T cells. Homeostasis of central memory CD4 T cells is considered a key factor sustaining the asymptomatic stage of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, while progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is imputed to central memory CD4 T cells homeostatic failure. We investigated if central memory CD4 T cells from patients with HIV-1 infection have a gene expression profile impeding proliferation and survival, despite their activated state. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed mRNA expression patterns in naive, central memory, and effector memory CD4 T cells from healthy controls, and naive and central memory CD4 T cells from patients with HIV-1 infection. Differentially expressed genes, defined by Log2 Fold Change (FC) ≥ |0.5| and Log (odds) > 0, were used in pathway enrichment analyses. Central memory CD4 T cells from patients and controls showed comparable expression of differentiation-related genes, ruling out an effector-like differentiation of central memory CD4 T cells in HIV infection. However, 210 genes were differentially expressed in central memory CD4 T cells from patients compared with those from controls. Expression of 75 of these genes was validated by semi quantitative RT-PCR, and independently reproduced enrichment results from this gene expression signature. The results of functional enrichment analysis indicated movement to cell cycle phases G1 and S (increased CCNE1, MKI67, IL12RB2, ADAM9, decreased FGF9, etc.), but also arrest in G2/M (increased CHK1, RBBP8, KIF11, etc.). Unexpectedly, the results also suggested decreased apoptosis (increased CSTA, NFKBIA, decreased RNASEL, etc.). Results also suggested increased IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF, and RANTES (CCR5) activity upstream of the central memory CD4 T cells signature, consistent with the demonstrated milieu in HIV infection. Our
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0004 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to test the hypothesis that cit-specific CD4 T cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0003 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0003...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to test the hypothesis that cit-specific CD4 T cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients
Swaims, Alison Y.; Khani, Francesca; Zhang, Yingyu; Roberts, Arthur I.; Devadas, Satish
Infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) results in a variety of diseases including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Although the pathogenesis of these disorders is poorly understood, it involves complex interactions with the host immune system. Activation of infected T cells may play an important role in disease pathogenesis through induction of the oncogenic HTLV-1 Tax transactivator protein. To test this hypothesis, we employed transgenic mice in which Tax is regulated by the HTLV-1 LTR. T-cell receptor stimulation of LTR-Tax CD4+ T cells induced Tax expression, hyper-proliferation, and immortalization in culture. The transition to cellular immortalization was accompanied by markedly increased expression of the antiapoptotic gene, mcl-1, previously implicated as important in T-cell survival. Immortalized cells exhibited a CD4+CD25+CD3− phenotype commonly observed in ATL. Engraftment of activated LTR-Tax CD4+ T cells into NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγ null mice resulted in a leukemia-like phenotype with expansion and tissue infiltration of Tax+, CD4+ lymphocytes. We suggest that immune activation of infected CD4+ T cells plays an important role in the induction of Tax expression, T-cell proliferation, and pathogenesis of ATL in HTLV-1–infected individuals. PMID:20634377
Perng, Olivia A.; Aitken, Malinda; Rankin, Andrew L.; Garcia, Victoria; Kropf, Elizabeth; Erikson, Jan; Garlick, David S.; Caton, Andrew J.
Although therapies targeting distinct cellular pathways (e.g. anti-cytokine versus anti-B cell therapy) have been found to be an effective strategy for at least some patients with inflammatory arthritis, the mechanisms that determine which pathways promote arthritis development are poorly understood. We have used a transgenic mouse model to examine how variations in the CD4+ T cell response to a surrogate self-peptide can affect the cellular pathways that are required for arthritis development. CD4+ T cells that are highly reactive with the self-peptide induce inflammatory arthritis that affects male and female mice equally. Arthritis develops by a B cell-independent mechanism, although it can be suppressed by an anti-TNF treatment, which prevented the accumulation of effector CD4+ Th17 cells in the joints of treated mice. By contrast, arthritis develops with a significant female bias in the context of a more weakly autoreactive CD4+ T cell response, and B cells play a prominent role in disease pathogenesis. In this setting of lower CD4+ T cell autoreactivity, B cells promote the formation of autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (including Th17 cells), and IL-17 is required for arthritis development. These studies show that the degree of CD4+ T cell reactivity for a self-peptide can play a prominent role in determining whether distinct cellular pathways can be targeted to prevent the development of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:24591372
Moralès, Olivier; Depil, Stéphane; Mrizak, Dhafer; Martin, Nathalie; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Dufosse, Françoise; Miroux, Céline; Coll, Jean; de Launoit, Yvan; Auriault, Claude; Pancre, Véronique; Delhem, Nadira
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignant diseases that can be distinguished by their patterns of viral latent gene expression. We developed here an original peptidic approach to favor the induction of a specific CD4+ T-cell response against EBV latency II malignancies (Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, T/NK lymphoma). Previously, we selected 6 peptides derived from EBV nuclear antigen-1, latency membrane proteins (LMP)-1, and LMP-2 highly promiscuous for major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and showed their ability to induce interferon-γ-secreting CD4+ T cells. We confirmed here that all peptides used in cocktail are recognized by human CD4+ memory T cells from healthy donors, inducing a broad T-helper (Th)1 cytokine secretion interferon-γ, interleukin-2. Furthermore, we have generated EBV-specific CD4+ T-cell lines and proved their cytotoxic potential, not only on original models expressing latency II antigens (EBV-transformed T cell or monocyte), but also on lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing latency III antigens (lymphoblastoid cell lines). In addition, granzyme B enzyme-linked immunospot assays suggested that a part of this specific cytotoxic activity could be linked to the granule lytic pathway. Very importantly, we have showed that neither phenotypical changes nor functional activities of CD4+CD25+CD127(low)-regulatory T cells were observed in response to EBV+ peptides, avoiding any risk of aggravation of the preexisting immunosuppressive environment reported in EBV-associated malignancies. In conclusion, our promiscuous peptide cocktail could be used safely in immunotherapeutic approaches against EBV latency II malignancies, mainly to prevent relapse in high-risk patients further to classic treatments.
Mahalingam, Jayashri; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chiang, Jy-Ming; Su, Po-Jung; Fang, Jian-He; Chu, Yu-Yi; Huang, Ching-Tai; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Lin, Chun-Yen
Suppressor T cells are one of the determinants of colorectal cancer (CRC) clinical outcome. LAP(+)CD4(+) T cell is a recently identified subset of suppressor T cells. This study was designed to investigate their clinical relevance in patients with CRC. Sixty patients with CRC and 24 healthy donors (HD) were enrolled in this study. The percentages of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood and tumor tissue were measured. The phenotype and functional relevance of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells were analyzed subsequently. The percentages of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood of patients with CRC were significantly higher than HD (HD vs. CRC: 3.1% ± 0.78% vs. 8.8% ± 5.8%, P < 0.0001) and in tumor tissue when compared with nontumor tissue (nontumor vs. tumor: 3.2% ± 1.1% vs. 9.5% ± 5.5%, P = 0.0002). In addition, LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells with effector memory (EM) phenotype were more likely to accumulate in the tumor sites than in peripheral blood. These LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17 and comparatively lower IL-2 and very few IL-10. LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells could suppress the proliferation of LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells that were partially mediated by TGF-β. Furthermore, these LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells accumulated in tumor site and increased further in the peripheral blood in patients with metastasis. LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells as a suppressor subset could accumulate in the tumor microenvironment and circulated more in the peripheral blood with tumor progression in patients with CRC.
Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Kato, Takuma; Tawara, Isao; Saito, Kanako; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Kuribayashi, Kagemasa; Allen, Paul M; Schreiber, Robert D; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Old, Lloyd J; Shiku, Hiroshi
The antigenic targets recognized by naturally occurring CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) have been elusive. We have serologically defined a series of broadly expressed self-antigens derived from chemically induced mouse sarcomas by serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning (SEREX). CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from mice immunized with SEREX-defined self-antigens had strong suppressive activity on peptide-specific proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells and CD8(+) T cells. The suppressive effect was observed without in vitro T cell stimulation. Foxp3 expression in these CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from immunized mice was 5-10 times greater than CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells derived from naive mice. The suppressive effect required cellular contact and was blocked by anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene antibody. In vitro suppressive activity essentially disappeared 8 wk after the last immunization. However, it was regained by in vitro restimulation with cognate self-antigen protein but not with control protein. We propose that SEREX-defined self-antigens such as those used in this study represent self-antigens that elicit naturally occurring CD4(+) CD25(+) T reg cells.
Huygens, Ariane; Lecomte, Sandra; Tackoen, Marie; Olislagers, Véronique; Delmarcelle, Yves; Burny, Wivine; Van Rysselberge, Michel; Liesnard, Corinne; Larsen, Martin; Appay, Victor; Donner, Catherine; Marchant, Arnaud
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during fetal life causes severe symptoms and is associated with prolonged viral excretion. Previous studies reported low CD4(+) T-cell responses to CMV infection in early life, contrasting with large responses of effector CD8(+) T cells. The mechanisms underlying the defective CD4(+) T-cell responses and the possible dissociation with CD8(+) T-cell responses have not been clarified. The magnitude and the quality of the fetal CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses to CMV infection were compared to those of adults with primary or chronic infection. In utero CMV infection induced oligoclonal expansions of fetal CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes expressing a T-helper type 1 or Tc1 effector phenotype similar to that of adult CMV-specific cells. However, the effector cytokine responses and the polyfunctionality of newborn CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were markedly lower than those of adult cells. This reduced functionality was associated with a higher expression of the programmed death 1 inhibitory receptor, and blockade of this receptor increased newborn T-cell responses. Functional exhaustion limits effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses to CMV during fetal life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Li, Dongbei; Li, Haijun; Fu, Haiying; Niu, Kunwei; Guo, Yantong; Guo, Chuan; Sun, Jitong; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei
Autoimmune regulator (Aire) can promote the ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), which leads to the deletion of autoreactive T cells and consequently prevents autoimmune diseases. However, the functions of Aire in the periphery, such as in dendritic cells (DCs), remain unclear. This study’s aim was to investigate the effect of Aire-overexpressing DCs (Aire cells) on the functions of CD4+ T cells and the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We demonstrated that Aire cells upregulated the mRNA levels of the tolerance-related molecules CD73, Lag3, and FR4 and the apoptosis of CD4+ T cells in STZ-T1D mouse-derived splenocytes. Furthermore, following insulin stimulation, Aire cells decreased the number of CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells in both STZ-T1D and WT mouse-derived splenocytes and reduced the expression levels of TCR signaling molecules (Ca2+ and p-ERK) in CD4+ T cells. We observed that Aire cells-induced CD4+ T cells could delay the development of T1D. In summary, Aire-expressing DCs inhibited TCR signaling pathways and decreased the quantity of CD4+IFN-γ+ autoreactive T cells. These data suggest a mechanism for Aire in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance and provide a potential method to control autoimmunity by targeting Aire. PMID:26729097
Taams, Leonie S; Curnow, S John; Vukmanovic-Stejic, M; Akbar, Arne N
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are essential components of the immune system. They help to maintain immune tolerance by exerting suppressive effects on cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. In the last few years there has been an abundance of papers addressing the suppressive effects of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and their putative role in various experimental disease models and human diseases. Despite the enormous amounts of data on these cells a number of controversial issues still exists. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells were originally described as thymus-derived anergic/suppressive T cells. Recent papers however indicate that these cells might also be generated in the periphery. Due to the thymic development of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells it was thought that these cells were specific for self-antigens. Indeed it was shown that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells could be positively selected upon high affinity interaction with self-antigens. However, evidence is accumulating that these cells might also interact with non-self antigens. Finally, in the literature there is conflicting evidence regarding the role of soluble factors versus cell-contact in the mechanism of suppression. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence supporting these opposing viewpoints and to combine them into a general model for the origin, function and antigen-specificity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
Zhang, Qunyuan; Ye, Jian; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yanping; Hunborg, Pamela; Varvares, Mark A.; Hoft, Daniel F.; Hsueh, Eddy C.; Peng, Guangyong
The Cancer Immunoediting concept has provided critical insights suggesting dual functions of immune system during the cancer initiation and development. However, the dynamics and roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of breast cancer remain unclear. Here we utilized two murine breast cancer models (4T1 and E0771) and demonstrated that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were increased and involved in immune responses, but with distinct dynamic trends in breast cancer development. In addition to cell number increases, CD4+ T cells changed their dominant subsets from Th1 in the early stages to Treg and Th17 cells in the late stages of the cancer progression. We also analyzed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration in primary breast cancer tissues from cancer patients. We observed that CD8+ T cells are the key effector cell population mediating effective anti-tumor immunity resulting in better clinical outcomes. In contrast, intra-tumoral CD4+ T cells have negative prognostic effects on breast cancer patient outcomes. These studies indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have opposing roles in breast cancer progression and outcomes, which provides new insights relevant for the development of effective cancer immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:25968569
Zhou, Vivian; Agle, Kimberle; Chen, Xiao; Beres, Amy; Komorowski, Richard; Belle, Ludovic; Taylor, Carolyn; Zhu, Fenlu; Haribhai, Dipica; Williams, Calvin B.; Verbsky, James; Blumenschein, Wendy; Sadekova, Svetlana; Bowman, Eddie; Ballantyne, Christie; Weaver, Casey; Serody, David A.; Vincent, Benjamin; Serody, Jonathan; Cua, Daniel J.; Drobyski, William R.
Damage to the gastrointestinal tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and is attributable to T cell–mediated inflammation. In this work, we identified a unique CD4+ T cell population that constitutively expresses the β2 integrin CD11c and displays a biased central memory phenotype and memory T cell transcriptional profile, innate-like properties, and increased expression of the gut-homing molecules α4β7 and CCR9. Using several complementary murine GVHD models, we determined that adoptive transfer and early accumulation of β2 integrin–expressing CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract initiated Th1-mediated proinflammatory cytokine production, augmented pathological damage in the colon, and increased mortality. The pathogenic effect of this CD4+ T cell population critically depended on coexpression of the IL-23 receptor, which was required for maximal inflammatory effects. Non–Foxp3-expressing CD4+ T cells produced IL-10, which regulated colonic inflammation and attenuated lethality in the absence of functional CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. Thus, the coordinate expression of CD11c and the IL-23 receptor defines an IL-10–regulated, colitogenic memory CD4+ T cell subset that is poised to initiate inflammation when there is loss of tolerance and breakdown of mucosal barriers. PMID:27500496
Corvaglia, Luigi; Gabrielli, Liliana; Chiereghin, Angela; Lazzarotto, Tiziana
Background. The neonatal immune system is not fully developed at birth; newborns have adequate lymphocytes counts but these cells lack function. Objective. To assess the activity of T-cells and the influence of the main perinatal factors in very preterm infants (birth weight < 1500 g). Design. Blood samples from 59 preterm infants (21/59 were dizygotic twins) were collected at birth and at 30 days of life to measure CD4+ T-cell activity using the ImmuKnow™ assay. Fifteen healthy adults were included as a control group. Results. CD4+ T-cell activity was lower in VLBW infants compared with adults (p < 0.001). Twins showed lower immune activity compared to singletons (p = 0.005). Infants born vaginally showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity compared to those born by C-section (p = 0.031); infants born after prolonged Premature Rupture of Membranes (pPROM) showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity at birth (p = 0.002) compared to infants born without pPROM. Low CD4+ T-cell activity at birth is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the first week of life (p = 0.049). Conclusions. Preterm infants show a lack in CD4+ T-cell activity at birth. Perinatal factors such as intrauterine inflammation, mode of delivery, and zygosity can influence the adaptive immune activation capacity at birth and can contribute to exposing these infants to serious complications such as NEC. PMID:28070527
Qiao, Yu; Gray, Brian M.; Sofi, Mohammed H.; Bauler, Laura D.; Eaton, Kathryn A.; O'Riordan, Mary X. D.; Chang, Cheong-Hee
We have reported a new innate-like CD4 T cell population that expresses cell surface makers of effector/memory cells and produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines immediately upon activation. Unlike conventional CD4 T cells that are selected by thymic epithelial cells, these CD4 T cells, named T-CD4 T cells, are selected by MHC class II expressing thymocytes. Previously, we showed that the presence of T-CD4 T cells protected mice from airway inflammation suggesting an immune regulatory role of T-CD4 T cells. To further understand the function of T-CD4 T cells, we investigated immune responses mediated by T-CD4 T cells during bacterial infection because the generation of antigen specific CD4 T cells contributes to clearance of infection and for the development of immune memory. The current study shows a suppressive effect of T-CD4 T cells on both CD8 and CD4 T cell-mediated immune responses during Listeria and Helicobacter infections. In the mouse model of Listeria monocytogenes infection, T-CD4 T cells resulted in decreasedfrequency of Listeria-specific CD8 T cells and the killing activity of them. Furthermore, mice with T-CD4 T cells developed poor immune memory, demonstrated by reduced expansion of antigen-specific T cells and high bacterial burden upon re-infection. Similarly, the presence of T-CD4 T cells suppressed the generation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells in Helicobacter pylori infected mice. Thus, our studies reveal a novel function of T-CD4 T cells in suppressing anti-bacterial immunity. PMID:23264931
Sujino, Tomohisa; London, Mariya; Hoytema van Konijnenburg, David P.; Rendon, Tomiko; Buch, Thorsten; Silva, Hernandez M.; Lafaille, Juan J.; Reis, Bernardo S.; Mucida, Daniel
Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in peripheral tissues (pTregs) are instrumental in limiting inflammatory responses to non-self antigens. Within the intestine, pTregs are located primarily in the lamina propria, while intraepithelial CD4+ T cells (CD4IELs), which also exhibit anti-inflammatory properties and depend on similar environmental cues, reside in the epithelium. Using intravital microscopy, we show distinct cell dynamics of intestinal Tregs and CD4IELs. Upon migration to the epithelium, Tregs lose Foxp3 and convert to CD4IELs in a microbiota-dependent fashion, an effect attributed to the loss of the transcription factor ThPOK. Finally, we demonstrate that pTregs and CD4IELs perform complementary roles in the regulation of intestinal inflammation. These results reveal intra-tissue specialization of anti-inflammatory T cells shaped by discrete niches of the intestine. PMID:27256884
Shiozawa, Shunichi; Uto, Kenichi
Our recent studies into the role of autoantibody-inducing CD4 T cells in autoimmune disease have necessitated studies on the mechanism of TCR revision, a phenomenon that has been difficult to approach experimentally. Here we describe a detailed experimental technique to investigate the molecular events involved in TCR revision.
Ishifune, Chieko; Maekawa, Yoichi; Shimada, Mitsuo; Yasutomo, Koji
Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) is an organ-specific T cell-mediated disease induced by immunizing mice with interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP). Autoaggressive CD4+ T cells are the major pathogenic population for EAU. We investigated the contribution of Notch signaling in T cells to EAU pathogenesis because Notch signaling regulates various aspects of CD4+ T cell functions. Rbpj is required for Notch signaling, and Rbpj deficiency in T cells inhibited EAU disease severity. The amelioration of EAU in T cell-specific Rbpj-deficient mice correlated with low levels of IL-22 production from CD4+ T cells, although IRBP-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation and Th17 differentiation were unaffected. Administration of recombinant IL-22 during the late phase, but not the early phase, of EAU increased EAU clinical scores in T cell-specific Rbpj-deficient mice. Notch inhibition in mice immunized with IRBP with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) suppressed EAU progression, even when GSI was administered as late as 13 days after IRBP immunization. Our data demonstrate that Rbpj/Notch-mediated IL-22 production in T cells has a key pathological role in the late phase of EAU, and suggest that Notch blockade might be a useful therapeutic approach for treating EAU. PMID:24586644
Simonetti, Francesco R; Sobolewski, Michele D; Fyne, Elizabeth; Shao, Wei; Spindler, Jonathan; Hattori, Junko; Anderson, Elizabeth M; Watters, Sarah A; Hill, Shawn; Wu, Xiaolin; Wells, David; Su, Li; Luke, Brian T; Halvas, Elias K; Besson, Guillaume; Penrose, Kerri J; Yang, Zhiming; Kwan, Richard W; Van Waes, Carter; Uldrick, Thomas; Citrin, Deborah E; Kovacs, Joseph; Polis, Michael A; Rehm, Catherine A; Gorelick, Robert; Piatak, Michael; Keele, Brandon F; Kearney, Mary F; Coffin, John M; Hughes, Stephen H; Mellors, John W; Maldarelli, Frank
Reservoirs of infectious HIV-1 persist despite years of combination antiretroviral therapy and make curing HIV-1 infections a major challenge. Most of the proviral DNA resides in CD4(+)T cells. Some of these CD4(+)T cells are clonally expanded; most of the proviruses are defective. It is not known if any of the clonally expanded cells carry replication-competent proviruses. We report that a highly expanded CD4(+) T-cell clone contains an intact provirus. The highly expanded clone produced infectious virus that was detected as persistent plasma viremia during cART in an HIV-1-infected patient who had squamous cell cancer. Cells containing the intact provirus were widely distributed and significantly enriched in cancer metastases. These results show that clonally expanded CD4(+)T cells can be a reservoir of infectious HIV-1.
Simonetti, Francesco R.; Sobolewski, Michele D.; Fyne, Elizabeth; Shao, Wei; Spindler, Jonathan; Hattori, Junko; Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Watters, Sarah A.; Hill, Shawn; Wu, Xiaolin; Wells, David; Su, Li; Luke, Brian T.; Halvas, Elias K.; Besson, Guillaume; Penrose, Kerri J.; Yang, Zhiming; Kwan, Richard W.; Van Waes, Carter; Uldrick, Thomas; Citrin, Deborah E.; Kovacs, Joseph; Polis, Michael A.; Rehm, Catherine A.; Gorelick, Robert; Piatak, Michael; Keele, Brandon F.; Kearney, Mary F.; Coffin, John M.; Hughes, Stephen H.; Mellors, John W.; Maldarelli, Frank
Reservoirs of infectious HIV-1 persist despite years of combination antiretroviral therapy and make curing HIV-1 infections a major challenge. Most of the proviral DNA resides in CD4+T cells. Some of these CD4+T cells are clonally expanded; most of the proviruses are defective. It is not known if any of the clonally expanded cells carry replication-competent proviruses. We report that a highly expanded CD4+ T-cell clone contains an intact provirus. The highly expanded clone produced infectious virus that was detected as persistent plasma viremia during cART in an HIV-1–infected patient who had squamous cell cancer. Cells containing the intact provirus were widely distributed and significantly enriched in cancer metastases. These results show that clonally expanded CD4+T cells can be a reservoir of infectious HIV-1. PMID:26858442
Muraro, Elena; Merlo, Anna; Martorelli, Debora; Cangemi, Michela; Dalla Santa, Silvia; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Rosato, Antonio
CD4+ T cells have been and are still largely regarded as the orchestrators of immune responses, being able to differentiate into distinct T helper cell populations based on differentiation signals, transcription factor expression, cytokine secretion, and specific functions. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence indicates that CD4+ T cells can also exert a direct effector activity, which depends on intrinsic cytotoxic properties acquired and carried out along with the evolution of several pathogenic infections. The relevant role of CD4+ T cell lytic features in the control of such infectious conditions also leads to their exploitation as a new immunotherapeutic approach. This review aims at summarizing currently available data about functional and therapeutic relevance of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in the context of viral infections and virus-driven tumors. PMID:28289418
Fontenot, Andrew P.; Canavera, Scott J.; Gharavi, Laia; Newman, Lee S.; Kotzin, Brian L.
Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is caused by exposure to beryllium in the workplace, and it remains an important public health concern. Evidence suggests that CD4+ T cells play a critical role in the development of this disease. Using intracellular cytokine staining, we found that the frequency of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lungs (bronchoalveolar lavage) of 12 CBD patients ranged from 1.4% to 29% (mean 17.8%), and these T cells expressed a Th1-type phenotype in response to beryllium sulfate (BeSO4). Few, if any, beryllium-specific CD8+ T cells were identified. In contrast, the frequency of beryllium-responsive CD4+ T cells in the blood of these subjects ranged from undetectable to 1 in 500. No correlation was observed between the frequency of beryllium-responsive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) CD4+ T cells as detected by intracellular staining and lymphocyte proliferation in culture after BeSO4 exposure. Staining for surface marker expression showed that nearly all BAL T cells exhibit an effector memory cell phenotype. These results demonstrate a dramatically high frequency and compartmentalization of antigen-specific effector memory CD4+ cells in the lungs of CBD patients. These studies provide insight into the phenotypic and functional characteristics of antigen-specific T cells invading other inaccessible target organs in human disease. PMID:12438445
Ruby, Carl E; Montler, Ryan; Zheng, Rongxui; Shu, Suyu; Weinberg, Andrew D
Engagement of OX40 greatly improves CD4 T cell function and survival. Previously, we showed that both OX40 engagement and CTLA-4 blockade led to enhanced CD4 T cell expansion, but only OX40 signaling increased survival. To identify pathways associated with OX40-mediated survival, the gene expression of Ag-activated CD4 T cells isolated from mice treated with anti-OX40 and -CTLA-4 was compared. This comparison revealed a potential role for IL-12 through increased expression of the IL-12R-signaling subunit (IL-12Rbeta2) on T cells activated 3 days previously with Ag and anti-OX40. The temporal expression of IL-12Rbeta2 on OX40-stimulated CD4 T cells was tightly regulated and peaked approximately 4-6 days after initial activation/expansion, but before the beginning of T cell contraction. IL-12 signaling, during this window of IL-12Rbeta2 expression, was required for enhanced T cell survival and survival was associated with STAT4-specific signaling. The findings from these observations were exploited in several different mouse tumor models where we found that the combination of anti-OX40 and IL-12 showed synergistic therapeutic efficacy. These results may lead to the elucidation of the molecular pathways involved with CD4 T cell survival that contribute to improved memory, and understanding of these pathways could lead to greater efficacy of immune stimulatory Abs in tumor-bearing individuals.
Gill, H S; Watson, D L; Brandon, M R
The roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in genetically determined resistance of sheep to Haemonchus contortus (a natural host-parasite relationship) was investigated by selectively depleting genetically resistant merino lambs of their CD4+ or CD8+ T cells by treatment with mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the appropriate determinant before and during challenge infection. Administration of anti-CD4 mAb to genetically resistant lambs completely abrogated their expression of genetic resistance as indicated by significantly higher faecal egg output and worm burdens found in the CD4+ T-cell-depleted lambs compared with those of controls. Host responses associated with resistance to H. contortus including mucosal mast cell hyperplasia and tissue eosinophilia were also significantly suppressed in CD4-depleted lambs. The development of anamnestic anti-parasite antibody responses were also significantly inhibited by anti-CD4 mAb. Furthermore, anti-CD4 mAb abolished differences in host responses between genetically resistant and random-bred (susceptible) lambs. In contrast, depletion of CD8+ T cells had no effect on genetic resistance; faecal egg output, worm counts, mast cells and eosinophil responses in CD8-depleted lambs were not significantly different from those in controls. Together, these results suggest that CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in mediating genetic resistance to H. contortus, and in the generation of mucosal mast cell hyperplasia, tissue eosinophilia and anti-Haemonchus antibody. CD8+ T cells appear to play no protective role. The possible mechanisms by which CD4+ T cells might mediate anti-parasite resistance are discussed. PMID:8094709
Background An effective adaptive immune response requires activation of specific CD4 T cells. The capacity of B cells to activate CD4 T cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) has not been evaluated. Methods CD4 T cell activation by B cells of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was evaluated by culture of PBMCs or purified B cells and CD4 T cells with Leishmania panamensis antigens. CD4 T cell and B cell activation markers were evaluated by flow cytometry and 13 cytokines were measured in supernatants with a bead-based capture assay. The effect of Leishmania antigens on BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin was evaluated in the Ramos human B cell line by targeting the antigen with anti-IgM-biotin and anti-biotin-ovalbumin-FITC. Results Culture of PBMCs from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with Leishmania antigens resulted in upregulation of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 as well as increased frequency of CD25hiCD127- cells among CD4 T cells. Concomitantly, B cells upregulated the costimulatory molecule CD86. These changes were not observed in PBMCs from healthy subjects, indicating participation of Leishmania-specific lymphocytes expanded in vivo. Purified B cells from these patients, when interacting with purified CD4 T cells and Leishmania antigens, were capable of inducing significant increases in CD25 and CD69 expression and CD25hiCD127- frequency in CD4 T cells. These changes were associated with upregulation of CD86 in B cells. Comparison of changes in CD4 T cell activation parameters between PBMC and B cell/CD4 T cell cultures showed no statistically significant differences; further, significant secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 was induced in both types of cultures. Additionally, culture with Leishmania antigens enhanced BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin in Ramos human B cells. Conclusions The capacity of B cells specific for Leishmania antigens in peripheral blood of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients to
Gebremicael, Gebremedhin; Belay, Yohanes; Girma, Fitsum; Abreha, Yemane; Gebreegziabxier, Atsbeha; Tesfaye, Simret; Messele, Zelalem; Assefa, Yibeltal; Bellete, Bahrie; Kassa, Desta; Vojnov, Lara
In Ethiopia, CD4+ T-cell counting is still required for all patients at baseline before antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to determine eligibility and follow-up of opportunistic infection prophylaxis. However, access to CD4+ T cell count in rural health facilities remains a major challenge in Ethiopia like other resource-limited settings. Both capillary and venous blood was drawn from each of 325 study participant recruited in Addis Ababa and surroundings. The CD4+ T-cell count, CD4%, and hemoglobin (Hgb) were tested at one of the four study health facilities using capillary blood and BD FACSPresto™ device. These tests were also done at the national HIV reference laboratory, using venous blood with BD FACSCalibur™, Sysmex XT-1800i™, and BD FACSPresto™. BD FACSPresto™ had an absolute mean bias of -13.3 cells/ul (-2.99%) and 28.3 cells/μl (6.4%) using venous and capillary blood, respectively, compared with BD FACSCalibur™. The absolute CD4 assay on the BD FACSPresto™ had a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.87 and 0.92 using capillary blood and venous blood samples, respectively, compared with BD FACSCalibur™. The percentage similarity of the BD FACSPresto™ using capillary and venous blood was 105.2% and 99.3%, respectively. The sensitivity of the FACSPresto™ using threshold of 500 cells/μl for ART eligibility using capillary and venous blood was 87.9 and 94.3%, while the specificity was 91.4 and 83.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the BD FACSPresto™ had an absolute mean bias of -0.2 dl/μl (0.0%) (95% LOA: -1.7, 1.3) and -0.59 dl/μl (0.1%) (95% LOA: -1.49, 0.31) for Hgb using capillary and venous blood compared with the Sysmex XT-1800i™, respectively. Our results showed acceptable agreement between the BD FACSPresto™ and BD FACSCalibur™ for CD4+ T-cell counting and CD4%; and between the BD FACSPresto™ and Sysmex XT-1800i™for measuring Hgb concentration.
Background CD4+ T cells have several subsets of functional phenotypes, which play critical yet diverse roles in the immune system. Pathogen-driven differentiation of these subsets of cells is often heterogeneous in terms of the induced phenotypic diversity. In vitro recapitulation of heterogeneous differentiation under homogeneous experimental conditions indicates some highly regulated mechanisms by which multiple phenotypes of CD4+ T cells can be generated from a single population of naïve CD4+ T cells. Therefore, conceptual understanding of induced heterogeneous differentiation will shed light on the mechanisms controlling the response of populations of CD4+ T cells under physiological conditions. Results We present a simple theoretical framework to show how heterogeneous differentiation in a two-master-regulator paradigm can be governed by a signaling network motif common to all subsets of CD4+ T cells. With this motif, a population of naïve CD4+ T cells can integrate the signals from their environment to generate a functionally diverse population with robust commitment of individual cells. Notably, two positive feedback loops in this network motif govern three bistable switches, which in turn, give rise to three types of heterogeneous differentiated states, depending upon particular combinations of input signals. We provide three prototype models illustrating how to use this framework to explain experimental observations and make specific testable predictions. Conclusions The process in which several types of T helper cells are generated simultaneously to mount complex immune responses upon pathogenic challenges can be highly regulated, and a simple signaling network motif can be responsible for generating all possible types of heterogeneous populations with respect to a pair of master regulators controlling CD4+ T cell differentiation. The framework provides a mathematical basis for understanding the decision-making mechanisms of CD4+ T cells, and it can be
CD4 T cells that recognize peptide antigen in the context of Class II MHC can differentiate into various subsets that are characterized by their helper functions. However, increasing evidence indicates that CD4 cells with direct cytolytic activity play a role in chronic, as well as, acute infections...
Matsuzawa, Yu; Oshima, Shigeru; Takahara, Masahiro; Maeyashiki, Chiaki; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Nibe, Yoichi; Nozaki, Kengo; Nagaishi, Takashi; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Ma, Averil; Watanabe, Mamoru
Autophagy plays important roles in metabolism, differentiation, and survival in T cells. TNFAIP3/A20 is a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that is thought to be a negative regulator of autophagy in cell lines. However, the role of TNFAIP3 in autophagy remains unclear. To determine whether TNFAIP3 regulates autophagy in CD4 T cells, we first analyzed Tnfaip3-deficient naïve CD4 T cells in vitro. We demonstrated that Tnfaip3-deficient CD4 T cells exhibited reduced MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) puncta formation, increased mitochondrial content, and exaggerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These results indicate that TNFAIP3 promotes autophagy after T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation in CD4 T cells. We then investigated the mechanism by which TNFAIP3 promotes autophagy signaling. We found that TNFAIP3 bound to the MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex and that Tnfaip3-deficient cells displayed enhanced ubiquitination of the MTOR complex and MTOR activity. To confirm the effects of enhanced MTOR activity in Tnfaip3-deficient cells, we analyzed cell survival following treatment with Torin1, an MTOR inhibitor. Tnfaip3-deficient CD4 T cells exhibited fewer cell numbers than the control cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the impaired survival of Tnfaip3-deficient cells was ameliorated with Torin1 treatment in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Torin1 was abolished by Atg5 deficiency. Thus, enhanced MTOR activity regulates the survival of Tnfaip3-deficient CD4 T cells. Taken together, our findings illustrate that TNFAIP3 restricts MTOR signaling and promotes autophagy, providing new insight into the manner in which MTOR and autophagy regulate survival in CD4 T cells.
CD4+CD28− T cells are a unique type of proinflammatory T cells characterised by blockade of costimulatory CD28 receptor expression at the transcriptional level, which is still reversible by IL-12. In healthy individuals older than 65 years, these cells may accumulate to up to 50% of total CD4+ T lymphocytes as in many immune-mediated diseases, immunodeficiency, and specific infectious diseases. Here we focus on CD4+CD28− T cells in chronic immune-mediated diseases, summarizing various phenotypic and functional characteristics, which vary depending on the underlying disease, disease activity, and concurrent treatment. CD4+CD28− T cells present as effector/memory cells with increased replicative history and oligoclonality but reduced apoptosis. As an alternative costimulatory signal instead of CD28, not only natural killer cell receptors and Toll-like receptors, but also CD47, CTLA-4, OX40, and 4-1BB have to be considered. The proinflammatory and cytotoxic capacities of these cells indicate an involvement in progression and maintenance of chronic immune-mediated disease. So far it has been shown that treatment with TNF-α blockers, abatacept, statins, and polyclonal antilymphocyte globulins (ATG) mediates reduction of the CD4+CD28− T cell level. The clinical relevance of targeting CD4+CD28− T cells as a therapeutic option has not been examined so far. PMID:25834833
Ge, Xin; Liu, Ying-Feng; Wong, Yong; Wu, Li-Zheng; Tan, Ling; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Jing
Periodontitis is a common infectious disease associated with destruction of periodontal ligaments and alveolar bones. CD4(+) T cell-mediated immune response is involved in the progression of periodontitis. Tobacco consumption increases the risk of periodontal disease. However, the impact of nicotine on the interaction between human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and CD4(+) T cells remains unrevealed. Our study aims to investigate the effect of nicotine on PDL cells and the cocultured CD4(+) T cells. The PDL cell cultures were established by explants from healthy individuals, exposed to nicotine or α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), and incubated solely or in combination with CD4(+) T cells. Afterwards, cell viability, secreted cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were evaluated. In monoculture of PDL cells, nicotine dramatically repressed cell viability and increased apoptosis. Meanwhile, α-BTX largely reversed the nicotine-induced apoptosis and increased viability of PDL cells. Compared with the monoculture, MMP-1, MMP-3, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-21 in supernatant of cocultures were markedly elevated after treatment with nicotine. Moreover, α-BTX significantly attenuated nicotine-triggered production of these components either in mono- or co-cultures. In addition, PDL cell-derived CXCL12 following nicotine treatment recruited CD4(+) T cells. Above all, nicotine deteriorated periodontitis partially by promoting PDL cell-CD4(+) T cell-mediated inflammatory response and matrix degradation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gu-Trantien, Chunyan; Loi, Sherene; Garaud, Soizic; Equeter, Carole; Libin, Myriam; de Wind, Alexandre; Ravoet, Marie; Le Buanec, Hélène; Sibille, Catherine; Manfouo-Foutsop, Germain; Veys, Isabelle; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Singhal, Sandeep K; Michiels, Stefan; Rothé, Françoise; Salgado, Roberto; Duvillier, Hugues; Ignatiadis, Michail; Desmedt, Christine; Bron, Dominique; Larsimont, Denis; Piccart, Martine; Sotiriou, Christos; Willard-Gallo, Karen
CD4⁺ T cells are critical regulators of immune responses, but their functional role in human breast cancer is relatively unknown. The goal of this study was to produce an image of CD4⁺ T cells infiltrating breast tumors using limited ex vivo manipulation to better understand the in vivo differences associated with patient prognosis. We performed comprehensive molecular profiling of infiltrating CD4⁺ T cells isolated from untreated invasive primary tumors and found that the infiltrating T cell subpopulations included follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, which have not previously been found in solid tumors, as well as Th1, Th2, and Th17 effector memory cells and Tregs. T cell signaling pathway alterations included a mixture of activation and suppression characterized by restricted cytokine/chemokine production, which inversely paralleled lymphoid infiltration levels and could be reproduced in activated donor CD4⁺ T cells treated with primary tumor supernatant. A comparison of extensively versus minimally infiltrated tumors showed that CXCL13-producing CD4⁺ Tfh cells distinguish extensive immune infiltrates, principally located in tertiary lymphoid structure germinal centers. An 8-gene Tfh signature, signifying organized antitumor immunity, robustly predicted survival or preoperative response to chemotherapy. Our identification of CD4⁺ Tfh cells in breast cancer suggests that they are an important immune element whose presence in the tumor is a prognostic factor.
Gu-Trantien, Chunyan; Loi, Sherene; Garaud, Soizic; Equeter, Carole; Libin, Myriam; de Wind, Alexandre; Ravoet, Marie; Le Buanec, Hélène; Sibille, Catherine; Manfouo-Foutsop, Germain; Veys, Isabelle; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Singhal, Sandeep K.; Michiels, Stefan; Rothé, Françoise; Salgado, Roberto; Duvillier, Hugues; Ignatiadis, Michail; Desmedt, Christine; Bron, Dominique; Larsimont, Denis; Piccart, Martine; Sotiriou, Christos; Willard-Gallo, Karen
CD4+ T cells are critical regulators of immune responses, but their functional role in human breast cancer is relatively unknown. The goal of this study was to produce an image of CD4+ T cells infiltrating breast tumors using limited ex vivo manipulation to better understand the in vivo differences associated with patient prognosis. We performed comprehensive molecular profiling of infiltrating CD4+ T cells isolated from untreated invasive primary tumors and found that the infiltrating T cell subpopulations included follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, which have not previously been found in solid tumors, as well as Th1, Th2, and Th17 effector memory cells and Tregs. T cell signaling pathway alterations included a mixture of activation and suppression characterized by restricted cytokine/chemokine production, which inversely paralleled lymphoid infiltration levels and could be reproduced in activated donor CD4+ T cells treated with primary tumor supernatant. A comparison of extensively versus minimally infiltrated tumors showed that CXCL13-producing CD4+ Tfh cells distinguish extensive immune infiltrates, principally located in tertiary lymphoid structure germinal centers. An 8-gene Tfh signature, signifying organized antitumor immunity, robustly predicted survival or preoperative response to chemotherapy. Our identification of CD4+ Tfh cells in breast cancer suggests that they are an important immune element whose presence in the tumor is a prognostic factor. PMID:23778140
Broux, Bieke; Mizee, Mark R; Vanheusden, Marjan; van der Pol, Susanne; van Horssen, Jack; Van Wijmeersch, Bart; Somers, Veerle; de Vries, Helga E; Stinissen, Piet; Hellings, Niels
CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells arise through repeated antigenic stimulation and are present in diseased tissues of patients with various autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). These cells are believed to have cytotoxic properties that contribute to the pathogenic damaging of the target organ. Endogenous cues that are increased in the diseased tissue may amplify the activity of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells. In this study, we focused on IL-15, a cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine that is increased in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that IL-15 is mainly produced by astrocytes and infiltrating macrophages in inflammatory lesions of MS patients. Moreover, in vitro transmigration studies reveal that IL-15 selectively attracts CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells of MS patients, but not of healthy individuals. IL-15 further induces the expression of chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules on CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells, as investigated using flow cytometry, resulting in enhanced migration over a monolayer of human brain endothelial cells. Finally, flow cytometric analyses revealed that IL-15 increases the proliferation and production of GM-CSF, expression of cytotoxic molecules (NKG2D, perforin, and granzyme B), and degranulation capacity of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that increased peripheral and local levels of IL-15 amplify the pathogenic potential of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells, thus contributing to tissue damage in MS brain lesions. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Pandhare, Jui; Addai, Amma B.; Mantri, Chinmay K.; Hager, Cynthia; Smith, Rita M.; Barnett, Louis; Villalta, Fernando; Kalams, Spyros A.; Dash, Chandravanu
Substance abuse is a major barrier in eradication of the HIV epidemic because it serves as a powerful cofactor for viral transmission, disease progression, and AIDS-related mortality. Cocaine, one of the commonly abused drugs among HIV-1 patients, has been suggested to accelerate HIV disease progression. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Therefore, we tested whether cocaine augments HIV-1–associated CD4+ T-cell decline, a predictor of HIV disease progression. We examined apoptosis of resting CD4+ T cells from HIV-1–negative and HIV-1–positive donors in our study, because decline of uninfected cells plays a major role in HIV-1 disease progression. Treatment of resting CD4+ T cells with cocaine (up to 100 μmol/L concentrations) did not induce apoptosis, but 200 to 1000 μmol/L cocaine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, treatment of CD4+ T cells isolated from healthy donors with both HIV-1 virions and cocaine significantly increased apoptosis compared with the apoptosis induced by cocaine or virions alone. Most important, our biochemical data suggest that cocaine induces CD4+ T-cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Collectively, our results provide evidence of a synergy between cocaine and HIV-1 on CD4+ T-cell apoptosis that may, in part, explain the accelerated disease observed in HIV-1–infected drug abusers. PMID:24486327
Tang, Sanyi; Xiao, Yanni; Wang, Ning; Wu, Hulin
The strategies of structured treatment interruptions (STIs) of antiretroviral therapies have been proposed for clinical management of HIV infected patients, but clinical studies on STIs failed to achieve a consistent conclusion for this strategy. To evaluate the STI strategies, in particular, CD4+ T cell count-guided STIs, and explain these controversial conclusions from different clinical studies, in this paper we propose to use piecewise HIV virus dynamic models to quantitatively explore the STI strategies and investigate their dynamic behaviors. Our analysis results indicate that CD4+ T cell counts can be maintained above a safe level using the STI with a single threshold or a threshold window. Numerical simulations show that the CD4+ T cell counts either fluctuate or approach a stable level for a patient, depending on the prescribed upper or lower threshold values. In particular, the CD4+ T cell counts can be stabilized at a desired level if the threshold policy control is applied. The durations of drug-on and drug-off are very sensitive to the prescribed upper or lower threshold levels, which possibly explains why the on-off strategy with fixed schedule or a STI strategy with frequent switches is associated with the high rate of failure. Our findings suggest that it is critical to carefully choose the thresholds of CD4+ T cell count and individualize the STIs for each individual patient based on initial CD4+ T cell counts. PMID:22659043
Moir, Susan; Ogwaro, Kisani M.; Malaspina, Angela; Vasquez, Joshua; Donoghue, Eileen T.; Hallahan, Claire W.; Liu, Shuying; Ehler, Linda A.; Planta, Marie A.; Kottilil, Shyamasundaran; Chun, Tae-Wook; Fauci, Anthony S.
HIV infection induces a wide array of B cell dysfunctions. We have characterized the effect of plasma viremia on the responsiveness of B cells to CD4+ T cell help in HIV-infected patients. In HIV-negative donors, B cell proliferation correlated with CD154 expression on activated CD4+ T cells and with the availability of IL-2, whereas in HIV-infected viremic patients, reduced B cell proliferation was observed despite normal CD154 expression on activated CD4+ T cells. Reduced triggering of B cells by activated CD4+ T cells was clearly observed in HIV-infected viremic patients compared with aviremic patients with comparable CD4+ T cell counts, and a dramatic improvement in B cell function was observed in patients whose plasma viremia was controlled by effective antiretroviral therapy. The degree of B cell dysfunction in viremic patients correlated strongly with the inability of B cells to express CD25 in response to activated CD4+ T cells, resulting in an inability to mount a normal proliferative response to IL-2. Similar defects in responsiveness to IL-2 were observed in the B cells of HIV-infected viremic patients in the context of B cell receptor stimulation. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms associated with ineffective humoral responses in HIV disease. PMID:12730375
Martínez, Víctor G.; Sacedón, Rosa; Hidalgo, Laura; Valencia, Jaris; Fernández-Sevilla, Lidia M.; Hernández-López, Carmen
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) form a group of secreted factors that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily. Among different roles in a number of immune cell types, BMPs are known to regulate T cell development within the thymus, although the role of BMP signaling in human mature T cells remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that canonical BMP signaling is necessary during two critical events that regulate the size and function of human naive CD4+ T cell population: activation and homeostasis. Upon stimulation via TCR, naive CD4+ T cells upregulate the expression of BMP ligands triggering canonical BMP signaling in CD25+ cells. Blockade of BMP signaling severely impairs CD4+ T cell proliferation after activation mainly through regulation of IL-2, since the addition of this cytokine recuperates normal T cell expansion after inhibition of BMP signaling. Similarly, activation of canonical BMP pathway is required for both the maintenance of cell survival and the homeostatic proliferation induced by IL-7, a key factor for T cell homeostasis. Moreover, upregulation of two critical receptors for T cell homeostasis, CXCR4 and CCR9, triggered by IL-7 is also abrogated in the absence of BMP signaling. Collectively, we describe important roles of the canonical BMP signaling in human naive CD4+ T cell activation and homeostasis that could be valuable for clinical application. PMID:26110906
Villegas-Mendez, Ana; Inkson, Colette A.; Shaw, Tovah N.; Strangward, Patrick
CD4+ T cells that produce IFN-γ are the source of host-protective IL-10 during primary infection with a number of different pathogens, including Plasmodium spp. The fate of these CD4+IFN-γ+IL-10+ T cells following clearance of primary infection and their subsequent influence on the course of repeated infections is, however, presently unknown. In this study, utilizing IFN-γ–yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and IL-10–GFP dual reporter mice, we show that primary malaria infection–induced CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells have limited memory potential, do not stably express IL-10, and are disproportionately lost from the Ag-experienced CD4+ T cell memory population during the maintenance phase postinfection. CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells generally exhibited a short-lived effector rather than effector memory T cell phenotype postinfection and expressed high levels of PD-1, Lag-3, and TIGIT, indicative of cellular exhaustion. Consistently, the surviving CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cell–derived cells were unresponsive and failed to proliferate during the early phase of secondary infection. In contrast, CD4+YFP+GFP− T cell–derived cells expanded rapidly and upregulated IL-10 expression during secondary infection. Correspondingly, CD4+ T cells were the major producers within an accelerated and amplified IL-10 response during the early stage of secondary malaria infection. Notably, IL-10 exerted quantitatively stronger regulatory effects on innate and CD4+ T cell responses during primary and secondary infections, respectively. The results in this study significantly improve our understanding of the durability of IL-10–producing CD4+ T cells postinfection and provide information on how IL-10 may contribute to optimized parasite control and prevention of immune-mediated pathology during repeated malaria infections. PMID:27630165
Mailliard, Robbie B.; Egawa, Shinichi; Cai, Quan; Kalinska, Anna; Bykovskaya, Svetlana N.; Lotze, Michael T.; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; Storkus, Walter J.; Kalinski, Pawel
Dendritic cells (DCs) activated by CD40L-expressing CD4+ T cells act as mediators of “T helper (Th)” signals for CD8+ T lymphocytes, inducing their cytotoxic function and supporting their long-term activity. Here, we show that the optimal activation of DCs, their ability to produce high levels of bioactive interleukin (IL)-12p70 and to induce Th1-type CD4+ T cells, is supported by the complementary DC-activating signals from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Cord blood– or peripheral blood–isolated naive CD8+ T cells do not express CD40L, but, in contrast to naive CD4+ T cells, they are efficient producers of IFN-γ at the earliest stages of the interaction with DCs. Naive CD8+ T cells cooperate with CD40L-expressing naive CD4+ T cells in the induction of IL-12p70 in DCs, promoting the development of primary Th1-type CD4+ T cell responses. Moreover, the recognition of major histocompatibility complex class I–presented epitopes by antigen-specific CD8+ T cells results in the TNF-α– and IFN-γ–dependent increase in the activation level of DCs and in the induction of type-1 polarized mature DCs capable of producing high levels of IL-12p70 upon a subsequent CD40 ligation. The ability of class I–restricted CD8+ T cells to coactivate and polarize DCs may support the induction of Th1-type responses against class I–presented epitopes of intracellular pathogens and contact allergens, and may have therapeutical implications in cancer and chronic infections. PMID:11854360
Karim, Ahmad Faisal; Reba, Scott M; Li, Qing; Boom, W Henry; Rojas, Roxana E
We have recently demonstrated that mycobacterial ligands engage Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) on CD4(+) T cells and up-regulate T-cell receptor (TCR) triggered Th1 responses in vitro and in vivo. To better understand the role of T-cell expressed TLR2 on CD4(+) T-cell differentiation and function, we conducted a gene expression analysis of murine naïve CD4(+) T-cells stimulated in the presence or absence of TLR2 co-stimulation. Unexpectedly, naïve CD4(+) T-cells co-stimulated via TLR2 showed a significant up-regulation of Il9 mRNA compared to cells co-stimulated via CD28. Under TH9 differentiation, we observed up-regulation of TH9 differentiation, evidenced by increases in both percent of IL-9 secreting cells and IL-9 in culture supernatants in the presence of TLR2 agonist both in polyclonal and Ag85B cognate peptide specific stimulations. Under non-polarizing conditions, TLR2 engagement on CD4(+) T-cells had minimal effect on IL-9 secretion and TH9 differentiation, likely due to a prominent effect of TLR2 signaling on IFN-γ secretion and TH1 differentiation. We also report that, TLR2 signaling in CD4(+) T cells increased expression of transcription factors BATF and PU.1, known to positively regulate TH9 differentiation. These results reveal a novel role of T-cell expressed TLR2 in enhancing the differentiation and function of TH9 T cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Besançon, Alix; Baas, Marije; Goncalves, Tania; Valette, Fabrice; Waldmann, Herman; Chatenoud, Lucienne; You, Sylvaine
Therapeutic tolerance to self-antigens or foreign antigens is thought to depend on constant vigilance by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Previous work using a pancreatic islet allograft model and a short pulse of CD3 antibody therapy has shown that CD8(+) T cells become anergic and use TGFβ and coinhibitory signaling as their contribution to the tolerance process. Here, we examine the role of CD4(+) T cells in tolerization by CD3 antibodies. We show that both Foxp3(+) Tregs and CD4(+) T cell anergy play a role in the induction of tolerance and its maintenance. Foxp3(+) Tregs resisted CD3 antibody-mediated depletion, unlike intragraft Th1 CD4(+) lymphocytes coexpressing granzyme B and Tbx21, which were selectively eliminated. Tregs were mandatory for induction of tolerance as their depletion at the time of CD3 antibody therapy or for a short time thereafter, by an antibody to CD25 (PC61), led to graft rejection. Early treatment with CTLA-4 antibody gave the same outcome. In contrast, neither PC61 nor anti-CTLA-4 given late, at day 100 posttransplant, reversed tolerance once established. Ablation of Foxp3 T cells after diphtheria toxin injection in tolerant Foxp3(DTR) recipient mice provided the same outcome. Alloreactive T cells had been rendered intrinsically unresponsive as total CD4(+) or Treg-deprived CD4(+) T cells from tolerant recipients were unable to mount donor-specific IFN-γ responses. In addition, intragraft Treg-deprived CD4(+) T cells lacked proliferative capacities, expressed high levels of the inhibitory receptor PD-1, and exhibited a CD73(hi)FR4(hi) phenotype, thus reflecting a state of T cell anergy. We conclude that Tregs play a substantive and critical role in guiding the immune system toward tolerance of the allograft, when induced by CD3 antibody, but are less important for maintenance of the tolerant state, where T cell anergy appears sufficient.
Archila, Luis Diego; Jeong, David; Pascal, Mariona; Bartra, Joan; Juan, Manel; Robinson, David; Farrington, Mary L; Kwok, William W
Allergic reactions to walnut can be life-threatening. Although IgE epitopes of walnut have been studied, CD4(+) T cell-specific epitopes for walnut remain uncharacterized. In particular, the relationship of both phenotype and frequency of walnut-specific T cells to the disease have not been examined. We sought to provide a thorough phenotypic analysis for walnut-reactive T cells in allergic and nonallergic subjects, particularly the relationship of phenotypes and frequencies of walnut-specific T cells with the disease. The CD154 upregulation assay was used to examine CD4(+) T-cell reactivity toward the walnut allergens Jug r 1, Jug r 2, and Jug r 3. A tetramer-guided epitope mapping approach was used to identify HLA-restricted CD4(+) T-cell epitopes in Jug r 2. Direct ex vivo staining with peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II tetramers enabled comparison of the frequency and phenotype of Jug r 2-specific CD4(+) T cells between allergic and nonallergic subjects. Jug r 2-specific T-cell clones were also generated, and mRNA transcription factor levels were assessed by using quantitative RT-PCR. Intracellular cytokine staining assays were performed for further phenotypic analyses. Jug r 2 was identified as the major allergen that elicited CD4(+) T-cell responses. Multiple Jug r 2 T-cell epitopes were identified. The majority of these T cells in allergic subjects have a CCR4(+) phenotype. A subset of these T cells express CCR4(+)CCR6(+) irrespective of the asthmatic status of the allergic subjects. Intracellular cytokine staining confirmed these TH2-, TH2/TH17-, and TH17-like heterogenic profiles. Jug r 2-specific T-cell clones from allergic subjects mainly expressed GATA3, nonetheless, a portion of T-cell clones both GATA3 and RAR-related orphan receptor C (RORC) or RORC alone, confirming the presence of TH2, TH2/TH17, and TH17 cells. Jug r 2-specific responses dominate walnut T-cell responses in patients with walnut allergy. Jug r 2 central memory CD4
Grishkan, Inna V; Ntranos, Achilles; Calabresi, Peter A; Gocke, Anne R
Double-negative T (DNT) cells are αβTCR(+)CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-)NK1.1(-) cells that constitute a small but significant proportion of the αβTCR(+) T cells. Their developmental pathway and pathological significance remain unclear. In the present study, we utilized chronic in vitro stimulation of CD4(+) T cells to mimic immune hyper-activation of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus, conditions characterized by DNT cells accumulation. After approximately 4-5 rounds of stimulation, the CD3(+)CD4(-) population became apparent. These cells did not express CD8, NK1.1, γδTCR, or B220, exhibited a highly proliferative effector phenotype, and were dependent on T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation for survival. Moreover, CD3(+)CD4(-) cells expressed MHC class II-restricted αβTCR, indicative of their origin from a CD4(+) T cell population. The results presented herein illustrate a novel method of DNT cell generation in vitro and suggest that immune hyper-activation could also be implicated in the genesis of the disease-associated DNT cells in vivo.
Abdulahad, W H; van der Geld, Y M; Stegeman, C A; Kallenberg, C G M
In order to test the hypothesis that Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is associated with an ongoing immune effector response, even in remission, we examined the distribution of peripheral naive and memory T-lymphocytes in this disease, and analyzed the function-related phenotypes of the memory T-cell population. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were freshly isolated from WG-patients in remission (R-WG, n=40), active WG-patients (A-WG, n=17), and age-matched healthy controls (HCs, n=21). Expression of CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CCR7, interleukin (IL)-18Ralpha, ST2L, and FoxP3 were determined by four-color flow cytometric analysis. CD45RO and CCR7 were used for distinction between naive and memory T cells, IL-18Ralpha, ST2L, and FoxP3 for the assessment of Type1, Type2, and regulatory T-cells, respectively. In R-WG, the CD4+CD45RO+CCR7- effector memory T-cell subpopulation (TEM) was relatively increased, whereas the CD4+CD45RO-CCR7+ naive T-cell population (TNaive) was decreased as compared to HC. The distribution of naive and memory CD8+T cells did not differ between R-WG, A-WG, and HC, nor did CD4+CD45RO+CCR7+ central memory T cells (TCM). In contrast to HC, the percentage of CD4+TNaive cells in R-WG correlated negatively with age, whereas CD4+TEM cells showed a positive correlation. In R-WG, a skewing towards Type2 T cells was observed in CD4+TEM cells. No differences were detected in FoxP3+CD4+TEM cells between R-WG and A-WG, whereas the FoxP3-CD4+TEM cells were increased in R-WG and decreased in A-WG as compared to HC. Collectively, peripheral blood homeostasis of CD4+T cells is disturbed in R-WG with the persistent expansion of non-regulatory CD4+TEM cells. These cells might be involved in relapse and may constitute a target for therapy.
Brandmaier, Andrew G.; Leitner, Wolfgang W.; Ha, Sung P.; Sidney, John; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Touloukian, Christopher E.
Despite progress made over the past 25 years, existing immunotherapies have limited clinical effectiveness in patients with cancer. Immune tolerance consistently blunts the generated immune response, and the largely solitary focus on CD8+ T cell immunity has proven ineffective in the absence of CD4+ T cell help. To address these twin-tier deficiencies, we developed a translational model of melanoma immunotherapy focused on the exploitation of high avidity CD4+ T cells that become generated in germline antigen deficient mice. We had previously identified a TRP-1 specific HLA-DRB1*0401-restricted epitope. Using this epitope in conjunction with a newly described TRP-1 germline-knockout, we demonstrate that endogenous TRP-1 expression alters the functionality of the auto-reactive T cell repertoire. More importantly, we show, by using MHC-mismatched combinations, that CD4+ T cells derived from the self-antigen deficient host indirectly triggers the eradication of established B16 lung metastases. We demonstrate that the treatment effect is mediated entirely by endogenous CD8+ T cells and is not affected by the depletion of host Tregs. These findings suggest that high avidity CD4+ T cells can overcome endogenous conditions and mediate their anti-tumor effects exclusively through the elicitation of CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:19561540
Roosje, P J; Dean, G A; Willemse, T; Rutten, V P M G; Thepen, T
Lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis has a cellular infiltrate and a CD4/CD8 ratio comparable to that in humans with atopic dermatitis. CD4+ helper T cells and in particular cells belonging to the Th2 subset play an important role in disease pathogenesis in humans. We investigated the cytokine pattern of CD4+ T cells in situ, with special emphasis on the putative presence of cells producing interleukin 4 (IL4), in cats with allergic dermatitis. Immunohistochemical procedures were used to determine that CD4+ T cells in lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis can produce IL4, as occurs in humans. Lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis had significantly more IL4+ T cells (P = 0.001) than did skin of healthy control cats. Double staining indicated that all IL4+ cells were positive for pan-T or CD4 markers. Double labeling for mast cell chymase and IL4 stained primarily different cells. Western blotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the antibody against human IL4 and a feline recombinant IL4. These results indicate that IL4 is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells and is also present in clinically uninvolved skin, indicating a role in the pathogenesis of allergic dermatitis in cats.
Laky, Karen; Evans, Sharron; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa
SUMMARY Adaptive immune responses begin when naive CD4+ T cells engage peptide+major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Notch signaling can influence effector functions in differentiated CD4+ T helper and T regulatory cells. Whether and how ligand-induced Notch signaling influences the initial priming of CD4+ T cells has not been addressed. We have found that Delta Like Ligand 4 (DLL4)-induced Notch signaling potentiates phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling downstream of the T cell receptor+CD28, allowing naive CD4+ T cells to respond to lower doses of antigen. In vitro, DLL4-deficient APCs were less efficient stimulators of CD4+ T cell activation, metabolism, proliferation, and cytokine secretion. With deletion of DLL4 from CD11c+ APCs in vivo, these deficits translated to an impaired ability to mount an effective CD4+-dependent anti-tumor response. These data implicate Notch signaling as an important regulator of adaptive immune responses. PMID:25607460
Bukh, Irene; Calcedo, Roberto; Roy, Soumitra; Carnathan, Diane G.; Grant, Rebecca; Qin, Qiuyue; Boyd, Surina; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Veeder, Christin L.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Betts, Michael R.
ABSTRACT The possibility that vaccination with adenovirus (AdV) vectors increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of HIV acquisition within the Step trial. Modeling this within rhesus macaques is complicated because human adenoviruses, including human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5), are not endogenous to macaques. Here, we tested whether vaccination with a rhesus macaque-derived adenoviral vector (simian adenovirus 7 [SAdV-7]) enhances mucosal T cell activation within rhesus macaques. Following intramuscular SAdV-7 vaccination, we observed a pronounced increase in SAdV-7-specific CD4+ T cell responses in peripheral blood and, more dramatically, in rectal mucosa tissue. Vaccination also induced a significant increase in the frequency of activated memory CD4+ T cells in SAdV-7- and HAdV-5-vaccinated animals in the rectal mucosa but not in peripheral blood. These fluctuations within the rectal mucosa were also associated with a pronounced decrease in the relative frequency of naive resting CD4+ T cells. Together, these results indicate that peripheral vaccination with an AdV vector can increase the activation of mucosal CD4+ T cells, potentially providing an experimental model to further evaluate the role of host-vector interactions in increased HIV acquisition after AdV vector vaccination. IMPORTANCE The possibility that vaccination with a human adenovirus 5 vector increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition within the Step trial. In this study, we tested whether vaccination with a rhesus macaque-derived adenoviral vector in rhesus macaques enhances mucosal CD4+ T cell activation, the main cell target of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/HIV. The results showed that vaccination with an adenoviral vector indeed increases activation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and potentially increases susceptibility to SIV
Sabatino, Joseph J.; Rosenthal, Kristen M.
The development of antigen-specific therapies for the selective tolerization of autoreactive T cells remains the Holy Grail for the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This quest remains elusive, however, as the numerous antigen-specific strategies targeting myelin-specific T cells over the years have failed to result in clinical success. In this review, we revisit the antigen-based therapies used in the treatment of myelin-specific CD4+ T cells in the context of the functional avidity and the strength of signal of the encephalitogenic CD4+ T cell repertoire. In light of differences in activation thresholds, we propose that autoreactive T cells are not all equal, and therefore tolerance induction strategies must incorporate ligand strength in order to be successful in treating EAE and ultimately the human disease MS. PMID:19904613
Palmer, Clovis S; Hussain, Tabinda; Duette, Gabriel; Weller, Thomas J; Ostrowski, Matias; Sada-Ovalle, Isabel; Crowe, Suzanne M
Much like cancer cells, activated T cells undergo various metabolic changes that allow them to grow and proliferate rapidly. By adopting aerobic glycolysis upon activation, T cells effectively prioritize efficiency in biosynthesis over energy generation. There are distinct differences in the way CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells process activation signals. CD8(+) effector T cells are less dependent on Glut1 and oxygen levels compared to their CD4(+) counterparts. Similarly the downstream signaling by TCR also differs in both effector T cell types. Recent studies have explored PI3K/Akt, mTORC, HIF1α, p70S6K and Bcl-6 signaling in depth providing definition of the crucial roles of these regulators in glucose metabolism. These new insights may allow improved therapeutic manipulation against inflammatory conditions that are associated with dysfunctional T-cell metabolism such as autoimmune disorders, metabolic syndrome, HIV, and cancers.
Matsuoka, Ken-ichi; Kim, Haesook T.; McDonough, Sean; Bascug, Gregory; Warshauer, Ben; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey; Ho, Vincent T.; Alyea, Edwin P.; Antin, Joseph H.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Ritz, Jerome
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs have an indispensable role in the maintenance of tolerance after allogeneic HSC transplantation (HSCT). Patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have fewer circulating Tregs, but the mechanisms that lead to this deficiency of Tregs after HSCT are not known. Here, we analyzed reconstitution of Tregs and conventional CD4+ T cells (Tcons) in patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT after myeloablative conditioning. Following transplant, thymic generation of naive Tregs was markedly impaired, and reconstituting Tregs had a predominantly activated/memory phenotype. In response to CD4+ lymphopenia after HSCT, Tregs underwent higher levels of proliferation than Tcons, but Tregs undergoing homeostatic proliferation also showed increased susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Prospective monitoring of CD4+ T cell subsets revealed that Tregs rapidly expanded and achieved normal levels by 9 months after HSCT, but Treg levels subsequently declined in patients with prolonged CD4+ lymphopenia. This resulted in a relative deficiency of Tregs, which was associated with a high incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. These studies indicate that CD4+ lymphopenia is a critical factor in Treg homeostasis and that prolonged imbalance of Treg homeostasis after HSCT can result in loss of tolerance and significant clinical disease manifestations. PMID:20389017
Zhang, Mei; Graor, Hallie; Yan, Lu; Kim, Julian
Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that melanoma draining lymph node (MDLN) samples from stage III patients contained both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that can be readily expanded to mediate tumor cell apoptosis in vitro and improve survival in mice bearing human melanoma xenografts. In this study, we investigated whether MDLN T cells contain melanoma-reactive CD4+ T cell compartment and what they are. In order to test this, we performed multi-parametric (11-color and 6-color) FACS analyses to monitor phenotypic and functional property of CD4+ T cells in response to melanoma cell antigen re-exposure. Our results have demonstrated that the antigen re-exposure could result in a generation of CD4+CCR7+CD62L+CD27− T cell subsets with various effector cell-like properties. Within the CD4+CCR7+CD62L+CD27− T cell compartment, in response to antigen re-exposure, some of the cells expressed significantly up-regulated CD40L and/or CXCR5, and some of them expressed significantly up-regulated IL-2 and/or TNF-α. This may suggest the existence of melanoma reactive CD4+ “effector-precursor” cells within the expanded MDLN cells and their differentiation into various effector lineages in response to antigen re-stimulation. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that effective adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ACI) maybe enhanced by antigen specific CD4+ T cells. Therefore, results of this study may significantly benefit innovative design of ACI that can potentially mediate enhanced and durable clinical responses. PMID:26641258
Almeida, Afonso R. M.; Amado, Inês F.; Reynolds, Joseph; Berges, Julien; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen; Freitas, Antonio A.
Homeostasis of lymphocyte numbers is believed to be due to competition between cellular populations for a common niche of restricted size, defined by the combination of interactions and trophic factors required for cell survival. Here we propose a new mechanism: homeostasis of lymphocyte numbers could also be achieved by the ability of lymphocytes to perceive the density of their own populations. Such a mechanism would be reminiscent of the primordial quorum-sensing systems used by bacteria, in which some bacteria sense the accumulation of bacterial metabolites secreted by other elements of the population, allowing them to “count” the number of cells present and adapt their growth accordingly. We propose that homeostasis of CD4+ T cell numbers may occur via a quorum-sensing-like mechanism, where IL-2 is produced by activated CD4+ T cells and sensed by a population of CD4+ Treg cells that expresses the high-affinity IL-2Rα-chain and can regulate the number of activated IL-2-producing CD4+ T cells and the total CD4+ T cell population. In other words, CD4+ T cell populations can restrain their growth by monitoring the number of activated cells, thus preventing uncontrolled lymphocyte proliferation during immune responses. We hypothesize that malfunction of this quorum-sensing mechanism may lead to uncontrolled T cell activation and autoimmunity. Finally, we present a mathematical model that describes the key role of IL-2 and quorum-sensing mechanisms in CD4+ T cell homeostasis during an immune response. PMID:22654881
Gorbacheva, Victoria; Fan, Ran; Fairchild, Robert L; Baldwin, William M; Valujskikh, Anna
Despite advances in immunosuppression, antibody-mediated rejection is a serious threat to allograft survival. Alloreactive memory helper T cells can induce potent alloantibody responses and often associate with poor graft outcome. Nevertheless, the ability of memory T cells to elicit well characterized manifestations of antibody-mediated rejection has not been tested. We investigated helper functions of memory CD4 T cells in a mouse model of renal transplantation. Whereas the majority of unsensitized C57Bl/6 recipients spontaneously accepted fully MHC-mismatched A/J renal allografts, recipients containing donor-reactive memory CD4 T cells rapidly lost allograft function. Increased serum creatinine levels, high serum titers of donor-specific alloantibody, minimal T cell infiltration, and intense C4d deposition in the grafts of sensitized recipients fulfilled all diagnostic criteria for acute renal antibody-mediated rejection in humans. IFNγ neutralization did not prevent the renal allograft rejection induced by memory helper T cells, and CD8 T cell depletion at the time of transplantation or depletion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells also did not prevent the renal allograft rejection induced by memory helper T cells starting at day 4 after transplantation. However, B cell depletion inhibited alloantibody generation and significantly extended allograft survival, indicating that donor-specific alloantibodies (not T cells) were the critical effector mechanism of renal allograft rejection induced by memory CD4 T cells. Our studies provide direct evidence that recipient T cell sensitization may result in antibody-mediated rejection of renal allografts and introduce a physiologically relevant animal model with which to investigate mechanisms of antibody-mediated rejection and novel therapeutic approaches for its prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Srivastava, Smita; Ernst, Joel D
During Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other respiratory infections, optimal T cell activation requires pathogen transport from the lung to a local draining lymph node (LN). However, the infected inflammatory monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that transport M. tuberculosis to the local lymph node are relatively inefficient at activating CD4 T cells, possibly due to bacterial inhibition of antigen presentation. We found that infected migratory DCs release M. tuberculosis antigens as soluble, unprocessed proteins for uptake and presentation by uninfected resident lymph node DCs. This transfer of bacterial proteins from migratory to local DCs results in optimal priming of antigen-specific CD4 T cells, which are essential in controlling tuberculosis. Additionally, this mechanism does not involve transfer of the whole bacterium and is distinct from apoptosis or exosome shedding. These findings reveal a mechanism that bypasses pathogen inhibition of antigen presentation by infected cells and generates CD4 T cell responses that control the infection.
Hall, Bruce M; Robinson, Catherine M; Plain, Karren M; Verma, Nirupama D; Tran, Giang T; Nomura, Masaru; Carter, Nicole; Boyd, Rochelle; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J
Transplant tolerance induced in adult animals is mediated by alloantigen-specific CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, yet in many models, proliferation of CD4(+) T cells from hosts tolerant to specific-alloantigen in vitro is not impaired. To identify changes that may diagnose tolerance, changes in the patterns of proliferation of CD4(+), CD4(+)CD25(+), and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells from DA rats tolerant to Piebald Virol Glaxo rat strain (PVG) cardiac allografts and from naïve DA rats were examined. Proliferation of CD4(+) T cells from both naïve and tolerant hosts was similar to both PVG and Lewis stimulator cells. In mixed lymphocyte culture to PVG, proliferation of naïve CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells was greater than naïve CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells from tolerant hosts to specific-donor PVG was not greater than CD4(+) T cells, whereas their response to Lewis and self-DA was greater than CD4(+) T cells. Paradoxically, CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from tolerant hosts did not proliferate to PVG, but did to Lewis, whereas naïve CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells proliferate to both PVG and Lewis but not to self-DA. CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from tolerant, but not naïve hosts, expressed receptors for interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-5 and these cytokines promoted their proliferation to specific-alloantigen PVG but not to Lewis or self-DA. We identified several differences in the patterns of proliferation to specific-donor alloantigen between cells from tolerant and naïve hosts. Most relevant is that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from tolerant hosts failed to proliferate or suppress to specific donor in the absence of either IFN-γ or IL-5. The proliferation to third-party and self of each cell population from tolerant and naïve hosts was similar and not affected by IFN-γ or IL-5. Our findings suggest CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells that mediate transplant tolerance depend on IFN-γ or IL-5 from alloactivated Th1 and Th2 cells.
The T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of CD4+ and CD8+ alpha/beta T cells is heavily influenced by positive and negative selection events that occur during T cell development in the thymus. The coreceptors CD4 and CD8 appear to be essential for this selection to occur. To gain insight into whether T cells that express TCR alpha/beta but lack either coreceptor (CD4- CD8- TCR alpha/beta or alpha/beta double- negative [DN] cells) are also subject to positive and negative selection, and whether selection can occur in the absence of coreceptors, we have performed an extensive immunogenetic analysis of the TCR V beta repertoire of alpha/beta DN cells in lymph nodes of normal mice. Our results show that alpha/beta DN cells appear to be unaffected by clonal deletion of V beta 5 and V beta 11 in I-E- expressing mice, and do not undergo deletion of V beta 6- and V beta 8.1-expressing T cells in Mls-1a-positive mice. They are also unaffected by positive selection of V beta 17a+ T cells in the context of I-Aq. The results suggest that most selection events require the participation of CD4 and CD8, while alpha/beta DN cells are unselected. This argues that most alpha/beta DN cells probably have never expressed CD4 or CD8. However, a unique form of repertoire selection occurs: enrichment of V beta 17a+ alpha/beta DN cells in I-E+ mice. This could be an instance of coreceptor-independent selection. PMID:1512537
Evdokimova, Viktoria N.; Liu, Yang; Potter, Douglas M.; Butterfield, Lisa H.
Summary Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. We have investigated α-fetoprotein (AFP) as a tumor-associated antigen for HCC. We identified major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted peptide epitopes derived from AFP and studied CD8+ T-cell responses in vivo and in vitro in ongoing immunotherapy studies. Helper T cells are of critical importance in shaping the immune response; therefore, we investigated the frequency and function of AFP-specific CD4+ T cells in the general population and among HCC patients. CD4+ T-cell responses were assessed by direct ex vivo multicytokine enzyme-linked immunospot assay and by measurement of cytokine levels using a multicytokine assay. Our analysis indicates that healthy donors have very low frequencies of AFP-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, which are of TH1 type, detectable ex vivo. In contrast, these T cells were either reduced or eliminated in HCC patients at advanced stages of disease. To better activate these cells, we compared the stimulatory capacity of both AFP protein-fed and AdVhAFP-engineered dendritic cells (DC). Healthy donors have CD4+ T-cell responses, which were activated in response to AFP protein-fed DC whereas HCC patients do not demonstrate significant responses to AFP protein. AdVhAFP-transduced DC were capable of activating higher frequency TH1 CD4+ responses to AFP in both healthy donors and AFP-positive HCC patients. Importantly, CD4+ T-cell cytokine expression profiles were skewed towards interleukin-2 and interferon-γ production when activated by adenovirally engineered DC, which has therapeutic implications for vaccination efforts. PMID:17457217
Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Kobayahi-Ishihara, Mie; Wada, Yamato; Terahara, Kazutaka; Takeyama, Haruko; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Tokunaga, Kenzo; Yamagishi, Makoto; Martinez, Javier P.; Meyerhans, Andreas
Homeostatic proliferation (HSP) is a major mechanism by which long-lived naïve and memory CD4+ T cells are maintained in vivo and suggested to contribute to the persistence of the latent HIV-1 reservoir. However, while many in vitro latency models rely on CD4+ T cells that were initially differentiated via T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation into memory/effector cells, latent infection of naïve resting CD4+ T cells maintained under HSP conditions has not been fully addressed. Here, we describe an in vitro HSP culture system utilizing the cytokines IL-7 and IL-15 that allows studying latency in naïve resting CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells isolated from several healthy donors were infected with HIV pseudotypes expressing GFP and cultured under HSP conditions or TCR conditions as control. Cell proliferation, phenotype, and GFP expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. RNA expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. Under HSP culture conditions, latently HIV-1 infected naïve cells are in part maintained in the non-dividing (= resting) state. Although a few HIV-1 provirus+ cells were present in these resting GFP negative cells, the estimated level of GFP transcripts per infected cell seems to indicate a block at the post-transcriptional level. Interestingly, neither TCR nor the prototypic HDAC inhibitor SAHA were able to reactivate HIV-1 provirus from these cells. This lack of reactivation was not due to methylation of the HIV LTR. These results point to a mechanism of HIV control in HSP-cultured resting naïve CD4+ T cells that may be distinct from that in TCR-stimulated memory/effector T cells. PMID:27990142
Falta, Michael T.; Mack, Douglas G.; Tinega, Alex N.; Crawford, Frances; Giulianotti, Marc; Santos, Radleigh; Clayton, Gina M.; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuewu; Maier, Lisa A.; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W.
Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder characterized by an influx of beryllium (Be)-specific CD4+ T cells into the lung. The vast majority of these T cells recognize Be in an HLA-DP–restricted manner, and peptide is required for T cell recognition. However, the peptides that stimulate Be-specific T cells are unknown. Using positional scanning libraries and fibroblasts expressing HLA-DP2, the most prevalent HLA-DP molecule linked to disease, we identified mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that bind to MHCII and Be, forming a complex recognized by pathogenic CD4+ T cells in CBD. These peptides possess aspartic and glutamic acid residues at p4 and p7, respectively, that surround the putative Be-binding site and cooperate with HLA-DP2 in Be coordination. Endogenous plexin A peptides and proteins, which share the core motif and are expressed in lung, also stimulate these TCRs. Be-loaded HLA-DP2–mimotope and HLA-DP2–plexin A4 tetramers detected high frequencies of CD4+ T cells specific for these ligands in all HLA-DP2+ CBD patients tested. Thus, our findings identify the first ligand for a CD4+ T cell involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity and suggest a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of a common antigen specificity in CBD. PMID:23797096
Tian, Yuan; Sette, Alessandro; Weiskopf, Daniela
Dengue virus (DENV) has spread through most tropical and subtropical areas of the world and represents a serious public health problem. The control of DENV infection has not yet been fully successful due to lack of effective therapeutics or vaccines. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the immune responses against DENV infection may reveal new strategies for eliciting and improving antiviral immunity. T cells provide protective immunity against various viral infections by generating effector cells that cooperate to eliminate antigens and memory cells that can survive for long periods with enhanced abilities to control recurring pathogens. Following activation, CD8 T cells can migrate to sites of infection and kill infected cells, whereas CD4 T cells contribute to the elimination of pathogens by trafficking to infected tissues and providing help to innate immune responses, B cells, as well as CD8 T cells. However, it is now evident that CD4 T cells can also perform cytotoxic functions and induce the apoptosis of target cells. Importantly, accumulating studies demonstrate that cytotoxic CD4 T cells develop following DENV infections and may play a crucial role in protecting the host from severe dengue disease. We review our current understanding of the differentiation and function of cytotoxic CD4 T cells, with a focus on DENV infection, and discuss the potential of harnessing these cells for the prevention and treatment of DENV infection and disease. PMID:28003809
Falta, Michael T; Pinilla, Clemencia; Mack, Douglas G; Tinega, Alex N; Crawford, Frances; Giulianotti, Marc; Santos, Radleigh; Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuewu; Maier, Lisa A; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W; Fontenot, Andrew P
Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder characterized by an influx of beryllium (Be)-specific CD4⁺ T cells into the lung. The vast majority of these T cells recognize Be in an HLA-DP–restricted manner, and peptide is required for T cell recognition. However, the peptides that stimulate Be-specific T cells are unknown. Using positional scanning libraries and fibroblasts expressing HLA-DP2, the most prevalent HLA-DP molecule linked to disease, we identified mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that bind to MHCII and Be, forming a complex recognized by pathogenic CD4⁺ T cells in CBD. These peptides possess aspartic and glutamic acid residues at p4 and p7, respectively, that surround the putative Be-binding site and cooperate with HLA-DP2 in Be coordination. Endogenous plexin A peptides and proteins, which share the core motif and are expressed in lung, also stimulate these TCRs. Be-loaded HLA-DP2–mimotope and HLA-DP2–plexin A4 tetramers detected high frequencies of CD4⁺ T cells specific for these ligands in all HLADP2+ CBD patients tested. Thus, our findings identify the first ligand for a CD4⁺ T cell involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity and suggest a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of a common antigen specificity in CBD.
Tian, Yuan; Sette, Alessandro; Weiskopf, Daniela
Dengue virus (DENV) has spread through most tropical and subtropical areas of the world and represents a serious public health problem. The control of DENV infection has not yet been fully successful due to lack of effective therapeutics or vaccines. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the immune responses against DENV infection may reveal new strategies for eliciting and improving antiviral immunity. T cells provide protective immunity against various viral infections by generating effector cells that cooperate to eliminate antigens and memory cells that can survive for long periods with enhanced abilities to control recurring pathogens. Following activation, CD8 T cells can migrate to sites of infection and kill infected cells, whereas CD4 T cells contribute to the elimination of pathogens by trafficking to infected tissues and providing help to innate immune responses, B cells, as well as CD8 T cells. However, it is now evident that CD4 T cells can also perform cytotoxic functions and induce the apoptosis of target cells. Importantly, accumulating studies demonstrate that cytotoxic CD4 T cells develop following DENV infections and may play a crucial role in protecting the host from severe dengue disease. We review our current understanding of the differentiation and function of cytotoxic CD4 T cells, with a focus on DENV infection, and discuss the potential of harnessing these cells for the prevention and treatment of DENV infection and disease.
Vigano, Selena; Bellanger, Florence; Pellaton, Céline; Buss, Guillaume; Comte, Denis; Roger, Thierry; Lacabaratz, Christine; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Levy, Yves
In the present study, we have investigated the functional profile of CD4 T cells from patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), including production of cytokines and proliferation in response to bacteria and virus-derived antigens. We show that the functional impairment of CD4 T cells, including the reduced capacity to proliferate and to produce IFN-γ and IL-2, was restricted to bacteria-specific and not virus-specific CD4 T cells. High levels of endotoxins were found in the plasma of patients with CVID, suggesting that CD4 T cell dysfunction might be caused by bacterial translocation. Of note, endotoxemia was associated with significantly higher expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1) on CD4 T cells. The blockade of the PD-1–PD-L1/2 axis in vitro restored CD4 T cell proliferation capacity, thus indicating that PD-1 signaling negatively regulates CD4 T cell functions. Finally, we showed that intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) treatment significantly reduced endotoxemia and the percentage of PD-1+ CD4 T cells, and restored bacteria-specific CD4 T cell cytokine production and proliferation. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the CD4 T cell exhaustion and functional impairment observed in CVID patients is associated with bacterial translocation and that IVIG treatment resolves bacterial translocation and restores CD4 T cell functions. PMID:25225461
Kira, J; Itoyama, Y; Goto, I
While sensitization of Lewis rats with BP/IFA does not induce EAE, recipients given BP/IFA-sensitized cells after culture with BP do develop EAE. To clarify the pathophysiology responsible for this discrepancy, cell dynamics were studied in the recipients. The CD4+ T cells from BP/IFA-sensitized donors showed no proliferative response to BP and no change in cell size or surface molecule expression, even in the presence of BP in culture. On the other hand, the recipient cells proliferated vigorously, regardless of the presence or absence of BP. In this case, a large number of CD4+ blastoid T cells was generated only in the presence of BP in culture. Such cells showed marked upregulation of CD4, CD2, class I and II MHC, and IL2 receptor molecules, a finding we also observed in the case of BP-cultured cells from BP/CFA-sensitized rats with severe EAE. The proportion of CD4+ blastoid T cells generated after culture depended on the number of cells transferred and on the presence of BP in culture, and closely correlated with the severity of EAE in the recipients. These data suggest that BP/IFA-sensitization can also induce BP-reactive cells capable of becoming CD4+ blastoid T cells with marked upregulation of CD4, CD2, class I and II MHC, and IL2 receptor molecules directly related to potent encephalitogenicity, in vivo.
Martinez, Ryan J; Andargachew, Rakieb; Martinez, Hunter A; Evavold, Brian D
A robust primary immune response has been correlated with the precursor number of antigen-specific T cells, as identified using peptide MHCII tetramers. However, these tetramers identify only the highest-affinity T cells. Here we show the entire CD4+ T-cell repertoire, inclusive of low-affinity T cells missed by tetramers, using a T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling reporter and micropipette assay to quantify naive precursors and expanded populations. In vivo limiting dilution assays reveal hundreds more precursor T cells than previously thought, with higher-affinity tetramer-positive T cells, comprising only 5-30% of the total antigen-specific naive repertoire. Lower-affinity T cells maintain their predominance as the primary immune response progresses, with no enhancement of survival of T cells with high-affinity TCRs. These findings demonstrate that affinity for antigen does not control CD4+ T-cell entry into the primary immune response, as a diverse range in affinity is maintained from precursor through peak of T-cell expansion.
Martinez, Ryan J.; Andargachew, Rakieb; Martinez, Hunter A.; Evavold, Brian D.
A robust primary immune response has been correlated with the precursor number of antigen-specific T cells, as identified using peptide MHCII tetramers. However, these tetramers identify only the highest-affinity T cells. Here we show the entire CD4+ T-cell repertoire, inclusive of low-affinity T cells missed by tetramers, using a T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling reporter and micropipette assay to quantify naive precursors and expanded populations. In vivo limiting dilution assays reveal hundreds more precursor T cells than previously thought, with higher-affinity tetramer-positive T cells, comprising only 5–30% of the total antigen-specific naive repertoire. Lower-affinity T cells maintain their predominance as the primary immune response progresses, with no enhancement of survival of T cells with high-affinity TCRs. These findings demonstrate that affinity for antigen does not control CD4+ T-cell entry into the primary immune response, as a diverse range in affinity is maintained from precursor through peak of T-cell expansion. PMID:27976744
Carbo, Adria; Hontecillas, Raquel; Andrew, Tricity; Eden, Kristin; Mei, Yongguo; Hoops, Stefan; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep
The immune system is composed of many different cell types and hundreds of intersecting molecular pathways and signals. This large biological complexity requires coordination between distinct pro-inflammatory and regulatory cell subsets to respond to infection while maintaining tissue homeostasis. CD4+ T cells play a central role in orchestrating immune responses and in maintaining a balance between pro- and anti- inflammatory responses. This tight balance between regulatory and effector reactions depends on the ability of CD4+ T cells to modulate distinct pathways within large molecular networks, since dysregulated CD4+ T cell responses may result in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The CD4+ T cell differentiation process comprises an intricate interplay between cytokines, their receptors, adaptor molecules, signaling cascades and transcription factors that help delineate cell fate and function. Computational modeling can help to describe, simulate, analyze, and predict some of the behaviors in this complicated differentiation network. This review provides a comprehensive overview of existing computational immunology methods as well as novel strategies used to model immune responses with a particular focus on CD4+ T cell differentiation. PMID:25364738
Tsai, Jy-Ping; Lee, Meng-Hua; Hsu, Shu-Ching; Chen, Mei-Yu; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chang, Joseph T; Liao, Chun-Ta; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Chong, Pele; Chu, Ching-Liang; Shen, Chia-Rui; Chen, Hsin-Wei
Previous studies have shown that TGF-β acts cooperatively with IL-6 to elicit a high frequency of IL-17-secreting CD4(+) T cells (termed Th17) and an elevated CD8(+)IL-17(+) T cell population (termed Tc17). These CD8(+) cells fail to behave like most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express IFN-γ and granzyme B, but they exhibit a noncytotoxic phenotype. Although a significant increase in the number of these Tc17 cells was found in tumors, their role and interaction with other cell types remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the presence of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, but not the CD4(+)CD25(+) (regulatory T [Treg]) cell population, significantly reduced the elicitation of Tc17 cells, possibly as a result of the induction of apoptotic signals. Importantly, these signals may be derived from soluble mediators, and the addition of anti-IL-2 restored the reduction of Tc17 cells in the presence of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. Finally, the elicited Tc17 and Treg cells exhibited a close association in patients with head and neck cancer, indicating that the surrounding Treg cells might maintain the survival of the Tc17 cells. Taken together, these results reveal an intriguing mechanism in which Tc17 cells are controlled by a finely tuned collaboration between the different types of CD4(+) T cells in distinct tumor microenvironments.
Nausch, Norman; Bourke, Claire D.; Appleby, Laura J.; Rujeni, Nadine; Lantz, Olivier; Trottein, François; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca
Characterisation of protective helminth acquired immunity in humans or experimental models has focused on effector responses with little work conducted on memory responses. Here we show for the first time, that human helminth infection is associated with altered proportions of the CD4+ memory T cells, with an associated alteration of TH1 responses. The reduced CD4+ memory T cell proportions are associated with a significantly lower ratio of schistosome-specific IgE/IgG4 (marker for resistance to infection/re-infection) in uninfected older people. Helminth infection does not affect the CD8+ memory T cell pool. Furthermore, we show for the first time in a helminth infection that the CD4+ memory T cell proportions decline following curative anti-helminthic treatment despite increased CD4+ memory cell replication. Reduced accumulation of the CD4+ memory T cells in schistosome-infected people has implications for the development of natural or vaccine induced schistosome-specific protective immunity as well as for unrelated pathogens. PMID:22737405
Li, Peilin; Fujimoto, Katsuya; Bourguingnon, Lilly; Yukl, Steven; Deeks, Steven; Wong, Joseph K
Preventing mucosal transmission of HIV is critical to halting the HIV epidemic. Novel approaches to preventing mucosal transmission are needed. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major extracellular component of mucosa and the primary ligand for the cell surface receptor CD44. CD44 enhances HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells, but the role of HA in this process is not clear. To study this, virions were generated with CD44 (HIVCD44) or without CD44 (HIVmock). Exogenous HA reduced HIV infection of unstimulated CD4(+) T cells in a CD44-dependent manner. Conversely, hyaluronidase-mediated reduction of endogenous HA on the cell surface enhanced HIV binding to and infection of unstimulated CD4(+) T cells. Exogenous HA treatment reduced activation of protein kinase C alpha via CD44 on CD4(+) T cells during infection with HIVCD44. These results reveal new roles for HA during the interaction of HIV with CD4(+) T cells that may be relevant to mucosal HIV transmission and could be exploitable as a future strategy to prevent HIV infection.
Kim, Joonhyub; Park, Gayoung; Lee, Seoho; Hwang, Suk-Won; Min, Namki; Lee, Kyung-Mi
Development of CNT-based CD4(+) T cell imunosensors remains in its infancy due to the poor immobilization efficiency, lack of reproducibility, and difficulty in providing linear quantification. Here, we developed a fully-integrated single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based immunosensor capable of selective capture and linear quantification of CD4(+) T cells with greater dynamic range. By employing repeated two-step oxygen (O2) plasma treatment processes with 35 days of recovery periods, we achieved the enhanced functionalization of the CNT surface and the removal of the byproduct of spray-coated SWCNTs that hinders charge transfer and stable CD4(+) T cell sensing. As a result, a linear electrochemical signal was generated in direct proportion to the bound cells. The slope of a SWCNT electrode in a target concentration range (10(2)~10(6)cells/mL) was 4.55×10(-2)μA per concentration decade, with the lowest detection limit of 1×10(2)cells/mL. Since the reduced number of CD4(+) T cell counts in patients' peripheral blood corresponds to the progression of HIV disease, our CD4(+) T cell-immunosensor provides a simple and low-cost platform which can fulfill the requirement for the development of point-of-care (POC) diagnostic technologies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in resource-limited countries.
Gaylo, Alison; Overstreet, Michael G.; Fowell, Deborah J.
The ability of CD4+ T cells to carry out effector functions is dependent upon the rapid and efficient migration of these cells in inflamed peripheral tissues through an as-yet undefined mechanism. The application of multiphoton microscopy to the study of the immune system provides a tool to measure the dynamics of immune responses within intact tissues. Here we present a protocol for non-invasive intravital multiphoton imaging of CD4+ T cells in the inflamed mouse ear dermis. Use of a custom imaging platform and a venous catheter allows for the visualization of CD4+ T cell dynamics in the dermal interstitium, with the ability to interrogate these cells in real-time via the addition of blocking antibodies to key molecular components involved in motility. This system provides advantages over both in vitro models and surgically invasive imaging procedures. Understanding the pathways used by CD4+ T cells for motility may ultimately provide insight into the basic function of CD4+ T cells as well as the pathogenesis of both autoimmune diseases and pathology from chronic infections. PMID:27078264
Sethi, Apoorva; Kulkarni, Neeraja; Sonar, Sandip; Lal, Girdhari
Gene expression is tightly regulated in a tuneable, cell-specific and time-dependent manner. Recent advancement in epigenetics and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) revolutionized the concept of gene regulation. In order to regulate the transcription, ncRNA can promptly response to the extracellular signals as compared to transcription factors present in the cells. microRNAs (miRNAs) are ncRNA (~22 bp) encoded in the genome, and present as intergenic or oriented antisense to neighboring genes. The strategic location of miRNA in coding genes helps in the coupled regulation of its expression with host genes. miRNA together with complex machinery called RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) interacts with target mRNA and degrade the mRNA or inhibits the translation. CD4 T cells play an important role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation and tolerance. Cytokines and chemokines present in the inflamed microenvironment controls the differentiation and function of various subsets of CD4 T cells [Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs)]. Recent studies suggest that miRNAs play an important role in the development and function of all subsets of CD4 T cells. In current review, we focused on how various miRNAs are regulated by cell's extrinsic and intrinsic signaling, and how miRNAs affect the transdifferentiation of subsets of CD4 T cell and controls their plasticity during inflammation and tolerance. PMID:23386861
Doitsh, Gilad; Galloway, Nicole L. K.; Geng, Xin; Yang, Zhiyuan; Monroe, Kathryn M.; Zepeda, Orlando; Hunt, Peter W.; Hatano, Hiroyu; Sowinski, Stefanie; Muñoz-Arias, Isa; Greene, Warner C.
The pathway causing CD4 T-cell death in HIV-infected hosts remains poorly understood although apoptosis has been proposed as a key mechanism. We now show that caspase-3-mediated apoptosis accounts for the death of only a small fraction of CD4 T cells corresponding to those that are both activated and productively infected. The remaining over 95% of quiescent lymphoid CD4 T cells die by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis triggered by abortive viral infection. Pyroptosis corresponds to an intensely inflammatory form of programmed cell death in which cytoplasmic contents and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, are released. This death pathway thus links the two signature events in HIV infection--CD4 T-cell depletion and chronic inflammation--and creates a pathogenic vicious cycle in which dying CD4 T cells release inflammatory signals that attract more cells to die. This cycle can be broken by caspase 1 inhibitors shown to be safe in humans, raising the possibility of a new class of `anti-AIDS' therapeutics targeting the host rather than the virus.
Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Wang, Qian; Ozkok, Abdullah; Jani, Alkesh; Li, Howard; He, Zhibin; Ljubanovic, Danica; Weiser-Evans, Mary C; Nemenoff, Raphael A; Edelstein, Charles L
Most previous studies of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) have been in models of acute, high-dose cisplatin administration that leads to mortality in non-tumor-bearing mice. The aim of the study was to determine whether CD4 T cell knockout protects against AKI and cancer in a clinically relevant model of low-dose cisplatin-induced AKI in mice with cancer. Kidney function, serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and tubular apoptosis score were the same in wild-type and CD4 -/- mice with AKI. The lack of protection against AKI in CD4 -/- mice was associated with an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, CXCL1, and TNF-α, mediators of AKI and fibrosis, in both cisplatin-treated CD4 -/- mice and wild-type mice. The lack of protection was independent of the presence of cancer or not. Tumor size was double, and cisplatin had an impaired therapeutic effect on the tumors in CD4 -/- vs. wild-type mice. Mice depleted of CD4 T cells using the GK1.5 antibody were not protected against AKI and had larger tumors and lesser response to cisplatin. In summary, in a clinically relevant model of cisplatin-induced AKI in mice with cancer, (1) CD4 -/- mice were not protected against AKI; (2) ERK, p38, CXCL1, and TNF-α, known mediators of AKI, and interstitial fibrosis were increased in CD4 -/- kidneys; and (3) CD4 -/- mice had faster tumor growth and an impaired therapeutic effect of cisplatin on the tumors. The data warns against the use of CD4 T cell inhibition to attenuate cisplatin-induced AKI in patients with cancer. A clinically relevant low-dose cisplatin model of AKI in mice with cancer was used. CD4 -/- mice were not functionally or histologically protected against AKI. CD4 -/- mice had faster tumor growth. CD4 -/- mice had an impaired therapeutic effect of cisplatin on the tumors. Mice depleted of CD4 T cells were not protected against AKI and had larger tumors.
Collins, T L; Burakoff, S J
The lymphoid-specific tyrosine kinase p56lck (Lck) is critical for the development and activation of T lymphocytes, and Lck kinase activity has been implicated in both T-cell antigen receptor/CD3- and CD4-mediated signaling. CD4-dependent T-cell activation has been demonstrated to be dependent upon the association of CD4 with Lck. To examine the role of the kinase activity of Lck in CD4-dependent T-cell activation, we have generated several kinase-deficient mutants of Lck. When transfected into CD4+ murine T-cell hybridoma cells, these mutants cause approximately 90% diminution in CD4-associated Lck kinase activity. Specifically, upon CD4 crosslinking there is decreased Lck autophosphorylation and decreased phosphorylation of an exogenous substrate. When CD4 is crosslinked to the T-cell antigen receptor-CD3 complex, decreased phosphorylation of associated substrates is also observed. In spite of this striking inhibition of Lck kinase function, cells expressing the kinase-deficient mutants demonstrate normal or enhanced CD4-dependent antigen responsiveness. These data demonstrate that the level of Lck kinase activity does not correlate with its CD4-associated function and suggest that the kinase activity of Lck may not be required for CD4-mediated signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7505449
Getnet, Derese; Grosso, Joseph F.; Goldberg, Monica V.; Harris, Timothy J.; Yen, Hung-Rong; Bruno, Tullia C.; Durham, Nicholas M.; Hipkiss, Edward L.; Pyle, Kristin J.; Wada, Satoshi; Pan, Fan; Pardoll, Drew M.; Drake, Charles G.
Relative up-regulation of the Ikaros family transcription factor Helios in natural regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been reported by several groups. However, a role for Helios in regulatory T cells has not yet been described. Here, we show that Helios is upregulated in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments indicated that Helios binds to the FoxP3 promoter. These data were further corroborated by experiments showing that knocking-down Helios with siRNA oligonucleotides results in down-regulation of FoxP3. Functionally, we found that suppression of Helios message in CD4+CD25+ T cells significantly attenuates their suppressive function. Taken together, these data suggest that Helios may play an important role in regulatory T cell function and support the concept that Helios may be a novel target to manipulate Treg activity in a clinical setting. PMID:20226531
Li, Dongbei; Li, Haijun; Fu, Haiying; Niu, Kunwei; Guo, Yantong; Guo, Chuan; Sun, Jitong; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei
Autoimmune regulator (Aire) can promote the ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), which leads to the deletion of autoreactive T cells and consequently prevents autoimmune diseases. However, the functions of Aire in the periphery, such as in dendritic cells (DCs), remain unclear. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of Aire-overexpressing DCs (Aire cells) on the functions of CD4⁺ T cells and the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We demonstrated that Aire cells upregulated the mRNA levels of the tolerance-related molecules CD73, Lag3, and FR4 and the apoptosis of CD4⁺ T cells in STZ-T1D mouse-derived splenocytes. Furthermore, following insulin stimulation, Aire cells decreased the number of CD4⁺ IFN-γ⁺ T cells in both STZ-T1D and WT mouse-derived splenocytes and reduced the expression levels of TCR signaling molecules (Ca(2+) and p-ERK) in CD4⁺ T cells. We observed that Aire cells-induced CD4⁺ T cells could delay the development of T1D. In summary, Aire-expressing DCs inhibited TCR signaling pathways and decreased the quantity of CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺ autoreactive T cells. These data suggest a mechanism for Aire in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance and provide a potential method to control autoimmunity by targeting Aire.
Knox, Kenneth S.; Vinton, Carol; Hage, Chadi A.; Kohli, Lisa M.; Twigg, Homer L.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Zwickl, Beth; Waltz, Jeffrey; Goldman, Mitchell; Douek, Daniel C.; Brenchley, Jason M.
The massive depletion of gastrointestinal-tract CD4 T cells is a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV infection. In contrast, the depletion of the lower-respiratory-tract mucosal CD4 T cells as measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is more moderate and similar to the depletion of CD4 T cells observed in peripheral blood (PB). To understand better the dynamics of disease pathogenesis and the potential for the reconstitution of CD4 T cells in the lung and PB following the administration of effective antiretroviral therapy, we studied cell-associated viral loads, CD4 T-cell frequencies, and phenotypic and functional profiles of antigen-specific CD4 T cells from BAL fluid and blood before and after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The major findings to emerge were the following: (i) BAL CD4 T cells are not massively depleted or preferentially infected by HIV compared to levels for PB; (ii) BAL CD4 T cells reconstitute after the initiation of HAART, and their infection frequencies decrease; (iii) BAL CD4 T-cell reconstitution appears to occur via the local proliferation of resident BAL CD4 T cells rather than redistribution; and (iv) BAL CD4 T cells are more polyfunctional than CD4 T cells in blood, and their functional profile is relatively unchanged after the initiation of HAART. Taken together, these data suggest mechanisms for mucosal CD4 T-cell depletion and interventions that might aid in the reconstitution of mucosal CD4 T cells. PMID:20610726
Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Rodrigues, Evandra Strazza; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus related to the chronic neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). CD4(+) T cells activation appears to play a key role on HTLV-1 infection. Here we investigated the expression of genes associated to T cell activation CD3e molecule, epsilon (CD3ɛ), lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK), vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (VAV1), and zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP70) on T lymphocytes of HTLV-1-infected individuals and compared to healthy uninfected individuals (CT). We observed that CD3ɛ, LCK, ZAP70, and VAV1 gene expression were increased in CD4(+) T cells from HAM/TSP group compared to HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients (HAC). Moreover, ZAP70 and VAV1 were also upregulated in HAM/TSP compared to CT group. We detected a positive correlation among all these genes. We also observed that CD3ɛ, LCK, and VAV1 genes had a positive correlation with the proviral load (PVL) and Tax expression. These results suggest that PVL and Tax protein could drive CD3ɛ, LCK, and VAV1 gene expression in CD4(+) T cells, and these genes function on a synchronized way on the CD4(+) T cell activation. The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying T cell receptor signaling pathway is of considerable interest and might lead to new insights into the mechanism of HAM/TSP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Strutt, Tara M; McKinstry, K Kai; Dibble, John P; Winchell, Caylin; Kuang, Yi; Curtis, Jonathan D; Huston, Gail; Dutton, Richard W; Swain, Susan L
Inflammation induced by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns markedly affects subsequent adaptive responses. We asked whether the adaptive immune system can also affect the character and magnitude of innate inflammatory responses. We found that the response of memory, but not naive, CD4(+) T cells enhances production of multiple innate inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IICs) in the lung and that, during influenza infection, this leads to early control of virus. Memory CD4(+) T cell-induced IICs and viral control require cognate antigen recognition and are optimal when memory cells are either T helper type 1 (T(H)1) or T(H)17 polarized but are independent of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production and do not require activation of conserved pathogen recognition pathways. This represents a previously undescribed mechanism by which memory CD4(+) T cells induce an early innate response that enhances immune protection against pathogens.
Li, Jinzhu; Ridgway, William; Fathman, C. Garrison; Tse, Harley Y.; Shaw, Michael K.
Analysis of T regulatory cells (Treg) and T effector cells (Teff) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is complicated by the fact that both cell types express CD4 and CD25. We demonstrate that encephalitogenic T cells, following antigen recognition, up regulate cell surface expression of CD4. The CD4high sub-population contains all of the antigen response as shown by proliferation and cytokine secretion, and only these cells are capable of transferring EAE to naive animals. On the other hand, a FACS separable CD25+ sub-population of cells displayed consistent levels of CD4 prior to and after antigen stimulation. These cells displayed characteristics of Treg, such as expressing high levels of the Foxp3 gene and the ability to suppress mitogenic T cell responses. PMID:17920698
Ozias, Marlies K; Li, Shengqi; Hull, Holly R; Brooks, William M; Petroff, Margaret G; Carlson, Susan E
Women with pre-gravid obesity are at risk for pregnancy complications. While the macrophage response of obese pregnant women categorized by body mass index (BMI) has been documented, the relationship between the peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profile and body fat compartments during pregnancy is unknown. In this study, third trimester peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profiles were measured in healthy pregnant women [n=35; pre-pregnancy BMI: 18.5-40]. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated to examine their capacity to generate cytokines. Between 1 and 3weeks postpartum, total body fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat masses were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Pearson's correlation was performed to assess relationships between cytokines and fat mass. Results showed that greater abdominal visceral fat mass was associated with a decrease in stimulated CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression. IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-17A were inversely related to visceral fat mass. Chemokines CCL3 and IL-8 and growth factors G-CSF and FLT-3L were also inversely correlated. Additionally, total body fat mass was inversely correlated with FGF-2 while abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and BMI were unrelated to any CD4(+) T cell cytokine. In conclusion, lower responsiveness of CD4(+) T cell cytokines associated with abdominal visceral fat mass is a novel finding late in gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Lin-yuan; Jin, Ying; Lin, Xiao-ping
To compare the expression of CD(4+) T cells in mice periodontitis induced by two periodontal pathogen strains, and evaluate the role of CD(4+) T cells in periodontitis. Twelve C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups at random including sham-infected, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) W83-infected and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277-infected groups. All mice were sacrificed at the 4th week after the last infection. The analysis of alveolar bone resorption and the examination of histological staining were performed. The population of CD(4+) T cells in the gingivae and the cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) were analyzed by flow cytometry. SPSS 11.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The levels of alveolar bone resorption were significantly high in both P. gingivalis W83-infected and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277-infected mice compared to sham-infected mice. Histological staining showed that the loss of periodontal attachment and osteoclasts-mediated alveolar bone resorption were found in both P. gingivalis W83-infected and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277-infected mice. Moreover, the periodontal destruction was severer in P. gingivalis W83-infected mice than in P. gingivalis ATCC 33277-infected mice. Flow cytometry showed that the percentage of CD(4+) T cells in the gingivae and CLNs in both P. gingivalis W83-infected and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277-infected mice were significantly higher than that in sham mice, and P. gingivalis W83-infected mice had a higher percentage of CD(4+) T cells compared to P. gingivalis ATCC 33277-infected mice. The population of CD(4+) T cells participates in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, and closely correlates with the periodontal destruction induced by periodontal pathogen infection. Supported by Higher School Specialized Research Fund for Doctoral Program(20112104110013) and Science and Technology Plan of Liaoning Province(2012225015).
Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Ashley R.; Cooney, Craig A.; Reisfeld, Brad; Blossom, Sarah J.
Previous studies have shown that short-term (4 weeks) or chronic (32 weeks) exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) in drinking water of female MRL+/+ mice generated CD4+ T cells that secreted increased levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and expressed an activated (CD44hiCD62Llo) phenotype. In contrast, the current study of subchronic TCE exposure showed that midway in the disease process both of these parameters of CD4+ T cell activation were reversed. This phase of the disease process may represent an attempt by the body to counteract the inflammatory effects of TCE. The decrease in CD4+ T cell production of IFN-γ following subchronic TCE exposure could not be attributed to skewing toward a Th2 or Th17 phenotype or to an increase in Treg cells. Instead, the suppression corresponded to alterations in markers used to assess DNA methylation, namely increased expression of retrotransposons Iap (intracisternal A particle) and Muerv (murine endogenous retrovirus). Also observed was an increase in the expression of Dnmt1 (DNA methyltransferase-1) and decreased expression of several genes known to be downregulated by DNA methylation, namely Ifng, Il2, and Cdkn1a. CD4+ T cells from a second study in which MRL+/+ mice were treated for 17 weeks with TCE showed a similar increase in Iap and decrease in Cdkn1a. In addition, DNA collected from the CD4+ T cells in the second study showed TCE-decreased global DNA methylation. Thus, these results described the biphasic nature of TCE-induced alterations in CD4+ T cell function and suggested that these changes represented potentially reversible alterations in epigenetic processes. PMID:22407948
Ramberger, Melanie; Högl, Birgit; Stefani, Ambra; Mitterling, Thomas; Reindl, Markus; Lutterotti, Andreas
Narcolepsy type 1 is accompanied by a selective loss of orexin/hypocretin (hcrt) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus caused by yet unknown mechanisms. Epidemiologic and genetic associations strongly suggest an immune-mediated pathogenesis of the disease. We compared specific T-cell reactivity to orexin/hcrt peptides in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of narcolepsy type 1 patients to healthy controls by a carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester proliferation assay. Orexin/hcrt-specific T-cell reactivity was also determined by cytokine (interferon gamma and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) analysis. Individuals were considered as responders if the cell division index of CD3+CD4+ T cells and both stimulation indices of cytokine secretion exceeded the cutoff 3. Additionally, T-cell reactivity to orexin/hcrt had to be confirmed by showing reactivity to single peptides present in different peptide pools. Using these criteria, 3/15 patients (20%) and 0/13 controls (0%) showed orexin/hcrt-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation (p = .2262). The heterogeneous reactivity pattern did not allow the identification of a preferential target epitope. A significant role of orexin/hcrt-specific T cells in narcolepsy type 1 patients could not be confirmed in this study. Further studies are needed to assess the exact role of CD4+ T cells and possible target antigens in narcolepsy type 1 patients.
Landay, A; Ho, J L; Hom, D; Russell, T; Zwerner, R; Minuty, J G; Kataaha, P; Mmiro, F; Jackson, B
Clinicians took blood samples from 294 HIV-1 seropositive patients and 88 HIV-1 seronegative patients at Cornell University Medical College and The New York Hospital in New York City, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago, and Makerere University Medical school in Kampala, Uganda, to assess a manual method's (Cytosphere) ability to accurately determine the CD4+ T-cell count. The Cytosphere assay uses latex beads coated with CD4 antibody which are combined with anticoagulated whole blood followed by red cell lysis. A hemacytometer then counts the bead-coated cells. The average technologist only needs 1-3 days of training (20 CD4 practice assays/days) in the Cytosphere assay. The minimal equipment required for the assay are a pipette, a hemacytometer, and a light microscope. The lysing agent inactivates HIV-1. The overall correlation between the standard flow cytometry method and the Cytosphere assay stood at 0.912 and was significant (p .001). When the researchers stratified the samples based on CD4+ T-cell counts defined by flow cytometry, the predictive values of the Cytosphere assay for correctly identifying patients with CD4 T-cell counts greater or less than 200 x 1 million/1 were 96% and 92%, respectively. These findings suggested that the Cytosphere assay has the potential to quantify CD4 cells in the limited laboratories in developing countries. Larger longitudinal studies of HIV seropositive people in developing countries are needed to test the reliability and reproducibility of the assay.
Coler, Rhea N; Hudson, Thomas; Hughes, Sean; Huang, Po-Wei D; Beebe, Elyse A; Orr, Mark T
The discovery of new vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer requires the development of novel adjuvants with well-defined activities. The TLR4 agonist adjuvant GLA-SE elicits robust Th1 responses to a variety of vaccine Ags and is in clinical development for both infectious diseases and cancer. We demonstrate that immunization with a recombinant protein Ag and GLA-SE also induces granzyme A expression in CD4 T cells and produces cytolytic cells that can be detected in vivo. Surprisingly, these in vivo CTLs were CD4 T cells, not CD8 T cells, and this cytolytic activity was not dependent on granzyme A/B or perforin. Unlike previously reported CD4 CTLs, the transcription factors Tbet and Eomes were not necessary for their development. CTL activity was also independent of the Fas ligand-Fas, TRAIL-DR5, and canonical death pathways, indicating a novel mechanism of CTL activity. Rather, the in vivo CD4 CTL activity induced by vaccination required T cell expression of CD154 (CD40L) and target cell expression of CD40. Thus, vaccination with a TLR4 agonist adjuvant induces CD4 CTLs, which kill through a previously unknown CD154-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Issuree, Priya D. A.; Ng, Charles P.; Littman, Dan R.
The adaptive immune system is dependent on functionally distinct lineages of T cell antigen receptor αβ-expressing T cells that differentiate from a common progenitor in the thymus. CD4+CD8+ progenitor thymocytes undergo selection following interaction with MHC class I and class II molecules bearing peptide self-antigens, giving rise to CD8+ cytotoxic and CD4+ helper or regulatory T cell lineages, respectively. The strict correspondence of CD4 and CD8 expression with distinct cellular phenotypes has made their genes useful surrogates for investigating molecular mechanisms of lineage commitment. Studies of Cd4 and Cd8 transcriptional regulation have uncovered cis-regulatory elements that are critical for mediating epigenetic modifications at distinct stages of development to establish heritable transcriptional programs. In this review, we examine the epigenetic mechanisms involved in Cd4 and Cd8 gene regulation during T cell lineage specification and highlight the features that make this an attractive system for uncovering molecular mechanisms of heritability. PMID:28382035
de la Rua, Nicholas M; Samuelson, Derrick R; Charles, Tysheena P; Welsh, David A; Shellito, Judd E
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients, especially in the context of HIV/AIDS. In the murine model of Pneumocystis pneumonia, CD4(+) T-cells are required for clearance of a primary infection of Pneumocystis, but not the memory recall response. We hypothesized that the memory recall response in the absence of CD4(+) T-cells is mediated by a robust memory humoral response, CD8(+) T-cells, and IgG-mediated phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. To investigate the role of CD8(+) T-cells and alveolar macrophages in the immune memory response to Pneumocystis, mice previously challenged with Pneumocystis were depleted of CD8(+) T-cells or alveolar macrophages prior to re-infection. Mice depleted of CD4(+) T-cells prior to secondary challenge cleared Pneumocystis infection within 48 h identical to immunocompetent mice during a secondary memory recall response. However, loss of CD8(+) T-cells or macrophages prior to the memory recall response significantly impaired Pneumocystis clearance. Specifically, mice depleted of CD8(+) T-cells or alveolar macrophages had significantly higher fungal burden in the lungs. Furthermore, loss of alveolar macrophages significantly skewed the lung CD8(+) T-cell response toward a terminally differentiated effector memory population and increased the percentage of IFN-γ(+) CD8(+) T-cells. Finally, Pneumocystis-infected animals produced significantly more bone marrow plasma cells and Pneumocystis-specific IgG significantly increased macrophage-mediated killing of Pneumocystis in vitro. These data suggest that secondary immune memory responses to Pneumocystis are mediated, in part, by CD8(+) T-cells, alveolar macrophages, and the production of Pneumocystis-specific IgG.
de la Rua, Nicholas M.; Samuelson, Derrick R.; Charles, Tysheena P.; Welsh, David A.; Shellito, Judd E.
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients, especially in the context of HIV/AIDS. In the murine model of Pneumocystis pneumonia, CD4+ T-cells are required for clearance of a primary infection of Pneumocystis, but not the memory recall response. We hypothesized that the memory recall response in the absence of CD4+ T-cells is mediated by a robust memory humoral response, CD8+ T-cells, and IgG-mediated phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. To investigate the role of CD8+ T-cells and alveolar macrophages in the immune memory response to Pneumocystis, mice previously challenged with Pneumocystis were depleted of CD8+ T-cells or alveolar macrophages prior to re-infection. Mice depleted of CD4+ T-cells prior to secondary challenge cleared Pneumocystis infection within 48 h identical to immunocompetent mice during a secondary memory recall response. However, loss of CD8+ T-cells or macrophages prior to the memory recall response significantly impaired Pneumocystis clearance. Specifically, mice depleted of CD8+ T-cells or alveolar macrophages had significantly higher fungal burden in the lungs. Furthermore, loss of alveolar macrophages significantly skewed the lung CD8+ T-cell response toward a terminally differentiated effector memory population and increased the percentage of IFN-γ+ CD8+ T-cells. Finally, Pneumocystis-infected animals produced significantly more bone marrow plasma cells and Pneumocystis-specific IgG significantly increased macrophage-mediated killing of Pneumocystis in vitro. These data suggest that secondary immune memory responses to Pneumocystis are mediated, in part, by CD8+ T-cells, alveolar macrophages, and the production of Pneumocystis-specific IgG. PMID:27242785
Haines, Christopher J.; Giffon, Thierry D.; Lu, Li-Sheng; Lu, Xiaowei; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Ross, Douglas T.
CD4+ recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) comprise a clinically and immunologically important T cell population that indicates thymic output and that is essential for maintaining a diverse αβ–T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of the naive CD4+ T cell compartment. However, their frequency and function are poorly understood because no known surface markers distinguish them from older non-RTE naive CD4+ T cells. We demonstrate that protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) is a novel marker for human CD4+ RTEs. Consistent with their recent thymic origin, human PTK7+ RTEs contained higher levels of signal joint TCR gene excision circles and were more responsive to interleukin (IL)-7 compared with PTK7− naive CD4+ T cells, and rapidly decreased after complete thymectomy. Importantly, CD4+ RTEs proliferated less and produced less IL-2 and interferon-γ than PTK7− naive CD4+ T cells after αβ-TCR/CD3 and CD28 engagement. This immaturity in CD4+ RTE effector function may contribute to the reduced CD4+ T cell immunity observed in contexts in which CD4+ RTEs predominate, such as in the fetus and neonate or after immune reconstitution. The ability to identify viable CD4+ RTEs by PTK7 staining should be useful for monitoring thymic output in both healthy individuals and in patients with genetic or acquired CD4+ T cell immunodeficiencies. PMID:19171767
Dong, Lichun; Russell, Ronnie M.; Barlow, Russell S.; Haas, Juergen G.; Ramchandani, Meena S.; Johnston, Christine; Buus, Soren; Redwood, Alec J.; White, Katie D.; Mallal, Simon A.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Posavad, Christine M.; Wald, Anna; Koelle, David M.
The alphaherpesvirinae subfamily includes HSV types 1 and 2 and the sequence-divergent pathogen varicella zoster virus (VZV). T cells, controlled by TCR and HLA molecules that tolerate limited epitope amino acid variation, might cross-react between these microbes. We show that memory PBMC expansion with either HSV or VZV enriches for CD4 T cell lines that recognize the other agent at the whole virus, protein, and peptide levels, consistent with bi-directional cross-reactivity. HSV-specific CD4 T cells recovered from HSV seronegative persons can be partially explained by such VZV cross-reactivity. HSV-1-reactive CD8 T cells also cross-react with VZV-infected cells, full-length VZV proteins, and VZV peptides, and kill VZV-infected dermal fibroblasts. Mono- and cross-reactive CD8 T cells use distinct TCRB CDR3 sequences. Cross-reactivity to VZV is reconstituted by cloning and expressing TCRA/TCRB receptors from T-cells that are initially isolated using HSV reagents. Overall, we define 13 novel CD4 and CD8 HSV-VZV cross-reactive epitopes and strongly imply additional cross-reactive peptide sets. Viral proteins can harbor both CD4 and CD8 HSV/VZV cross-reactive epitopes. Quantitative estimates of HSV/VZV cross-reactivity for both CD4 and CD8 T cells vary from 10-50%. Based on these findings, we hypothesize host herpesvirus immune history may influence the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of subsequent infections or vaccinations for related pathogens, and that cross-reactive epitopes and TCRs may be useful for multi-alphaherpesvirus vaccine design and adoptive cellular therapy. PMID:26810224
Walsh, James T; Hendrix, Sven; Boato, Francesco; Smirnov, Igor; Zheng, Jingjing; Lukens, John R; Gadani, Sachin; Hechler, Daniel; Gölz, Greta; Rosenberger, Karen; Kammertöns, Thomas; Vogt, Johannes; Vogelaar, Christina; Siffrin, Volker; Radjavi, Ali; Fernandez-Castaneda, Anthony; Gaultier, Alban; Gold, Ralf; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Nitsch, Robert; Zipp, Frauke; Kipnis, Jonathan
A body of experimental evidence suggests that T cells mediate neuroprotection following CNS injury; however, the antigen specificity of these T cells and how they mediate neuroprotection are unknown. Here, we have provided evidence that T cell-mediated neuroprotection after CNS injury can occur independently of major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) signaling to T cell receptors (TCRs). Using two murine models of CNS injury, we determined that damage-associated molecular mediators that originate from injured CNS tissue induce a population of neuroprotective, IL-4-producing T cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Compared with wild-type mice, IL-4-deficient animals had decreased functional recovery following CNS injury; however, transfer of CD4+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not from IL-4-deficient mice, enhanced neuronal survival. Using a culture-based system, we determined that T cell-derived IL-4 protects and induces recovery of injured neurons by activation of neuronal IL-4 receptors, which potentiated neurotrophin signaling via the AKT and MAPK pathways. Together, these findings demonstrate that damage-associated molecules from the injured CNS induce a neuroprotective T cell response that is independent of MHCII/TCR interactions and is MyD88 dependent. Moreover, our results indicate that IL-4 mediates neuroprotection and recovery of the injured CNS and suggest that strategies to enhance IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells have potential to attenuate axonal damage in the course of CNS injury in trauma, inflammation, or neurodegeneration.
Wolf, Kyle J; Emerson, Ryan O; Pingel, Jeanette; Buller, R Mark; DiPaolo, Richard J
Results from studies comparing the diversity and specificity of the TCR repertoires expressed by conventional (Tconv) and regulatory (Treg) CD4+ T cell have varied depending on the experimental system employed. We developed a new model in which T cells express a single fixed TCRα chain, randomly rearranged endogenous TCRβ chains, and a Foxp3-GFP reporter. We purified CD4+Foxp3- and CD4+Foxp3+ cells, then performed biased controlled multiplex PCR and high throughput sequencing of endogenous TCRβ chains. We identified >7,000 different TCRβ sequences in the periphery of 5 individual mice. On average, ~12% of TCR sequences were expressed by both conventional and regulatory populations within individual mice. The CD4+ T cells that expressed shared TCR sequences were present at higher frequencies compared to T cells expressing non-shared TCRs. Furthermore, nearly all (>90%) of the TCR sequences that were shared within mice were identical at the DNA sequence level, indicating that conventional and regulatory T cells that express shared TCRs are derived from common clones. Analysis of TCR repertoire overlap in the thymus reveals that a large proportion of Tconv and Treg sharing observed in the periphery is due to clonal expansion in the thymus. Together these data show that there are a limited number of TCR sequences shared between Tconv and Tregs. Also, Tconv and Tregs sharing identical TCRs are found at relatively high frequencies and are derived from common progenitors, of which a large portion are generated in the thymus.
Soares, Andreia P; Kwong Chung, Cheong K C; Choice, Terry; Hughes, E Jane; Jacobs, Gail; van Rensburg, Esme Janse; Khomba, Gloria; de Kock, Marwou; Lerumo, Lesedi; Makhethe, Lebohang; Maneli, Mbulelo H; Pienaar, Bernadette; Smit, Erica; Tena-Coki, Nontobeko G; van Wyk, Leandre; Boom, W Henry; Kaplan, Gilla; Scriba, Thomas J; Hanekom, Willem A
Improved vaccination strategies against tuberculosis are needed, such as approaches to boost immunity induced by the current vaccine, BCG. Design of these strategies has been hampered by a lack of knowledge of the kinetics of the human host response induced by neonatal BCG vaccination. Furthermore, the functional and phenotypic attributes of BCG-induced long-lived memory T-cell responses remain unclear. We assessed the longitudinal CD4 T-cell response following BCG vaccination of human newborns. The kinetics, function, and phenotype of these cells were measured using flow cytometric whole-blood assays. We showed that the BCG-specific CD4 T-cell response peaked 6-10 weeks after vaccination and gradually waned over the first year of life. Highly activated T-helper 1 cells, predominantly expressing interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, and/or interleukin 2, were present at the peak response. Following contraction, BCG-specific CD4 T cells expressed high levels of Bcl-2 and displayed a predominant CD45RACCR7 central memory phenotype. However, cytokine and cytotoxic marker expression by these cells was more characteristic of effector memory cells. Our findings suggest that boosting of BCG-primed CD4 T cells with heterologous tuberculosis vaccines may be best after 14 weeks of age, once an established memory response has developed.
Soares, Andreia P.; Kwong Chung, Cheong K. C.; Choice, Terry; Hughes, E. Jane; Jacobs, Gail; van Rensburg, Esme Janse; Khomba, Gloria; de Kock, Marwou; Lerumo, Lesedi; Makhethe, Lebohang; Maneli, Mbulelo H.; Pienaar, Bernadette; Smit, Erica; Tena-Coki, Nontobeko G.; van Wyk, Leandre; Boom, W. Henry; Kaplan, Gilla; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hanekom, Willem A.
Background. Improved vaccination strategies against tuberculosis are needed, such as approaches to boost immunity induced by the current vaccine, BCG. Design of these strategies has been hampered by a lack of knowledge of the kinetics of the human host response induced by neonatal BCG vaccination. Furthermore, the functional and phenotypic attributes of BCG-induced long-lived memory T-cell responses remain unclear. Methods. We assessed the longitudinal CD4+ T-cell response following BCG vaccination of human newborns. The kinetics, function, and phenotype of these cells were measured using flow cytometric whole-blood assays. Results. We showed that the BCG-specific CD4+ T-cell response peaked 6–10 weeks after vaccination and gradually waned over the first year of life. Highly activated T-helper 1 cells, predominantly expressing interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, and/or interleukin 2, were present at the peak response. Following contraction, BCG-specific CD4+ T cells expressed high levels of Bcl-2 and displayed a predominant CD45RA–CCR7+ central memory phenotype. However, cytokine and cytotoxic marker expression by these cells was more characteristic of effector memory cells. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that boosting of BCG-primed CD4+ T cells with heterologous tuberculosis vaccines may be best after 14 weeks of age, once an established memory response has developed. PMID:23293360
Wang, Shu; Mao, Chaoming; Zhao, Zefei; Gu, Qiaoli; Jin, Min; Xiao, Yichuan; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yongju; Zhang, Yanyun; Ning, Guang
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-expression in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may control autoimmune responses by depleting the available tryptophan, whereas tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TTS) may counteract this effect. The study aims to determine whether abnormal IDO and TTS activities in autoreactive T, B and dendritic cells (DCs) lead to tryptophan metabolism disorder, inducing the immune imbalance in patients with Graves' disease (GD). The concentrations of serum kynurenine and tryptophan and the mRNA expressions of IDO and TTS were analyzed, and the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) was employed to assess the interaction of IDO-expressing DCs and TTS-expressing CD4(+) T cells. Compared with healthy donors (HD), the ratio of serum kynurenine to tryptophan (P < 0.0001) was increased in GD patients, which was associated with the increased IDO expression in B cells (P < 0.01) and DCs (P < 0.01). GD-derived CD4(+) T cells enhanced TTS expression (P < 0.01), and its proliferation was not inhibited in the presence of IDO-expressing DCs from the GD patients. In contrast, the proliferation of HD-derived CD4(+) T cells with low TTS expression was inhibited. Increased TTS expression from CD4(+) T cells resists IDO-mediated immunosuppression from DCs, which might link to a pathogenic mechanism involved in autoreactive T cells being sustained in vivo in GD patients.
Secor, Eric R.; Singh, Anurag; Guernsey, Linda A.; McNamara, Jeff T.; Zhan, Lijun; Maulik, Nilanjana; Thrall, Roger S.
Bromelain (Br), an extract from pineapple stem with cysteine protease activity, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a number of inflammatory models. We have previously shown that Br treatment decreased activated CD4+ T cells and has a therapeutic role in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease. The current study was designed to determine the effect of Br on CD4+ T cell activation, specifically the expression of CD25 in vitro. CD25 is up regulated upon T cell activation, found as a soluble fraction (sCD25) and is a therapeutic target in inflammation, autoimmunity and allergy. Br treatment of anti-CD3 stimulated CD4+ T cells reduced CD25 expression in a dose and time dependent manner. This reduction of CD25 was dependent on the proteolytic action of Br as the addition of E64 (a cysteine protease inhibitor) abrogated this response. The concentration of sCD25 was increased in supernatants of Br treated activated CD4+ T cells as compared to control cells, suggesting that Br proteolytically cleaved cell-surface CD25. This novel mechanism of action identifies how Br may exert its therapeutic benefits in inflammatory conditions. PMID:19162239
Sant, Andrea J.; Chaves, Francisco A.; Leddon, Scott A.; Tung, Jacqueline
It has been known for over 25 years that CD4 T cell responses are restricted to a finite number of peptide epitopes within pathogens or protein vaccines. These selected peptide epitopes are termed “immunodominant.” Other peptides within the antigen that can bind to host MHC molecules and recruit CD4 T cells as single peptides are termed “cryptic” because they fail to induce responses when expressed in complex proteins or when in competition with other peptides during the immune response. In the last decade, our laboratory has evaluated the mechanisms that underlie the preferential specificity of CD4 T cells and have discovered that both intracellular events within antigen presenting cells, particular selective DM editing, and intercellular regulatory pathways, involving IFN-γ, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and regulatory T cells, play a role in selecting the final peptide specificity of CD4 T cells. In this review, we summarize our findings, discuss the implications of this work on responses to pathogens and vaccines and speculate on the logic of these regulatory events. PMID:24167504
Secor, Eric R; Singh, Anurag; Guernsey, Linda A; McNamara, Jeff T; Zhan, Lijun; Maulik, Nilanjana; Thrall, Roger S
Bromelain (Br), an extract from pineapple stem with cysteine protease activity, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a number of inflammatory models. We have previously shown that Br treatment decreased activated CD4(+) T cells and has a therapeutic role in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease. The current study was designed to determine the effect of Br on CD4(+) T cell activation, specifically the expression of CD25 in vitro. CD25 is up regulated upon T cell activation, found as a soluble fraction (sCD25) and is a therapeutic target in inflammation, autoimmunity and allergy. Br treatment of anti-CD3 stimulated CD4(+) T cells reduced CD25 expression in a dose and time dependent manner. This reduction of CD25 was dependent on the proteolytic action of Br as the addition of E64 (a cysteine protease inhibitor) abrogated this response. The concentration of sCD25 was increased in supernatants of Br treated activated CD4(+) T cells as compared to control cells, suggesting that Br proteolytically cleaved cell-surface CD25. This novel mechanism of action identifies how Br may exert its therapeutic benefits in inflammatory conditions.
Cheng, Li-Sha; Liu, Yun; Jiang, Wei
Immune-mediated liver injury is widely seen during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Unsuccessful immune clearance of HBV results in chronic hepatitis and increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV-related liver fibrosis (HBVLF), occurring as a result of HBV-induced chronic hepatitis, is a reversible, intermediate stage of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and liver cirrhosis. Therefore, defining the pathogenesis of HBVLF is of practical significance for achieving better clinical outcomes. Recently, the homeostasis of CD4+ T cells was considered to be pivotal in the process of HBVLF. To better uncover the underlying mechanisms, in this review, we systematically retrospect the impacts of different CD4+ T-cell subsets on CHB and HBVLF. We emphasize CD4+ T-cell homeostasis and the important balance between regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells. We discuss some cytokines associated with Treg and Th17 cells such as interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, IL-21, IL-23, IL-10, IL-35 and IL-33, as well as surface molecules such as programmed cell death protein 1, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 and cannabinoid receptor 2 that have potential therapeutic implications for the homeostasis of CD4+ T cells in CHB and HBVLF. PMID:26478664
Gossel, Graeme; Hogan, Thea; Cownden, Daniel
Characterising the longevity of immunological memory requires establishing the rules underlying the renewal and death of peripheral T cells. However, we lack knowledge of the population structure and how self-renewal and de novo influx contribute to the maintenance of memory compartments. Here, we characterise the kinetics and structure of murine CD4 T cell memory subsets by measuring the rates of influx of new cells and using detailed timecourses of DNA labelling that also distinguish the behaviour of recently divided and quiescent cells. We find that both effector and central memory CD4 T cells comprise subpopulations with highly divergent rates of turnover, and show that inflows of new cells sourced from the naive pool strongly impact estimates of memory cell lifetimes and division rates. We also demonstrate that the maintenance of CD4 T cell memory subsets in healthy mice is unexpectedly and strikingly reliant on this replenishment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23013.001 PMID:28282024
Soerens, Andrew G.; Da Costa, Andreia; Lund, Jennifer M.
Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) limit autoimmunity and immunopathology using a variety of suppressive mechanisms, but their roles during pathogen-directed immune responses remain unclear. Following Herpes Simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection, mice lacking Tregs fail to control viral replication, pointing to a role for Tregs in facilitating productive immune responses. Using adoptive transfer of TCR transgenic CD4 T-cells into Treg-sufficient or Treg-depleted mice prior to HSV-2 infection, we found that Tregs are required for timely accumulation of HSV-2-specific CD4 T-cells within the infected tissues. Further, Tregs are critical for appropriate trafficking of dendritic cells (DCs) from the vaginal mucosa to the dLN, which results in fully effective CD4 T-cell priming, activation, and ultimately migration to the infected tissues. Using CTLA-4 conditional knockout mice, we demonstrate that Tregs impact DC migration through a CTLA-4-mediated mechanism. Together, our data highlight the critical role of Tregs in proper potentiation of adaptive immune responses to microbial infection. PMID:27007674
Yu, Si-fei; Zhang, Yan-nan; Yang, Bin-yan; Wu, Chang-you
We found that after stimulation for a few hours, memory but not naive CD4(+) T cells produced a large amount of IFN-γ; however, the mechanism of rapid response of memory CD4(+) T cells remains undefined. We compared the expression of transcription factors in resting or activated naive and memory CD4(+) T cells and found that T-bet, but not pSTAT-1 or pSTAT-4, was highly expressed in resting memory CD4(+) T cells and that phenotypic characteristics of T-bet(+)CD4(+) T cells were CD45RA(low)CD62L(low) CCR7(low). After short-term stimulation, purified memory CD4(+) T cells rapidly produced effector cytokines that were closely associated with the pre-existence of T-bet. By contrast, resting naive CD4(+) T cells did not express T-bet, and they produced cytokines only after sustained stimulation. Our further studies indicated that T-bet was expressed in the nuclei of resting memory CD4(+) T cells, which might have important implications for rapid IFN-γ production. Our results indicate that the pre-existence and nuclear mobilization of T-bet in resting memory CD4(+) T cells might be a possible transcriptional mechanism for rapid production of cytokines by human memory CD4(+) T cells.
Introduction CD25+ FOXP3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are induced by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and further expanded by retinoic acid (RA). We have previously shown that this process was defective in T cells from lupus-prone mice expressing the novel isoform of the Pbx1 gene, Pbx1-d. This study tested the hypothesis that CD4+ T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibited similar defects in Treg induction in response to TGFβ and RA, and that PBX1-d expression is associated with this defect. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 142 SLE patients and 83 healthy controls (HCs). The frequency of total, memory and naïve CD4+ T cells was measured by flow cytometry on fresh cells. PBX1 isoform expression in purified CD4+ T cells was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PBMCs were stimulated for three days with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 in the presence or absence of TGFβ and RA. The expression of CD25 and FOXP3 on CD4+ T cells was then determined by flow cytometry. In vitro suppression assays were performed with sorted CD25+ and CD25- FOXP3+ T cells. CD4+ T cell subsets or their expansion were compared between patients and HCs with two-tailed Mann-Whitney tests and correlations between the frequencies of two subsets were tested with Spearman tests. Results The percentage of CD25- FOXP3+ CD4+ (CD25- Tregs) T cells was greater in SLE patients than in HCs, but these cells, contrary to their matched CD25+ counterparts, did not show a suppressive activity. RA-expansion of TGFβ-induced CD25+ Tregs was significantly lower in SLE patients than in HCs, although SLE Tregs expanded significantly more than HCs in response to either RA or TGFβ alone. Defective responses were also observed for the SLE CD25- Tregs and CD25+ FOXP3- activated CD4+ T cells as compared to controls. PBX1-d expression did not affect Treg induction, but it significantly reduced the expansion of CD25- Tregs
Brown, Deborah M.; Lampe, Anna T.; Workman, Aspen M.
CD4 T cells that recognize peptide antigen in the context of class II MHC can differentiate into various subsets that are characterized by their helper functions. However, increasing evidence indicates that CD4 cells with direct cytolytic activity (CD4 CTL) play a role in chronic as well as acute infections, such as influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In the last couple of decades, techniques to measure the frequency and activity of these cytolytic cells has demonstrated their abundance in infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus, mouse pox, murine gamma herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, and influenza among others. We now appreciate a greater role for CD4 CTL as direct effectors in viral infections and antitumor immunity through their ability to acquire perforin-mediated cytolytic activity and contribution to lysis of virally infected targets or tumors. As early as the 1980s, CD4 T cell clones with cytolytic potential were identified after influenza virus infection, yet much of this early work was dependent on in vitro culture and little was known about the physiological relevance of CD4 CTL. Here, we discuss the direct role CD4 CTL play in protection against lethal IAV infection and the factors that drive the generation of perforin-mediated lytic activity in CD4 cells in vivo during IAV infection. While focusing on CD4 CTL generated during IAV infection, we pull comparisons from the literature in other antiviral and antitumor systems. Further, we highlight what is currently known about CD4 CTL secondary and memory responses, as well as vaccination strategies to induce these potent killer cells that provide an extra layer of cell-mediated immune protection against heterosubtypic IAV infection. PMID:27014272
Heiligenhaus, A; Berra, A; Foster, C S
T lymphocytes are critical in mediating herpes simplex stromal keratitis (HSK). Using immunohistologic methods, we studied the T cell subsets and the T cell receptor variable region (TCR V beta) repertoire of T cells in the eye after corneal infection with HSV (KOS strain). We investigated the possibility that there might be differential V beta preferential usage in HSK resistant and susceptible BALB/c congenic mice that differ only in a small region associated with the Igh-1 gene locus. The inflamed corneas of HSK susceptible C.AL-20 mice were mainly infiltrated by CD4+ cells and by V beta 8 expressing cells. Such T cells were not seen in the corneas of resistant C.B-17 mice. Our results indicate that CD4+V beta 8+ cells are involved in mediating HSV-1 stromal keratitis.
Drummond, R A; Dambuza, I M; Vautier, S; Taylor, J A; Reid, D M; Bain, C C; Underhill, D M; Masopust, D; Kaplan, D H; Brown, G D
Dectin-1 is an innate antifungal C-type lectin receptor necessary for protective antifungal immunity. We recently discovered that Dectin-1 is involved in controlling fungal infections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but how this C-type lectin receptor mediates these activities is unknown. Here, we show that Dectin-1 is essential for driving fungal-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in the GI tract. Loss of Dectin-1 resulted in abrogated dendritic cell responses in the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and defective T-cell co-stimulation, causing substantial increases in CD4+ T-cell apoptosis and reductions in the cellularity of GI-associated lymphoid tissues. CD8+ T-cell responses were unaffected by Dectin-1 deficiency. These functions of Dectin-1 have significant implications for our understanding of intestinal immunity and susceptibility to fungal infections. PMID:26349660
Ziegler, Hendrik; Welker, Christian; Sterk, Marco; Haarer, Jan; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Handgretinger, Rupert; Schilbach, Karin
The lifelong generation of αβT cells enables us to continuously build immunity against pathogens and malignancies despite the loss of thymic function with age. Homeostatic proliferation of post-thymic naïve and memory T cells and their transition into effector and long-lived memory cells balance the decreasing output of naïve T cells, and recent research suggests that also αβT-cell development independent from the thymus may occur. However, the sites and mechanisms of extrathymic T-cell development are not yet understood in detail. γδT cells represent a small fraction of the overall T-cell pool, and are endowed with tremendous phenotypic and functional plasticity. γδT cells that express the Vδ1 gene segment are a minor population in human peripheral blood but predominate in epithelial (and inflamed) tissues. Here, we characterize a CD4+ peripheral Vδ1+ γδT-cell subpopulation that expresses stem-cell and progenitor markers and is able to develop into functional αβT cells ex vivo in a simple culture system and in vivo. The route taken by this process resembles thymic T-cell development. However, it involves the re-organization of the Vδ1+ γδTCR into the αβTCR as a consequence of TCR-γ chain downregulation and the expression of surface Vδ1+Vβ+ TCR components, which we believe function as surrogate pre-TCR. This transdifferentiation process is readily detectable in vivo in inflamed tissue. Our study provides a conceptual framework for extrathymic T-cell development and opens up a new vista in immunology that requires adaptive immune responses in infection, autoimmunity, and cancer to be reconsidered. PMID:25709606
Besançon, Alix; Baas, Marije; Goncalves, Tania; Valette, Fabrice; Waldmann, Herman; Chatenoud, Lucienne; You, Sylvaine
Therapeutic tolerance to self-antigens or foreign antigens is thought to depend on constant vigilance by Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Previous work using a pancreatic islet allograft model and a short pulse of CD3 antibody therapy has shown that CD8+ T cells become anergic and use TGFβ and coinhibitory signaling as their contribution to the tolerance process. Here, we examine the role of CD4+ T cells in tolerization by CD3 antibodies. We show that both Foxp3+ Tregs and CD4+ T cell anergy play a role in the induction of tolerance and its maintenance. Foxp3+ Tregs resisted CD3 antibody-mediated depletion, unlike intragraft Th1 CD4+ lymphocytes coexpressing granzyme B and Tbx21, which were selectively eliminated. Tregs were mandatory for induction of tolerance as their depletion at the time of CD3 antibody therapy or for a short time thereafter, by an antibody to CD25 (PC61), led to graft rejection. Early treatment with CTLA-4 antibody gave the same outcome. In contrast, neither PC61 nor anti-CTLA-4 given late, at day 100 posttransplant, reversed tolerance once established. Ablation of Foxp3 T cells after diphtheria toxin injection in tolerant Foxp3DTR recipient mice provided the same outcome. Alloreactive T cells had been rendered intrinsically unresponsive as total CD4+ or Treg-deprived CD4+ T cells from tolerant recipients were unable to mount donor-specific IFN-γ responses. In addition, intragraft Treg-deprived CD4+ T cells lacked proliferative capacities, expressed high levels of the inhibitory receptor PD-1, and exhibited a CD73hiFR4hi phenotype, thus reflecting a state of T cell anergy. We conclude that Tregs play a substantive and critical role in guiding the immune system toward tolerance of the allograft, when induced by CD3 antibody, but are less important for maintenance of the tolerant state, where T cell anergy appears sufficient. PMID:28321218
Savelyeva, Natalia; Allen, Alex; Chotprakaikiat, Warayut; Harden, Elena; Jobsri, Jantipa; Godeseth, Rosemary; Wang, Yidao; Stevenson, Freda; Ottensmeier, Christian
In the last decade, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting immunological check points has become a breakthrough therapeutic modality for solid cancers. However, only up to 50 % of patients benefit from this powerful approach. For others vaccination might provide a plausible addition or alternative. For induction of effective anticancer immunity CD4+ T cell help is required, which is often difficult to induce to self cancer targets because of tolerogenic mechanisms. Our approach for cancer vaccines has been to incorporate into the vaccine design sequences able to activate foreign T cell help, through genetically linking cancer targets to microbial sequences (King et al. in Nat Med 4(11):1281-1286, 1998; Savelyeva et al. in Nat Biotechnol 19(8):760-764, 2001). This harnesses the non-tolerized CD4 T cell repertoire available in patients to help induction of effective immunity against fused cancer antigens. Multiple immune effector mechanisms including antibody, CD8+ T cells as well as CD4 effector T cells can be activated using this strategy. Delivery via DNA vaccines has already indicated clinical efficacy. The same principle of linked T cell help has now been transferred to other novel vaccine modalities to further potentiate immunity against cancer targets.
Nayak, Kaustuv; Jing, Lichen; Russell, Ronnie M.; Davies, D. Huw; Hermanson, Gary; Molina, Douglas M.; Liang, Xiaowu; Sherman, David R.; Kwok, William W.; Yang, Junbao; Kenneth, John; Ahamed, Syed F.; Chandele, Anmol; Kaja, Murali-Krishna; Koelle, David M.
Elicitation of CD4 IFN-gamma T cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a rational vaccine strategy to prevent clinical tuberculosis. Diagnosis of MTB infection is based on T-cell immune memory to MTB antigens. The MTB proteome contains over four thousand open reading frames (ORFs). We conducted a pilot antigen identification study using 164 MTB proteins and MTB-specific T-cells expanded in vitro from 12 persons with latent MTB infection. Enrichment of MTB-reactive T-cells from PBMC used cell sorting or an alternate system compatible with limited resources. MTB proteins were used as single antigens or combinatorial matrices in proliferation and cytokine secretion readouts. Overall, our study found that 44 MTB proteins were antigenic, including 27 not previously characterized as CD4 T-cell antigens. Antigen truncation, peptide, NTM homology, and HLA class II tetramer studies confirmed malate synthase G (encoded by gene Rv1837) as a CD4 T-cell antigen. This simple, scalable system has potential utility for the identification of candidate MTB vaccine and biomarker antigens. PMID:25857935
Portal-Celhay, Cynthia; Tufariello, JoAnn M; Srivastava, Smita; Zahra, Aleena; Klevorn, Thais; Grace, Patricia S; Mehra, Alka; Park, Heidi S; Ernst, Joel D; Jacobs, William R; Philips, Jennifer A
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) establishes a persistent infection, despite inducing antigen-specific T-cell responses. Although T cells arrive at the site of infection, they do not provide sterilizing immunity. The molecular basis of how Mtb impairs T-cell function is not clear. Mtb has been reported to block major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen presentation; however, no bacterial effector or host-cell target mediating this effect has been identified. We recently found that Mtb EsxH, which is secreted by the Esx-3 type VII secretion system, directly inhibits the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Here, we showed that ESCRT is required for optimal antigen processing; correspondingly, overexpression and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that EsxH inhibited the ability of macrophages and dendritic cells to activate Mtb antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. Compared with the wild-type strain, the esxH-deficient strain induced fivefold more antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell proliferation in the mediastinal lymph nodes of mice. We also found that EsxH undermined the ability of effector CD4(+) T cells to recognize infected macrophages and clear Mtb. These results provide a molecular explanation for how Mtb impairs the adaptive immune response.
Coler, Rhea N; Dillon, Davin C; Skeiky, Yasir A W; Kahn, Maria; Orme, Ian M; Lobet, Yves; Reed, Steven G; Alderson, Mark R
To identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens as candidates for a subunit vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), we have employed a CD4+ T-cell expression screening method. Mtb-specific CD4+ T-cell lines from nine healthy PPD positive donors were stimulated with different antigenic substrates including autologous dendritic cells (DC) infected with Mtb, or cultured with culture filtrate proteins (CFP), and purified protein derivative of Mtb (PPD). These lines were used to screen a genomic Mtb library expressed in Escherichia coli and processed and presented by autologous DC. This screening led to the recovery of numerous T-cell antigens, including both novel and previously described antigens. One of these novel antigens, referred to as Mtb9.8 (Rv0287), was recognized by multiple T-cell lines, stimulated with either Mtb-infected DC or CFP. Using the mouse and guinea pig models of TB, high levels of IFN-gamma were produced, and solid protection from Mtb challenge was observed following immunization with Mtb9.8 formulated in either AS02A or AS01B Adjuvant Systems. These results demonstrate that T-cell screening of the Mtb genome can be used to identify CD4+ T-cell antigens that are candidates for vaccine development.
Coler, Rhea N.; Dillon, Davin C.; Skeiky, Yasir A. W.; Kahn, Maria; Orme, Ian M.; Lobet, Yves; Reed, Steven G.; Alderson, Mark R.
To identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens as candidates for a subunit vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), we have employed a CD4+ T-cell expression screening method. Mtb-specific CD4+ T-cell lines from nine healthy PPD positive donors were stimulated with different antigenic substrates including autologous dendritic cells (DC) infected with Mtb, culture filtrate proteins (CFP), and purified protein derivative of Mtb (PPD). These lines were used to screen a genomic Mtb library expressed in Escherichia coli and processed and presented by autologous DC. This screening led to the recovery of numerous T-cell antigens, including both novel and previously described antigens. One of these novel antigens, referred to as Mtb9.8 (Rv0287), was recognized by multiple T-cell lines, stimulated with either Mtb-infected DC or CFP. Using the mouse and guinea pig models of TB, high levels of IFN-γ were produced, and solid protection from Mtb challenge was observed following immunization with Mtb9.8 formulated in either AS02A or AS01B Adjuvant Systems. These results demonstrate that T-cell screening of the Mtb genome can be used to identify CD4+ T-cell antigens that are candidates for vaccine development. PMID:19000730
Weaver, Jason M.; Chaves, Francisco A.; Sant, Andrea J.
Immunodominance refers to the highly selective peptide reactivity of T cells during an immune response. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that persistence of peptide:class II complexes is one key parameter that selects the final specificity of CD4 T cells. We found that low-stability peptide:class II complexes support the initial priming and expansion of CD4 T cells, but the expansion becomes strikingly aborted in the presence of competitive T cell responses to unrelated peptides. Our experiments revealed that for inhibition to occur, the competitive responses must be initiated by the same antigen presenting cell, and it is not because of competition for MHC binding. These studies not only provide an insight into the events that regulate competitive CD4 T cell priming in vivo, but also provide a previously undescribed conceptual framework to understand the parameters that select the final specificity of the T cell repertoire during pathogen or vaccine-induced immune responses. PMID:19423666
Portal-Celhay, Cynthia; Tufariello, JoAnn M.; Srivastava, Smita; Zahra, Aleena; Klevorn, Thais; Grace, Patricia S.; Mehra, Alka; Park, Heidi S.; Ernst, Joel D.; Jacobs, William R.; Philips, Jennifer A.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) establishes a persistent infection, despite inducing antigen-specific T-cell responses. Although T cells arrive at the site of infection, they do not provide sterilizing immunity. The molecular basis of how Mtb impairs T-cell function is not clear. Mtb has been reported to block major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen presentation; however, no bacterial effector or host-cell target mediating this effect has been identified. We recently found that Mtb EsxH, which is secreted by the Esx-3 type VII secretion system, directly inhibits the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Here, we showed that ESCRT is required for optimal antigen processing; correspondingly, overexpression and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that EsxH inhibited the ability of macrophages and dendritic cells to activate Mtb antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Compared with the wild-type strain, the esxH-deficient strain induced fivefold more antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation in the mediastinal lymph nodes of mice. We also found that EsxH undermined the ability of effector CD4+ T cells to recognize infected macrophages and clear Mtb. These results provide a molecular explanation for how Mtb impairs the adaptive immune response. PMID:27918526
Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio; Strug, Iwona; Nastke, Maria-Dorothea; Baker, Stephen P; Stern, Lawrence J
Despite the importance of vaccinia virus in basic and applied immunology, our knowledge of the human immune response directed against this virus is very limited. CD4+ T cell responses are an important component of immunity induced by current vaccinia-based vaccines, and likely will be required for new subunit vaccine approaches, but to date vaccinia-specific CD4+ T cell responses have been poorly characterized, and CD4+ T cell epitopes have been reported only recently. Classical approaches used to identify T cell epitopes are not practical for large genomes like vaccinia. We developed and validated a highly efficient computational approach that combines prediction of class II MHC-peptide binding activity with prediction of antigen processing and presentation. Using this approach and screening only 36 peptides, we identified 25 epitopes recognized by T cells from vaccinia-immune individuals. Although the predictions were made for HLA-DR1, eight of the peptides were recognized by donors of multiple haplotypes. T cell responses were observed in samples of peripheral blood obtained many years after primary vaccination, and were amplified after booster immunization. Peptides recognized by multiple donors are highly conserved across the poxvirus family, including variola, the causative agent of smallpox, and may be useful in development of a new generation of smallpox vaccines and in the analysis of the immune response elicited to vaccinia virus. Moreover, the epitope identification approach developed here should find application to other large-genome pathogens. PMID:17937498
Probst, Alicia; Besse, Aurore; Favry, Emmanuel; Imbert, Gilles; Tanchou, Valérie; Castelli, Florence Anne; Maillere, Bernard
Due to the high degree of sequence identity between Orthopoxvirus species, the specific B and T cell responses raised against these viruses are largely cross-reactive and poorly selective. We therefore searched for CD4 T cell epitopes present in the conserved parts of the Vaccinia genome (VACV) but absent from Variola viruses (VARV), with a view to identifying immunogenic sequences selective for VACV. We identified three long peptide fragments from the B7R, B10R and E7R proteins by in silico comparisons of the poxvirus genomes, and evaluated the recognition of these fragments by VACV-specific T cell lines derived from healthy donors. For the 12 CD4 T cell epitopes identified, we assessed their binding to common HLA-DR allotypes and their capacity to induce peptide-specific CD4 T-cell lines. Four peptides from B7R and B10R displayed a broad binding specificity for HLA-DR molecules and induced multiple T cell lines from healthy donors. Besides their absence from VARV, the two B10R peptide sequences were mutated in the Cowpox virus and completely absent from the Monkeypox genome. This work contributes to the development of differential diagnosis of poxvirus infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meininger, Isabel; Griesbach, Richard A; Hu, Desheng; Gehring, Torben; Seeholzer, Thomas; Bertossi, Arianna; Kranich, Jan; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Greczmiel, Ute; Gewies, Andreas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Ruland, Jürgen; Brocker, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heyd, Florian; Krappmann, Daniel
MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4(+) T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify hnRNP U as a suppressor of exon7 inclusion. Whereas selective depletion of MALT1A impairs T-cell signalling and activation, downregulation of hnRNP U enhances MALT1A expression and T-cell activation. Thus, TCR-induced alternative splicing augments MALT1 scaffolding to enhance downstream signalling and to promote optimal T-cell activation.
Meininger, Isabel; Griesbach, Richard A.; Hu, Desheng; Gehring, Torben; Seeholzer, Thomas; Bertossi, Arianna; Kranich, Jan; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Eitelhuber, Andrea C.; Greczmiel, Ute; Gewies, Andreas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Ruland, Jürgen; Brocker, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heyd, Florian; Krappmann, Daniel
MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4+ T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify hnRNP U as a suppressor of exon7 inclusion. Whereas selective depletion of MALT1A impairs T-cell signalling and activation, downregulation of hnRNP U enhances MALT1A expression and T-cell activation. Thus, TCR-induced alternative splicing augments MALT1 scaffolding to enhance downstream signalling and to promote optimal T-cell activation. PMID:27068814
Pecher, G; Harnack, U; Günther, M; Hummel, M; Fichtner, I; Schenk, J A
Tumor antigen-specific T cell clones represent a useful tool in tumor immunology; however, their long-term culture is limited. To generate an immortalized cytotoxic T cell clone against the human tumor antigen mucin, we exposed a previously generated T cell culture to Herpesvirus saimiri. We obtained an immortalized human CD4+ T cell clone, termed SITAM. Clonality of these cells was shown by analysis of the alpha/beta-T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Cytolytic activity was demonstrated against several mucin-expressing tumor cell lines and could not be detected against non-mucin-expressing cells. SITAM cells maintained their features stably for 2 years. Furthermore, growth of the tumor cell line Capan-2 in NOD/SCID mice was inhibited when SITAM cells were coinjected subcutaneously with tumor cells. SITAM cells provide an unlimited source of clonal T cells for analysis of tumor recognition and may be of help in TCR-targeted immunotherapy. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Yauch, Lauren E; Prestwood, Tyler R; May, Monica M; Morar, Malika M; Zellweger, Raphaël M; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro; Shresta, Sujan
The contribution of T cells to the host response to dengue virus (DENV) infection is not well understood. We previously demonstrated a protective role for CD8(+) T cells during primary DENV infection using a mouse-passaged DENV strain and IFN-α/βR(-/-) C57BL/6 mice, which are susceptible to DENV infection. In this study, we examine the role of CD4(+) T cells during primary DENV infection. Four I-A(b)-restricted epitopes derived from three of the nonstructural DENV proteins were identified. CD4(+) T cells expanded and were activated after DENV infection, with peak activation occurring on day 7. The DENV-specific CD4(+) T cells expressed intracellular IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2, and CD40L, and killed peptide-pulsed target cells in vivo. Surprisingly, depletion of CD4(+) T cells before DENV infection had no effect on viral loads. Consistent with this observation, CD4(+) T cell depletion did not affect the DENV-specific IgG or IgM Ab titers or their neutralizing activity, or the DENV-specific CD8(+) T cell response. However, immunization with the CD4(+) T cell epitopes before infection resulted in significantly lower viral loads. Thus, we conclude that whereas CD4(+) T cells are not required for controlling primary DENV infection, their induction by immunization can contribute to viral clearance. These findings suggest inducing anti-DENV CD4(+) T cell responses by vaccination may be beneficial.
Minami, Rumi; Takahama, Soichiro; Kaku, Yu; Yamamoto, Masahiro
The CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc (MVC), is associated with an enhanced CD4+ T-cell response independent of virological suppression; however, its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. In this study, we confirmed the effect of MVC on CD4+ T-cell count recovery in immunological non-responders, and compared the conventional combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with MVC-intensified cART. We also investigated the effect of MVC on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the relationship between the mRNA level of IFN-γ and the degree of CD4+ T-cell count recovery. In vitro analysis indicated that MVC significantly decreased mRNA levels of IFN-γ in HIV-Tat stimulated CD4+ T cells from healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Of the 18 HIV-infected patients treated with MVC-intensified cART, 12 had a significantly increased CD4+ T-cell count after 24 weeks of additional treatment with MVC. In patients exhibiting a response in CD4+ T-cell counts, mRNA levels of IFN-γ in CD4+ T cells were lower than those in patients showing a non-response at baseline and at week 24, while mRNA levels of IFN-γ decreased in both groups at 24 weeks. In conclusion, MVC decreased the mRNA level of IFN-γ in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo, especially in patients whose CD4+ T-cell count increased significantly. We also found that the lower baseline IFN-γ mRNA level and the larger decreased rate of IFN-γ mRNA in CD4+ T cells were associated with a good response to MVC regarding CD4+ T-cell recovery.
Zhang, Qinglei; Hao, Chongli; Cheng, Guangzhou; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiang; Li, Chang; Qiu, Juhui; Ding, Kejia
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of CD4+ T cells in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) tissues in situ. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the distribution of CD4+ T cells in 131 NMIBC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to estimate overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: NMIBC patients were divided into two groups based on the median frequency of CD4+ T cells (median, 1/×400 high resolution). On univariate analysis, CD4+ T cell density was inversely associated with overall survival (P = 0.01). In those patients with high CD4+ T density, 5-year OS rates was only 77%, compared with 86% in those with low density, respectively. Although CD4+ T cell density showed no prognostic significance for RFS (P = 0.36), 5-year RFS rates of patients with high CD4+ T density (58%) was lower than those of patients with low CD4+ T density (65%, respectively). By multivariate analysis, tumor infiltrating CD4+ T cell density emerged as an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 2.75; P = 0.004). In addition, no association was found between CD4+ T cell density and any clinicopathological variables (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CD4+ T cells could potentially serve as a poor prognostic marker for patients with NMIBC. PMID:26617883
Sørnes, Steinar; Peirasmaki, Dimitra; Svärd, Staffan; Langeland, Nina
The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia may cause severe prolonged diarrheal disease or pass unnoticed as an asymptomatic infection. T cells seem to play an important role in the immune response to Giardia infection, and memory responses may last years. Recently, TH17 responses have been found in three animal studies of Giardia infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the human CD4+ T cell responses to Giardia. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 21 returning travelers with recent or ongoing giardiasis and 12 low-risk healthy controls and stimulated in vitro with Giardia lamblia proteins. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-10, and IL-4 was measured in CD4+ effector memory (EM) T cells after 24 h by flow cytometry. After 6 days of culture, activation and proliferation were measured by flow cytometry, while an array of inflammatory cytokine levels in supernatants were measured with multiplex assays. We found the number of IL-17A-producing CD4+ EM T cells, as well as that of cells simultaneously producing both IL-17A and TNF-α, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals after 24 h of antigen stimulation. In supernatants of PBMCs stimulated with Giardia antigens for 6 days, we found inflammation-associated cytokines, including 1L-17A, as well as CD4+ T cell activation and proliferation, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals. We conclude that symptomatic Giardia infection in humans induces a CD4+ EM T cell response of which IL-17A production seems to be an important component. PMID:26376930
Saghaug, Christina Skår; Sørnes, Steinar; Peirasmaki, Dimitra; Svärd, Staffan; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt
The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia may cause severe prolonged diarrheal disease or pass unnoticed as an asymptomatic infection. T cells seem to play an important role in the immune response to Giardia infection, and memory responses may last years. Recently, TH17 responses have been found in three animal studies of Giardia infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the human CD4(+) T cell responses to Giardia. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 21 returning travelers with recent or ongoing giardiasis and 12 low-risk healthy controls and stimulated in vitro with Giardia lamblia proteins. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-10, and IL-4 was measured in CD4(+) effector memory (EM) T cells after 24 h by flow cytometry. After 6 days of culture, activation and proliferation were measured by flow cytometry, while an array of inflammatory cytokine levels in supernatants were measured with multiplex assays. We found the number of IL-17A-producing CD4(+) EM T cells, as well as that of cells simultaneously producing both IL-17A and TNF-α, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals after 24 h of antigen stimulation. In supernatants of PBMCs stimulated with Giardia antigens for 6 days, we found inflammation-associated cytokines, including 1L-17A, as well as CD4(+) T cell activation and proliferation, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals. We conclude that symptomatic Giardia infection in humans induces a CD4(+) EM T cell response of which IL-17A production seems to be an important component. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Pink, Matthias; Ratsch, Boris A; Mardahl, Maibritt; Schröter, Micha F; Engelbert, Dirk; Triebus, Julia; Hamann, Alf; Syrbe, Uta
Fucosyltransferase VII encoded by the gene Fut7 is essential in CD4(+) T cells for the generation of E- and P-selectin ligands (E- and P-lig) which facilitate recruitment of lymphocytes into inflamed tissues and into the skin. This study aimed to identify regulatory elements controlling the inducible Fut7 expression in CD4(+) T cells that occurs upon activation and differentiation of naive T cells into effector cells. Comparative analysis of the histone modification pattern in non-hematopoetic cells and CD4(+) T cell subsets revealed a differential histone modification pattern within the Fut7 locus including a conserved non-coding sequence (CNS) identified by cross-species conservation comparison suggesting that regulatory elements are confined to this region. Cloning of the CNS located about 500 bp upstream of the Fut7 locus, into a luciferase reporter vector elicited reporter activity after transfection of the αβ-WT T cell line, but not after transfection of primary murine CD4(+) Th1 cells. As quantification of different Fut7 transcripts revealed a predominance of transcripts lacking the first exons in primary Th1 cells we searched for an alternative promoter. Cloning of an intragenic region spanning a 1kb region upstream of exon 4 into an enhancer-containing vector indeed elicited promoter activity. Interestingly, also the CNS enhanced activity of this intragenic minimal promoter in reporter assays in primary Th1 cells suggesting that both elements interact in primary CD4(+) T cells to induce Fut7 transcription.
Chen, Rongyi; Xiang, Fangfang; Hu, Jiachang; Cao, Xuesen; Tan, Xiao; Jia, Ping; Zhang, Ting; Song, Nana; Fang, Yi; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Zou, Jianzhou
CD4 T-cell abnormality, influencing the outcome of the maintained hemodialysis (MHD), is common in patients on dialysis. We try to find out factors associated with the activated CD4 T cells, CD4CD69 T cells, to improve the dialysis quality. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the change of CD4CD69 in MHD patients and healthy controls in our hospital from September 2015 to May 2016. A total of 164 MHD patients and 24 healthy controls were included according to the criteria. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models after correlation analysis were executed to discover the related factors of CD4CD69 T-cell posterior to the division of the CD4CD69 T cell according to its median. The lymphocytes were lower, but the percentage of CD4CD69 T cells was higher in MHD patients compared with healthy controls, even after the propensity score matching based on age and sex. The percentage of CD4 T cells showed no significant difference between the two groups. Further multivariate logistic regression models revealed that CD4CD69 T cell was independently associated with serum total protein (OR 95%CI: 0.830[0.696, 0.990], p = .038), transferrin (OR 95%CI: 3.072[1.131, 8.342], p = .028) and magnesium (OR 95%CI: 16.960[1.030, 279.275], p = .048). The percentage of CD4CD69 T cells, activated CD4 T cells, elevated in hemodialysis patients despite the decrease in lymphocytes. The elevated CD4CD69 T cells were independently associated with serum total protein negatively, but transferrin and magnesium positively. Strengthening nutrition, reducing the concentration of transferrin and magnesium might be beneficial to reduce the activation of CD4 T cells and improve the outcome of MHD patients.
Jung Jang, Eun; Kil, Yun-Seo; Ryeon Park, Hye; Oh, Sera; Kyeong Kim, Hyo; Gyeong Jeong, Mi; Kyoung Seo, Eun; Sook Hwang, Eun
Tuberostemonine stereoisomers are natural alkaloids found in Stemona tuberosa, that are known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-infective properties. Tuberostemonine alkaloids inhibit inflammation by suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase. However, the direct immunomodulatory properties of tuberostemonine alkaloids in T cells have not been elucidated so far. In this study, the activities in T cells of tuberostemonine N (TbN) and a novel alkaloid, tuberostemonine O (TbO), isolated from S. tuberosa, were investigated. Although TbN did not have a significant effect on cytokine production in splenic T cells, TbO selectively suppressed interleukin (IL)-2 production. Moreover, TbO, but not TbN, significantly inhibited IL-2 production by primary CD4(+) T cells and delayed the T-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of excess recombinant IL-2 restored the decreased cell-division rates in TbO-treated CD4(+) T cells to control levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of TbO occurred by the suppression of IL-2 expression and IL-2-induced T-cell proliferation, suggesting a potential beneficial role of tuberostemonine alkaloids for the control of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases caused by hyperactivated T cells.
Gebe, John A; Falk, Ben A; Rock, Kellee A; Kochik, Sharon A; Heninger, Anne K; Reijonen, Helena; Kwok, William W; Nepom, Gerald T
Self-reactive T cells populate the peripheral immune system, and likely form the reservoir from which autoreactive cells are derived. We analyzed a panel of self and non-self peptides presented by HLA-DR4, a class II molecule associated with autoimmunity, by immunization of mice transgenic for HLA-DR4. Significant structural avidity for T cell recognition, as measured by MHC class II tetramer binding to CD4(+) T cells was only observed in mice immunized with the non-self antigens. T cell hybridomas were generated from mice immunized with the naturally processed self-peptide hGAD65 (552-572) and also from mice immunized with an influenza-derived non-self epitope (HA 306-318). T cells specific for the self peptide failed to bind tetramers and exhibited low functional avidity as measured by the peptide concentration required to reach half-maximum proliferation values. In contrast, T cells specific for the non-self HA (306-318) peptide exhibited high structural and functional avidity profiles. As recently described in studies of murine CD8(+) T cell function, the predominance of low avidity recognition of self-peptide epitopes may be a characteristic feature of CD4(+) T cells responding to autoantigens.
Kim, Chulwoo; Wilson, Theodore; Fischer, Kael F; Williams, Matthew A
During CD4⁺ T cell activation, T cell receptor (TCR) signals impact T cell fate, including recruitment, expansion, differentiation, trafficking, and survival. To determine the impact of TCR signals on the fate decision of activated CD4⁺ T cells to become end-stage effector or long-lived memory T helper 1 (Th1) cells, we devised a deep-sequencing-based approach that allowed us to track the evolution of TCR repertoires after acute infection. The transition of effector Th1 cells into the memory pool was associated with a significant decrease in repertoire diversity, and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramer off rate, but not tetramer avidity, was a key predictive factor in the representation of individual clonal T cell populations at the memory stage. We conclude that stable and sustained interactions with antigens during the development of Th1 responses to acute infection are a determinative factor in promoting the differentiation of Th1 memory cells.
Roetynck, Sophie; Olotu, Ally; Simam, Joan; Marsh, Kevin; Stockinger, Brigitta; Urban, Britta; Langhorne, Jean
Background Multiparameter flow cytometry has revealed extensive phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of CD4 T cell responses in mice and humans, emphasizing the importance of assessing multiple aspects of the immune response in correlation with infection or vaccination outcome. The aim of this study was to establish and validate reliable and feasible flow cytometry assays, which will allow us to characterize CD4 T cell population in humans in field studies more fully. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed polychromatic flow cytometry antibody panels for immunophenotyping the major CD4 T cell subsets as well as broadly characterizing the functional profiles of the CD4 T cells in peripheral blood. We then validated these assays by conducting a pilot study comparing CD4 T cell responses in distinct populations of healthy adults living in either rural or urban Kenya. This study revealed that the expression profile of CD4 T cell activation and memory markers differed significantly between African and European donors but was similar amongst African individuals from either rural or urban areas. Adults from rural Kenya had, however, higher frequencies and greater polyfunctionality among cytokine producing CD4 T cells compared to both urban populations, particularly for “Th1” type of response. Finally, endemic exposure to malaria in rural Kenya may have influenced the expansion of few discrete CD4 T cell populations with specific functional signatures. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that environmentally driven T cell activation does not drive the dysfunction of CD4 T cells but is rather associated with greater magnitude and quality of CD4 T cell response, indicating that the level or type of microbial exposure and antigenic experience may influence and shape the functionality of CD4 T cell compartment. Our data confirm that it is possible and mandatory to assess multiple functional attributes of CD4 T cell response in the context of infection
Bernal-Fernandez, German; Espinosa-Cueto, Patricia; Leyva-Meza, Rosario; Mancilla, Nathalie; Mancilla, Raul
Patients with tuberculosis frequently develop anergy, a state of T-cell hyporesponsiveness in which defective T-cell costimulation could be a factor. To know if the expression of T-cell costimulatory molecules was altered in tuberculosis, we analyzed the peripheral blood T-cell phenotype of 23 Mexican patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. There was severe CD4 (P < .001) and CD8 (P < .01) lymphopenia and upregulation of costimulatory molecule CD30 on CD4 and CD8 T cells (P < .05); this increase was higher in relapsing tuberculosis. The main finding was severe downregulation of the major costimulatory molecule CD28 on both CD8 and CD4 T cells (P < .001). Depletion of the CD4/CD28 subset, a hitherto undescribed finding, is relevant because CD4 T cells constitute the main arm of the cell-mediated antimycobacterial immune response. PMID:22567259
Wang, Da-Wei; Dong, Ning; Wu, Yao; Zhu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Chun-Ting; Yao, Yong-Ming
Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for the suppression of autoimmunity and can control the immune-mediated pathology during the early phase of sepsis. Our previous data showed that silencing interleukin-37 (IL-37) in human CD4+CD25+ Tregs obviously reduced the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Here, we found that rhIL-37 stimulation markedly enhanced the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ Tregs isolated from naive C57BL/6 J mice in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with rhIL-37 could significantly upregulate the expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 and forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3) on CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Also, rhIL-37 stimulation promoted the production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) but not IL-10 in the supernatants of cultured CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Pretreated CD4+CD25+ Tregs with rhIL-37 in the presence or absence of LPS were cocultured with CD4+CD25− T cells, ratio of IL-4/interferon-γ in the supernatants obviously increased in IL-37-stimulated groups. In addition, early administration of IL-37 significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Taken together, we concluded that rhIL-37 enhances the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ Tregs and might be a potential immunomodulator for the treatment of septic complications. PMID:27941849
Scott-Algara, D; Aboulker, J-P; Durier, C; Badell, E; Marcellin, F; Prud'homme, M; Jouanne, C; Meiffredy, V; Brun-Vezinet, F; Pialoux, G; Raffi, F
To determine whether viral load rebounds during HAART impact on CD4+ T cell recovery and immune reconstitution, we studied a prospective cohort of 355 antiretroviral naive patients enrolled to be randomized in a trial of three strategies of induction/maintenance HAART. The extent of immune reconstitution in blood through 72 weeks of antiretroviral treatment was evaluated. Lymphocyte subset markers (CD4, CD8, CD45RA, CD62L, CD16, CD19), activation markers (HLA-DR, CD38, CD25) were performed by cytometry analysis. Our results showed that plasma HIV-1 RNA was suppressed to below 500 copies per ml through week 72 in 240 patients (group 1) while the remaining 115 patients experienced at least one viral rebound (group 2). At baseline, CD4 cell count was higher and HIV-1 RNA was lower in group 1 than in group 2. Over 72 weeks, mean increase in CD4+ T cell count was 0·32 cell/mm3/day in group 1 and only 0·14 cell/mm3/day in group 2 (P < 0·0001). However, the patterns of changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets during therapy were very similar across the two groups with only subtle and very limited differences. We conclude that permanent control of HIV replication could be necessary for faster immune reconstitution. PMID:11703374
Twu, Yuh-Ching; Teh, Hung-Sia
The zinc finger transcription factor ThPOK plays a crucial role in CD4 T-cell development and CD4/CD8 lineage decision. In ThPOK-deficient mice, developing T cells expressing MHC class II-restricted T-cell receptors are redirected into the CD8 T-cell lineage. In this study, we investigated whether the ThPOK transgene affected the development and function of two additional types of T cells, namely self-specific CD8 T cells and CD4(+) FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells. Self-specific CD8 T cells are characterized by high expression of CD44, CD122, Ly6C, 1B11 and proliferation in response to either IL-2 or IL-15. The ThPOK transgene converted these self-specific CD8 T cells into CD4 T cells. The converted CD4(+) T cells are no longer self-reactive, lose the characteristics of self-specific CD8 T cells, acquire the properties of conventional CD4 T cells and survive poorly in peripheral lymphoid organs. By contrast, the ThPOK transgene promoted the development of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells resulting in an increased recovery of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells that expressed higher transforming growth factor-β-dependent suppressor activity. These studies indicate that the ThPOK transcription factor differentially affects the development and function of self-specific CD8 T cells and CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells.
Zhang, S; Petro, T M
T cells were exposed to various concentrations of nicotine or smokeless tobacco extract (STE) during in vitro immune responses in order to examine effects upon expression of T cell costimulatory counter-receptors, CD28 and CTLA-4, and cytokine production. Splenic mononuclear cells (SPM) were exposed to 1:10(2) to 1:10(3) dilutions of STE or 1-100 micrograms/ml nicotine during 48 and 72 h of stimulation with anti-CD3. Expression of CD28 and CTLA-4 was evaluated with flow cytometry and production and expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma were evaluated using ELISA and RT-PCR. The data here indicate that the percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing CD28 declined while percentage and intensity of CTLA-4 expression increased with exposure to a 1:10(2) dilution of STE during the T cell response. Exposure to nicotine decreased the percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing both CD28 and CTLA-4 and decreased the intensity of CD28 expression. Responding T cells exposed to nicotine produced significantly less Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and IFN-gamma, but significantly more Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10. Cytokine specific mRNA expression was only slightly affected by the exposure to nicotine. Thus, exposure of T cells to physiological concentrations of STE or nicotine can alter the T cell expression of CD28 and CTLA-4, and the CD4 T cell cytokine expression pattern.
van Hamme, John L.; Jansen, Machiel H.; van Dort, Karel A.; Vanderver, Adeline; Rice, Gillian I.; Crow, Yanick J.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Kuijpers, Taco W.
Unlike resting CD4+ T cells, activated CD4+T cells are highly susceptible to infection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 infects T cells and macrophages without activating the nucleic acid sensors and the anti-viral type I interferon response. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is an RNA editing enzyme that displays antiviral activity against several RNA viruses. Mutations in ADAR1 cause the autoimmune disorder Aicardi-Goutieères syndrome (AGS). This disease is characterized by an inappropriate activation of the interferon-stimulated gene response. Here we show that HIV-1 replication, in ADAR1-deficient CD4+T lymphocytes from AGS patients, is blocked at the level of protein translation. Furthermore, viral protein synthesis block is accompanied by an activation of interferon-stimulated genes. RNA silencing of ADAR1 in Jurkat cells also inhibited HIV-1 protein synthesis. Our data support that HIV-1 requires ADAR1 for efficient replication in human CD4+T cells. PMID:26629815
Tedesco, Dana; Grakoui, Arash
The liver participates in a multitude of metabolic functions that are critical for sustaining human life. Despite constant encounters with antigenic-rich intestinal blood, oxidative stress and metabolic intermediates, there is no appreciable immune response. Interestingly, patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation benefit from a high rate of graft acceptance in comparison to other solid organ transplant recipients. In fact, co-transplantation of a donor liver in tandem with a rejection-prone graft increases the likelihood of graft acceptance. A variety of players may account for this phenomenon including the interaction of intrahepatic antigen presenting cells with CD4+ T cells and the preferential induction of Foxp3 expression on CD4+ T cells following injurious stimuli. Ineffective insult management can cause chronic liver disease, which manifests systemically as: antibody mediated disorders, ineffective antiviral and antibacterial immunity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These sequelae share the requirement of CD4+ T cell help to coordinate aberrant immune responses. In this review, we will focus on CD4+ T cell help due to the shared requirements in hepatic tolerance and coordination of extrahepatic immune responses. Overall, intrahepatic deviations from steady state can have deleterious systemic immune outcomes, and highlight the liver's remarkable capacity to maintain a balance between tolerance and inflammatory response while simultaneously being inundated with a panoply of antigenic stimuli. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Hohl, Tobias M.; Rivera, Amariliz; Lipuma, Lauren; Gallegos, Alena; Shi, Chao; Mack, Mathias; Pamer, Eric G.
SUMMARY Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous fungus, causes invasive disease in immunocompromised humans. Although monocytes and antigen-specific CD4 T cells contribute to defense against inhaled fungal spores, how these cells interact during infection remains undefined. Investigating the role of inflammatory monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells during fungal infection, we find that A. fumigatus infection induces an influx of chemokine receptor CCR2- and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes into lungs and draining lymph nodes. Depletion of CCR2+ cells reduced A. fumigatus conidial transport from lungs to draining lymph nodes, abolished CD4 T cell priming following respiratory challenge, and impaired pulmonary fungal clearance. In contrast, depletion of CCR2+Ly6Chi monocytes during systemic fungal infection did not prevent CD4 T cell priming in the spleen. Our findings demonstrate that pulmonary CD4 T cell responses to inhaled spores require CCR2+Ly6Chi monocytes and their derivatives, revealing a compartmentally restricted function for these cells in adaptive respiratory immune responses. PMID:19917501
Doitsh, Gilad; Cavrois, Marielle; Lassen, Kara G.; Zepeda, Orlando; Yang, Zhiyuan; Santiago, Mario L.; Hebbeler, Andrew M.; Greene, Warner C.
Summary The mechanism by which CD4 T-cells are depleted in HIV-infected hosts remains poorly understood. In ex vivo cultures of human tonsil tissue, CD4 T cells undergo a pronounced cytopathic response following HIV infection. Strikingly, >95% of these dying cells are not productively infected but instead correspond to bystander cells. We now show that the death of these “bystander” cells involves abortive HIV infection. Inhibitors blocking HIV entry or early steps of reverse transcription prevent CD4 T-cell death while inhibition of later events in viral life cycle does not. We propose that the nonpermissive state exhibited by the majority of resting CD4 tonsil T-cells leads to accumulation of incomplete reverse transcripts. These cytoplasmic nucleic acids activate a host defense program that elicits a coordinated proapoptotic and proinflammatory response involving caspase-3 and caspase-1 activation. While this response likely evolved to protect the host, it centrally contributes to the immunopathogenic effects of HIV. PMID:21111238
Doitsh, Gilad; Cavrois, Marielle; Lassen, Kara G; Zepeda, Orlando; Yang, Zhiyuan; Santiago, Mario L; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Greene, Warner C
The mechanism by which CD4 T cells are depleted in HIV-infected hosts remains poorly understood. In ex vivo cultures of human tonsil tissue, CD4 T cells undergo a pronounced cytopathic response following HIV infection. Strikingly, >95% of these dying cells are not productively infected but instead correspond to bystander cells. We now show that the death of these "bystander" cells involves abortive HIV infection. Inhibitors blocking HIV entry or early steps of reverse transcription prevent CD4 T cell death while inhibition of later events in the viral life cycle does not. We demonstrate that the nonpermissive state exhibited by the majority of resting CD4 tonsil T cells leads to accumulation of incomplete reverse transcripts. These cytoplasmic nucleic acids activate a host defense program that elicits a coordinated proapoptotic and proinflammatory response involving caspase-3 and caspase-1 activation. While this response likely evolved to protect the host, it centrally contributes to the immunopathogenic effects of HIV. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Atif, Shaikh M; Winter, Sebastian E; Winter, Maria G; McSorley, Stephen J; Bäumler, Andreas J
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is associated with a disseminated febrile illness in humans, termed typhoid fever, while Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes localized gastroenteritis in immunocompetent individuals. One of the genetic differences between both pathogens is the presence in S. Typhi of TviA, a regulatory protein that shuts down flagellin (FliC) expression when bacteria transit from the intestinal lumen into the intestinal mucosa. Here we investigated the consequences of TviA-mediated flagellum gene regulation on flagellin-specific CD4 T cell responses in a mouse model of S. Typhimurium infection. Introduction of the S. Typhi tviA gene into S. Typhimurium suppressed antigen presentation of dendritic cells to flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in vitro. Furthermore, TviA-mediated repression of flagellin expression impaired the activation and proliferation of naive flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, which was accompanied by increased bacterial dissemination to the spleen. We conclude that TviA-mediated repression of flagellin expression reduces antigen availability, thereby weakening flagellin-specific CD4 T cell responses.
Valdivia, Anddre; Ly, Judy; Gonzalez, Leslie; Hussain, Parveen; Saing, Tommy; Islamoglu, Hicret; Pearce, Daniel; Ochoa, Cesar
Abstract HIV infects and destroys CD4+ T cells leading to a compromised immune system. In a double-blinded study, a group of HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/mm3 were given either an empty liposomal supplement or a liposomal glutathione (L-GSH) supplement to take over a 3-month period. Baseline measurements in HIV-positive subjects show a significant decrease in levels of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-2, and interferon (IFN)-γ, along with a substantial increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and free radicals, compared to healthy individuals. Supplementation of HIV-positive subjects with L-GSH for 3 months resulted in a notable increase in the levels of IL-12, IL-2, and IFN-γ, with a concomitant decrease in the levels of IL-6, IL-10, and free radicals, and stabilization in the levels of TGF-β, IL-1, and IL-17, compared to their placebo counterparts. Levels of free radicals in CD4+ T cells stabilized, while GSH levels increased in the treatment group. Those in the placebo group showed no significant difference throughout the study. In summary, supplementation with L-GSH in HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/mm3 can help restore redox homeostasis and cytokine balance, therefore aiding the immune system to control opportunistic infections. PMID:28398068
Sachdev, Divya; Gough, Kevin C; Flynn, Robin J
Fasciola hepatica infection of ruminants leads to non-resolving chronic infection, as patency develops, there is switching to a TGF-β and IL-10 led response. Here, we explore the responses of CD4 T-cells within the major draining lymph nodes. We found minimal expression of Foxp3 within CD4 cells but elevated levels within the γδ (WC1(+)) population. There is a strong T-cell-intrinsic exhaustion phenotype within the hepatic lymph node (HLN) characterized by a lack of antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine secretion. CD4 T-cells recovered from the HLN had high levels of PD-1 expression and low levels of IL-2 secretion. Exogenous IL-2 partially rescued this defect; when combined with neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-β, full restoration of proliferation, and cytokine production was achieved. Moreover, there is a clear uncoupling of the mechanisms that facilitate this regulation with parasite-specific proliferation and cytokine secretion being governed by independent means. These data would suggest that there is a CD4 T-cell-intrinsic regulation in place early in chronic infection, potentially leading to failure in resistance to reinfection.
Sachdev, Divya; Gough, Kevin C.; Flynn, Robin J.
Fasciola hepatica infection of ruminants leads to non-resolving chronic infection, as patency develops, there is switching to a TGF-β and IL-10 led response. Here, we explore the responses of CD4 T-cells within the major draining lymph nodes. We found minimal expression of Foxp3 within CD4 cells but elevated levels within the γδ (WC1+) population. There is a strong T-cell-intrinsic exhaustion phenotype within the hepatic lymph node (HLN) characterized by a lack of antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine secretion. CD4 T-cells recovered from the HLN had high levels of PD-1 expression and low levels of IL-2 secretion. Exogenous IL-2 partially rescued this defect; when combined with neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-β, full restoration of proliferation, and cytokine production was achieved. Moreover, there is a clear uncoupling of the mechanisms that facilitate this regulation with parasite-specific proliferation and cytokine secretion being governed by independent means. These data would suggest that there is a CD4 T-cell-intrinsic regulation in place early in chronic infection, potentially leading to failure in resistance to reinfection. PMID:28871261
Cicala, Claudia . E-mail: email@example.com; Arthos, James; Censoplano, Nina; Cruz, Catherine; Chung, Eva; Martinelli, Elena; Lempicki, Richard A.; Natarajan, Ven; VanRyk, Donald; Daucher, Marybeth; Fauci, Anthony S.
The replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in CD4+ T-cells is strongly dependent upon the state of activation of infected cells. Infection of sub-optimally activated cells is believed to play a critical role in both the transmission of virus and the persistence of CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. There is accumulating evidence that HIV can modulate signal-transduction pathways in a manner that may facilitate replication in such cells. We previously demonstrated that HIV gp120 induces virus replication in resting CD4+ T cells isolated from HIV-infected individuals. Here, we show that in resting CD4+ T-cells, gp120 activates NFATs and induces their translocation into the nucleus. The HIV LTR encodes NFAT recognition sites, and NFATs may play a critical role in promoting viral replication in sub-optimally activated cells. These observations provide insight into a potential mechanism by which HIV is able to establish infection in resting cells, which may have implications for both transmission of HIV and the persistence of viral reservoirs.
Polyfunctional CD4 T cells simultaneously produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including human TB and HIV. However, the assessment of this response in bovine infections was not fe...
Zhang, Wei; Ferguson, John; Ng, Sok Meng; Hui, Ken; Goh, Gerald; Lin, Aiping; Esplugues, Enric; Flavell, Richard A; Abraham, Clara; Zhao, Hongyu; Cho, Judy H
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in immune-mediated diseases have identified over 150 associated genomic loci. Many of these loci play a role in T cell responses, and regulation of T cell differentiation plays a critical role in immune-mediated diseases; however, the relationship between implicated disease loci and T cell differentiation is incompletely understood. To further address this relationship, we examined differential gene expression in naïve human CD4+ T cells, as well as in in vitro differentiated Th1, memory Th17-negative and Th17-enriched CD4+ T cells subsets using microarray and RNASeq. We observed a marked enrichment for increased expression in memory CD4+ compared to naïve CD4+ T cells of genes contained among immune-mediated disease loci. Within memory T cells, expression of disease-associated genes was typically increased in Th17-enriched compared to Th17-negative cells. Utilizing RNASeq and promoter methylation studies, we identified a differential regulation pattern for genes solely expressed in Th17 cells (IL17A and CCL20) compared to genes expressed in both Th17 and Th1 cells (IL23R and IL12RB2), where high levels of promoter methylation are correlated to near zero RNASeq levels for IL17A and CCL20. These findings have implications for human Th17 celI plasticity and for the regulation of Th17-Th1 expression signatures. Importantly, utilizing RNASeq we found an abundant isoform of IL23R terminating before the transmembrane domain that was enriched in Th17 cells. In addition to molecular resolution, we find that RNASeq provides significantly improved power to define differential gene expression and identify alternative gene variants relative to microarray analysis. The comprehensive integration of differential gene expression between cell subsets with disease-association signals, and functional pathways provides insight into disease pathogenesis.
Orent, William; Mchenry, Allison R; Rao, Deepak A; White, Charles; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Bassil, Ribal; Srivastava, Gyan; Replogle, Joseph M; Raj, Towfique; Frangieh, Michael; Cimpean, Maria; Cuerdon, Nicole; Chibnik, Lori; Khoury, Samia J; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Brenner, Michael B; De Jager, Philip; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M; Elyaman, Wassim
Notch signaling has recently emerged as an important regulator of immune responses in autoimmune diseases. The recombination signal-binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region (RBPJ) is a transcriptional repressor, but converts into a transcriptional activator upon activation of the canonical Notch pathway. Genome-wide association studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) identified a susceptibility locus, rs874040(CC), which implicated the RBPJ gene. Here, chromatin state mapping generated using the chromHMM algorithm reveals strong enhancer regions containing DNase I hypersensitive sites overlapping the rs874040 linkage disequilibrium block in human memory, but not in naïve CD4(+) T cells. The rs874040 overlapping this chromatin state was associated with increased RBPJ expression in stimulated memory CD4(+) T cells from healthy subjects homozygous for the risk allele (CC) compared with memory CD4(+) T cells bearing the protective allele (GG). Transcriptomic analysis of rs874040(CC) memory T cells showed a repression of canonical Notch target genes IL (interleukin)-9, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)γ in the basal state. Interestingly, activation of the Notch pathway using soluble Notch ligand, Jagged2-Fc, induced IL-9 and IL-17A while delta-like 4Fc, another Notch ligand, induced higher IFNγ expression in the rs874040(CC) memory CD4(+) T cells compared with their rs874040(GG) counterparts. In RA, RBPJ expression is elevated in memory T cells from RA patients compared with control subjects, and this was associated with induced inflammatory cytokines IL-9, IL-17A and IFNγ in response to Notch ligation in vitro. These findings demonstrate that the rs874040(CC) allele skews memory T cells toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype involving Notch signaling, thus increasing the susceptibility to develop RA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Braun, Nicole A.; Celada, Lindsay J.; Herazo-Maya, Jose D.; Abraham, Susamma; Shaginurova, Guzel; Sevin, Carla M.; Grutters, Jan; Culver, Daniel A.; Dworski, Ryszard; Sheller, James; Massion, Pierre P.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Johnson, Joyce E.; Kaminski, Naftali; Wilkes, David S.; Oswald-Richter, Kyra A.
Rationale: Effective therapeutic interventions for chronic, idiopathic lung diseases remain elusive. Normalized T-cell function is an important contributor to spontaneous resolution of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Up-regulation of inhibitor receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, are important inhibitors of T-cell function. Objectives: To determine the effects of PD-1 pathway blockade on sarcoidosis CD4+ T-cell proliferative capacity. Methods: Gene expression profiles of sarcoidosis and healthy control peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed at baseline and follow-up. Flow cytometry was used to measure ex vivo expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on systemic and bronchoalveolar lavage–derived cells of subjects with sarcoidosis and control subjects, as well as the effects of PD-1 pathway blockade on cellular proliferation after T-cell receptor stimulation. Immunohistochemistry analysis for PD-1/PD-L1 expression was conducted on sarcoidosis, malignant, and healthy control lung specimens. Measurements and Main Results: Microarray analysis demonstrates longitudinal increase in PDCD1 gene expression in sarcoidosis peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed increased PD-L1 expression within sarcoidosis granulomas and lung malignancy, but this was absent in healthy lungs. Increased numbers of sarcoidosis PD-1+ CD4+ T cells are present systemically, compared with healthy control subjects (P < 0.0001). Lymphocytes with reduced proliferative capacity exhibited increased proliferation with PD-1 pathway blockade. Longitudinal analysis of subjects with sarcoidosis revealed reduced PD-1+ CD4+ T cells with spontaneous clinical resolution but not with disease progression. Conclusions: Analogous to the effects in other chronic lung diseases, these findings demonstrate that the PD-1 pathway is an important contributor to sarcoidosis CD4+ T-cell proliferative capacity and clinical outcome. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway may be a
Haqqani, Aiman A; Marek, Samantha L; Kumar, Jagadish; Davenport, Miles; Wang, Heng; Tilton, John C
Template switching between two distinct HIV-1 RNA genomes during reverse transcription gives rise to recombinant viruses that greatly expand the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and have adverse implications for drug resistance, immune escape, and vaccine design. Virions with two distinct genomes are produced exclusively from cells infected with two or more viruses, or 'doubly infected' cells. Previous studies have revealed higher than expected frequencies of doubly infected cells compared to frequencies based on chance alone, suggesting non-random enhancement of double infection. We investigated double infection of unstimulated primary CD4+ T cells using reporter viruses carrying genes for different fluorescent proteins, EGFP and mCherry, combined with sophisticated modeling techniques based on Poisson distribution. Additionally, through the use of multiparameter flow cytometry we examined the susceptibility of naïve and memory subsets of CD4+ T cells to double infection by HIV. Using our double infection system, we confirm non-random enhancement of multiple infection events. Double infection of CD4+ T cells was not found to be a consequence of suboptimal provirus expression rescued by Tat in trans-as has been reported in cell lines-but rather due to a heterogeneous cell population in which only a fraction of primary peripheral blood CD4+ T cells are susceptible to HIV infection regardless of viral titer. Intriguingly, double infection of CD4+ T cells occurred preferentially in memory CD4+ T cells-particularly the central memory (TCM) subset-but was not a consequence of SAMHD1-mediated restriction of HIV infection in naïve cells. These findings reveal that double infection in primary CD4+ T cells is primarily a consequences of cellular heterogeneity and not rescue of suboptimal provirus expression by Tat in trans. Additionally, we report a previously unappreciated phenomenon of enhanced double infection within primary TCM cells and suggest that these long-lived cells
Yun, Nadezhda E; Peng, Bi-Hung; Bertke, Andrea S; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Smith, Jennifer K; Smith, Jeanon N; Poussard, Allison L; Salazar, Milagros; Judy, Barbara M; Zacks, Michele A; Estes, D Mark; Paessler, Slobodan
Studying the mechanisms of host survival resulting from viral encephalitis is critical to the development of vaccines. Here we have shown in several independent studies that high dose treatment with neutralizing antibody prior to intranasal infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus had an antiviral effect in the visceral organs and prolonged survival time of infected mice, even in the absence of alphabeta T cells. Nevertheless, antibody treatment did not prevent the development of lethal encephalitis. On the contrary, the adoptive transfer of primed CD4(+) T cells was necessary to prevent lethal encephalitis in mice lacking alphabeta T cell receptor.
Adair, Patrick; Kim, Yong Chan; Pratt, Kathleen P.; Scott, David W.
The role of the T cell receptor (TCR) in antigen recognition and activation of T lymphocytes is well established. However, how the TCR affects T-helper differentiation/skewing is less well understood, particularly for human CD4+ (CD4) T cell subsets. Here we investigate the role of TCR specific antigen avidity in differentiation and maintenance of human Th1, Th2 and Th17 subsets. Two human TCRs, both specific for the same peptide antigen but with different avidities, were cloned and expressed in human CD4 T cells. These TCR engineered cells were then stimulated with specific antigen in unskewed and T-helper skewed conditions. We show that TCR avidity can control the percentage of IL-4 and IFN-γ co-expression in unskewed TCR engineered cells, that effector function can be maintained in a TCR avidity-dependent manner in skewed TCR engineered cells, and that increased TCR avidity can accelerate Th1 skewing of TCR engineered cells. PMID:26653006
Hamza, Eman; Gerber, Vinzenz; Steinbach, Falko; Marti, Eliane
Horses are particularly prone to allergic and autoimmune diseases, but little information about equine regulatory T cells (Treg) is currently available. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the existence of CD4+ Treg cells in horses, determine their suppressive function as well as their mechanism of action. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy horses were examined for CD4, CD25 and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression. We show that equine FoxP3 is expressed constitutively by a population of CD4+ CD25+ T cells, mainly in the CD4+ CD25high subpopulation. Proliferation of CD4+ CD25− sorted cells stimulated with irradiated allogenic PBMC was significantly suppressed in co-culture with CD4+ CD25high sorted cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of suppression by the CD4+ CD25high cell population is mediated by close contact as well as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and probably other factors. In addition, we studied the in vitro induction of CD4+ Treg and their characteristics compared to those of freshly isolated CD4+ Treg cells. Upon stimulation with a combination of concanavalin A, TGF-β1 and IL-2, CD4+ CD25+ T cells which express FoxP3 and have suppressive capability were induced from CD4+ CD25− cells. The induced CD4+ CD25high express higher levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 mRNA compared to the freshly isolated ones. Thus, in horses as in man, the circulating CD4+ CD25high subpopulation contains natural Treg cells and functional Treg can be induced in vitro upon appropriate stimulation. Our study provides the first evidence of the regulatory function of CD4+ CD25+ cells in horses and offers insights into ex vivo manipulation of Treg cells. PMID:21977999
Novitsky, Vladimir; Woldegabriel, Elias; Kebaabetswe, Lemme; Rossenkhan, Raabya; Mlotshwa, Busisiwe; Bonney, Caitlin; Finucane, Mariel; Musonda, Rosemary; Moyo, Sikhulile; Wester, Carolyn; van Widenfelt, Erik; Makhema, Joseph; Lagakos, Stephen; Essex, M.
Background Most knowledge of primary HIV-1 infection is based on subtype B studies, whereas the evolution of viral parameters in the early phase of HIV-1 subtype C infection is not well characterized. Methods The kinetics of viral RNA, proviral DNA, CD4+ T-cell count, and subsets of CD4+ T cells expressing CCR5 or CXCR4 were characterized in 8 acute and 62 recent subtype C infections over the first year postseroconversion. Results The viral RNA peak was 6.25 ± 0.92 log10 copies per milliliter. After seroconversion, heterogeneity among acute cases was evident by patterns of change in viral load and CD4+ T-cell count over time. The patterns were supported by the rate of viral RNA decline from peak (P = 0.022), viral RNA means (P = 0.005), CD4 levels (P <0.001), and CD4 decline to 350 (P = 0.011) or 200 (P = 0.046). Proviral DNA had no apparent peak and its mean was 2.59 ± 0.69 log10 per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cell. In recent infections, viral RNA set point was 4.00 ± 0.97 log10 and viral RNA correlated inversely with CD4+ T cells (P <0.001) and directly with proviral DNA (P <0.001). Conclusions Distinct patterns of viral RNA evolution may exist shortly after seroconversion in HIV-1 subtype C infection. The study provides better understanding of the early phase of subtype C infection. PMID:19295336
Jost, Stephanie; Tomezsko, Phillip John; Rands, Keith; Toth, Ildiko; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Gandhi, Rajesh Tim; Altfeld, Marcus
Increasing data suggest that NK cells can mediate antiviral activity in HIV-1-infected humans, and as such, novel approaches harnessing the anti-HIV-1 function of both T cells and NK cells represent attractive options to improve future HIV-1 immunotherapies. Chronic progressive HIV-1 infection has been associated with a loss of CD4(+) T helper cell function and with the accumulation of anergic NK cells. As several studies have suggested that cytokines produced by CD4(+) T cells are required to enhance NK cell function in various infection models, we hypothesized that reconstitution of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses by therapeutic immunization would restore NK cell activity in infected individuals. Using flow cytometry, we examined the function of CD4(+) T cells and NK cells in response to HIV-1 in subjects with treated chronic HIV-1 infection before and after immunization with an adjuvanted HIV-1 Gp120/NefTat subunit protein vaccine candidate provided by GlaxoSmithKline. Vaccination induced an increased expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by Gp120-specific CD4(+) T cells in response to HIV-1 peptides ex vivo, which was associated with enhanced production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) by NK cells. Our data show that reconstitution of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell function by therapeutic immunization can enhance NK cell activity in HIV-1-infected individuals. NK cells are effector cells of the innate immune system and are important in the control of viral infection. Recent studies have demonstrated the crucial role played by NK cells in controlling and/or limiting acquisition of HIV-1 infection. However, NK cell function is impaired during progressive HIV-1 infection. We recently showed that therapeutic immunization of treated HIV-1-infected individuals reconstituted strong T-cell responses, measured notably by their production of IL-2, a cytokine that can activate NK cells. The current study suggests that reconstitution of T-cell function by therapeutic
Prezzemolo, Teresa; Guggino, Giuliana; La Manna, Marco Pio; Di Liberto, Diana; Dieli, Francesco; Caccamo, Nadia
With 1.4 million deaths and 8.7 million new cases in 2011, tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health care problem and together with HIV and Malaria represents one of the three infectious diseases world-wide. Control of the global TB epidemic has been impaired by the lack of an effective vaccine, by the emergence of drug-resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and by the lack of sensitive and rapid diagnostics. It is estimated, by epidemiological reports, that one third of the world's population is latently infected with Mtb, but the majority of infected individuals develop long-lived protective immunity, which controls and contains Mtb in a T cell-dependent manner. Development of TB disease results from interactions among the environment, the host, and the pathogen, and known risk factors include HIV co-infection, immunodeficiency, diabetes mellitus, overcrowding, malnutrition, and general poverty; therefore, an effective T cell response determines whether the infection resolves or develops into clinically evident disease. Consequently, there is great interest in determining which T cells subsets mediate anti-mycobacterial immunity, delineating their effector functions. On the other hand, many aspects remain unsolved in understanding why some individuals are protected from Mtb infection while others go on to develop disease. Several studies have demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells are involved in protection against Mtb, as supported by the evidence that CD4(+) T cell depletion is responsible for Mtb reactivation in HIV-infected individuals. There are many subsets of CD4(+) T cells, such as T-helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs), and all these subsets co-operate or interfere with each other to control infection; the dominant subset may differ between active and latent Mtb infection cases. Mtb-specific-CD4(+) Th1 cell response is considered to have a protective role for the ability to produce cytokines such as IFN-γ or TNF-α that
Turley, Alexandra E.; Zagorski, Joseph W.; Rockwell, Cheryl E.
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates a battery of antioxidant, detoxification, and cell stress genes. It is activated by oxidative stress and a number of exogenous compounds, one of which is tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a widely used food preservative. Nrf2 modulates immune responses in numerous rodent models of inflammation, but its effects on human immune cells are not well characterized. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of the Nrf2 activator tBHQ on early events of T cell activation in primary human cells. Treatment with tBHQ induced mRNA expression of the Nrf2 target genes HMOX-1, GCLC, and NQO1, and also increased NRF2 mRNA expression, albeit to a lesser extent than the other target genes. tBHQ decreased production of the cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ at both the protein and mRNA levels after stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and to an even greater extent in isolated CD4 T cells. Likewise, tBHQ decreased induction of CD25 and CD69 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and this decrease was even more marked in isolated CD4 T cells. In addition, tBHQ inhibited induction of NFκB DNA binding in anti-CD3/anti-CD28-activated PBMCs. Collectively, these data suggest that tBHQ inhibits activation of primary human CD4 T cells, which correlates with activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NFκB DNA binding. Although these studies suggest the food additive tBHQ negatively impacts T cell activation, further studies will be needed to fully elucidate the effect of tBHQ on human immune response. PMID:25484350
Turley, Alexandra E; Zagorski, Joseph W; Rockwell, Cheryl E
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates a battery of antioxidant, detoxification, and cell stress genes. It is activated by oxidative stress and a number of exogenous compounds, one of which is tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a widely used food preservative. Nrf2 modulates immune responses in numerous rodent models of inflammation, but its effects on human immune cells are not well characterized. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of the Nrf2 activator tBHQ on early events of T cell activation in primary human cells. Treatment with tBHQ induced mRNA expression of the Nrf2 target genes HMOX-1, GCLC, and NQO1, and also increased NRF2 mRNA expression, albeit to a lesser extent than the other target genes. tBHQ decreased production of the cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ at both the protein and mRNA levels after stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and to an even greater extent in isolated CD4 T cells. Likewise, tBHQ decreased induction of CD25 and CD69 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and this decrease was even more marked in isolated CD4 T cells. In addition, tBHQ inhibited induction of NFκB DNA binding in anti-CD3/anti-CD28-activated PBMCs. Collectively, these data suggest that tBHQ inhibits activation of primary human CD4 T cells, which correlates with activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NFκB DNA binding. Although these studies suggest the food additive tBHQ negatively impacts T cell activation, further studies will be needed to fully elucidate the effect of tBHQ on human immune responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kumar, V; Stellrecht, K; Sercarz, E
T cell receptor (TCR)-recognizing regulatory cells, induced after vaccination with self-reactive T cells or TCR peptides, have been shown to prevent autoimmunity. We have asked whether this regulation is involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance to myelin basic protein (MBP) in an autoimmune disease model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Antigen-induced EAE in (SJL x B10.PL)F1 mice is transient in that most animals recover permanently from the disease. Most of the initial encephalitogenic T cells recognize MBP Ac1-9 and predominantly use the TCR V beta 8.2 gene segment. In mice recovering from MBP-induced EAE, regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg) specific for a single immunodominant TCR peptide B5 (76-101) from framework region 3 of the V beta 8.2 chain, become primed. We have earlier shown that cloned B5-reactive Treg can specifically downregulate responses to Ac1-9 and also protect mice from EAE. These CD4 Treg clones predominantly use the TCR V beta 14 or V beta 3 gene segments. Here we have directly tested whether deletion/blocking of the Treg from the peripheral repertoire affects the spontaneous recovery from EAE. Treatment of F1 mice with appropriate V beta-specific monoclonal antibodies resulted in an increase in the severity and duration of the disease; even relapses were seen in one-third to one-half of the Treg-deleted mice. Interestingly, chronic disease in treated mice appears to be due to the presence of Ac1-9-specific T cells. Thus, once self-tolerance to MBP is broken by immunization with the antigen in strong adjuvant, TCR peptide-specific CD4 Treg cells participate in reestablishing peripheral tolerance. Thus, a failure to generate Treg may be implicated in chronic autoimmune conditions.
Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Biswas, Nabanita; Patel, Mickey V.; Barr, Fiona D.; Crist, Sarah G.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Fahey, John V.; Wira, Charles R.
The magnitude of the HIV epidemic in women requires urgent efforts to find effective preventive methods. Even though sex hormones have been described to influence HIV infection in epidemiological studies and regulate different immune responses that may affect HIV infection, the direct role that female sex hormones play in altering the susceptibility of target cells to HIV-infection is largely unknown. Here we evaluated the direct effect of 17-β-estradiol (E2) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in HIV-infection of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages. Purified CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in vitro from peripheral blood and infected with R5 and X4 viruses. Treatment of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages with E2 prior to viral challenge reduced their susceptibility to HIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of E2 2 h after viral challenge however did not result in reduced infection. In contrast, EE reduced infection in macrophages to a lesser extent than E2 and had no effect on CD4+ T-cell infection. Reduction of HIV-infection induced by E2 in CD4+ T-cells was not due to CCR5 down-regulation, but was an entry-mediated mechanism since infection with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV was not modified by E2. In macrophages, despite the lack of an effect of E2 on CCR5 expression, E2–treatment reduced viral entry 2 h after challenge and increased MIP-1β secretion. These results demonstrate the direct effect of E2 on susceptibility of HIV-target cells to infection and indicate that inhibition of target cell infection involves cell-entry related mechanisms. PMID:23614015
Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Biswas, Nabanita; Patel, Mickey V; Barr, Fiona D; Crist, Sarah G; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Fahey, John V; Wira, Charles R
The magnitude of the HIV epidemic in women requires urgent effor