Science.gov

Sample records for circulation simulations applications

  1. Application of a Coupled Multiscale Atmospheric-Land Surface Model to Simulate the Snow Circulation in a Mountain Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, E.; Pomeroy, J.; Pietroniro, A.

    2009-05-01

    Snow cover spatial variability and snowmelt runoff are greatly influenced by the snow advected due to the wind- flow in the atmospheric boundary layer. Typically this has been accomplished by considering the snow as a subgrid scale problem in the atmospheric models. However, this subgrid scale approach can not be sufficient to explain the snow dynamics. Therefore a multiscale strategy where the hydrological, climatological, meteorological and physiographic conditions of a basin are related should improve the understanding of snow dynamics. This methodology was developed coupling the Global Environmental Multiscale Limited Area Model (GEM-LAM) with the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM). The GEM-LAM was used on a one-way nesting configuration to simulate the atmospheric-land fields at 100m of resolution with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) soil scheme. The CRHM is used as a snow transport model at the hydrometeorological stations located in the basin. The case of study is the 4th November 2007 at Marmot Creek (50° 57' N, 115° 10' W), Alberta, Canada. This strategy has proved to be a physics based procedure to describe the snow dynamics without interpolation methods.

  2. Anthropogenic forcing on the Hadley circulation in CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Lijun; Hu, Yongyun; Liu, Jiping

    2016-05-01

    Poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation has been an important topic in climate change studies in the past few years, and one of the critically important issues is how it is related to anthropogenic forcings. Using simulations from the coupled model intercomparison projection phase 5 (CMIP5), we study influences of anthropogenic forcings on the width and strength of the Hadley circulation. It is found that significant poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation can be reproduced in CMIP5 historical all-forcing simulations although the magnitude of trends is much weaker than observations. Simulations with individual forcings demonstrate that among three major types of anthropogenic forcings, increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and stratospheric ozone depletion all cause poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation, whereas anthropogenic aerosols do not have significant influences on the Hadley circulation. Increasing GHGs cause significant poleward expansion in both hemispheres, with the largest widening of the northern cell in boreal autumn. Stratospheric ozone depletion forces significant poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation for the southern cell in austral spring and summer and for the northern cell in boreal spring. In CMIP5 projection simulations for the twenty-first century, the magnitude of poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation increases with GHG forcing. On the other hand, ozone recovery competes with increasing GHGs in determining the width of the Hadley circulation, especially in austral summer. In both historical and projection simulations, the strength of the Hadley circulation shows significant weakening in winter in both hemispheres.

  3. Thermohaline circulation and its box models simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyura, Kateryna; Polonsky, Alexander; Sannikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    Ocean Thermochaline circulation (THC) is the part of large-scale World Ocean circulation and one of the main climate system components. It is generated by global meridional density gradients, which are controlled by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. THC regulates climate variability on different timescales (from decades to thousands years) [Stocker (2000), Clark (2002)]. Study of paleoclimatic evidences of abrupt and dramatic changes in ocean-atmosphere system in the past (such as, Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events or Younger Dryas, see e.g., [Rahmstorf (2002), Alley & Clark(1999)]) shows that these events are connected with THC regimes. At different times during last 120,000 years, three THC modes have prevailed in the Atlantic. They can be labeled as stadial, interstadial and Heinrich modes or as cold, warm and off mode. THC collapse (or thermohaline catastrophe) can be one of the consequences of global warming (including modern anthropogenic climate changes occurring at the moment). The ideas underlying different box-model studies, possibility of thermochaline catastrophe in present and past are discussed in this presentation. Response of generalized four box model of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation [developing the model of Griffies & Tzippermann (1995)] on periodic, stochastic and linear forcing is studied in details. To estimate climatic parameters of the box model we used monthly salinity and temperature data of ECMWF operational Ocean Reanalysis System 3 (ORA-S3) and data from atmospheric NCEP/NCAR reanalysis on precipitation, and heat fluxes for 1959-2011. Mean values, amplitude of seasonal cycle, amplitudes and periods of typical interdecadal oscillations, white noise level, linear trend coefficients and their significance level were estimated for every hydrophysical parameter. In response to intense freshwater or heat forcing, THC regime can change resulting in thermohaline catastrophe. We analyze relevant thresholds of external forcing in

  4. Computer simulation of the mechanically-assisted failing canine circulation.

    PubMed

    Barnea, O; Moore, T W; Jaron, D

    1990-01-01

    A model of the cardiovascular system is presented. The model includes representations of the left and right ventricles, a nonlinear multielement model of the aorta and its main branches, and lumped models of the systemic veins and the pulmonary circulation. A simulation of the intra-aortic balloon pump and representations of physiological compensatory mechanisms are also incorporated in the model. Parameters of the left ventricular model were set to simulate either the normal or failing canine circulation. Pressure and flow waveforms throughout the circulation as well as ventricular pressure and volume were calculated for the normal, failing, and assisted failing circulation. Cardiac oxygen supply and consumption were calculated from the model. They were used as direct indices of cardiac energy supply and utilization to assess the effects of cardiac assistance.

  5. Relations between winter precipitation and atmospheric circulation simulated by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Dettinger, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) simulations of atmospheric circulation are more reliable than GCM simulations of temperature and precipitation. In this study, temporal correlations between 700 hPa height anomalies simulated winter precipitation at eight locations in the conterminous United States are compared with corresponding correlations in observations. The objectives are to 1) characterize the relations between atmospheric circulation and winter precipitation simulated by the GFDL, GCM for selected locations in the conterminous USA, ii) determine whether these relations are similar to those found in observations of the actual climate system, and iii) determine if GFDL-simulated precipitation is forced by the same circulation patterns as in the real atmosphere. -from Authors

  6. Simulations of the Amazon basin circulation with a regional model

    SciTech Connect

    Horel, J.D.; Pechmann, J.B.; Hahmann, A.N.; Geisler, J.E. )

    1994-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulation over tropical South America are performed with a regional model developed at the Pennsylvania State University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research and commonly referred to as the MM4. The authors focus on a 5-day period beginning at 1200 UTC 27 February 1990. The observed circulation is evaluated in terms of initialized analysis of standard meterological variables from the National Meteorological Center, outgoing longwave radiation from polar orbiting satellites, and surface observations. The NMC analysis are also used to specify the initial conditions, as well as provide the lateral boundary conditions, for the 5-day simulations. The impacts on the simulated circulation of major changes to the standard MM4 are assessed. When an improved treatment of radiative processes is included, excessive rainfall develops over then Andes Mountains and over the Amazon Basin. The excessive rainfall is concentrated in gridpoint' storms that are not climated when the surface physical parameterizations are improved. Modifications to the treatment of the vertical transport of moisture are required to diminish the excessive rainfall. Even with these and other changes included in the model, the simulated basin-averaged rainfall continues to exhibit unrealistic features. The improved, thought still imperfect, model simulations are used to diagnose the temporal and spatial evolution of the circulation with an emphasis on equatorial-subtropical interactions.

  7. Numerical simulation of the circulation of the atmosphere of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hourdin, F.; Levan, P.; Talagrand, O.; Courtin, Regis; Gautier, Daniel; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) of Titan's atmosphere is described. Initial results obtained with an economical two dimensional (2D) axisymmetric version of the model presented a strong superrotation in the upper stratosphere. Because of this result, a more general numerical study of superrotation was started with a somewhat different version of the GCM. It appears that for a slowly rotating planet which strongly absorbs solar radiation, circulation is dominated by global equator to pole Hadley circulation and strong superrotation. The theoretical study of this superrotation is discussed. It is also shown that 2D simulations systemically lead to instabilities which make 2D models poorly adapted to numerical simulation of Titan's (or Venus) atmosphere.

  8. Numerical simulation and prediction of coastal ocean circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical simulation and prediction of coastal ocean circulation have been conducted in three cases. 1. A process-oriented modeling study is conducted to study the interaction of a western boundary current (WBC) with coastal water, and its responses to upstream topographic irregularities. It is hypothesized that the interaction of propagating WBC frontal waves and topographic Rossby waves are responsible for upstream variability. 2. A simulation of meanders and eddies in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) for February and March of 1988 is conducted with a newly developed nested dynamic interactive model. The model employs a coarse-grid, large domain to account for non-local forcing and a fine-grid nested domain to resolve meanders and eddies. The model is forced by wind stresses, heat fluxes and atmospheric pressure corresponding Feb/March of 1988, and accounts for river/fjord discharges, open ocean inflow and outflow, and M[sub 2] tides. The simulation reproduced fairly well the observed circulation, tides, and salinity features in the North Sea, Norwegian Trench and NCC region in the large domain and fairly realistic meanders and eddies in the NCC in the nested region. 3. A methodology for practical coastal ocean hindcast/forecast is developed, taking advantage of the disparate time scales of various forcing and considering wind to be the dominant factor in affecting density fluctuation in the time scale of 1 to 10 days. The density field obtained from a prognostic simulation is analyzed by the empirical orthogonal function method (EOF), and correlated with the wind; these information are then used to drive a circulation model which excludes the density calculation. The method is applied to hindcast the circulation in the New York Bight for spring and summer season of 1988. The hindcast fields compare favorably with the results obtained from the prognostic circulation model.

  9. Simulating effects of highway embankments on estuarine circulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Jonathan K.; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Baltzer, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    A two-dimensional depth-averaged, finite-difference, numerical model was used to simulate tidal circulation and mass transport in the Port Royal Sound. South Carolina, estuarine system. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the utility of the Surface-Water. Integrated. Flow and Transport model (SWIFT2D) for evaluating changes in circulation patterns and mass transport caused by highway-crossing embankments. A model of subregion of Port Royal Sound including the highway crossings and having a grid size of 61 m (200ft) was derived from a 183-m (600-ft) model of the entire Port Royal Sound estuarine system. The 183-m model was used to compute boundary-value data for the 61-m submodel, which was then used to simulate flow conditions with and without the highway embankments in place. The numerical simulations show that, with the highway embankment in place, mass transport between the Broad River and Battery Creek is reduced and mass transport between the Beaufort River and Battery Creek is increased. The net result is that mass transport into and out of upper Battery Creek is reduced. The presence of the embankments also alters circulation patterns within Battery Creek.

  10. Process simulation of a circulating fluidized bed coal combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Legros, R.; Sotudeh-Gharebaagh, R.; Paris, J.; Chaouki, J.; Preto, F.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of this work is the development of a process simulator for a Circulating Fluidized Bed coal Combustor (CFBC). The development of a simple comprehensive model for coal combustion in a CFBC is based on existing work reported in the literature. The model combines the hydrodynamic features of a CFBC riser with the different reaction steps involved during coal combustion, including the sulphur capture by limestone particles. The commercial process simulation program ASPEN PLUS was chosen as a framework for the development of the CFBC process simulator. ASPEN PLUS has been widely accepted in the chemical industry as a design tool because of its ability to simulate various chemical processes, including power generation cycles. In ASPEN PLUS, several ideal chemical reactor models involving solids are available for simulation purposes. The CFBC process simulator is constructed using several ASPEN PLUS unit operation blocks. The information required for each block is obtained from the combustion and hydrodynamic models, which are inserted into the simulation flowsheet as subroutines or internal programs. The resulting CFBC process simulator is used to predict the performance of the CFBC pilot plant at Energy Research laboratories, CANMET in Ottawa.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Regional Circulation in the Monterey Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. H.; Dietrich, D. E.; Ferziger, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to produce a high-resolution numerical model of Mon- terey Bay area in which the dynamics are determined by the complex geometry of the coastline, steep bathymetry, and the in uence of the water masses that constitute the CCS. Our goal is to simulate the regional-scale ocean response with realistic dynamics (annual cycle), forcing, and domain. In particular, we focus on non-hydrostatic e ects (by comparing the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models) and the role of complex geometry, i.e. the bay and submarine canyon, on the nearshore circulation. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the rst to simulate the regional circulation in the vicinity of Monterey Bay using a non-hydrostatic model. Section 2 introduces the high resolution Monterey Bay area regional model (MBARM). Section 3 provides the results and veri cation with mooring and satellite data. Section 4 compares the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models.

  12. A simulation of the global ocean circulation with resolved eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semtner, Albert J.; Chervin, Robert M.

    1988-12-01

    A multilevel primitive-equation model has been constructed for the purpose of simulating ocean circulation on modern supercomputing architectures. The model is designed to take advantage of faster clock speeds, increased numbers of processors, and enlarged memories of machines expected to be available over the next decade. The model allows global eddy-resolving simulations to be conducted in support of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Furthermore, global ocean modeling is essential for proper representation of the full range of oceanic and climatic phenomena. The first such global eddy-resolving ocean calculation is reported here. A 20-year integration of a global ocean model with ½° grid spacing and 20 vertical levels has been carried out with realistic geometry and annual mean wind forcing. The temperature and salinity are constrained to Levitus gridded data above 25-m depth and below 710-m depth (on time scales of 1 month and 3 years, respectively), but the values in the main thermocline are unconstrained for the last decade of the calculation. The final years of the simulation allow the spontaneous formation of waves and eddies through the use of scale-selective viscosity and diffusion. A quasi-equilibrium state shows many realistic features of ocean circulation, including unstable separating western boundary currents, the known anomalous northward heat transport in the South Atlantic, and a global compensation for the abyssal spread of North Atlantic Deep Water via a long chain of thermocline mass transport from the tropical Pacific, through the Indonesian archipelago, across the Indian Ocean, and around the southern tip of Africa. This chain of thermocline transport is perhaps the most striking result from the model, and eddies and waves are evident along the entire 20,000-km path of the flow. The modeled Gulf Stream separates somewhat north of Cape Hatteras, produces warm- and cold-core rings, and maintains its integrity as a meadering thermal front

  13. Mars atmospheric dynamics as simulated by the NASA AMES General Circulation Model. I - The zonal-mean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Pollack, J. B.; Barnes, J. R.; Zurek, R. W.; Leovy, C. B.; Murphy, J. R.; Lee, H.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-02-01

    The characteristics of the zonal-mean circulation and how it responds to seasonal variations and dust loading are described. This circulation is the main momentum-containing component of the general circulation, and it plays a dominant role in the budgets of heat and momentum. It is shown that in many ways the zonal-mean circulation on Mars, at least as simulated by the model, is similar to that on earth, having Hadley and Ferrel cells and high-altitude jet streams. However, the Martian systems tend to be deeper, more intense, and much more variable with season. Furthermore, the radiative effects of suspended dust particles, even in small amounts, have a major influence on the general circulation.

  14. Comparison of Cenozoic atmospheric general circulation model simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Paleocene, Eocene, Miocene and present day (with polar ice) geography are specified as the lower boundary condition in a mean annual, energy balance ocean version of the Community Climate Model (CCM), a spectral General Circulation Model of the Atmosphere developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. This version of the CCM has a 4.5/sup 0/ latitudinal and 7.5/sup 0/ longitudinal resolution with 9 vertical levels and includes predictions for pressure, winds, temperature, evaporation, precipitation, cloud cover, snow cover and sea ice. The model simulations indicate little geographically-induced climates changes from the Paleocene to the Miocene, but substantial differences between the Miocene and the present simulations. The simulated climate differences between the Miocene and present day include: 1) cooler present temperatures (2/sup 0/C in tropics, 15-35 C in polar latitudes) with the exception of warmer subtropical desert conditions, 2) a generally weaker present hydrologic cycle, with greater subtropical aridity, 3) strengthened present day westerly jets with a slight poleward displacement, and 4) the largest regional climate changes associated with Antarctica. The results of the climate model sensitivity experiments have considerable implications for understanding how geography influences climate.

  15. VCSEL Applications and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson; Goorjian, Peter; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Li, Jian-Zhong

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) simulation and its applications. Details are given on the optical interconnection in information technology of VCSEL, the formulation of the simulation, its numeric algorithm, and the computational results.

  16. Self-biased circulators for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexander S.

    Self-biased circulators exploit the properties of high anisotropy magnetic field in hexagonal ferrites, thus allowing operation without biasing magnets and a significant size and weight reduction. Although first self-biased circulators were demonstrated more than 20 years ago, all the prototypes constructed so far are unsuitable for practical applications. An attempt to design a self-biased circulator from scratch was made. Novel exceptionally low dielectric loss and high heat conductivity ceramic materials were developed and innovative substrate synthesis techniques were employed. Low temperature cofiring of green body ferrite compacts and dielectric ceramic slurries were mastered, resulting in solid composite substrates. Original device design was developed. Key features (including wide coupling angles, wide microstriplines, thick substrate, and absence of impedance transformers) enable low insertion loss, broadband operation, high power handling, and compact size. Fabrication and testing of Ka band Y-junction self-biased circulator are reported herein. Furthermore, design approach and fabrication techniques developed here can be readily applied for the construction of X-band self-biased circulators, provided that suitable ferrite materials are available. Low temperature cofiring of ferrite and dielectric materials is especially beneficial for various RF and high-frequency applications. Multiple devices can be readily fabricated on a single wafer using conventional lithographic techniques, resulting in true microwave monolithic integrated circuit.

  17. Sensitivity simulations of superparameterised convection in a general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybka, Harald; Tost, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs) covering a horizontal grid spacing from a few hundred meters up to a few kilometers have been used to explicitly resolve small-scale and mesoscale processes. Special attention has been paid to realistically represent cloud dynamics and cloud microphysics involving cloud droplets, ice crystals, graupel and aerosols. The entire variety of physical processes on the small-scale interacts with the larger-scale circulation and has to be parameterised on the coarse grid of a general circulation model (GCM). Since more than a decade an approach to connect these two types of models which act on different scales has been developed to resolve cloud processes and their interactions with the large-scale flow. The concept is to use an ensemble of CRM grid cells in a 2D or 3D configuration in each grid cell of the GCM to explicitly represent small-scale processes avoiding the use of convection and large-scale cloud parameterisations which are a major source for uncertainties regarding clouds. The idea is commonly known as superparameterisation or cloud-resolving convection parameterisation. This study presents different simulations of an adapted Earth System Model (ESM) connected to a CRM which acts as a superparameterisation. Simulations have been performed with the ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry (EMAC) model comparing conventional GCM runs (including convection and large-scale cloud parameterisations) with the improved superparameterised EMAC (SP-EMAC) modeling one year with prescribed sea surface temperatures and sea ice content. The sensitivity of atmospheric temperature, precipiation patterns, cloud amount and types is observed changing the embedded CRM represenation (orientation, width, no. of CRM cells, 2D vs. 3D). Additionally, we also evaluate the radiation balance with the new model configuration, and systematically analyse the impact of tunable parameters on the radiation budget and hydrological cycle. Furthermore, the subgrid

  18. An interactive computer simulator of the circulation for knowledge acquisition in cardio-anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Popp, H J; Schecke, T; Rau, G; Käsmacher, H; Kalff, G

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge-based decision support systems for use in cardio-anesthesia can provide online support to the anesthesiologist by generating intelligent alarms. However, the acquisition and validation of a consistent knowledge base for this application bears problems related to the transfer of clinical experiences into a rule system. An interactive simulator of the human circulation is presented that supports the process of knowledge acquisition and testing. The simulator can be controlled in realtime by an anesthesiologist during the simulation run thus providing a basis for interdisciplinary discussion of routine as well as critical situations. The output data can be transferred to a knowledge-based system for test purposes. The simulator is currently being used for the development of the Anesthesia Expert Assist System AES-2. With regard to the special application a model of the heart-function was integrated which enables the simulation of heart insufficiency. Simulation runs under various conditions are presented and discussed. The simulator was implemented on an ATARI ST personal computer. PMID:1779177

  19. Hospitable archean climates simulated by a general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2013-07-01

    Evidence from ancient sediments indicates that liquid water and primitive life were present during the Archean despite the faint young Sun. To date, studies of Archean climate typically utilize simplified one-dimensional models that ignore clouds and ice. Here, we use an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed-layer ocean model to simulate the climate circa 2.8 billion years ago when the Sun was 20% dimmer than it is today. Surface properties are assumed to be equal to those of the present day, while ocean heat transport varies as a function of sea ice extent. Present climate is duplicated with 0.06 bar of CO2 or alternatively with 0.02 bar of CO2 and 0.001 bar of CH4. Hot Archean climates, as implied by some isotopic reconstructions of ancient marine cherts, are unattainable even in our warmest simulation having 0.2 bar of CO2 and 0.001 bar of CH4. However, cooler climates with significant polar ice, but still dominated by open ocean, can be maintained with modest greenhouse gas amounts, posing no contradiction with CO2 constraints deduced from paleosols or with practical limitations on CH4 due to the formation of optically thick organic hazes. Our results indicate that a weak version of the faint young Sun paradox, requiring only that some portion of the planet's surface maintain liquid water, may be resolved with moderate greenhouse gas inventories. Thus, hospitable late Archean climates are easily obtained in our climate model.

  20. Hospitable archean climates simulated by a general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2013-07-01

    Evidence from ancient sediments indicates that liquid water and primitive life were present during the Archean despite the faint young Sun. To date, studies of Archean climate typically utilize simplified one-dimensional models that ignore clouds and ice. Here, we use an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed-layer ocean model to simulate the climate circa 2.8 billion years ago when the Sun was 20% dimmer than it is today. Surface properties are assumed to be equal to those of the present day, while ocean heat transport varies as a function of sea ice extent. Present climate is duplicated with 0.06 bar of CO2 or alternatively with 0.02 bar of CO2 and 0.001 bar of CH4. Hot Archean climates, as implied by some isotopic reconstructions of ancient marine cherts, are unattainable even in our warmest simulation having 0.2 bar of CO2 and 0.001 bar of CH4. However, cooler climates with significant polar ice, but still dominated by open ocean, can be maintained with modest greenhouse gas amounts, posing no contradiction with CO2 constraints deduced from paleosols or with practical limitations on CH4 due to the formation of optically thick organic hazes. Our results indicate that a weak version of the faint young Sun paradox, requiring only that some portion of the planet's surface maintain liquid water, may be resolved with moderate greenhouse gas inventories. Thus, hospitable late Archean climates are easily obtained in our climate model. PMID:23808659

  1. Simulations of the Amazon Basin circulation using the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model

    SciTech Connect

    Hahmann, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    A regional model has been used to investigate dynamical processes that control the circulation over the Amazon Basin. The application of a regional model to the Amazon Basin is unique and the method in which the model output is diagnosed is distinct. Two synoptic cases describe the ability of the regional model to simulate the circulation over the Amazon Basin. The first case, 15-17 April 1990, represents an example of the dominant circulation over the basin during the summer. The second case study occurs 27 February-1 March 1990. At the onset of this period, a vigorous trough is located in the subtropical westerlies of the Southern Hemisphere, which promotes advection of drier air by the low-level southerly flow into the southern part of the Basin. There is limited agreement between the observed circulation and the model simulations for the case studies. The model appears to simulate a number of dynamical processes known to take place. The timing of individual rain bands and their locations differ significantly from those observed. The sensitivity of the model simulation to the size of the grid spacing and the domain reveal that the regional circulation is most economically simulated with a nested domain and 60 km grid spacing. Larger grid spacings lead to excessive rainfall totals near the Andes Mountains and circulations that are unrealistic. Restricted domains (Amazon Basin only) produce excessive precipitation along the horizontal boundaries. Model simulations using several different combinations of convective and explicit precipitation parameterizations are performed. Experiments using the explicit moisture scheme without a cumulus parameterization scheme show the development of grid point instabilities. These instabilities result from interaction processes among latent heat release, large-scale moisture convergence, and surface pressure. When the Kuo-Anthes cumulus parameterization is included, grid point instabilities are substantially reduced.

  2. Aspects of Numerical Simulation of Circulation Control Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Anders, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The mass-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for circulation control airfoils. Numerical solutions are computed with a multigrid method that uses an implicit approximate factorization smoother. The effects of flow conditions (e.g., free-stream Mach number, angle of attack, momentum coefficient) and mesh on the prediction of circulation control airfoil flows are considered. In addition, the impact of turbulence modeling, including curvature effects and modifications to reduce eddy viscosity levels in the wall jet (i.e., Coanda flow), is discussed. Computed pressure distributions are compared with available experimental data.

  3. Postural reactions of circulation and its regulation during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. I.; Valyev, V. A.; Kirillov, M. V.; Gornago, V. A.

    The extention and intensification of space exploration the influence of weightlessness on human organism and the formation of a new level of adaptation. The studies of blood circulation is very important because of freguent occurance of cardiovascular disorders in the middle age sudjects. In connection with extention and intensification of space exploration the influence of weightlessness on human organism and the formation of a new level of adaptation mechanisms acguires a special significance (5, 9, 10). The data obtained in recently undertaken model experiments (1, 5, 10), and also during space flights (5, 9) indicate that weightlessness in many ways affects various physiological systems of organism, and first of all cardiovascular system with the development of reflex, humoral and metabolic reactions. It also indicates, that the changes in functioning of cardiovascular system brings about the discruption of its regular responses, which is foremost expressed in decreased antigravitational response, which manifests itself in lowered orthostatic stability (2, 4, 6). It is worth mentioning, that the changes during previous investigations of haemodynamics were mainly carried out with the subjects under forty, therefore agerelated specific features of blood circulation system response are described in a few articles (5, 8). The studies of the kind are especially important because of frequent occurence of cardiovascular disorders such as heart and brain vessels atherosclerosis, hypertension in the middle age, which can to a great extent complicate and affect the "acute" period of adaptation to weightlessness and readaptation process.

  4. Numerical simulation of losses along a natural circulation helium loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knížat, Branislav; Urban, František; Mlkvik, Marek; RidzoÅ, František; Olšiak, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    A natural circulation helium loop appears to be a perspective passive method of a nuclear reactor cooling. When designing this device, it is important to analyze the mechanism of an internal flow. The flow of helium in the loop is set in motion due to a difference of hydrostatic pressures between cold and hot branch. Steady flow at a requested flow rate occurs when the buoyancy force is adjusted to resistances against the flow. Considering the fact that the buoyancy force is proportional to a difference of temperatures in both branches, it is important to estimate the losses correctly in the process of design. The paper deals with the calculation of losses in branches of the natural circulation helium loop by methods of CFD. The results of calculations are an important basis for the hydraulic design of both exchangers (heater and cooler). The analysis was carried out for the existing model of a helium loop of the height 10 m and nominal heat power 250 kW.

  5. AFES (Atmospheric general circulation model For the Earth Simulator) simulation for Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko; Imamura, Takeshi; Takagi, Masahiro; Matsuda, Yoshihisa; Ando, Hiroki; Kashimura, Hiroki; Ohfuchi, Wataru; Enomoto, Takeshi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki

    We have developed an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) for Venus on the basis of AFES (AGCM For the Earth Simulator) and performed a very high-resolution simulation. The highest model resolution is T159L120; 0.75 degree times 0.75 degree latitude and longitude grids with 120 vertical layers (Δz is about 1 km). In the model, the atmosphere is dry and forced by the solar heating with the diurnal change and Newtonian cooling that relaxes the temperature to the zonally uniform basic temperature which has a virtual static stability of Venus with almost neutral layers. A fast zonal wind in a solid-body rotation is given as the initial state. In this paper, we will report several results newly obtained by this model. 1. Baroclinic instability appears in the cloud layer with small static stability and large vertical shear of the zonal flow. 2. Polar vortex is self-consistently generated by barotropic instability whose horizontal and vertical structure is consistent with the previous observations. 3. Kinetic energy spectra decreases by -5/3 power law in a range from wavenumber 4 to 45, whose range is different from that on Earth. Finally, we are now constructing the accurate radiation model of the Venus atmosphere.

  6. Simulation and optimization of airlift external circulation membrane bioreactor using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Qing, Zhang; Rongle, Xu; Xiang, Zheng; Yaobo, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The airlift external circulation membrane bioreactor (AEC-MBR) is a new MBR consisting of a separated aeration tank and membrane tank with circulating pipes fixed between the two tanks. The circulating pipe is called a H circulating pipe (HCP) because of its shape. With the complex configuration, it was difficult but necessary to master the AEC-MBR's hydraulic characteristics. In this paper, simulation and optimization of the AEC-MBR was performed using computational fluid dynamics. The distance from diffusers to membrane modules, i.e. the height of gas-liquid mixing zone (h(m)), and its effect on velocity distribution at membrane surfaces were studied. Additionally, the role of HCP and the effect of HCP's diameter on circulation were simulated and analyzed. The results showed that non-uniformity of cross-flow velocity existed in the flat-plate membrane modules, and the problem could be alleviated by increasing hm to an optimum range (h(m)/B ≥ 0.55; B is total static depth). Also, the low velocity in the boundary layer on the membrane surface was another reason for membrane fouling. The results also suggested that HCP was necessary and it had an optimum diameter to make circulation effective in the AEC-MBR. PMID:24804658

  7. Design and Application of Novel Horizontal Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lit, Q. H.; Zhang, Y. G.; Meng, A. H.

    The vertical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler has been found wide application in power generation and tends to be enlarged in capacity. Because CFB is one of environment friendly and high efficiency combustion technologies, the CFB boiler has also been expected to be used in the industrial area, such as textile mill, region heating, brewery, seed drying and so on. However, the necessary height of furnace is hard to be implemented for CFB with especially small capacity. Thereby, a novel horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler has been proposed and developed. The horizontal CFB is composed of primary combustion chamber, secondary combustion chamber, burnout chamber, cyclone, loop seal, heat recovery area. The primary combustion chamber is a riser like as that in vertical CFB, and the secondary combustion chamber is a downward passage that is a natural extension of the primary riser, which can reduce the overall height of the boiler. In some extent, the burnout chamber is also the extension of primary riser. The capacity of horizontal CFB is about 4.2-24.5MWth (6-35t/h) steam output or equivalent hot water supply. The hot water boiler of 7MWth and steam boilers of 4.2MWth (6t/h) and 10.5MWth (15t/h) are all designed and working well now. The three units of hot water horizontal CFB boiler were erected in the Neimenggu Autonomous Region, Huhehaote city for region heating. The three units of steam horizontal CFB has been installed in Yunnan, Jiang Xi and Guangdong provinces, respectively. The basic principle for horizontal CFB and experiences for designing and operating are presented in this paper. Some discussions are also given to demonstrate the promising future of horizontal CFB.

  8. Evaluating Parameterizations in General Circulation Models: Climate Simulation Meets Weather Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T J; Potter, G L; Williamson, D L; Cederwall, R T; Boyle, J S; Fiorino, M; Hnilo, J J; Olson, J G; Xie, S; Yio, J J

    2004-05-06

    To significantly improve the simulation of climate by general circulation models (GCMs), systematic errors in representations of relevant processes must first be identified, and then reduced. This endeavor demands that the GCM parameterizations of unresolved processes, in particular, should be tested over a wide range of time scales, not just in climate simulations. Thus, a numerical weather prediction (NWP) methodology for evaluating model parameterizations and gaining insights into their behavior may prove useful, provided that suitable adaptations are made for implementation in climate GCMs. This method entails the generation of short-range weather forecasts by a realistically initialized climate GCM, and the application of six-hourly NWP analyses and observations of parameterized variables to evaluate these forecasts. The behavior of the parameterizations in such a weather-forecasting framework can provide insights on how these schemes might be improved, and modified parameterizations then can be tested in the same framework. In order to further this method for evaluating and analyzing parameterizations in climate GCMs, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding a joint venture of its Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT). This article elaborates the scientific rationale for CAPT, discusses technical aspects of its methodology, and presents examples of its implementation in a representative climate GCM.

  9. Simulation of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, A.; Hasumi, H.; Abe-Ouchi, A.

    2008-12-01

    The ocean circulation in the Atlantic deep ocean is characterized by thermohaline circulation driven by deep convection in northern high latitudes. The heat transport associated with this circulation is comparable to that by atmosphere and has a great role in the present climate. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is believed to change in past and future climate changes. Coupled model simulations suggest that the AMOC becomes weak in the future global warming climate. Geological evidence such as carbon isotope ratio indicates that the AMOC was weaker and shallower than the present at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). As for global warming climate, almost all model results reach consensus that the Atlantic deep circulation weakens in global warming climate. On the other hand, there is wide discrepancy in simulation of the Atlantic deep circulation at the LGM. Weber et al. (2007) report results of Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project where half of models reproduce the weakening of the Atlantic deep circulation but the other half simulates the strengthening. The reason for this disagreement between models has not been clarified yet, and investigation on the mechanism of weakening of the Atlantic deep circulation at the LGM is one of the most important topics in the paleoclimate studies. In this study, by using results of a coupled climate model (MIROC), we focus on role of changes in the sea surface heat and freshwater fluxes and investigate their role in controlling the AMOC at the LGM. In order to individually evaluate role of heat and freshwater fluxes, we conduct additional ocean general circulation model simulations under the sea surface heat/freshwater flux conditions obtained from the present and LGM simulations by MIROC. The results suggest that the freshwater flux changes contribute to weakening of the AMOC at the LGM, whereas the heat flux changes make the AMOC at the LGM stronger than the present. In the presentation, we are

  10. Observation and simulation of wind-driven lateral circulation in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Li, M.; Boicourt, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Three-month long mooring data are collected in Chesapeake Bay to investigate the lateral circulation driven by wind. The clockwise and counterclockwise lateral circulations (look into estuary) derived by the Ekman transport are observed during up-estuary and down-estuary winds, respectively. Different from the clockwise circulation, the counterclockwise circulation shows an asymmetry because the lateral velocity in the left side of the circulation is significantly weakened. In the entire observation period, the observed surface lateral (sub-tidal) velocity and along-channel wind speed have a linear relationship, but it occurs only in the right (eastern) side of the bay because of the asymmetry. During the set-down phase of up-estuary and down-estuary winds, enhanced bottom lateral currents can be observed. However, the enhanced bottom current during down-estuary wind only appears in the right side of the bay, while it can be found in the entire cross-channel section during up-estuary wind. In the deep channel (right side of the bay), there is a linear correlation between the bottom lateral current and along-channel sub-tidal velocity, suggesting that the enhanced bottom lateral current is generated by the bottom stress associated with the along-channel current. A realistic ROMS model reproduces temporal variation of the surface and bottom lateral circulations during up-estuary and down-estuary well. The diagnostic analyses of the momentum equation in ROMS model suggest that the lateral pressure gradient, which is induced by water accumulation in the left side of the bay and steepening of isopycnals caused by the counterclockwise circulation, inhibits surface Ekman transport under the down-estuary wind and generates a clockwise lateral circulation in the end of the down-estuary wind in the left side of the bay. Our observations and numerical simulations indicate that the sub-tidal lateral circulation in Chesapeake Bay is dominated by the Ekman transport caused by

  11. Cloud-radiative effects on implied oceanic energy transports as simulated by atmospheric general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J.; Randall, D.A.; Boer, G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes the ocean surface net energy flux simulated by fifteen atmospheric general circulation models constrained by realistically-varying sea surface temperatures and sea ice as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. In general, the simulated energy fluxes are within the very large observational uncertainties. However, the annual mean oceanic meridional heat transport that would be required to balance the simulated surface fluxes is shown to be critically sensitive to the radiative effects to clouds, to the extent that even the sign of the Southern Hemisphere ocean heat transport can be affected by the errors in simulated cloud-radiation interactions. It is suggested that improved treatment of cloud radiative effects should help in the development of coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation models. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Cloud-radiative effects on implied oceanic energy transport as simulated by atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleckler, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Boer, G.; Colman, R.; Dix, M.; Galin, V.; Helfand, M.; Kiehl, J.; Kitoh, A.; Lau, W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the ocean surface net energy flux simulated by fifteen atmospheric general circulation models constrained by realistically-varying sea surface temperatures and sea ice as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. In general, the simulated energy fluxes are within the very large observational uncertainties. However, the annual mean oceanic meridional heat transport that would be required to balance the simulated surface fluxes is shown to be critically sensitive to the radiative effects of clouds, to the extent that even the sign of the Southern Hemisphere ocean heat transport can be affected by the errors in simulated cloud-radiation interactions. It is suggested that improved treatment of cloud radiative effects should help in the development of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models.

  13. MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION DYNAMICS FROM 3D MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Passos, Dário; Charbonneau, Paul; Miesch, Mark

    2015-02-10

    The form of solar meridional circulation is a very important ingredient for mean field flux transport dynamo models. However, a shroud of mystery still surrounds this large-scale flow, given that its measurement using current helioseismic techniques is challenging. In this work, we use results from three-dimensional global simulations of solar convection to infer the dynamical behavior of the established meridional circulation. We make a direct comparison between the meridional circulation that arises in these simulations and the latest observations. Based on our results, we argue that there should be an equatorward flow at the base of the convection zone at mid-latitudes, below the current maximum depth helioseismic measures can probe (0.75 R{sub ⊙}). We also provide physical arguments to justify this behavior. The simulations indicate that the meridional circulation undergoes substantial changes in morphology as the magnetic cycle unfolds. We close by discussing the importance of these dynamical changes for current methods of observation which involve long averaging periods of helioseismic data. Also noteworthy is the fact that these topological changes indicate a rich interaction between magnetic fields and plasma flows, which challenges the ubiquitous kinematic approach used in the vast majority of mean field dynamo simulations.

  14. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  15. Numerical simulation of the general circulation of the atmosphere of Titan.

    PubMed

    Hourdin, F; Talagrand, O; Sadourny, R; Courtin, R; Gautier, D; McKay, C P

    1995-10-01

    The atmospheric circulation of Titan is investigated with a general circulation model. The representation of the large-scale dynamics is based on a grid point model developed and used at Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique for climate studies. The code also includes an accurate representation of radiative heating and cooling by molecular gases and haze as well as a parametrization of the vertical turbulent mixing of momentum and potential temperature. Long-term simulations of the atmospheric circulation are presented. Starting from a state of rest, the model spontaneously produces a strong superrotation with prograde equatorial winds (i.e., in the same sense as the assumed rotation of the solid body) increasing from the surface to reach 100 m sec-1 near the 1-mbar pressure level. Those equatorial winds are in very good agreement with some indirect observations, especially those of the 1989 occultation of Star 28-Sgr by Titan. On the other hand, the model simulates latitudinal temperature contrasts in the stratosphere that are significantly weaker than those observed by Voyager 1 which, we suggest, may be partly due to the nonrepresentation of the spatial and temporal variations of the abundances of molecular species and haze. We present diagnostics of the simulated atmospheric circulation underlying the importance of the seasonal cycle and a tentative explanation for the creation and maintenance of the atmospheric superrotation based on a careful angular momentum budget. PMID:11538593

  16. Verification of the isotopic composition of precipitation simulated by a regional isotope circulation model over Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Masahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Yoshimura, Kei

    2016-01-01

    The isotopic composition (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) of precipitation simulated by a regional isotope circulation model with a horizontal resolution of 10, 30 and 50 km was compared with observations at 56 sites over Japan in 2013. All simulations produced reasonable spatio-temporal variations in δ(18)O in precipitation over Japan, except in January. In January, simulated δ(18)O values in precipitation were higher than observed values on the Pacific side of Japan, especially during an explosively developing extratropical cyclone event. This caused a parameterisation of precipitation formulation about the large fraction of precipitated water to liquid detrained water in the lower troposphere. As a result, most water vapour that transported from the Sea of Japan precipitated on the Sea of Japan side. The isotopic composition of precipitation was a useful verification tool for the parameterisation of precipitation formulation as well as large-scale moisture transport processes in the regional isotope circulation model.

  17. Three dimensional simulation of transport and fate of oil spill under wave induced circulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyi; Peter Sheng, Y

    2014-03-15

    An oil spill model is developed and coupled to a current-wave model to simulate oil spill transport in aquatic environments where waves are present. The oil spill model incorporates physical-chemical processes of oil spill, and simulates oil slick transport by a circulation-driven Lagrangian Parcel model. Using the coupled oil spill model and the current-wave model CH3D-SWAN, a laboratory observed wave induced circulation and oil slick evolution are successfully simulated, while different current-wave coupling schemes generate different flow patterns and oil slick evolution. The modeling system is also shown to simulate Langmuir circulation and resulting oil slicks. Hypothetical scenarios of oil spill near Virginia coast during Hurricane Isabel and Irene are simulated using the oil spill model and the CH3D-Storm Surge Modeling System to assess the role of storm waves during oil spill. The spill area is significantly larger when storm waves are considered, implying waves significantly increase oil spill dispersion.

  18. The Early Jurassic climate: General circulation model simulations and the paleoclimate record

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of several general circulation model simulations of the Early Jurassic climate. The general circulation model employed was developed at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies while most paleoclimate data were provided by the Paleographic Atlas Project of the University of Chicago. The first chapter presents an Early Jurassic base simulation, which uses detailed reconstructions of paleogeography, vegetation, and sea surface temperature as boundary condition data sets. The resulting climatology reveals an Earth 5.2[degrees]C warmer, globally, than at present and a latitudinal temperature gradient dominated by high-latitude warming (+20[degrees]C) and little tropical change (+1[degrees]C). Comparisons show a good correlation between simulated results and paleoclimate data. Sensitivity experiments are used to investigate any model-data mismatches. Chapters two and three discuss two important aspects of Early Jurassic climate, continental aridity and global warming. Chapter two focuses on the hydrological capabilities of the general circulation model. The general circulation model's hydrologic diagnostics are evaluated, using the distribution of modern deserts and Early Jurassic paleoclimate data as validating constraints. A new method, based on general circulation model diagnostics and empirical formulae, is proposed for evaluating moisture balance. Chapter three investigates the cause of past global warming, concentrating on the role of increased ocean heat transport. Early Jurassic simulations show that increased ocean heat transports may have been a major factor in past climates. Increased ocean heat transports create latitudinal temperature gradients that closely approximate paleoclimate data and solve the problem of tropical overheating that results from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Increased carbon dioxide cannot duplicate the Jurassic climate without also including increased ocean heat transports.

  19. General circulation model simulations of winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Legates, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, observed sea-level pressures were used to evaluate winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America simulated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation models. The objective of the study is to determine how similar the spatial and temporal distributions of GCM-simulated daily sea-level pressures over North America are to observed distributions. Overall, both models are better at reproducing observed within-season variance of winter and summer sea-level pressures than they are at simulating the magnitude of mean winter and summer sea-level pressures. -from Authors

  20. Simulation of the great plains low-level jet and associated clouds by general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, S.J.; Bian, X.; Corsetti, L.

    1996-07-01

    The low-level jet frequently observed in the Great Plains of the United States forms preferentially at night and apparently influences the timing of the thunderstorms in the region. The authors have found that both the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts general circulation model and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model simulate the low-level jet rather well, although the spatial distribution of the jet frequency simulated by the two GCM`s differ considerably. Sensitivity experiments have demonstrated that the simulated low-level jet is surprisingly robust, with similar simulations at much coarser horizontal and vertical resolutions. However, both GCM`s fail to simulate the observed relationship between clouds and the low-level jet. The pronounced nocturnal maximum in thunderstorm frequency associated with the low-level jet is not simulated well by either GCM, with only weak evidence of a nocturnal maximum in the Great Plains. 36 refs., 20 figs.

  1. The Sensitivity of WRF Daily Summertime Simulations over West Africa to Alternative Parameterizations. Part 1: African Wave Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Erik; Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) as a West African regional-atmospheric model is evaluated. The study tests the sensitivity of WRF-simulated vorticity maxima associated with African easterly waves to 64 combinations of alternative parameterizations in a series of simulations in September. In all, 104 simulations of 12-day duration during 11 consecutive years are examined. The 64 combinations combine WRF parameterizations of cumulus convection, radiation transfer, surface hydrology, and PBL physics. Simulated daily and mean circulation results are validated against NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and NCEP/Department of Energy Global Reanalysis 2. Precipitation is considered in a second part of this two-part paper. A wide range of 700-hPa vorticity validation scores demonstrates the influence of alternative parameterizations. The best WRF performers achieve correlations against reanalysis of 0.40-0.60 and realistic amplitudes of spatiotemporal variability for the 2006 focus year while a parallel-benchmark simulation by the NASA Regional Model-3 (RM3) achieves higher correlations, but less realistic spatiotemporal variability. The largest favorable impact on WRF-vorticity validation is achieved by selecting the Grell-Devenyi cumulus convection scheme, resulting in higher correlations against reanalysis than simulations using the Kain-Fritch convection. Other parameterizations have less-obvious impact, although WRF configurations incorporating one surface model and PBL scheme consistently performed poorly. A comparison of reanalysis circulation against two NASA radiosonde stations confirms that both reanalyses represent observations well enough to validate the WRF results. Validation statistics for optimized WRF configurations simulating the parallel period during 10 additional years are less favorable than for 2006.

  2. Numerical simulation on casing modification of a boiler water circulation pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Z.; Fan, Y. Z.; Liu, S. H.; Wu, Y. L.; Zuo, Z. G.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, hydraulic performance comparisons are made by numerical simulation method on boiler water circulation pump with casings of different shapes. The existing pump adopts a semispherical casing and a garlic-shaped casing. Results show that in the garlic-shaped casing noticeable swirling vortex can be found in the top region of the discharge nozzle, and semispherical casing has better performance in hydraulic efficiency and head.

  3. Recent results from the GISS model of the global atmosphere. [circulation simulation for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, R. C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Large numerical atmospheric circulation models are in increasingly widespread use both for operational weather forecasting and for meteorological research. The results presented here are from a model developed at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and described in detail by Somerville et al. (1974). This model is representative of a class of models, recently surveyed by the Global Atmospheric Research Program (1974), designed to simulate the time-dependent, three-dimensional, large-scale dynamics of the earth's atmosphere.

  4. A heuristic simulation model of Lake Ontario circulation and mass balance transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, J.E.; Chalupnicki, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The redistribution of suspended organisms and materials by large-scale currents is part of natural ecological processes in large aquatic systems but can contribute to ecosystem disruption when exotic elements are introduced into the system. Toxic compounds and planktonic organisms spend various lengths of time in suspension before settling to the bottom or otherwise being removed. We constructed a simple physical simulation model, including the influence of major tributaries, to qualitatively examine circulation patterns in Lake Ontario. We used a simple mass balance approach to estimate the relative water input to and export from each of 10 depth regime-specific compartments (nearshore vs. offshore) comprising Lake Ontario. Despite its simplicity, our model produced circulation patterns similar to those reported by more complex studies in the literature. A three-gyre pattern, with the classic large counterclockwise central lake circulation, and a simpler two-gyre system were both observed. These qualitative simulations indicate little offshore transport along the south shore, except near the mouths of the Niagara River and Oswego River. Complex flow structure was evident, particularly near the Niagara River mouth and in offshore waters of the eastern basin. Average Lake Ontario residence time is 8 years, but the fastest model pathway indicated potential transport of plankton through the lake in as little as 60 days. This simulation illustrates potential invasion pathways and provides rough estimates of planktonic larval dispersal or chemical transport among nearshore and offshore areas of Lake Ontario. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  5. Fine-grid simulations of gas-solids flow in a circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Benyahia, S.

    2012-01-01

    This research note demonstrates that more accurate predictions of a two-fluid model for the riser section of a circulating fluidized bed are obtained as the grid size is equally refined along all the directions of the gas-particle flow. However, two-fluid simulations of large-scale fluidized beds with such a fine mesh are currently computationally prohibitive. Alternatively,subgrid models can significantly reduce the simulation time of multiphase flow by using coarse mesh, whereas maintaining a high level of accuracy.

  6. Cloud-radiative effects on implied oceanic energy transports as simulated by atmospheric general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J.; Randall, D.A.; Boer, G.

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports on energy fluxes across the surface of the ocean as simulated by fifteen atmospheric general circulation models in which ocean surface temperatures and sea-ice boundaries are prescribed. The oceanic meridional energy transport that would be required to balance these surface fluxes is computed, and is shown to be critically sensitive to the radiative effects of clouds, to the extent that even the sign of the Southern Hemisphere ocean energy transport can be affected by the errors in simulated cloud-radiation interactions.

  7. Application of long-circulating liposomes to cancer photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Oku, N; Saito, N; Namba, Y; Tsukada, H; Dolphin, D; Okada, S

    1997-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a cancer treatment is notable for its quite low side effects in comparison with those of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the accumulation of porphyrin derivatives used in PDT into tumor tissues is rather low. Since long-circulating liposomes are known to accumulate passively into tumor tissues, we liposomalized a porphyrin derivative, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA), and used these liposomes to investigate the usefulness of PDT for tumor-bearing mice. BPD-MA was liposomalized into glucuronate-modified liposomes, which are known to be long-circulating. These liposomes were injected i.v. into Balb/c mice bearing Meth A sarcoma, and tumor regression and survival time were monitored after irradiation with laser light. Tumor regression and complete curing of tumor (80% cure rate by the treatment with 6 mg/kg BPD-MA) were observed when long circulating liposomalized BPD-MA was injected and laser-irradiated. In contrast, only a 20% cure rate was obtained when the animals were treated with BPD-MA solution or BPD-MA entrapped in conventional liposomes. These results suggest that a long-circulating liposomal formulation of photo-sensitive agents is useful for PDT.

  8. Application of long-circulating liposomes to cancer photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Oku, N; Saito, N; Namba, Y; Tsukada, H; Dolphin, D; Okada, S

    1997-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a cancer treatment is notable for its quite low side effects in comparison with those of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the accumulation of porphyrin derivatives used in PDT into tumor tissues is rather low. Since long-circulating liposomes are known to accumulate passively into tumor tissues, we liposomalized a porphyrin derivative, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA), and used these liposomes to investigate the usefulness of PDT for tumor-bearing mice. BPD-MA was liposomalized into glucuronate-modified liposomes, which are known to be long-circulating. These liposomes were injected i.v. into Balb/c mice bearing Meth A sarcoma, and tumor regression and survival time were monitored after irradiation with laser light. Tumor regression and complete curing of tumor (80% cure rate by the treatment with 6 mg/kg BPD-MA) were observed when long circulating liposomalized BPD-MA was injected and laser-irradiated. In contrast, only a 20% cure rate was obtained when the animals were treated with BPD-MA solution or BPD-MA entrapped in conventional liposomes. These results suggest that a long-circulating liposomal formulation of photo-sensitive agents is useful for PDT. PMID:9212988

  9. Seasonal variation of Titan's atmospheric structure simulated by a general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Tokano, T; Neubauer, F M; Laube, M; McKay, C P

    1999-01-01

    The seasonal variation of Titan's atmospheric structure with emphasis on the stratosphere is simulated by a three-dimensional general circulation model. The model includes the transport of haze particles by the circulation. The likely pattern of meridional circulation is reconstructed by a comparison of simulated and observed haze and temperature distribution. The GCM produces a weak zonal circulation with a small latitudinal temperature gradient, in conflict with observation. The direct reason is found to be the excessive meridional circulation. Under uniformly distributed opacity sources, the model predicts a pair of symmetric Hadley cells near the equinox and a single global cell with the rising branch in the summer hemisphere below about z = 230 km and a thermally indirect cell above the direct cell near the solstice. The interhemispheric circulation transports haze particles from the summer to the winter hemisphere, causing a maximum haze opacity contrast near the solstice and a smaller contrast near the equinox, contrary to observation. On the other, if the GCM is run under modified cooling rate in order to account for the enhancement in nitrites and some hydrocarbons in the northern hemisphere near the vernal equinox, the meridional cell at the equinox becomes a single cell with rising motions in the autumn hemisphere. A more realistic haze opacity distribution can be reproduced at the equinox. However, a pure transport effect (without particle growth by microphysics, etc.) would not be able to cause the observed discontinuity of the global haze opacity distribution at any location. The stratospheric temperature asymmetry can be explained by a combination of asymmetric radiative heating rates and adiabatic heating due to vertical motion within the thermally indirect cell. A seasonal variation of haze particle number density is unlikely to be responsible for this asymmetry. It is likely that a thermally indirect cell covers the upper portion of the main haze

  10. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation of a 2D Circulation Control Wind Tunnel Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Jones, Greg; Lin, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver for a circulation control airfoil. 2D and 3D simulation results are compared to a circulation control wind tunnel test conducted at the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The RANS simulations are compared to a low blowing case with a jet momentum coefficient, C(sub u), of 0:047 and a higher blowing case of 0.115. Three dimensional simulations of the model and tunnel walls show wall effects on the lift and airfoil surface pressures. These wall effects include a 4% decrease of the midspan sectional lift for the C(sub u) 0.115 blowing condition. Simulations comparing the performance of the Spalart Allmaras (SA) and Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models are also made, showing the SST model compares best to the experimental data. A Rotational/Curvature Correction (RCC) to the turbulence model is also evaluated demonstrating an improvement in the CFD predictions.

  11. Computer simulation of the cooling effect due to circulation in four geothermal well models

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, L.E.

    1984-11-01

    Computer calculations of wellbore transient temperatures, using the geothermal wellbore thermal simulator code GEOTEMP2, were made on four well models. The well models studied were from the Baca geothermal area, the East Mesa geothermal area, and a shallow and a deep well from the Salton Sea geothermal area. Calculations for one day of water circulation followed by one day of shut-in at flow rates of 100, 250, 500, and 1000 gpm were made to investigate the cooling effects produced by the circulation. Additional calculations were made using the Baca and Salton Sea well models. In the former, the effect on the cooling due to different soil thermal conductivity values and different circulating fluids (a high viscosity mud and air) were investigated. In the latter, the number of casings in the wellbore and the diameter of the tubing were notified. Plots of the calculated temperatures as a function of circulation and shut-in time and depth are given for each case.

  12. Importance of a control state for simulating the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at the LGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Hasumi, H.

    2009-04-01

    The ocean circulation in the Atlantic deep ocean is characterized by thermohaline circulation driven by deep convection in northern high latitudes. The heat transport associated with this circulation is comparable to that by atmosphere and has a great role in the present climate. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is believed to change in past and future climate changes. Coupled model simulations suggest that the AMOC becomes weak in the future global warming climate. Geological evidence such as carbon isotope ratio indicates that the AMOC was weaker and shallower than the present at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). As for global warming climate, almost all model results reach consensus that the AMOC weakens in global warming climate. On the other hand, there is wide discrepancy in simulation of the AMOC at the LGM. Weber et al. (2007) report results of Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project where half of models reproduce the weakening of the AMOC but the other half simulates the strengthening. The reason for this disagreement between models has not been clarified yet, and investigation on the mechanism of weakening of the AMOC at the LGM is one of the most important topics in the paleoclimate studies. In this study, by using results of our coupled climate model (MIROC), we focus on role of changes in the sea surface heat and freshwater fluxes and investigate their role in controlling the AMOC at the LGM. In order to individually evaluate role of heat and freshwater fluxes, we conduct additional ocean general circulation model simulations under the sea surface heat/freshwater flux conditions obtained from the present and LGM simulations by MIROC. The results suggest that the freshwater flux changes contribute to weakening of the AMOC at the LGM, whereas the heat flux changes make the AMOC at the LGM stronger than the present. We found that reproducibility of the control state significantly affects response of the AMOC to heat and

  13. Forcing of the deep ocean circulation in simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittner, A.; Meissner, K. J.; Eby, M.; Weaver, A. J.

    2002-05-01

    From the interpretation of different proxy data it is widely believed that the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the maximum of the last ice age ~21,000 years ago was considerably weaker than today. Recent equilibrium simulations with a coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice model successfully simulated a reduction in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation consistent with reconstructions. Here we examine the influence of different air-sea fluxes on simulated changes in the deep ocean circulation between the Last Glacial Maximum and present day. We find that changes in the oceanic surface freshwater fluxes are the dominant forcing mechanism for the reduced Atlantic overturning. Diminished export of freshwater out of the Atlantic drainage basin through the atmosphere decreases surface salinities in the North Atlantic, leading to less NADW formation in the colder climate. Changes in heat fluxes, which lead to increased sea surface densities in the North Atlantic and therefore to an enhanced overturning, are of secondary importance. Wind stress variations seem to play a negligible role. The degree to which the Atlantic freshwater export and hence the NADW formation are reduced depends on the formulation of the atmospheric hydrological cycle and on the strength of the overturning in the present-day simulation. Simulated changes in sea surface properties for a large variety of overturning strengths are compared with different reconstruction data sets. The results depend strongly on the data set used. Sea surface temperature reconstructions from Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) and earlier salinity reconstructions based on planktonic foraminifera are most consistent with a significant reduction of the circulation, while recent reconstructions using dinocyst assemblages allow no unequivocal conclusion.

  14. The impact of a realistic vertical dust distribution on the simulation of the Martian General Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Richardson, Mark I.; Newman, Claire E.; Talaat, Elsayed R.; Waugh, Darryn W.; McConnochie, Timothy H.

    2013-05-01

    Limb-scanning observations with the Mars Climate Sounder and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have identified discrete layers of enhanced dust opacity well above the boundary layer and a mean vertical structure of dust opacity very different from the expectation of well-mixed dust in the lowest 1-2 scale heights. To assess the impact of this vertical dust opacity profile on atmospheric properties, we developed a TES limb-scan observation-based three-dimensional and time-evolving dust climatology for use in forcing general circulation models (GCMs). We use this to force the MarsWRF GCM and compare with simulations that use a well-mixed (Conrath-ν) vertical dust profile and Mars Climate Database version 4 (MCD) horizontal distribution dust opacity forcing function. We find that simulated temperatures using the TES-derived forcing yield a 1.18 standard deviation closer match to TES temperature retrievals than a MarsWRF simulation using MCD forcing. The climatological forcing yields significant changes to many large-scale features of the simulated atmosphere. Notably the high-latitude westerly jet speeds are 10-20 m/s higher, polar warming collar temperatures are 20-30 K warmer near northern winter solstice and tilted more strongly poleward, the middle and lower atmospheric meridional circulations are partially decoupled, the migrating diurnal tide exhibits destructive interference and is weakened by 50% outside of equinox, and the southern hemisphere wave number 1 stationary wave is strengthened by up to 4 K (45%). We find the vertical dust distribution is an important factor for Martian lower and middle atmospheric thermal structure and circulation that cannot be neglected in analysis and simulation of the Martian atmosphere.

  15. Numerical Simulations and Tracer Studies as a Tool to Support Water Circulation Modeling in Breeding Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    The article presents a proposal of a method for computer-aided design and analysis of breeding reservoirs in zoos and aquariums. The method applied involves the use of computer simulations of water circulation in breeding pools. A mathematical model of a pool was developed, and a tracer study was carried out. A simplified model of two-dimensional flow in the form of a biharmonic equation for the stream function (converted into components of the velocity vector) was adopted to describe the flow field. This equation, supplemented by appropriate boundary conditions, was solved numerically by the finite difference method. Next, a tracer migration equation was solved, which was a two-dimensional advection-dispersion equation describing the unsteady transport of a non-active, permanent solute. In order to obtain a proper solution, a tracer study (with rhodamine WT as a tracer) was conducted in situ. The results of these measurements were compared with numerical solutions obtained. The results of numerical simulations made it possible to reconstruct water circulation in the breading pool and to identify still water zones, where water circulation was impeded.

  16. Progress toward a circulation atlas for application to coastal water siting problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Gordon, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    Circulation data needed to resolve coastal siting problems are assembled from historical hydrographic and remote sensing studies in the form of a Circulation Atlas. Empirical data are used instead of numerical model simulations to achieve fine resolution and include fronts and convergence zones. Eulerian and Langrangian data are collected, transformed, and combined into trajectory maps and current vector maps as a function of tidal phase and wind vector. Initial Atlas development is centered on the Elizabeth River, Hampton Roads, Virgina.

  17. Overview of CFD Validation Experiments for Circulation Control Applications at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. S.; Lin, J. C.; Allan, B. G.; Milholen, W. E.; Rumsey, C. L.; Swanson, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    Circulation control is a viable active flow control approach that can be used to meet the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project s Cruise Efficient Short Take Off and Landing goals. Currently, circulation control systems are primarily designed using empirical methods. However, large uncertainty in our ability to predict circulation control performance has led to the development of advanced CFD methods. This paper provides an overview of a systematic approach to developing CFD tools for basic and advanced circulation control applications. This four-step approach includes "Unit", "Benchmar", "Subsystem", and "Complete System" experiments. The paper emphasizes the ongoing and planned 2-D and 3-D physics orientated experiments with corresponding CFD efforts. Sample data are used to highlight the challenges involved in conducting circulation control computations and experiments.

  18. A Solar Sailcraft Simulation Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeda, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    An application was created to encourage students' practical knowledge of gravitational fields, the law of conservation of energy and other phenomena, such as gravitational slingshots. The educational software simulates the flight of a solar sail spacecraft between two planets of the Solar System using the laws of gravity and radiation…

  19. MFIX simulation of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-François; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) using the open-source code Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) are reported. Two rounds of simulation results are reported including the first-round blind test and the second-round modeling refinement. Three-dimensional high fidelity simulations are conducted to model a 12-inch diameter pilot-scale CFB riser. Detailed comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are made with respect to axial pressure gradient profile, radial profiles of solids velocity and solids mass flux along different radial directions at various elevations for operating conditions covering different fluidization regimes. Overall, the numerical results show that CFD can predict the complex gas–solids flow behavior in the CFB riser reasonably well. In addition, lessons learnt from modeling this challenge problem are presented.

  20. Greenhouse gas-induced climate change simulated with the CCS second-generation general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, G.J.; Mcfarlane, N.A.; Lazare, M. )

    1992-10-01

    The Canadian Climate Centre second-generation atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed-layer ocean incorporating thermodynamic sea ice is used to simulate the equilibrium climate response to a doubling of CO[sub 2]. The results of the simulation indicate a global annual warming of 3.5 C with enhanced warming found over land and at higher latitudes. Precipitation and evaporation rates increase by about 4 percent, and cloud cover decreases by 2.2 percent. Soil moisture decreases over continental Northern Hemisphere land areas in summer. The frozen component of soil moisture decreases and the liquid component increases in association with the increase of temperature at higher latitudes. The simulated accumulation rate of permanent snow cover decreases markedly over Greenland and increases slightly over Antarctica. Seasonal snow and sea ice boundaries retreat, but local decreases in planetary albedo are counteracted by tropical increases, so there is little change in the global average. 39 refs.

  1. MFIX simulation of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-François; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) using the open-source code Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) are reported. Two rounds of simulation results are reported including the first-round blind test and the second-round modeling refinement. Three-dimensional high fidelity simulations are conducted to model a 12-inch diameter pilot-scale CFB riser. Detailed comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are made with respect to axial pressure gradient profile, radial profiles of solids velocity and solids mass flux along different radial directions at various elevations for operating conditions covering different fluidization regimes. Overall, the numericalmore » results show that CFD can predict the complex gas–solids flow behavior in the CFB riser reasonably well. In addition, lessons learnt from modeling this challenge problem are presented.« less

  2. The Tropical Subseasonal Variability Simulated in the NASA GISS General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Daehyun; Sobel, Adam H.; DelGenio, Anthony D.; Chen, Yonghua; Camargo, Suzana J.; Yao, Mao-Sung; Kelley, Maxwell; Nazarenko, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    The tropical subseasonal variability simulated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model, Model E2, is examined. Several versions of Model E2 were developed with changes to the convective parameterization in order to improve the simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). When the convective scheme is modified to have a greater fractional entrainment rate, Model E2 is able to simulate MJO-like disturbances with proper spatial and temporal scales. Increasing the rate of rain reevaporation has additional positive impacts on the simulated MJO. The improvement in MJO simulation comes at the cost of increased biases in the mean state, consistent in structure and amplitude with those found in other GCMs when tuned to have a stronger MJO. By reinitializing a relatively poor-MJO version with restart files from a relatively better-MJO version, a series of 30-day integrations is constructed to examine the impacts of the parameterization changes on the organization of tropical convection. The poor-MJO version with smaller entrainment rate has a tendency to allow convection to be activated over a broader area and to reduce the contrast between dry and wet regimes so that tropical convection becomes less organized. Besides the MJO, the number of tropical-cyclone-like vortices simulated by the model is also affected by changes in the convection scheme. The model simulates a smaller number of such storms globally with a larger entrainment rate, while the number increases significantly with a greater rain reevaporation rate.

  3. Simulation of tidal flow and circulation patterns in the Loxahatchee River Estuary, southeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, G.M.; Goodwin, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a two-dimensional, vertically averaged, computer simulation model of the Loxahatchee River estuary show that under typical low freshwater inflow and vertically well mixed conditions, water circulation is dominated by freshwater inflow rather than by tidal influence. The model can simulate tidal flow and circulation in the Loxahatchee River estuary under typical low freshwater inflow and vertically well mixed conditions, but is limited, however, to low-flow and well mixed conditions. Computed patterns of residual water transport show a consistent seaward flow from the northwest fork through the central embayment and out Jupiter Inlet to the Atlantic Ocean. A large residual seaward flow was computed from the North Intracoastal Waterway to the inlet channel. Although the tide produces large flood and ebb flows in the estuary, tide-induced residual transport rates are low in comparison with freshwater-induced residual transport. Model investigations of partly mixed or stratified conditions in the estuary need to await development of systems capable of simulating three-dimensional flow patterns. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Simulations of Flow Circulations and Atrazine Concentrations in a Midwest U.S. Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xianggui; Gu, Roy R.; Guo, Chuling; Wang, Kui; Li, Shijie

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the spring for pre-emergent weed control in the corn cropping area in the Midwestern United States. A frequent high level of herbicide concentrations in reservoirs is a great concern for public health and aquatic ecosystems. In this study, a two-dimensional hydrodynamics and toxic contaminant transport model was applied to Saylorville Reservoir, Iowa, USA. The model simulates physical, chemical, and biological processes and predicts unsteady vertical and longitudinal distributions of a toxic chemical. Model results were validated by measured temperatures and atrazine concentrations. Simulated flow velocities, water temperatures, and chemical concentrations demonstrated that the spatial variation of atrazine concentrations was largely affected by seasonal flow circulation patterns in the reservoir. In particular, the simulated fate and transport of atrazine showed the effect of flow circulation on spatial distribution of atrazine during summer months as the river flow formed an underflow within the reservoir and resulted in greater concentrations near the surface of the reservoir. Atrazine concentrations in the reservoir peaked around the end of May and early June. A thorough understanding of the fate and transport of atrazine in the reservoir can assist in developing operation and pollution prevention strategies with respect to timing, amount, and depth of withdrawal. The responses of atrazine transport to various boundary conditions provide useful information in assessing environmental impact of alternative upstream watershed management practices on the quality of reservoir water.

  5. Mars atmospheric dynamics as simulated by the NASA AMES General Circulation Model. II - Transient baroclinic eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Zurek, R. W.; Lee, H.; Schaeffer, J.

    1993-02-01

    A large set of experiments performed with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model is analyzed to determine the properties, structure, and dynamics of the simulated transient baroclinic eddies. There is strong transient baroclinic eddy activity in the extratropics of the Northern Hemisphere during the northern autumn, winter, and spring seasons. The eddy activity remains strong for very large dust loadings, though it shifts northward. The eastward propagating eddies are characterized by zonal wavenumbers of 1-4 and periods of about 2-10 days. The properties of the GCM baroclinic eddies in the northern extratropics are compared in detail with analogous properties inferred from Viking Lander meteorology observations.

  6. A model simulation of circulation in the Northeast Atlantic shelves and seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-12-01

    A three-dimensional, primitive-equation simulation of the circulation in the northeast Atlantic shelves and seas, defined by 51°-76°N latitudes and 20°W-22°E longitudes, has been conducted for the period February-March 1988. The simulation was initialized from a 585-day quasi-equilibrium calculation and included realistic meteorological forcing, inflows/outflows across the open boundaries (inflow of the North Atlantic warm wate in particular), tides, coastal and Baltic discharges, and relaxation to wintertime climatology for model depths >500 m. The calculation is the first part of an overall effort to nest a high-resolution region for simulation of eddies and fronts in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC). This paper presents detailed simulation strategies and discusses results from the coarse-grid region to study the larger-scale model response induced by atmospheric forcing, so that its effects on flow dynamics in the nested grid can be better understood. The mean and variability of the simulated flow field are compared, whenever possible, with published observations. In particular, we examine in detail the simulated wind-induced response in the Skagerrak transport, which produces blocking and outbreak of the Skagerrak and North Sea waters. These transport variabilities can be expected to be important in the development of the NCC meanders and eddies further north.

  7. Comparison Between Numerical Simulations and Drifter Observations of the Surface Circulation in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.; Poulain, P. M.; Cushman-Roisin, B. R.

    2007-12-01

    Eulerian statistics computed from drifter data and estimated from numerical simulations of circulation of the Adriatic Sea are compared for different seasons and wind forcing. The periods of interest are August-October 2003, May, June and February 2003, where drifter data have high density. The numerical simulations were performed with a 1.2- min resolution DieCAST Ocean Circulation Model adapted for the Adriatic Sea. The simulations resolve the mesoscale variability because the grid size falls below the first baroclinic deformation radius (about 5-10 km) and the model has very low horizontal dissipation. The DieCAST model is initialized with seasonally averaged temperature and salinity data and forced with climatological winds and surface buoyancy fluxes (both heat flux and evaporation minus precipitation). River discharges are varied daily according to a perpetual year for every river, and the open-boundary conditions at Otranto Strait are obtained by nesting in two larger-scale models (Cushman-Roisin et al., JGR, 2007). In the period of interests the model was forced with the COAMPS wind stresses and heat fluxes. Mean Kinetic Energy (MKE) and Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) estimates were obtained using the methodology commonly used with drifter (Poulain, JMS, 2001). The surface drifter observations were obtained in 2002 and 2003 as part of the DOLCEVITA project (Ursella et al., JGR, 2006). More than 120 CODE drifters were released in the northern and middle Adriatic with the purpose of studying the surface circulation at mesoscale to seasonal scale in relation to wind forcing. Drifter velocities were low-pass filtered to eliminate tidal and inertial currents. Comparison of the MKE and EKE computed from the model and drifter data shows a good agreement for high- energy dynamics along the Italian coast and local effects of strong winds like Bora and Sirocco. Discrepancies between the drifter-based and model-inferred Eulerian statistics originates in the specification

  8. Application of Local Discretization Methods in the NASA Finite-Volume General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Kao-San; Lin, Shian-Jiann; Rood, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    We present the basic ideas of the dynamics system of the finite-volume General Circulation Model developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for climate simulations and other applications in meteorology. The dynamics of this model is designed with emphases on conservative and monotonic transport, where the property of Lagrangian conservation is used to maintain the physical consistency of the computational fluid for long-term simulations. As the model benefits from the noise-free solutions of monotonic finite-volume transport schemes, the property of Lagrangian conservation also partly compensates the accuracy of transport for the diffusion effects due to the treatment of monotonicity. By faithfully maintaining the fundamental laws of physics during the computation, this model is able to achieve sufficient accuracy for the global consistency of climate processes. Because the computing algorithms are based on local memory, this model has the advantage of efficiency in parallel computation with distributed memory. Further research is yet desirable to reduce the diffusion effects of monotonic transport for better accuracy, and to mitigate the limitation due to fast-moving gravity waves for better efficiency.

  9. Dust Emissions, Transport, and Deposition Simulated with the NASA Finite-Volume General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter; daSilva, Arlindo; Ginoux, Paul; Chin, Mian; Lin, S.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Mineral dust aerosols have radiative impacts on Earth's atmosphere, have been implicated in local and regional air quality issues, and have been identified as vectors for transporting disease pathogens and bringing mineral nutrients to terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. We present for the first time dust simulations using online transport and meteorological analysis in the NASA Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM). Our dust formulation follows the formulation in the offline Georgia Institute of Technology-Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport Model (GOCART) using a topographical source for dust emissions. We compare results of the FVGCM simulations with GOCART, as well as with in situ and remotely sensed observations. Additionally, we estimate budgets of dust emission and transport into various regions.

  10. Scaling laws for parametrizations of subgrid interactions in simulations of oceanic circulations

    PubMed Central

    Kitsios, V.; Frederiksen, J. S.; Zidikheri, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Parametrizations of the subgrid eddy–eddy and eddy–meanfield interactions are developed for the simulation of baroclinic ocean circulations representative of an idealized Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Benchmark simulations are generated using a spectral spherical harmonic quasi-geostrophic model with maximum truncation wavenumber of T=504, which is equivalent to a resolution of 0.24° globally. A stochastic parametrization is used for the eddy–eddy interactions, and a linear deterministic parametrization for the eddy–meanfield interactions. The parametrization coefficients are determined from the statistics of benchmark simulations truncated back to the large eddy simulation (LES) truncation wavenumber, TRsimulations. PMID:24842029

  11. Single and two-phase natural circulation in Westinghouse pressurized water reactor simulators: Phenomena, analysis and scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.R.; Chapman, J.C.; Kukita, Y.; Motley, F.E.; Stumpf, H.; Chen, Y.S.; Tasaka, K.

    1987-01-01

    Natural circulation data obtained in the 1/48 scale W four loop PWR simulator - the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) are discussed and summarized. Core cooling modes, the primary fluid state, the primary loop mass flow and localized natural circulation phenomena occurring in the steam generator are presented. TRAC-PF1 LSTF model (using both a 1 U-tube and a 3 U-tube steam generator model) analyses of the LSTF natural circulation data including the SG recirculation patterns are presented and compared to the data. The LSTF data are then compared to similar natural circulation data obtained in the Primarkreislaufe (PKL) and the Semiscale facilities. Based on the 1/48 to 1/1705 scaling range which exists between the facilities, the implications of these data towrard natural circulation behavior in commercial plants are briefly discussed.

  12. Gulf of Mexico circulation within a high-resolution numerical simulation of the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanou, Anastasia; Chassignet, Eric P.; Sturges, Wilton

    2004-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico circulation is examined from the results of a high-resolution (1/12°) North Atlantic simulation using the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model. The motivation for this paper is twofold: first, we validate the model's performance in the Gulf of Mexico by comparing the model fields to past and recent observations, and second, given the good agreement with the observed Gulf of Mexico surface circulation and Loop Current variability, we expand the discussion and analysis of the model circulation to areas that have not been extensively observed/analyzed, such as the vertical structure of the Loop Current and associated eddies, especially the deep circulation below 1500 m. The interval between successive model eddy sheddings is 3 to 15 months, the eddy diameters range between 140 and 500 km, the life span is about 1 year, and the translational speeds are 2-3 km d-1, in good agreement with observations. Areas of high cyclonic eddy occurrence in the model are southwest of Florida, the Loop Current boundary, and the western Campeche Bay area. The cyclonic eddy diameters range between 50 and 375 km, the orbital speeds range between 1 and 55 cm s-1, the translational speeds range between 0.5 and 14 km d-1, and the eddy life spans range between 1 and 3 months. The vertical structure of the temperature and salinity of each modeled eddy, from the moment it is shed until it disintegrates in the western Gulf of Mexico, is in agreement with the few available observations. Below 1500 m, deep cyclonic eddies are associated with the surface Loop Current anticyclones. The eddy variability is consistent with Rossby waves propagating westward, and there is bottom intensification of the flow close to steep topography. Overall, we show that this very high horizontal resolution isopycnic coordinate ocean model, which is able to produce a quite realistic surface circulation for the North and equatorial Atlantic, is also able to reproduce well the smaller-scale, basin

  13. Circulating DNA in plasma and serum: biology, preanalytical issues and diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Lui, Yanni Y N; Dennis, Y M L

    2002-10-01

    The recent studies in circulating nucleic acids have brought about a new dimension to medical diagnostics. In oncology, various tumor-associated molecular alterations have been detected in the plasma/serum of cancer patients. These findings have important implications for the diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring of many types of malignancies. In pregnancy, the discovery of fetal DNA in maternal circulation has opened up a new source of fetal genetic material for noninvasive analysis for numerous fetal conditions and detection of certain pregnancy-associated disorders. The measurement of circulating DNA has also found potential application in the post-treatment monitoring of transplant patients and the assessment and prognostication of trauma patients. Although much attention has focused on circulating DNA, the knowledge of its biology is still at an early stage. For example, the origin and mechanisms of release of circulating DNA remain to be elucidated. The eventual clinical application of circulating DNA technology would also require the thorough elucidation of preanalytical factors that may affect its measurement in clinical laboratories.

  14. Inter-annual variability of the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation in Med-CORDEX simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittoria Struglia, Maria; Adani, Mario; Carillo, Adriana; Pisacane, Giovanna; Sannino, Gianmaria; Beuvier, Jonathan; Lovato, Tomas; Sevault, Florence; Vervatis, Vassilios

    2016-04-01

    Recent atmospheric reanalysis products, such as ERA40 and ERA-interim, and their regional dynamical downscaling prompted the HyMeX/Med-CORDEX community to perform hind-cast simulations of the Mediterranean Sea, giving the opportunity to evaluate the response of different ocean models to a realistic inter-annual atmospheric forcing. Ocean numerical modeling studies have been steadily improving over the last decade through hind-cast processing, and are complementary to observations in studying the relative importance of the mechanisms playing a role in ocean variability, either external forcing or internal ocean variability. This work presents a review and an inter-comparison of the most recent hind-cast simulations of the Mediterranean Sea Circulation, produced in the framework of the Med-CORDEX initiative, at resolutions spanning from 1/8° to 1/16°. The richness of the simulations available for this study is exploited to address the effects of increasing resolution, both of models and forcing, the initialization procedure, and the prescription of the atmospheric boundary conditions, which are particularly relevant in order to model a realistic THC, in the perspective of fully coupled regional ocean-atmosphere models. The mean circulation is well reproduced by all the simulations. However, it can be observed that the horizontal resolution of both atmospheric forcing and ocean model plays a fundamental role in the reproduction of some specific features of both sub-basins and important differences can be observed among low and high resolution atmosphere forcing. We analyze the mean circulation on both the long-term and decadal time scale, and the represented inter-annual variability of intermediate and deep water mass formation processes in both the Eastern and Western sub-basins, finding that models agree with observations in correspondence of specific events, such as the 1992-1993 Eastern Mediterranean Transient, and the 2005-2006 event in the Gulf of Lion. Long

  15. Research through simulation. [simulators and research applications at Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, J. L. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The design of the computer operating system at Langley Research Center allows for concurrent support of time-critical simulations and background analytical computing on the same machine. Signal path interconnections between computing hardware and flight simulation hardware is provided to allow up to six simulation programs to be in operation at one time. Capabilities and research applications are discussed for the: (1) differential maneuvering simulator; (2) visual motion simulator; (3) terminal configured vehicle simulator; (4) general aviation aircraft simulator; (5) general purpose fixed based simulator; (6) transport simulator; (7) digital fly by wire simulator; (8) general purpose fighter simulator; and (9) the roll-up cockpit. The visual landing display system and graphics display system are described and their simulator support applications are listed.

  16. Three-dimensional simulation of wave-induced circulation: Comparison of three radiation stress formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y. Peter; Liu, Tianyi

    2011-05-01

    A three-dimensional current-wave modeling system, Curvilinear-grid Hydrodynamics 3D (CH3D)-Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN), has been used to simulate wave-induced circulation and compare the performances of three radiation stress (RS) formulations: two depth-dependent formulations (M08 by Mellor (2008) and X04 by Xia et al. (2004)) and one depth-independent formulation (LHS by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (1964)). While all are based on linear wave theory, LHS uses the vertically integrated equations of motion, and M08 and X04 consider the three-dimensional equations of motion. Results of CH3D-SWAN with three RS formulations are compared with steady state wave setup, observed data in an undertow experiment by Ting and Kirby (1994) (TK94), and observed data in a laboratory fringing reef. All three RS formulations reproduce the analytical solution of wave setup very well. Simulated wave-induced currents and turbulence for TK94 are the best when M08 is used and worst when X04 is used, apparently due to the errors in the X04 formulation. All three RS formulations give good simulation of wave setup in the fringing reef. Wave-induced currents in the fringing reef simulated by the three RS formulations are quite different: M08 produces a single large clockwise gyre in the x-z plane, LHS produces a weaker gyre, and X04 produces a clockwise gyre plus a counterclockwise gyre inside the surf zone. Using the CH3D-Storm Surge Modeling System and M08, storm surge and currents in the Outer Banks and Chesapeake Bay during Hurricane Isabel are simulated. Compared to the earlier simulation obtained with the LHS, M08 produces similar storm surge but slightly improved the wave-induced currents.

  17. Use of an extracorporeal circulation perfusion simulator: evaluation of its accuracy and repeatability.

    PubMed

    Tokumine, Asako; Momose, Naoki; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-12-01

    Medical simulators have mainly been used as educational tools. They have been used to train technicians and to educate potential users about safety. We combined software for hybrid-type extracorporeal circulation simulation (ECCSIM) with a CPB-Workshop console. We evaluated the performance of ECCSIM, including its accuracy and repeatability, during simulated ECC. We performed a detailed evaluation of the synchronization of the software with the console and the function of the built-in valves. An S-III heart–lung machine was used for the open circuit. It included a venous reservoir, an oxygenator (RX-25), and an arterial filter. The tubes for venous drainage and the arterial line were connected directly to the ports of the console. The ECCSIM recorded the liquid level of the reservoir continuously. The valve in the console controlled the pressure load of the arterial line. The software made any adjustments necessary to both arterial pressure load and the venous drainage flow volume. No external flowmeters were necessary during simulation. We found the CPB-Workshop to be convenient, reliable, and sufficiently exact. It can be used to validate procedures by monitoring the controls and responses by using a combination of qualitative measures. PMID:24022821

  18. Interpretation of simple and cloud-resolving simulations of moist convection radiation interaction with a mock-Walker circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.; Peters, Matthew E.

    2006-11-01

    An idealized two-dimensional mock-Walker circulation in the tropical atmosphere forced by prescribed horizontal gradients in sea-surface temperature (SST) is discussed. This model problem includes feedbacks between cumulus convection and tropical large-scale circulations that have proved challenging for global climate models to predict accurately. Three-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations that explicitly simulate turbulent circulations within individual cloud systems across 4,096 and 1,024 km-wide Walker circulations are compared with a simple theoretical model, the Simplified Quasiequilibrium Tropical Circulation Model (SQTCM). This theoretical model combines the weak-temperature-gradient approximation with a unimodal truncation of tropospheric vertical structure coupled to highly simplified formulations of moist precipitating cumulus convection and its cloud-radiative feedbacks. The rainfall, cloud and humidity distribution, circulation strength, energy fluxes and scaling properties are compared between the models. The CRM-simulated horizontal distribution of rainfall and energy fluxes are adequately predicted by the SQTCM. However, the humidity distribution (drier subsidence regions and high-humidity boundary layers in the CRM), vertical structure and domain-size scaling of the circulation differ significantly between the models. For the SQTCM, the concept of gross moist stability related to advection of moist static energy (MSE) out of tropospheric columns by the mean divergent circulation is used to explain the width and intensity of the rainy region. Column MSE budgets averaged across the ascent branch of the simulated Walker circulation provide similar insight into the cloud-resolving simulations after consideration of the more complex horizontal and vertical circulation structure and the role of transient eddies. A nondimensional ascent-region moist stability ratio α, analogous to the SQTCM gross moist stability, is developed. One term of

  19. Assessment of atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulations of winter northern hemisphere atmospheric blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Jessica; Osborn, Tim J.

    2012-07-01

    An assessment of six coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) is undertaken in order to evaluate their ability in simulating winter atmospheric blocking highs in the northern hemisphere. The poor representation of atmospheric blocking in climate models is a long-standing problem (e.g. D'Andrea et al. in Clim Dyn 4:385-407, 1998), and despite considerable effort in model development, there is only a moderate improvement in blocking simulation. A modified version of the Tibaldi and Molteni (in Tellus A 42:343-365, 1990) blocking index is applied to daily averaged 500 hPa geopotential fields, from the ERA-40 reanalysis and as simulated by the climate models, during the winter periods from 1957 to 1999. The two preferred regions of blocking development, in the Euro-Atlantic and North Pacific, are relatively well captured by most of the models. However, the prominent error in blocking simulations consists of an underestimation of the total frequency of blocking episodes over both regions. A more detailed analysis revealed that this error was due to an insufficient number of medium spells and long-lasting episodes, and a shift in blocking lifetime distributions towards shorter blocks in the Euro-Atlantic sector. In the Pacific, results are more diverse; the models are equally likely to overestimate or underestimate the frequency at different spell lengths. Blocking spatial signatures are relatively well simulated in the Euro-Atlantic sector, while errors in the intensity and geographical location of the blocks emerge in the Pacific. The impact of models' systematic errors on blocking simulation has also been analysed. The time-mean atmospheric circulation biases affect the frequency of blocking episodes, and the maximum event duration in the Euro-Atlantic region, while they sometimes cause geographical mislocations in the Pacific sector. The analysis of the systematic error in time-variability has revealed a negative relationship between the high

  20. Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S; Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A

    2014-10-01

    A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 28:1281-1299, 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of 'large' arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the 'smaller' arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50 μm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment for circulatory diseases within the lung. PMID:24610385

  1. Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S; Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A

    2014-10-01

    A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 28:1281-1299, 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of 'large' arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the 'smaller' arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50 μm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment for circulatory diseases within the lung.

  2. High-resolution numerical simulation of Venus atmosphere by AFES (Atmospheric general circulation model For the Earth Simulator)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko; AFES project team

    2016-10-01

    We have developed an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) for Venus on the basis of AFES (AGCM For the Earth Simulator) and performed a high-resolution simulation (e.g., Sugimoto et al., 2014a). The highest resolution is T639L120; 1920 times 960 horizontal grids (grid intervals are about 20 km) with 120 vertical layers (layer intervals are about 1 km). In the model, the atmosphere is dry and forced by the solar heating with the diurnal and semi-diurnal components. The infrared radiative process is simplified by adopting Newtonian cooling approximation. The temperature is relaxed to a prescribed horizontally uniform temperature distribution, in which a layer with almost neutral static stability observed in the Venus atmosphere presents. A fast zonal wind in a solid-body rotation is given as the initial state.Starting from this idealized superrotation, the model atmosphere reaches a quasi-equilibrium state within 1 Earth year and this state is stably maintained for more than 10 Earth years. The zonal-mean zonal flow with weak midlatitude jets has almost constant velocity of 120 m/s in latitudes between 45°S and 45°N at the cloud top levels, which agrees very well with observations. In the cloud layer, baroclinic waves develop continuously at midlatitudes and generate Rossby-type waves at the cloud top (Sugimoto et al., 2014b). At the polar region, warm polar vortex surrounded by a cold latitude band (cold collar) is well reproduced (Ando et al., 2016). As for horizontal kinetic energy spectra, divergent component is broadly (k > 10) larger than rotational component compared with that on Earth (Kashimura et al., in preparation). We will show recent results of the high-resolution run, e.g., small-scale gravity waves attributed to large-scale thermal tides. Sugimoto, N. et al. (2014a), Baroclinic modes in the Venus atmosphere simulated by GCM, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 119, p1950-1968.Sugimoto, N. et al. (2014b), Waves in a Venus general

  3. Venus atmosphere simulated by a high-resolution general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko

    2016-07-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) for Venus on the basis of AFES (AGCM For the Earth Simulator) have been developed (e.g., Sugimoto et al., 2014a) and a very high-resolution simulation is performed. The highest resolution of the model is T319L120; 960 times 480 horizontal grids (grid intervals are about 40 km) with 120 vertical layers (layer intervals are about 1 km). In the model, the atmosphere is dry and forced by the solar heating with the diurnal and semi-diurnal components. The infrared radiative process is simplified by adopting Newtonian cooling approximation. The temperature is relaxed to a prescribed horizontally uniform temperature distribution, in which a layer with almost neutral static stability observed in the Venus atmosphere presents. A fast zonal wind in a solid-body rotation is given as the initial state. Starting from this idealized superrotation, the model atmosphere reaches a quasi-equilibrium state within 1 Earth year and this state is stably maintained for more than 10 Earth years. The zonal-mean zonal flow with weak midlatitude jets has almost constant velocity of 120 m/s in latitudes between 45°S and 45°N at the cloud top levels, which agrees very well with observations. In the cloud layer, baroclinic waves develop continuously at midlatitudes and generate Rossby-type waves at the cloud top (Sugimoto et al., 2014b). At the polar region, warm polar vortex zonally surrounded by a cold latitude band (cold collar) is well reproduced (Ando et al., 2016). As for horizontal kinetic energy spectra, divergent component is broadly (k>10) larger than rotational component compared with that on Earth (Kashimura et al., in preparation). Finally, recent results for thermal tides and small-scale waves will be shown in the presentation. Sugimoto, N. et al. (2014a), Baroclinic modes in the Venus atmosphere simulated by GCM, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 119, p1950-1968. Sugimoto, N. et al. (2014b), Waves in a Venus general

  4. Investigation of sludge re-circulating clarifiers design and optimization through numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Davari, S; Lichayee, M J

    2003-01-01

    In steam thermal power plants (TPP) with open re-circulating wet cooling towers, elimination of water hardness and suspended solids (SS) is performed in clarifiers. Most of these clarifiers are of high efficiency sludge re-circulating type (SRC) with capacity between 500-1,500 m3/hr. Improper design and/or mal-operation of clarifiers in TPPs results in working conditions below design capacity or production of soft water with improper quality (hardness and S.S.). This causes accumulation of deposits in heat exchangers, condenser tubes, cooling and service water pipes and boiler tubes as well as increasing the ionic load of water at the demineralizing system inlet. It also increases the amount of chemical consumptions and produces more liquid and solid waste. In this regard, a software program for optimal design and simulation of SRCs has been developed. Then design parameters of existing SRCs in four TPPs in Iran were used as inputs to developed software program and resulting technical specifications were compared with existing ones. In some cases improper design was the main cause of poor outlet water quality. In order to achieve proper efficiency, further investigations were made to obtain control parameters as well as design parameters for both mal-designed and/or mal-operated SRCs. PMID:14753549

  5. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Investigation of sludge re-circulating clarifiers design and optimization through numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Davari, S; Lichayee, M J

    2003-01-01

    In steam thermal power plants (TPP) with open re-circulating wet cooling towers, elimination of water hardness and suspended solids (SS) is performed in clarifiers. Most of these clarifiers are of high efficiency sludge re-circulating type (SRC) with capacity between 500-1,500 m3/hr. Improper design and/or mal-operation of clarifiers in TPPs results in working conditions below design capacity or production of soft water with improper quality (hardness and S.S.). This causes accumulation of deposits in heat exchangers, condenser tubes, cooling and service water pipes and boiler tubes as well as increasing the ionic load of water at the demineralizing system inlet. It also increases the amount of chemical consumptions and produces more liquid and solid waste. In this regard, a software program for optimal design and simulation of SRCs has been developed. Then design parameters of existing SRCs in four TPPs in Iran were used as inputs to developed software program and resulting technical specifications were compared with existing ones. In some cases improper design was the main cause of poor outlet water quality. In order to achieve proper efficiency, further investigations were made to obtain control parameters as well as design parameters for both mal-designed and/or mal-operated SRCs.

  7. Numerical simulation of temperature-driven air circulation and oxygen transport in unsaturated porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Weixing; Parizek, R.R. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    Temperature-driven air circulation within unsaturated porous media is receiving increasing attention in the studies of volatile organic component transport and remediation, safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories, soil moisture redistribution, etc. This coupled physical process also plays an important role in supplying oxygen to coal mine spoil where acid mine drainage is generated. To investigate the availability of oxygen within mine spoil, as the primary oxidant in acid reactions, a transient two-dimensional numerical model (HOT) which incorporates temperature-driven air circulation, dispersion-advection oxygen transport in gas phase, steady-state groundwater flow and chemical reactions, has been created. Energy and mass transfer across liquid and gas phases are included. Shrinking core models are used to simulate the kinetics of acid reactions. The rates of heat generation and oxygen consumption are determined stoichiometrically. The generalized Newton-Raphson method is used to linearize the partial differential equations describing heat and mass transfer in porous media. HOT has been used in studies of acid mine drainage generation within coal mine spoil and successfully compared with in-situ temperature measurements. This model may also be applied for some other research including soil vapor extraction, radon migration in soils and temperature prediction of nuclear waste repositories within unsaturated rocks.

  8. Simulating Titan's methane cycle with the TitanWRF General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Claire E.; Richardson, Mark I.; Lian, Yuan; Lee, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Observations provide increasing evidence of a methane hydrological cycle on Titan. Earth-based and Cassini-based monitoring has produced data on the seasonal variation in cloud activity and location, with clouds being observed at increasingly low latitudes as Titan moved out of southern summer. Lakes are observed at high latitudes, with far larger lakes and greater areal coverage in the northern hemisphere, where some shorelines extend down as far as 50°N. Rainfall at some point in the past is suggested by the pattern of flow features on the surface at the Huygens landing site, while recent rainfall is suggested by surface change. As with the water cycle on Earth, the methane cycle on Titan is both impacted by tropospheric dynamics and likely able to impact this circulation via feedbacks. Here we use the 3D TitanWRF General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate Titan's methane cycle. In this initial work we use a simple large-scale condensation scheme with latent heat feedbacks and a finite surface reservoir of methane, and focus on large-scale dynamical interactions between the atmospheric circulation and methane, and how these impact seasonal changes and the long term (steady state) behavior of the methane cycle. We note five major conclusions: (1) Condensation and precipitation in the model is sporadic in nature, with interannual variability in its timing and location, but tends to occur in association with both (a) frequent strong polar upwelling during spring and summer in each hemisphere, and (b) the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of increased convergence and upwelling due to the seasonally shifting Hadley cells. (2) An active tropospheric methane cycle affects the stratospheric circulation, slightly weakening the stratospheric superrotation produced. (3) Latent heating feedback strongly influences surface and near-surface temperatures, narrowing the latitudinal range of the ITCZ, and changing the distribution - and generally weakening the

  9. Numerical Simulation of Langmuir Circulation and its comparison with the Craik-Leibovich Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong; Monismith, Stephen; Ferziger, Joel; Koseff, Jeffery

    1998-11-01

    Numerical simulations of Langmuir circulation(LC) are performed by integrating the Navier-Stokes equations in a curvilinear system under a second order Stokes wave with a specified tangential stress. The LCs obtained show correct characteristics as field observations. The second order Eulerian mean flow plays an important role for surface jet strength. With it, for Langmuir Number 0.04, the relative strength of the surface downwind jet to the downwelling jet (pitch) is 2.7, which is supported by field observations. The results are compared with ones from the Craik-Leibovich (CL2) theory, which does not directly incorporate the wave field. In both cases, the perturbations grow at the rate and reach the same final value. If the wave field is subtracted. the flow resembles that predicted by the CL2 theory.

  10. Simulation Study of Effects of Solar Irradiance and Sea Surface Temperature on Monsoons and Global Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Mehta, V.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A recent version of the GEOS 2 GCM was used to isolate the roles of the annual cycles of solar irradiation and/or sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) on the simulated circulation and rainfall. Four 4-year long integrations were generated with the GCM. The first integration, called Control Case, used daily-interpolated SSTs from a 30 year monthly SST climatology that was obtained from the analyzed SST-data, while the solar irradiation at the top of the atmosphere was calculated normally at hourly intervals. The next two cases prescribed the SSTs or the incoming solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere at their annual mean values, respectively while everything else was kept the same as in the Control Case. In this way the influence of the annual cycles of both external forcings was isolated.

  11. Natural circulation in a VVER reactor geometry: Experiments with the PACTEL facility and Cathare simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Raussi, P.; Kainulainen, S.; Kouhia, J.

    1995-09-01

    There are some 40 reactors based on the VVER design in use. Database available for computer code assessment for VVER reactors is rather limited. Experiments were conducted to study natural circulation behaviour in the PACTEL facility, a medium-scale integral test loop patterned after VVER pressurized water reactors. Flow behaviour over a range of coolant inventories was studied with a small-break experiment. In the small-break experiments, flow stagnation and system repressurization were observed when the water level in the upper plenum fell below the entrances to the hot legs. The cause was attributed to the hot leg loop seals, which are a unique feature of the VVER geometry. At low primary inventories, core cooling was achieved through the boiler-condenser mode. The experiment was simulated using French thermalhydraulic system code CATHARE.

  12. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

    PubMed

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria. PMID:27030983

  13. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September–May) and mixing (June–August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore—offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria. PMID:27030983

  14. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

    PubMed

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  15. Martian atmospheric gravity waves simulated by a high-resolution general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) significantly affect temperature and wind fields in the Martian middle and upper atmosphere. They are also one of the observational targets of the MAVEN mission. We report on the first simulations with a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) and present a global distributions of small-scale GWs in the Martian atmosphere. The simulated GW-induced temperature variances are in a good agreement with available radio occultation data in the lower atmosphere between 10 and 30 km. For the northern winter solstice, the model reveals a latitudinal asymmetry with stronger wave generation in the winter hemisphere and two distinctive sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. Orographic GWs are filtered upon propagating upward, and the mesosphere is primarily dominated by harmonics with faster horizontal phase velocities. Wave fluxes are directed mainly against the local wind. GW dissipation in the upper mesosphere generates a body force per unit mass of tens of m s^{-1} per Martian solar day (sol^{-1}), which tends to close the simulated jets. The results represent a realistic surrogate for missing observations, which can be used for constraining GW parameterizations and validating GCMs.

  16. Alteplase and tenecteplase: applications in the peripheral circulation.

    PubMed

    Semba, C P; Sugimoto, K; Razavi, M K

    2001-06-01

    Alteplase (t-PA), a recombinant analogue of human tissue plasminogen activator, became the first genetically engineered thrombolytic approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1987 for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In addition to AMI, alteplase is currently approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and pulmonary embolism, and we anticipate approval for catheter clearance in late 2001 in a 2-mg vial configuration. With the withdrawal of human neonatal kidney cell-derived urokinase, alteplase has become an alternative agent in peripheral vascular applications. Because few interventionalists had prior experience with the handling and dosage of alteplase, the Advisory Panel to the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology established practice guidelines for use in noncoronary applications. Emerging clinical experience with contemporary dosing regimens shows a safety and efficacy profile similar to urokinase but with significantly reduced drug costs. Tenecteplase (TNK) is a genetically modified version of alteplase. TNK is the only plasminogen activator available that has shown a significantly enhanced safety profile versus alteplase in AMI. Approved for a 5-second, single-bolus injection in AMI, TNK possesses a longer half-life, increased resistance to plasminogen activator inhibitor, and improved fibrin specificity compared with alteplase. Because of its enhanced safety profile, TNK may be a desirable agent for peripheral vascular applications. Initial clinical studies with TNK in acute arterial and venous disease are ongoing. This article outlines the Advisory Panel guidelines for using alteplase and highlights features of tenecteplase.

  17. Incorporating circulation statistics in bias correction of GCM ensembles: hydrological application for the Rhine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Photiadou, Christiana; van den Hurk, Bart; van Delden, Aarnout; Weerts, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An adapted statistical bias correction method is introduced to incorporate circulation-dependence of the model precipitation bias, and its influence on estimated discharges for the Rhine basin is analyzed for a historical period. The bias correction method is tailored to time scales relevant to flooding events in the basin. Large-scale circulation patterns (CPs) are obtained through Maximum Covariance Analysis using reanalysis sea level pressure and high-resolution precipitation observations. A bias correction using these CPs is applied to winter and summer separately, acknowledging the seasonal variability of the circulation regimes in North Europe and their correlation with regional precipitation rates over the Rhine basin. Two different climate model ensemble outputs are explored: ESSENCE and CMIP5. The results of the CP-method are then compared to observations and uncorrected model outputs. Results from a simple bias correction based on a delta factor (NoCP-method) are also used for comparison. For both summer and winter, the CP-method offers a statistically significant improvement of precipitation statistics for subsets of data dominated by particular circulation regimes, demonstrating the circulation-dependence of the precipitation bias. Uncorrected, CP and NoCP corrected model outputs were used as forcing to a hydrological model to simulate river discharges. The CP-method leads to a larger improvement in simulated discharge in the Alpine area in winter than in summer due to a stronger dependence of Rhine precipitation on atmospheric circulation in winter. However, the NoCP-method, in comparison to the CP-method, improves the discharge estimations over the entire Rhine basin.

  18. Available energy of symmetric circulations with application to the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codoban, Sorin

    We present a theory of available energy for symmetric circulations of a rotating, stratified fluid. The theory is a generalization of the classical theory of available potential energy (APE), in that it accounts for both the momentum and the thermal constraints on the circulation. The generalization relies on the Hamiltonian structure of the conservative dynamics, although (as with classical APE) it still defines the energetics in a non-conservative framework. The energy budget is derived for the circulation transverse to a given balanced reference flow. For a simple example, it is shown that by including momentum constraints, the available energy of the transverse circulation to a symmetrically stable flow is zero, while the energetics of a mechanically driven symmetric circulation properly reflect its causality. The theory is then applied in the context of the primitive equations in spherical coordinates, to diagnose the available energy of the residual mean meridional circulation of the middle atmosphere. Both simulated fields from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model and the ERA-40 re-analysis data are used for diagnostic comparison. With the non-resting reference state constructed using the radiative equilibrium temperature the available energy diagnostic robustly identifies the circulation as being thermally damped and mechanically forced, in both the stratosphere and mesosphere, which agrees with its causality. The boundary flux term and the thermal forcing are both negative, with the mechanical forcing, due to deposition of momentum by the waves breaking in-situ, being identified as the driving agent; this agrees with the gyroscopic pumping mechanism as the driving process of the middle atmosphere meridional circulation. In contrast, with the resting (Lorenz-like) reference state the thermal forcing is seen as driving the circulation in the stratosphere (along with the boundary flux), with mechanical forcing being identified as a damping. In the mesosphere

  19. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected

  20. Application of Circulation Control Technology to Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Sankar, L. N.; Englar, R. J.; Munro, Scott E.; Li, Yi; Gaeta, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    This report is a summary of the work performed by Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under NASA Langley Grant NAG-1-2146, which was awarded as a part of NASA's Breakthrough Innovative Technologies (BIT) initiative. This was a three-year program, with a one-year no-cost extension. Each year's study has been an integrated effort consisting of computational fluid dynamics, experimental aerodynamics, and detailed noise and flow measurements. Year I effort examined the feasibility of reducing airframe noise by replacing the conventional wing systems with a Circulation Control Wing (CCW), where steady blowing was used through the trailing edge of the wing over a Coanda surface. It was shown that the wing lift increases with CCW blowing and indeed for the same lift, a CCW wing was shown to produce less noise. Year 2 effort dealt with a similar study on the role of pulsed blowing on airframe noise. The main objective of this portion of the study was to assess whether pulse blowing from the trailing edge of a CCW resulted in more, less, or the same amount of radiated noise to the farfield. Results show that a reduction in farfield noise of up to 5 dB is measured when pulse flow is compared with steady flow for an equivalent lift configuration. This reduction is in the spectral region associated with the trailing edge jet noise. This result is due to the unique advantage that pulsed flow has over steady flow. For a range of frequencies, more lift is experienced with the same mass flow as the steady case. Thus, for an equivalent lift and slot height, the pulsed system can operate at lower jet velocities, and hence lower jet noise. The computational analysis showed that for a given time-averaged mass flow rate, pulsed jets give a higher value of C(sub l) and a higher L/D than equivalent steady jets. This benefit is attributable to higher instantaneous jet velocities, and higher instantaneous C(sub mu) values for the pulsed jet. Pulsed jet benefits increase at higher

  1. Reduction of Circulation Current in a Motor Simulator System by Using a Power Converter with a Common Mode Choke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Abe, Tatsuki

    This paper presents a new method for suppressing circulation currents in a motor simulator system. In conventional system a large transformer at grid frequency has to be used to avoid circulation currents between the motor simulator and a test inverter; further a regenerative converter is required too. In the proposed system, the high frequency components of the circulation current are suppressed by means of a common mode choke, and the low frequency components are suppressed by controlling the zero-phase current. Furthermore, a small medium frequency common mode choke is used instead of both a regenerative converter and the grid frequency transformer. In addition, the proposed system can be used to simulate the transient response of the motor. The proposed method is validated on the basis of simulation and experimental results. The primary current waveforms with distortions due to voltage errors caused the dead time agree well in the case of the motor simulator and the actual motor. Further, the low frequency component of the circulation current is suppressed to a value less than 1% of the fundamental component in the proposed system.

  2. An Active Flow Circulation Controlled Flap Concept for General Aviation Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Viken, Sally A.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Cagle, C. Mark

    2002-01-01

    A recent focus on revolutionary aerodynamic concepts has highlighted the technology needs of general aviation and personal aircraft. New and stringent restrictions on these types of aircraft have placed high demands on aerodynamic performance, noise, and environmental issues. Improved high lift performance of these aircraft can lead to slower takeoff and landing speeds that can be related to reduced noise and crash survivability issues. Circulation Control technologies have been around for 65 years, yet have been avoided due to trade offs of mass flow, pitching moment, perceived noise etc. The need to improve the circulation control technology for general aviation and personal air-vehicle applications is the focus of this paper. This report will describe the development of a 2-D General Aviation Circulation Control (GACC) wing concept that utilizes a pulsed pneumatic flap.

  3. [Applications of platelets in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Qin; Chen, Cen; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2014-08-01

    Thrombotic diseases in different forms become a great threat to human health. Such anti-platelet aggregation drugs as aspirin and clopidogrel are common drugs in clinic. However, along with the appearance of resistance and side effects of western anti-platelet aggregation drugs, anti-platelet aggregation traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis have gradually become an important study orientation. Platelet is one of major participant in thrombosis, and plays an important role as a bioactive material in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, mainly involving two aspects--the evaluation for the anti-platelet aggregation activity of traditional Chinese medicines and the screening of their active components. This paper summarized the applications of platelets in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, so as to provide basis for further studies.

  4. Results of two-phase natural circulation in hot-leg U-bend simulation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Lee, S.Y.; Abou El-Seoud, S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study the two-phase natural circulation and flow termination during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed using two different thermal-hydraulic loops. The main focus of the experiment was the two-phase flow behavior in the hot-leg U-bend typical of BandW LWR systems. The first group of experiments was carried out in the nitrogen gas-water adiabatic simulation loop and the second in the Freon 113 boiling and condensation loop. Both of the loops have been designed as a flow visualization facility and built according to the two-phase flow scaling criteria developed under this program. The nitrogen gas-water system has been used to isolate key hydrodynamic phenomena such as the phase distribution, relative velocity between phases, two-phase flow regimes and flow termination mechanisms, whereas the Freon loop has been used to study the effect of fluid properties, phase changes and coupling between hydrodynamic and heat transfer phenomena. Significantly different behaviors have been observed due to the non-equilibrium phase change phenomena such as the flashing and condensation in the Freon loop. The phenomena created much more unstable hydrodynamic conditions which lead to cyclic or oscillatory flow behaviors.

  5. Simulation of Wind-Driven Circulation in the Salton Sea: Implications for Indigenous Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Orlob, Gerald T.; Huston, David W.

    2002-04-01

    The Salton Sea Authority is seeking methods for reducing water levels and controlling salinity within ranges that will protect beneficial uses of the Sea, its adjacent lands, and its indigenous ecosystems. Proposed solutions include various physical changes in the bathymetry and configuration of the Sea. Because circulation in the Sea is driven primarily by wind stresses imposed on the water surface, and circulation changes are likely to affect the Sea?s quality and ecology, a methodology for quantifying the effects of specific alternatives is required. For this purpose a mathematical model for simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of the Sea has been developed, calibrated to data gathered by a field investigation conducted in 1997, and applied to alternative schemes that will isolate sections of the southern basin. The Salton Sea Hydrodynamic/Water Quality Model is constructed using the finite element method to represent the bathymetry of the Sea in a three-dimensional grid. Given certain boundary conditions, for example wind stresses imposed on the surface, the model solves the three-dimensional equations of motion and continuity, the advection-dispersion equation, and an equation of state dependent upon temperature and salinity, to obtain temporal and spatial descriptions of velocities and temperatures over a specified period of time. The model successfully replicated principal features of the Sea's behavior, especially the persistence of a counterclockwise gyre in the southern basin and seasonal stratification. Once calibrated, the model was applied to evaluate the possible effects of changing water surface elevations in the Sea and altering its configuration to isolate sections for evaporative concentration of salts. These effects, evident in changes in velocity, were quantified with regard to their possible impacts on the aquatic habitat and the health of the Salton Sea ecology. A comparative evaluation of alternatives is presented.

  6. Simulated decadal variability of the meridional overturning circulation across the A25-Ovide section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DesbruyèRes, Damien; Thierry, Virginie; Mercier, Herlé

    2013-01-01

    AbstractDecadal changes of the meridional overturning <span class="hlt">circulation</span> (MOC) at the A25-Ovide section between Portugal and Greenland are investigated in a numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> forced by atmospheric reanalysis data for the period 1965-2004. The intensity, composition, and structure of the upper MOC limb are assessed using a Lagrangian analysis tool. Its mean transport is fed by water masses of two distinct origins: the subtropics and the Labrador Sea. Two vertical overturning cells are consequently identified: a subtropical cell connecting low and high latitudes (12 Sv, 1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1) and a cell internal to the subpolar gyre (4 Sv). The decadal MOC variability is associated with synchronized transport changes of the subtropical and subpolar inflow within the North Atlantic Current (NAC). The varying strength of the MOC is further related to changes in the upper horizontal transport distribution. When the MOC is in a strong phase (early 1990s), the northern branch of the NAC in the Iceland Basin is strong while the southern branch at the Rockall Trough entrance is relatively weak. The inverse situation holds for a persistent weak MOC state (1970s). Contrary to the conclusions of earlier studies, variability in the strength and shape of the subpolar gyre does not stand as the main driver of the changing NAC structure, which is largely induced by the horizontal variability of the subtropical inflow. Additionally, the recently shown intrusion of subtropical waters into the northeastern Atlantic (late 1960s, early 1980s, and 2000s) are shown to primarily occur during periods of weak MOC <span class="hlt">circulation</span> at A25-Ovide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7811D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7811D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulated</span> Decadal Variability of the Meridional Overturning <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> across the A25-Ovide section</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Desbruyères, Damien; Thierry, Virginie; Mercier, Herlé</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Decadal changes of the Meridional Overturning <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> (MOC) at the A25-Ovide section between Portugal and Greenland are investigated in a numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> forced by atmospheric reanalysis data for the period 1965-2004. The intensity, composition and structure of the upper MOC limb are assessed using a Lagrangian analysis tool. Its mean transport is fed by water masses of two distinct origins: the subtropics and the Labrador Sea. Two vertical overturning cells are consequently identified: a subtropical cell connecting low and high latitudes (12 Sv, 1 Sv = 106 m3 s^-1) and a cell internal to the subpolar gyre (4 Sv). The decadal MOC variability is associated with synchronized transport changes of the subtropical and subpolar inflow within the North Atlantic Current (NAC). The varying strength of the MOC is further related to changes in the upper horizontal transport distribution. When the MOC is in a strong phase (early 1990's), the northern branch of the NAC in the Iceland Basin is strong while the southern branch at the Rockall Trough entrance is relatively weak. The inverse situation holds for a persistent weak MOC state (1970's). Contrary to the conclusions of earlier studies, variability in the strength and shape of the subpolar gyre does not stand as the main driver of the changing NAC structure, which is largely induced by the horizontal variability of the subtropical inflow. Additionally, the recently shown intrusion of subtropical waters into the Northeastern Atlantic (late 1960's, early 1980's and 2000's) are shown to primarily occur during periods of weak MOC <span class="hlt">circulation</span> at A25-Ovide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=241245&keyword=water+AND+displacement&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=70512730&CFTOKEN=81155789','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=241245&keyword=water+AND+displacement&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=70512730&CFTOKEN=81155789"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulating</span> the impact of the large-scale <span class="hlt">circulation</span> on the 2-m temperature and precipitation climatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The impact of the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> large-scale atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> on the regional climate is examined using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as a regional climate model. The purpose is to understand the potential need for interior grid nudging for dynamical downscal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/527504','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/527504"><span id="translatedtitle">Future <span class="hlt">applications</span> of <span class="hlt">simulators</span> in process control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ruppel, F.; Wysor, W.</p> <p>1997-03-21</p> <p>Future <span class="hlt">applications</span> of <span class="hlt">simulators</span> in process control will see activities with high return on investment in areas such as concurrent engineering, hardware-in-the-loop controller testing, process fault detection, and Internet-retrievable <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models and tools. These <span class="hlt">applications</span> are based on advancing technology in the field of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> technology. In this paper, the advancing technology will be reviewed, and projections to future uses of <span class="hlt">simulators</span> in process control will be made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9798991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9798991"><span id="translatedtitle">Thrombin and human plasma kallikrein inhibition during <span class="hlt">simulated</span> extracorporeal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> block platelet and neutrophil activation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wachtfogel, Y T; Kettner, C; Hack, C E; Nuijens, J H; Reilly, T M; Knabb, R M; Kucich, U; Niewiarowski, S; Edmunds, L H; Colman, R W</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>Cardiopulmonary bypass causes hemorrhagic complications, and initiates a chemical and cellular inflammatory response. Contact of blood with synthetic surfaces leads to qualitative and quantitative alterations in platelets, neutrophils, complement, and contact systems. Despite the fact that cardiopulmonary bypass is carried out in the presence of high doses of heparin, there is significant activation of both platelets and neutrophils. Thrombin is protected on cell and fibrin surfaces from antithrombin, even in the presence of high doses of heparin (approximately 5 U/ml). We therefore studied the effect of a small (Mr = 497), highly effective (Ki = 41 pM), reversible tripeptide inhibitor of thrombin, DUP 714 (1 microM), in a well characterized model of <span class="hlt">simulated</span> extracorporeal <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. In the absence of DUP 714, platelet counts decreased by 75% 5 min after the start of extracorporeal bypass and increased to 48% at 120 min of recirculation. DUP 714 significantly preserved platelet counts, decreased plasma levels of platelet beta-thromboglobulin levels, but did not prevent a decrease in sensitivity of platelets to adenosine diphosphate. Kallikrein-C1-inhibitor and C1-C1-inhibitor complexes increased progressively from 0.32 U/ml to 0.67 U/ml and from 4.45 U/ml to 7.25 U/ml, respectively, during 120 min of recirculation without DUP 714. Addition of DUP 714 significantly inhibited kallikrein-C1-inhibitor complex formation but did not affect C1-C1-inhibitor complexes. In the absence of DUP 714, human neutrophil elastase levels rose from a baseline of 0.01 +/- 0.00 microg/ml to 1.18 +/- 0.21 microg/ml during 120 min of recirculation. Human neutrophil elastase release at 120 min was significantly inhibited in the presence of DUP 714 to 37% of the value with heparin alone. These results indicated that addition of this novel thrombin (and kallikrein) inhibitor to heparin preserved platelet counts, decreased platelet secretion, and provided the additional benefit of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3077R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3077R"><span id="translatedtitle">Baroclinic internal wave energy distribution in the Baltic Sea derived from 45 years of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rybin, Artem; Soomere, Tarmo; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Markus Meier, H. E.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Internal waves and internal tides are an essential component of the functioning of stratified shelf seas. They carry substantial amounts of energy through the water masses, drive key hydrophysical processes such as mixing and overturning and support the functioning of marine ecosystem in many ways. Their particular impact becomes evident near and at the bottom where they often create substantial loads to engineering structures and exert a wide range of impacts on the bottom sediments and evolution of the seabed. We analyse several properties of spatio-temporal distributions of energy of relatively long-period large-scale internal wave motions in the Baltic Sea. The analysis is based on numerically <span class="hlt">simulated</span> pycnocline variations that are extracted from the hydrographic data calculated by the Rossby Centre Ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (RCO) for the entire Baltic Sea for 1961-2005. This model has a horizontal resolution of 2 nautical miles and uses 41 vertical layers with a thickness between 3 m close to the surface and 12 m in 250 m depth. The model is forced with atmospheric data derived from the ERA-40 re-analysis using a regional atmosphere model with a horizontal resolution of 25 km. It also accounts for river inflow and water exchange through the Danish Straits. See (Meier, H.E.M., Höglund, A., 2013. Studying the Baltic Sea <span class="hlt">circulation</span> with Eulerian tracers, in Soomere, T., Quak, E., eds., Preventive Methods for Coastal Protection, Springer, Cham, Heidelberg, 101-130) for a detailed description of the model and its forcing. The resolution of the model output used in this study (once in 6 hours) is sufficient for estimates of spectral amplitudes of the displacements of isopycnal surfaces with a typical period of 2-12 days. We provide the analysis of kinetic and potential energy of motions with these periods. The resulting maps of the maxima of energy and spatial distributions of near-bottom velocities have been evaluated for the entire <span class="hlt">simulation</span> interval of 45</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000057508','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000057508"><span id="translatedtitle">A Variable Resolution Stretched Grid General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model: Regional Climate <span class="hlt">Simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S.; Takacs, Lawrence L.; Govindaraju, Ravi C.; Suarez, Max J.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The development of and results obtained with a variable resolution stretched-grid GCM for the regional climate <span class="hlt">simulation</span> mode, are presented. A global variable resolution stretched- grid used in the study has enhanced horizontal resolution over the U.S. as the area of interest The stretched-grid approach is an ideal tool for representing regional to global scale interaction& It is an alternative to the widely used nested grid approach introduced over a decade ago as a pioneering step in regional climate modeling. The major results of the study are presented for the successful stretched-grid GCM <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the anomalous climate event of the 1988 U.S. summer drought- The straightforward (with no updates) two month <span class="hlt">simulation</span> is performed with 60 km regional resolution- The major drought fields, patterns and characteristics such as the time averaged 500 hPa heights precipitation and the low level jet over the drought area. appear to be close to the verifying analyses for the stretched-grid <span class="hlt">simulation</span>- In other words, the stretched-grid GCM provides an efficient down-scaling over the area of interest with enhanced horizontal resolution. It is also shown that the GCM skill is sustained throughout the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> extended to one year. The developed and tested in a <span class="hlt">simulation</span> mode stretched-grid GCM is a viable tool for regional and subregional climate studies and <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22l5105N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22l5105N"><span id="translatedtitle">Large-eddy <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of a turbulent Coanda jet on a <span class="hlt">circulation</span> control airfoil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nishino, Takafumi; Hahn, Seonghyeon; Shariff, Karim</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Large-eddy <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are performed of a turbulent Coanda jet separating from a rounded trailing edge of a simplified <span class="hlt">circulation</span> control airfoil model. The freestream Reynolds number based on the airfoil chord is 0.49×106, the jet Reynolds number based on the jet slot height is 4470, and the ratio of the peak jet velocity to the freestream velocity is 3.96. Three different grid resolutions are used to show that their effect is very small on the mean surface pressure distribution, which agrees very well with experiments, as well as on the mean velocity profiles over the Coanda surface. It is observed that the Coanda jet becomes fully turbulent just downstream of the jet exit, accompanied by asymmetric alternating vortex shedding behind a thin (but blunt) jet blade splitting the jet and the external flow. A number of "backward-tilted" hairpin vortices (i.e., the head of each hairpin being located upstream of the legs) are observed around the outer edge of the jet over the Coanda surface. These hairpins create strong upwash between the legs and weak downwash around them, contributing to turbulent mixing of the high-momentum jet below the hairpins and the low-momentum external flow above them. The probability density distribution of velocity fluctuations is shown to be highly asymmetric in this region, consistent with the observation that the hairpin vortices create strong upwash and weak downwash. Turbulent structures inside the jet, its spreading rate, and self-similarity are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.4748R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.4748R"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of recent cooling in the east-central United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, Walter A.; Reudy, Reto; Hansen, James E.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>In ensembles of retrospective general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (GCM) <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, surface temperatures in the east-central United States cool between 1951 and 1997. This cooling, which is broadly consistent with observed surface temperatures, is present in GCM experiments driven by observed time varying sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropical Pacific, whether or not increasing greenhouse gases and other time varying climate forcings are included. Here we focus on ensembles with fixed radiative forcing and with observed varying SST in different regions. In these experiments the trend and variability in east-central U.S. surface temperatures are tied to tropical Pacific SSTs. Warm tropical Pacific SSTs cool U.S. temperatures by diminishing solar heating through an increase in cloud cover. These associations are embedded within a year-round response to warm tropical Pacific SST that features tropospheric warming throughout the tropics and regions of tropospheric cooling in midlatitudes. Precipitable water vapor over the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean and the tropospheric thermal gradient across the Gulf Coast of the United States increase when the tropical Pacific is warm. In observations, recent warming in the tropical Pacific is also associated with increased precipitable water over the southeast United States. The observed cooling in the east-central United States, relative to the rest of the globe, is accompanied by increased cloud cover, though year-to-year variations in cloud cover, U.S. surface temperatures, and tropical Pacific SST are less tightly coupled in observations than in the GCM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012027','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012027"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute effects of a large bolide impact <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by a global atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, Starley L.; Crutzen, P. J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The goal is to use a global three-dimensional atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model developed for studies of atmospheric effects of nuclear war to examine the time evolution of atmospheric effects from a large bolide impact. The model allows for dust and NOx injection, atmospheric transport by winds, removal by precipitation, radiative transfer effects, stratospheric ozone chemistry, and nitric acid formation and deposition on a <span class="hlt">simulated</span> Earth having realistic geography. Researchers assume a modest 2 km-diameter impactor of the type that could have formed the 32 km-diameter impact structure found near Manson, Iowa and dated at roughly 66 Ma. Such an impact would have created on the order of 5 x 10 to the 10th power metric tons of atmospheric dust (about 0.01 g cm(-2) if spread globally) and 1 x 10 to the 37th power molecules of NO, or two orders of magnitude more stratospheric NO than might be produced in a large nuclear war. Researchers ignore potential injections of CO2 and wildfire smoke, and assume the direct heating of the atmosphere by impact ejecta on a regional scale is not large compared to absorption of solar energy by dust. Researchers assume an impact site at 45 N in the interior of present day North America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AtmRe.164....9G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AtmRe.164....9G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of soil moisture content on <span class="hlt">simulated</span> mesoscale <span class="hlt">circulations</span> during the summer over eastern Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gómez, I.; Caselles, V.; Estrela, M. J.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6.0 has been used to investigate the impact and influence of initial soil moisture distributions on mesoscale <span class="hlt">circulations</span>. To do this, two different events have been selected from the 2011 summer season: one at the beginning of the season (June) and the other one at the end of the season (August). For each of these mesoscale frameworks a total of five distinct <span class="hlt">simulations</span> were performed varying the initial soil moisture content: a control run and four additional sensitivity tests. The control run, corresponding to a low soil moisture content, is the one used within the real-time weather forecasting system implemented in the Valencia Region. In the corresponding sensitivity <span class="hlt">simulations</span> this low value has been progressively increased in different steps until the original soil moisture content doubled. It has been found that high soil moisture is associated with colder near-surface temperature, a moister relative humidity and a slightly lower near-surface wind speed, whereas a drier soil resulted in a dryer relative humidity, warmer temperature and a slight low-level wind. In general, the highest soil moisture contents are required to reproduce the near-surface daily cycles of temperature and relative humidity through higher values of latent heat flux and lower values of sensible heat flux. In this regard, moistening the soil improves the previous results obtained using the RAMS configuration used within the operational forecasting system. However, the wind speed is not quite sensitive to changes in the soil moisture content over flatter terrain. Finally, although a warming and dryer mixing layer is obtained with the lowest soil moisture content, the mixing layer height remains practically unchanged when using the distinct configurations over flat terrain. These differences are enhanced over more complex terrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030054365&hterms=Realism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DRealism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030054365&hterms=Realism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DRealism"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Transport and <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Differences on Stratospheric Ozone Recovery in Two 35-year Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">Simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor); Strahan, Susan; Douglass, Anne</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) has completed two 35-year <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with WMO future baseline boundary conditions that <span class="hlt">simulate</span> increasing N2O and CH4 emissions and decreasing organic chlorine and bromine emissions. <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> were done with the GMI offline chemistry and transport model using 1) 1 year of winds from the Finite-Volume General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model (FV-GCM), repeated for the 35 years, and 2) 1 year of winds from the Finite-Volume Data Assimilation System (FV-DAS), repeated for 35-years. The <span class="hlt">simulations</span> have full stratospheric chemistry. To understand differences in <span class="hlt">simulated</span> ozone recoveries, basic transport and <span class="hlt">circulation</span> differences between these models are evaluated. The distribution of mean age of stratospheric air in the FV-GCM run agrees well with observations in the lower stratosphere but the FV-DAS ages are generally too low. This implies <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and mixing differences that will affect the distributions of other trace species such as CH4, NO, and the organic halogens, all of which are responding to changing boundary conditions and are involved in ozone loss. Realism of model transport is evaluated, with particular attention given to regions and seasons where ozone recovery is expected. Preliminary results indicate increasing ozone trends in the lowermost stratosphere in summer and in the Antarctic and Arctic lower stratosphere in winter and spring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6051002','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6051002"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of wellbore cooling by <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and fluid penetration into the formation using a wellbore thermal <span class="hlt">simulator</span> computer code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duda, L.E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The high temperatures of geothermal wells present severe problems for drilling, logging, and developing these reservoirs. Cooling the wellbore is perhaps the most common method to solve these problems. However, it is usually not clear what may be the most effective wellbore cooling mechanism for a given well. In this paper, wellbore cooling by the use of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> or by fluid injection into the surrounding rock is investigated using a wellbore thermal <span class="hlt">simulator</span> computer code. Short <span class="hlt">circulation</span> times offer no prolonged cooling of the wellbore, but long <span class="hlt">circulation</span> times (greater than ten or twenty days) greatly reduce the warming rate after shut-in. The dependence of the warming rate on the penetration distance of cooler temperatures into the rock formation (as by fluid injection) is investigated. Penetration distances of greater than 0.6 m appear to offer a substantial reduction in the warming rate. Several plots are shown which demonstrate these effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFM.A11G..07D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFM.A11G..07D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of the Tropical Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> to Glacial Boundary Conditions <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> by an Ensemble of Coupled Climate Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Nezio, P. N.; Clement, A. C.; Vecchi, G. A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The response of the tropical atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) boundary conditions is analyzed using an ensemble of coordinated climate model experiments performed for the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase II. The multi-model changes in the surface <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of the Tropical Pacific are dominated by cross-equatorial winds flowing from the Northern hemisphere (NH) to the Southern hemisphere (SH) along with a strengthening of the easterlies over the equatorial Pacific. The anomalous cross-equatorial winds have been typically associated with an anomalous Hadley cell with the ascending branch in the SH and the descending branch in the NH compensating changes in atmospheric heat transport. However, in this ensemble of coupled General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Models (GCMs) the changes in the tropical <span class="hlt">circulation</span> result from different forcing in each hemisphere. In the NH hemisphere the changes are dominated by the topography of the ice sheets, while in the SH the changes result from cooling due to decreased CO2. The changes in <span class="hlt">circulation</span> due to the topography of the icesheets are diagnosed using a steady s-coordinate primitive equation model linearized about a zonally symmetric basic state that solves for the eddy component of the <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. The solutions from this model for each GCM indicate that differences in the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the mean climate result in differences in the response to LGM topography. The multi-model atmospheric response in the NH is analogous to the expansion of the Aleutian low during boreal winter in the present climate, when the NH subtropical high is squeezed southeastward by an expanded Aleutian low. In the SH the models <span class="hlt">simulate</span> an eastward expansion of the South Pacific Convergence Zone and contraction of the eastern Pacific dry zone consistent with reduced subsidence associated with a slowing down of the SH Hadley cell. This eastward shift in the mean climatology results in weakened trade winds. In addition to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870015842','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870015842"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of data to piloted <span class="hlt">simulators</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bray, Richard S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">application</span> of a further developed analytical model and JAWS data to a piloted <span class="hlt">simulator</span> is addressed. The Ames <span class="hlt">simulator</span> provides a facility for the development of piloting procedures, and for the selection of training scenarios. The system is operational with the new wind shear models and comprehensive data output. The use of these models with the <span class="hlt">simulator</span> is dicussed in detail.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4209740','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4209740"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Solar Particle Event-Like Proton Radiation and/or <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> Microgravity on <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Mouse Blood Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Lin, Liyong; Carabe-Fernandez, Alejandro; Kennedy, Ann R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Astronauts traveling in space missions outside of low Earth orbit will be exposed for longer times to a microgravity environment. In addition, the increased travel time involved in exploration class missions will result in an increased risk of exposure to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Both conditions could significantly affect the number of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> blood cells. Therefore, it is critical to determine the combined effects of exposure to both microgravity and SPE radiation. The purpose of the present study was to assess these risks by evaluating the effects of SPE-like proton radiation and/or microgravity, as <span class="hlt">simulated</span> with the hindlimb unloading (HU) system, on <span class="hlt">circulating</span> blood cells using mouse as a model system. The results indicate that exposure to HU alone caused minimal or no significant changes in mouse <span class="hlt">circulating</span> blood cell numbers. The exposure of mice to SPE-like proton radiation with or without HU treatment caused a significant decrease in the number of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets. The reduced numbers of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets, resulting from the SPE-like proton radiation exposure, with or without HU treatment, in mice suggest that astronauts participating in exploration class missions may be at greater risk of developing infections and thrombotic diseases; thus, countermeasures may be necessary for these biological endpoints. PMID:25360441</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25360441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25360441"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Solar Particle Event-Like Proton Radiation and/or <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> Microgravity on <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Mouse Blood Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Lin, Liyong; Carabe-Fernandez, Alejandro; Kennedy, Ann R</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Astronauts traveling in space missions outside of low Earth orbit will be exposed for longer times to a microgravity environment. In addition, the increased travel time involved in exploration class missions will result in an increased risk of exposure to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Both conditions could significantly affect the number of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> blood cells. Therefore, it is critical to determine the combined effects of exposure to both microgravity and SPE radiation. The purpose of the present study was to assess these risks by evaluating the effects of SPE-like proton radiation and/or microgravity, as <span class="hlt">simulated</span> with the hindlimb unloading (HU) system, on <span class="hlt">circulating</span> blood cells using mouse as a model system. The results indicate that exposure to HU alone caused minimal or no significant changes in mouse <span class="hlt">circulating</span> blood cell numbers. The exposure of mice to SPE-like proton radiation with or without HU treatment caused a significant decrease in the number of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets. The reduced numbers of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets, resulting from the SPE-like proton radiation exposure, with or without HU treatment, in mice suggest that astronauts participating in exploration class missions may be at greater risk of developing infections and thrombotic diseases; thus, countermeasures may be necessary for these biological endpoints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25360441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25360441"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Solar Particle Event-Like Proton Radiation and/or <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> Microgravity on <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Mouse Blood Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Lin, Liyong; Carabe-Fernandez, Alejandro; Kennedy, Ann R</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Astronauts traveling in space missions outside of low Earth orbit will be exposed for longer times to a microgravity environment. In addition, the increased travel time involved in exploration class missions will result in an increased risk of exposure to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Both conditions could significantly affect the number of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> blood cells. Therefore, it is critical to determine the combined effects of exposure to both microgravity and SPE radiation. The purpose of the present study was to assess these risks by evaluating the effects of SPE-like proton radiation and/or microgravity, as <span class="hlt">simulated</span> with the hindlimb unloading (HU) system, on <span class="hlt">circulating</span> blood cells using mouse as a model system. The results indicate that exposure to HU alone caused minimal or no significant changes in mouse <span class="hlt">circulating</span> blood cell numbers. The exposure of mice to SPE-like proton radiation with or without HU treatment caused a significant decrease in the number of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets. The reduced numbers of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets, resulting from the SPE-like proton radiation exposure, with or without HU treatment, in mice suggest that astronauts participating in exploration class missions may be at greater risk of developing infections and thrombotic diseases; thus, countermeasures may be necessary for these biological endpoints. PMID:25360441</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770041663&hterms=climate+change+affect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange%2Baffect','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770041663&hterms=climate+change+affect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange%2Baffect"><span id="translatedtitle">The July climate and a comparison of the January and July climates <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by the GISS general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stone, P. H.; Quirr, W. J.; Chow, S.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Results are presented for a study directed to evaluate the ability of the global general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in <span class="hlt">simulating</span> seasonal differences as related to an experiment <span class="hlt">simulating</span> the July climatology which parallels the January <span class="hlt">simulation</span> presented by Somerville et al. (1974). The July and January <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are compared with each other and with climatological data on seasonal changes, mainly for the Northern Hemisphere troposphere. The comparison shows that the model-generated energy cycle, distribution of winds, temperature, humidity and pressure, dynamical transports, diabatic heating, evaporation, precipitation and cloud cover are all realistic for the Northern Hemisphere troposphere in July. The model's <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of seasonal differences is generally quite realistic since the systematic quantitative errors do not affect the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of relative changes, to first order. Defects that could seriously bias the model's performance in particular climate experiments are identified and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HMT....51.1425S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HMT....51.1425S"><span id="translatedtitle">WHTSubmersible: a <span class="hlt">simulator</span> for estimating transient <span class="hlt">circulation</span> temperature in offshore wells with the semi-submersible platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Xun-cheng; Liu, Yong-wang; Guan, Zhi-chuan</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Offshore wellbore temperature field is significant to drilling fluids program, equipment selection, evaluations on potential risks caused by casing thermal stress, etc. This paper mainly describes the theoretical basis, module structure and field verification of the <span class="hlt">simulator</span> WHTSubmersible. This computer program is a useful tool for estimating transient temperature distribution of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> drilling fluid on semi-submersible platform. WHTSubmersible is based on a mathematical model which is developed to consider radial and axial two-dimensional heat exchange of the inner drill pipe, the annulus, the drill pipe wall, the sea water and the formation in the process of drilling fluid <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. The solution of the discrete equations is based on finite volume method with an implicit scheme. This scheme serves to demonstrate the numerical solution procedure. Besides, the <span class="hlt">simulator</span> also considers the heating generated by drilling fluid <span class="hlt">circulation</span> friction, drill bit penetrating rocks, friction between the drill column and the borehole wall, and the temperature effect on thermal physical properties and rheology of the drilling fluid. These measures ensure more accurate results. The <span class="hlt">simulator</span> has been programmed as a dynamic link library using Visual C++, the routine interface is simple, which can be connected with other computer programs conveniently. The <span class="hlt">simulator</span> is validated with an actual well temperature filed developed on a semi-submersible platform in South China, and the error is less than 5 %.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25898732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25898732"><span id="translatedtitle">[Endothelial glycocalyx of blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. II. Biological functions, state at norm and pathology, bioengineering <span class="hlt">application</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maksimenko, A V; Turashev, A D</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In normal state, a complex multicomponent system called glycocalyx is present on the surface of endothelial vascular system. Due to complexity of its composition and location on the border between vessel wall and blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, glycocalyx participates in a number of functions supporting the metabolism of the vascular wall. In pathological conditions undergo complete or partial loss of this structure, which leads to inconsistencies in the vascular wall and change its functions. The functions of endothelial glycocalyx are its involvement in the regulation of vascular permeability, transduction and transformation by the shear stress of blood flow on endothelium, the molecular regulation of glycocalyx microenvironment and its interaction with <span class="hlt">circulating</span> blood cells. Also briefly be considered participation of glycocalyx in the implementation of cardiovascular diseases, their correction, bioengineering <span class="hlt">application</span> of glycocalyx and its components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMMM..404..126L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMMM..404..126L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of Molded Interconnect Device technology to the realization of a self-biased <span class="hlt">circulator</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laur, Vincent; Mattei, Jean-Luc; Vérissimo, Grégory; Queffelec, Patrick; Lebourgeois, Richard; Ganne, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper describes the first electromagnetic characterization of a self-biased <span class="hlt">circulator</span> in molded interconnect device (MID) technology. The <span class="hlt">circulator</span> was designed using a 3D full-wave commercial <span class="hlt">simulator</span>. It consists of microstrip access lines connected to a Y-junction in Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) technology. Unlike classical technologies, the SIW Y-junction was not fabricated using metallic vias but by a Laser Direct Structuring (LDS) technique. A molded Cyclo-Olefin Polymer (COP) was used as a substrate and 3D metallized. The microwave properties of LDS-compatible COP are not well known so we investigated them through the use of cavity-perturbation and rectangular waveguide characterization methods. The device was then machined to insert a pre-oriented strontium hexaferrite puck doped with cobalt and lanthanum (Sr0,7La0,3Fe11,7Co0,3O19). The characteristics of the MID <span class="hlt">circulator</span> were assessed between 28 and 32 GHz. Without magnets, insertion losses of 3.32 dB were measured at 30.7 GHz. At the same frequency, an isolation level of 13.89 dB and return losses of 19.89 dB were observed. These measurements demonstrate for the first time the high potential of MID technology for the realization of low-cost non-reciprocal devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod.104..143T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod.104..143T"><span id="translatedtitle">North and equatorial Pacific Ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the CORE-II hindcast <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tseng, Yu-heng; Lin, Hongyang; Chen, Han-ching; Thompson, Keith; Bentsen, Mats; Böning, Claus W.; Bozec, Alexandra; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Chow, Chun Hoe; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Danilov, Sergey; Farneti, Riccardo; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Patara, Lavinia; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sui, Chung-Hsiung; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yeager, Steve G.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We evaluate the mean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> patterns, water mass distributions, and tropical dynamics of the North and Equatorial Pacific Ocean based on a suite of global ocean-sea ice <span class="hlt">simulations</span> driven by the CORE-II atmospheric forcing from 1963-2007. The first three moments (mean, standard deviation and skewness) of sea surface height and surface temperature variability are assessed against observations. Large discrepancies are found in the variance and skewness of sea surface height and in the skewness of sea surface temperature. Comparing with the observation, most models underestimate the Kuroshio transport in the Asian Marginal seas due to the missing influence of the unresolved western boundary current and meso-scale eddies. In terms of the Mixed Layer Depths (MLDs) in the North Pacific, the two observed maxima associated with Subtropical Mode Water and Central Mode Water formation coalesce into a large pool of deep MLDs in all participating models, but another local maximum associated with the formation of Eastern Subtropical Mode Water can be found in all models with different magnitudes. The main model bias of deep MLDs results from excessive Subtropical Mode Water formation due to inaccurate representation of the Kuroshio separation and of the associated excessively warm and salty Kuroshio water. Further water mass analysis shows that the North Pacific Intermediate Water can penetrate southward in most models, but its distribution greatly varies among models depending not only on grid resolution and vertical coordinate but also on the model dynamics. All <span class="hlt">simulations</span> show overall similar large scale tropical current system, but with differences in the structures of the Equatorial Undercurrent. We also confirm the key role of the meridional gradient of the wind stress curl in driving the equatorial transport, leading to a generally weak North Equatorial Counter Current in all models due to inaccurate CORE-II equatorial wind fields. Most models show a larger</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020022185','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020022185"><span id="translatedtitle">3D <span class="hlt">Simulation</span>: Microgravity Environments and <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity <span class="hlt">applications</span>. Space environments <span class="hlt">simulations</span> require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate <span class="hlt">simulations</span> that replicate those microgravity effects upon <span class="hlt">simulated</span> astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. Therefore, microgravity <span class="hlt">simulations</span> require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic <span class="hlt">simulation</span> to space related <span class="hlt">applications</span>. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR <span class="hlt">simulations</span> to be completed successfully without program code modifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002152','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002152"><span id="translatedtitle">The Response of the South Asian Summer Monsoon <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> to Intensified Irrigation in Global Climate Model <span class="hlt">Simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Agricultural intensification in South Asia has resulted in the expansion and intensification of surface irrigation over the twentieth century. The resulting changes to the surface energy balance could affect the temperature contrasts between the South Asian land surface and the equatorial Indian Ocean, potentially altering the South Asian Summer Monsoon (SASM) <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. Prior studies have noted apparent declines in the monsoon intensity over the twentieth century and have focused on how altered surface energy balances impact the SASM rainfall distribution. Here, we use the coupled Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE-R general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model to investigate the impact of intensifying irrigation on the large-scale SASM <span class="hlt">circulation</span> over the twentieth century, including how the effect of irrigation compares to the impact of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. We force our <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with time-varying, historical estimates of irrigation, both alone and with twentieth century GHGs and other forcings. In the irrigation only experiment, irrigation rates correlate strongly with lower and upper level temperature contrasts between the Indian sub-continent and the Indian Ocean (Pearson's r = -0.66 and r = -0.46, respectively), important quantities that control the strength of the SASM <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. When GHG forcing is included, these correlations strengthen: r = -0.72 and r = -0.47 for lower and upper level temperature contrasts, respectively. Under irrigated conditions, the mean SASM intensity in the model decreases only slightly and insignificantly. However, in the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> with irrigation and GHG forcing, inter-annual variability of the SASM <span class="hlt">circulation</span> decreases by *40 %, consistent with trends in the reanalysis products. This suggests that the inclusion of irrigation may be necessary to accurately <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the historical trends and variability of the SASM system over the last 50 years. These findings suggest that intensifying irrigation, in concert with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980022169','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980022169"><span id="translatedtitle">Continued Development and <span class="hlt">Application</span> of <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Control Pneumatic Technology to Advanced Transport Aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Englar, Robert J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Personnel of the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) Aerospace and Transportation Lab have completed a four-year grant program to develop and evaluate the pneumatic aerodynamic technology known as <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Control (CC) or <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Control Wing (CCW) for advanced transport aircraft. This pneumatic technology, which employs low-level blowing from tangential slots over round or near-round trailing edges of airfoils, greatly augments the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> around a lifting or control surface and thus enhances the aerodynamic forces and moments generated by that surface. Two-dimensional force augmentations as high as 80 times the input blowing momentum coefficient have been recorded experimentally for these blown devices, thus providing returns of 8000% on the jet momentum expended. A further benefit is the absence of moving parts such as mechanical flaps, slats, spoilers, ailerons, elevators and rudders from these pneumatic surfaces, or the use of only very small, simple, blown aerodynamic surfaces on synergistic designs which integrate the lift, drag and control surfaces. The <span class="hlt">application</span> of these devices to advanced aircraft can offer significant benefits in their performance, efficiency, simplicity, reliability, economic cost of operation, noise reduction, and safety of flight. To further develop and evaluate this potential, this research effort was conducted by GTRI under grant for the NASA Langley Research Center, Applied Aerodynamics Division, Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch, between June 14, 1993 and May 31, 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9530S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9530S"><span id="translatedtitle">The ability of isotope enabled Global <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Models to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> observed water vapor isotopic composition above the Greenland Ice Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Risi, Camille; Yoshimura, Kei; Werner, Martin; Butzin, Martin; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We have measured continuously for three summer seasons (2010-2012) the isotopic composition of the water vapor on top of the Greenland Ice Sheet as part of the NEEM deep ice core-drilling project (77.45 N 51.06 W, 2484 m a.s.l). The purpose of this campaign has been to improve our understanding of the climatic factors controlling the ice core isotope signal, which can then be used to reconstruct the past climate. To achieve such an understanding general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models provide a valuable tool. It is therefore crucial to test the ability of the models to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the present day hydrological cycle and its isotopic counterparts. We therefore compare the observed water vapor isotopic composition with model outputs from three isotope-enabled general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models (LMDZiso, isoGSM, ECHAM-wiso). We are thereby able to benchmark the models and address effect of model resolution, effect of transport, effect of isotope parameterization, and representation of significant source region contributions. We find for all models that <span class="hlt">simulated</span> isotopic value δD are significantly biased towards too enriched values. This isotopic bias is partly explained by a bias in the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> air temperature. We furthermore find that the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> amplitude in d-excess variations is ~50% smaller than observed and that the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> average summer level is ~10‰ lower than in observations. The bias in the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> δD and d-excess water vapor is similar to the already-documented bias in the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> δD and d-excess of Greenland ice core records. This suggests that if we improve the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the water vapor isotopic composition we might also improve the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the ice core isotope record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED025460.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED025460.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> <span class="hlt">Applications</span> in Teacher Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Twelker, Paul A.</p> <p></p> <p>In 1961, Teaching Research Division of Oregon State System of Higher Education began developing a variety of <span class="hlt">simulated</span> classroom situations through the medium of sound motion pictures and printed materials. It has been testing this technique which permits a supervising teacher to control the stimulus events in the classroom via simulated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ClDy...13...45M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ClDy...13...45M"><span id="translatedtitle">Downscaling of general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model outputs: <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the snow climatology of the French Alps and sensitivity to climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, E.; Timbal, B.; Brun, E.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>A downscaling method was developed to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the seasonal snow cover of the French Alps from general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model outputs under various scenarios. It consists of an analogue procedure, which associates a real meteorological situation to a model output. It is based on the comparison between <span class="hlt">simulated</span> upper air fields and meteorological analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The selection uses a nearest neighbour method at a daily time-step. In a second phase, the snow cover is <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by the snow model CROCUS at several elevations and in the different regions of the French Alps by using data from the real meteorological situations. The method is tested with real data and applied to various ARPEGE/Climat <span class="hlt">simulations</span>: the present climate and two climate change scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/549462','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/549462"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of inhibitor <span class="hlt">application</span> -- A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Banerjee, G.; Vasanth, K.L.</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>The rapid development of powerful software as well as hardware in computer technology has changed the traditional approach to all areas of science and technology. In the field of corrosion inhibitors, computers are used to model, <span class="hlt">simulate</span>, analyze and monitor inhibitor <span class="hlt">applications</span> in both laboratory and industrial environments. This paper will present an up-to-date critical review of such <span class="hlt">simulation</span> studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..388F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..388F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulated</span> austral winter response of the Hadley <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and stationary Rossby wave propagation to a warming climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Freitas, Ana C. V.; Frederiksen, Jorgen S.; O'Kane, Terence J.; Ambrizzi, Tércio</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Ensemble <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, using both coupled ocean-atmosphere (AOGCM) and atmosphere only (AGCM) general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models, are employed to examine the austral winter response of the Hadley <span class="hlt">circulation</span> (HC) and stationary Rossby wave propagation (SRW) to a warming climate. Changes in the strength and width of the HC are firstly examined in a set of runs with idealized sea surface temperature (SST) perturbations as boundary conditions in the AGCM. Strong and weak SST gradient experiments (SG and WG, respectively) <span class="hlt">simulate</span> changes in the HC intensity, whereas narrow (5°S-5°N) and wide (30°S-30°N) SST warming experiments <span class="hlt">simulate</span> changes in the HC width. To examine the combined impact of changes in the strength and width of the HC upon SRW propagation two AOGCM <span class="hlt">simulations</span> using different scenarios of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are employed. We show that, in contrast to a wide SST warming, the atmospheric <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with a narrow SST warming produce stronger and very zonally extended Rossby wave sources, leading to stronger and eastward shifted troughs and ridges. <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> with SST anomalies, either in narrow or wide latitude bands only modify the intensity of the troughs and ridges. SST anomalies outside the narrow latitude band of 5°S-5°N do not significantly affect the spatial pattern of SRW propagation. AOGCM <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with 1 %/year increasing CO2 concentrations or 4 times preindustrial CO2 levels reveal very similar SRW responses to the atmospheric only <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with anomalously wider SST warming. Our results suggest that in a warmer climate, the changes in the strength and width of the HC act in concert to significantly alter SRW sources and propagation characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.427..160C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.427..160C"><span id="translatedtitle">The global distribution of natural tritium in precipitation <span class="hlt">simulated</span> with an Atmospheric General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model and comparison with observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cauquoin, A.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Risi, C.; Fourré, É.; Stenni, B.; Landais, A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The description of the hydrological cycle in Atmospheric General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Models (GCMs) can be validated using water isotopes as tracers. Many GCMs now <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the movement of the stable isotopes of water, but here we present the first GCM <span class="hlt">simulations</span> modelling the content of natural tritium in water. These <span class="hlt">simulations</span> were obtained using a version of the LMDZ General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model enhanced by water isotopes diagnostics, LMDZ-iso. To avoid tritium generated by nuclear bomb testing, the <span class="hlt">simulations</span> have been evaluated against a compilation of published tritium datasets dating from before 1950, or measured recently. LMDZ-iso correctly captures the observed tritium enrichment in precipitation as oceanic air moves inland (the so-called continental effect) and the observed north-south variations due to the latitudinal dependency of the cosmogenic tritium production rate. The seasonal variability, linked to the stratospheric intrusions of air masses with higher tritium content into the troposphere, is correctly reproduced for Antarctica with a maximum in winter. LMDZ-iso reproduces the spring maximum of tritium over Europe, but underestimates it and produces a peak in winter that is not apparent in the data. This implementation of tritium in a GCM promises to provide a better constraint on: (1) the intrusions and transport of air masses from the stratosphere, and (2) the dynamics of the modelled water cycle. The method complements the existing approach of using stable water isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JApMe..42...37S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JApMe..42...37S"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of Local <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> in the Itaipu Lake Area: Numerical <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of Lake Breeze.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stivari, Sônia M. S.; de Oliveira, Amauri P.; Karam, Hugo A.; Soares, Jacyra</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The lake-breeze <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the Itaipu region was investigated numerically using a nonhydrostatic version of the Topographic Vorticity Model. The area of study corresponds to a 100 km × 180 km rectangle, located on the Brazil-Paraguay border, with Itaipu Lake in its center. The characteristics of the lake breeze generated by the numerical experiments were consistent with the observations available in the area. The numerical experiments have shown that the land use effect is important in the spatial distribution of the lake-breeze <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and that the topography contributes to modulating the breeze intensity, with the daytime valley-mountain <span class="hlt">circulation</span> intensifying the lake breeze. However, the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> pattern observed during daytime over the region is mainly due to the Itaipu Lake presence. The numerical results indicated that Itaipu Lake is able to generate and sustain a lake breeze, with 3.5 m s1 of maximum intensity and 1500-m depth, that propagates inland at 5.1 km h1 under typical undisturbed and calm-wind summer conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/263516','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/263516"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of the Low-Level-Jet by general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ghan, S.J.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>To what degree is the low-level jet climatology and it`s impact on clouds and precipitation being captured by current general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models? It is hypothesised that a need for a pramaterization exists. This paper describes this parameterization need.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950009573','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950009573"><span id="translatedtitle">Virtual environment <span class="hlt">application</span> with partial gravity <span class="hlt">simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ray, David M.; Vanchau, Michael N.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>To support manned missions to the surface of Mars and missions requiring manipulation of payloads and locomotion in space, a training facility is required to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the conditions of both partial and microgravity. A partial gravity <span class="hlt">simulator</span> (Pogo) which uses pneumatic suspension is being studied for use in virtual reality training. Pogo maintains a constant partial gravity <span class="hlt">simulation</span> with a variation of <span class="hlt">simulated</span> body force between 2.2 and 10 percent, depending on the type of locomotion inputs. this paper is based on the concept and <span class="hlt">application</span> of a virtual environment system with Pogo including a head-mounted display and glove. The reality engine consists of a high end SGI workstation and PC's which drive Pogo's sensors and data acquisition hardware used for tracking and control. The tracking system is a hybrid of magnetic and optical trackers integrated for this <span class="hlt">application</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090032114','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090032114"><span id="translatedtitle">Port-O-Sim Object <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> <span class="hlt">Application</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lanzi, Raymond J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Port-O-Sim is a software <span class="hlt">application</span> that supports engineering modeling and <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of launch-range systems and subsystems, as well as the vehicles that operate on them. It is flexible, distributed, object-oriented, and realtime. A scripting language is used to configure an array of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> objects and link them together. The script is contained in a text file, but executed and controlled using a graphical user interface. A set of modules is defined, each with input variables, output variables, and settings. These engineering models can be either linked to each other or run as standalone. The settings can be modified during execution. Since 2001, this <span class="hlt">application</span> has been used for pre-mission failure mode training for many Range Safety Scenarios. It contains range asset link analysis, develops look-angle data, supports sky-screen site selection, drives GPS (Global Positioning System) and IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) <span class="hlt">simulators</span>, and can support conceptual design efforts for multiple flight programs with its capacity for rapid six-degrees-of-freedom model development. Due to the assembly of various object types into one <span class="hlt">application</span>, the <span class="hlt">application</span> is <span class="hlt">applicable</span> across a wide variety of launch range problem domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRE..120.2020G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRE..120.2020G"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of the Martian thermosphere during eight Martian years as <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by a ground-to-exosphere global <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González-Galindo, F.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Forget, F.; García-Comas, M.; Millour, E.; Montabone, L.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Using a ground-to-exosphere general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model for Mars we have <span class="hlt">simulated</span> the variability of the dayside temperatures at the exobase during eight Martian years (MY, from MY24 to MY31, approximately from 1998 to 2013), taking into account the observed day-to-day solar and dust load variability. We show that the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> temperatures are in good agreement with the exospheric temperatures derived from Precise Orbit Determination of Mars Global Surveyor. We then study the effects of the solar variability and of two planetary-encircling dust storms on the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> temperatures. The seasonal effect produced by the large eccentricity of the Martian orbit translates in an aphelion-to-perihelion temperature contrast in every <span class="hlt">simulated</span> year. However, the magnitude of this seasonal temperature variation is strongly affected by the solar conditions, ranging from 50 K for years corresponding to solar minimum conditions to almost 140 K during the last solar maximum. The 27 day solar rotation cycle is observed on the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> temperatures at the exobase, with average amplitude of the temperature oscillation of 2.6 K but with a significant interannual variability. These two results highlight the importance of taking into account the solar variability when <span class="hlt">simulating</span> the Martian upper atmosphere and likely have important implications concerning the atmospheric escape rate. We also show that the global dust storms in MY25 and MY28 have a significant effect on the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> temperatures. In general, they increase the exospheric temperatures over the low latitude and midlatitude regions and decrease them in the polar regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040085660&hterms=informatique&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dinformatique','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040085660&hterms=informatique&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dinformatique"><span id="translatedtitle">3D <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of the Early Mars Climate with a General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Forget, F.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.; Cha, S.; Marcq, E.; Schaeffer, J.; Wanherdrick, Y.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The environmental conditions that existed on Mars during the Noachian period are subject to debate in the community. In any case, there are compelling evidence that these conditions were different than what they became later in the amazonian and possibly the Hesperian periods. Indeed, most of the old cratered terrains are disected by valley networks (thought to have been carved by flowing liquid water), whereas younger surface are almost devoid of such valleys. In addition, there are evidence that the erosion rate was much higher during the early noachian than later. Flowing water is surprising on early Mars because the solar luminosity was significantly lower than today. Even with the thick atmosphere (up to several bars).To improve our understanding of the early Mars Climate, we have developed a 3D general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model similar to the one used on current Earth or Mars to study the details of the climate today. Our first objective is to answer the following questions : how is the Martian climate modified if 1) the surface pressure is increased up to several bars (our baseline: 2 bars) and 2) if the sun luminosity is decreased by 25 account the heat possibly released by impacts during short periods, although it may have played a role .For this purpose, we have coupled the Martian General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> model developed at LMD with a sophisticated correlated k distribution model developped at NASA Ames Research Center. It is a narrow band model which computes the radiative transfer at both solar and thermal wavelengths (from 0.3 to 250 microns).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4760101','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4760101"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-<span class="hlt">circulating</span> Janus nanoparticles made by electrohydrodynamic co-jetting for systemic drug delivery <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rahmani, Sahar; Villa, Carlos H.; Dishman, Acacia F.; Grabowski, Marika E.; Pan, Daniel C.; Durmaz, Hakan; Misra, Asish C; Colón-Meléndez, Laura; Solomon, Michael J.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Lahann, Joerg</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Nanoparticles with controlled physical properties have been widely used for controlled release <span class="hlt">applications</span>. In addition to shape, the anisotropic nature of the particles can be an important design criterion to ensure selective surface modification or independent release of combinations of drugs. Purpose Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) co-jetting is used for the fabrication of uniform anisotropic nanoparticles with individual compartments and initial physicochemical and biological characterization is reported. Methods EHD co-jetting is used to create nanoparticles, which are characterized at each stage with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Surface immobilization techniques are used to incorporate polyethylene glycol (PEG) and I125 radiolabels into the nanoparticles. Particles are injected in mice and the particle distribution after 1, 4 and 24 hours is assessed. Results and discussion Nanoparticles with an average diameter of 105.7 nm are prepared by EHD co-jetting. The particles contain functional chemical groups for further surface modification and radiolabeling. The density of PEG molecules attached to the surface of nanoparticles is determined to range between 0.02 and 6.04 ligands per square nanometer. A significant fraction of the nanoparticles (1.2% injected dose per mass of organ) <span class="hlt">circulates</span> in the blood after 24 h. Conclusion EHD co-jetting is a versatile method for the fabrication of nanoparticles for drug delivery. <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> of the nanoparticles for 24 h is a pre-requisite for subsequent studies to explore defined targeting of the nanoparticles to a specific anatomic site. PMID:26453170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780016801','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780016801"><span id="translatedtitle">Experiments in monthly mean <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the atmosphere with a coarse-mesh general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lutz, R. J.; Spar, J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The Hansen atmospheric model was used to compute five monthly forecasts (October 1976 through February 1977). The comparison is based on an energetics analysis, meridional and vertical profiles, error statistics, and prognostic and observed mean maps. The monthly mean model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> suffer from several defects. There is, in general, no skill in the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the monthly mean sea-level pressure field, and only marginal skill is indicated for the 850 mb temperatures and 500 mb heights. The coarse-mesh model appears to generate a less satisfactory monthly mean <span class="hlt">simulation</span> than the finer mesh GISS model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/186124','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/186124"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> during the GIMEX 91 experiment using a meso-{gamma} primitive equations model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gallee, H.; Fontaine de Ghelin, O.; Broeke, M.R. Van Den</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>A meso-{gamma}-scale atmospheric model has been used to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulations</span> observed during the Greenland Ice Margin EXperiment (GIMEX). The <span class="hlt">simulations</span> shown here are two-dimensional and cover the 12-13 July 1991 period, a typical summer situation in this area. The synoptic-scale wind forcing is included. The tundra topography is assumed to be either flat, or averaged over a 50-km-wide cross section centered on the GIMEX transect. <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> wind, temperature, humidity, and turbulent fluxes compare reasonably well with available observations. The <span class="hlt">simulated</span> heat used to melt snow or ice is also shown. The sensitivity of the model results to the synoptic-scale wind forcing is significant. The impact of a tundra much warmer than the ocean on the ice sheet melting is discussed. It is found that weak easterly synoptic-scale winds are able to overwhelm this impact, especially when the tundra is assumed to be flat. 29 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1991/0237/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1991/0237/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of the effects of proposed tide gates on <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, flushing, and water quality in residential canals, Cape Coral Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Goodwin, Carl R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Decades of dredging and filling of Florida's low-lying coastal wetlands have produced thousands of miles of residential tidal canals and adjacent waterfront property. Typically, these canals are poorly flushed, and over time, accumulated organic-rich bottom materials, contribute to an increasingly severe degraded water quality. One-dimensional hydrodynamic and constituent-transport models were applied to two dead-end canal systems to determine the effects of canal system interconnection using tide gates on water <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and constituent flushing. The model <span class="hlt">simulates</span> existing and possible future <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and flushing conditions in about 29 miles of the approximately 130 miles of tidally influenced canals in Cape Coral, located on the central west coast of peninsular Florida. Model results indicate that tidal water-level differences between the two canal systems can be converted to kinetic energy, in the form of increased water <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, but the use of one-way tide gate interconnections. Computations show that construction of from one to four tide gates will cause replacement of a volume of water equivalent to the total volume of canals in both systems in 15 to 9 days, respectively. Because some canals flush faster than others, 47 and 21 percent of the original canal water will remain in both systems 50 days after start of operation of one and four tide gates, respectively. Some of the effects that such increased flushing are expected to have include reduced density stratification and associated dissolved-oxygen depletion in canal bottom waters, increased localized reaeration, and more efficient discharge of stormwater runoff entering the canals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4655909','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4655909"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular dynamics <span class="hlt">simulations</span>: advances and <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hospital, Adam; Goñi, Josep Ramon; Orozco, Modesto; Gelpí, Josep L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Molecular dynamics <span class="hlt">simulations</span> have evolved into a mature technique that can be used effectively to understand macromolecular structure-to-function relationships. Present <span class="hlt">simulation</span> times are close to biologically relevant ones. Information gathered about the dynamic properties of macromolecules is rich enough to shift the usual paradigm of structural bioinformatics from studying single structures to analyze conformational ensembles. Here, we describe the foundations of molecular dynamics and the improvements made in the direction of getting such ensemble. Specific <span class="hlt">application</span> of the technique to three main issues (allosteric regulation, docking, and structure refinement) is discussed. PMID:26604800</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4655909','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4655909"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular dynamics <span class="hlt">simulations</span>: advances and <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hospital, Adam; Goñi, Josep Ramon; Orozco, Modesto; Gelpí, Josep L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Molecular dynamics <span class="hlt">simulations</span> have evolved into a mature technique that can be used effectively to understand macromolecular structure-to-function relationships. Present <span class="hlt">simulation</span> times are close to biologically relevant ones. Information gathered about the dynamic properties of macromolecules is rich enough to shift the usual paradigm of structural bioinformatics from studying single structures to analyze conformational ensembles. Here, we describe the foundations of molecular dynamics and the improvements made in the direction of getting such ensemble. Specific <span class="hlt">application</span> of the technique to three main issues (allosteric regulation, docking, and structure refinement) is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17569652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17569652"><span id="translatedtitle">Ensemble climate <span class="hlt">simulations</span> using a fully coupled ocean-troposphere-stratosphere general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huebener, H; Cubasch, U; Langematz, U; Spangehl, T; Niehörster, F; Fast, I; Kunze, M</p> <p>2007-08-15</p> <p>Long-term transient <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are carried out in an initial condition ensemble mode using a global coupled climate model which includes comprehensive ocean and stratosphere components. This model, which is run for the years 1860-2100, allows the investigation of the troposphere-stratosphere interactions and the importance of representing the middle atmosphere in climate-change <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. The model <span class="hlt">simulates</span> the present-day climate (1961-2000) realistically in the troposphere, stratosphere and ocean. The enhanced stratospheric resolution leads to the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of sudden stratospheric warmings; however, their frequency is underestimated by a factor of 2 with respect to observations.In projections of the future climate using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change special report on emissions scenarios A2, an increased tropospheric wave forcing counteracts the radiative cooling in the middle atmosphere caused by the enhanced greenhouse gas concentration. This leads to a more dynamically active, warmer stratosphere compared with present-day <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, and to the doubling of the number of stratospheric warmings. The associated changes in the mean zonal wind patterns lead to a southward displacement of the Northern Hemisphere storm track in the climate-change signal. PMID:17569652</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...39a2041L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...39a2041L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulated</span> Asian-Australian monsoon with a spectral element atmospheric general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, X. Y.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A low-top version of SEMANS (Spectral Element Model with Atmospheric Near Space resolved) has been used to carry out numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> on characteristics of Asian- Australian Monsoon (A-AM) in the work. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results are validated with ERA- Interim reanalysis dataset and precipitation data from satellite remote sensing. It's shown that the model can reproduce the major climatic features of A-AM with stronger easterly in the tropical Eastern Pacific, and a weaker northerly component in the Northern Hemisphere.The <span class="hlt">simulated</span> precipitation rate is larger and the double ITCZ (Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone) in the tropical Eastern Pacific in the northern spring is not reproduced. A due to the absence of variation longer than a year in the bottom boundary conditions, the model cannot reproduce the relationships between the monsoon indexes and the surface air temperature in the broad area near the equator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6666979','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6666979"><span id="translatedtitle">El Nino-southern oscillation <span class="hlt">simulated</span> in an MRI atmosphere-ocean coupled general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nagai, T.; Tokioka, T.; Endoh, M.; Kitamura, Y. )</p> <p>1992-11-01</p> <p>A coupled atmosphere-ocean general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (GCM) was time integrated for 30 years to study interannual variability in the tropics. The atmospheric component is a global GCM with 5 levels in the vertical and 4[degrees]latitude X 5[degrees] longitude grids in the horizontal including standard physical processes (e.g., interactive clouds). The oceanic component is a GCM for the Pacific with 19 levels in the vertical and 1[degrees]x 2.5[degrees] grids in the horizontal including seasonal varying solar radiation as forcing. The model succeeded in reproducing interannual variations that resemble the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with realistic seasonal variations in the atmospheric and oceanic fields. The model ENSO cycle has a time scale of approximately 5 years and the model El Nino (warm) events are locked roughly in phase to the seasonal cycle. The cold events, however, are less evident in comparison with the El Nino events. The time scale of the model ENSO cycle is determined by propagation time of signals from the central-eastern Pacific to the western Pacific and back to the eastern Pacific. Seasonal timing is also important in the ENSO time scale: wind anomalies in the central-eastern Pacific occur in summer and the atmosphere ocean coupling in the western Pacific operates efficiently in the first half of the year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..129I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..129I"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of variable seawater conductivity on motional induction <span class="hlt">simulated</span> with an ocean general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irrgang, C.; Saynisch, J.; Thomas, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Carrying high concentrations of dissolved salt, ocean water is a good electrical conductor. As seawater flows through the Earth's ambient geomagnetic field, electric fields are generated, which in turn induce secondary magnetic fields. In current models for ocean-induced magnetic fields, a realistic consideration of seawater conductivity is often neglected and the effect on the variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field unknown. To model magnetic fields that are induced by non-tidal global ocean currents, an electromagnetic induction model is implemented into the Ocean Model for <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> and Tides (OMCT). This provides the opportunity to not only model ocean-induced magnetic signals but also to assess the impact of oceanographic phenomena on the induction process. In this paper, the sensitivity of the induction process due to spatial and temporal variations in seawater conductivity is investigated. It is shown that assuming an ocean-wide uniform conductivity is insufficient to accurately capture the temporal variability of the magnetic signal. Using instead a realistic global seawater conductivity distribution increases the temporal variability of the magnetic field up to 45 %. Especially vertical gradients in seawater conductivity prove to be a key factor for the variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field. However, temporal variations of seawater conductivity only marginally affect the magnetic signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030065822&hterms=aerodynamics+wing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Daerodynamics%2Bwing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030065822&hterms=aerodynamics+wing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Daerodynamics%2Bwing"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of the Steady and Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics of a <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Control Wing Airfoil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yi; Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Englar, Robert J.; Ahuja, Krishan K.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The aerodynamic characteristics of a <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Control Wing (CCW) airfoil have been numerically investigated, and comparisons with experimental data have been made. The configuration chosen was a supercritical airfoil with a 30 degree dual-radius CCW flap. Steady and pulsed jet calculations were performed. It was found that the use of steady jets, even at very small mass flow rates, yielded a lift coefficient that is comparable or superior to conventional high-lift systems. The attached flow over the flap also gave rise to lower drag coefficients, and high L/D ratios. Pulsed jets with a 50% duty cycle were also studied. It was found that they were effective in generating lift at lower reduced mass flow rates compared to a steady jet, provided the pulse frequency was sufficiently high. This benefit was attributable to the fact that the momentum coefficient of the pulsed jet, during the portions of the cycle when the jet was on, was typically twice as much as that of a steady jet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...100.2817B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...100.2817B"><span id="translatedtitle">Land-atmosphere CO2 exchange <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by a land surface process model coupled to an atmospheric general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonan, Gordon B.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>CO2 uptake during plant photosynthesis and CO2 loss during plant and microbial respiration were added to a land surface process model to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the diurnal and annual cycles of biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange. The model was coupled to a modified version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model version 2 (CCM2), and the coupled model was run for 5 years. The geographic patterns of annual net primary production are qualitatively similar to other models. When compared by vegetation type, annual production and annual microbial respiration are consistent with other models, except for needleleaf evergreen tree vegetation, where production is too high, and semidesert vegetation, where production and microbial respiration are too low. The seasonality of the net CO2 flux agrees with other models in the southern hemisphere and the tropics. The diurnal range is large for photosynthesis and lower for plant and microbial respiration, which agrees with qualitative expectations. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the central United States is poor due to temperature and precipitation biases in the coupled model. Despite these deficiencies the current approach is a promising means to include terrestrial CO2 fluxes in a climate system model that <span class="hlt">simulates</span> atmospheric CO2 concentrations, because it alleviates important parameterization discrepancies between standard biogeochemical models and the land surface models typically used in general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models, and because the model resolves the diurnal range of CO2 exchange, which can be large (15 - 45 micromol CO2 sq m/s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5041604','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5041604"><span id="translatedtitle">A general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the springtime Antarctic ozone decrease and its impact on mid-latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cariolle, D.; Lasserre-Bigorry, A.; Royer, J.F. ); Geleyn, J.F. )</p> <p>1990-02-20</p> <p>Ozone is treated as an interactive variable calculated by means of a continuity equation which takes account of advection and photochemical production and loss. The ozone concentration is also used to compute the heating and cooling rates due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation, and the infrared emission in the stratosphere. The daytime ozone decrease due to the perturbed chlorine chemistry found at high southern latitudes is introduced as an extra loss in the ozone continuity equation. Results of the perturbed <span class="hlt">simulation</span> show a very good agreement with the ozone measurements made during spring 1987. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> also shows the development of a high-latitude anomalous <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, with a warming of the upper stratosphere resulting mainly from dynamical heating. In addition, a substantial ozone decrease is found at mid-latitudes in a thin stratospheric layer located between the 390 and the 470 K {theta} surfaces. A significant residual ozone decrease is found at the end of the model integration, 7 months after the final warming and the vortex breakdown. If there is a significant residual ozone decrease in the atmosphere, the ozone trends predicted by photochemical models which do not take into account the high-latitude perturbed chemistry are clearly inadequate. Finally, it is concluded that further model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> at higher horizontal resolution, possibly with a better representation of the heterogeneous chemistry, will be needed to evaluate with more confidence the magnitude of the mid-latitudinal ozone depletion induced by the ozone hole formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1998SPIE.3369..314C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1998SPIE.3369..314C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of linear logic to <span class="hlt">simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clarke, Thomas L.</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the <span class="hlt">application</span> of linear logic to <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found <span class="hlt">application</span> in <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for <span class="hlt">simulation</span> will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and <span class="hlt">simulated</span> dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740026659','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740026659"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of remote sensing to study nearshore <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. [and the continental shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zeigler, J.; Lobecker, R.; Stauble, D.; Welch, C.; Haas, L.; Fang, C. S.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The research to use remote sensing techniques for studying the continental shelf is reported. The studies reported include: (1) nearshore <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the vincinity of a natural tidal inlet; (2) identification of indicators of biological activity; (3) remote navigation system for tracking free drifting buoys; (4) experimental design of an estuaring tidal <span class="hlt">circulation</span>; and (5) Skylab support work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054154"><span id="translatedtitle">[Acupuncture theory of promoting blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and removing stasis and its clinical <span class="hlt">application</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yao, Jun</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The effects and methods of acupuncture on promoting blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and removing stasis and its importance for modern clinical acupuncture are explored and explained. The acupuncture theory of promoting blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and removing stasis in Internal Canon of Yellow Emperor and the ancient medical scholars' knowledge of acupuncture for promoting blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and removing stasis are traced, and then the principles and characteristics of acupuncture for promoting blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and removing stasis are explored and summarized. The methods and common tools of prompting blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and removing stasis of modern clinical acupuncture are summed up as well. It is considered that the treatment principles and methods of acupuncture for prompting blood and removing stasis deserve to be paid attention to and applied by all departments of clinical acupuncture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.313L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.313L"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of local atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulations</span> in the pre-Alpine area between Lake Garda and Verona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laiti, L.; Serafin, S.; Zardi, D.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The pre-Alpine area between Lake Garda and Verona displays a very complex and heterogeneous territory, allowing the development of several interacting systems of thermally driven local winds, the major being the lake/land breeze system on the coasts of Lake Garda and the up/down-valley wind system between the plain and the river Adige Valley. In order to investigate the local wind patterns, a series of nested numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with a horizontal resolution of 500 m were carried out using the ARPS 5.2.9 model (Xue et al. 2000, 2001), considering a fair weather day suitable for a clear development of the expected <span class="hlt">circulations</span> (15th July 2003). The <span class="hlt">simulated</span> wind speed and direction, pressure, temperature and water vapour mixing ratio were compared to synoptic scale meteorological charts, to vertical profiles from radiosoundings taken at the major sounding stations of the alpine region and to local scale measurements performed at the surface station of Dolcè (at the inlet of the Adige Valley). Numerical results at all scales were found to be in very good agreement with the available sets of meteorological observations. The analysis of the diurnal evolution of the 3D fields of temperature, moisture content, wind and turbulent kinetic energy allowed the identification of a very shallow and clearly defined breeze front of cold and humid air moving from off-shore towards the Lake Garda coast, from the late morning (10:00 LST) until the evening (20:00 LST). The diurnal up-valley breeze was also well reproduced: the valley atmosphere displays a thick mixed layer dominated by shallow turbulent convection between 11:00 LST and 21:00 LST. Lateral slope winds were also recognized, as they created cross-valley convective cells. While no clear evidence of a nocturnal land breeze was found in the <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, the nocturnal down-valley wind in the Adige Valley was clearly reproduced. Finally, a scalar transport equation was added to the ARPS model in order to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> transport</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1089614','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1089614"><span id="translatedtitle">Communication <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> for Power System <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fuller, Jason C.; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Hauer, Matthew L.</p> <p>2013-05-29</p> <p>New smart grid technologies and concepts, such as dynamic pricing, demand response, dynamic state estimation, and wide area monitoring, protection, and control, are expected to require considerable communication resources. As the cost of retrofit can be high, future power grids will require the integration of high-speed, secure connections with legacy communication systems, while still providing adequate system control and security. While considerable work has been performed to create co-<span class="hlt">simulators</span> for the power domain with load models and market operations, limited work has been performed in integrating communications directly into a power domain solver. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of communication and power systems will become more important as the two systems become more inter-related. This paper will discuss ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to create a flexible, high-speed power and communication system co-<span class="hlt">simulator</span> for smart grid <span class="hlt">applications</span>. The framework for the software will be described, including architecture considerations for modular, high performance computing and large-scale scalability (serialization, load balancing, partitioning, cross-platform support, etc.). The current <span class="hlt">simulator</span> supports the ns-3 (telecommunications) and GridLAB-D (distribution systems) <span class="hlt">simulators</span>. Ongoing and future work will be described, including planned future expansions for a traditional transmission solver. A test case using the co-<span class="hlt">simulator</span>, utilizing a transactive demand response system created for the Olympic Peninsula and AEP gridSMART demonstrations, requiring two-way communication between distributed and centralized market devices, will be used to demonstrate the value and intended purpose of the co-<span class="hlt">simulation</span> environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870059203&hterms=kr&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dkr','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870059203&hterms=kr&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dkr"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric distribution of Kr-85 <span class="hlt">simulated</span> with a general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Mcelroy, Michael B.; Prather, Michael J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional chemical tracer model for the troposphere is used to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the global distribution of Kr-85, a long-lived radioisotope released at northern midlatitudes by nuclear industry. <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> distributions for the period 1980-1983 are in excellent agreement with data from six latitudinal profiles measured over the Atlantic. High concentrations of Kr-85 are predicted over the Arctic in winter, advected from European sources, and somewhat smaller enhancements arising from the same sources are predicted over the tropical Atlantic in summer. Latitudinal gradients are steepest in the northern tropics, with distinctly different seasonal variations over the Pacific, as compared to the Atlantic. The global inventory of Kr-85 is reconstructed for the period 1980-1983 by combining the concentrations measured over the Atlantic with the global distributions predicted by the model. The magnitude of the Soviet source is derived. The interhemispheric exchange time is calculated as 1.1 years, with little seasonal dependence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..415..433T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..415..433T"><span id="translatedtitle">Integral <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Experiment: Thermal-hydraulic <span class="hlt">simulator</span> of a heavy liquid metal reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tarantino, M.; Agostini, P.; Benamati, G.; Coccoluto, G.; Gaggini, P.; Labanti, V.; Venturi, G.; Class, A.; Liftin, K.; Forgione, N.; Moreau, V.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>In the frame of the IP-EUROTRANS (6th Framework Program EU), domain DEMETRA, ENEA was involved in the Work Package 4.5 " Large Scale Integral Test", devoted to characterize a relevant portion of a sub-critical ADS reactor block (core, internals, heat exchanger, cladding for fuel elements) in steady state, transient and accidental conditions. More in details ENEA assumed the commitment to perform an integral experiment aiming to reproduce the primary flow path of the " European Transmutation Demonstrator (ETD)" pool-type nuclear reactor, cooled by Lead Bismuth Eutectics (LBE). This experimental activity, called " Integral <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Experiment (ICE)", has been implemented merging the efforts of several research institutes, among which, besides ENEA, FZK, CRS4 and University of Pisa, allowing to design an appropriate test section to be installed in the CIRCE facility. The goal of the experiments is therefore to demonstrate the technological feasibility of a heavy liquid metal (HLM) nuclear system pool-type in a relevant scale (1 MW), investigating the related thermal-hydraulic behaviour (heat source and heat exchanger coupling, primary system and downcomer coupling, gas trapping into the main stream, thermal stratification in the pool, forced and mixed convection in rod bundle) under both steady state and transient conditions. Moreover the preliminary as well as the planned experiments aims to address performance and reliability tests of some prototypical components, such as heat source, heat exchanger, chemistry control system. The paper reports a detailed description of the experiment, the design performed for the test section and its main components as well as the preliminary experimental results carried out in the first experimental campaign run on the CIRCE pool, which consists of a full power steady state test. The preliminary experimental results carried out have demonstrate the proper design of the test section trough the experiment goals as well as the HLM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.6444S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.6444S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulated</span> response of the mid-Holocene Atlantic meridional overturning <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in ECHAM6-FESOM/MPIOM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, Xiaoxu; Lohmann, Gerrit</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Changes of the Atlantic meridional overturning <span class="hlt">circulation</span> (AMOC) in the mid-Holocene compared to the preindustrial state are explored in different coupled climate models. Using time-slice integrations by a newly developed global finite-element model ECHAM6-FESOM with unstructured mesh and high resolution, our <span class="hlt">simulations</span> show an enhanced mid-Holocene AMOC, accompanied by an increase in the ocean salinity over regions of deep water formation. We identify two different processes affecting the AMOC: (1) a more positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) increased water density over the Labrador Sea through anomalous net evaporation and surface heat loss; (2) a decreased import of sea ice from the Arctic causes a freshwater reduction in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. Using the coupled model ECHAM6-MPIOM in T63GR15 and T31GR30 grids, we find that the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> AMOC has significant discrepancy with different model resolutions. In detail, stronger-than-present mid-Holocene AMOC is revealed by <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with the T63GR15 grid, which resembles the result of ECHAM6-FESOM, while a decline of the mid-Holocene AMOC is <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by the low resolution model with the T31GR30 grid. Such discrepancy can be attributed to different changes in Labrador Sea density which is mainly affected by (1) NAO-induced net precipitation and deep water convection, (2) freshwater transport from the Arctic Ocean, and (3) the strength of AMOC itself. Finally, we analyzed available coupled climate models showing a diversity of responses of AMOC to mid-Holocene forcings, most of which reveal positive AMOC changes related to northern high latitudes salinification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850048600&hterms=Source+sink&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DSource%2Bsink','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850048600&hterms=Source+sink&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DSource%2Bsink"><span id="translatedtitle">Axisymmetric <span class="hlt">circulations</span> forced by heat and momentum sources - A simple model <span class="hlt">applicable</span> to the Venus atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hou, A. Y.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A simple mechanistic model of a zonally averaged <span class="hlt">circulation</span> forced by heat and momentum sources is developed and applied to the Venus atmosphere in the light of recent data. Basic equations for a steady-state axisymmetric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> are discussed, and the parametric dependence of a nearly inviscid Hadley <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the absence of eddy forcing is examined and extended to a wide range of thermal Rossby numbers. The effect of diffusion is considered and found to be small for the Venus cloud region. The zonally averaged eddy sources and sinks required to support the zonal superrotation on Venus are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048884&hterms=iceland&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Diceland','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048884&hterms=iceland&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Diceland"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of the mesoscale <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heburn, George W.; Johnson, Clifford D.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas provide the only link between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Oceans. This is a very dynamic region, rich in mesoscale variability. A two-layer, hydrodynamic version of the Navy layered ocean model is used to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the mesoscale frontal features and associated current systems. The model is wind-driven using monthly mean wind stresses and inflow/outflow mass flux from the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. The current transports from the model results compare favorably with transport measurements from a number of observational experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015937','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015937"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of hydrothermal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the Cascade Range, north-central Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ingebritsen, S.E.; Paulson, K.M.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Alternate conceptual models to explain near-surface heat-flow observations in the central Oregon Cascade Range involve (1) an extensive mid-crustal magmatic heat source underlying both the Quaternary arc and adjacent older rocks or (2) a narrower deep heat source which is flanked by a relatively shallow conductive heat-flow anomaly caused by regional ground-water flow (the lateral-flow model). Relative to the mid-crustal heat source model, the lateral-flow model suggests a more limited geothermal resource base, but a better-defined exploration target. We <span class="hlt">simulated</span> ground-water flow and heat transport through two cross sections trending west from the Cascade range crest in order to explore the implications of the two models. The thermal input for the alternate conceptual models was <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by varying the width and intensity of a basal heat-flow anomaly and, in some cases, by introducing shallower heat sources beneath the Quaternary arc. Near-surface observations in the Breitenbush Hot Springs area are most readily explained in terms of lateral heat transport by regional ground-water flow; however, the deep thermal structure still cannot be uniquely inferred. The sparser thermal data set from the McKenzie River area can be explained either in terms of deep regional ground-water flow or in terms of a conduction-dominated system, with ground-water flow essentially confined to Quaternary rocks and fault zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5028272','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5028272"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> experiments on two-phase natural <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in a freon-113 flow visualization loop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Sang Yong; Ishii, Mamoru</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>In order to study the two-phase natural circulaton and flow termination during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, <span class="hlt">simulation</span> experiments have been performed using a Freon-113 flow visualization loop. The main focus of the present experiment was placed on the two-phase flow behavior in the hot-leg U-bend typical of B and W LWR systems. The loop was built based on the two-phase flow scaling criteria developed under this program to find out the effect of fluid properties, phase changes and coupling between hydrodynamic and heat transfer phenomena. Significantly different flow behaviors have been observed due to the non-equilibrium phase change phenomena such as the flashing and condensation on the Freon loop in comparison with the previous adiabatic experiment. The phenomena created much more unstable hydrodynamic conditions which lead to cyclic or oscillatory flow behaviors. Also, the void distribution and primary loop flow rate were measured in detail in addition to the important key paramaters, such as the power input, loop friction and the liquid level inside the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> steam generator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010pot..book..774W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010pot..book..774W"><span id="translatedtitle">3D-<span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Of Concentration Distributions Inside Large-Scale <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Fluidized Bed Combustors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wischnewski, R.; Ratschow, L.; Hartge, E. U.; Werthe, J.</p> <p></p> <p>With increasing size of modern CFB combustors the lateral mixing of fuels and secondary air gains more and more importance. Strong concentration gradients, which result from improper lateral mixing, can lead to operational problems, high flue gas emissions and lower boiler efficiencies. A 3D-model for the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of local gas and solids concentrations inside industrial-sized CFB boilers has been developed. The model is based on a macroscopic approach and considers all major mechanisms during fuel spreading and subsequent combustion of char and volatiles. Typical characteristics of modern boilers like staged combustion, a smaller cross-sectional area in the lower section of the combustion chamber and the co-combustion of additional fuels with coal can be considered. The 252 MWth combustor of Stadtwerke Duisburg AG is used for the validation of the model. A comprehensive picture of the local conditions inside the combustion chamber is achieved by the combination of local gas measurements and the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of concentration distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.A53B0341M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.A53B0341M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of the Impact of Snow/Ice on the Local <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> on the Northern Slope of Mt. Everest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, S.; Zhou, L.; Zou, H.; Li, P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>To investigate the role of snow/ice cover on the local atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the Himalayas, a mesoscale atmospheric model (RAMS v6.0) was used to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> local winds on the northern slope of Mt. Everest, and the results were compared to observation. Two experiments were run; the snow/ice cover was included in the control experiment but not in the sensitivity experiment. The diurnal cycle of the observed local wind on the northern slope of Mt. Everest was well <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by the control run, with a weak up-valley wind in the morning and a strong down-valley wind in the afternoon. Without considering the snow/ice cover, the sensitivity run obtained a strong up-valley wind at noon and a weak wind in the afternoon. The results revealed that a snow/ice cover is essential for the formation and persistence of strong down-valley winds on the northern slope of Mt. Everest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6388831','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6388831"><span id="translatedtitle">A review of existing gas-cooled reactor <span class="hlt">circulators</span> with <span class="hlt">application</span> of the lessons learned to the new production reactor <span class="hlt">circulators</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>White, L.S.</p> <p>1990-07-01</p> <p>This report presents the results of a study of the lessons learned during the design, testing, and operation of gas-cooled reactor coolant <span class="hlt">circulators</span>. The intent of this study is to identify failure modes and problem areas of the existing <span class="hlt">circulators</span> so this information can be incorporated into the design of the <span class="hlt">circulators</span> for the New Production Reactor (NPR)-Modular High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The information for this study was obtained primarily from open literature and includes data on high-pressure, high-temperature helium test loop <span class="hlt">circulators</span> as well as the existing gas cooled reactors worldwide. This investigation indicates that trouble free <span class="hlt">circulator</span> performance can only be expected when the design program includes a comprehensive prototypical test program, with the results of this test program factored into the final <span class="hlt">circulator</span> design. 43 refs., 7 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040085777','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040085777"><span id="translatedtitle">A Wind Tunnel Model to Explore Unsteady <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Control for General Aviation <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cagle, Christopher M.; Jones, Gregory S.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Control airfoils have been demonstrated to provide substantial improvements in lift over conventional airfoils. The General Aviation Circular Control model is an attempt to address some of the concerns of this technique. The primary focus is to substantially reduce the amount of air mass flow by implementing unsteady flow. This paper describes a wind tunnel model that implements unsteady <span class="hlt">circulation</span> control by pulsing internal pneumatic valves and details some preliminary results from the first test entry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/290118','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/290118"><span id="translatedtitle">Intercomparison of interannual variability of the global 200-hPa <span class="hlt">circulation</span> for AMIP <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyle, J.S.</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>The 200-hPa divergence and streamfunction from the 30 models of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) are compared. The data used are in the form of monthly averages and are filtered to a spatial resolution of T10, although the actual spatial resolution of the models varies from R15 to T42. The tools of the analysis are principal components analysis (PCA) and common principal components (CPC). These analyses are carried out on the 120 months of data with the climatological annual cycle removed and in the case of the streamfunction with the zonal average also removed. The AMIP period (1979--88) encompasses two El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events (1982--83 and 1986--87), and as could be expected the ENSO characteristic response has a prominent impact in the model <span class="hlt">simulations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23373229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23373229"><span id="translatedtitle">[Reasonable <span class="hlt">application</span> of traditional Chinese medicines injections promoting blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and removing blood stasis in treating ischemic cerebrovascular diseases].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lv, Zhi-Guo; Xie, Yan-Ming; Li, Ming-Quan; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Wei, Xu</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Currently, there are many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections for treating ischemic stroke in the market, most of them have the efficacy of promoting blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and removing blood stasis, but their reasonable <span class="hlt">applications</span> are worth consideration. From the angles of traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine, TCM injections that are commonly used in clinics were detected for their indications and pharmacological effects, compared in terms of their characteristics of clinical <span class="hlt">application</span>, precautions, prohibition on use, caution and adverse reactions and categorized, in order to help clinicians with reasonable <span class="hlt">application</span> of TCM injections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614086W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614086W"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">simulated</span> global soil moisture and its memory in an ensemble of CMIP5 general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiß, Felix; Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soil moisture and its memory can have a strong impact on near surface temperature and precipitation and have the potential to promote severe heat waves, dry spells and floods. To analyze how soil moisture is <span class="hlt">simulated</span> in recent general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models (GCMs), soil moisture data from a 23 model ensemble of Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) type <span class="hlt">simulations</span> from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) are examined for the period 1979 to 2008 with regard to parameterization and statistical characteristics. With respect to soil moisture processes, the models vary in their maximum soil and root depth, the number of soil layers, the water-holding capacity, and the ability to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> freezing which all together leads to very different soil moisture characteristics. Differences in the water-holding capacity are resulting in deviations in the global median soil moisture of more than one order of magnitude between the models. In contrast, the variance shows similar absolute values when comparing the models to each other. Thus, the input and output rates by precipitation and evapotranspiration, which are computed by the atmospheric component of the models, have to be in the same range. Most models <span class="hlt">simulate</span> great variances in the monsoon areas of the tropics and north western U.S., intermediate variances in Europe and eastern U.S., and low variances in the Sahara, continental Asia, and central and western Australia. In general, the variance decreases with latitude over the high northern latitudes. As soil moisture trends in the models were found to be negligible, the soil moisture anomalies were calculated by subtracting the 30 year monthly climatology from the data. The length of the memory is determined from the soil moisture anomalies by calculating the first insignificant autocorrelation for ascending monthly lags (insignificant autocorrelation folding time). The models show a great spread of autocorrelation length from a few months in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060013030&hterms=degree+day&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528degree%2Bday%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060013030&hterms=degree+day&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528degree%2Bday%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The 0.125 degree finite-volume General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model on the NASA Columbia Supercomputer: Preliminary <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of Mesoscale Vortices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shen, B.-W.; Atlas, R.; Chern, J.-D.; Reale, O.; Lin, S.-J.; Lee, T.; Chang, J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Columbia supercomputer was ranked second on the TOP500 List in November, 2004. Such a quantum jump in computing power provides unprecedented opportunities to conduct ultra-high resolution <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with the finite-volume General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model (fvGCM). During 2004, the model was run in realtime experimentally at 0.25 degree resolution producing remarkable hurricane forecasts [Atlas et al., 2005]. In 2005, the horizontal resolution was further doubled, which makes the fvGCM comparable to the first mesoscale resolving General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model at the Earth <span class="hlt">Simulator</span> Center [Ohfuchi et al., 2004]. Nine 5-day 0.125 degree <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of three hurricanes in 2004 are presented first for model validation. Then it is shown how the model can <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the formation of the Catalina eddies and Hawaiian lee vortices, which are generated by the interaction of the synoptic-scale flow with surface forcing, and have never been reproduced in a GCM before.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4821616Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4821616Y"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and thermal structure <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by a Venus AGCM with a two-stream radiative code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Masaru; Ikeda, Kohei; Takahashi, Masaaki</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Atmospheric general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (AGCM) is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding Venus climate and atmospheric dynamics. At the present stage, however, the full-physics model is under development. Ikeda (2011) developed a two-stream radiative transfer code, which covers the solar to infrared radiative processes due to the gases and aerosol particles. The radiative code was applied to Venus AGCM (T21L52) at Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, Univ. Tokyo. We analyzed the results in a few Venus days <span class="hlt">simulation</span> that was restarted after nudging zonal wind to a super-rotating state until the equilibrium. The <span class="hlt">simulated</span> thermal structure has low-stability layer around 105 Pa at low latitudes, and the neutral stability extends from ˜105 Pa to the lower atmosphere at high latitudes. At the equatorial cloud top, the temperature lowers in the region between noon and evening terminator. For zonal and meridional winds, we can see difference between the zonal and day-side means. As was indicated in previous works, the day-side mean meridional wind speed mostly corresponds to the poleward component of the thermal tide and is much higher than the zonal mean. Toward understanding dynamical roles of waves in UV cloud tracking and brightness, we calculated the eddy heat and momentum fluxes averaged over the day-side hemisphere. The eddy heat and momentum fluxes are poleward in the poleward flank of the jet. In contrast, the fluxes are relatively weak and equatorward at low latitudes. The eddy momentum flux becomes equatorward in the dynamical situation that the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> equatorial wind is weaker than the midlatitude jet. The sensitivity to the zonal flow used for the nudging will be also discussed in the model validation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PrOce.127...21C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PrOce.127...21C"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Archipelagos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chérubin, Laurent M.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We present the first high-resolution <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos archipelagos implemented with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). Our model resolves tides and our <span class="hlt">simulation</span> consists of two nested grids of respectively 4 and 2 km horizontal resolution. This oceanic region is constituted of the juxtaposition of very large and shallow banks, and very deep basins. Our modeling study shows that the dominant influence is the salinity from the sub-tropical gyre, which varies latitudinally with seasons. Less salty surface waters entered the archipelago from September to November from the north and through the Old Bahama (OBC) and the North West Providence (NWPC) channels as the western Atlantic saline waters moved south. Saltier Atlantic waters arrived from the south in December and moved north till the next fall. This salinity flux is mitigated by the atmospheric forcing on the banks as well as the water temperature, which varied diurnally, what modified the water density causing this water to be unique to the banks, yielding its own seasonality as seen in their SST. The banks were colder in winter and warmer in summer than their surrounding waters. Fronts were formed at every ebb tide in winter, spring, and fall. However the influence of bank waters on the surrounding waters was shown to be limited because of the dominant influence of the large-scale flow and of the local production of water masses by wind and cyclone driven upwelling. Bank waters were contained at the front where they mixed with the surrounding waters as shown by the short time presence of the fronts. Local wind, in addition to the tide was also shown to be a significant forcing which is responsible for some of the short scale variability 5-30 days in Florida Current transport, the NWPC, the OBC, the Windward Passage (WP), and the Antilles Current (AC). Finally, the study also confirmed the mesoscale eddy influence at seasonal scales (100 days) on the AC transport as well</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.4003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.4003S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Circulation</span> on the western South Atlantic continental shelf: 2. Spring and autumn realistic <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soares, I. D.; Kourafalou, V.; Lee, T. N.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Buoyancy-driven currents are here investigated in a complex scenario, where two river plumes (the La Plata River and the Patos Lagoon plumes) occur in the vicinity of two opposing western boundary currents (the Malvinas and the Brazil currents). The study addresses the contrasting scenarios found during the austral spring and fall seasons, due to variations in river discharge, in wind stress, and in the boundary current transport. The winds blow preferably from the northeast during the spring and from the southwest during the fall. The Brazil Current transport is stronger during the spring, when the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence is displaced southward, and weaker during the fall when the confluence moves northward. The study is conducted as a series of numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> which consider the river discharges, the tides, variable wind stress, and thermohaline fields which are realistic in terms of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence. Our discussion focuses on the riverine water distribution in each season. The austral fall scenario shows coastally trapped plumes, and the spring scenario shows significant offshore removal, but our fall plumes are not too elongated and narrow as other authors found in the presence of constant winds, no tides, and no boundary currents, and our spring offshore removal is not as strong as found by others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......105A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......105A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span>, design and fabrication of microwave ferrite components for monostatic radar <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adams, Ryan Seamus</p> <p></p> <p>A theory encompassing ferrite materials and their <span class="hlt">application</span> to microwave circuits is presented herein. Several aspects of these materials and the devices that incorporate them are discussed. In particular, the behavior of infinitely extended microwave ferrites in the presence of a radio frequency (rf) signal is reviewed. The conditions for Faraday rotation and birefringence are outlined and the electromagnetic wave response is quantified. Further, magnetostatic modes and spin waves are discussed which require that the rf electric intensity be identically zero. A time-domain <span class="hlt">simulation</span> routine is presented that accounts for electromagnetic wave propagation within finitely extended ferrite materials. This routine is fully second-order accurate. The routine is validated by comparing the network parameter data of a stripline phase shifter against the data obtained from a popular frequency domain formulation. Excellent correlation is observed, thus establishing that the routine is consistent with other <span class="hlt">simulation</span> approaches. A review of the Bode-Fano criterion is presented wherein the fundamental matchability of an arbitrary load impedance function is addressed. This criterion is represented by integral equations that provide a relationship between the bandwidth and tolerance of match of an arbitrary impedance function. This theory is applied to the matchability of three port <span class="hlt">circulators</span> by appealing to the concept of a required load impedance for perfect isolation. When applied to <span class="hlt">circulators</span> in this manner, the realized bandwidth can exceed the fundamental limit in certain cases, but it is shown that the Bode-Fano criterion still provides a good "rule of thumb" regarding the matchability of a given <span class="hlt">circulator</span> device. Three <span class="hlt">circulators</span> are presented in validation of the Bode-Fano criterion, each of which utilize ferrite materials that exhibit high crystalline anisotropy, and hence they are "self-biased" devices. <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> data is provided for the frequency response</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030066608&hterms=Water+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Water%2Bcycle%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030066608&hterms=Water+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Water%2Bcycle%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiyear <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of the Martian Water Cycle with the Ames General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haberle, R. M.; Schaeffer, J. R.; Nelli, S. M.; Murphy, J. R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Mars atmosphere is carbon dioxide dominated with non-negligible amounts of water vapor and suspended dust particles. The atmospheric dust plays an important role in the heating and cooling of the planet through absorption and emission of radiation. Small dust particles can potentially be carried to great altitudes and affect the temperatures there. Water vapor condensing onto the dust grains can affect the radiative properties of both, as well as their vertical extent. The condensation of water onto a dust grain will change the grain s fall speed and diminish the possibility of dust obtaining high altitudes. In this capacity, water becomes a controlling agent with regard to the vertical distribution of dust. Similarly, the atmosphere s water vapor holding capacity is affected by the amount of dust in the atmosphere. Dust is an excellent green house catalyst; it raises the temperature of the atmosphere, and thus, its water vapor holding capacity. There is, therefore, a potentially significant interplay between the Martian dust and water cycles. Previous research done using global, 3-D computer modeling to better understand the Martian atmosphere treat the dust and the water cycles as two separate and independent processes. The existing Ames numerical model will be employed to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the relationship between the Martian dust and water cycles by actually coupling the two cycles. Water will condense onto the dust, allowing the particle's radiative characteristics, fall speeds, and as a result, their vertical distribution to change. Data obtained from the Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and especially the Mars Global Surveyor missions will be used to determine the accuracy of the model results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013IJNAO...5..210N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013IJNAO...5..210N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of optimal arctic routes using a numerical sea ice model based on an ice-coupled ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nam, Jong-Ho; Park, Inha; Lee, Ho Jin; Kwon, Mi Ok; Choi, Kyungsik; Seo, Young-Kyo</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Ever since the Arctic region has opened its mysterious passage to mankind, continuous attempts to take advantage of its fastest route across the region has been made. The Arctic region is still covered by thick ice and thus finding a feasible navigating route is essential for an economical voyage. To find the optimal route, it is necessary to establish an efficient transit model that enables us to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> every possible route in advance. In this work, an enhanced algorithm to determine the optimal route in the Arctic region is introduced. A transit model based on the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> sea ice and environmental data numerically modeled in the Arctic is developed. By integrating the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> data into a transit model, further <span class="hlt">applications</span> such as route <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, cost estimation or hindcast can be easily performed. An interactive <span class="hlt">simulation</span> system that determines the optimal Arctic route using the transit model is developed. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of optimal routes is carried out and the validity of the results is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010124073','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010124073"><span id="translatedtitle">Importance of the Annual Cycles of SST and Solar Irradiance for <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> and Rainfall: A Climate Model <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sud, Yogesh C.; Lau, William K. M.; Walker, G. K.; Mehta, V. M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Annual cycle of climate and precipitation is related to annual cycle of sunshine and sea-surface temperatures. Understanding its behavior is important for the welfare of humans worldwide. For example, failure of Asian monsoons can cause widespread famine and grave economic disaster in the subtropical regions. For centuries meteorologists have struggled to understand the importance of the summer sunshine and associated heating and the annual cycle of sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) on rainfall in the subtropics. Because the solar income is pretty steady from year to year, while SSTs depict large interannual variability as consequence of the variability of ocean dynamics, the influence of SSTs on the monsoons are better understood through observational and modeling studies whereas the relationship of annual rainfall to sunshine remains elusive. However, using NASA's state of the art climate model(s) that can generate realistic climate in a computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, one can answer such questions. We asked the question: if there was no annual cycle of the sunshine (and its associated land-heating) or the SST and its associated influence on global <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, what will happen to the annual cycle of monsoon rains? By comparing the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of a 4-year integration of a baseline Control case with two parallel anomaly experiments: 1) with annual mean solar and 2) with annual mean sea-surface temperatures, we were able to draw the following conclusions: (1) Tropical convergence zone and rainfall which moves with the Sun into the northern and southern hemispheres, specifically over the Indian, African, South American and Australian regions, is strongly modulated by the annual cycles of SSTs as well as solar forcings. The influence of the annual cycle of solar heating over land, however, is much stronger than the corresponding SST influence for almost all regions, particularly the subtropics; (2) The seasonal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> patterns over the vast land-masses of the Northern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.T22A0895F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.T22A0895F"><span id="translatedtitle">Reorganization of the Hydrothermal <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Pattern at the Long Valley Exploratory Well, CA - Geologic Record and Numerical <span class="hlt">Simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, M.; Hurter, S.; Stöckhert, B.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW), drilled into the resurgent dome at Long Valley Caldera (California) to explore the potential for geothermal power in an active magmatic system, recorded temperatures of only ca. 100° C at 2500 to 3000 m depth. This is well below the range expected above an active magma chamber. Open fissures encountered at 2600 m depth are coated by mm-sized idiomorphic quartz crystals with first and second order growth discontinuities. Specific growth defects indicating rapid crystallization reflect dramatic changes in SiO2 supersaturation. Fluid inclusions contain low salinity (0 to 5 wt-% NaCl equiv.) and low CO2 (<3 mole%) aqueous fluids, with V-L homogenization temperatures of 300 to 350° C, indicating trapping at more than 200° C above the ambient temperatures measured within the borehole today. The inhomogeneous quartz growth and fluid inclusion results reflect dramatic changes in the convective pattern of the hydrothermal system that led to the unexpected low temperatures at depth. Numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are being carried out to constrain the length and time scales relevant for the reorganization of the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> pattern, in particular the influence of episodic heat supply by intrusions and changes of permeability related to seismic events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..271..207W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..271..207W"><span id="translatedtitle">The variability, structure and energy conversion of the northern hemisphere traveling waves <span class="hlt">simulated</span> in a Mars general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Huiqun; Toigo, Anthony D.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Investigations of the variability, structure and energetics of the m = 1-3 traveling waves in the northern hemisphere of Mars are conducted with the MarsWRF general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model. Using a simple, annually repeatable dust scenario, the model reproduces many general characteristics of the observed traveling waves. The <span class="hlt">simulated</span> m = 1 and m = 3 traveling waves show large differences in terms of their structures and energetics. For each representative wave mode, the geopotential signature maximizes at a higher altitude than the temperature signature, and the wave energetics suggests a mixed baroclinic-barotropic nature. There is a large contrast in wave energetics between the near-surface and higher altitudes, as well as between the lower latitudes and higher latitudes at high altitudes. Both barotropic and baroclinic conversions can act as either sources or sinks of eddy kinetic energy. Band-pass filtered transient eddies exhibit strong zonal variations in eddy kinetic energy and various energy transfer terms. Transient eddies are mainly interacting with the time mean flow. However, there appear to be non-negligible wave-wave interactions associated with wave mode transitions. These interactions include those between traveling waves and thermal tides and those among traveling waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810039249&hterms=Continental+shelf&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528Continental%2Bshelf%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810039249&hterms=Continental+shelf&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528Continental%2Bshelf%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">application</span> of Seasat-1 radar altimetry to continental shelf <span class="hlt">circulation</span> modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cornillon, P.; Reed, M.; Spaulding, M.; Swanson, C.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Seasat-1 radar altimetry data have been used to verify a continental shelf <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model subjected to tidal forcing on the open boundary. The model makes use of the semi-implicit mode of time integration, removing the surface gravity wave time step restriction. Both the altimetry and the model predictions are compared with empirically determined tidal fluctuations and generally good agreement is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860017193','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860017193"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of LANDSAT TM images to assess <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and dispersion in coastal lagoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kjerfve, B.; Jensen, J. R.; Magill, K. E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The main objectives are formulated around a four pronged work approach, consisting of tasks related to: image processing and analysis of LANDSAT thematic mapping; numerical modeling of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and dispersion; hydrographic and spectral radiation field sampling/ground truth data collection; and special efforts to focus the investigation on turbid coastal/estuarine fronts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015hgas.conf...77L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015hgas.conf...77L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Code Development and Its <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zenghai</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Under the support of the U.S. DOE SciDAC program, SLAC has been developing a suite of 3D parallel finite-element codes aimed at high-accuracy, high-fidelity electromagnetic and beam physics <span class="hlt">simulations</span> for the design and optimization of next-generation particle accelerators. Running on the latest supercomputers, these codes have made great strides in advancing the state of the art in applied math and computer science at the petascale that enable the integrated modeling of electromagnetics, self-consistent Particle-In-Cell (PIC) particle dynamics as well as thermal, mechanical, and multi-physics effects. This paper will present the latest development and <span class="hlt">application</span> of ACE3P to a wide range of accelerator projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531505"><span id="translatedtitle">Large eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span> <span class="hlt">applications</span> in gas turbines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menzies, Kevin</p> <p>2009-07-28</p> <p>The gas turbine presents significant challenges to any computational fluid dynamics techniques. The combination of a wide range of flow phenomena with complex geometry is difficult to model in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers. We review the potential for large eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span> (LES) in modelling the flow in the different components of the gas turbine during a practical engineering design cycle. We show that while LES has demonstrated considerable promise for reliable prediction of many flows in the engine that are difficult for RANS it is not a panacea and considerable <span class="hlt">application</span> challenges remain. However, for many flows, especially those dominated by shear layer mixing such as in combustion chambers and exhausts, LES has demonstrated a clear superiority over RANS for moderately complex geometries although at significantly higher cost which will remain an issue in making the calculations relevant within the design cycle. PMID:19531505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000030741','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000030741"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: <span class="hlt">Applications</span> of a Mars General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> into the NASA Ames Mars general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> <span class="hlt">circulations</span> have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy <span class="hlt">circulation</span> statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings, such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000033855','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000033855"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: <span class="hlt">Applications</span> of a Mars General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> into the NASA Ames Mars general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> <span class="hlt">circulations</span> have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy <span class="hlt">circulation</span> statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings. Such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.6377R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.6377R"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol- and greenhouse gas-induced changes in summer rainfall and <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the Australasian region: a study using single-forcing climate <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rotstayn, L. D.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Collier, M. A.; Dravitzki, S. M.; Hirst, A. C.; Syktus, J. I.; Wong, K. K.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model (CSIRO-Mk3.6) to investigate the drivers of trends in summer rainfall and <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the vicinity of northern Australia. As part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we perform a 10-member 21st century ensemble driven by Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). To investigate the roles of different forcing agents, we also perform multiple 10-member ensembles of historical climate change, which are analysed for the period 1951-2010. The historical runs include ensembles driven by "all forcings" (HIST), all forcings except anthropogenic aerosols (NO_AA) and forcing only from long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGAS). Anthropogenic aerosol-induced effects in a warming climate are calculated from the difference of HIST minus NO_AA. CSIRO-Mk3.6 <span class="hlt">simulates</span> a strong summer rainfall decrease over north-western Australia (NWA) in RCP4.5, whereas <span class="hlt">simulated</span> trends in HIST are weakly positive (but insignificant) during 1951-2010. The weak rainfall trends in HIST are due to compensating effects of different forcing agents: there is a significant decrease in GHGAS, offset by an aerosol-induced increase. Observations show a significant increase of summer rainfall over NWA during the last few decades. The large magnitude of the observed NWA rainfall trend is not captured by 440 unforced 60-yr trends calculated from a 500-yr pre-industrial control run, even though the model's decadal variability appears to be realistic. This suggests that the observed trend includes a forced component, despite the fact that the model does not <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the magnitude of the observed rainfall increase in response to "all forcings" (HIST). We investigate the mechanism of <span class="hlt">simulated</span> and observed NWA rainfall changes by exploring changes in <span class="hlt">circulation</span> over the Indo-Pacific region. The key <span class="hlt">circulation</span> feature associated with the rainfall increase in reanalyses is a lower-tropospheric cyclonic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> trend off the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800010856','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800010856"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods of sound <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and <span class="hlt">applications</span> in flight <span class="hlt">simulators</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaertner, K. P.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>An overview of methods for electronically synthesizing sounds is presented. A given amount of hardware and computer capacity places an upper limit on the degree and fidelity of realism of sound <span class="hlt">simulation</span> which is attainable. Good sound realism for aircraft <span class="hlt">simulators</span> can be especially expensive because of the complexity of flight sounds and their changing patterns through time. Nevertheless, the flight <span class="hlt">simulator</span> developed at the Research Institute for Human Engineering, West Germany, shows that it is possible to design an inexpensive sound <span class="hlt">simulator</span> with the required acoustic properties using analog computer elements. The characteristics of the sub-sound elements produced by this sound <span class="hlt">simulator</span> for take-off, cruise and approach are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22573765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22573765"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulating</span> transoceanic migrations of young loggerhead sea turtles: merging magnetic navigation behavior with an ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Putman, Nathan F; Verley, Philippe; Shay, Thomas J; Lohmann, Kenneth J</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Florida, USA, undertake a transoceanic migration in which they gradually circle the Sargasso Sea before returning to the North American coast. Loggerheads possess a 'magnetic map' in which regional magnetic fields elicit changes in swimming direction along the migratory pathway. In some geographic areas, however, ocean currents move more rapidly than young turtles can swim. Thus, the degree to which turtles can control their migratory movements has remained unclear. In this study, the movements of young turtles were <span class="hlt">simulated</span> within a high-resolution ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model using several different behavioral scenarios, including one in which turtles drifted passively and others in which turtles swam briefly in accordance with experimentally derived data on magnetic navigation. Results revealed that small amounts of oriented swimming in response to regional magnetic fields profoundly affected migratory routes and endpoints. Turtles that engaged in directed swimming for as little as 1-3 h per day were 43-187% more likely than passive drifters to reach the Azores, a productive foraging area frequented by Florida loggerheads. They were also more likely to remain within warm-water currents favorable for growth and survival, avoid areas on the perimeter of the migratory route where predation risk and thermal conditions pose threats, and successfully return to the open-sea migratory route if carried into coastal areas. These findings imply that even weakly swimming marine animals may be able to exert strong effects on their migratory trajectories and open-sea distributions through simple navigation responses and minimal swimming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22573765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22573765"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulating</span> transoceanic migrations of young loggerhead sea turtles: merging magnetic navigation behavior with an ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Putman, Nathan F; Verley, Philippe; Shay, Thomas J; Lohmann, Kenneth J</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Florida, USA, undertake a transoceanic migration in which they gradually circle the Sargasso Sea before returning to the North American coast. Loggerheads possess a 'magnetic map' in which regional magnetic fields elicit changes in swimming direction along the migratory pathway. In some geographic areas, however, ocean currents move more rapidly than young turtles can swim. Thus, the degree to which turtles can control their migratory movements has remained unclear. In this study, the movements of young turtles were <span class="hlt">simulated</span> within a high-resolution ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model using several different behavioral scenarios, including one in which turtles drifted passively and others in which turtles swam briefly in accordance with experimentally derived data on magnetic navigation. Results revealed that small amounts of oriented swimming in response to regional magnetic fields profoundly affected migratory routes and endpoints. Turtles that engaged in directed swimming for as little as 1-3 h per day were 43-187% more likely than passive drifters to reach the Azores, a productive foraging area frequented by Florida loggerheads. They were also more likely to remain within warm-water currents favorable for growth and survival, avoid areas on the perimeter of the migratory route where predation risk and thermal conditions pose threats, and successfully return to the open-sea migratory route if carried into coastal areas. These findings imply that even weakly swimming marine animals may be able to exert strong effects on their migratory trajectories and open-sea distributions through simple navigation responses and minimal swimming. PMID:22573765</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007ACPD....7.1655C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007ACPD....7.1655C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A revised linear ozone photochemistry parameterization for use in transport and general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models: multi-annual <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cariolle, D.; Teyssèdre, H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article describes the validation of a linear parameterization of the ozone photochemistry for use in upper tropospheric and stratospheric studies. The present work extends a previously developed scheme by improving the 2D model used to derive the coefficients of the parameterization. The chemical reaction rates are updated from a compilation that includes recent laboratory works. Furthermore, the polar ozone destruction due to heterogeneous reactions at the surface of the polar stratospheric clouds is taken into account as a function of the stratospheric temperature and the total chlorine content. Two versions of the parameterization are tested. The first one only requires the resolution of a continuity equation for the time evolution of the ozone mixing ratio, the second one uses one additional equation for a cold tracer. The parameterization has been introduced into the chemical transport model MOCAGE. The model is integrated with wind and temperature fields from the ECMWF operational analyses over the period 2000-2004. Overall, the results show a very good agreement between the modelled ozone distribution and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data and the "in-situ" vertical soundings. During the course of the integration the model does not show any drift and the biases are generally small. The model also reproduces fairly well the polar ozone variability, with notably the formation of "ozone holes" in the southern hemisphere with amplitudes and seasonal evolutions that follow the dynamics and time evolution of the polar vortex. The introduction of the cold tracer further improves the model <span class="hlt">simulation</span> by allowing additional ozone destruction inside air masses exported from the high to the mid-latitudes, and by maintaining low ozone contents inside the polar vortex of the southern hemisphere over longer periods in spring time. It is concluded that for the study of climatic scenarios or the assimilation of ozone data, the present</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70093982','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70093982"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamflow changes in the Sierra Nevada, California, <span class="hlt">simulated</span> using a statistically downscaled general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model scenario of climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wilby, Robert L.; Dettinger, Michael D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of future climate using general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models (GCMs) suggest that rising concentrations of greenhouse gases may have significant consequences for the global climate. Of less certainty is the extent to which regional scale (i.e., sub-GCM grid) environmental processes will be affected. In this chapter, a range of downscaling techniques are critiqued. Then a relatively simple (yet robust) statistical downscaling technique and its use in the modelling of future runoff scenarios for three river basins in the Sierra Nevada, California, is described. This region was selected because GCM experiments driven by combined greenhouse-gas and sulphate-aerosol forcings consistently show major changes in the hydro-climate of the southwest United States by the end of the 21st century. The regression-based downscaling method was used to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> daily rainfall and temperature series for streamflow modelling in three Californian river basins under current-and future-climate conditions. The downscaling involved just three predictor variables (specific humidity, zonal velocity component of airflow, and 500 hPa geopotential heights) supplied by the U.K. Meteorological Office couple ocean-atmosphere model (HadCM2) for the grid point nearest the target basins. When evaluated using independent data, the model showed reasonable skill at reproducing observed area-average precipitation, temperature, and concomitant streamflow variations. Overall, the downscaled data resulted in slight underestimates of mean annual streamflow due to underestimates of precipitation in spring and positive temperature biases in winter. Differences in the skill of <span class="hlt">simulated</span> streamflows amongst the three basins were attributed to the smoothing effects of snowpack on streamflow responses to climate forcing. The Merced and American River basins drain the western, windward slope of the Sierra Nevada and are snowmelt dominated, whereas the Carson River drains the eastern, leeward slope and is a mix of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/881141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/881141"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> antibodies against Trichinella spiralis after <span class="hlt">application</span> of anthelmintics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corba, J; Cerman, J; Spaldonová, R</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Formation and dynamics of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> antibodies were studied in mice experimentally inefected with T. spiralis and treated with mebendazole. Latex-fixation tube was used in the experiment. In the control group of untreated mice the antibodies were detected on the 21st day after infection. The antibody level reached the maximum on day 76 and low titres were found still on day 207 after infection. In mice treated with mebendazole in the intestinal phase of trichinellosis, the antibodies were detected 10 or 7 days earlier than in the control group. At this time the antibody level reached the maximum and then it decreased gradually until no antibodies were detected on days 66-76. This phenomenon correlated with postmortem examination and suggested that the formation and dynamics of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> antibodies against T. spiralis are directly dependent on the effectiveness of the treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021042','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021042"><span id="translatedtitle">Narrowing of the Upwelling Branch of the Brewer-Dobson <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> and Hadley Cell in Chemistry-Climate Model <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of the 21st Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Feng; Stolarski, Richard S.; Pawson, Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Changes in the width of the upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and Hadley cell in the 21st Century are investigated using <span class="hlt">simulations</span> from a coupled chemistry-climate model. In these model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> the tropical upwelling region narrows in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The narrowing of the Brewer-Dobson <span class="hlt">circulation</span> is caused by an equatorward shift of Rossby wave critical latitudes and Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the subtropical lower stratosphere. In the troposphere, the model projects an expansion of the Hadley cell's poleward boundary, but a narrowing of the Hadley rising branch. Model results suggest that the narrowing of the Hadley cell ascent is also eddy-driven.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567754"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of short-term pressure regulation during the tilt test in a coupled 3D-0D closed-loop model of the <span class="hlt">circulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lau, Kevin D; Figueroa, C Alberto</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Short-term fluctuations in arterial pressures arising from normal physiological function are buffered by a negative feedback system known as the arterial baroreflex. Initiated by altered biomechanical stretch in the vessel wall, the baroreflex coordinates a systemic response that alters heart rate, cardiac contractility and peripheral vessel vasoconstriction. In this work, a coupled 3D-0D formulation for the short-term pressure regulation of the systemic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> is presented. Including the baroreflex feedback mechanisms, a patient-specific model of the large arteries is subjected to a <span class="hlt">simulated</span> head up tilt test. Comparative <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with and without baroreflex control highlight the critical role that the baroreflex has in regulating variations in pressures within the systemic <span class="hlt">circulation</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........57P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........57P"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerodynamic Response of a Pitching Airfoil with Pulsed <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Control for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panther, Chad C.</p> <p></p> <p>Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) have experienced a renewed interest in development for urban, remote, and offshore <span class="hlt">applications</span>. Past research has shown that VAWTs cannot compete with Horizontals Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs) in terms of energy capture efficiency. VAWT performance is plagued by dynamic stall (DS) effects at low tip-speed ratios (lambda), where each blade pitches beyond static stall multiple times per revolution. Furthermore, for lambda<2, blades operate outside of stall during over 70% of rotation. However, VAWTs offer many advantages such as omnidirectional operation, ground proximity of generator, lower sound emission, and non-cantilevered blades with longer life. Thus, mitigating dynamic stall and improving VAWT blade aerodynamics for competitive power efficiency has been a popular research topic in recent years and the directive of this study. Past research at WVU focused on the addition of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> control (CC) technology to improve VAWT aerodynamics and expand the operational envelope. A novel blade design was generated from the augmentation of a NACA0018 airfoil to include CC capabilities. Static wind tunnel data was collected for a range of steady jet momentum coefficients (0.01≤ Cmu≤0.10) for analytical vortex model performance projections. Control strategies were developed to optimize CC jet conditions throughout rotation, resulting in improved power output for 2≤lambda≤5. However, the pumping power required to produce steady CC jets reduced net power gains of the augmented turbine by approximately 15%. The goal of this work was to investigate pulsed CC jet actuation to match steady jet performance with reduced mass flow requirements. To date, no experimental studies have been completed to analyze pulsed CC performance on a pitching airfoil. The research described herein details the first study on the impact of steady and pulsed jet CC on pitching VAWT blade aerodynamics. Both numerical and experimental studies were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4018H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4018H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> classifications from the COST733 collection to the detection of solar and geomagnetic effects on tropospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> over Europe in winter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Many studies of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> classifications are biased by the fact that they are based on a single classification only; that is, their results are affected by the properties of a particular classification to an unknown extent. A large number of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> classifications produced and collected in the COST733 database allows such a bias to be removed. As an example, we examine effects of solar activity variations on the frequency of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> types, making use of more than sixty objective classifications for each of 12 domains, defined over Europe. To determine the solar effects, winter months (December to March) are divided into three classes according to the mean monthly solar activity, within which the frequencies of occurrence of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> types are calculated. <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> types coming from any classification with significant differences in frequency between high and low solar activity are identified. Current results generally confirm results of a previous study based on a single classification only (subjective Hess-Brezowsky) that (a) westerly types are more frequent under high than low solar activity; (b) northerly types are more frequent under low than high activity, and (iii) easterly and anticyclonic types are more frequent under low than moderate solar activity; the opposite holds for cyclonic types. The research is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic under contract OC115 and the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V13A2813B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V13A2813B"><span id="translatedtitle">A new <span class="hlt">application</span> of a finite element heat and mass transfer numerical modeling code (FEHM) to heat and fluid <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in lava domes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ball, J. L.; Stauffer, P. H.; Calder, E. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> those properties to dome material regions. Further modifications to the dome geometry and material properties were made to better <span class="hlt">simulate</span> specific lava domes, including Santiaguito in Guatemala and Unzen in Japan. Preliminary results suggest that FEHM produces a reasonable <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of fluid movement in a saturated, post-eruptive (cooling) lava dome, with recharge from meteoric water, over periods of years to decades. This model setup is <span class="hlt">applicable</span> to the older lava domes at Santiaguito and the dome at Unzen. The <span class="hlt">simulations</span> presented were restricted at this point to lower temperature materials (< 250°C) to avoid computationally more intensive phase change. A grid based on the geometry of the older Santiaguito lava domes has produced temperature gradients and fluid flow paths in a similar location to hot springs at the real dome complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12848976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12848976"><span id="translatedtitle">Dosage and characterization of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> DNA: present usage and possible <span class="hlt">applications</span> in systemic autoimmune disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galeazzi, M; Morozzi, G; Piccini, M; Chen, J; Bellisai, F; Fineschi, S; Marcolongo, R</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The discovery of extracellular nucleic acids in the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> was firstly reported in 1948. In the last few years it has been demonstrated that the entire spectrum of genetic changes seen in primary tumors could also be detected in the serum of patients with solid tumors. This observation has also opened up exciting possibilities for tumor detection and monitoring. More recently investigators started looking for other forms of non-host DNA in the plasma/serum so that in 1997 the presence of fetal DNA in the plasma/serum of pregnant women was demonstrated. This finding suggested that maternal plasma fetal DNA would be a very valuable material for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and monitoring. It has been also postulated that the presence of the two-way trafficking of nucleated cells and free DNA between the mother and fetus may have potential implications for the development of certain autoimmune diseases. Concerning autoimmune disorders, Tan was the first author to describe the presence of high levels of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> DNA in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 1986. Later on different authors demonstrated that elevated levels of serum DNA was also present in patients with other diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. We have analyzed both <span class="hlt">circulating</span> free DNA and DNA extracted from nucleated blood cells in scleroderma and in lupus patients but, by using gel electrophoresis, we were able to define the pattern of the DNA, instead of simply dosing its amount in the <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. We have found that SLE and SSc have anomalous patterns of DNA both in serum and in the Buffy-coat and that these patterns are typical for each disorder. It is possible that understanding the biological significance of the diversity in DNA pattern exhibition in white blood cells may give new insights into the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders. It is also conceivable that <span class="hlt">circulating</span> and immune-competent cellular DNA markers might offer the promise of precise quantitative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.4545J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.4545J"><span id="translatedtitle">The Sicily Channel surface <span class="hlt">circulation</span> revisited using a neural clustering analysis of a high-resolution <span class="hlt">simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jouini, Manel; Béranger, Karine; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Thiria, Sylvie; Crépon, Michel; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Sicily Channel surface <span class="hlt">circulation</span> is investigated by analyzing the outputs of a high-resolution ocean model MED12 forced during 46 years by the ARPERA atmospheric fields. Applying a neural network classifier, we show that the surface <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the Sicily Channel can be decomposed into 8 modes characterizing the major patterns of that <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, particularly the Algerian Current separation at the entrance to the Sicily Channel, the features of the Atlantic Tunisian Current and of the Atlantic Ionian Stream. These modes reflect the variability of the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in space and time at seasonal and inter-annual scales. Some modes preferably occur in winter whilst others are characteristic of summer. The mode sequence presents an inter-annual variability in good agreement with observations. The topography of the Sicily Channel sill plays a major role in steering the <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. In particular the summer upwelling along the southern coast of Sicily, which is present in several modes, could be explained by a large-scale density forcing. A combination of barotropic/baroclinic double Kelvin waves generated on both sides of the sill provides a mechanism for explaining the complexity of the surface <span class="hlt">circulation</span> advecting the surface waters from the Western Mediterranean toward the Eastern Mediterranean, the most salient features of which are the Atlantic Tunisian Current, the Atlantic Ionian Stream and the Tyrrhenian Sicilian Current which is a new feature highlighted by the present study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...12.5107R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...12.5107R"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol-induced changes in summer rainfall and <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the Australasian region: a study using single-forcing climate <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rotstayn, L. D.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Collier, M. A.; Dravitzki, S. M.; Hirst, A. C.; Syktus, J. I.; Wong, K. K.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model (CSIRO-Mk3.6) to investigate the roles of different forcing agents as drivers of summer rainfall trends in the Australasian region. Our results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols have contributed to the observed multi-decadal rainfall increase over north-western Australia. As part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we performed multiple 10-member ensembles of historical climate change, which are analysed for the period 1951-2010. The historical runs include ensembles driven by "all forcings" (HIST), all forcings except anthropogenic aerosols (NO_AA) and forcing only from long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGAS). Anthropogenic aerosol-induced effects in a warming climate are calculated from the difference of HIST minus NO_AA. We also compare a 10-member 21st century ensemble driven by Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> aerosol-induced rainfall trends over the Indo-Pacific region for austral summer and boreal summer show a distinct contrast. In boreal summer, there is a southward shift of equatorial rainfall, consistent with the idea that anthropogenic aerosols have suppressed Asian monsoonal rainfall, and caused a southward shift of the local Hadley <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. In austral summer, the aerosol-induced response more closely resembles a westward shift and strengthening of the upward branch of the Walker <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, rather than a coherent southward shift of regional tropical rainfall. Thus the mechanism by which anthropogenic aerosols may affect Australian summer rainfall is unclear. Focusing on summer rainfall trends over north-western Australia (NWA), we find that CSIRO-Mk3.6 <span class="hlt">simulates</span> a strong rainfall decrease in RCP4.5, whereas <span class="hlt">simulated</span> trends in HIST are weak and insignificant during 1951-2010. The weak rainfall trends in HIST are due to compensating effects of different forcing agents: there is a significant decrease in GHGAS, offset by an aerosol</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005RScI...76j5103P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005RScI...76j5103P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Circulating</span> pump for high-pressure and high-temperature <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peleties, Fotos; Martin Trusler, J. P.; Goodwin, Anthony R. H.; Maitland, Geoffrey C.</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>A high-pressure high-temperature magnetic <span class="hlt">circulating</span> pump is described. The design is based on the concept of contactless bidirectional pumping action. This pump can deliver a continuous flow at temperatures up to 175°C and pressures up to 2000bars. Wetted parts are fabricated from stainless steels, there are no elastomeric seals or lubricants required, and the pump can be physically mobile during operation. Tests with toluene at ambient temperature and pressure showed that volumetric flow rates of up to 320cm3 min-1 and pressure heads of up to 2.2bars could be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A23K3403K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A23K3403K"><span id="translatedtitle">On the reduced lifetime of nitrous oxide due to climate change induced acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson <span class="hlt">circulation</span> as <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by the MPI Earth System Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kracher, D.; Manzini, E.; Reick, C. H.; Schultz, M. G.; Stein, O.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Greenhouse gas induced climate change will modify the physical conditions of the atmosphere. One of the projected changes is an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the stratosphere, as it has been shown in many model studies. This change in the stratospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> consequently bears an effect on the transport and distribution of atmospheric components such as N2O. Since N2O is involved in ozone destruction, a modified distribution of N2O can be of importance for ozone chemistry. N2O is inert in the troposphere and decays only in the stratosphere. Thus, changes in the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere can also affect the stratospheric sink of N2O, and consequently its atmospheric lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of currently approximately 300 CO2-equivalents in a 100-year perspective. A faster decay in atmospheric N2O mixing ratios, i.e. a decreased atmospheric lifetime of N2O, will also reduce its global warming potential. In order to assess the impact of climate change on atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and implied effects on the distribution and lifetime of atmospheric N2O, we apply the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM consists of the atmospheric general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model ECHAM, the land surface model JSBACH, and MPIOM/HAMOCC representing ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and ocean biogeochemistry. Prognostic atmospheric N2O concentrations in MPI-ESM are determined by land N2O emissions, ocean-atmosphere N2O exchange and atmospheric tracer transport. As stratospheric chemistry is not explicitly represented in MPI-ESM, stratospheric decay rates of N2O are prescribed from a MACC MOZART <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Increasing surface temperatures and CO2 concentrations in the stratosphere impact atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> differently. Thus, we conduct a series of transient runs with the atmospheric model of MPI-ESM to isolate different factors governing a shift in atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. From those transient</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/456811','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/456811"><span id="translatedtitle">Snowline instability in a general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model: <span class="hlt">application</span> to Carboniferous glaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crowley, T.J.; Yip, Kuor-Kier, J.; Baum, S.K.</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>For over twenty years it has been known that energy balance models (EBMs) with snow-albedo feedback are characterized by unstable behavior in some areas of parameter space. This behaviour leads to rapid changes in snow area due to small changes in forcing, and has been termed the small ice cap instability (SICI). It has never been clarified whether this behaviour reflects a real feature of the climate system or a limitation in EBMs. In this study we demonstrate that evidence for similar unstable behavior can also be found in an atmospheric general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (GCM), using a realistic set of boundary conditions for the Carboniferous (300 Ma), one of the most extensive periods of glaciation in Earth history. When solar luminosity is sequentially lowered to near values appropriate for the Carboniferous, there is a discontinuous increase in summer snow area. The instability occurs in approximately the same area of parameter space as one previously found in an EBM. Analysis of selected fields indicates that the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> is primarily affected in the area of snow increase; far-field effects are minimal. There is good agreement between model-generated summer snowcover and one reconstruction of Carboniferous ice cover. Although more work is required on this topic, our results provide increased support for the possibility that the snowline instability represents a real feature of the climate system, and that it may help explain some cases of glacial inception and abrupt transitions in Earth history. 63 refs., 20 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5263478','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5263478"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in an anisotropic sedimentary basin: <span class="hlt">Application</span> to the Okinawa back arc basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Genthon, P.; Rabinowicz, M. ); Foucher, J.P.; Sibuet, J.C. )</p> <p>1990-11-10</p> <p>The authors explore the pattern of two-dimensional convection in an highly anisotropical porous medium. This physical situation is relevant to passive margin sedimentary basins consisting of interbedded coarse-grained pervious and shale matrix. They show that permeability anisotropies of the order of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} allow for long convective cells, of aspect ratio greater than 10, but that a combination of this parameter with a slight slope of the order of a few percent of the sedimentary layers is required to stabilize these long cells. As an example, they present the Okinawa basin, an active submarine back arc basin, with a sedimentary thickness of about 2 km and a heat flow profile across this basin, varying from 32 to 232 mWm{sup {minus}2} over a distance of 30 km. It is shown that this heat flow variation is difficult to explain with conductive mechanisms only but is well reproduced by different convective models relying on permeability anisotropy plus slope. Although the insufficient thermal and structural constraints did not allow them to build a unique model, the whole set of possible fits to the heat flow data may restrict the mean hydraulic parameters of the basin. A vertical permeability of a few tens of milidarcy and an anisotropy greater than 100 are required to produce the expected stable and active large-scale <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. It is suggested in conclusion that this type of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> might be active in oil- or oil-forming element migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007ACP.....7.2183C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007ACP.....7.2183C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A revised linear ozone photochemistry parameterization for use in transport and general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models: multi-annual <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cariolle, D.; Teyssèdre, H.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>This article describes the validation of a linear parameterization of the ozone photochemistry for use in upper tropospheric and stratospheric studies. The present work extends a previously developed scheme by improving the 2-D model used to derive the coefficients of the parameterization. The chemical reaction rates are updated from a compilation that includes recent laboratory work. Furthermore, the polar ozone destruction due to heterogeneous reactions at the surface of the polar stratospheric clouds is taken into account as a function of the stratospheric temperature and the total chlorine content. Two versions of the parameterization are tested. The first one only requires the solution of a continuity equation for the time evolution of the ozone mixing ratio, the second one uses one additional equation for a cold tracer. The parameterization has been introduced into the chemical transport model MOCAGE. The model is integrated with wind and temperature fields from the ECMWF operational analyses over the period 2000-2004. Overall, the results from the two versions show a very good agreement between the modelled ozone distribution and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data and the "in-situ" vertical soundings. During the course of the integration the model does not show any drift and the biases are generally small, of the order of 10%. The model also reproduces fairly well the polar ozone variability, notably the formation of "ozone holes" in the Southern Hemisphere with amplitudes and a seasonal evolution that follow the dynamics and time evolution of the polar vortex. The introduction of the cold tracer further improves the model <span class="hlt">simulation</span> by allowing additional ozone destruction inside air masses exported from the high to the mid-latitudes, and by maintaining low ozone content inside the polar vortex of the Southern Hemisphere over longer periods in spring time. It is concluded that for the study of climate scenarios or the assimilation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820026201','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820026201"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of control theory to dynamic systems <span class="hlt">simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.; Young, G. E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">application</span> of control theory is applied to dynamic systems <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Theory and methodology <span class="hlt">applicable</span> to controlled ecological life support systems are considered. Spatial effects on system stability, design of control systems with uncertain parameters, and an interactive computing language (PARASOL-II) designed for dynamic system <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, report quality graphics, data acquisition, and simple real time control are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738l0028J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738l0028J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models for the optimization of business processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jašek, Roman; Sedláček, Michal; Chramcov, Bronislav; Dvořák, Jiří</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The paper deals with the <span class="hlt">applications</span> of modeling and <span class="hlt">simulation</span> tools in the optimization of business processes, especially in solving an optimization of signal flow in security company. As a modeling tool was selected <span class="hlt">Simul</span>8 software that is used to process modeling based on discrete event <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and which enables the creation of a visual model of production and distribution processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049297&hterms=ocean+currents&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bcurrents','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049297&hterms=ocean+currents&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bcurrents"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of tropical pacific temperature and current <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with two vertical mixing schemes embedded in an ocean general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model and reference to observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Halpern, David; Chao, YI; Ma, Chung-Chun; Mechoso, Carlos R.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The Pacanowski-Philander (PP) and Mellor-Yamada (MY) parameterization models of vertical mixing by turbulent processes were embedded in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory high-resolution ocean general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model of the tropical Pacific Ocean. All other facets of the numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> were the same. <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> were made for the 1987-1988 period. At the equator the MY <span class="hlt">simulation</span> produced near-surface temperatures more uniform with depth, a deeper thermocline, a deeper core speed of the Equatorial Undercurrent, and a South Equatorial Current with greater vertical thickness compared with that computed with the PP method. Along 140 deg W, between 5 deg N and 10 deg N, both <span class="hlt">simulations</span> were the same. Moored buoy current and temperature observations had been recorded by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory at three sites (165 deg E, 140 deg W, 110 deg W) along the equator and at three sites (5 deg N, 7 deg N, 9 deg N) along 140 deg W. <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> temperatures were lower than those observed in the near-surface layer and higher than those observed in the thermocline. Temperature <span class="hlt">simulations</span> were in better agreement with observations compared to current <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. At the equator, PP current and temperature <span class="hlt">simulations</span> were more representative of the observations than MY <span class="hlt">simulations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5457252','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5457252"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of centrifugal compressor transient performance for process plant <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>MacDougal, I.; Elder, R.L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The development of a theoretical model capable of <span class="hlt">simulating</span> centrifugal compressor transient performance (including compressor surge) is detailed. <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> results from a Fortran computer program are compared with measured compressor transient data. Good <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of compressor transients between stable operating points, and compressor presurge flow oscillations has been obtained. General <span class="hlt">application</span> criteria are presented for the geometric distribution of model elements within a compressor system. Model <span class="hlt">applications</span> and future work are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6371116','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6371116"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermospheric tides <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by the national center for atmospheric research thermosphere-ionosphere general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model at equinox</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fesen, C.G. ); Roble, R.G.; Ridley, E.C. )</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The authors use the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere/ionosphere general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (TIGCM) to model tides and dynamics in the thermosphere. This model incorporates the latest advances in the thermosphere general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model. Model results emphasized the 70[degree] W longitude region to overlap a series of incoherent radar scatter installations. Data and the model are available on data bases. The results of this theoretical modeling are compared with available data, and with prediction of more empirical models. In general there is broad agreement within the comparisons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960003335','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960003335"><span id="translatedtitle">An Open <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> System Model for Scientific <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Anthony D.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A model for a generic and open environment for running multi-code or multi-<span class="hlt">application</span> <span class="hlt">simulations</span> - called the open <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> System Model (OSSM) - is proposed and defined. This model attempts to meet the requirements of complex systems like the Numerical Propulsion <span class="hlt">Simulator</span> System (NPSS). OSSM places no restrictions on the types of <span class="hlt">applications</span> that can be integrated at any state of its evolution. This includes <span class="hlt">applications</span> of different disciplines, fidelities, etc. An implementation strategy is proposed that starts with a basic prototype, and evolves over time to accommodate an increasing number of <span class="hlt">applications</span>. Potential (standard) software is also identified which may aid in the design and implementation of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950030015&hterms=applied+statistics&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dapplied%2Bstatistics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950030015&hterms=applied+statistics&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dapplied%2Bstatistics"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of a planetary wave breaking parameterization to stratospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Randel, William J.; Garcia, Rolando R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The planetary wave parameterization scheme developed recently by Garcia is applied to statospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> statistics derived from 12 years of National Meteorological Center operational stratospheric analyses. From the data a planetary wave breaking criterion (based on the ratio of the eddy to zonal mean meridional potential vorticity (PV) gradients), a wave damping rate, and a meridional diffusion coefficient are calculated. The equatorward flank of the polar night jet during winter is identified as a wave breaking region from the observed PV gradients; the region moves poleward with season, covering all high latitudes in spring. Derived damping rates maximize in the subtropical upper stratosphere (the 'surf zone'), with damping time scales of 3-4 days. Maximum diffusion coefficients follow the spatial patterns of the wave breaking criterion, with magnitudes comparable to prior published estimates. Overall, the observed results agree well with the parameterized calculations of Garcia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5037845','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5037845"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical <span class="hlt">Application</span> of <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Tumour Cells in Prostate Cancer: From Bench to Bedside and Back</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>León-Mateos, Luis; Vieito, María; Anido, Urbano; López López, Rafael; Muinelo Romay, Laura</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men worldwide. To improve future drug development and patient management, surrogate biomarkers associated with relevant outcomes are required. <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> tumour cells (CTCs) are tumour cells that can enter the circulatory system, and are principally responsible for the development of metastasis at distant sites. In recent years, interest in detecting CTCs as a surrogate biomarker has ghiiukjrown. Clinical studies have revealed that high levels of CTCs in the blood correlate with disease progression in patients with prostate cancer; however, their predictive value for monitoring therapeutic response is less clear. Despite the important progress in CTC clinical development, there are critical requirements for the implementation of their analysis as a routine oncology tool. The goal of the present review is to provide an update on the advances in the clinical validation of CTCs as a surrogate biomarker and to discuss the principal obstacles and main challenges to their inclusion in clinical practice. PMID:27657044</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MAR.J4002T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MAR.J4002T"><span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostic <span class="hlt">Applications</span> and Methods to Isolate <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Blood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Cha-Mei</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Each year a million new cancer cases are diagnosed in the United States. Ninety percent of the deaths will be the result of metastasis, not from the primary tumor. Tissue biopsy is a universally accepted tool for cancer diagnosis and determination of treatment. The procedure varies, but is invasive, costly, and can be fatal, and for these reasons is seldom repeated after initial diagnosis. Monitoring of treatment response and for possible relapse is usually done by CT or MRI scan, both of which are expensive and require the tumor to change size perceptibly. Further, cancer can mutate or develop resistance to therapeutics and require modification of the treatment regimen. The initial tissue biopsy often cannot reflect the disease as it progresses, requiring new biopsy samples to determine a change of treatment. All carcinomas, about 80% of all cancer, shed tumor cells into the <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, most often at the later stages when treatment is more critical. These <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumor cells (CTCs) are the cause of metastasis, and can be isolated from patient blood to serve as ``liquid biopsy''. These CTCs contain a valuable trove of information that help both patient and clinician understand disease status. In addition to counting the number of CTCs (known to be a prognostic indicator of survival), CTCs can provide biomarker information such as protein expressions and gene mutations, amplifications, and translocations. This information can be used to determine treatment. During treatment, the number of intact and apoptotic CTCs can be measured on a repeated basis to measure the patient's response to treatment and disease progression. Following treatment, liquid biopsy can be repeated at regular intervals to watch for relapse. Methods to isolate CTCs can be grouped into three categories: i) immunocapture based on surface markers of CTCs, ii) size exclusion based on CTC size, typically larger than blood cells, and iii) negative selection utilizing red blood cell lysis, white</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5703S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5703S"><span id="translatedtitle">Present and future precipitation variability over the East African region using CORDEX <span class="hlt">simulations</span> (COSMO-CLM) and its relation with <span class="hlt">circulation</span> patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Souverijns, Niels; Thiery, Wim; Demuzere, Matthias; van Lipzig, Nicole</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The East African region is highly dependent on precipitation due to its water-fed agricultural system. On the other hand the region experiences a high interannual variability regarding precipitation amounts during several months. Consequently, there is a strong need to predict how precipitation variability will evolve under climate change in this region. This requires a good understanding of the processes that influence this variability. This study tackles this issue via the use of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> patterns, shown to strongly influence precipitation over the East African region. Changes in (the frequency of) <span class="hlt">circulation</span> patterns towards the future are therefore the main drivers of changes in precipitation variability. To investigate this issue a classification of the different <span class="hlt">circulation</span> patterns over the region was executed for a reference period (1981-2010) on ERA Interim data using the COST733class software. Different algorithms are tested and their performance over the study area is evaluated. This results in a weather atlas concerning the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> patterns and their corresponding precipitation amounts that are currently present over the region. Furthermore, the classification will be executed on the COSMO-CLM CORDEX-Africa evaluation <span class="hlt">simulation</span> for the same reference period. The model results are evaluated by comparing them with the classification results of the ERA Interim data and observational datasets. To predict how precipitation variability changes towards the future, a classification is also applied on the whole CORDEX-Africa ensemble for a present (1981-2010) and future period (2071-2100) under RCP 8.5. Comparing both classifications makes it possible to detect differences in the frequencies of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> patterns and in the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> patterns themselves. Particular attention is paid to the months that show a high interannual variability in precipitation amounts, since changes here are of most importance for the region. Finally, the different drivers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..348D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..348D"><span id="translatedtitle">Dense water formation and BiOS-induced variability in the Adriatic Sea <span class="hlt">simulated</span> using an ocean regional <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunić, Natalija; Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A performance analysis of the NEMOMED8 ocean regional <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model was undertaken for the Adriatic Sea during the period of 1961-2012, focusing on two mechanisms, dense water formation (DWF) and the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS), which drive interannual and decadal variability in the basin. The model was verified based on sea surface temperature and sea surface height satellite measurements and long-term in situ observations from several key areas. The model qualitatively reproduces basin-scale processes: thermohaline-driven cyclonic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and freshwater surface outflow along the western Adriatic coast, dense water dynamics, and the inflow of Ionian and Levantine waters to the Adriatic. Positive temperature and salinity biases are reported; the latter are particularly large along the eastern part of the basin, presumably because of the inappropriate introduction of eastern Adriatic rivers into the model. The highest warm temperature biases in the vertical direction were found in dense-water-collecting depressions in the Adriatic, indicating either an inappropriate quantification of DWF processes or temperature overestimation of modelled dense water. The decadal variability in the thermohaline properties is reproduced better than interannual variability, which is considerably underestimated. The DWF rates are qualitatively well reproduced by the model, being larger when preconditioned by higher basin-wide salinities. Anticyclonic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the northern Ionian Sea was modelled only during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. No other reversals of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> that could be linked to BiOS-driven changes were modelled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20885513','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20885513"><span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of transfer processes in the freeboard region of a steam-generator furnace with a <span class="hlt">circulating</span> fluidized bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>B.B. Rokhman</p> <p>2006-01-15</p> <p>A semiempirical, stationary, two-zone model of transfer processes in the freeboard region of a reactor with a <span class="hlt">circulating</span> boiling layer has been constructed. The features of the aerodynamics, heat and mass transfer, and combustion of anthracite culm in the core and near-wall ring region of a flow in a KFS-0.2 pilot plant have been investigated in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814627J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814627J"><span id="translatedtitle">The relation between AMOC, gyre <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, and meridional heat transports in the North Atlantic in model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of the last millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jungclaus, Johann; Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Lohmann, Katja</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>While it is clear that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> (AMOC) is responsible for meridional heat transfer from the South Atlantic and the tropics to the North Atlantic, the majority of the heat transport in the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic seas is carried by the gyre system. However, the detailed mechanisms determining the interaction between and the temporal modulation of the components of the northward heat transport system are not clear. Long-term climate records and model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> can help to identify important processes and to provide background for the changes that are presently observed. Multi-centennial proxy records from the subpolar North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas indicate, for example, an out-of-phase behavior of sea surface temperature and gyre <span class="hlt">circulation</span> between the two regions with consequences for regional climate. Paleoceanographic evidence from Fram Strait shows a pronounced modulation of heat transfer to the Arctic by the Atlantic Water layer during the last 2000 years and reconstructions from the Subpolar North Atlantic suggest a role of ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the transition between the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. Here we explore a small ensemble of last millennium <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, carried out with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, and analyze mechanisms connecting the AMOC and gyre <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and their relation to external forcing. Our results support the important role of the Subpolar Gyre strength and the related meridional mass and temperature fluxes. We find that the modulation of the northward heat transport into the Nordic Seas and the Arctic has pronounced impact on sea-ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere interaction, and the surface climate in Scandinavia and Western Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24114444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24114444"><span id="translatedtitle">Platelet proteomics and its advanced <span class="hlt">application</span> for research of blood stasis syndrome and activated blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> herbs of Chinese medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yue; Yin, Huijun; Chen, Keji</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The development of novel and efficient antiplatelet agents that have few adverse effects and methods that improve antiplatelet resistance has long been the focus of international research on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Recent advances in platelet proteomics have provided a technology platform for high-quality research of platelet pathophysiology and the development of new antiplatelet drugs. The study of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) and activated blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most active fields where the integration of TCM and western medicine in China has been successful. Activated blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> herbs (ABC herbs) of Chinese medicine are often used in the treatment of BSS. Most ABC herbs have antiplatelet and anti-atherosclerosis activity, but knowledge about their targets is lacking. Coronary heart disease (CHD), BSS, and platelet activation are closely related. By screening and identifying activated platelet proteins that are differentially expressed in BSS of CHD, platelet proteomics has helped researchers interpret the antiplatelet mechanism of action of ABC herbs and provided many potential biomarkers for BSS that could be used to evaluate the clinical curative effect of new antiplatelet drugs. In this article the progress of platelet proteomics and its advanced <span class="hlt">application</span> for research of BSS and ABC herbs of Chinese medicine are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......267C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......267C"><span id="translatedtitle">Pebble bed pebble motion: <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> and <span class="hlt">Application</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cogliati, Joshua J.</p> <p></p> <p>Pebble bed reactors (PBR) have moving graphite fuel pebbles. This unique feature provides advantages, but also means that <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the reactor requires understanding the typical motion and location of the granular flow of pebbles. This dissertation presents a method for <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. A new mechanical motion <span class="hlt">simulator</span>, PEBBLES, efficiently <span class="hlt">simulates</span> the key elements of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. This model <span class="hlt">simulates</span> gravitational force and contact forces including kinetic and true static friction. It's used for a variety of tasks including <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the effect of earthquakes on a PBR, calculation of packing fractions, Dancoff factors, pebble wear and the pebble force on the walls. The <span class="hlt">simulator</span> includes a new differential static friction model for the varied geometries of PBRs. A new static friction benchmark was devised via analytically solving the mechanics equations to determine the minimum pebble-to-pebble friction and pebble-to-surface friction for a five pebble pyramid. This pyramid check as well as a comparison to the Janssen formula was used to test the new static friction equations. Because larger pebble bed <span class="hlt">simulations</span> involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and long periods of time, the PEBBLES code has been parallelized. PEBBLES runs on shared memory architectures and distributed memory architectures. For the shared memory architecture, the code uses a new O(n) lock-less parallel collision detection algorithm to determine which pebbles are likely to be in contact. The new collision detection algorithm improves on the traditional non-parallel O(n log(n)) collision detection algorithm. These features combine to form a fast parallel pebble motion <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. The PEBBLES code provides new capabilities for understanding and optimizing PBRs. The PEBBLES code has provided the pebble motion data required to calculate the motion of pebbles during a <span class="hlt">simulated</span> earthquake. The PEBBLES code provides the ability to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27353110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27353110"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Application</span> and prospect of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumor cells detection in colorectal cancer].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Qingmin; Tang, Qingchao; Chen, Yinggang; Wang, Xishan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>About 30%-50% of colorectal cancer patients would develop recurrence and metastasis. At present, there is still a lack of effective evaluation method for recurrence, metastasis and prognosis. In recent years, a great progress about <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumor cells (CTC) in diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer has been made. The most common CTC detection methods include immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, PCR, immunomagnetic separation, optical fiber array scanning and CTC chip. Based on present studies, researchers reach the consensus that CTC is clinically valuable in the following aspects: detection of occult metastasis, monitor of disease progress and evaluation of response to treatment. With recent development of clinical specialization, multi-disciplinary treatment (MDT), gene detection and targeted therapy, individualized treatment may greatly improve overall survive and disease-free survival of colorectal cancer patients. However, the methods above depend on tumor tissues that are always impractical to obtain for late stage and non-surgery patients. Moreover, the size of specimen is always small, making gene expression and mutation detection difficult. CTC detection may solve such problems based on molecular biology with high plausibility and repeatability. Therefore, CTC detection can be used as a new diagnosis tool. It is believed that CTC detection will play an important role in early diagnosis, evaluating recurrence, metastasis, making individualized treatment and predicting prognosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4428174','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4428174"><span id="translatedtitle">Design strategies and <span class="hlt">applications</span> of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> cell-mediated drug delivery systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Gloria B.; Dong, Cheng; Yang, Jian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Drug delivery systems, particularly nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems, possess a tremendous amount of potential to improve diagnostic and therapeutic effects of drugs. Controlled drug delivery targeted to a specific disease is designed to significantly improve the pharmaceutical effects of drugs and reduce their side effects. Unfortunately, only a few targeted drug delivery systems can achieve high targeting efficiency after intravenous injection, even with the development of numerous surface markers and targeting modalities. Thus, alternative drug and nanomedicine targeting approaches are desired. <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> cells, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and stem cells, present innate disease sensing and homing properties. Hence, using living cells as drug delivery carriers has gained increasing interest in recent years. This review highlights the recent advances in the design of cell-mediated drug delivery systems and targeting mechanisms. The approaches of drug encapsulation/conjugation to cell-carriers, cell-mediated targeting mechanisms, and the methods of controlled drug release are elaborated here. Cell-based “live” targeting and delivery could be used to facilitate a more specific, robust, and smart payload distribution for the next-generation drug delivery systems. PMID:25984572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23691590','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23691590"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">application</span> of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumor cells detecting methods in veterinary oncology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chmielewska, M; Łosiewicz, K; Socha, P; Mecik-Kronenberg, T; Wasowicz, K</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Cancers are one of the most common diseases affecting dogs. Many of them develop spontaneously and their biology and histopathology shows many similarities to human cancers. What more, it is proved that there are much more analogies in molecular mechanisms of cancer development between these two species. Human oncology is seeking more and more efficient methods for an early disease detection which results directly in the extended life expectancy of patients affected. One of the most modern trends in the diagnosis of cancer is to detect <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumor cells (CTC) in the blood of patients. It is known that these cells are responsible for the formation of metastases in distant organs what results in the patient death. Moreover, it's confirmed that CTC are already present in patients' bloodstream in the early stages of tumor development. There is no doubt that mechanism of metastasis development in dogs is identical and thus the CTC are also present in their bloodstream. Despite the intense researches there is still no optimal method of isolating cancer cells from the blood where they occur extremely rarely. The purpose of this study is to analyze the implications of the detection methods of tumor cells in the blood in veterinary oncology. PMID:23691590</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhCS.147a2025K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhCS.147a2025K"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on bubbly flow behavior in natural <span class="hlt">circulation</span> reactor by thermal-hydraulic <span class="hlt">simulation</span> tests with SF6-Gas and ethanol liquid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Suga, Keishi; Hibi, Koki; Okazaki, Toshihiko; Komeno, Toshihiro; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Serizawa, Akimi; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Arai, Takahiro</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>An advanced experimental technique has been developed to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> two-phase flow behavior in a light water reactor (LWR). The technique applies three kinds of methods; (1) use of sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6) gas and ethanol (C2H5OH) liquid at atmospheric temperature and a pressure less than 1.0MPa, where the fluid properties are similar to steam-water ones in the LWR, (2) generation of bubble with a sintering tube, which <span class="hlt">simulates</span> bubble generation on heated surface in the LWR, (3) measurement of detailed bubble distribution data with a bi-optical probe (BOP), (4) and measurement of liquid velocities with the tracer liquid. This experimental technique provides easy visualization of flows by using a large scale experimental apparatus, which gives three-dimensional flows, and measurement of detailed spatial distributions of two-phase flow. With this technique, we have carried out experiments <span class="hlt">simulating</span> two-phase flow behavior in a single-channel geometry, a multi-rod-bundle one, and a horizontal-tube-bundle one on a typical natural <span class="hlt">circulation</span> reactor system. Those experiments have clarified a) a flow regime map in a rod bundle on the transient region between bubbly and churn flow, b) three-dimensional flow behaviour in rod-bundles where inter-subassembly cross-flow occurs, c) bubble-separation behavior with consideration of reactor internal structures. The data have given analysis models for the natural <span class="hlt">circulation</span> reactor design with good extrapolation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011BGD.....810895W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011BGD.....810895W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of anthropogenic CO2 uptake in the CCSM3.1 ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span>-biogeochemical model: comparison with data-based estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, S.; Moore, J. K.; Primeau, F. W.; Khatiwala, S.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The global ocean has taken up a large fraction of the CO2 released by human activities since the industrial revolution. Quantifying the oceanic anthropogenic carbon (Cant) inventory and its variability is important for predicting the future global carbon cycle. The detailed comparison of data-based and model-based estimates is essential for the validation and continued improvement of our prediction capabilities. So far, three global estimates of oceanic Cant inventory that are "data-based" and independent of global ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models have been produced: one based on the ΔC* method, and two are based on reconstructions of the Green function for the surface-to-interior transport, the TTD method and the maximum entropy inversion method (KPH). The KPH method, in particular, is capable of reconstructing the history of Cant inventory through the industrial era. In the present study we use forward model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3.1) to estimate the Cant inventory and compare the results with the data-based estimates. We also use the <span class="hlt">simulations</span> to test several assumptions of the KPH method, including the assumption of constant climate and <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, which is common to all the data-based estimates. Though the integrated estimates of global Cant inventories are consistent with each other, the regional estimates show discrepancies up to 50 %. The CCSM3 model underestimates the total Cant inventory, in part due to weak mixing and ventilation in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Analyses of different <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results suggest that key assumptions about ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and air-sea disequilibrium in the KPH method are generally valid on the global scale, but may introduce significant errors in Cant estimates on regional scales. The KPH method should also be used with caution when predicting future oceanic anthropogenic carbon uptake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060037242&hterms=sea+level&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2528sea%2Blevel%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060037242&hterms=sea+level&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2528sea%2Blevel%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon Sea Level Observations to <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> by the Los Alamos Ocean General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Mode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fu, L.; Smith, R.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The sea level observations from the TOPEX/Poseidon radar altimeter from October, 1992 to October, 1994 were used to study the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of the global oceans and their temporal changes. To provide a framework for interpreting the observations, the Parallel Ocean Program model of the Los Alamos National Laboratory was run for the same period of time for comparison. A report of that data is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900053440&hterms=supercomputers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsupercomputers','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900053440&hterms=supercomputers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsupercomputers"><span id="translatedtitle">Supercomputer <span class="hlt">applications</span> in gas turbine flowfield <span class="hlt">simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Madavan, Nateri K.; Kelaita, Paul; Gavali, Sharad</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the unsteady three-dimensional viscous flow in a gas turbine stage is considered. Results from a three-dimensional time-accurate Navier-Stokes <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of rotor-stator interaction in an axial turbine stage are presented. The present study uses a fine grid in the spanwise direction to better resolve the complex three-dimensional flowfield, and complements earlier reported coarse-grid calculations. Several different features of the flowfield are analyzed and compared to earlier calculations and to experimental data whenever possible. Computer animation techniques are used to visualize various unsteady three-dimensional features of the flow. The results demonstrate the capabilities of current computing hardware in obtaining accurate <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of unsteady flows in turbomachines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994CSR....14.1601W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994CSR....14.1601W"><span id="translatedtitle">Steady, frictionally modified wind and current forced shelf <span class="hlt">circulation</span>: <span class="hlt">application</span> to Vancouver Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willmott, Andrew J.; Collings, Ian L.</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>This paper examines the steady barotropic frictionally controlled <span class="hlt">circulation</span> over a linear shelf which has an abrupt change in width. The model allows the net longshore transport to be specified and includes forcing due to: (1) flow through a gap in the coastline located along the discontinuity; and (2) longshore wind stress. Rapid longshore variations in the flow occur in the neighbourhood of the shelf width discontinuity and therefore both the cross-shelf and long-shore components of bottom friction must be retained. These give rise to a vorticity equation of elliptic character, in contrast to the parabolic "arrested topographic wave equation". A "shadow zone" is produced on the wide shelf, adjacent to the shelf width discontinuity, in response to a uniform longshore wind stress. Within the shadow zone the fluid is almost stagnant. As friction increases, greater cross-isobath flow occurs, which reduces the area of the shadow zone. A combination of flow through the strait and longshore wind stress can generate complicated flow patterns in which eddies are ubiquitous. A combination of prescribed non-zero net poleward longshore transport and a uniform longshore wind stress generate a nearshore flow which is equatorward-poleward when the wind is directed equatorward-poleward. Further, the axis of the poleward longshore current migrates towards the shelf edge in response to an equatorward longshore wind stress of increasing magnitude. Seasonal variations in the nearshore flow off Vancouver Island, described by HICKEY [(1979) Progress in Oceanography, 8, 191-279] and FREELANDet al. [(1984) Atmosphere-Ocean, 28, 288-302] can be qualitatively reproduced by this simple method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960022626','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960022626"><span id="translatedtitle">Virtual reality <span class="hlt">applications</span> in robotic <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Homan, David J.; Gott, Charles J.; Goza, S. Michael</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Virtual reality (VR) provides a means to practice integrated extravehicular activities (EVA)/remote manipulator system (RMS) operations in the on-orbit configuration with no discomfort or risk to crewmembers. VR afforded the STS-61 crew the luxury of practicing the integrated EVA/RMS operations in an on-orbit configuration prior to the actual flight. The VR <span class="hlt">simulation</span> was developed by the Automation and Robotics Division's Telepresence/Virtual Reality Lab and Integrated Graphics, Operations, and Analysis Lab (IGOAL) at JSC. The RMS Part Task Trainer (PTT) was developed by the IGOAL for RMS training in 1988 as a fully functional, kinematic <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the shuttle RMS and served as the RMS portion of the integrated VR <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Because the EVA crewmember could get a realistic view of the shuttle and payload bay in the VR <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, he/she could explore different positions and views to determine the best method for performing a specific task, thus greatly increasing the efficiency of use of the neutral buoyancy facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=raindrop&pg=2&id=EJ281359','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=raindrop&pg=2&id=EJ281359"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Models in Demonstrating Statistical <span class="hlt">Applications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schuermann, Allen C.; Hommertzheim, Donald L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Describes five statistical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> programs developed at Wichita State University--Coin Flip and Raindrop, which demonstrate the binomial, Poisson, and other related distributions; Optimal Search; QSIM; and RANDEV, a random deviate generation program. Advantages of microcomputers over mainframes and the educational uses of models are noted.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27065170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27065170"><span id="translatedtitle">Lung <span class="hlt">Circulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suresh, Karthik; Shimoda, Larissa A</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two <span class="hlt">circulations</span>: the pulmonary <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary <span class="hlt">circulation</span> accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone. Factors controlling pulmonary blood flow include vascular structure, gravity, mechanical effects of breathing, and the influence of neural and humoral factors. Pulmonary vascular tone is also altered by hypoxia, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. If the hypoxic stimulus persists for a prolonged period, contraction is accompanied by remodeling of the vasculature, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, genetic and environmental factors can also confer susceptibility to development of pulmonary hypertension. Under normal conditions, the endothelium forms a tight barrier, actively regulating interstitial fluid homeostasis. Infection and inflammation compromise normal barrier homeostasis, resulting in increased permeability and edema formation. This article focuses on reviewing the basics of the lung <span class="hlt">circulation</span> (pulmonary and bronchial), normal development and transition at birth and vasoregulation. Mechanisms contributing to pathological conditions in the pulmonary <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, in particular when barrier function is disrupted and during development of pulmonary hypertension, will also be discussed. PMID:27065170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25842675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25842675"><span id="translatedtitle">[Peculiarities of <span class="hlt">application</span> of a cell saver apparatus in neonathal cardiosurgery using artificial blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuz'menko, S O; Chasovs'kyĭ, K S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Elaborated and introduced into the practice method of the blood preservation, while correction of complex inborn heart failures (IHF) in a newborn babies, was proposed. It assumes <span class="hlt">application</span> of system for intraoperative reinfusion of own erythrocytes with processing of residual perfusate and their reinfusion in a postperfusion period. Impact of the blood preservation on volume of a donor's blood components, hematological indices and methods of <span class="hlt">application</span> of washed erythrocytes while correction of complex IHF in a newborn babies were presented. The method was applied in 47 newborn babies, to whom an arterial switch was performed for the main vessels transposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001TellA..53..526H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001TellA..53..526H"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear stability analysis of the three-dimensional thermally-driven ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span>: <span class="hlt">application</span> to interdecadal oscillations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huck, Thierry; Vallis, Geoffrey K.</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>What can we learn from performing a linear stability analysis of the large-scale ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span>? Can we predict from the basic state the occurrence of interdecadal oscillations, such as might be found in a forward integration of the full equations of motion? If so, do the structure and period of the linearly unstable modes resemble those found in a forward integration? We pursue here a preliminary study of these questions for a case in idealized geometry, in which the full nonlinear behavior can also be explored through forward integrations. Specifically, we perform a three-dimensional linear stability analysis of the thermally-driven <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of the planetary geostrophic equations. We examine the resulting eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, comparing them with the structure of the interdecadal oscillations found in the fully nonlinear model in various parameter regimes. We obtain a steady state by running the time-dependent, nonlinear model to equilibrium using restoring boundary conditions on surface temperature. If the surface heat fluxes are then diagnosed, and these values applied as constant flux boundary conditions, the nonlinear model switches into a state of perpetual, finite amplitude, interdecadal oscillations. We construct a linearized version of the model by empirically evaluating the tangent linear matrix at the steady state, under both restoring and constant-flux boundary conditions. An eigen-analysis shows there are no unstable eigenmodes of the linearized model with restoring conditions. In contrast, under constant flux conditions, we find a single unstable eigenmode that shows a striking resemblance to the fully-developed oscillations in terms of three-dimensional structure, period and growth rate. The mode may be damped through either surface restoring boundary conditions or sufficiently large horizontal tracer diffusion. The success of this simple numerical method in idealized geometry suggests <span class="hlt">applications</span> in the study of the stability of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.1206J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.1206J"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of Arctic sea ice changes for North Atlantic deep convection and the meridional overturning <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in CCSM4-CMIP5 <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jahn, Alexandra; Holland, Marika M.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>CCSM4 climate <span class="hlt">simulations</span> for 1850-2300 with four different future forcing scenarios, we show that the maximum strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning <span class="hlt">circulation</span> (MOC) decreases proportionally to the applied CO2 forcing. This weakening of the overturning is caused by a reduction or shut down of North Atlantic (NA) deep convection due to a surface freshening. In the Labrador Sea, the surface freshening is caused by strongly increased liquid freshwater exports from the Arctic, which are largely due to the decrease in the Arctic sea ice cover. In the strongest forcing scenario (RCP8.5), the Arctic becomes summer ice-free by the end of the 21st century and year-round ice-free by the end of the 23rd century. As a result of the associated freshening, all NA deep convection ceases by 2145, which leads to a 72% (18 Sv) decrease of the MOC strength by the end of the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in 2300.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840063389&hterms=Kinetic+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DKinetic%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840063389&hterms=Kinetic+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DKinetic%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">The balance of kinetic and total energy <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by the OSU two-level atmospheric general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model for January and July</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, J.-T.; Gates, W. L.; Kim, J.-W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A three-year <span class="hlt">simulation</span> which prescribes seasonally varying solar radiation and sea surface temperature is the basis of the present study of the horizontal structure of the balances of kinetic and total energy <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by Oregon State University's two-level atmospheric general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model. Mechanisms responsible for the local energy changes are identified, and the energy balance requirement's fulfilment is examined. In January, the vertical integral of the total energy shows large amounts of external heating over the North Pacific and Atlantic, together with cooling over most of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere. In July, an overall seasonal reversal is found. Both seasons are also characterized by strong energy flux divergence in the tropics, in association with the poleward transport of heat and momentum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..3320108F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..3320108F"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of the large-scale traveling atmospheric disturbances during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by a whole atmosphere general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Yasunobu</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>We have investigated characteristics of the large-scale traveling atmospheric disturbances (LS-TADs) generated during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods using a whole atmosphere general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (GCM). The GCM <span class="hlt">simulations</span> show that various TADs appear in association with passages of regions with large temperature gradients near the solar terminator, midnight temperature anomaly, and auroral oval which move with the Earth's rotation. These TADs, which are superimposed on each other, appear even when a geomagnetically quiet period. The TADs generated during a geomagnetically quiet period show structures extending in the longitudinal direction at high-latitude and in the latitudinal direction at mid- and low-latitude. These structures disappear after their short-range propagations. The TADs generated during a geomagnetically disturbed period show structures extending widely in the longitudinal direction and propagate from high- to low-latitude. These <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results suggest the different generation mechanisms and features between the TADs generated during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T33A2929N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T33A2929N"><span id="translatedtitle">Mountains and Tropical <span class="hlt">Circulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker <span class="hlt">circulation</span> on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker <span class="hlt">circulation</span> weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley <span class="hlt">circulation</span> is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, but not the Hadley <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker <span class="hlt">circulation</span> on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034764&hterms=equinox&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dequinox','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034764&hterms=equinox&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dequinox"><span id="translatedtitle">A thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamic general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (time-GCM): Equinox solar cycle minimum <span class="hlt">simulations</span> (30-500 km)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roble, R. G.; Ridley, E. C.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">simulation</span> model of the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere with coupled electrodynamics has been developed and used to calculate the global <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, temperature and compositional structure between 30-500 km for equinox, solar cycle minimum, geomagnetic quiet conditions. The model incorporates all of the features of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere-ionosphere- electrodynamics general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (TIE-GCM) but the lower boundary has been extended downward from 97 to 30 km (10 mb) and it includes the physical and chemical processes appropriate for the mesosphere and upper stratosphere. The first <span class="hlt">simulation</span> used Rayleigh friction to represent gravity wave drag in the middle atmosphere and although it was able to close the mesospheric jets it severely damped the diurnal tide. Reduced Rayleigh friction allowed the tide to penetrate to thermospheric heights but did not close the jets. A gravity wave parameterization developed by Fritts and Lu (1993) allows both features to exist simultaneously with the structure of tides and mean flow dependent upon the strength of the gravity wave source. The model calculates a changing dynamic structure with the mean flow and diurnal tide dominant in the mesosphere, the in-situ generated semi-diurnal tide dominating the lower thermosphere and an in-situ generated diurnal tide in the upper thermosphere. The results also show considerable interaction between dynamics and composition, especially atomic oxygen between 85 and 120 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7024723','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7024723"><span id="translatedtitle">A thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (time-GCM): Equinox solar cycle minimum <span class="hlt">simulations</span> (30-500 km)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roble, R.G.; Ridley, E.C.</p> <p>1994-03-15</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">simulation</span> model of the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere with coupled electrodynamics has been developed and used to calculate the global <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, temperature and compositional structure between 30-500 km for equinox, solar cycle minimum, geomagnetic quiet conditions. The model incorporates all of the features of the NCAR thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (TIE-GCM) but the lower boundary has been extended downward from 97 to 30 km (10 mb) and it includes the physical and chemical processes appropriate for the mesosphere and upper stratosphere. The first <span class="hlt">simulation</span> used Rayleigh friction to represent gravity wave drag in the middle atmosphere and although it was able to close the mesospheric jets it severely damped the diurnal tide. Reduced Rayleigh friction allowed the tide to penetrate to thermospheric heights but did not close the jets. A gravity wave parameterization developed by Fritts and Lu allows both features to exist simultaneously with the structure of tides and mean flow dependent upon the strength of the gravity wave source. The model calculates a changing dynamic structure with the mean flow and diurnal tide dominant in the mesosphere, the in-situ generated semi-diurnal tide dominating the lower thermosphere and an in-situ generated diurnal tide in the upper thermosphere. The results also show considerable interaction between dynamics and composition, especially atomic oxygen between 85 and 120 km. 31 refs., 3 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990069565&hterms=Realism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DRealism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990069565&hterms=Realism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DRealism"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of the Tropical Pacific to Wind Forcing as Observed by Spaceborne Sensors and <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> by an Ocean General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Qenqing; Atlas, Robert</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>In this study, satellite observations, in situ measurements, and model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are combined to assess the oceanic response to surface wind forcing in the equatorial Pacific. The surface wind fields derived from observations by the spaceborne special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) and from the operational products of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are compared. When SSM/I winds are used to force a primitive-equation ocean general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (OGCM), they produce 3 C more surface cooling than ECMWF winds for the eastern equatorial Pacific during the cool phase of an El Nino-Southern Oscillation event. The stronger cooling by SSM/I winds is in good agreement with measurements at the moored buoys and observations by the advanced very high resolution radiometer, indicating that SSM/I winds are superior to ECMWF winds in forcing the tropical ocean. In comparison with measurements from buoys, tide gauges, and the Geosat altimeter, the OGCM <span class="hlt">simulates</span> the temporal variations of temperature, steric, and sea level changes with reasonable realism when forced with the satellite winds. There are discrepancies between model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> and observations that are common to both wind forcing fields, one of which is the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of zonal currents; they could be attributed to model deficiencies. By examining model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> under two winds, vertical heat advection and uplifting of the thermocline are found to be the dominant factors in the anomalous cooling of the ocean mixed layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/57460','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/57460"><span id="translatedtitle">An overlooked problem in model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of the thermohaline <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and heat transport in the Atlantic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boening, C.W.; Holland, W.R.; Bryan, F.O.; Danabasoglu, G.; Mcwilliams, J.C. |</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>Many models of the large-scale thermohaline <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the ocean exhibit strong zonally integrated upwelling in the midlatitude North Atlantic that significantly decreases the amount of deep water that is carried from the formation regions in the subpolar North Atlantic toward low latitudes and across the equator. In an analysis of results from the Community Modeling Effort using a suite of models with different horizontal resolution, wind and thermohaline forcing, and mixing parameters, it is shown that the upwelling is always concentrated in the western boundary layer between roughly 30 deg and 40 deg N. The vertical transport across 1000 m appears to be controlled by local dynamics and strongly depends on the horizontal resolution and mixing parameters of the model. It is suggested that in models with a realistic deep-water formation rate in the subpolar North Atlantic, the excessive upwelling can be considered as the prime reason for the typically too low meridional overturning rates and northward heat transports in the subtropical North Atlantic. A new isopycnal advection and mixing parameterization of tracer transports by mesoscale eddies yield substantial improvements in these integral measures of the <span class="hlt">circulation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JMagR.185..291S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JMagR.185..291S"><span id="translatedtitle">GAVA: Spectral <span class="hlt">simulation</span> for in vivo MRS <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soher, Brian J.; Young, Karl; Bernstein, Aaron; Aygula, Zakaria; Maudsley, Andrew A.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">application</span> that provides a flexible and easy to use interface to the GAMMA spectral <span class="hlt">simulation</span> package is described that is targeted at investigations using in vivo MR spectroscopic methods. The program makes available a number of widely used spatially localized MRS pulse sequences and NMR parameters for commonly observed tissue metabolites, enabling spectra to be <span class="hlt">simulated</span> for any pulse sequence parameter and viewed in an integrated display. The <span class="hlt">application</span> is interfaced with a database for storage of all <span class="hlt">simulation</span> parameters and results of the <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. This <span class="hlt">application</span> provides a convenient method for generating a priori spectral information used in parametric spectral analyses and for visual examination of the effects of difference pulse sequences and parameter settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890055896&hterms=hydraulic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dhydraulic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890055896&hterms=hydraulic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dhydraulic"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Applications</span> of a general thermal/hydraulic <span class="hlt">simulation</span> tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cullimore, B. A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The analytic techniques, sample <span class="hlt">applications</span>, and development status of a general-purpose computer program called SINDA '85/FLUINT (for systems improved numerical differencing analyzer, 1985 version with fluid integrator), designed for <span class="hlt">simulating</span> thermal structures and internal fluid systems, are described, with special attention given to the <span class="hlt">applications</span> of the fluid system capabilities. The underlying assumptions, methodologies, and modeling capabilities of the system are discussed. Sample <span class="hlt">applications</span> include component-level and system-level <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. A system-level analysis of a cryogenic storage system is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/418388','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/418388"><span id="translatedtitle">Multigrid methods with <span class="hlt">applications</span> to reservoir <span class="hlt">simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xiao, Shengyou</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>Multigrid methods are studied for solving elliptic partial differential equations. Focus is on parallel multigrid methods and their use for reservoir <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Multicolor Fourier analysis is used to analyze the behavior of standard multigrid methods for problems in one and two dimensions. Relation between multicolor and standard Fourier analysis is established. Multiple coarse grid methods for solving model problems in 1 and 2 dimensions are considered; at each coarse grid level we use more than one coarse grid to improve convergence. For a given Dirichlet problem, a related extended problem is first constructed; a purification procedure can be used to obtain Moore-Penrose solutions of the singular systems encountered. For solving anisotropic equations, semicoarsening and line smoothing techniques are used with multiple coarse grid methods to improve convergence. Two-level convergence factors are estimated using multicolor. In the case where each operator has the same stencil on each grid point on one level, exact multilevel convergence factors can be obtained. For solving partial differential equations with discontinuous coefficients, interpolation and restriction operators should include information about the equation coefficients. Matrix-dependent interpolation and restriction operators based on the Schur complement can be used in nonsymmetric cases. A semicoarsening multigrid solver with these operators is used in UTCOMP, a 3-D, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional reservoir <span class="hlt">simulator</span>. The numerical experiments are carried out on different computing systems. Results indicate that the multigrid methods are promising.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........97F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........97F"><span id="translatedtitle">Interface Thermodynamics with <span class="hlt">Applications</span> to Atomistic <span class="hlt">Simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frolov, Timofey</p> <p></p> <p>Interfaces are ubiquitous in natural phenomena. While the description of interfaces in fluid systems is well developed, solid-fluid and solid-solid interfaces are not well understood. This deficiency is especially true for solid-solid interfaces, which play critical roles in materials engineering, solid-state physics and solid-state chemistry. In this thesis, the Gibbs theory of interfaces is generalized to describe phase boundaries under non-hydrostatic stress in multicomponent systems. We obtain equations that describe coherent solid-solid interfaces with shear stresses parallel to the boundary plane, incoherent solid-solid interfaces for certain constraint variations, solid-fluid interfaces, grain boundaries and surfaces. In the second part of the thesis, the developed theory is applied to study particular types of interfaces using atomistic <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. We modeled solid surface, solid-liquid interface and grain boundaries. The <span class="hlt">simulations</span> allowed to calculate values of key thermodynamic properties, clarify behavior of these properties with temperature, composition and stress and test the predictions of the theory. Surface surface free energy and surface stress in a single component system were computed as functions of temperature. The values of these two excess properties do not converge near the melting point despite the extensive surface premelting. Solid-liquid interface free energy was computed using the developed thermodynamic integration technique as a function of composition in CuAg binary alloy and as a function of biaxial strain in a single component Cu system. In the later case the equilibrium states between the non-hydrostatically stressed solid and liquid were accurately predicted using the derived Clausius--Clapeyron type equation. We show that for non-hydrostatic equilibrium interfaces stress is not unique and compute different interface stresses using our <span class="hlt">simulation</span> data. We also studied effects of elastic deformation, temperature and chemical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737820','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737820"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Intramuscular <span class="hlt">Application</span> of Autologous Conditioned Plasma on Systemic <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> IGF-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schippinger, Gert; Oettl, Karl; Fankhauser, Florian; Spirk, Stefan; Domej, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Peter</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to increase levels of platelets and growth factors has been used for the treatment of sports injuries suggesting to improve healing and regeneration. This method offers some potential especially for elite athletes. However, the insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is prohibited by the World Anti Doping Agency and, in addition, there may be a possible link between increased levels of IGF-1 and cancer risk. Aim of the study was to evaluate a systemic increase of IGF-1 after local intramuscular administration of PRP in young healthy moderately trained male subjects. Blood samples were drawn and PRP preparation was performed by means of centrifugation. Enriched plasma was injected into the gluteus muscle. Venous blood was collected and serum prepared before as well as after 0.5, 3 and 24 hours after PRP administration. IGF-1 analysis was performed applying an ELISA test kit. No significant systemic increase of mean IGF-1 was found after the PRP injection. Only one subject showed an increase after 24 h, but all IGF-1 values were found within reference limits. We conclude that a single intramuscular <span class="hlt">application</span> of PRP does not significantly increase systemic IGF-1 levels. Therefore, a single <span class="hlt">application</span> of PRP is safe with respect to systemic IGF-1 response and cancer risk and this should be allowed for treatment of muscle injuries in elite athletes. Key points There is no increase of systemic IGF-1 levels after a single local intramuscular administration of PRP. Professional athletes and non-athletes alike can benefit from such a treatment option for muscle injuries and related sports injuries without an increased risk of cancer. More studies are warranted to provide definitive evidence to guide surgeon’s decision making regarding the appropriate use for PRP products. PMID:24150615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27540633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27540633"><span id="translatedtitle">CFD <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and optimization of membrane scouring and nitrogen removal for an airlift external <span class="hlt">circulation</span> membrane bioreactor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Min; Wei, Yuansong; Zheng, Xiang; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Xing; Liu, Jibao; Luo, Nan; Xu, Rongle; Yu, Dawei; Fan, Yaobo</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Cost-effective membrane fouling control and nitrogen removal performance are of great concern in airlift external <span class="hlt">circulation</span> membrane bioreactors (AEC-MBRs). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model incorporating sub-models of bio-kinetics, oxygen transfer and sludge rheology was developed for the cost-effective optimization of a lab-scale AEC-MBR. The model was calibrated and validated by extensive measurements of water velocities and water quality parameters in the AEC-MBR. The validated results demonstrated that the optimized height of gas-liquid dispersion was at around 300mm. The shear stress on membrane surface was equalized and had an average value of 1.2Pa under an air flowrate of 1.0m(3)h(-1). The model further revealed that the high nitrogen removal efficiency (>90%) was achieved due to the high recirculation ratio driven by airlift force without destroying the oxygen deprivation and enrichment in the anoxic and oxic zone, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850056710&hterms=Ozone+layer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Ozone%2Blayer%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850056710&hterms=Ozone+layer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Ozone%2Blayer%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">A diabatic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> two-dimensional model with photochemistry - <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of ozone and long-lived tracers with surface sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stordal, F.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Horntveth, K.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have been concerned with the possibility of a reduction of the stratospheric ozone layer. Such a reduction could lead to an enhanced penetration of ultraviolet (UV) radiation to the ground, and, as a result, to damage in the case of several biological processes. It is pointed out that the distributions of many trace gases, such as ozone, are governed in part by transport processes. The present investigation presents a two-dimensional photochemistry-transport model using the residual <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. The global distribution of both ozone and components with ground sources computed in this model is in good agreement with the observations even though slow diffusion is adopted. The agreement is particularly good in the Northern Hemisphere. The results provide additional support for the idea that tracer transport in the stratosphere is mainly of advective nature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..977D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..977D"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of surface current-wind interaction in an eddy-rich general ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the Baltic Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dietze, Heiner; Löptien, Ulrike</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Deoxygenation in the Baltic Sea endangers fish yields and favours noxious algal blooms. Yet, vertical transport processes ventilating the oxygen-deprived waters at depth and replenishing nutrient-deprived surface waters (thereby fuelling export of organic matter to depth) are not comprehensively understood. Here, we investigate the effects of the interaction between surface currents and winds on upwelling in an eddy-rich general ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model of the Baltic Sea. Contrary to expectations we find that accounting for current-wind effects inhibits the overall vertical exchange between oxygenated surface waters and oxygen-deprived water at depth. At major upwelling sites, however (e.g. off the southern coast of Sweden and Finland) the reverse holds: the interaction between topographically steered surface currents with winds blowing over the sea results in a climatological sea surface temperature cooling of 0.5 K. This implies that current-wind effects drive substantial local upwelling of cold and nutrient-replete waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcScD..12.2007A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcScD..12.2007A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of the mantle and crustal helium isotope signature in the Mediterranean Sea using a high-resolution regional <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayache, M.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourré, P. E.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Helium isotopes (3He, 4He) are useful tracers for investigating the deep ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and for evaluating ocean general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models, because helium is a stable and conservative nuclide that does not take part in any chemical or biological process. Helium in the ocean originates from three different sources: namely, (i) gas dissolution in equilibrium with atmospheric helium, (ii) helium-3 addition by radioactive decay of tritium (called tritiugenic helium), and (iii) injection of terrigenic helium-3 and helium-4 by the submarine volcanic activity which occurs mainly at plate boundaries, and also addition of (mainly) helium-4 from the crust and sedimentary cover by α-decay of uranium and thorium contained in various minerals. We present the first <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the terrigenic helium isotope distribution in the whole Mediterranean Sea, using a high-resolution model (NEMO-MED12). For this <span class="hlt">simulation</span> we build a simple source function for terrigenic helium isotopes based on published estimates of terrestrial helium fluxes. We estimate a hydrothermal flux of 3.5 mol 3He yr-1 and a lower limit for the crustal flux at 1.6 10-7 mol 4He mol m-2 yr-1. In addition to providing constraints on helium isotope degassing fluxes in the Mediterranean, our <span class="hlt">simulations</span> provide information on the ventilation of the deep Mediterranean waters which are useful for assessing NEMO-MED12 performance. This study is part of the work carried out to assess the robustness of the NEMO-MED12 model, which will be used to study the evolution of the climate and its effect on the biogeochemical cycles in the Mediterranean Sea, and to improve our ability to predict the future evolution of the Mediterranean Sea under the increasing anthropogenic pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcSci..11..965A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcSci..11..965A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of the mantle and crustal helium isotope signature in the Mediterranean Sea using a high-resolution regional <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayache, M.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourré, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Helium isotopes (3He, 4He) are useful tracers for investigating the deep ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and for evaluating ocean general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models, because helium is a stable and conservative nuclide that does not take part in any chemical or biological process. Helium in the ocean originates from three different sources, namely, (i) gas dissolution in equilibrium with atmospheric helium, (ii) helium-3 addition by radioactive decay of tritium (called tritiugenic helium), and (iii) injection of terrigenic helium-3 and helium-4 by the submarine volcanic activity which occurs mainly at plate boundaries, and also addition of (mainly) helium-4 from the crust and sedimentary cover by α-decay of uranium and thorium contained in various minerals. We present the first <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the terrigenic helium isotope distribution in the whole Mediterranean Sea using a high-resolution model (NEMO-MED12). For this <span class="hlt">simulation</span> we build a simple source function for terrigenic helium isotopes based on published estimates of terrestrial helium fluxes. We estimate a hydrothermal flux of 3.5 mol3 He yr-1 and a lower limit for the crustal flux at 1.6 × 10-7 4He mol m-2 yr-1. In addition to providing constraints on helium isotope degassing fluxes in the Mediterranean, our <span class="hlt">simulations</span> provide information on the ventilation of the deep Mediterranean waters which is useful for assessing NEMO-MED12 performance. This study is part of the work carried out to assess the robustness of the NEMO-MED12 model, which will be used to study the evolution of the climate and its effect on the biogeochemical cycles in the Mediterranean Sea, and to improve our ability to predict the future evolution of the Mediterranean Sea under the increasing anthropogenic pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..307K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..307K"><span id="translatedtitle">Separating climate change signals into thermodynamic, lapse-rate and <span class="hlt">circulation</span> effects: theory and <span class="hlt">application</span> to the European summer climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kröner, Nico; Kotlarski, Sven; Fischer, Erich; Lüthi, Daniel; Zubler, Elias; Schär, Christoph</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Climate models robustly project a strong overall summer warming across Europe showing a characteristic north-south gradient with enhanced warming and drying in southern Europe. However, the processes that are responsible for this pattern are not fully understood. We here employ an extended surrogate or pseudo-warming approach to disentangle the contribution of different mechanisms to this response pattern. The basic idea of the surrogate technique is to use a regional climate model and apply a large-scale warming to the lateral boundary conditions of a present-day reference <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, while maintaining the relative humidity (and thus implicitly increasing the specific moisture content). In comparison to previous studies, our approach includes two important extensions: first, different vertical warming profiles are applied in order to separate the effects of a mean warming from lapse-rate effects. Second, a twin-design is used, in which the climate change signals are not only added to present-day conditions, but also subtracted from a scenario experiment. We demonstrate that these extensions provide an elegant way to separate the full climate change signal into contributions from large-scale thermodynamic (TD), lapse-rate (LR), and <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and other remaining effects (CO). The latter in particular include changes in land-ocean contrast and spatial variations of the SST warming patterns. We find that the TD effect yields a large-scale warming across Europe with no distinct latitudinal gradient. The LR effect, which is quantified for the first time in our study, leads to a stronger warming and some drying in southern Europe. It explains about 50 % of the warming amplification over the Iberian Peninsula, thus demonstrating the important role of lapse-rate changes. The effect is linked to an extending Hadley <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. The CO effect as inherited from the driving GCM is shown to further amplify the north-south temperature change gradient. In terms of mean summer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=322483&keyword=satellite&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68457117&CFTOKEN=81926027','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=322483&keyword=satellite&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68457117&CFTOKEN=81926027"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of Coastal <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> and Hypoxia on the Louisiana Continental Shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) near the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..955K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..955K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulating</span> influence of QBO phase on planetary waves during a stratospheric warming in a general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model of the middle atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koval, Andrey; Gavrilov, Nikolai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander; Savenkova, Elena</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>One of the important factors of dynamical interactions between the lower and upper atmosphere is energy and momentum transfer by atmospheric internal gravity waves. For numerical modeling of the general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and thermal regime of the middle and upper atmosphere, it is important to take into account accelerations of the mean flow and heating rates produced by dissipating internal waves. The quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) of the zonal mean flow at lower latitudes at stratospheric heights can affect the propagation conditions of planetary waves. We perform numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of global atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> for the initial conditions corresponding to the years with westerly and easterly QBO phases. We focus on the changes in amplitudes of stationary planetary waves (SPWs) and traveling normal atmospheric modes (NAMs) in the atmosphere during SSW events for the different QBO phases. For these experiments, we use the global <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of the middle and upper atmosphere model (MUAM). There is theory of PW waveguide describing atmospheric regions where the background wind and temperature allow the wave propagation. There were introduced the refractive index for PWs and found that strongest planetary wave propagation is in areas of large positive values of this index. Another important PW characteristic is the Eliassen-Palm flux (EP-flux). These characteristics are considered as useful tools for visualizing the PW propagation conditions. Sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event has significant influence on the formation of the weather anomalous and climate changes in the troposphere. Also, SSW event may affect the dynamical and energy processes in the upper atmosphere. The major SSW events imply significant temperature rises (up to 30 - 40 K) at altitudes 30 - 50 km accompanying with corresponding decreases, or reversals, of climatological eastward zonal winds in the stratosphere.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAMES...6..805Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAMES...6..805Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A multidecadal <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of Atlantic tropical cyclones using a variable-resolution global atmospheric general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zarzycki, Colin M.; Jablonowski, Christiane</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Using a variable-resolution option within the National Center for Atmospheric Research/Department of Energy Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) Spectral Element (SE) global model, a refined nest at 0.25° (˜28 km) horizontal resolution located over the North Atlantic is embedded within a global 1° (˜111 km) grid. The grid is designed such that fine grid cells are located where tropical cyclones (TCs) are observed to occur during the Atlantic TC season (June-November). Two <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are compared, one with refinement and one control case with no refinement (globally uniform 1° grid). Both <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are integrated for 23 years using Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Protocols. TCs are tracked using an objective detection algorithm. The variable-resolution <span class="hlt">simulation</span> produces significantly more TCs than the unrefined <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Storms that do form in the refined nest are much more intense, with multiple storms strengthening to Saffir-Simpson category 3 intensity or higher. Both count and spatial distribution of TC genesis and tracks in the variable-resolution <span class="hlt">simulation</span> are well matched to observations and represent significant improvements over the unrefined <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Some degree of interannual skill is noted, with the variable-resolution grid able to reproduce the observed connection between Atlantic TCs and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is shown that Genesis Potential Index (GPI) is well matched between the refined and unrefined <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, implying that the introduction of variable-resolution does not affect the synoptic environment. Potential "upscale" effects are noted in the variable-resolution <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, suggesting stronger TCs in refined nests may play a role in meridional transport of momentum, heat, and moisture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4924510','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4924510"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical <span class="hlt">Applications</span> of NanoVelcro Rare-Cell Assays for Detection and Characterization of <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Tumor Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Jie-Fu; Zhu, Yazhen; Lu, Yi-Tsung; Hodara, Elisabeth; Hou, Shuang; Agopian, Vatche G.; Tomlinson, James S.; Posadas, Edwin M.; Tseng, Hsian-Rong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Liquid biopsy of tumor through isolation of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumor cells (CTCs) allows non-invasive, repetitive, and systemic sampling of disease. Although detecting and enumerating CTCs is of prognostic significance in metastatic cancer, it is conceivable that performing molecular and functional characterization on CTCs will reveal unprecedented insight into the pathogenic mechanisms driving lethal disease. Nanomaterial-embedded cancer diagnostic platforms, i.e., NanoVelcro CTC Assays represent a unique rare-cell sorting method that enables detection isolation, and characterization of CTCs in peripheral blood, providing an opportunity to noninvasively monitor disease progression in individual cancer patients. Over the past decade, a series of NanoVelcro CTC Assays has been demonstrated for exploring the full potential of CTCs as a clinical biomarker, including CTC enumeration, phenotyping, genotyping and expression profiling. In this review article, the authors will briefly introduce the development of three generations of NanoVelcro CTC Assays, and highlight the clinical <span class="hlt">applications</span> of each generation for various types of solid cancers, including prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. PMID:27375790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010407','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010407"><span id="translatedtitle">Mobile <span class="hlt">Applications</span> and Multi-User Virtual Reality <span class="hlt">Simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gordillo, Orlando Enrique</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This is my third internship with NASA and my second one at the Johnson Space Center. I work within the engineering directorate in ER7 (Software Robotics and <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> Division) at a graphics lab called IGOAL. We are a very well-rounded lab because we have dedicated software developers and dedicated 3D artist, and when you combine the two, what you get is the ability to create many different things such as interactive <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, 3D models, animations, and mobile <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4729471','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4729471"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational Fluid Dynamic <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of Maternal <span class="hlt">Circulation</span>: Wall Shear Stress in the Human Placenta and Its Biological Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lecarpentier, E.; Bhatt, M.; Bertin, G. I.; Deloison, B.; Salomon, L. J.; Deloron, P.; Fournier, T.; Barakat, A. I.; Tsatsaris, V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction In the human placenta the maternal blood <span class="hlt">circulates</span> in the intervillous space (IVS). The syncytiotrophoblast (STB) is in direct contact with maternal blood. The wall shear stress (WSS) exerted by the maternal blood flow on the STB has not been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the physiological WSS exerted on the surface of the STB during the third trimester of pregnancy. Material and Methods To gain insight into the shear stress levels that the STB is expected to experience in vivo, we have formulated three different computational models of varying levels of complexity that reflect different physical representations of the IVS. Computations of the flow fields in all models were performed using the CFD module of the finite element code COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4. The mean velocity of maternal blood in the IVS during the third trimester was measured in vivo with dynamic MRI (0.94±0.14 mm.s-1). To investigate if the in silico results are consistent with physiological observations, we studied the cytoadhesion of human parasitized (Plasmodium falciparum) erythrocytes to primary human STB cultures, in flow conditions with different WSS values. Results The WSS applied to the STB is highly heterogeneous in the IVS. The estimated average values are relatively low (0.5±0.2 to 2.3±1.1 dyn.cm-2). The increase of WSS from 0.15 to 5 dyn.cm-2 was associated with a significant decrease of infected erythrocyte cytoadhesion. No cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes was observed above 5 dyn.cm-2 applied for one hour. Conclusion Our study provides for the first time a WSS estimation in the maternal placental <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. In spite of high maternal blood flow rates, the average WSS applied at the surface of the chorionic villi is low (<5 dyn.cm-2). These results provide the basis for future physiologically-relevant in vitro studies of the biological effects of WSS on the STB. PMID:26815115</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27540633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27540633"><span id="translatedtitle">CFD <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and optimization of membrane scouring and nitrogen removal for an airlift external <span class="hlt">circulation</span> membrane bioreactor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Min; Wei, Yuansong; Zheng, Xiang; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Xing; Liu, Jibao; Luo, Nan; Xu, Rongle; Yu, Dawei; Fan, Yaobo</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Cost-effective membrane fouling control and nitrogen removal performance are of great concern in airlift external <span class="hlt">circulation</span> membrane bioreactors (AEC-MBRs). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model incorporating sub-models of bio-kinetics, oxygen transfer and sludge rheology was developed for the cost-effective optimization of a lab-scale AEC-MBR. The model was calibrated and validated by extensive measurements of water velocities and water quality parameters in the AEC-MBR. The validated results demonstrated that the optimized height of gas-liquid dispersion was at around 300mm. The shear stress on membrane surface was equalized and had an average value of 1.2Pa under an air flowrate of 1.0m(3)h(-1). The model further revealed that the high nitrogen removal efficiency (>90%) was achieved due to the high recirculation ratio driven by airlift force without destroying the oxygen deprivation and enrichment in the anoxic and oxic zone, respectively. PMID:27540633</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728977"><span id="translatedtitle">Peripheral <span class="hlt">circulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laughlin, M Harold; Davis, Michael J; Secher, Niels H; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Simmons, Grant H; Bender, Shawn B; Padilla, Jaume; Bache, Robert J; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Blood flow (BF) increases with increasing exercise intensity in skeletal, respiratory, and cardiac muscle. In humans during maximal exercise intensities, 85% to 90% of total cardiac output is distributed to skeletal and cardiac muscle. During exercise BF increases modestly and heterogeneously to brain and decreases in gastrointestinal, reproductive, and renal tissues and shows little to no change in skin. If the duration of exercise is sufficient to increase body/core temperature, skin BF is also increased in humans. Because blood pressure changes little during exercise, changes in distribution of BF with incremental exercise result from changes in vascular conductance. These changes in distribution of BF throughout the body contribute to decreases in mixed venous oxygen content, serve to supply adequate oxygen to the active skeletal muscles, and support metabolism of other tissues while maintaining homeostasis. This review discusses the response of the peripheral <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of humans to acute and chronic dynamic exercise and mechanisms responsible for these responses. This is accomplished in the context of leading the reader on a tour through the peripheral <span class="hlt">circulation</span> during dynamic exercise. During this tour, we consider what is known about how each vascular bed controls BF during exercise and how these control mechanisms are modified by chronic physical activity/exercise training. The tour ends by comparing responses of the systemic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> to those of the pulmonary <span class="hlt">circulation</span> relative to the effects of exercise on the regional distribution of BF and mechanisms responsible for control of resistance/conductance in the systemic and pulmonary <span class="hlt">circulations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CorRe..27..503C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CorRe..27..503C"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and terrestrial runoff dynamics in the Mesoamerican region from spectral optimization of SeaWiFS data and a high resolution <span class="hlt">simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chérubin, L. M.; Kuchinke, C. P.; Paris, C. B.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The evolution in time and space of terrestrial runoff in waters of the Mesoamerican region was examined using remote sensing techniques combined with river discharge and numerical ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models. Ocean color SeaWiFS images were processed using a new Spectral Optimization Algorithm for atmospheric correction and ocean property retrieval in Case-2 waters. A total of 157 SeaWiFS images were collected between 1997 and 2006 and processed to produce Colored Detrital Material images of the Mesoamerican waters. Monthly terrestrial runoff load and river discharge computed with a land-elevation model were used as input to a numerical model, which <span class="hlt">simulated</span> the transport of buoyant matter from terrestrial runoff. Based on land cover for years 2003-2004, modeling results showed that the river discharge seasonality was correlated with the image averaged CDM, and the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> plume reproduces the spatial patterns and temporal evolution of the observed CDM plume. River discharge peaked in August and CDM peaked from September to January. The buoyant matter concentration was high from October to January, and was at its lowest from March to April. Between October and December the plume was transported out of the Mesoamerican waters by a cyclonic gyre located north of Honduras. Part of the runoff from Honduras was transported towards Chinchorro Banks and the Yucatan Channel, part re-<span class="hlt">circulated</span> into the Gulf of Honduras, and part taken toward the outside of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System. This study shows that all the reefs of the MBRS, including the most offshore atolls of the region, are under the influence of terrestrial runoff on a seasonal basis, with maximum effect during October to January, and minimum from March to April. Furthermore, what is seen as a giant plume in satellite images is in fact composed of runoffs of different ages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060013029&hterms=degree+day&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2528degree%2Bday%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060013029&hterms=degree+day&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2528degree%2Bday%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of Hurricane Katrina (2005) with the 0.125 degree finite-volume General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model on the NASA Columbia Supercomputer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shen, B.-W.; Atlas, R.; Reale, O.; Lin, S.-J.; Chern, J.-D.; Chang, J.; Henze, C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Hurricane Katrina was the sixth most intense hurricane in the Atlantic. Katrina's forecast poses major challenges, the most important of which is its rapid intensification. Hurricane intensity forecast with General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Models (GCMs) is difficult because of their coarse resolution. In this article, six 5-day <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with the ultra-high resolution finite-volume GCM are conducted on the NASA Columbia supercomputer to show the effects of increased resolution on the intensity predictions of Katrina. It is found that the 0.125 degree runs give comparable tracks to the 0.25 degree, but provide better intensity forecasts, bringing the center pressure much closer to observations with differences of only plus or minus 12 hPa. In the runs initialized at 1200 UTC 25 AUG, the 0.125 degree <span class="hlt">simulates</span> a more realistic intensification rate and better near-eye wind distributions. Moreover, the first global 0.125 degree <span class="hlt">simulation</span> without convection parameterization (CP) produces even better intensity evolution and near-eye winds than the control run with CP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10121966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10121966"><span id="translatedtitle">The northern wintertime divergence extrema at 200 hPa and surface cyclones as <span class="hlt">simulated</span> in the AMIP integration of the ECMWF general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyle, J.S.</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>Divergence and convergence centers at 200 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) cyclones were located every 6 hr for a 10-yr general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (GCM) <span class="hlt">simulation</span> with the ECMWF (Cycle 36) for the boreal winters from 1980 to 1988. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> used the observed monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST) for the decade. Analysis of the frequency, location, and strength of these centers and cyclones gives insight into the dynamical response of the model to the varying SST. The results indicate that (1) the model produces reasonable climatologies of upper-level divergence and MSLP cyclones; (2) the model distribution of anomalies of divergence and convergence centers and MSLP cyclones is consistent with observations for the 1982-83 and 1986-87 El Nifio events; (3) the tropical Indian Ocean is the region of greatest divergence activity and interannual variability in the model; (4) the variability of the divergence centers is greater than that of the convergence centers; (5) strong divergence centers occur chiefly over the ocean in the midlatitudes but are more land-based in the tropics, except in the Indian Ocean; and (6) locations of divergence and convergence centers can be a useful tool for the intercomparison of global atmospheric <span class="hlt">simulations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1926.6031K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1926.6031K"><span id="translatedtitle">Baroclinic Waves and CO2 Snowfalls in Martian Winter Polar Atmosphere <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> by a General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuroda, T.; Medvedev, A. S.; Kasaba, Y.; Hartogh, P.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The CO2 snowfalls in winter polar atmosphere have been <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by a MGCM. Our results show that they are strongly modulated by the synoptic dynamical features such as baroclinic planetary waves, as well as by gravity waves in smaller scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DyAtO..50..275M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DyAtO..50..275M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulated</span> and observed <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in the Indonesian Seas: 1/12° global HYCOM and the INSTANT observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Metzger, E. J.; Hurlburt, H. E.; Xu, X.; Shriver, Jay F.; Gordon, A. L.; Sprintall, J.; Susanto, R. D.; van Aken, H. M.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>A 1/12° global version of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) using 3-hourly atmospheric forcing is analyzed and directly compared against observations from the International Nusantara STratification ANd Transport (INSTANT) program that provides the first long-term (2004-2006) comprehensive view of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) inflow/outflow and establishes an important benchmark for inter-basin exchange, including the net throughflow transport. The <span class="hlt">simulated</span> total ITF transport (-13.4 Sv) is similar to the observational estimate (-15.0 Sv) and correctly distributed among the three outflow passages (Lombok Strait, Ombai Strait and Timor Passage). Makassar Strait carries ˜75% of the observed total ITF inflow and while the temporal variability of the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> transport has high correlation with the observations, the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> mean volume transport is ˜37% too low. This points to an incorrect partitioning between the western and eastern inflow routes in the model and is the largest shortcoming of this <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. HYCOM <span class="hlt">simulates</span> the very deep (>1250 m) overflow at Lifamatola Passage (-2.0 Sv <span class="hlt">simulated</span> vs. -2.5 Sv observed) and indicates overflow contributions originating from the North (South) Equatorial Current in boreal winter-spring (summer-autumn). A new finding of INSTANT is the mean eastward flow from the Indian Ocean toward the interior Indonesian Seas on the north side of Ombai Strait. This flow is not robustly <span class="hlt">simulated</span> at 1/12° resolution, but is found in a 1/25° version of global HYCOM using climatological forcing, indicating the importance of horizontal resolution. However, the 1/25° model also indicates that the mean eastward flow retroflects, turning back into the main southwestward Ombai Strait outflow, and in the mean does not enter the interior seas to become part of the water mass transformation process. The 1/12° global HYCOM is also used to fill in the gaps not measured as part of the INSTANT observational network. It indicates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5224131','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5224131"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of the September 1987 lower thermospheric tides with the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fesen, C.G. ); Roble, R.G. )</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>The National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (TIGCM) was used to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> incoherent scatter radar observations of the lower thermosphere tides during the first Lower Thermosphere Coupling Study (LTCS) campaign, September 21-26, 1987. The TIGCM utilized time-varying histories of the model input fields obtained from the World Data Center for the LTCS period. These model inputs included solar flux, total hemispheric power, solar wind data from which the cross-polar-cap potential was derived, and geomagnetic K{sub p} index. Calculations were made for the semidiurnal ion temperatures and horizontal neutral winds at locations representative of Arecibo, Millstone Hill, and Sondrestrom. The diurnal tides at Sondrestrom were also <span class="hlt">simulated</span>. Tidal inputs to the TIGCM lower boundary were obtained from the middle atmosphere model of Forbes and Vial (1989). The TIGCM tidal structures are in fair general agreement with the observations. The amplitudes tended to be better <span class="hlt">simulated</span> than the phases, and the mid- and high-latitude locations are <span class="hlt">simulated</span> better than the low-latitude thermosphere. This may indicate a need to incorporate coupling of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere with the E region dynamo in the equatorial region to obtain a better representation of low-latitude thermospheric tides. The model <span class="hlt">simulations</span> were used to investigate the daily variability of the tides due to the geomagnetic activity occurring during this period. In general, the ion temperatures were predicted to be affected more than the winds, and the diurnal components more than the semidiurnal. The effects are typically largest at high latitudes and higher altitudes, but discernible differences were produced at low latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006685','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006685"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">simulated</span> forest responses to biosolids <span class="hlt">application</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Luxmoore, R.J.; Tharp, M.L.; Efroymson, R.A.</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>Organic matter and N are added to humus pools of the LINKAGES <span class="hlt">simulator</span> of forest growth and N cycling at a range of <span class="hlt">application</span> rates to investigate long-term effects of biosolids (sewage sludge) on forest productivity. Two conifer plantations (Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii], loblolly pine [Pinus taeda L.]) and a northern hardwood forest located in contrasting climatic regions are investigated. Single <span class="hlt">applications</span> of biosolids are given at 0.5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg/ha, and multiple <span class="hlt">applications</span> are given on seven occasions at 3-yr intervals of rates of 5 and 10 Mg/ha. Highly significant increases in aboveground phytomass and net primary productivity of Douglas-fir plantations are obtained in a 100-yr <span class="hlt">simulation</span> with increasing biosolids <span class="hlt">application</span> rates. Results for loblolly pine from a 50-yr <span class="hlt">simulation</span> produced about half the growth response of Douglas-fir. Long-term <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of northern hardwoods showed modest growth responses and small increases in NPP with added biosolids. The phytomass of one overstory and three understory species in the hardwood forest changed in response to different biosolids <span class="hlt">applications</span> and varying species sensitivity to N supply. Biosolids are a significant resource for enhancing forest productivity, particularly in conifer plantations. Estimates of N leaching losses from <span class="hlt">simulated</span> forest sites combined with a literature review of leaching losses suggest that biosolids <span class="hlt">applications</span> at 3-yr intervals with rates less than 8.5 Mg/ha (0.4 Mg N/ha) during active forest growth may pose little off-site contamination risk to ground water or surface waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20300777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20300777"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulating</span> phenological shifts in French temperate forests under two climatic change scenarios and four driving global <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lebourgeois, François; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Perez, Vincent; Piedallu, Christian; Cecchini, Sébastien; Ulrich, Erwin</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>After modeling the large-scale climate response patterns of leaf unfolding, leaf coloring and growing season length of evergreen and deciduous French temperate trees, we predicted the effects of eight future climate scenarios on phenological events. We used the ground observations from 103 temperate forests (10 species and 3,708 trees) from the French Renecofor Network and for the period 1997-2006. We applied RandomForest algorithms to predict phenological events from climatic and ecological variables. With the resulting models, we drew maps of phenological events throughout France under present climate and under two climatic change scenarios (A2, B2) and four global <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models (HadCM3, CGCM2, CSIRO2 and PCM). We compared current observations and predicted values for the periods 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. On average, spring development of oaks precedes that of beech, which precedes that of conifers. Annual cycles in budburst and leaf coloring are highly correlated with January, March-April and October-November weather conditions through temperature, global solar radiation or potential evapotranspiration depending on species. At the end of the twenty-first century, each model predicts earlier budburst (mean: 7 days) and later leaf coloring (mean: 13 days) leading to an average increase in the growing season of about 20 days (for oaks and beech stands). The A2-HadCM3 hypothesis leads to an increase of up to 30 days in many areas. As a consequence of higher predicted warming during autumn than during winter or spring, shifts in leaf coloring dates appear greater than trends in leaf unfolding. At a regional scale, highly differing climatic response patterns were observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3412K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3412K"><span id="translatedtitle">Separating climate change signals into thermodynamic, lapse-rate and <span class="hlt">circulation</span> effects: Theory and <span class="hlt">application</span> to the European summer climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kroener, Nico; Kotlarski, Sven; Fischer, Erich; Lüthi, Daniel; Zubler, Elias; Schär, Christoph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climate models robustly project a strong overall summer warming across Europe showing a characteristic north-south gradient with enhanced warming and drying in southern Europe. However, the processes that are responsible for this pattern are not fully understood. We here employ an extended surrogate or pseudo-warming approach to disentangle the contribution of different mechanisms to this response pattern. The basic idea of the surrogate technique is to use a regional climate model and apply a large-scale warming to the lateral boundary conditions of a present-day reference <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, while maintaining the relative humidity (and thus implicitly increasing the specific moisture content). In comparison to previous studies, our approach includes two important extensions: First, different vertical warming profiles are applied in order to separate the effects of a mean warming from lapse-rate effects. Second, a twin-design is used, in which the temperature change signal is not only added to present-day conditions, but also subtracted from a scenario experiment. We use the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a grid spacing of approximately 50 km (EURO-CORDEX EUR-44 setup) using transient <span class="hlt">simulations</span> (1950-2100) with the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. We demonstrate that the aforementioned extensions provide an elegant way to separate the full climate change signal into contributions from large-scale thermodynamics (LST), lapse-rate (LR) and large-scale <span class="hlt">circulation</span> (LSC). In our framework the LSC effect also includes effects due to changes in land-sea contrast and the spatial variations of the SST warming pattern. We find that the LST effect yields a large-scale warming across Europe without any distinct latitudinal gradient. The LR effect, which is quantified for the first time in our study, leads to a stronger warming and some drying in Southern Europe. It explains about 50% of the warming amplification over the Iberian Peninsula, thus demonstrating the important role of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3106P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3106P"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling of hydrothermal fluid <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in a heterogeneous medium: <span class="hlt">Application</span> to the Rainbow Vent site (Mid-Atlantic-Ridge, 36°14N)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Charlou, J. L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal activity at the axis of mid-ocean ridges is a key driver for energy and matter transfer from the interior of the Earth to the ocean floor. At mid-ocean ridges, seawater penetrates through the permeable young crust, warms at depth and exchanges chemicals with the surrounding rocks. This hot fluid focuses and flows upwards, then is expelled from the crust at hydrothermal vent sites in the form of black or white smokers completed by diffusive emissions. We developed a new numerical tool in the Cast3M software framework to model such hydrothermal <span class="hlt">circulations</span>. Thermodynamic properties of one-phase pure water were calculated from the IAPWS formulation. This new numerical tool was validated on several test cases of convection in closed-top and open-top boxes. <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of hydrothermal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium also gave results in good agreement with already published <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. We used this new numerical tool to construct a geometric and physical model configuration of the Rainbow Vent site at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In this presentation, several configurations will be discussed, showing that high temperatures and high mass fluxes measured at the Rainbow site cannot be modelled with hydrothermal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium. We will show that these high values require the presence of a fault or a preferential pathway right below the venting site. We will propose and discuss a 2-D one-path model that allows us to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> both high temperatures and high mass fluxes. This modelling of the hydrothermal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> at the Rainbow site constitutes a first but necessary step to understand the origin of high concentrations of hydrogen issued from this ultramafic-hosted vent field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bionic&pg=3&id=EJ344418','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bionic&pg=3&id=EJ344418"><span id="translatedtitle">Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Computer <span class="hlt">Simulation</span>: Future <span class="hlt">Applications</span> in Special Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, Gwendolyn B.; And Others</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Describes possible <span class="hlt">applications</span> of new technologies to special education. Discusses results of a study designed to explore the use of robotics, artificial intelligence, and computer <span class="hlt">simulations</span> to aid people with handicapping conditions. Presents several scenarios in which specific technological advances may contribute to special education…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=customer+AND+bank&pg=4&id=ED372177','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=customer+AND+bank&pg=4&id=ED372177"><span id="translatedtitle">Business Financial <span class="hlt">Applications</span>. Curriculum Guide. <span class="hlt">Simulations</span>. Test Bank.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Massey, Ray Nell; Patton, Jan</p> <p></p> <p>This business financial <span class="hlt">applications</span> document combines the curriculum guide, <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, and the test bank for the 1-semester course. The guide provides students with an overview of the banking industry used for entry-level positions or advancement into an occupationally specific course. It begins with a course description, suggested scope and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070014060','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070014060"><span id="translatedtitle">SUPG Finite Element <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of Compressible Flows for Aerothermodynamic <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kirk, Benjamin S.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This viewgraph presentation reviews the Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) Finite Element <span class="hlt">Simulation</span>. It covers the background, governing equations, weak formulation, shock capturing, inviscid flux discretization, time discretization, linearization, and implicit solution strategies. It also reviews some <span class="hlt">applications</span> such as Type IV Shock Interaction, Forward-Facing Cavity and AEDC Sharp Double Cone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711633S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711633S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of the EOF reduction method to idealized models for the wind-driven ocean and the thermohaline <span class="hlt">circulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Segura, Jairo; Frisius, Thomas; Badin, Gualtiero</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>To get an acceptable solution from an ocean model, a considerable amount of computational resources is required. Alternatively, it is possible to expand almost every field in terms of EOFs because they form a complete orthogonal basis. This has the consequence that <span class="hlt">application</span> of an EOF reduction method to the ocean model possibly facilitates a relatively accurate solution with less computational resources due to its necessity of a small and finite number of EOFs. In this work the formulation and testing of the EOF reduction method to spectral models for the wind-driven ocean and the thermohaline <span class="hlt">circulation</span> are discussed. The comparison to the solution of the reference model is conducted by solving numerically the model equations at a high spectral resolution. In the first case it is the barotropic vorticity equation with free-slip conditions at the boundaries in an idealized rectangular ocean, which is forced by steady zonal winds and damped by lateral friction. In the second case the spectral model comprises vorticity, temperature and salinity equations describing the meridional overturning forced by heat and fresh-water fluxes. For this study in particular, an EOF model solution was calculated by using different numbers of EOFs, (from 5 to 100). The differences between these and the reference solution are calculated showing in a certain setup the sufficiency of 40 EOFs for reproducing the dynamics for a model with 1724 spectral coefficients relatively well. These results indicate that EOF reduction is suitable for simplification of idealized ocean models in some cases. This is beside the reduced computational effort also of benefit for a better understanding of the system dynamics.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611483E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611483E"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the ability of isotope-enabled General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Models to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the variability of Iceland water vapor isotopic composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erla Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Jonsson, Thorsteinn; Ritter, Francois; Riser, Camilla; Messon-Delmotte, Valerie; Bonne, Jean Louis; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>During the fall of 2010 we installed an autonomous water vapor spectroscopy laser (Los Gatos Research analyzer) in a lighthouse on the Southwest coast of Iceland (63.83°N, 21.47°W). Despite initial significant problems with volcanic ash, high wind, and attack of sea gulls, the system has been continuously operational since the end of 2011 with limited down time. The system automatically performs calibration every 2 hours, which results in high accuracy and precision allowing for analysis of the second order parameter, d-excess, in the water vapor. We find a strong linear relationship between d-excess and local relative humidity (RH) when normalized to SST. The observed slope of approximately -45 o/oo/% is similar to theoretical predictions by Merlivat and Jouzel [1979] for smooth surface, but the calculated intercept is significant lower than predicted. Despite this good linear agreement with theoretical calculations, mismatches arise between the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> seasonal cycle of water vapour isotopic composition using LMDZiso GCM nudged to large-scale winds from atmospheric analyses, and our data. The GCM is not able to capture seasonal variations in local RH, nor seasonal variations in d-excess. Based on daily data, the performance of LMDZiso to resolve day-to-day variability is measured based on the strength of the correlation coefficient between observations and model outputs. This correlation coefficient reaches ~0.8 for surface absolute humidity, but decreases to ~0.6 for δD and ~0.45 d-excess. Moreover, the magnitude of day-to-day humidity variations is also underestimated by LMDZiso, which can explain the underestimated magnitude of isotopic depletion. Finally, the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> and observed d-excess vs. RH has similar slopes. We conclude that the under-estimation of d-excess variability may partly arise from the poor performance of the humidity <span class="hlt">simulations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016OcMod.100...31H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016OcMod.100...31H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulated</span> Atlantic Meridional Overturning <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> in the 20th century with an ocean model forced by reanalysis-based atmospheric data sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Yan-Chun; Drange, Helge; Gao, Yongqi; Bentsen, Mats</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Global ocean hindcast <span class="hlt">simulations</span> for the period 1871-2009 have been run with the ocean-sea ice component of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM-O), forced by an adjusted version of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 2 data set (20CRv2 data set), as well as by the commonly used second version of atmospheric forcing data set for the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase-II (CORE-II) for the period 1948-2007 (hereafter CORE.v2 data set). The <span class="hlt">simulated</span> Atlantic Meridional Overturning <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> (AMOC) in the 20CR and the CORE <span class="hlt">simulations</span> have comparable variability as well as mean strength during the last three decades of the integration. The <span class="hlt">simulated</span> AMOC undergoes, however, distinctly different evolutions during the period 1948-1970, with a sharply declining strength in CORE but a gradual increase in 20CR. Sensitivity experiments suggest that differences in the wind forcing between CORE and 20CR have major impact on the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> AMOCs during this period. It is furthermore found that differences in the air temperature between the two data sets do contribute to the differences in AMOC, but to a much lesser degree than the wind. An additional factor for the diverging AMOC in the two decades following 1948 is the inevitable switching of atmospheric forcing fields in 1948 in the CORE.v2-based runs due to the cyclic spin-up procedure of the ocean model. The latter is a fundamental issue for any ocean hindcast <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. The ocean initial state mainly influence the actual value but to a lesser degree also the temporal evolution (variability) of AMOC. It may take about two decades for the AMOC to adjust to a new atmospheric state during the spin-up, although a dynamically balanced ocean initial state tends to reduce the adjustment time and the magnitude of the deviation, implying that an ocean model run with atmospheric forcing fields extending back in time, like 20CRv2, can be used to extend the reliable duration of CORE-type of <span class="hlt">simulations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26406756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26406756"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical investigation of a sun <span class="hlt">simulator</span> for concentrator PV <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rapp, Christoph; Straub, Volker; van Rooyen, De Wet; Thor, Wei Yi; Siefer, Gerald; Bett, Andreas W</p> <p>2015-09-21</p> <p>In photovoltaics (PV), sun <span class="hlt">simulators</span> are used to reproduce outdoor conditions in a lab environment such as irradiance level, light uniformity and spectral distribution. Concentrator (C)PV <span class="hlt">applications</span> additionally require the sun <span class="hlt">simulators</span> to provide rays with an angular distribution similar to that of the sun rays. However, different factors in CPV sun <span class="hlt">simulator</span> setups make it difficult to achieve the perfect sun like angular distribution. This is mainly caused by the unavailability of appropriate light sources. Therefore, we investigated in this work, to which deviations such a non-ideal light source can lead and which impact is expected at the measurement of a CPV module. For this, two ray tracing models are presented - one for the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of natural sunrays, another one for the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of sun <span class="hlt">simulator</span> conditions. The models are validated based on measurements and subsequently used to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the impact on a typical CPV module with silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses. Here, significant deviations to outdoor conditions are found. PMID:26406756</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6334988','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6334988"><span id="translatedtitle">Research in lost <span class="hlt">circulation</span> control for geothermal wells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ortega, A.; Loeppke, G.E.; Givler, R.C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>This paper reviews recent progress at Sandia National Laboratories in the area of lost <span class="hlt">circulation</span> control for geothermal wells. The Lost <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Program has three major elements: (1) Detection and characterization of loss zones, (2) Development of new techniques and materials for control of loss zones, and (3) Integration of the first two items for wellsite <span class="hlt">application</span>. Most of our work to date has been in the area of developing new techniques and materials. We report here on progress that has been made in the past two years in the development of new, pumpable cementitious muds, in situ mixing and placement of polyurethane foams, and fundamental analysis of and materials development for particulate lost <span class="hlt">circulation</span> materials. Plans for work in the area of zone detection and characterization, including development of a transient, lost <span class="hlt">circulation</span> hydraulics <span class="hlt">simulator</span> and field zone characterization using an advanced wellbore televiewer, are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/834911','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/834911"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of Ferrofluid Flow for Subsurface Environmental Engineering <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Moridis, George J.</p> <p>1997-05-05</p> <p>Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic particles of diameter approximately 10 nm stabilized by surfactants in carrier liquids. The large magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids allows the mobilization of ferrofluid through permeable rock and soil by the <span class="hlt">application</span> of strong external magnetic fields. We have developed <span class="hlt">simulation</span> capabilities for both miscible and immiscible conceptualizations of ferrofluid flow through porous media in response to magnetic forces arising from the magnetic field of a rectangular permanent magnet. The flow of ferrofluid is caused by the magnetization of the particles and their attraction toward a magnet, regardless of the orientation of the magnet. The steps involved in calculating the flow of ferrofluid are (1) calculation of the external magnetic field, (2) calculation of the gradient of the external magnetic field, (3) calculation of the magnetization of the ferrofluid, and (4) assembly of the magnetic body force term and addition of this term to the standard pressure gradient and gravity force terms. We compare numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> to laboratory measurements of the magnetic field, fluid pressures, and the two-dimensional flow of ferrofluid to demonstrate the <span class="hlt">applicability</span> of the methods coded in the numerical <span class="hlt">simulators</span>. We present an example of the use of the <span class="hlt">simulator</span> for a field-scale <span class="hlt">application</span> of ferrofluids for barrier verification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OcMod..67...39K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OcMod..67...39K"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation of an unstructured-mesh, finite-element ocean model to the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> beneath ice shelves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kimura, Satoshi; Candy, Adam S.; Holland, Paul R.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Jenkins, Adrian</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Several different classes of ocean model are capable of representing floating glacial ice shelves. We describe the incorporation of ice shelves into Fluidity-ICOM, a nonhydrostatic finite-element ocean model with the capacity to utilize meshes that are unstructured and adaptive in three dimensions. This geometric flexibility offers several advantages over previous approaches. The model represents melting and freezing on all ice-shelf surfaces including vertical faces, treats the ice shelf topography as continuous rather than stepped, and does not require any smoothing of the ice topography or any of the additional parameterisations of the ocean mixed layer used in isopycnal or z-coordinate models. The model can also represent a water column that decreases to zero thickness at the 'grounding line', where the floating ice shelf is joined to its tributary ice streams. The model is applied to idealised ice-shelf geometries in order to demonstrate these capabilities. In these simple experiments, arbitrarily coarsening the mesh outside the ice-shelf cavity has little effect on the ice-shelf melt rate, while the mesh resolution within the cavity is found to be highly influential. Smoothing the vertical ice front results in faster flow along the smoothed ice front, allowing greater exchange with the ocean than in <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with a realistic ice front. A vanishing water-column thickness at the grounding line has little effect in the <span class="hlt">simulations</span> studied. We also investigate the response of ice shelf basal melting to variations in deep water temperature in the presence of salt stratification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251939"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Applications</span> of large eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span> methods to gyrokinetic turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bañón Navarro, A. Happel, T.; Teaca, B. [Applied Mathematics Research Centre, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB; Max-Planck für Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau; Max-Planck Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching; Max-Planck Hammett, G. W. [Max-Planck Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>The large eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span> (LES) approach—solving numerically the large scales of a turbulent system and accounting for the small-scale influence through a model—is applied to nonlinear gyrokinetic systems that are driven by a number of different microinstabilities. Comparisons between modeled, lower resolution, and higher resolution <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are performed for an experimental measurable quantity, the electron density fluctuation spectrum. Moreover, the validation and <span class="hlt">applicability</span> of LES is demonstrated through a series of diagnostics based on the free energetics of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327569','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327569"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of Phase Field <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> to Fuel Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Gorti, Sarma B; Clarno, Kevin T</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">application</span> of the phase filed method to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the formation and the stress induced re-orientation of zirconium hydride during dry storage of the spent fuel and clad assembly is discussed. The phase field technique is able to capture qualitatively the effect of external stress on the hydride orientation in Zr-H system. However, the modeling effort to-date is far from adequate and several issues remain to be addressed before the <span class="hlt">simulations</span> can be used as a predictive tool for the behavior of the clad during long time dry storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970009767&hterms=army+simulation+training&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Darmy%2Bsimulation%2Btraining','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970009767&hterms=army+simulation+training&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Darmy%2Bsimulation%2Btraining"><span id="translatedtitle">Launch Site Computer <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> and its <span class="hlt">Application</span> to Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sham, Michael D.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides an overview of computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, the Lockheed developed STS Processing Model, and the <span class="hlt">application</span> of computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span> to a wide range of processes. The STS Processing Model is an icon driven model that uses commercial off the shelf software and a Macintosh personal computer. While it usually takes one year to process and launch 8 space shuttles, with the STS Processing Model this process is computer <span class="hlt">simulated</span> in about 5 minutes. Facilities, orbiters, or ground support equipment can be added or deleted and the impact on launch rate, facility utilization, or other factors measured as desired. This same computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span> technology can be used to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> manufacturing, engineering, commercial, or business processes. The technology does not require an 'army' of software engineers to develop and operate, but instead can be used by the layman with only a minimal amount of training. Instead of making changes to a process and realizing the results after the fact, with computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, changes can be made and processes perfected before they are implemented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950052176&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950052176&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087"><span id="translatedtitle">The mesoscale forcing of a midlatitude upper-tropospheric jet streak by a <span class="hlt">simulated</span> convective system. 1: Mass <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and ageostrophic processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wolf, Bart J.; Johnson, D. R.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The mutual forcing of a midlatitude upper-tropospheric jet streak by organized mesoscale adiabatic and diabatic processes within a <span class="hlt">simulated</span> convective system (SCS) is investigated. Using isentropic diagnostics, results from a three-dimensional numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of an SCS are examined to study the isallobaric flow field, modes of dominant ageostrophic motion, and stability changes in relation to the mutual interdependence of adiabatic processes and latent heat release. Isentropic analysis affords an explicit isolation of a component of isallobaric flow associated with diabatic processes within the SCS. Prior to convective development within the <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, atmospheric destabilization occurs through adiabatic ageostrophic mass adjustment and low-level convergence in association with the preexisting synoptic-scale upper-tropospheric jet streak. The SCS develops in a baroclinic zone and quickly initiates a vigorous mass <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. By the mature stage, a pronounced vertical couplet of low-level convergence and upper-level mass divergence is established, linked by intense midtropospoheric diabatic heating. Significant divergence persists aloft for several hours subsequent to SCS decay. The dominant role of ageostrophic motion within which the low-level mass convergence develops is the adiabatic isallobaric component, while the mass divergence aloft develops principally through the diabatic isallobaric component. Both compnents are intrinsically linked to the convectively forced vertical mass transport. The inertial diabatic ageostrophic component is largest near the level of maximum heating and is responsible for the development of inertial instability to the north of SCS, resulting in this quadrant being preferred for outflow. The inertial advective component, the dominant term that produces the new downstream wind maximum, rapidly develops north of the SCS and through mutual adjustment creates the baroclinic support for the new jet streak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016027','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016027"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulating</span> Mars' Dust Cycle with a Mars General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model: Effects of Water Ice Cloud Formation on Dust Lifting Strength and Seasonality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kahre, Melinda A.; Haberle, Robert; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The dust cycle is critically important for the current climate of Mars. The radiative effects of dust impact the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere [1,2,3]. Although dust is present in the Martian atmosphere throughout the year, the level of dustiness varies with season. The atmosphere is generally the dustiest during northern fall and winter and the least dusty during northern spring and summer [4]. Dust particles are lifted into the atmosphere by dust storms that range in size from meters to thousands of kilometers across [5]. Regional storm activity is enhanced before northern winter solstice (Ls200 degrees - 240 degrees), and after northern solstice (Ls305 degrees - 340 degrees ), which produces elevated atmospheric dust loadings during these periods [5,6,7]. These pre- and post- solstice increases in dust loading are thought to be associated with transient eddy activity in the northern hemisphere with cross-equatorial transport of dust leading to enhanced dust lifting in the southern hemisphere [6]. Interactive dust cycle studies with Mars General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Models (MGCMs) have included the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Although the predicted global dust loadings from these <span class="hlt">simulations</span> capture some aspects of the observed dust cycle, there are marked differences between the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> and observed dust cycles [8,9,10]. Most notably, the maximum dust loading is robustly predicted by models to occur near northern winter solstice and is due to dust lifting associated with down slope flows on the flanks of the Hellas basin. Thus far, models have had difficulty <span class="hlt">simulating</span> the observed pre- and post- solstice peaks in dust loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8713783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8713783"><span id="translatedtitle">Nafamostat mesilate, a broad spectrum protease inhibitor, modulates platelet, neutrophil and contact activation in <span class="hlt">simulated</span> extracorporeal <span class="hlt">circulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sundaram, S; Gikakis, N; Hack, C E; Niewiarowski, S; Edmunds, L H; Koneti Rao, A; Sun, L; Cooper, S L; Colman, R W</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Activation of humoral and cellular participants in inflammation enhances the risk of postoperative bleeding and multiple organ damage in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We now compare the effects of heparin alone in combination with nafamostat mesilate (NM), a protease inhibitor with specificity of trypsin-like enzymes, in an extracorporeal circuit which <span class="hlt">simulates</span> CPB. NM significantly inhibits the release of platelet beta-thromboglobulin (beta TG) at 60 and 120 min. Platelet counts do not differ. ADP-induced aggregation decreases in circuits with NM, which is due to a direct effect of NM on platelet function. NM prevents any significant release of neutrophil elastase; at 120 min, plasma elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin complex is 0.16 micrograms/ml in the NM group and 1.24 micrograms/ml in the control group. NM completely inhibits formation of complexes of C1 inhibitor with kallikrein and FXIIa. NM does not alter markers of complement activation (C1-C1-inhibitor complex and C5b-9), or indicators of thrombin formation (F1.2). However, at 120 min, thrombin activity as measured by release of fibrinopeptide A is significantly decreased. The data indicate that complement activation during CPB correlates poorly with neutrophil activation and that either kallikrein or FXIIa or both may be more important agonists. The ability of NM to inhibit two important contact system proteins and platelet and neutrophil release raises the possibility of suppressing the inflammatory response during clinical CPB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/236060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/236060"><span id="translatedtitle">Intercomparison of low-frequency variability of the global 200 hPa <span class="hlt">circulation</span> for AMIP <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyle, J.S.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>In the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) a number of GCMs are integrated for a 10 year period, 1979-1988, all using the same monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST). This permits a useful intercomparison of the response of the models to the imposed SST. The variables used here for the intercomparison are the 200 hPa divergence and streamfunction. The data used are in the form of monthly averages and are filtered to a spatial resolution of T10, although the actual spatial resolution of the models varies from R15 to T42. The data are manipulated in this manner to concentrate on the low frequency, large scale response. The tools of the analysis are principal components analysis (PCA) and common principal components (CPC). These analyses are carried out on the 120 months of data with the seasonal cycle removed and in the case of the streamfunction with the zonal average also removed. The 1979-1988 period encompasses two El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events (1982/83 and 1986/87), and as could be expected the ENSO characteristic response has a prominent impact in the model <span class="hlt">simulations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1074297','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1074297"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential alteration of fjordal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> due to a large floating structure—Numerical investigation with <span class="hlt">application</span> to Hood Canal basin in Puget Sound</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khangaonkar, Tarang; Wang, Taiping</p> <p>2013-01-02</p> <p><span class="hlt">Circulation</span> in typical fjords is characterized by a shallow brackish layer at the surface over a deep long and narrow saltwater column. This surface layer is responsible for the outflow of water from the fjord, is easily disrupted by external forces, such as wind, and is influenced by freshwater inflow. In this paper, we postulate that the stability of fjordal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> may also be vulnerable to impacts from anthropogenic alterations, such as floating structures, that could constrict the mixing and transport in the upper layers of the water column. The potential for alteration of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in Hood Canal, a silled-fjord located inside Puget Sound, Washington, has been examined. Using classical analytical treatments along the lines formulated by Hansen and Rattray [1965], Rattray [1967], Dyer [1973] and more recently, MacCready [2004], we develop a solution <span class="hlt">applicable</span> to a range of estuary classifications varying from a partially mixed estuary regime to classical fjord conditions. Both estuary types exist in the Puget Sound system, and we compare our analytical solution with observed data. The analysis is based on an exponential variation of eddy viscosity with depth, and it has been extended further with modifications of the free surface boundary conditions to develop a solution representing the presence of a floating bridge at the estuary/fjord entrance. The model results show that tidally averaged mean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> under the influence of such a constraint could reduce by as much as 30 to 50 percent. The overall water quality of fjords and narrow estuaries is dependent on net <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and flushing. A potential decrease in residual flow or a corresponding increase in residence time of this magnitude merits further study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3329620','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3329620"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Applications</span> of finite element <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in orthopedic and trauma surgery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Herrera, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Cegoñino, José; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Puértolas, Sergio; López, Enrique; Mateo, Jesús; Gracia, Luis</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Research in different areas of orthopedic and trauma surgery requires a methodology that allows both a more economic approach and the ability to reproduce different situations in an easy way. <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> models have been introduced recently in bioengineering and could become an essential tool in the study of any physiological unity, regardless of its complexity. The main problem in modeling with finite elements <span class="hlt">simulation</span> is to achieve an accurate reproduction of the anatomy and a perfect correlation of the different structures, in any region of the human body. Authors have developed a mixed technique, joining the use of a three-dimensional laser scanner Roland Picza captured together with computed tomography (CT) and 3D CT images, to achieve a perfect reproduction of the anatomy. Finite element (FE) <span class="hlt">simulation</span> lets us know the biomechanical changes that take place after hip prostheses or osteosynthesis implantation and biological responses of bone to biomechanical changes. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models are able to predict changes in bone stress distribution around the implant, so allowing preventing future pathologies. The development of a FE model of lumbar spine is another interesting <span class="hlt">application</span> of the <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. The model allows research on the lumbar spine, not only in physiological conditions but also <span class="hlt">simulating</span> different load conditions, to assess the impact on biomechanics. Different degrees of disc degeneration can also be <span class="hlt">simulated</span> to determine the impact on adjacent anatomical elements. Finally, FE models may be useful to test different fixation systems, i.e., pedicular screws, interbody devices or rigid fixations compared with the dynamic ones. We have also developed models of lumbar spine and hip joint to predict the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures, based on densitometric determinations and specific biomechanical models, including approaches from damage and fracture mechanics. FE <span class="hlt">simulations</span> also allow us to predict the behavior of orthopedic splints</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22550621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22550621"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Applications</span> of finite element <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in orthopedic and trauma surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herrera, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Cegoñino, José; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Puértolas, Sergio; López, Enrique; Mateo, Jesús; Gracia, Luis</p> <p>2012-04-18</p> <p>Research in different areas of orthopedic and trauma surgery requires a methodology that allows both a more economic approach and the ability to reproduce different situations in an easy way. <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> models have been introduced recently in bioengineering and could become an essential tool in the study of any physiological unity, regardless of its complexity. The main problem in modeling with finite elements <span class="hlt">simulation</span> is to achieve an accurate reproduction of the anatomy and a perfect correlation of the different structures, in any region of the human body. Authors have developed a mixed technique, joining the use of a three-dimensional laser scanner Roland Picza captured together with computed tomography (CT) and 3D CT images, to achieve a perfect reproduction of the anatomy. Finite element (FE) <span class="hlt">simulation</span> lets us know the biomechanical changes that take place after hip prostheses or osteosynthesis implantation and biological responses of bone to biomechanical changes. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models are able to predict changes in bone stress distribution around the implant, so allowing preventing future pathologies. The development of a FE model of lumbar spine is another interesting <span class="hlt">application</span> of the <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. The model allows research on the lumbar spine, not only in physiological conditions but also <span class="hlt">simulating</span> different load conditions, to assess the impact on biomechanics. Different degrees of disc degeneration can also be <span class="hlt">simulated</span> to determine the impact on adjacent anatomical elements. Finally, FE models may be useful to test different fixation systems, i.e., pedicular screws, interbody devices or rigid fixations compared with the dynamic ones. We have also developed models of lumbar spine and hip joint to predict the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures, based on densitometric determinations and specific biomechanical models, including approaches from damage and fracture mechanics. FE <span class="hlt">simulations</span> also allow us to predict the behavior of orthopedic splints</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..894..799C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..894..799C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> and Data Processing for Ultrasonic Phased-Arrays <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaffaï-Gargouri, S.; Chatillon, S.; Mahaut, S.; Le Ber, L.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The use of phased-arrays techniques has considerably contributed to extend the domain of <span class="hlt">applications</span> and the performances of ultrasonic methods on complex configurations. Their adaptability offers a great freedom for conceiving the inspection leading to a wide range of functionalities gathering electronic commutation, <span class="hlt">applications</span> of different delay laws and so on. This advantage allows to circumvent the difficulties encountered with more classical techniques especially when the inspection is assisted by <span class="hlt">simulation</span> at the different stages : probe design (optimization of the number and characteristics of the elements), evaluation of the performances in terms of flaw detection (zone coverage) and characterization, driving the array (computation of adapted delay laws) and finally analyzing the results (versatile model-based imaging tools allowing in particular to locate the data in the real space). The CEA is strongly involved in the development of efficient <span class="hlt">simulation</span>-based tools adapted to these needs. In this communication we present the recent advances done at CEA in this field and show several examples of complex NDT phased arrays <span class="hlt">applications</span>. On these cases we show the interest and the performances of <span class="hlt">simulation</span>-helped array design, array-driving and data analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.331c2023C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.331c2023C"><span id="translatedtitle">The LHCb <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> <span class="hlt">Application</span>, Gauss: Design, Evolution and Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clemencic, M.; Corti, G.; Easo, S.; Jones, C. R.; Miglioranzi, S.; Pappagallo, M.; Robbe, P.; LHCb Collaboration</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The LHCb <span class="hlt">simulation</span> <span class="hlt">application</span>, Gauss, is based on the Gaudi framework and on experiment basic components such as the Event Model and Detector Description. Gauss also depends on external libraries for the generation of the primary events (PYTHIA 6, EvtGen, etc.) and on GEANT4 for particle transport in the experimental setup. The <span class="hlt">application</span> supports the production of different types of events from minimum bias to B physics signals and particle guns. It is used for purely generator-level studies as well as full <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. Gauss is used both directly by users and in massive central productions on the grid. The design and implementation of the <span class="hlt">application</span> and its evolution due to evolving requirements will be described as in the case of the recently adopted Python-based configuration or the possibility of taking into account detectors conditions via a <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Conditions database. The challenge of supporting at the same time the flexibililty needed for the different tasks for which it is used, from evaluation of physics reach to background modeling, together with the stability and reliabilty of the code will also be described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=20564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=20564"><span id="translatedtitle">A new approach to determining the rates of recruitment of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> leukocytes into tissues: <span class="hlt">Application</span> to the measurement of leukocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Steinberg, Daniel; Khoo, John C.; Glass, Christopher K.; Palinski, Wulf; Almazan, Felicidad</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Recruitment of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> monocytes into the artery wall is an important feature of early atherogenesis. In vitro studies have identified a number of adhesion molecules and chemokines that may control this process but very little work has been done to evaluate their relative importance in vivo, in part because there have been no methods available of sufficient sensitivity and reliability. This paper proposes a new approach in which advantage is taken of naturally occurring or transgenically induced mutations to “mark” donor cells and to follow their fate in recipient animals using highly sensitive PCR methods. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by preliminary studies of monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions. However, the method should in principle be <span class="hlt">applicable</span> to the study of any of the <span class="hlt">circulating</span> leukocytes and their rate of entry into any tissue or tissues of interest. PMID:9108101</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230841-llnl-ocean-general-circulation-model','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230841-llnl-ocean-general-circulation-model"><span id="translatedtitle">LLNL Ocean General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-12-29</p> <p>The LLNL OGCM is a numerical ocean modeling tool for use in studying ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> over a wide range of space and time scales, with primary <span class="hlt">applications</span> to climate change and carbon cycle science.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEMat..45.5069L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEMat..45.5069L"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Properties of a Highly Textured Barium Hexa-Ferrite Quasi-Single Crystal and Its <span class="hlt">Application</span> in Low-Field Biased <span class="hlt">Circulators</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Junliang; Zeng, Yanwei; Su, Zhijuan; Geiler, Michael; Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>A highly textured M-type barium hexa-ferrite (BaM) quasi-single crystal was fabricated by a magnetic forming plus liquid participation sintering technique. Its grain orientation degree was determined to be 97.3% with the tile angle no more that 5°. The magnetization behavior from its angular magnetic hysteresis loops was very similar to that of a BaM single crystal. Moreover, the feasibility of practical utilization of the as-fabricated BaM quasi-single crystal in low-field biased <span class="hlt">circulators</span> was certificated by a <span class="hlt">simulation</span> method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040173130&hterms=cardiac+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcardiac%2Bcycle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040173130&hterms=cardiac+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcardiac%2Bcycle"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of acute maximal exercise to protect orthostatic tolerance after <span class="hlt">simulated</span> microgravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Engelke, K. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Crandall, C. G.; Convertino, V. A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We tested the hypothesis that one bout of maximal exercise performed at the conclusion of prolonged <span class="hlt">simulated</span> microgravity would improve blood pressure stability during an orthostatic challenge. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), arginine vasopressin (AVP), plasma renin activity (PRA), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cardiac output (Q), forearm vascular resistance (FVR), and changes in leg volume were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope in seven subjects immediately prior to reambulation from 16 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) under two experimental conditions: 1) after maximal supine cycle ergometry performed 24 h before returning to the upright posture (exercise) and 2) without exercise (control). After HDT, the reduction of LBNP tolerance time from pre-HDT levels was greater (P = 0.041) in the control condition (-2.0 +/- 0.2 min) compared with the exercise condition (-0.4 +/- 0.2 min). At presyncope after HDT, FVR and NE were higher (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with control, whereas MAP, HR, E, AVP, PRA, ANP, and leg volume were similar in both conditions. Plasma volume (PV) and carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity were reduced after control HDT, but were restored by the exercise treatment. Maintenance of orthostatic tolerance by <span class="hlt">application</span> of acute intense exercise after 16 days of <span class="hlt">simulated</span> microgravity was associated with greater <span class="hlt">circulating</span> levels of NE, vasoconstriction, Q, baroreflex sensitivity, and PV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7740452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7740452"><span id="translatedtitle">Alpha 1-antitrypsin Pittsburgh (Met358-->Arg) inhibits the contact pathway of intrinsic coagulation and alters the release of human neutrophil elastase during <span class="hlt">simulated</span> extracorporeal <span class="hlt">circulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wachtfogel, Y T; Bischoff, R; Bauer, R; Hack, C E; Nuijens, J H; Kucich, U; Niewiarowski, S; Edmunds, L H; Colman, R W</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>Cardiopulmonary bypass prolongs bleeding time, increases postoperative blood loss, and triggers activation of plasma proteolytic enzyme systems and blood cells referred to as the "whole body inflammatory response". Contact of blood with synthetic surfaces leads to qualitative and quantitative alterations in platelets, neutrophils, contact and complement systems. Contact and complement pathway proteins both induce neutrophil activation. alpha 1-antitrypsin Pittsburgh (Met358-->Arg), a mutant of alpha 1-antitrypsin, is a potent inhibitor of plasma kallikrein and thrombin. We investigated whether this recombinant mutant protein inhibited platelet activation, as well as contact and/or complement-induced neutrophil activation during <span class="hlt">simulated</span> extracorporeal <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. Arg358 alpha 1-antitrypsin did not prevent the 34% drop in platelet count at 5 min of recirculation, did not block the 50% decrease in ADP-induced platelet aggregation at 120 min of recirculation, nor inhibit the release of 6.06 +/- 1.07 micrograms/ml beta-thromboglobulin at 120 min of recirculation suggesting that the inhibitor had little effect on platelet activation. However, Arg358 alpha 1-antitrypsin totally blocked kallikrein-C1-inhibitor complex formation but not C1-C1-inhibitor complex formation. Most importantly, Arg358 alpha 1-antitrypsin decreased the release of 1.11 +/- 0.16 micrograms/ml human neutrophil elastase by 43%. The attenuation of neutrophil activation in the absence of an effect on complement activation via the classical pathway, supports the concept that kallikrein is a major mediator of neutrophil degranulation during cardiopulmonary bypass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DNP.CC005P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DNP.CC005P"><span id="translatedtitle">Space and Medical <span class="hlt">Applications</span> of the Geant4 <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Toolkit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perl, Joseph</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Geant4 is a toolkit to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the passage of particles through matter. While Geant4 was developed for High Energy Physics (HEP), <span class="hlt">applications</span> now include Nuclear, Medical and Space Physics. Medical <span class="hlt">applications</span> have been increasing rapidly due to the overall growth of Monte Carlo in Medical Physics and the unique qualities of Geant4 as an all-particle code able to handle complex geometry, motion and fields with the flexibility of modern programming and an open free source code. Work has included characterizing beams and sources, treatment planning and imaging. The all-particle nature of Geant4 has made it popular for the newest modes of radiation treatment: Proton and Particle therapy. Geant4 has been used by ESA, NASA and JAXA to study radiation effects to spacecraft and personnel. The flexibility of Geant4 has enabled teams to incorporate it into their own <span class="hlt">applications</span> (SPENVIS MULASSIS space environment from QinetiQ and ESA, RADSAFE <span class="hlt">simulation</span> from Vanderbilt University and NASA). We provide an overview of <span class="hlt">applications</span> and discuss how Geant4 has responded to specific challenges of moving from HEP to Medical and Space Physics, including recent work to extend Geant4's energy range to low dose radiobiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180...24G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180...24G"><span id="translatedtitle">Implementation of non-local boundary layer schemes in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and its impact on <span class="hlt">simulated</span> mesoscale <span class="hlt">circulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gómez, I.; Ronda, R. J.; Caselles, V.; Estrela, M. J.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This paper proposes the implementation of different non-local Planetary Boundary Layer schemes within the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) model. The two selected PBL parameterizations are the Medium-Range Forecast (MRF) PBL and its updated version, known as the Yonsei University (YSU) PBL. YSU is a first-order scheme that uses non-local eddy diffusivity coefficients to compute turbulent fluxes. It is based on the MRF, and improves it with an explicit treatment of the entrainment. With the aim of evaluating the RAMS results for these PBL parameterizations, a series of numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> have been performed and contrasted with the results obtained using the Mellor and Yamada (MY) scheme, also widely used, and the standard PBL scheme in the RAMS model. The numerical study carried out here is focused on mesoscale <span class="hlt">circulation</span> events during the summer, as these meteorological situations dominate this season of the year in the Western Mediterranean coast. In addition, the sensitivity of these PBL parameterizations to the initial soil moisture content is also evaluated. The results show a warmer and moister PBL for the YSU scheme compared to both MRF and MY. The model presents as well a tendency to overestimate the observed temperature and to underestimate the observed humidity, considering all PBL schemes and a low initial soil moisture content. In addition, the bias between the model and the observations is significantly reduced moistening the initial soil moisture of the corresponding run. Thus, varying this parameter has a positive effect and improves the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> results in relation to the observations. However, there is still a significant overestimation of the wind speed over flatter terrain, independently of the PBL scheme and the initial soil moisture used, even though a different degree of accuracy is reproduced by RAMS taking into account the different sensitivity tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24f0202G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24f0202G"><span id="translatedtitle">Reweighted ensemble dynamics <span class="hlt">simulations</span>: Theory, improvement, and <span class="hlt">application</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, Lin-Chen; Zhou, Xin; Ouyang, Zhong-Can</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Based on multiple parallel short molecular dynamics <span class="hlt">simulation</span> trajectories, we designed the reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method to more efficiently sample complex (biopolymer) systems, and to explore their hierarchical metastable states. Here we further present an improvement to depress statistical errors of the RED and we discuss a few keys in practical <span class="hlt">application</span> of the RED, provide schemes on selection of basis functions, and determination of the free parameter in the RED. We illustrate the <span class="hlt">application</span> of the improvements in two toy models and in the solvated alanine dipeptide. The results show the RED enables us to capture the topology of multiple-state transition networks, to detect the diffusion-like dynamical behavior in an entropy-dominated system, and to identify solvent effects in the solvated peptides. The illustrations serve as general <span class="hlt">applications</span> of the RED in more complex biopolymer systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175250).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12667310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12667310"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of MINERVA Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulations</span> to targeted radionuclide therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Descalle, Marie-Anne; Hartmann Siantar, Christine L; Dauffy, Lucile; Nigg, David W; Wemple, Charles A; Yuan, Aina; DeNardo, Gerald L</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>Recent clinical results have demonstrated the promise of targeted radionuclide therapy for advanced cancer. As the success of this emerging form of radiation therapy grows, accurate treatment planning and radiation dose <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are likely to become increasingly important. To address this need, we have initiated the development of a new, Monte Carlo transport-based treatment planning system for molecular targeted radiation therapy as part of the MINERVA system. The goal of the MINERVA dose calculation system is to provide 3-D Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulation</span>-based dosimetry for radiation therapy, focusing on experimental and emerging <span class="hlt">applications</span>. For molecular targeted radionuclide therapy <span class="hlt">applications</span>, MINERVA calculates patient-specific radiation dose estimates using computed tomography to describe the patient anatomy, combined with a user-defined 3-D radiation source. This paper describes the validation of the 3-D Monte Carlo transport methods to be used in MINERVA for molecular targeted radionuclide dosimetry. It reports comparisons of MINERVA dose <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with published absorbed fraction data for distributed, monoenergetic photon and electron sources, and for radioisotope photon emission. MINERVA <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are generally within 2% of EGS4 results and 10% of MCNP results, but differ by up to 40% from the recommendations given in MIRD Pamphlets 3 and 8 for identical medium composition and density. For several representative source and target organs in the abdomen and thorax, specific absorbed fractions calculated with the MINERVA system are generally within 5% of those published in the revised MIRD Pamphlet 5 for 100 keV photons. However, results differ by up to 23% for the adrenal glands, the smallest of our target organs. Finally, we show examples of Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulations</span> in a patient-like geometry for a source of uniform activity located in the kidney. PMID:12667310</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008GBioC..22.1013S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008GBioC..22.1013S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Future changes in climate, ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycling <span class="hlt">simulated</span> for a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario until year 4000 AD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmittner, Andreas; Oschlies, Andreas; Matthews, H. Damon; Galbraith, Eric D.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>A new model of global climate, ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycling, including a fully coupled carbon cycle, is presented and evaluated. The model is consistent with multiple observational data sets from the past 50 years as well as with the observed warming of global surface air and sea temperatures during the last 150 years. It is applied to a <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the coming two millennia following a business-as-usual scenario of anthropogenic CO2 emissions (SRES A2 until year 2100 and subsequent linear decrease to zero until year 2300, corresponding to a total release of 5100 GtC). Atmospheric CO2 increases to a peak of more than 2000 ppmv near year 2300 (that is an airborne fraction of 72% of the emissions) followed by a gradual decline to ˜1700 ppmv at year 4000 (airborne fraction of 56%). Forty-four percent of the additional atmospheric CO2 at year 4000 is due to positive carbon cycle-climate feedbacks. Global surface air warms by ˜10°C, sea ice melts back to 10% of its current area, and the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of the abyssal ocean collapses. Subsurface oxygen concentrations decrease, tripling the volume of suboxic water and quadrupling the global water column denitrification. We estimate 60 ppb increase in atmospheric N2O concentrations owing to doubling of its oceanic production, leading to a weak positive feedback and contributing about 0.24°C warming at year 4000. Global ocean primary production almost doubles by year 4000. Planktonic biomass increases at high latitudes and in the subtropics whereas it decreases at midlatitudes and in the tropics. In our model, which does not account for possible direct impacts of acidification on ocean biology, production of calcium carbonate in the surface ocean doubles, further increasing surface ocean and atmospheric pCO2. This represents a new positive feedback mechanism and leads to a strengthening of the positive interaction between climate change and the carbon cycle on a multicentennial to millennial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1064423','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1064423"><span id="translatedtitle">Framework <span class="hlt">Application</span> for Core Edge Transport <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> (FACETS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Pigarov, Alexander</p> <p>2011-10-15</p> <p>The FACETS (Framework <span class="hlt">Application</span> for Core-Edge Transport <span class="hlt">Simulations</span>) project of Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program was aimed at providing a high-fidelity whole-tokamak modeling for the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program and ITER through coupling separate components for each of the core region, edge region, and wall, with realistic plasma particles and power sources and turbulent transport <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. The project also aimed at developing advanced numerical algorithms, efficient implicit coupling methods, and software tools utilizing the leadership class computing facilities under Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The FACETS project was conducted by a multi-discipline, multi-institutional teams, the Lead PI was J.R. Cary (Tech-X Corp.). In the FACETS project, the Applied Plasma Theory Group at the MAE Department of UCSD developed the Wall and Plasma-Surface Interaction (WALLPSI) module, performed its validation against experimental data, and integrated it into the developed framework. WALLPSI is a one-dimensional, coarse grained, reaction/advection/diffusion code applied to each material boundary cell in the common modeling domain for a tokamak. It incorporates an advanced model for plasma particle transport and retention in the solid matter of plasma facing components, <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of plasma heat power load handling, calculation of erosion/deposition, and <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of synergistic effects in strong plasma-wall coupling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21324720','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21324720"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of NQR/NMR: <span class="hlt">Applications</span> in quantum computing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Possa, Denimar; Gaudio, Anderson C; Freitas, Jair C C</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>A numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> program able to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments is presented, written using the Mathematica package, aiming especially <span class="hlt">applications</span> in quantum computing. The program makes use of the interaction picture to compute the effect of the relevant nuclear spin interactions, without any assumption about the relative size of each interaction. This makes the program flexible and versatile, being useful in a wide range of experimental situations, going from NQR (at zero or under small applied magnetic field) to high-field NMR experiments. Some conditions specifically required for quantum computing <span class="hlt">applications</span> are implemented in the program, such as the possibility of use of elliptically polarized radiofrequency and the inclusion of first- and second-order terms in the average Hamiltonian expansion. A number of examples dealing with simple NQR and quadrupole-perturbed NMR experiments are presented, along with the proposal of experiments to create quantum pseudopure states and logic gates using NQR. The program and the various <span class="hlt">application</span> examples are freely available through the link http://www.profanderson.net/files/nmr_nqr.php.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080022313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080022313"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of Plasma Based Flow Control <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Jacob, J. D.; Ashpis, D. E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A mathematical model was developed to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> flow control <span class="hlt">applications</span> using plasma actuators. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier Stokes computations as a body force vector. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two additional equations: one for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The model is calibrated against an experiment having plasma-driven flow in a quiescent environment and is then applied to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> a low pressure turbine flow with large flow separation. The effects of the plasma actuator on control of flow separation are demonstrated numerically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770465','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770465"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">Simulators</span> for Electrochemical Responses: Experimental and Pedagogical <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Feldberg, S W; Goldstein, C I; Rudolph, M</p> <p>1997-06-19</p> <p>The work carried out in this CRADA addressed the development of computational algorithms to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the response for commonly used electrochemical techniques. The goal was the incorporation of these algorithms into DigiSim<sup>R</sup>, a generalized <span class="hlt">simulator</span> for cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV, a ubiquitously applied electroanalytical technique used by nonelectrochemists as well as electrochemists, is sometimes referred to as "electrochemical spectroscopy". The latest version, DigiSim<sup>R</sup> 2.1, is now being sold by the industrial partner, Bioanalytical Systems, Inc. The response of the electrochemical community to this latest program (as well as its predecessors, DigiSim<sup>R</sup> 2.0 and the DOS version; versions 2.0 and 2.1 are for Windows), has been uniformly positive and numerous publications are now appearing which feature its <span class="hlt">application</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/468159','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/468159"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of a delumping procedure to compositional reservoir <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stenby, E.H.; Christensen, J.R.; Knudsen, K.; Leibovici, C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Characterization and lumping are always performed when dealing with reservoir fluids. The number of pseudocomponents in a compositional reservoir <span class="hlt">simulation</span> is normally between three and eight. In order to optimize the reservoir performance, it is necessary to know a detailed composition of the product stream from the reservoir. This paper deals with the problems of how to come from the lumped system (for which the reservoir <span class="hlt">simulation</span> was performed) to a description of the full system (which is important in order to optimize the down-stream facilities). The equations of the delumping procedure are shown and the <span class="hlt">application</span> of the method is illustrated through examples, including a constant volume depletion experiment and the fifth SPE Comparative example with a fluid description from a North Sea reservoir (with the calculated composition after a lumping, an experiment and a delumping).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015GMD.....8..235G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015GMD.....8..235G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of a global nonhydrostatic model with a stretched-grid system to regional aerosol <span class="hlt">simulations</span> around Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goto, D.; Dai, T.; Satoh, M.; Tomita, H.; Uchida, J.; Misawa, S.; Inoue, T.; Tsuruta, H.; Ueda, K.; Ng, C. F. S.; Takami, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Shimizu, A.; Ohara, T.; Nakajima, T.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>An aerosol-coupled global nonhydrostatic model with a stretched-grid system has been developed. <span class="hlt">Circulations</span> over the global and target domains are <span class="hlt">simulated</span> with a single model, which includes fine meshes covering the target region to calculate meso-scale <span class="hlt">circulations</span>. The stretched global model involves lower computational costs to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> atmospheric aerosols with fine horizontal resolutions compared with a global uniform nonhydrostatic model, whereas it may require higher computational costs compared with the general regional models, because the stretched-grid system calculates inside and outside the target domain. As opposed to general regional models, the stretched-grid system requires neither a nesting technique nor lateral boundary conditions. In this study, we developed a new-type regional model for the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of aerosols over Japan, especially in the Kanto areas surrounding Tokyo, with a maximum horizontal resolution of approximately 10 km. This model usually reproduces temporal variations and their averages of the observed weather around Japan. This model generally reproduces monthly mean distributions of the observed sulfate and SO2 over East Asia, with high correlations (R > 0.6), but the underestimation of the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> concentrations by 40% (sulfate) and 50% (SO2). Their underestimation of the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> sulfate and SO2 concentrations over East Asia are strongly affected by their underestimation in China and possibly by the uncertainty of the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> precipitation around Japan. In the Kanto area, this model succeeds in <span class="hlt">simulating</span> the wind patterns and the diurnal transitions around the center of the Kanto area, although it is inadequate to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the wind patterns and the diurnal transitions at some sites located at the edge of the Kanto area and surrounded on three sides by mountains, e.g., Maebashi, mainly due to the insufficient horizontal resolution. This model also generally reproduces both diurnal and synoptic variations of the observed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Chaos..24a3125C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Chaos..24a3125C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of cellular automata approach for cloud <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and rendering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christopher Immanuel, W.; Paul Mary Deborrah, S.; Samuel Selvaraj, R.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Current techniques for creating clouds in games and other real time <span class="hlt">applications</span> produce static, homogenous clouds. These clouds, while viable for real time <span class="hlt">applications</span>, do not exhibit an organic feel that clouds in nature exhibit. These clouds, when viewed over a time period, were able to deform their initial shape and move in a more organic and dynamic way. With cloud shape technology we should be able in the future to extend to create even more cloud shapes in real time with more forces. Clouds are an essential part of any computer model of a landscape or an animation of an outdoor scene. A realistic animation of clouds is also important for creating scenes for flight <span class="hlt">simulators</span>, movies, games, and other. Our goal was to create a realistic animation of clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24697387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24697387"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of cellular automata approach for cloud <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and rendering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Christopher Immanuel, W; Paul Mary Deborrah, S; Samuel Selvaraj, R</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Current techniques for creating clouds in games and other real time <span class="hlt">applications</span> produce static, homogenous clouds. These clouds, while viable for real time <span class="hlt">applications</span>, do not exhibit an organic feel that clouds in nature exhibit. These clouds, when viewed over a time period, were able to deform their initial shape and move in a more organic and dynamic way. With cloud shape technology we should be able in the future to extend to create even more cloud shapes in real time with more forces. Clouds are an essential part of any computer model of a landscape or an animation of an outdoor scene. A realistic animation of clouds is also important for creating scenes for flight <span class="hlt">simulators</span>, movies, games, and other. Our goal was to create a realistic animation of clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ESASP.665E..43P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ESASP.665E..43P"><span id="translatedtitle">AMOBA - ARINC 653 <span class="hlt">Simulator</span> for Modular Based Space <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pascoal, E.; Rufino, J.; Schoofs, T.; Windsor, J.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>The ARINC 653 standard has taken a leading role within the aeronautical industry in the development of safety-critical systems based upon the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept. The related cost savings in reduced integration, verification and validation effort has raised interest in the European space industry for developing a spacecraft IMA approach and for the definition of an ARINC 653-for-space software framework. As part of this process, it is necessary to establish an effective way to test and develop space <span class="hlt">applications</span> without having access to the final IMA target platform. This paper describes the design and the architecture of a multi-platform and modular ARINC 653 <span class="hlt">simulator</span> that emulates an execution environment for ARINC 653 space <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251201','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251201"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of cellular automata approach for cloud <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and rendering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Christopher Immanuel, W.; Paul Mary Deborrah, S.; Samuel Selvaraj, R.</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>Current techniques for creating clouds in games and other real time <span class="hlt">applications</span> produce static, homogenous clouds. These clouds, while viable for real time <span class="hlt">applications</span>, do not exhibit an organic feel that clouds in nature exhibit. These clouds, when viewed over a time period, were able to deform their initial shape and move in a more organic and dynamic way. With cloud shape technology we should be able in the future to extend to create even more cloud shapes in real time with more forces. Clouds are an essential part of any computer model of a landscape or an animation of an outdoor scene. A realistic animation of clouds is also important for creating scenes for flight <span class="hlt">simulators</span>, movies, games, and other. Our goal was to create a realistic animation of clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4821008K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4821008K"><span id="translatedtitle">Global distribution of gravity wave fields and their seasonal dependence in the Martian atmosphere <span class="hlt">simulated</span> in a high-resolution general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuroda, Takeshi; Medvedev, Alexander; Yiğit, Erdal; Hartogh, Paul</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Gravity waves (GWs) are small-scale atmospheric waves generated by various geophysical processes, such as topography, convection, and dynamical instability. On Mars, several observations and <span class="hlt">simulations</span> have revealed that GWs strongly affect temperature and wind fields in the middle and upper atmosphere. We have worked with a high-resolution Martian general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (MGCM), with the spectral resolution of T106 (horizontal grid interval of ~67 km), for the investigations of generation and propagation of GWs. We analyzed for three kinds of wavelength ranges, (1) horizontal total wavenumber s=21-30 (wavelength λ~700-1000 km), (2) s=31-60 (λ~350-700 km), and (3) s=61-106 (λ~200-350 km). Our results show that shorter-scale harmonics progressively dominate with height during both equinox and solstice. We have detected two main sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. In both seasons GW energy in the troposphere due to the shorter-scale harmonics is concentrated in the low latitudes in a good agreement with observations. Orographically-generated GWs contribute significantly to the total energy of disturbances, and strongly decay with height. Thus, the non-orographic GWs of tropospheric origin dominate near the mesopause. The vertical fluxes of wave horizontal momentum are directed mainly against the larger-scale wind. Mean magnitudes of the drag in the middle atmosphere are tens of m s-1 sol-1, while instantaneously they can reach thousands of m s-1 sol-1, which results in an attenuation of the wind jets in the middle atmosphere and in tendency of their reversal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJBm...46...22B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJBm...46...22B"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical downscaling of general-<span class="hlt">circulation</span>-model- <span class="hlt">simulated</span> average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergant, Klemen; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Črepinšek, Zalika</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> reliably the most important mean features on a large scale, but they fail on a regional scale because of their low spatial resolution. A common approach to bridging the scale gap is statistical downscaling, which was used to relate the beginning of flowering of Taraxacum officinale in Slovenia with the monthly mean near-surface air temperature for January, February and March in Central Europe. Statistical models were developed and tested with NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis predictor data and EARS predictand data for the period 1960-1999. Prior to developing statistical models, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed on the predictor data. Multiple linear regression was used to relate the beginning of flowering with expansion coefficients of the first three EOF for the Janauary, Febrauary and March air temperatures, and a strong correlation was found between them. Developed statistical models were employed on the results of two GCM (HadCM3 and ECHAM4/OPYC3) to estimate the potential shifts in the beginning of flowering for the periods 1990-2019 and 2020-2049 in comparison with the period 1960-1989. The HadCM3 model predicts, on average, 4 days earlier occurrence and ECHAM4/OPYC3 5 days earlier occurrence of flowering in the period 1990-2019. The analogous results for the period 2020-2049 are a 10- and 11-day earlier occurrence.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3567458','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3567458"><span id="translatedtitle">A Detailed Physiologically Based Model to <span class="hlt">Simulate</span> the Pharmacokinetics and Hormonal Pharmacodynamics of Enalapril on the <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Endocrine Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Claassen, Karina; Willmann, Stefan; Eissing, Thomas; Preusser, Tobias; Block, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders including hypertension and is one of the most important targets for drugs. A whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (wb PBPK) model integrating this hormone <span class="hlt">circulation</span> system and its inhibition can be used to explore the influence of drugs that interfere with this system, and thus to improve the understanding of interactions between drugs and the target system. In this study, we describe the development of a mechanistic RAAS model and exemplify drug action by a <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of enalapril administration. Enalapril and its metabolite enalaprilat are potent inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE). To this end, a coupled dynamic parent-metabolite PBPK model was developed and linked with the RAAS model that consists of seven coupled PBPK models for aldosterone, ACE, angiotensin 1, angiotensin 2, angiotensin 2 receptor type 1, renin, and prorenin. The results indicate that the model represents the interactions in the RAAS in response to the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of enalapril and enalaprilat in an accurate manner. The full set of RAAS-hormone profiles and interactions are consistently described at pre- and post-administration steady state as well as during their dynamic transition and show a good agreement with literature data. The model allows a simultaneous representation of the parent-metabolite conversion to the active form as well as the effect of the drug on the hormone levels, offering a detailed mechanistic insight into the hormone cascade and its inhibition. This model constitutes a first major step to establish a PBPK-PD-model including the PK and the mode of action (MoA) of a drug acting on a dynamic RAAS that can be further used to link to clinical endpoints such as blood pressure. PMID:23404365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003OcDyn..53...53K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003OcDyn..53...53K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The potential role of spectral properties in detecting thresholds in the Earth system: <span class="hlt">application</span> to the thermohaline <span class="hlt">circulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kleinen, Thomas; Held, Hermann; Petschel-Held, Gerhard</p> <p></p> <p>A simple two-box model of the hemispheric thermohaline <span class="hlt">circulation</span> (THC) is considered. The model parameterizes fluctuations in the freshwater forcing by a stochastic process. The dependence of the power spectral density and the lifetime of quasistationary states of the THC on the distance to the bifurcation point, where the THC collapses, is calculated analytically. It is shown that power spectral properties change as the system is moved closer to the bifurcation point. These changes allow an estimate of the distance to the bifurcation point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815389M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815389M"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracers of diabatic changes in potential temperature and potential vorticity: Integral interpretation in terms of net heating and <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and <span class="hlt">applications</span> to model consistency across resolutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martinez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne; Methven, John</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Diabatic processes in the atmosphere can be characterised by the changes they produce on potential temperature (θ) and potential vorticity (PV) following an air parcel. Diabatic tracers of θ and PV track the changes undergone by those two variables due to the action of diabatic processes in a Lagrangian frame by splitting θ and PV into components that are materially conserved and components that are diabatically generated. Since diabatic tracers are subject to advection by the three-dimensional wind field, they are useful tools for the investigation of the interaction of diabatic processes with the atmospheric flow and the impact of diabatic processes on the evolution of the atmosphere. In this contribution, we present a novel integral interpretation of diabatic tracers over suitably defined control volumes, which depend on the weather system under consideration. Using two contrasting extratropical cyclones as examples, it is shown that θ tracers can be used to assess and systematically compare the cross-isentropic mass transport around each cyclone, which is related to the amount and distribution of heat produced during each cyclone's development. PV tracers are related to <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and area-average isentropic vorticity through the <span class="hlt">application</span> of Stoke's theorem. Using the impermeability theorem for PV, which states there can be no PV flux across isentropic surfaces, it is also shown that cross-isentropic motion within the control volumes does not directly influence <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. Instead, the influence of diabatic processes on the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> crucially depends on the balance between the fluxes along isentropic surfaces of the materially-conserved and diabatically-generated PV components across the lateral boundaries of the control volumes. Finally, the <span class="hlt">application</span> of the integral interpretation of diabatic tracers for the assessment of model consistency across different model resolutions is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011819','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011819"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of Fluidic Actuators for Flow Control <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vasta, Veer N.; Koklu, Mehti; Wygnanski, Israel L.; Fares, Ehab</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Active flow control technology is finding increasing use in aerospace <span class="hlt">applications</span> to control flow separation and improve aerodynamic performance. In this paper we examine the characteristics of a class of fluidic actuators that are being considered for active flow control <span class="hlt">applications</span> for a variety of practical problems. Based on recent experimental work, such actuators have been found to be more efficient for controlling flow separation in terms of mass flow requirements compared to constant blowing and suction or even synthetic jet actuators. The fluidic actuators produce spanwise oscillating jets, and therefore are also known as sweeping jets. The frequency and spanwise sweeping extent depend on the geometric parameters and mass flow rate entering the actuators through the inlet section. The flow physics associated with these actuators is quite complex and not fully understood at this time. The unsteady flow generated by such actuators is <span class="hlt">simulated</span> using the lattice Boltzmann based solver PowerFLOW R . Computed mean and standard deviation of velocity profiles generated by a family of fluidic actuators in quiescent air are compared with experimental data. <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> results replicate the experimentally observed trends with parametric variation of geometry and inflow conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090040070','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090040070"><span id="translatedtitle">Desktop <span class="hlt">Application</span> Program to <span class="hlt">Simulate</span> Cargo-Air-Drop Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cuthbert, Peter</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The DSS <span class="hlt">Application</span> is a computer program comprising a Windows version of the UNIX-based Decelerator System <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> (DSS) coupled with an Excel front end. The DSS is an executable code that <span class="hlt">simulates</span> the dynamics of airdropped cargo from first motion in an aircraft through landing. The bare DSS is difficult to use; the front end makes it easy to use. All inputs to the DSS, control of execution of the DSS, and postprocessing and plotting of outputs are handled in the front end. The front end is graphics-intensive. The Excel software provides the graphical elements without need for additional programming. Categories of input parameters are divided into separate tabbed windows. Pop-up comments describe each parameter. An error-checking software component evaluates combinations of parameters and alerts the user if an error results. Case files can be created from inputs, making it possible to build cases from previous ones. <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> output is plotted in 16 charts displayed on a separate worksheet, enabling plotting of multiple DSS cases with flight-test data. Variables assigned to each plot can be changed. Selected input parameters can be edited from the plot sheet for quick sensitivity studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.G11A0236P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.G11A0236P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of Lidar System Performance in Terrestrial Mapping <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pack, R. T.; Fullmer, R. R.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Anyone who has used terrestrial lidar data in physical science <span class="hlt">applications</span> has likely observed both systematic and random errors in datasets. An understanding of the potential sources of error is important when applying post-mission filters that remove errors, artifacts and unwanted features - such as vegetation - from lidar "point-cloud" data sets. System error sources typically include, (1) range error associated with transceiver optoelectronics design and atmospheric transmission characteristics, (2) pointing error associated with scanner dynamics, platform instability and GPS/INS readouts. To better understand and anticipate lidar data phenomenology and quality when designing lidar systems and surveys, <span class="hlt">simulation</span> software has been developed at Utah State University Center for Advanced Imaging Ladar. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> focuses on energy-detection lidars common in commercial airborne mapping <span class="hlt">applications</span>. It accepts as inputs: laser power, pulse width, wavelength, beam divergence and pulse repetition frequency; optics including aperture, field-of-view, and transmission loss; detector characteristics including focal plane array geometry, quantum efficiency, noise-equivalent power, optical efficiency, optical pass band, noise bandwidth, and readout error; scanner dynamics including bandwidth and damping ratio; GPS/INS errors associated with various instrument grades; environmental parameters including aerosol type, visibility, and solar spectral irradiance; scene parameters including backscatter distribution and reflectivity; and trajectories including position, velocity, and attitude. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> is designed to be adaptable to a wide variety of lidar system types, environmental settings, and aircraft trajectories over specific terrain models. It was built in MATLAB/Simulink, a convenient environment for computation and data generation, and has many graphical interfaces. Principally funded by the U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center at China Lake, California, it has been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6385290','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6385290"><span id="translatedtitle">International symposium on fuel rod <span class="hlt">simulators</span>: development and <span class="hlt">application</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCulloch, R.W.</p> <p>1981-05-01</p> <p>Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod <span class="hlt">simulator</span> operation and performance; <span class="hlt">simulator</span> design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod <span class="hlt">simulators</span> and fuel rod <span class="hlt">simulators</span> for cladding investigations; fuel rod <span class="hlt">simulator</span> components and inspection; and <span class="hlt">simulator</span> analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..875S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..875S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelled <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> In Storfjorden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Skogseth, R.; Asplin, L.</p> <p></p> <p>The model area Storfjorden is situated between the islands Spitsbergen, Barentsöya and Edgeöya at the Svalbard Archipelago. The entrance of Storfjorden is defined by a shallow bank Storfjordbanken and some small islands Tusenöyane in southeast, and by an 115m deep sill at about 76 45' N in the south. Maximum depth in Storfjorden is 190m, which is surrounded by gradually shallower shelves in the north, the east and southeast. A steep bottom slope is present on the western side of Storfjorden. He- leysundet and Freemansundet, two sounds between respectively Spitsbergen and Bar- entsöya, and Barentsöya and Edgeöya, define two narrow and shallow entrances in the north and northeast connecting Storfjorden with the northwestern Barents Sea. Strong tidal currents exist in Heleysundet (4-5ms-1) and Freemansundet (2-3ms-1), but the general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in Storfjorden is not well known. The coastal current in Storfjor- den is cyclonic directed into Storfjorden south of Edgeöya from the East Spitsbergen Current and out of Storfjorden south of Spitsbergen where it is called Sørkappstrøm- men. A three-dimensional sigma layered numerical ocean model called Bergen Ocean Model (BOM) was used to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in Storfjorden with Freemansundet opened. Two <span class="hlt">simulations</span> were carried out, one with heat flux (100 Wm-2) and one without heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. The heat flux was applied only in the proper fjord area north of the sill and not outside as a crude approximation of the effects of a polynya in the sea ice cover during winter. Both <span class="hlt">simulations</span> had a 4km horizontal resolution and 21 sigma layers. The model is forced by winds (from the NCEP reanalyzed fields) and tides. Initial fields are from the DNMI/IMR climatol- ogy. The model <span class="hlt">simulation</span> without heat flux gave a <span class="hlt">circulation</span> heavily dependent on tidal forcing, showing strong tidal currents up to 2ms-1 in Freemansundet, between Tusenöyane and on Storfjordbanken southwest of Edgeöya. Earlier</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944294','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944294"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulating</span> atmosphere flow for wind energy <span class="hlt">applications</span> with WRF-LES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D; Chow, F K; Kosovic, B; Lundquist, K A</p> <p>2008-01-14</p> <p>Forecasts of available wind energy resources at high spatial resolution enable users to site wind turbines in optimal locations, to forecast available resources for integration into power grids, to schedule maintenance on wind energy facilities, and to define design criteria for next-generation turbines. This array of research needs implies that an appropriate forecasting tool must be able to account for mesoscale processes like frontal passages, surface-atmosphere interactions inducing local-scale <span class="hlt">circulations</span>, and the microscale effects of atmospheric stability such as breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz billows. This range of scales and processes demands a mesoscale model with large-eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span> (LES) capabilities which can also account for varying atmospheric stability. Numerical weather prediction models, such as the Weather and Research Forecasting model (WRF), excel at predicting synoptic and mesoscale phenomena. With grid spacings of less than 1 km (as is often required for wind energy <span class="hlt">applications</span>), however, the limits of WRF's subfilter scale (SFS) turbulence parameterizations are exposed, and fundamental problems arise, associated with modeling the scales of motion between those which LES can represent and those for which large-scale PBL parameterizations apply. To address these issues, we have implemented significant modifications to the ARW core of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, including the Nonlinear Backscatter model with Anisotropy (NBA) SFS model following Kosovic (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005).We are also modifying WRF's terrain-following coordinate system by implementing an immersed boundary method (IBM) approach to account for the effects of complex terrain. Companion papers presenting idealized <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with NBA-RSFS-WRF (Mirocha et al.) and IBM-WRF (K. A. Lundquist et al.) are also presented. Observations of flow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009APS..DPPDI3002C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009APS..DPPDI3002C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictive Gyrokinetic Transport <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> and <span class="hlt">Application</span> of Synthetic Diagnostics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Candy, J.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>In this work we make use of the gyrokinetic transport solver TGYRO [1] to predict kinetic plasma profiles consistent with energy and particle fluxes in the DIII-D tokamak. TGYRO uses direct nonlinear and neoclassical fluxes calculated by the GYRO and NEO codes, respectively, to solve for global, self-consistent temperature and density profiles via Newton iteration. Previous work has shown that gyrokinetic <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results for DIII-D discharge 128913 match experimental data rather well in the plasma core, but with a discrepancy in both fluxes and fluctuation levels emerging closer to the edge (r/a > 0.8). The present work will expand on previous results by generating model predictions across the entire plasma core, rather than at isolated test radii. We show that TGYRO predicts temperature and density profiles in good agreement with experimental observations which simultaneously yield near-exact (to within experimental uncertainties) agreement with power balance calculations of the particle and energy fluxes for r/a <=0.8. Moreover, we use recently developed synthetic diagnostic algorithms [2] to show that TGYRO also predicts density and electron temperature fluctuation levels in close agreement with experimental measurements across the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> plasma volume. 8pt [1] J. Candy, C. Holland, R.E. Waltz, M.R. Fahey, and E. Belli, ``Tokamak profile prediction using direct gyrokinetic and neoclassical <span class="hlt">simulation</span>," Phys. Plasmas 16, 060704 (2009). [2] C. Holland, A.E. White, G.R. McKee, M.W. Shafer, J. Candy, R.E. Waltz, L. Schmitz, and G.R. Tynan, ``Implementation and <span class="hlt">application</span> of two synthetic diagnostics for validating <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of core tokamak turbulence," Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1036270','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1036270"><span id="translatedtitle">Framework <span class="hlt">Application</span> for Core Edge Transport <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> (FACETS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Malony, Allen D; Shende, Sameer S; Huck, Kevin A; Mr. Alan Morris, and Mr. Wyatt Spear</p> <p>2012-03-14</p> <p>The goal of the FACETS project (Framework <span class="hlt">Application</span> for Core-Edge Transport <span class="hlt">Simulations</span>) was to provide a multiphysics, parallel framework <span class="hlt">application</span> (FACETS) that will enable whole-device modeling for the U.S. fusion program, to provide the modeling infrastructure needed for ITER, the next step fusion confinement device. Through use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, FACETS is able to switch from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics in a flexible manner. This enables use of simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that can take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS does so in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the <span class="hlt">application</span> execute in parallel by utilizing task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and <span class="hlt">applicable</span>. ParaTools, Inc. was tasked with supporting the performance analysis and tuning of the FACETS components and framework in order to achieve the parallel scaling goals of the project. The TAU Performance System® was used for instrumentation, measurement, archiving, and profile / tracing analysis. ParaTools, Inc. also assisted in FACETS performance engineering efforts. Through the use of the TAU Performance System, ParaTools provided instrumentation, measurement, analysis and archival support for the FACETS project. Performance optimization of key components has yielded significant performance speedups. TAU was integrated into the FACETS build for both the full coupled <span class="hlt">application</span> and the UEDGE component. The performance database provided archival storage of the performance regression testing data generated by the project, and helped to track improvements in the software development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT.......380M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT.......380M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer for Wind Energy <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marjanovic, Nikola</p> <p></p> <p>Energy production from wind is an increasingly important component of overall global power generation, and will likely continue to gain an even greater share of electricity production as world governments attempt to mitigate climate change and wind energy production costs decrease. Wind energy generation depends on wind speed, which is greatly influenced by local and synoptic environmental forcings. Synoptic forcing, such as a cold frontal passage, exists on a large spatial scale while local forcing manifests itself on a much smaller scale and could result from topographic effects or land-surface heat fluxes. Synoptic forcing, if strong enough, may suppress the effects of generally weaker local forcing. At the even smaller scale of a wind farm, upstream turbines generate wakes that decrease the wind speed and increase the atmospheric turbulence at the downwind turbines, thereby reducing power production and increasing fatigue loading that may damage turbine components, respectively. <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of atmospheric processes that span a considerable range of spatial and temporal scales is essential to improve wind energy forecasting, wind turbine siting, turbine maintenance scheduling, and wind turbine design. Mesoscale atmospheric models predict atmospheric conditions using observed data, for a wide range of meteorological <span class="hlt">applications</span> across scales from thousands of kilometers to hundreds of meters. Mesoscale models include parameterizations for the major atmospheric physical processes that modulate wind speed and turbulence dynamics, such as cloud evolution and surface-atmosphere interactions. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used in this dissertation to investigate the effects of model parameters on wind energy forecasting. WRF is used for case study <span class="hlt">simulations</span> at two West Coast North American wind farms, one with simple and one with complex terrain, during both synoptically and locally-driven weather events. The model's performance with different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......380M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......380M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer for Wind Energy <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marjanovic, Nikola</p> <p></p> <p>Energy production from wind is an increasingly important component of overall global power generation, and will likely continue to gain an even greater share of electricity production as world governments attempt to mitigate climate change and wind energy production costs decrease. Wind energy generation depends on wind speed, which is greatly influenced by local and synoptic environmental forcings. Synoptic forcing, such as a cold frontal passage, exists on a large spatial scale while local forcing manifests itself on a much smaller scale and could result from topographic effects or land-surface heat fluxes. Synoptic forcing, if strong enough, may suppress the effects of generally weaker local forcing. At the even smaller scale of a wind farm, upstream turbines generate wakes that decrease the wind speed and increase the atmospheric turbulence at the downwind turbines, thereby reducing power production and increasing fatigue loading that may damage turbine components, respectively. <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of atmospheric processes that span a considerable range of spatial and temporal scales is essential to improve wind energy forecasting, wind turbine siting, turbine maintenance scheduling, and wind turbine design. Mesoscale atmospheric models predict atmospheric conditions using observed data, for a wide range of meteorological <span class="hlt">applications</span> across scales from thousands of kilometers to hundreds of meters. Mesoscale models include parameterizations for the major atmospheric physical processes that modulate wind speed and turbulence dynamics, such as cloud evolution and surface-atmosphere interactions. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used in this dissertation to investigate the effects of model parameters on wind energy forecasting. WRF is used for case study <span class="hlt">simulations</span> at two West Coast North American wind farms, one with simple and one with complex terrain, during both synoptically and locally-driven weather events. The model's performance with different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014697','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014697"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of Laser Cooling and Trapping in Engineering <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; Kohel, James; Thompson, Robert; Yu, Nan; Lunblad, Nathan</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>An advanced computer code is undergoing development for numerically <span class="hlt">simulating</span> laser cooling and trapping of large numbers of atoms. The code is expected to be useful in practical engineering <span class="hlt">applications</span> and to contribute to understanding of the roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and numbers of particles play in experiments using laser-cooled and -trapped atoms. The code is based on semiclassical theories of the forces exerted on atoms by magnetic and optical fields. Whereas computer codes developed previously for the same purpose account for only a few physical mechanisms, this code incorporates many more physical mechanisms (including atomic collisions, sub-Doppler cooling mechanisms, Stark and Zeeman energy shifts, gravitation, and evanescent-wave phenomena) that affect laser-matter interactions and the cooling of atoms to submillikelvin temperatures. Moreover, whereas the prior codes can <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the interactions of at most a few atoms with a resonant light field, the number of atoms that can be included in a <span class="hlt">simulation</span> by the present code is limited only by computer memory. Hence, the present code represents more nearly completely the complex physics involved when using laser-cooled and -trapped atoms in engineering <span class="hlt">applications</span>. Another advantage that the code incorporates is the possibility to analyze the interaction between cold atoms of different atomic number. Some properties that cold atoms of different atomic species have, like cross sections and the particular excited states they can occupy when interacting with each other and light fields, play important roles not yet completely understood in the new experiments that are under way in laboratories worldwide to form ultracold molecules. Other research efforts use cold atoms as holders of quantum information, and more recent developments in cavity quantum electrodynamics also use ultracold atoms to explore and expand new information-technology ideas. These experiments give a hint</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27374875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27374875"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of flat panel OLED display technology for the point-of-care detection of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> cancer biomarkers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katchman, Benjamin A; Smith, Joseph T; Obahiagbon, Uwadiae; Kesiraju, Sailaja; Lee, Yong-Kyun; O'Brien, Barry; Kaftanoglu, Korhan; Blain Christen, Jennifer; Anderson, Karen S</p> <p>2016-07-04</p> <p>Point-of-care molecular diagnostics can provide efficient and cost-effective medical care, and they have the potential to fundamentally change our approach to global health. However, most existing approaches are not scalable to include multiple biomarkers. As a solution, we have combined commercial flat panel OLED display technology with protein microarray technology to enable high-density fluorescent, programmable, multiplexed biorecognition in a compact and disposable configuration with clinical-level sensitivity. Our approach leverages advances in commercial display technology to reduce pre-functionalized biosensor substrate costs to pennies per cm(2). Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to multiple viral antigens in patient serum samples with detection limits for human IgG in the 10 pg/mL range. We also demonstrate multiplexed detection of antibodies to the HPV16 proteins E2, E6, and E7, which are <span class="hlt">circulating</span> biomarkers for cervical as well as head and neck cancers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800057393&hterms=flow+tube&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dflow%2Btube','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800057393&hterms=flow+tube&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dflow%2Btube"><span id="translatedtitle">On the combination of kinematics with flow visualization to compute total <span class="hlt">circulation</span> - <span class="hlt">Application</span> to vortex rings in a tube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brasseur, J. G.; Chang, I.-D.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>To date the computation of the total <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, or strength of a vortex has required detailed measurements of the velocity field within the vortex. In this paper a method is described in which the kinematics of the vortical flow field is exploited to calculate the strength of a vortex from relatively simple flow visualization measurements. There are several advantages in the technique, the most important being the newly acquired ability to calculate the transient changes in strength of a single vortex as it evolves. The method is applied to the study of vortex rings, although the development can be carried over directly to study vortex pairs, and it is expected that it can be generalized to other flows which contain regions of concentrated vorticity. The accuracy of the method as applied to vortex rings, assessed in part by comparing with the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) measurements of Sullivan et al., is shown to be excellent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870015248','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870015248"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of digital holographic interferometry to pressure measurements of symmetric, supercritical and <span class="hlt">circulation</span>-control airfoils in transonic flow fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Torres, Francisco J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Six airfoil interferograms were evaluated using a semiautomatic image-processor system which digitizes, segments, and extracts the fringe coordinates along a polygonal line. The resulting fringe order function was converted into density and pressure distributions and a comparison was made with pressure transducer data at the same wind tunnel test conditions. Three airfoil shapes were used in the evaluation to test the capabilities of the image processor with a variety of flows. Symmetric, supercritical, and <span class="hlt">circulation</span>-control airfoil interferograms provided fringe patterns with shocks, separated flows, and high-pressure regions for evaluation. Regions along the polygon line with very clear fringe patterns yielded results within 1% of transducer measurements, while poorer quality regions, particularly near the leading and trailing edges, yielded results that were not as good.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26281224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26281224"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">APPLICATION</span> OF FLOW CYTOMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF <span class="hlt">CIRCULATING</span> HEMOCYTE POPULATIONS IN THE ASCIDIAN HALOCYNTHIA AURANTIUM (PALLAS, 1787)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sukhachev, A N; Dyachkov, I S; Kudryavtsev, I V; Kumeiko, V V; Tsybulskiy, A V; Polevshchikov, A V</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study addresses the potentialities of flow cytometry in analyzing the composition of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> hemocyte populations in the ascidian Halocynthia aurantium (Pallas, 1787) both using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against some human leukocyte conservative adhesion molecules and without mAbs. Flow cytometry, based on the assessment of forward and side scattering revealed five hemocyte populations. From the wide panel of antibodies against human leukocyte adhesion molecules (CD15, CD29, CD34, CD54, CD62L, CD62P, CD90, CD94, CD117, CD 166), only two mAbs (against CD54, CD90) displayed cross-reactivity with the H. aurantium hemocyte surface antigens. Distribution patterns of these antigens across the hemocyte populations have been analyzed. PMID:26281224</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815964A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815964A"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuously on-going hindcast <span class="hlt">simulations</span> for impact <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anders, Ivonne; Geyer, Beate</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Observations for e.g. temperature, precipitation, radiation, or wind are often used as meteorological forcing for different impact models, like e.g. crop models, urban models, economic models and energy system models. To assess a climate signal, the time period covered by the observation is often too short, they have gaps in between, and are inhomogeneous over time, due to changes in the measurements itself or in the near surrounding. Thus output from global and regional climate models can close the gap and provide homogeneous and physically consistent time series of meteorological parameters. CORDEX evaluation runs performed for the IPCC-AR5 provide a good base for the regional scale. However, with respect to climate services, continuously on-going hindcast <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are required for regularly updated <span class="hlt">applications</span>. In this study two projects are presented where hindcast-<span class="hlt">simulations</span> optimized for a region of interest are performed continuously. The hindcast <span class="hlt">simulation</span> performed by HZG covering Europe includes the EURO-CORDEX domain with a wider extend to the north to cover the ice edge. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> under consideration of the coastDat-experiences is available for the period of 1979 - 2015, prolonged ongoing and fulfills the customer's needs with respect of output variables, levels, intervals and statistical measures. CoastDat - customers are dealing e.g. with naval architecture, renewable energies, offshore wind farming, shipping emissions, coastal flood risk and others. The evaluation of the hindcast is done for Europe by using the EVAL-tool of the CCLM community and by comparison with HYRAS - data for Germany and neighbouring countries. The Climate Research group at the national Austrian weather service, ZAMG, is focusing on high mountain regions and, especially on the Alps. The hindcast-<span class="hlt">simulation</span> is forced by ERA-interim and optimized for the Alpine Region. One of the main tasks is to capture strong precipitation events which often occur during summer when</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3457494','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3457494"><span id="translatedtitle">Intercity Spread of Echovirus 6 in Shandong Province, China: <span class="hlt">Application</span> of Environmental Surveillance in Tracing <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Enteroviruses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tao, Zexin; Song, Yanyan; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yong; Yoshida, Hiromu; Ji, Shengxiang; Song, Lizhi; Liu, Yao; Cui, Ning; Ji, Feng; Li, Yan; Chen, Peng</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Environmental surveillance is an effective approach in investigating <span class="hlt">circulating</span> enteroviruses and had been conducted in the cities of Jinan and Linyi since February 2008 and April 2010, respectively. This study analyzed 46 sewage samples collected in the two cities in 2011 and found that echovirus 6 (E6) was the predominant serotype, with 134 isolates (65 in Jinan and 69 in Linyi) from 23 (50%) samples. This differs from the 2010 data that found 29 E6 isolates in Jinan and only 3 in Linyi. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 coding region showed that all environmental E6 samples from 2008 to 2011 (n = 167) segregated into two lineages and revealed an increase in VP1 gene diversity in 2011, suggesting that the increased number of E6 detections reflects a real epidemic in the two cities. Most Linyi isolates (n = 61, or 88%) in 2011 segregated into sublineage 1a, together with 18 Jinan isolates in 2011. Interestingly, the ancestral VP1 sequence of sublineage 1a inferred using the maximum-likelihood method had 100% identity with the sequence of one environmental isolate from Jinan in August 2010, suggesting an intercity spread from Jinan to Linyi. By Bayesian phylodynamic methods, the most recent common ancestor of Linyi isolates in sublineage 1a dated back to 24 December 2010, revealing that this sublineage was likely imported into Linyi from August to December in 2010. This study demonstrates that environmental surveillance is a sensitive method in tracing transmission pathways of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> enteroviruses among different regions and reveals that E6-associated aseptic meningitis is an emerging concern in China. PMID:22843520</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986mraa.agar.....K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986mraa.agar.....K"><span id="translatedtitle">Requirements and <span class="hlt">applications</span> for radar <span class="hlt">simulations</span>: A standpoint of an airframe company</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohl, Werner; Hetzner, Wolfgang</p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>An overview of requirements and <span class="hlt">applications</span> for radar <span class="hlt">simulations</span> performed by an airframe company is presented. The discussion covers offline computer models either as stand alone or implemented within air or sea combat <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. The use for online models reach from interface <span class="hlt">simulations</span> to rather complex models for manned aircraft <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. The paper presents realized examples of radar models for air or sea combat <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, an experimental engineering tool which <span class="hlt">simulates</span> a core avionic system, a 1 versus 1 advanced flight <span class="hlt">simulation</span> with a pilot in the loop and a radar signal <span class="hlt">simulation</span> implemented in a terrain-following closed loop <span class="hlt">simulation</span> at an avionic rig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3446W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3446W"><span id="translatedtitle">Foam flooding reservoir <span class="hlt">simulation</span> algorithm improvement and <span class="hlt">application</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yining; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Ruihe; Lai, Fengpeng; Zhang, Hanhan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>As one of the important enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies, Foam flooding is being used more and more widely in the oil field development. In order to describe and predict foam flooding, experts at domestic and abroad have established a number of mathematical models of foam flooding (mechanism, empirical and semi-empirical models). Empirical models require less data and apply conveniently, but the accuracy is not enough. The aggregate equilibrium model can describe foam generation, burst and coalescence by mechanism studying, but it is very difficult to accurately describe. The research considers the effects of critical water saturation, critical concentration of foaming agent and critical oil saturation on the sealing ability of foam and considers the effect of oil saturation on the resistance factor for obtaining the gas phase relative permeability and the results were amended by laboratory test, so the accuracy rate is higher. Through the reservoir development concepts <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and field practical <span class="hlt">application</span>, the calculation is more accurate and higher.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ICRC....2..507D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ICRC....2..507D"><span id="translatedtitle">A Fast Hybrid Approach to Air Shower <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> and <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drescher, H.-J.; Farrar, Glennys; Bleicher, Marcus; Reiter, Manuel; Soff, Sven; Stoecker, Horst</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>The SENECA model, a new hybrid approach to air shower <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, is presented. It combines the use of efficient cascade equations in the energy range where a shower can be treated as one-dimensional, with a traditional Monte Carlo method which traces individual particles. This allows one to repro duce natural fluctuations of individual showers as well as the lateral spread of low energy particles. The model is quite efficient in computation time. As an <span class="hlt">application</span> of the new approach, the influence of the low energy hadronic models on shower properties for AUGER energies is studied. We conclude that these models have a significant impact on the tails of lateral distribution functions, and deserve therefore more attention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/2000132','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/2000132"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Applications</span> of a <span class="hlt">simulation</span> model to decisions in mallard management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, T.L.; Sparling, D.W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A system comprising <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models and data bases for habitat availability and nest success rates was used to predict results from a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management plan and to compare six management methods with a control. Individual treatments in the <span class="hlt">applications</span> included land purchase for waterfowl production, wetland easement purchase, lease of uplands for waterfowl management, cropland retirement, use of no-till winter wheat, delayed cutting of alfalfa, installation of nest baskets, nesting island construction, and use of predator-resistant fencing.The <span class="hlt">simulations</span> predicted that implementation of the management plan would increase recruits by 24%. Nest baskets were the most effective treatment, accounting for 20.4% of the recruits. No-till winter wheat was the second most effective, accounting for 5.9% of the recruits. Wetland loss due to drainage would cause an 11% loss of breeding population in 10 years.The models were modified to account for migrational homing. The modification indicated that migrational homing would enhance the effects of management. Nest success rates were critical contributions to individual management methods. The most effective treatments, such as nest baskets, had high success rates and affected a large portion of the breeding population.Economic analyses indicated that nest baskets would be the most economical of the three techniques tested. The <span class="hlt">applications</span> indicated that the system is a useful tool to aid management decisions, but data are scarce for several important variables. Basic research will be required to adequately model the effect of migrational homing and density dependence on production. The comprehensive nature of predictions desired by managers will also require that production models like the one described here be extended to encompass the entire annual cycle of waterfowl.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65.1441S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65.1441S"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of space-borne GNSS reflectometry to constrain <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of the ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. A case study for the South African current system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saynisch, Jan; Semmling, Maximilian; Wickert, Jens; Thomas, Maik</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Agulhas current system transports warm and salty water masses from the Indian Ocean into the Southern Ocean and into the Atlantic. The transports impact past, present, and future climate on local and global scales. The size and variability, however, of the respective transports are still much debated. In this study, an idealized model based twin experiment is used to study whether sea surface height (SSH) anomalies estimated from reflected signals of the Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R) can be used to determine the internal water mass properties and transports of the Agulhas region. A space-borne GNSS-R detector on the International Space Station (ISS) is assumed and <span class="hlt">simulated</span>. The detector is able to observe daily SSH fields with a spatial resolution of 1-5∘. Depending on reflection geometry, the precision of a single SSH observation is estimated to reach 3 cm (20 cm) when the carrier phase (code delay) information of the reflected GNSS signal is used. The average precision over the Agulhas region is 7 cm (42 cm). The proposed GNSS-R measurements surpass the radar-based satellite altimetry missions in temporal and spatial resolution but are less precise. Using the estimated GNSS-R characteristics, measurements of SSH are generated by sampling a regional nested general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model of the South African oceans. The artificial observations are subsequently assimilated with a 4DVAR adjoint data assimilation method into the same ocean model but with a different initial state and forcing. The assimilated and the original, i.e., the sampled model state, are compared to systematically identify improvements and degradations in the model variables that arise due to the assimilation of GNSS-R based SSH observations. We show that SSH and the independent, i.e., not assimilated model variables velocity, temperature, and salinity improve by the assimilation of GNSS-R based SSH observations. After the assimilation of 90 days of SSH observations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5489A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5489A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of wildfire <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models for risk analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ager, A.; Finney, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Wildfire <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models are being widely used by fire and fuels specialists in the U.S. to support tactical and strategic decisions related to the mitigation of wildfire risk. Much of this <span class="hlt">application</span> has resulted from the development of a minimum travel time (MTT) fire spread algorithm (M. Finney) that makes it computationally feasible to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> thousands of fires and generate burn probability and intensity maps over large areas (10,000 - 2,000,000 ha). The MTT algorithm is parallelized for multi-threaded processing and is imbedded in a number of research and applied fire modeling <span class="hlt">applications</span>. High performance computers (e.g., 32-way 64 bit SMP) are typically used for MTT <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, although the algorithm is also implemented in the 32 bit desktop FlamMap3 program (www.fire.org). Extensive testing has shown that this algorithm can replicate large fire boundaries in the heterogeneous landscapes that typify much of the wildlands in the western U.S. In this paper, we describe the <span class="hlt">application</span> of the MTT algorithm to understand spatial patterns of burn probability (BP), and to analyze wildfire risk to key human and ecological values. The work is focused on a federally-managed 2,000,000 ha landscape in the central interior region of Oregon State, USA. The fire-prone study area encompasses a wide array of topography and fuel types and a number of highly valued resources that are susceptible to fire. We quantitatively defined risk as the product of the probability of a fire and the resulting consequence. Burn probabilities at specific intensity classes were estimated for each 100 x 100 m pixel by <span class="hlt">simulating</span> 100,000 wildfires under burn conditions that replicated recent severe wildfire events that occurred under conditions where fire suppression was generally ineffective (97th percentile, August weather). We repeated the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> under milder weather (70th percentile, August weather) to replicate a "wildland fire use scenario" where suppression is minimized to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2588093','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2588093"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-formalism modelling and <span class="hlt">simulation</span>: <span class="hlt">application</span> to cardiac modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Defontaine, Antoine; Hernández, Alfredo; Carrault, Guy</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Cardiovascular modelling has been a major research subject for the last decades. Different cardiac models have been developed at a cellular level as well as at the whole organ level. Most of these models are defined by a comprehensive cellular modelling using continuous formalisms or by a tissue-level modelling often based on discrete formalisms. Nevertheless, both views still suffer from difficulties that reduce their clinical <span class="hlt">applications</span>: the first approach requires heavy computational resources while the second one is not able to reproduce certain pathologies. This paper presents an original methodology trying to gather advantages from both approaches, by means of an hybrid model mixing discrete and continuous formalisms. This method has been applied to define a hybrid model of cardiac action potential propagation on a 2D grid of endocardial cells, combining cellular automata and a set of cells defined by the Beeler Reuter model. For <span class="hlt">simulations</span> under physiologic and ischemic conditions, results show that the action potential propagation as well as electrogram reconstructions are consistent with clinical diagnosis. Finally, the interest of the proposed approach is discussed within the frame of cardiac modelling and <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. PMID:15520534</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050207501&hterms=glass_ceramic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dglass_ceramic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050207501&hterms=glass_ceramic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dglass_ceramic"><span id="translatedtitle">Processing of Lunar Soil <span class="hlt">Simulant</span> for Space Exploration <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sen, Subhayu; Ray, C. S.; Ramachandran, N.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>NASA's long-term vision for space exploration includes developing human habitats and conducting scientific investigations on planetary bodies, especially on Moon and Mars. Processing and utilization of planetary in-situ resources is recognized as an important element of this vision since it can minimize the level of up-mass that will have to be transported from earth to the planetary bodies. Within this scope and context, we have undertaken a general effort aimed primarily at extracting and refining metals, developing glass, glass-ceramic, or traditional ceramic type materials using lunar soil <span class="hlt">simulants</span>. In this paper we will present preliminary results on our effort on simultaneous carbothermal reduction of oxides for elemental extraction and zone refining for obtaining high purity metals. In additions we will demonstrate the possibility of developing glass fibers as reinforcement agents for planetary habitat construction, glasses for fixing nuclear waste from potential nuclear power generators, and glasses for magnetic <span class="hlt">applications</span>. The paper will also include initial thermal characterization of the glasses produced from lunar <span class="hlt">simulant</span>. Compositional analysis of processed samples will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27609546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27609546"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of optically-induced-dielectrophoresis in microfluidic system for purification of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumour cells for gene expression analysis- Cancer cell line model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Chou, Wen-Pin; Huang, Song-Bin; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Yung-Chang; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Wu, Min-Hsien</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Circulating</span> tumour cells (CTCs) in a blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> system are associated with cancer metastasis. The analysis of the drug-resistance gene expression of cancer patients' CTCs holds promise for selecting a more effective therapeutic regimen for an individual patient. However, the current CTC isolation schemes might not be able to harvest CTCs with sufficiently high purity for such <span class="hlt">applications</span>. To address this issue, this study proposed to integrate the techniques of optically induced dielectrophoretic (ODEP) force-based cell manipulation and fluorescent microscopic imaging in a microfluidic system to further purify CTCs after the conventional CTC isolation methods. In this study, the microfluidic system was developed, and its optimal operating conditions and performance for CTC isolation were evaluated. The results revealed that the presented system was able to isolate CTCs with cell purity as high as 100%, beyond what is possible using the previously existing techniques. In the analysis of CTC gene expression, therefore, this method could exclude the interference of leukocytes in a cell sample and accordingly contribute to higher analytical sensitivity, as demonstrated in this study. Overall, this study has presented an ODEP-based microfluidic system capable of simply and effectively isolating a specific cell species from a cell mixture. PMID:27609546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5016898','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5016898"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of optically-induced-dielectrophoresis in microfluidic system for purification of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumour cells for gene expression analysis- Cancer cell line model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Chou, Wen-Pin; Huang, Song-Bin; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Yung-Chang; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Wu, Min-Hsien</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Circulating</span> tumour cells (CTCs) in a blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> system are associated with cancer metastasis. The analysis of the drug-resistance gene expression of cancer patients’ CTCs holds promise for selecting a more effective therapeutic regimen for an individual patient. However, the current CTC isolation schemes might not be able to harvest CTCs with sufficiently high purity for such <span class="hlt">applications</span>. To address this issue, this study proposed to integrate the techniques of optically induced dielectrophoretic (ODEP) force-based cell manipulation and fluorescent microscopic imaging in a microfluidic system to further purify CTCs after the conventional CTC isolation methods. In this study, the microfluidic system was developed, and its optimal operating conditions and performance for CTC isolation were evaluated. The results revealed that the presented system was able to isolate CTCs with cell purity as high as 100%, beyond what is possible using the previously existing techniques. In the analysis of CTC gene expression, therefore, this method could exclude the interference of leukocytes in a cell sample and accordingly contribute to higher analytical sensitivity, as demonstrated in this study. Overall, this study has presented an ODEP-based microfluidic system capable of simply and effectively isolating a specific cell species from a cell mixture. PMID:27609546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27609546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27609546"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of optically-induced-dielectrophoresis in microfluidic system for purification of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumour cells for gene expression analysis- Cancer cell line model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Chou, Wen-Pin; Huang, Song-Bin; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Yung-Chang; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Wu, Min-Hsien</p> <p>2016-09-09</p> <p><span class="hlt">Circulating</span> tumour cells (CTCs) in a blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> system are associated with cancer metastasis. The analysis of the drug-resistance gene expression of cancer patients' CTCs holds promise for selecting a more effective therapeutic regimen for an individual patient. However, the current CTC isolation schemes might not be able to harvest CTCs with sufficiently high purity for such <span class="hlt">applications</span>. To address this issue, this study proposed to integrate the techniques of optically induced dielectrophoretic (ODEP) force-based cell manipulation and fluorescent microscopic imaging in a microfluidic system to further purify CTCs after the conventional CTC isolation methods. In this study, the microfluidic system was developed, and its optimal operating conditions and performance for CTC isolation were evaluated. The results revealed that the presented system was able to isolate CTCs with cell purity as high as 100%, beyond what is possible using the previously existing techniques. In the analysis of CTC gene expression, therefore, this method could exclude the interference of leukocytes in a cell sample and accordingly contribute to higher analytical sensitivity, as demonstrated in this study. Overall, this study has presented an ODEP-based microfluidic system capable of simply and effectively isolating a specific cell species from a cell mixture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632851C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632851C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of optically-induced-dielectrophoresis in microfluidic system for purification of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumour cells for gene expression analysis- Cancer cell line model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Chou, Wen-Pin; Huang, Song-Bin; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Yung-Chang; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Wu, Min-Hsien</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Circulating</span> tumour cells (CTCs) in a blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> system are associated with cancer metastasis. The analysis of the drug-resistance gene expression of cancer patients’ CTCs holds promise for selecting a more effective therapeutic regimen for an individual patient. However, the current CTC isolation schemes might not be able to harvest CTCs with sufficiently high purity for such <span class="hlt">applications</span>. To address this issue, this study proposed to integrate the techniques of optically induced dielectrophoretic (ODEP) force-based cell manipulation and fluorescent microscopic imaging in a microfluidic system to further purify CTCs after the conventional CTC isolation methods. In this study, the microfluidic system was developed, and its optimal operating conditions and performance for CTC isolation were evaluated. The results revealed that the presented system was able to isolate CTCs with cell purity as high as 100%, beyond what is possible using the previously existing techniques. In the analysis of CTC gene expression, therefore, this method could exclude the interference of leukocytes in a cell sample and accordingly contribute to higher analytical sensitivity, as demonstrated in this study. Overall, this study has presented an ODEP-based microfluidic system capable of simply and effectively isolating a specific cell species from a cell mixture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999SPIE.3697..223B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999SPIE.3697..223B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of multiple IR projector technologies for AMCOM HWIL <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beasley, D. Brett; Saylor, Daniel A.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>This paper describes the <span class="hlt">application</span> of multiple IR projector technologies to hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) <span class="hlt">simulations</span> at the US Army Aviation and Missile Command's (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC). Several projectors utilizing a variety of emerging technologies are currently being successfully applied within the HWIL facilities of AMCOM's MRDEC. Projector technologies utilized at AMCOM include laser diode array projectors, Honeywell's bright resistive infrared thermal emitter arrays, an IR zoom projector with thermoscenes, and steerable point source projectors. Future plans include a new resistor array projector called the Multispectral Infrared Animation Generation Equipment, which is being manufactured by Santa Barbara Infrared. These projector technologies have been used to support multiple HWIL test entries of various seeker configurations. Seeker configurations tested include: two InSb 256 X 256 FPAs, an InSb 512 X 512 FPA, a PtSi 640 X 480 FPA, a PtSi 256 X 256 FPA, a HgCdTe 256 X 256 FPA, a scanning linear array, and an uncooled 320 X 240 microbolometer FPA. The <span class="hlt">application</span>, capabilities, and performance of each technology are reviewed in the paper. Example imagery collected from each operational system is also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........97W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........97W"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and structural models with <span class="hlt">applications</span> to energy demand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolff, Hendrik</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>This dissertation deals with energy demand and consists of two parts. Part one proposes a unified econometric framework for modeling energy demand and examples illustrate the benefits of the technique by estimating the elasticity of substitution between energy and capital. Part two assesses the energy conservation policy of Daylight Saving Time and empirically tests the performance of electricity <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. In particular, the chapter "Imposing Monotonicity and Curvature on Flexible Functional Forms" proposes an estimator for inference using structural models derived from economic theory. This is motivated by the fact that in many areas of economic analysis theory restricts the shape as well as other characteristics of functions used to represent economic constructs. Specific contributions are (a) to increase the computational speed and tractability of imposing regularity conditions, (b) to provide regularity preserving point estimates, (c) to avoid biases existent in previous <span class="hlt">applications</span>, and (d) to illustrate the benefits of our approach via numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results. The chapter "Can We Close the Gap between the Empirical Model and Economic Theory" discusses the more fundamental question of whether the imposition of a particular theory to a dataset is justified. I propose a hypothesis test to examine whether the estimated empirical model is consistent with the assumed economic theory. Although the proposed methodology could be applied to a wide set of economic models, this is particularly relevant for estimating policy parameters that affect energy markets. This is demonstrated by estimating the Slutsky matrix and the elasticity of substitution between energy and capital, which are crucial parameters used in computable general equilibrium models analyzing energy demand and the impacts of environmental regulations. Using the Berndt and Wood dataset, I find that capital and energy are complements and that the data are significantly consistent with duality</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23261905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23261905"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of the re-<span class="hlt">circulating</span> tracer well test method to determine nitrate reaction rates in shallow unconfined aquifers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burbery, Lee F; Flintoft, Mark J; Close, Murray E</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Five re-<span class="hlt">circulating</span> tracer well tests (RCTWTs) have been conducted in a variety of aquifer settings, at four sites across New Zealand. The tests constitute the first practical assessment of the two-well RCTWT methodology described by Burbery and Wang (Journal of Hydrology, 2010; 382:163-173) and were aimed at evaluating nitrate reaction rates in situ. The performance of the RCTWTs differed significantly at the different sites. The RCTWT method performed well when it was applied to determine potential nitrate reaction rates in anoxic, electro-chemically reductive, nitrate-free aquifers of volcanic lithology, on the North Island, New Zealand. Regional groundwater flow was not fast-flowing in this setting. An effective first-order nitrate reaction rate in the region of 0.09 d(-1) to 0.26 d(-1) was determined from two RCTWTs applied at one site where a reaction rate of 0.37 d(-1) had previously been estimated from a push-pull test. The RCTWT method performed poorly, however, in a fast-flowing, nitrate-impacted fluvio-glacial gravel aquifer that was examined on the South Island, New Zealand. This setting was more akin to the hypothetical physiochemical problem described by Burbery and Wang (2010). Although aerobic conditions were identified as the primary reason for failure to measure any nitrate reaction in the gravel aquifer, failure to establish significant interflow in the re-<span class="hlt">circulation</span> cell due to the heterogeneous nature of the aquifer structure, and natural variability exhibited in nitrate contaminant levels of the ambient groundwater further contributed to the poor performance of the test. Our findings suggest that in practice, environmental conditions are more complex than assumed by the RCTWT methodology, which compromises the practicability of the method as one for determining attenuation rates in groundwater based on tracing ambient contaminant levels. Although limited, there appears to be a scope for RCTWTs to provide useful information on potential</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9259211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9259211"><span id="translatedtitle">Virtual extracorporeal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boschetti, F; Montevecchi, F M; Fumero, R</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Virtual instruments for an extracorporeal <span class="hlt">circulation</span> (ECC) process were developed to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the reactions of a patient to different artificial perfusion conditions. The computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the patient takes into account the hydraulic, volume, thermal and biochemical phenomena and their interaction with the devices involved in ECC (cannulae dimensions, oxygenator and filter types, pulsatile or continuous pump and thermal exchangers). On the basis of the patient's initialisation data (height, weight, Ht) and perfusion variables (pump flow rate, water temperature, gas flow rate and composition) imposed by the operator, the virtual ECC monitors <span class="hlt">simulated</span> arterial and venous pressure tracings in real time, along with arterial and venous flow rate tracings, urine production tracing and temperature levels. Oxyhemoglobin arterial and venous blood saturation together with other related variables (pO2, pCO2, pH, HCO3 are also monitored. A drug model which allows the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the effect of vasodilator and diuretic drugs is also implemented. Alarms are provided in order to check which variables (pressure, saturation, pH, urine flow) are out of the expected ranges during the ECC <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Consequently the possibility of modifying the control parameters of the virtual devices of the ECC in run-time mode offers an interaction mode between the operator and the virtual environment. PMID:9259211</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918518','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918518"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Tumor Cells by Fluorescent Immunohistochemistry in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Potential Clinical <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Shu-Ping; Guan, Quan-Lin; Zhao, Da; Pei, Guang-Jun; Su, Hong-Xin; Du, Lan-Ning; He, Jin-Xiang; Liu, Zhao-Chen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that leave the primary tumor site and enter the bloodstream, where they can spread to other organs; they are very important in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of malignant tumors. However, few studies have investigated CTCs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the CTCs in blood of ESCC patients and its potential relevance to clinicopathological features and prognosis. Material/Methods CTCs were acquired by a negative enrichment method that used magnetic activated cell sorting (MACSTM). Fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to identify the CTCs. Then, the positive CTC patients with ESCC were analyzed, after which the relationship between CTCs and clinicopathologic features was evaluated. Results In the present study, 62 out of 140 (44.3%) patients with ESCC were positive for CTCs. The positive rate of CTCs was significantly related with stage of ESCC patients (P=0.013). However, there was no relationship between CTC status and age, sex, smoking tumor history, tumor location, differentiation of tumor, lymphatic invasion, or lymph venous invasion (P>0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients positive for CTCs had significantly shorter survival time than patients negative for CTCs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that stage and CTC status were significant prognostic factors for patients with ESCC. Conclusions CTCs positivity is an independent prognostic biomarker that indicates a worse prognosis for patients with ESCC. PMID:27184872</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4931450','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4931450"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of flat panel OLED display technology for the point-of-care detection of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> cancer biomarkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katchman, Benjamin A.; Smith, Joseph T.; Obahiagbon, Uwadiae; Kesiraju, Sailaja; Lee, Yong-Kyun; O’Brien, Barry; Kaftanoglu, Korhan; Blain Christen, Jennifer; Anderson, Karen S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Point-of-care molecular diagnostics can provide efficient and cost-effective medical care, and they have the potential to fundamentally change our approach to global health. However, most existing approaches are not scalable to include multiple biomarkers. As a solution, we have combined commercial flat panel OLED display technology with protein microarray technology to enable high-density fluorescent, programmable, multiplexed biorecognition in a compact and disposable configuration with clinical-level sensitivity. Our approach leverages advances in commercial display technology to reduce pre-functionalized biosensor substrate costs to pennies per cm2. Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to multiple viral antigens in patient serum samples with detection limits for human IgG in the 10 pg/mL range. We also demonstrate multiplexed detection of antibodies to the HPV16 proteins E2, E6, and E7, which are <span class="hlt">circulating</span> biomarkers for cervical as well as head and neck cancers. PMID:27374875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6613065','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6613065"><span id="translatedtitle">A class of the van Leer-type transport schemes and its <span class="hlt">application</span> to the moisture transport in a general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, Shian-Jiann; Chao, W.C.; Sud, Y.C.; Walker, G.K. )</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>A generalized form of the second-order van Leer transport scheme is derived. Several constraints to the implied subgrid linear distribution are discussed. A very simple positive-definite scheme can be derived directly from the generalized form. A monotonic version of these scheme is applied to the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (GCM) for the moisture transport calculations, replacing the original fourth-order center-differencing scheme. Comparisons with the original scheme are made in idealized tests as well as in a summer climate <span class="hlt">simulation</span> using the full GLA GCM. A distinct advantage of the monotonic transport scheme is its ability to transport sharp gradients without producing spurious oscillations and unphysical negative mixing ratio. Within the context of low-resolution climate <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, the aforementioned characteristics are demonstrated to be very beneficial in regions where cumulus convection is active. The model-produced precipitation pattern using the new transport scheme is more coherently organized both in time and in space, and correlates better with observations. The side effect of the filling algorithm used in conjunction with the original scheme is also discussed, in the context of idealized tests. The major weakness of the proposed transport scheme with a local monotonic constraint is its substantial implicit diffusion at low resolution. Alternative constraints are discussed to counter this problem. 34 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950035425&hterms=1575&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231575','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950035425&hterms=1575&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231575"><span id="translatedtitle">A class of the van Leer-type transport schemes and its <span class="hlt">application</span> to the moisture transport in a general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Shian-Jiann; Chao, Winston C.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A generalized form of the second-order van Leer transport scheme is derived. Several constraints to the implied subgrid linear distribution are discussed. A very simple positive-definite scheme can be derived directly from the generalized form. A monotonic version of the scheme is applied to the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model (GCM) for the moisture transport calculations, replacing the original fourth-order center-differencing scheme. Comparisons with the original scheme are made in idealized tests as well as in a summer climate <span class="hlt">simulation</span> using the full GLA GCM. A distinct advantage of the monotonic transport scheme is its ability to transport sharp gradients without producing spurious oscillations and unphysical negative mixing ratio. Within the context of low-resolution climate <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, the aforementioned characteristics are demonstrated to be very beneficial in regions where cumulus convection is active. The model-produced precipitation pattern using the new transport scheme is more coherently organized both in time and in space, and correlates better with observations. The side effect of the filling algorithm used in conjunction with the original scheme is also discussed, in the context of idealized tests. The major weakness of the proposed transport scheme with a local monotonic constraint is its substantial implicit diffusion at low resolution. Alternative constraints are discussed to counter this problem.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3495369','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3495369"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical <span class="hlt">simulation</span>: Overview, and <span class="hlt">application</span> to wound modelling and management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pai, Dinker R.; Singh, Simerjit</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> in medical education is progressing in leaps and bounds. The need for <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in medical education and training is increasing because of a) overall increase in the number of medical students vis-à-vis the availability of patients; b) increasing awareness among patients of their rights and consequent increase in litigations and c) tremendous improvement in <span class="hlt">simulation</span> technology which makes <span class="hlt">simulation</span> more and more realistic. <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> in wound care can be divided into use of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in wound modelling (to test the effect of projectiles on the body) and <span class="hlt">simulation</span> for training in wound management. Though this science is still in its infancy, more and more researchers are now devising both low-technology and high-technology (virtual reality) <span class="hlt">simulators</span> in this field. It is believed that <span class="hlt">simulator</span> training will eventually translate into better wound care in real patients, though this will be the subject of further research. PMID:23162218</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24024964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24024964"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-<span class="hlt">circulating</span> heparin-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for potential <span class="hlt">application</span> as a protein drug delivery platform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jian; Shin, Meong Cheol; David, Allan E; Zhou, Jie; Lee, Kyuri; He, Huining; Yang, Victor C</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Starch-coated, PEGylated, and heparin-functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (DNPH) were successfully synthesized and characterized in detail. The PEGylation (20 kDa) process resulted in an average coating of 430 PEG molecules per nanoparticle. After that, heparin conjugation was carried out to attain the final DNPH platform with 35.4 μg of heparin/mg of Fe. Commercially acquired heparin-coated magnetic nanoparticles were also PEGylated (HP) and characterized for comparison. Protamine was selected as a model protein to demonstrate the strong binding affinity and high loading content of DNPH for therapeutically relevant cationic proteins. DNPH showed a maximum loading of 22.9 μg of protamine/mg of Fe. In the pharmacokinetic study, DNPH displayed a long-<span class="hlt">circulating</span> half-life of 9.37 h, 37.5-fold longer than that (0.15 h) of HP. This improved plasma stability enabled extended exposure of DNPH to the tumor lesions, as was visually confirmed in a flank 9L-glioma mouse model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitative analysis of the Fe content in excised tumor lesions further demonstrated the superior tumor targeting ability of DNPH, with up to 31.36 μg of Fe/g of tissue (13.07% injected dose (I.D.)/g of tissue) and 7.5-fold improvement over that (4.27 μg of Fe/g of tissue; 1.78% I.D./g of tissue) of HP. Overall, this study shed light on the potential of DNPH to be used as a protein drug delivery platform. PMID:24024964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812800','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812800"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-<span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Heparin-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles for Potential <span class="hlt">Application</span> as a Protein Drug Delivery Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jian; Shin, Meong Cheol; David, Allan E.; Zhou, Jie; Lee, Kyuri; He, Huining; Yang, Victor C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Starch-coated, PEGylated and heparin-functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (DNPH) were successfully synthesized and characterized in detail. The PEGylation (20 kDa) process resulted in an average coating of 430 PEG molecules per nanoparticle. After that, heparin conjugation was carried out to attain the final DNPH platform with 35.4 μg of heparin/mg Fe. Commercially acquired heparin-coated magnetic nanoparticles were also PEGylated (HP) and characterized for comparison. Protamine was selected as a model protein to demonstrate the strong binding affinity and high loading content of DNPH for therapeutically relevant cationic proteins. DNPH showed a maximum loading of 22.9 μg protamine/mg Fe. In the pharmacokinetic study, DNPH displayed a long-<span class="hlt">circulating</span> half-life of 9.37 h, 37.5-fold longer than that (0.15 h) of H P. This improved plasma stability enabled extended exposure of DNPH to the tumor lesions, as was visually confirmed in a flank 9L-glioma mouse model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitative analysis of the Fe content in excised tumor lesions further demonstrated the superior tumor targeting ability of DNPH, with up to 31.36 μg Fe/g tissue (13.07% injected dose (I.D.)/g tissue) and 7.5-fold improvement over that (4.27 μg Fe/g tissue; 1.78% I.D./g tissue) of HP. Overall, DNPH shed light of the potential to be used as a protein drug delivery platform. PMID:24024964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26869019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26869019"><span id="translatedtitle">Storage Stability of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Electrolyzed Water and Their Property Changes after <span class="hlt">Application</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xuan, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Meng-Meng; Ahn, Juhee; Ma, Yan-Na; Chen, Shi-Guo; Ye, Xing-Qian; Liu, Dong-Hong; Ding, Tian</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been recognized as an effective bactericidal agent with free chlorine, but its limitations include its instability and its great dependence on equipment. Newly developed <span class="hlt">circulating</span> electrolyzed water (CEW) with a higher available chlorine concentration (ACC) could successfully overcome these limitations. In this study, SAEW (ACC of 20 mg/L), CEW1 (ACC of 200 mg/L), and CEW2 (ACC of 20 mg/L) were evaluated for changes in properties (pH, oxidization reduction potential [ORP], and ACC) during storage in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) and after washing pork and lettuce. Additionally, the washed pork and lettuce were evaluated for total viable counts, pH and general appearance. The results showed that CEW1 with a higher ACC has better stability than SAEW with a lower ACC for the storage and washing experiments, and CEW still remained stable after dilution with distilled water. The property indices of EW were greatly affected for the pork-washing experiments compared with the lettuce-washing experiments, probably due to the existence of alkaline and organic materials on the surface of pork. Furthermore, EWs were more effective for inactivating microbes in lettuce than in pork, while there was no significant difference in tissue pH and the general appearance of pork and lettuce. These findings indicated that CEW with a higher ACC shows potential for reducing foodborne pathogens on pork and lettuce without effects on their physicochemical characteristics, and it can be applied in a diluted form. PMID:26869019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27140556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27140556"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale optical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> settings: challenging <span class="hlt">applications</span> handled with an iterative ray-tracing FDTD interface method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leiner, Claude; Nemitz, Wolfgang; Schweitzer, Susanne; Kuna, Ladislav; Wenzl, Franz P; Hartmann, Paul; Satzinger, Valentin; Sommer, Christian</p> <p>2016-03-20</p> <p>We show that with an appropriate combination of two optical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> techniques-classical ray-tracing and the finite difference time domain method-an optical device containing multiple diffractive and refractive optical elements can be accurately <span class="hlt">simulated</span> in an iterative <span class="hlt">simulation</span> approach. We compare the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results with experimental measurements of the device to discuss the <span class="hlt">applicability</span> and accuracy of our iterative <span class="hlt">simulation</span> procedure. PMID:27140556</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27140556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27140556"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale optical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> settings: challenging <span class="hlt">applications</span> handled with an iterative ray-tracing FDTD interface method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leiner, Claude; Nemitz, Wolfgang; Schweitzer, Susanne; Kuna, Ladislav; Wenzl, Franz P; Hartmann, Paul; Satzinger, Valentin; Sommer, Christian</p> <p>2016-03-20</p> <p>We show that with an appropriate combination of two optical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> techniques-classical ray-tracing and the finite difference time domain method-an optical device containing multiple diffractive and refractive optical elements can be accurately <span class="hlt">simulated</span> in an iterative <span class="hlt">simulation</span> approach. We compare the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results with experimental measurements of the device to discuss the <span class="hlt">applicability</span> and accuracy of our iterative <span class="hlt">simulation</span> procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020412','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020412"><span id="translatedtitle">A theoretical study of the <span class="hlt">application</span> of jet flap <span class="hlt">circulation</span> control for reduction of rotor vibratory forces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Piziali, R. A.; Trenka, A. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The results of a study to investigate the theoretical potential of a jet-flap control system for reducing the vertical and horizontal non-cancelling helicopter rotor blade root shears are presented. A computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span> describing the jet-flap control rotor system was developed to examine the reduction of each harmonic of the transmitted shears as a function of various rotor and jet parameters, rotor operating conditions and rotor configurations. The computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the air-loads included the influences of nonuniform inflow and blade elastic motions. (no hub motions were allowed.) The rotor trim and total rotor power (including jet compressor power) were also determined. It was found that all harmonics of the transmitted horizontal and vertical shears could be suppressed simultaneously using a single jet control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/504727','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/504727"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> techniques for internal corrosion prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Palacios T, C.A.; Hernandez, Y.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>Characterization of corrosion in the oil and gas industry is becoming of increasing importance for safety reasons as well as for the preservation of production facilities; to prevent down time and damage to the environment. This article presents the methodology used by this company to characterize the corrosion behavior of the whole production facility, taking into consideration the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic conditions of the produced fluids (flow velocities, flow pattern, liquid holdup, pressure, temperature, etc.) as they flow from the reservoir through the surface installations (flowlines, gas/oil gathering and transmission lines, gas processing plants, artificial lift systems, etc.). The methodology uses Petroleum Engineering and Two-Phase modeling techniques to: (1) optimize the entire production system to obtain the most efficient objective flow rate taking into consideration the corrosive/erosive nature of the produced fluid and (2) characterize the corrosive nature of the produced fluid as it flows through the above mentioned installations. The modeling techniques were performed using commercially available <span class="hlt">simulators</span> and CO{sub 2} corrosion rates were determined using well known published correlations. For H{sub 2}S corrosion, NACE MR0175 criteria is applied. The <span class="hlt">application</span> of this methodology has allowed corrosion control strategies, protection and monitoring criteria, inhibitor optimization and increased the effectiveness of already existing corrosion control systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531515"><span id="translatedtitle">Large eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span> modelling of combustion for propulsion <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fureby, C</p> <p>2009-07-28</p> <p>Predictive modelling of turbulent combustion is important for the development of air-breathing engines, internal combustion engines, furnaces and for power generation. Significant advances in modelling non-reactive turbulent flows are now possible with the development of large eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span> (LES), in which the large energetic scales of the flow are resolved on the grid while modelling the effects of the small scales. Here, we discuss the use of combustion LES in predictive modelling of propulsion <span class="hlt">applications</span> such as gas turbine, ramjet and scramjet engines. The LES models used are described in some detail and are validated against laboratory data-of which results from two cases are presented. These validated LES models are then applied to an annular multi-burner gas turbine combustor and a simplified scramjet combustor, for which some additional experimental data are available. For these cases, good agreement with the available reference data is obtained, and the LES predictions are used to elucidate the flow physics in such devices to further enhance our knowledge of these propulsion systems. Particular attention is focused on the influence of the combustion chemistry, turbulence-chemistry interaction, self-ignition, flame holding burner-to-burner interactions and combustion oscillations. PMID:19531515</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15742665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15742665"><span id="translatedtitle">Fundamentals of force feedback and <span class="hlt">application</span> to a surgery <span class="hlt">simulator</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maass, Heiko; Chantier, Benjamin B A; Cakmak, Hueseyin K; Trantakis, Christos; Kuehnapfel, Uwe G</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Force feedback increases the effectiveness of virtual-reality surgery training systems. An overview of the fundamentals of applying force feedback is presented. An impedance control technique and data processing methods for stability preservation are illustrated. A flexible interface for general force-feedback <span class="hlt">applications</span> has been developed. This interface is capable of controlling several different force-feedback hardware systems, including the SensAble PHANTOM, the Laparoscopic Impulse Engines from Immersion, and the VS-One virtual endoscopic surgery trainer. The findings are evaluated using the main <span class="hlt">simulation</span> system, KISMET, and the modeling tools KISMO and VESUV. Within the scope of a cooperative project called HapticIO (funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research [BMBF]), new haptic devices have been designed for virtual neuroendoscopy and laparoscopy. The concept and implementations presented in this paper have been found to be flexible, stable and suitable for universal use. The impedance method, combined with the open-loop feed-forward control technique, is well suited and appropriate for the task.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4961398','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4961398"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Tumor DNA as a Non-Invasive Tool for Monitoring the Progression of Colorectal Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guan, Yanfang; Yang, Ling; Xia, Xuefeng; Cui, Liqiang; Yi, Xin; Lin, Guole</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Liquid biopsy has been proposed to be a promising noninvasive tool to obtain information on tumor progression. Through a clinical observation of a case series of 6 consecutive patients, we aim to determine the value of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumor DNA (ctDNA) for monitoring the tumor burden during the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and Methods We used capture sequencing of 545 genes to identify somatic alternations in primary tumor tissues of the six CRC patients who underwent radical surgery and in 23 plasma samples collected at serial time points. We compared the mutation patterns and variant allele frequencies (VAFs) between the matched tissue and the plasma samples and evaluated the potential advantage of using ctDNA as a better tumor load indicator to detect disease relapse over carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen (CA) 19–9 and imaging studies. Results We identified low-frequency mutations with a mean VAF of 0.88% (corresponding to a mean tumor burden of 0.20ng/mL) in the preoperative plasmas of four patients with locally advanced CRC and a subset of mutations shared by their primary tumors. The tumor loads appeared a sudden decrease upon surgery or other adjuvant treatments and then generally maintained at low levels (0.092ng/mL) until disease recurred. ctDNA increased by 13-fold when disease relapsed in one patient while the CEA and CA 19–9 levels remained normal. In this patient, all six somatic mutations identified in the preoperative plasma were detected in the recrudescent plasma again, with five mutations showing allele fraction increase. Conclusions We described a multi-time-point profile of ctDNA of CRC patients during the course of comprehensive treatment and observed a correlation of ctDNA level with the clinically evaluated tumor progression. This demonstrated a new strategy by analyzing the heterogeneous ctDNA to evaluate and monitor the tumor burden in the treatment and follow-up of CRC patients, with potentially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8753G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8753G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of morphodinamic processes in small coastal systems: <span class="hlt">application</span> to the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André B.; Oliveira, Anabela; Bertin, Xavier; Bruneau, Nicolas; Rodrigues, Marta</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p> models ELCIRC and SWAN for making their source codes available and Guillaume Dodet for providing the time-series of wave spectra. The first author is grateful to Prof. João Dias for the orientation provided during this work. This research would not have been be possible without the participants in the field campaigns: R. Taborda, C. Andrade, C. Freitas, A.M. Silva, C. Antunes (Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa), L. David, P. Freire, R. Capitão, C.J.E.M Fortes, L.S. Pedro, J. Vale, A. Nahon, D. Neves, C. Zózimo, L. Pinheiro (LNEC), A. Cravo, M. Rosa, C. Monteiro, S. Cardeira and C. Loureiro (Universidade do Algarve). The authors are grateful for all the effort and support. References Bertin, X., Oliveira, A. and Fortunato, A.B. 2009. <span class="hlt">Simulating</span> morphodynamics with unstructured grids: description and validation of a modeling system for coastal <span class="hlt">applications</span>, Ocean Modelling, 28/1-3: 75-87. Booij, N., Ris, R.C. and Holthuijsen, L.H., 1999. A third generation wave model for coastal regions; Part I: model description and validation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104: 7649-7666. Dodet, G., Bertin, X. and Taborda, R. 2010. Wave climate variability in the North-East Atlantic Ocean over the last six decades, Ocean Modelling, 31: 120 - 131. Fortunato, A.B. and Oliveira, A. 2004. A modeling system for tidally driven long-term morphodynamics, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 42/4: 426-434. Zhang, Y.-L., Baptista, A.M. and Myers, E. P. 2004. A cross-scale model for 3D baroclinic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in estuary-plume-shelf systems: I. Formulation and skill assessment, Continental Shelf Research, 24/18: 2187-2214.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800023518','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800023518"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric turbulence <span class="hlt">simulation</span> techniques with <span class="hlt">application</span> to flight analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, S. T.; Frost, W.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Statistical modeling of atmospheric turbulence is discussed. The statistical properties of atmospheric turbulence, in particular the probability distribution, the spectra, and the coherence are reviewed. Different atmospheric turbulence <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models are investigated, and appropriate statistical analyses are carried out to verify their validity. The models for <span class="hlt">simulation</span> are incorporated into a computer model of aircraft flight dynamics. Statistical results of computer <span class="hlt">simulated</span> landings for an aircraft having characteristics of a DC-8 are reported for the different turbulence <span class="hlt">simulation</span> techniques. The significance of various degrees of sophistication in the turbulence <span class="hlt">simulation</span> techniques on the landing performance of the aircraft is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/850513','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/850513"><span id="translatedtitle">Finial Scientific/Technical Report: <span class="hlt">Application</span> of a <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> Fluidized Bed Process for the Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dr. Wei-Ping Pan; Dr. John T. Riley</p> <p>2005-10-10</p> <p>Chemical Looping Combustion is a novel combustion technology for the inherent separation of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}. In 1983, Richter and Knoche proposed reversible combustion, which utilized both the oxidation and reduction of metal. Metal associated with its oxidized form as an oxygen carrier was <span class="hlt">circulated</span> between two reactors--oxidizer and reducer. In the reducer, the solid oxygen carrier reacts with the fuel to produce CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and elemental metal only. Pure CO{sub 2} will be obtained in the exit gas stream from the reducer after H{sub 2}O is condensed. The pure CO{sub 2} is ready for subsequent sequestration. In the oxidizer, the elemental metal reacts with air to form metal oxide and separate oxygen from nitrogen. Only nitrogen and some unused oxygen are emitted from the oxidizer. The advantage of CLC compared to normal combustion is that CO{sub 2} is not diluted with nitrogen but obtained in a relatively pure form without any energy needed for separation. In addition to the energy-free purification of CO{sub 2}, the CLC process also provides two other benefits. First, NO{sub x} formation can be largely eliminated. Secondly, the thermal efficiency of a CLC system is very high. Presently, the CLC process has only been used with natural gas. An oxygen carrier based on an energy balance analysis and thermodynamics analysis was selected. Copper (Cu) seems to be the best choice for the CLC system for solid fuels. From this project, the mechanisms of CuO reduction by solid fuels may be as follows: (1) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are available, reduction of CuO could start at about 400 C or less. (2) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are unavailable and the reduction temperature is lower, reduction of CuO could occur at an onset temperature of about 500 C, char gasification reactivity in CO{sub 2} was lower at lower temperatures. (3) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are unavailable and the reduction temperature is higher than 750 C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7143B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7143B"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea <span class="hlt">circulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beg Paklar, Gordana; Sepic, Jadranka; Grbec, Branka; Dzoic, Tomislav; Kovac, Zarko; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented in order to reproduce interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> and model result analysis were performed for a three-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and Mediterranean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> imposed at the southern open boundary. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. Model results were compared with available CTD and ADCP measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas. Interannual variability in the Adriatic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the Otranto Strait. Basic features of the Adriatic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> - basin-wide cyclonic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> with several embedded smaller cyclonic gyres around main pits - are well reproduced by ROMS model. Modelled temperatures and salinities are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although measured profiles generally indicate stronger stratification than modelled ones. Summer <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in 2011 with current reversal obtained along the eastern Adriatic coast was related to the sampling results of the early fish stages as well as to ARGO drifter movements. <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> fields from the Adriatic scale model were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for the interannual <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in the middle Adriatic coastal domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738U0071Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738U0071Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of uncertainties for <span class="hlt">application</span> in detonation <span class="hlt">simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Miao; Ma, Zhibo</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> has become an important means in designing detonation systems, and the quantification of its uncertainty is also necessary to reliability certification. As to quantifying the uncertainty, it is the most important to analyze how the uncertainties occur and develop, and how the <span class="hlt">simulations</span> develop from benchmark models to new models. Based on the practical needs of engineering and the technology of verification & validation, a framework of QU(quantification of uncertainty) is brought forward in the case that <span class="hlt">simulation</span> is used on detonation system for scientific prediction. An example is offered to describe the general idea of quantification of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910017786','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910017786"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Applications</span> of formal <span class="hlt">simulation</span> languages in the control and monitoring subsystems of Space Station Freedom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lacovara, R. C.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The notions, benefits, and drawbacks of numeric <span class="hlt">simulation</span> are introduced. Two formal <span class="hlt">simulation</span> languages, Simpscript and Modsim are introduced. The capabilities of each are discussed briefly, and then the two programs are compared. The use of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in the process of design engineering for the Control and Monitoring System (CMS) for Space Station Freedom is discussed. The <span class="hlt">application</span> of the formal <span class="hlt">simulation</span> language to the CMS design is presented, and recommendations are made as to their use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JIPM...31..239T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JIPM...31..239T"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of the KOSMS management <span class="hlt">simulation</span> training system and its <span class="hlt">application</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takatsu, Yoshiki</p> <p></p> <p>The use of games which <span class="hlt">simulate</span> actual corporate management has recently become more common and is now utilized in various ways for in-house corporate training courses. KOSMS (Kobe Steel Management <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> System), a training system designed to help improve the management skills of senior management staff, is a unique management <span class="hlt">simulation</span> training system in which the participants, using personal computers, must make decisions concerning a variety of management activities, in <span class="hlt">simulated</span> competition with other corporations. This report outlines the KOSMS system, and describes the basic structure and detailed contents of the management <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models, and actual <span class="hlt">application</span> of the KOSMS management <span class="hlt">simulation</span> training.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mental+AND+Practice&pg=3&id=EJ843052','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mental+AND+Practice&pg=3&id=EJ843052"><span id="translatedtitle">Prospective Educational <span class="hlt">Applications</span> of Mental <span class="hlt">Simulation</span>: A Meta-Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>van Meer, Josephine P.; Theunissen, Nicolet C. M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on the potential of mental <span class="hlt">simulation</span> (mentally rehearsing an action to enhance performance) as a useful contemporary educational method. By means of a meta-review, it is examined which conditions impede or facilitate the effectiveness of mental <span class="hlt">simulation</span> (MS). A computer search was conducted using Ovid PsycINFO. Reviews,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014acm..conf..440R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014acm..conf..440R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Applications</span> of granular-dynamics numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> to asteroid surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, D. C.; Michel, P.; Schwartz, S. R.; Yu, Y.; Ballouz, R.-L.; Matsumura, S.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a totally different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). (1) We carried out impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes under Earth's gravity [5] and compared the results to laboratory experiments [6] in support of JAXA's Hayabusa 2 asteroid sample-return mission. We tested different projectile shapes and confirmed that the 90-degree cone was the most efficient at excavating mass when impacting 5-mm-diameter glass beads. Results are sensitive to the normal coefficient of restitution and the coefficient of static friction. Preliminary experiments in micro-gravity for similar impact conditions show both the amount of ejected mass and the timescale of the impact process increase, as expected. (2) It has been found (e.g., [7,8]) that ''fresh'' (unreddened) Q-class asteroids have a high probability of recent planetary encounters (˜1 Myr; also see [9]), suggesting that surface refreshening may have occurred due to tidal effects. As an <span class="hlt">application</span> of the potential effect of tidal interactions, we carried out <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of Apophis' predicted 2029 encounter with the Earth to see whether regolith motion might occur, using a range of plausible material parameters</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......149L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......149L"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation <span class="hlt">simulation</span> for compliant sheet metal assemblies with <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Long, Yufeng</p> <p></p> <p>Sheet metals are widely used in discrete products, such as automobiles, aircraft, furniture and electronics appliances, due to their good manufacturability and low cost. A typical automotive body assembly consists of more than 300 parts welded together in more than 200 assembly fixture stations. Such an assembly system is usually quite complex, and takes a long time to develop. As the automotive customer demands products of increasing quality in a shorter time, engineers in automotive industry turn to computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools for help. Computers are an invaluable resource for engineers, not only to simplify and automate the design process, but also to share design specifications with manufacturing groups so that production systems can be tooled up quickly and efficiently. Therefore, it is beneficial to develop computerized <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and evaluation tools for development of automotive body assembly systems. It is a well-known fact that assembly architectures (joints, fixtures, and assembly lines) have a profound impact on dimensional quality of compliant sheet metal assemblies. To evaluate sheet metal assembly architectures, a special dimensional analysis tool need be developed for predicting dimensional variation of the assembly. Then, the corresponding systematic tools can be established to help engineers select the assembly architectures. In this dissertation, a unified variation model is developed to predict variation in compliant sheet metal assemblies by considering fixture-induced rigid-body motion, deformation and springback. Based on the unified variation model, variation propagation models in multiple assembly stations with various configurations are established. To evaluate the dimensional capability of assembly architectures, quantitative indices are proposed based on the sensitivity matrix, which are independent of the variation level of the process. Examples are given to demonstrate their <span class="hlt">applications</span> in selecting robust assembly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26238790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26238790"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel <span class="hlt">simulator</span> for mechanical ventilation in newborns: MEchatronic REspiratory System <span class="hlt">SImulator</span> for Neonatal <span class="hlt">Applications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baldoli, Ilaria; Cuttano, Armando; Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Tognarelli, Selene; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Cecchi, Francesca; Gentile, Marzia; Sigali, Emilio; Laschi, Cecilia; Ghirri, Paolo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Boldrini, Antonio</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Respiratory problems are among the main causes of mortality for preterm newborns with pulmonary diseases; mechanical ventilation provides standard care, but long-term complications are still largely reported. In this framework, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage assistance devices. However, commercially available neonatal respiratory <span class="hlt">simulators</span> are rarely suitable for representing anatomical and physiological conditions; a step toward high-fidelity <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, therefore, is essential for nurses and neonatologists to acquire the practice needed without any risk. An innovative multi-compartmental infant respirator <span class="hlt">simulator</span> based on a five-lobe model was developed to reproduce different physio-pathological conditions in infants and to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> many different kinds of clinical scenarios. The work consisted of three phases: (1) a theoretical study and modeling phase, (2) a prototyping phase, and (3) testing of the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> software during training courses. The neonatal pulmonary <span class="hlt">simulator</span> produced allows the replication and evaluation of different mechanical ventilation modalities in infants suffering from many different kinds of respiratory physio-pathological conditions. In particular, the system provides variable compliances for each lobe in an independent manner and different resistance levels for the airway branches; moreover, it allows the trainer to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> both autonomous and mechanically assisted respiratory cycles in newborns. The developed and tested <span class="hlt">simulator</span> is a significant contribution to the field of medical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in neonatology, as it makes it possible to choose the best ventilation strategy and to perform fully aware management of ventilation parameters. PMID:26238790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NanoC...3...16D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NanoC...3...16D"><span id="translatedtitle">TiO2 based nanostructured memristor for RRAM and neuromorphic <span class="hlt">applications</span>: a <span class="hlt">simulation</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dongale, T. D.; Patil, P. J.; Desai, N. K.; Chougule, P. P.; Kumbhar, S. M.; Waifalkar, P. P.; Patil, P. B.; Vhatkar, R. S.; Takale, M. V.; Gaikwad, P. K.; Kamat, R. K.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We report <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of nanostructured memristor device using piecewise linear and nonlinear window functions for RRAM and neuromorphic <span class="hlt">applications</span>. The linear drift model of memristor has been exploited for the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> purpose with the linear and non-linear window function as the mathematical and scripting basis. The results evidences that the piecewise linear window function can aptly <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the memristor characteristics pertaining to RRAM <span class="hlt">application</span>. However, the nonlinear window function could exhibit the nonlinear phenomenon in <span class="hlt">simulation</span> only at the lower magnitude of control parameter. This has motivated us to propose a new nonlinear window function for emulating the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> model of the memristor. Interestingly, the proposed window function is scalable up to f( x) = 1 and exhibits the nonlinear behavior at higher magnitude of control parameter. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results of proposed nonlinear window function are encouraging and reveals the smooth nonlinear change from LRS to HRS and vice versa and therefore useful for the neuromorphic <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750015043&hterms=biological+indicators&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbiological%2Bindicators','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750015043&hterms=biological+indicators&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbiological%2Bindicators"><span id="translatedtitle">Blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> under weightless conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.; Yazdovskiy, V. I.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Biomedical data obtained on men and animals during weightlessness conditions establish instabilities in pulse rate and blood <span class="hlt">circulation</span> that smooth out in proportion to adaptation to the weightless condition. The unusual slowness of recovery of pulse rate to initial values after space flight stress is attributed to biological <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of hormonal shifts and discharge of humoral substances into the blood that prevent a rapid recovery of some biological indicators to initial values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1033459','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1033459"><span id="translatedtitle">Aggregate Building <span class="hlt">Simulator</span> (ABS) Methodology Development, <span class="hlt">Application</span>, and User Manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.</p> <p>2011-11-30</p> <p>As the relationship between the national building stock and various global energy issues becomes a greater concern, it has been deemed necessary to develop a system of predicting the energy consumption of large groups of buildings. Ideally this system is to take advantage of the most advanced energy <span class="hlt">simulation</span> software available, be able to execute runs quickly, and provide concise and useful results at a level of detail that meets the users needs without inundating them with data. The resulting methodology that was developed allows the user to quickly develop and execute energy <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of many buildings simultaneously, taking advantage of parallel processing to greatly reduce total <span class="hlt">simulation</span> times. The result of these <span class="hlt">simulations</span> can then be rapidly condensed and presented in a useful and intuitive manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JTAM...44...45K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JTAM...44...45K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of Metamodelling Techniques for Mechanized Tunnel <span class="hlt">Simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khaledi, Kavan; Schanz, Tom; Miro, Shorash</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Complex engineering problems require using computation- ally expensive <span class="hlt">simulations</span> which take relatively long time. In such cases, routine tasks such as design optimization, parameter identification, or sensitivity analysis become impractical since they require thousands or even millions of <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. A common practice for engineers to solve this problem is to use metamodels in place of actual <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models. In this paper, we investigate the performance of four metamodelling approaches, namely, Response Surface Methodology, Moving Least Squares, POD-RBF, and Neighborhood Approximation considering the effect of sample size and sampling methods. Our main goal in this work is to find a reliable and robust metamodel technique in order to construct an approximated function for mechanized tunnel <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. For this reason, a numerical study is carried out on a 3D tunnel modeled in Plaxis3D and the accuracy and robustness of the aforementioned metamodelling techniques are discussed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Pharmacokinetics&pg=3&id=EJ219834','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Pharmacokinetics&pg=3&id=EJ219834"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Applications</span> of a Pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Program in Pharmacy Courses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ingram, D.; And Others</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Presents a multicompartment model which illustrates aspects of drug absorption, distribution, and elimination in the human body for a course in pharmacokinetics. The course work consists of the interpretation of computer generated <span class="hlt">simulated</span> data. (Author/CMV)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5014390','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5014390"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic and Thermal <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of Human Neurons for SAR <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Perez, Felipe; Millholland, Gilbert; Peddinti, Seshasai Vamsi Krishna; Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher; Morisaki, Jorge; Rizkalla, Maher E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The impact of the electromagnetic waves (EM) on human neurons (HN) has been under investigation for decades, in efforts to understand the impact of cell phones (radiation) on human health, or radiation absorption by HN for medical diagnosis and treatment. Research issues including the wave frequency, power intensity, reflections and scattering, and penetration depths are of important considerations to be incorporated into the research study. In this study, computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span> for the EM exposure to HN was studied for the purpose of determining the upper limits of the electric and magnetic field intensities, power consumption, reflections and transmissions, and the change in temperature resulting from the power absorption by human neurons. Both high frequency structural <span class="hlt">simulators</span> (HFSS) from ANSYS software, and COMSOL multi-physics were used for the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the EM transmissions and reflections, and the temperature profile within the cells, respectively. For the temperature profile estimation, the study considers an electrical source of 0.5 watt input power, 64 MHz. The EM <span class="hlt">simulation</span> was looking into the uniformity of the fields within the sample cells. The size of the waveguide was set to be appropriate for a small animal model to be conducted in the future. The incident power was fully transmitted throughout the waveguide, and less than 1% reflections were observed from the <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. The minimum reflected power near the sample under investigation was found to be with negligible reflected field strengths. The temperature profile resulting from the COMSOL <span class="hlt">simulation</span> was found to be near 0.25 m°K, indicating no change in temperature on the neuro cells under the EM exposure. The paper details the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results for the EM response determined by HFSS, and temperature profile <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by COMSOL. PMID:27617054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5014390','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5014390"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic and Thermal <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> of Human Neurons for SAR <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Perez, Felipe; Millholland, Gilbert; Peddinti, Seshasai Vamsi Krishna; Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher; Morisaki, Jorge; Rizkalla, Maher E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The impact of the electromagnetic waves (EM) on human neurons (HN) has been under investigation for decades, in efforts to understand the impact of cell phones (radiation) on human health, or radiation absorption by HN for medical diagnosis and treatment. Research issues including the wave frequency, power intensity, reflections and scattering, and penetration depths are of important considerations to be incorporated into the research study. In this study, computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span> for the EM exposure to HN was studied for the purpose of determining the upper limits of the electric and magnetic field intensities, power consumption, reflections and transmissions, and the change in temperature resulting from the power absorption by human neurons. Both high frequency structural <span class="hlt">simulators</span> (HFSS) from ANSYS software, and COMSOL multi-physics were used for the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the EM transmissions and reflections, and the temperature profile within the cells, respectively. For the temperature profile estimation, the study considers an electrical source of 0.5 watt input power, 64 MHz. The EM <span class="hlt">simulation</span> was looking into the uniformity of the fields within the sample cells. The size of the waveguide was set to be appropriate for a small animal model to be conducted in the future. The incident power was fully transmitted throughout the waveguide, and less than 1% reflections were observed from the <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. The minimum reflected power near the sample under investigation was found to be with negligible reflected field strengths. The temperature profile resulting from the COMSOL <span class="hlt">simulation</span> was found to be near 0.25 m°K, indicating no change in temperature on the neuro cells under the EM exposure. The paper details the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results for the EM response determined by HFSS, and temperature profile <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by COMSOL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5071...63B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5071...63B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of cyber attacks with <span class="hlt">applications</span> in homeland defense training</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, Bill; Cutts, Andrew; McGrath, Dennis; Nicol, David M.; Smith, Timothy P.; Tofel, Brett</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>We describe a tool to help exercise and train IT managers who make decisions about IP networks in the midst of cyber calamity. Our tool is interactive, centered around a network <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. It includes various modes of communications one would use to make informed decisions. Our tool is capable of <span class="hlt">simulating</span> networks with hundreds of components and dozens of players. Test indicate that it could support an exercise an order of magnitude larger and more complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCoPh.313..352M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCoPh.313..352M"><span id="translatedtitle">Emulation of dynamic <span class="hlt">simulators</span> with <span class="hlt">application</span> to hydrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Machac, David; Reichert, Peter; Albert, Carlo</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Many <span class="hlt">simulation</span>-intensive tasks in the applied sciences, such as sensitivity analysis, parameter inference or real time control, are hampered by slow <span class="hlt">simulators</span>. Emulators provide the opportunity of speeding up <span class="hlt">simulations</span> at the cost of introducing some inaccuracy. An emulator is a fast approximation to a <span class="hlt">simulator</span> that interpolates between design input-output pairs of the <span class="hlt">simulator</span>. Increasing the number of design data sets is a computationally demanding way of improving the accuracy of emulation. We investigate the complementary approach of increasing emulation accuracy by including knowledge about the mechanisms of the <span class="hlt">simulator</span> into the formulation of the emulator. To approximately reproduce the output of dynamic <span class="hlt">simulators</span>, we consider emulators that are based on a system of linear, ordinary or partial stochastic differential equations with a noise term formulated as a Gaussian process of the parameters to be emulated. This stochastic model is then conditioned to the design data so that it mimics the behavior of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">simulator</span> as a function of the parameters. The drift terms of the linear model are designed to provide a simplified description of the <span class="hlt">simulator</span> as a function of its key parameters so that the required corrections by the conditioned Gaussian process noise are as small as possible. The goal of this paper is to compare the gain in accuracy of these emulators by enlarging the design data set and by varying the degree of simplification of the linear model. We apply this framework to a <span class="hlt">simulator</span> for the shallow water equations in a channel and compare emulation accuracy for emulators based on different spatial discretization levels of the channel and for a standard non-mechanistic emulator. Our results indicate that we have a large gain in accuracy already when using the simplest mechanistic description by a single linear reservoir to formulate the drift term of the linear model. Adding some more reservoirs does not lead to a significant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1031696','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1031696"><span id="translatedtitle">Pebble-bed pebble motion: <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> and <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Pebble bed reactors (PBR) have moving graphite fuel pebbles. This unique feature provides advantages, but also means that <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the reactor requires understanding the typical motion and location of the granular flow of pebbles. This report presents a method for <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. A new mechanical motion <span class="hlt">simulator</span>, PEBBLES, efficiently <span class="hlt">simulates</span> the key elements of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. This model <span class="hlt">simulates</span> gravitational force and contact forces including kinetic and true static friction. It's used for a variety of tasks including <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the effect of earthquakes on a PBR, calculation of packing fractions, Dancoff factors, pebble wear and the pebble force on the walls. The <span class="hlt">simulator</span> includes a new differential static friction model for the varied geometries of PBRs. A new static friction benchmark was devised via analytically solving the mechanics equations to determine the minimum pebble-to-pebble friction and pebble-to-surface friction for a five pebble pyramid. This pyramid check as well as a comparison to the Janssen formula was used to test the new static friction equations. Because larger pebble bed <span class="hlt">simulations</span> involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and long periods of time, the PEBBLES code has been parallelized. PEBBLES runs on shared memory architectures and distributed memory architectures. For the shared memory architecture, the code uses a new O(n) lock-less parallel collision detection algorithm to determine which pebbles are likely to be in contact. The new collision detection algorithm improves on the traditional non-parallel O(n log(n)) collision detection algorithm. These features combine to form a fast parallel pebble motion <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. The PEBBLES code provides new capabilities for understanding and optimizing PBRs. The PEBBLES code has provided the pebble motion data required to calculate the motion of pebbles during a <span class="hlt">simulated</span> earthquake. The PEBBLES code provides the ability to determine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870013769','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870013769"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Applications</span> and requirements for real-time <span class="hlt">simulators</span> in ground-test facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arpasi, Dale J.; Blech, Richard A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This report relates <span class="hlt">simulator</span> functions and capabilities to the operation of ground test facilities, in general. The potential benefits of having a <span class="hlt">simulator</span> are described to aid in the selection of desired <span class="hlt">applications</span> for a specific facility. Configuration options for integrating a <span class="hlt">simulator</span> into the facility control system are discussed, and a logical approach to configuration selection based on desired <span class="hlt">applications</span> is presented. The functional and data path requirements to support selected <span class="hlt">applications</span> and configurations are defined. Finally, practical considerations for implementation (i.e., available hardware and costs) are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4483097','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4483097"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Circulating</span> glioma biomarkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kros, Johan M.; Mustafa, Dana M.; Dekker, Lennard J.M.; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A.E.; Luider, Theo M.; Zheng, Ping-Pin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Validated biomarkers for patients suffering from gliomas are urgently needed for standardizing measurements of the effects of treatment in daily clinical practice and trials. <span class="hlt">Circulating</span> body fluids offer easily accessible sources for such markers. This review highlights various categories of tumor-associated <span class="hlt">circulating</span> biomarkers identified in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of glioma patients, including <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumor cells, exosomes, nucleic acids, proteins, and oncometabolites. The validation and potential clinical utility of these biomarkers is briefly discussed. Although many candidate <span class="hlt">circulating</span> protein biomarkers were reported, none of these have reached the required validation to be introduced for clinical practice. Recent developments in tracing <span class="hlt">circulating</span> tumor cells and their derivatives as exosomes and <span class="hlt">circulating</span> nuclear acids may become more successful in providing useful biomarkers. It is to be expected that current technical developments will contribute to the finding and validation of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> biomarkers. PMID:25253418</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032408&hterms=Astrophysics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DAstrophysics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032408&hterms=Astrophysics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DAstrophysics"><span id="translatedtitle">Results from Binary Black Hole <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> in Astrophysics <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, John G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Present and planned gravitational wave observatories are opening a new astronomical window to the sky. A key source of gravitational waves is the merger of two black holes. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in particular, is expected to observe these events with signal-to-noise ratio's in the thousands. To fully reap the scientific benefits of these observations requires a detailed understanding, based on numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, of the predictions of General Relativity for the waveform signals. New techniques for <span class="hlt">simulating</span> binary black hole mergers, introduced two years ago, have led to dramatic advances in applied numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> work. Over the last two years, numerical relativity researchers have made tremendous strides in understanding the late stages of binary black hole mergers. <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> have been applied to test much of the basic physics of binary black hole interactions, showing robust results for merger waveform predictions, and illuminating such phenomena as spin-precession. Calculations have shown that merging systems can be kicked at up to 2500 km/s by the thrust from asymmetric emission. Recently, long lasting <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of ten or more orbits allow tests of post-Newtonian (PN) approximation results for radiation from the last orbits of the binary's inspiral. Already, analytic waveform models based PN techniques with incorporated information from numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> may be adequate for observations with current ground based observatories. As new advances in <span class="hlt">simulations</span> continue to rapidly improve our theoretical understanding of the systems, it seems certain that high-precision predictions will be available in time for LISA and other advanced ground-based instruments. Future gravitational wave observatories are expected to make precision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPA.799..159N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPA.799..159N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of PHOTON <span class="hlt">simulation</span> software on calibration of HPGe detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikolic, J.; Puzovic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Rajacic, M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>One of the major difficulties in gamma spectrometry of voluminous environmental samples is the efficiency calibration of the detectors used for the measurement. The direct measurement of different calibration sources, containing isolated γ-ray emitters within the energy range of interest, and subsequent fitting to a parametric function, is the most accurate and at the same time most complicated and time consuming method of efficiency calibration. Many other methods are developed in time, some of them using Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. One of such methods is a dedicated and user-friendly program PHOTON, developed to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the passage of photons through different media with different geometries. This program was used for efficiency calibration of three HPGe detectors, readily used in Laboratory for Environment and Radiation Protection of the Institute for Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade, Serbia. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> produced the spectral response of the detectors for fixed energy and for different sample geometries and matrices. Thus obtained efficiencies were compared to the values obtained by the measurement of the secondary reference materials and to the results obtained by GEANT4 <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, in order to establish whether the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> values agree with the experimental ones. To further analyze the results, a realistic measurement of the materials provided by the IAEA within different interlaboratory proficiency tests, was performed. The activities obtained using <span class="hlt">simulated</span> efficiencies were compared to the reference values provided by the organizer. A good agreement in the mid energy section of the spectrum was obtained, while for low energies the lack of some parameters in the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> libraries proved to produce unacceptable discrepancies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=156409&keyword=EVENTS+AND+STANDARDS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80503983&CFTOKEN=59016766','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=156409&keyword=EVENTS+AND+STANDARDS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80503983&CFTOKEN=59016766"><span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENTS AND <span class="hlt">APPLICATIONS</span> OF CFD <span class="hlt">SIMULATIONS</span> OF MICROMETEOROLOGY AND POLLUTION TRANSPORT IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY MODELING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Development and <span class="hlt">application</span> of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are being advanced through case studies for <span class="hlt">simulating</span> air pollutant concentrations from sources within open fields and within complex urban building environments. CFD <span class="hlt">applications</span> have been under deve...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986STIN...8717406P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986STIN...8717406P"><span id="translatedtitle">Model for <span class="hlt">simulating</span> rotational data for wind turbine <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Powell, D. C.; Connell, J. R.</p> <p>1986-04-01</p> <p>This document describes a wind <span class="hlt">simulation</span> model to be used in relation to wind turbine operations. The model is a computer code written in FORTRAN 77. The model <span class="hlt">simulates</span> turbulence and mean wind effects as they are experienced at a rotating point on the blade of either a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) or a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The model is fast, requiring 15 to 120 seconds of VAX execution time to produce a <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and related statistics. The model allows the user to set a number of wind parameters so that he may evaluate the uncertainty of model results as well as their typical values. When this capability is combined with short execution time, the user can quickly produce a number of <span class="hlt">simulations</span> based on reasonable variation of input parameters and can use these <span class="hlt">simulations</span> to obtain a range of wind turbine responses to the turbulence. This ability is important because some of the wind parameters that cannot be precisely evaluated should be prescribed over a range of values. This document is essentially a user's guide. Its features include theoretical derivations, samples of output, comparisons of measured and modeled results, a listing of the FORTRAN code, a glossary for the code, and the input and output of a sample run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000081670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000081670"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of a Flywheel Electrical System for Aerospace <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Truong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederick J.; Dravid, Narayan V.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A Flywheel Energy Storage Demonstration Project was initiated at the NASA Glenn Research Center as a possible replacement for the battery energy storage system on the International Space Station (ISS). While the hardware fabrication work was being performed at a university and contractor's facility, the related <span class="hlt">simulation</span> activity was begun at Glenn. At the top level, Glenn researchers <span class="hlt">simulated</span> the operation of the ISS primary electrical system (as described in another paper) with the Flywheel Energy Storage Unit (FESU) replacing one Battery Charge and Discharge Unit (BCDU). The FESU consists of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor/Generator (PMSM), which is connected to the flywheel; the power electronics that connects the PMSM to the ISS direct-current bus; and the associated controller. The PMSM model is still under development, but this paper describes the rest of the FESU model-the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the converter and the associated control system that regulates energy transfer to and from the flywheel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhL..30i7302L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhL..30i7302L"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Application</span> of a New <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Approach to Ferrimagnetic Nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhao-Sen; Yang, Cui-Hong; Gu, Bin; Ma, Rong; Li, Qing-Fang</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The quantum <span class="hlt">simulation</span> model and the self-consistent computational algorithm we proposed two years ago are utilized to investigate the physical properties of a magnetic nanowire consisting of 3d ions which are coupled antiferromagnetically. In the absence of the external magnetic field, all <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are started from a spin configuration with all moments in the nanosample randomly oriented and performed from a temperature above the magnetic transition temperature TM down to very low temperature as carried out by previous researchers using the Monte Carlo method, and such obtained results are all physically reasonable, verifying the correctness of the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> model and computing algorithm. In addition, our calculated results suggest that increasing the surface anisotropy enables an increase in the magnetic transition temperature, although less effectively than by enhancing the Heisenberg exchange strength directly.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/522745','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/522745"><span id="translatedtitle">Potts-model grain growth <span class="hlt">simulations</span>: Parallel algorithms and <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wright, S.A.; Plimpton, S.J.; Swiler, T.P.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>Microstructural morphology and grain boundary properties often control the service properties of engineered materials. This report uses the Potts-model to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the development of microstructures in realistic materials. Three areas of microstructural morphology <span class="hlt">simulations</span> were studied. They include the development of massively parallel algorithms for Potts-model grain grow <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, modeling of mass transport via diffusion in these <span class="hlt">simulated</span> microstructures, and the development of a gradient-dependent Hamiltonian to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> columnar grain growth. Potts grain growth models for massively parallel supercomputers were developed for the conventional Potts-model in both two and three dimensions. <span class="hlt">Simulations</span> using these parallel codes showed self similar grain growth and no finite size effects for previously unapproachable large scale problems. In addition, new enhancements to the conventional Metropolis algorithm used in the Potts-model were developed to accelerate the calculations. These techniques enable both the sequential and parallel algorithms to run faster and use essentially an infinite number of grain orientation values to avoid non-physical grain coalescence events. Mass transport phenomena in polycrystalline materials were studied in two dimensions using numerical diffusion techniques on microstructures generated using the Potts-model. The results of the mass transport modeling showed excellent quantitative agreement with one dimensional diffusion problems, however the results also suggest that transient multi-dimension diffusion effects cannot be parameterized as the product of the grain boundary diffusion coefficient and the grain boundary width. Instead, both properties are required. Gradient-dependent grain growth mechanisms were included in the Potts-model by adding an extra term to the Hamiltonian. Under normal grain growth, the primary driving term is the curvature of the grain boundary, which is included in the standard Potts-model Hamiltonian.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1376..228G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1376..228G"><span id="translatedtitle">Blowing <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Control on a Seaplane Airfoil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, B. D.; Liu, P. Q.; Qu, Q. L.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>RANS <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are presented for blowing <span class="hlt">circulation</span> control on a seaplane airfoil. Realizable k-epsilon turbulent model and pressure-based coupled algorithm with second-order discretization were adopted to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the compressible flow. Both clear and simple flap configuration were <span class="hlt">simulated</span> with blowing momentum coefficient Cμ = 0, 0.15 and 0.30. The results show that blowing near the airfoil trailing edge could enhance the Coanda effect, delay the flow separation, and increase the lift coefficient dramatically. The blowing <span class="hlt">circulation</span> control is promising to apply to taking off and landing of an amphibious aircraft or seaplane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/886921','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/886921"><span id="translatedtitle">Iterative Schemes for Time Parallelization with <span class="hlt">Application</span> to Reservoir <span class="hlt">Simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garrido, I; Fladmark, G E; Espedal, M S; Lee, B</p> <p>2005-04-18</p> <p>Parallel methods are usually not applied to the time domain because of the inherit sequentialness of time evolution. But for many evolutionary problems, computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span> can benefit substantially from time parallelization methods. In this paper, they present several such algorithms that actually exploit the sequential nature of time evolution through a predictor-corrector procedure. This sequentialness ensures convergence of a parallel predictor-corrector scheme within a fixed number of iterations. The performance of these novel algorithms, which are derived from the classical alternating Schwarz method, are illustrated through several numerical examples using the reservoir <span class="hlt">simulator</span> Athena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870065728&hterms=Exobiology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DExobiology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870065728&hterms=Exobiology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DExobiology"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Station gas-grain <span class="hlt">simulation</span> facility - <span class="hlt">Application</span> to exobiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mckay, C. P.; Stoker, C. R.; Morris, J.; Conley, G.; Schwartz, D.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The technical issues involved in performing experiments on the behavior and properties of aerosols in a microgravity environment provided by the Space Station are reviewed. The displacement of a particle resulting from g-jitter for ballistic, Knudsen, and Stokes flow regimes is examined in detail, and the radiation, acoustic, electrostatic, and electromagnetic mechanisms for the control of this motion are described. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of organic haze production on Titan has been selected as an example experiment for detailed study. The purpose of this experiment was to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the photolysis of methane and the subsequent formation of the organic haze particles in the Titan upper atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22419916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22419916"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel continuous <span class="hlt">simulated</span> tempering and its <span class="hlt">applications</span> in large-scale molecular <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zang, Tianwu; Yu, Linglin; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Jianpeng</p> <p>2014-07-28</p> <p>In this paper, we introduce a parallel continuous <span class="hlt">simulated</span> tempering (PCST) method for enhanced sampling in studying large complex systems. It mainly inherits the continuous <span class="hlt">simulated</span> tempering (CST) method in our previous studies [C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194112 (2009); C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244101 (2010)], while adopts the spirit of parallel tempering (PT), or replica exchange method, by employing multiple copies with different temperature distributions. Differing from conventional PT methods, despite the large stride of total temperature range, the PCST method requires very few copies of <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, typically 2–3 copies, yet it is still capable of maintaining a high rate of exchange between neighboring copies. Furthermore, in PCST method, the size of the system does not dramatically affect the number of copy needed because the exchange rate is independent of total potential energy, thus providing an enormous advantage over conventional PT methods in studying very large systems. The sampling efficiency of PCST was tested in two-dimensional Ising model, Lennard-Jones liquid and all-atom folding <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of a small globular protein trp-cage in explicit solvent. The results demonstrate that the PCST method significantly improves sampling efficiency compared with other methods and it is particularly effective in <span class="hlt">simulating</span> systems with long relaxation time or correlation time. We expect the PCST method to be a good alternative to parallel tempering methods in <span class="hlt">simulating</span> large systems such as phase transition and dynamics of macromolecules in explicit solvent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4111840','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4111840"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel continuous <span class="hlt">simulated</span> tempering and its <span class="hlt">applications</span> in large-scale molecular <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zang, Tianwu; Yu, Linglin; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Jianpeng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we introduce a parallel continuous <span class="hlt">simulated</span> tempering (PCST) method for enhanced sampling in studying large complex systems. It mainly inherits the continuous <span class="hlt">simulated</span> tempering (CST) method in our previous studies [C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys.141, 194112 (2009); C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys.141, 244101 (2010)], while adopts the spirit of parallel tempering (PT), or replica exchange method, by employing multiple copies with different temperature distributions. Differing from conventional PT methods, despite the large stride of total temperature range, the PCST method requires very few copies of <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, typically 2–3 copies, yet it is still capable of maintaining a high rate of exchange between neighboring copies. Furthermore, in PCST method, the size of the system does not dramatically affect the number of copy needed because the exchange rate is independent of total potential energy, thus providing an enormous advantage over conventional PT methods in studying very large systems. The sampling efficiency of PCST was tested in two-dimensional Ising model, Lennard-Jones liquid and all-atom folding <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of a small globular protein trp-cage in explicit solvent. The results demonstrate that the PCST method significantly improves sampling efficiency compared with other methods and it is particularly effective in <span class="hlt">simulating</span> systems with long relaxation time or correlation time. We expect the PCST method to be a good alternative to parallel tempering methods in <span class="hlt">simulating</span> large systems such as phase transition and dynamics of macromolecules in explicit solvent. PMID:25084887</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.141d4113Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.141d4113Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel continuous <span class="hlt">simulated</span> tempering and its <span class="hlt">applications</span> in large-scale molecular <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zang, Tianwu; Yu, Linglin; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Jianpeng</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, we introduce a parallel continuous <span class="hlt">simulated</span> tempering (PCST) method for enhanced sampling in studying large complex systems. It mainly inherits the continuous <span class="hlt">simulated</span> tempering (CST) method in our previous studies [C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194112 (2009); C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244101 (2010)], while adopts the spirit of parallel tempering (PT), or replica exchange method, by employing multiple copies with different temperature distributions. Differing from conventional PT methods, despite the large stride of total temperature range, the PCST method requires very few copies of <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, typically 2-3 copies, yet it is still capable of maintaining a high rate of exchange between neighboring copies. Furthermore, in PCST method, the size of the system does not dramatically affect the number of copy needed because the exchange rate is independent of total potential energy, thus providing an enormous advantage over conventional PT methods in studying very large systems. The sampling efficiency of PCST was tested in two-dimensional Ising model, Lennard-Jones liquid and all-atom folding <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of a small globular protein trp-cage in explicit solvent. The results demonstrate that the PCST method significantly improves sampling efficiency compared with other methods and it is particularly effective in <span class="hlt">simulating</span> systems with long relaxation time or correlation time. We expect the PCST method to be a good alternative to parallel tempering methods in <span class="hlt">simulating</span> large systems such as phase transition and dynamics of macromolecules in explicit solvent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47..651O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47..651O"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models and their <span class="hlt">application</span> to temperature change assessments in a high-latitude agricultural area in northeastern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ouyang, Wei; Shi, Yandan; Hao, Fanghua; Jiao, Wei</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The two main focuses of this study are a comparison of the general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models (GCMs) from Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project (CMIP5) and an assessment of the surface air temperature under multiple climate scenarios in a high middle latitude area of China. In the past 55 years temperatures in this area have shown an obvious upward trend (a rise of 1.50 °C), and another important change during this time period was a significant alteration in tillage practices that occurred in 1986. Using methods and tools such as average deviation, the Taylor figure and the space techniques rating (SS), time sequence related coefficient, and the M2 index, a comprehensive spatial-temporal assessment was performed based on the CMIP5 models. The <span class="hlt">simulations</span> provided by the models had certain common features, but there were also significant differences. The three best models (CanCM4, INMCM4, and IPSL-CM5A-MR) have a common characteristic: the institutions where they were developed are located at latitudes that are similar to or higher than the latitude of the study area. Future climate changes were analyzed by <span class="hlt">simulating</span> a representative concentration pathway 4.5/8.5 (RCP4.5/RCP8.5) of emission scenarios with a multi-model ensemble. The temperatures under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios have a certain upward trend, with increases of 2.24 and 5.44 °C, respectively. From a spatial perspective, the distributions of the temperature change trend showed a southwest to northeast step increase under both scenarios, but the warming trend in the area of each lattice point under the RCP4.5 scenario is much lower than that of the RCP8.5 scenario. There are no obvious changes in the spatial distribution of the accumulated intensity and frequency of the regional air temperature in the three periods (2016-2035, 2036-2065, and 2066-2095) under the two scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76264&keyword=cfd&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=70368525&CFTOKEN=75713957','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76264&keyword=cfd&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=70368525&CFTOKEN=75713957"><span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENT OF CFD <span class="hlt">SIMULATION</span> <span class="hlt">APPLICATIONS</span> FOR LOCAL-SCALE AREAS AND POTENTIAL INTERFACE WITH MESOSCALE MODELS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The presentation summarizes developments of ongoing <span class="hlt">applications</span> of fine-scale (geometry specific) CFD <span class="hlt">simulations</span> to urban areas within atmospheric boundary layers. Enabling technology today and challenges for the future are discussed. There is a challenging need to develop a ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760018539','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760018539"><span id="translatedtitle">A forestry <span class="hlt">application</span> <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of man-machine techniques for analyzing remotely sensed data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berkebile, J.; Russell, J.; Lube, B.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The typical steps in the analysis of remotely sensed data for a forestry <span class="hlt">applications</span> example are <span class="hlt">simulated</span>. The example uses numerically-oriented pattern recognition techniques and emphasizes man-machine interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=257713','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=257713"><span id="translatedtitle">GIS and crop <span class="hlt">simulation</span> modelling <span class="hlt">applications</span> in climate change research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The challenges that climate change presents humanity require an unprecedented ability to predict the responses of crops to environment and management. Geographic information systems (GIS) and crop <span class="hlt">simulation</span> models are two powerful and highly complementary tools that are increasingly used for such p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=10438&keyword=solar+AND+heat&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=66369351&CFTOKEN=84491434','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=10438&keyword=solar+AND+heat&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=66369351&CFTOKEN=84491434"><span id="translatedtitle">STREAM TEMPERATURE <span class="hlt">SIMULATION</span> OF FORESTED RIPARIAN AREAS: II. MODEL <span class="hlt">APPLICATION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The SHADE-HSPF modeling system described in a companion paper has been tested and applied to the Upper Grande Ronde (UGR) watershed in northeast Oregon. Sensitivities of stream temperature to the heat balance parameters in Hydrologic <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) and the ripa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983SPIE..391...53M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983SPIE..391...53M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> Of Computer <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> To The Entertainment Industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mittelman, Phillip S.</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>Images generated by computer have started to appear in feature films (TRON, Star Trek II), in television commercials and in animated films. Of particular interest is the use of computer generated imagery which <span class="hlt">simulates</span> the images which a real camera might have made if the imaged objects had been real.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=graph+AND+database&pg=5&id=EJ408965','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=graph+AND+database&pg=5&id=EJ408965"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> Annealing to Clustering Tuples in Databases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bell, D. A.; And Others</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Investigates the value of applying principles derived from <span class="hlt">simulated</span> annealing to clustering tuples in database design, and compares this technique with a graph-collapsing clustering method. It is concluded that, while the new method does give superior results, the expense involved in algorithm run time is prohibitive. (24 references) (CLB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED261496.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED261496.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Computer <span class="hlt">Simulation</span>: Future <span class="hlt">Applications</span> in Special Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, Gwendolyn B.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The report describes three advanced technologies--robotics, artificial intelligence, and computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span>--and identifies the ways in which they might contribute to special education. A hybrid methodology was employed to identify existing technology and forecast future needs. Following this framework, each of the technologies is defined,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11180068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11180068"><span id="translatedtitle">Selection of bioprocess <span class="hlt">simulation</span> software for industrial <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shanklin, T; Roper, K; Yegneswaran, P K; Marten, M R</p> <p>2001-02-20</p> <p>Two commercially available, process-<span class="hlt">simulation</span> software packages (Aspen Batch Plus v1.2, Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Intelligen SuperPro v3.0, INTELLIGEN, INC., Scotch Plains, Ner Jersey) are evaluated for use in modeling industrial, biotechnology processes. Software is quantitatively evaluated by Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis (Kepner and Tregoe, 1981). This evaluation shows that Aspen Batch Plus v1.2 (ABP) and Intelligen SuperPro v3.0 (ISP) can successfully perform specific <span class="hlt">simulation</span> tasks but do not provide a complete model of all phenomena occurring within a biotechnology process. Software is best suited to provide a format for process management, using material and energy balances to answer scheduling questions, explore equipment change-outs, and calculate cost data. The ability of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> software to accurately predict unit operation scale-up and optimize bioprocesses is limited. To realistically evaluate the software, a vaccine manufacturing process under development at Merck & Company is <span class="hlt">simulated</span>. Case studies from the vaccine process are presented as examples of how ABP and ISP can be used to shed light on real-world processing issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295091','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295091"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of fumigant transport and volatilization from tarped broadcast <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We evaluated the ability of the HYDRUS 2D/3D model to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> chloropicrin and 1,3-dichloropropene fate, transport and volatilization. Three fields with similar soil conditions were broadcast fumigated under a totally impermeable film (TIF). One field was used to calibrate HYDRUS by adjusting fumig...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982ctim.reptR....R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982ctim.reptR....R"><span id="translatedtitle">Industrial forging <span class="hlt">applications</span> of shaping <span class="hlt">simulation</span> using modeling clay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ravassard, P.; Bournicon, C.</p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>The use of Plasticine and similar modeling materials to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> forgings is advocated. It permits low cost studies of complex processes for manufacturing or training purposes without interfering with work schedules of real machines. Criteria for choosing a clay, construction of dies, equipment, and laboratory procedures are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kolb&pg=6&id=EJ873505','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kolb&pg=6&id=EJ873505"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of the Experiential Learning Cycle in Learning from a Business <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Game</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ahn, Jung-Hoon</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of engaging students in Kolb's experiential learning cycle on facilitating students' <span class="hlt">simulation</span> game performance and knowledge <span class="hlt">application</span> skills in learning with a business <span class="hlt">simulation</span> game. A sample was drawn from a population of business-major undergraduate students at the School of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945563','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945563"><span id="translatedtitle">Nesting large-eddy <span class="hlt">simulations</span> within mesoscale <span class="hlt">simulations</span> for wind energy <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D; Chow, F K; Kosovic, B; Lundquist, K A</p> <p>2008-09-08</p> <p>With increasing demand for more accurate atmospheric <span class="hlt">simulations</span> for wind turbine micrositing, for operational wind power forecasting, and for more reliable turbine design, <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of atmospheric flow with resolution of tens of meters or higher are required. These time-dependent large-eddy <span class="hlt">simulations</span> (LES), which resolve individual atmospheric eddies on length scales smaller than turbine blades and account for complex terrain, are possible with a range of commercial and open-source software, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In addition to 'local' sources of turbulence within an LES domain, changing weather conditions outside the domain can also affect flow, suggesting that a mesoscale model provide boundary conditions to the large-eddy <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. Nesting a large-eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span> within a mesoscale model requires nuanced representations of turbulence. Our group has improved the Weather and Research Forecasting model's (WRF) LES capability by implementing the Nonlinear Backscatter and Anisotropy (NBA) subfilter stress model following Kosovic (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005). We have also implemented an immersed boundary method (IBM) in WRF to accommodate complex terrain. These new models improve WRF's LES capabilities over complex terrain and in stable atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate approaches to nesting LES within a mesoscale <span class="hlt">simulation</span> for farms of wind turbines in hilly regions. Results are sensitive to the nesting method, indicating that care must be taken to provide appropriate boundary conditions, and to allow adequate spin-up of turbulence in the LES domain.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995351"><span id="translatedtitle">A social diffusion model with an <span class="hlt">application</span> on election <span class="hlt">simulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lou, Jing-Kai; Wang, Fu-Min; Tsai, Chin-Hua; Hung, San-Chuan; Kung, Perng-Hwa; Lin, Shou-De; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Lei, Chin-Laung</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Issues about opinion diffusion have been studied for decades. It has so far no empirical approach to model the interflow and formation of crowd's opinion in elections due to two reasons. First, unlike the spread of information or flu, individuals have their intrinsic attitudes to election candidates in advance. Second, opinions are generally simply assumed as single values in most diffusion models. However, in this case, an opinion should represent preference toward multiple candidates. Previously done models thus may not intuitively interpret such scenario. This work is to design a diffusion model which is capable of managing the aforementioned scenario. To demonstrate the usefulness of our model, we <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the diffusion on the network built based on a publicly available bibliography dataset. We compare the proposed model with other well-known models such as independent cascade. It turns out that our model consistently outperforms other models. We additionally investigate electoral issues with our model <span class="hlt">simulator</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4068049','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4068049"><span id="translatedtitle">A Social Diffusion Model with an <span class="hlt">Application</span> on Election <span class="hlt">Simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Fu-Min; Hung, San-Chuan; Kung, Perng-Hwa; Lin, Shou-De</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Issues about opinion diffusion have been studied for decades. It has so far no empirical approach to model the interflow and formation of crowd's opinion in elections due to two reasons. First, unlike the spread of information or flu, individuals have their intrinsic attitudes to election candidates in advance. Second, opinions are generally simply assumed as single values in most diffusion models. However, in this case, an opinion should represent preference toward multiple candidates. Previously done models thus may not intuitively interpret such scenario. This work is to design a diffusion model which is capable of managing the aforementioned scenario. To demonstrate the usefulness of our model, we <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the diffusion on the network built based on a publicly available bibliography dataset. We compare the proposed model with other well-known models such as independent cascade. It turns out that our model consistently outperforms other models. We additionally investigate electoral issues with our model <span class="hlt">simulator</span>. PMID:24995351</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1233...35M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1233...35M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulating</span> Quantile Models with <span class="hlt">Applications</span> to Economics and Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Machado, José A. F.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The massive increase in the speed of computers over the past forty years changed the way that social scientists, applied economists and statisticians approach their trades and also the very nature of the problems that they could feasibly tackle. The new methods that use intensively computer power go by the names of "computer-intensive" or "<span class="hlt">simulation</span>". My lecture will start with bird's eye view of the uses of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in Economics and Statistics. Then I will turn out to my own research on uses of computer- intensive methods. From a methodological point of view the question I address is how to infer marginal distributions having estimated a conditional quantile process, (Counterfactual Decomposition of Changes in Wage Distributions using Quantile Regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics 20, 2005). Illustrations will be provided of the use of the method to perform counterfactual analysis in several different areas of knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050180726&hterms=glass_ceramic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglass_ceramic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050180726&hterms=glass_ceramic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglass_ceramic"><span id="translatedtitle">Processing of Lunar Soil <span class="hlt">Simulant</span> for Space Exploration <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sen, Subhayu; Ray, Chandra S.; Reddy, Ramana</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>NASA's long-term vision for space exploration includes developing human habitats and conducting scientific investigations on planetary bodies, especially on Moon and Mars. To reduce the level of up-mass processing and utilization of planetary in-situ resources is recognized as an important element of this vision. Within this scope and context, we have undertaken a general effort aimed primarily at extracting and refining metals, developing glass, glass-ceramic, or traditional ceramic type materials using lunar soil <span class="hlt">simulants</span>. In this paper we will present preliminary results on our effort on carbothermal reduction of oxides for elemental extraction and zone refining for obtaining high purity metals. In additions we will demonstrate the possibility of developing glasses from lunar soil <span class="hlt">simulant</span> for fixing nuclear waste from potential nuclear power generators on planetary bodies. Compositional analysis, x-ray diffraction patterns and differential thermal analysis of processed samples will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910000567&hterms=chlorofluorocarbon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dchlorofluorocarbon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910000567&hterms=chlorofluorocarbon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dchlorofluorocarbon"><span id="translatedtitle">Apparatus <span class="hlt">Circulates</span> Sterilizing Gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Apparatus <span class="hlt">circulates</span> sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, <span class="hlt">circulating</span> it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and <span class="hlt">circulates</span> gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11089118','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11089118"><span id="translatedtitle">Conservation of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in magnetohydrodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bekenstein; Oron</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>We demonstrate at both the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels the existence of a generalization of Kelvin's <span class="hlt">circulation</span> theorem (for pure fluids) that is <span class="hlt">applicable</span> to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based on the least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the new conservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful in identifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluid vortices. PMID:11089118</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53J0284K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53J0284K"><span id="translatedtitle">The Hydrothermal <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> of the Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kjellsson, J.; Doos, K.; Laliberté, F. B.; Zika, J. D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>-annual timescales. The hydrothermal streamfunction thus diagnoses the Hadley and Walker <span class="hlt">circulations</span> in a common coordinate system and allows for measuring their combined strength unambiguously. Moreover, it highlights similarities and differences between the tropical convectively-driven <span class="hlt">circulations</span> and the midlatitude eddy-driven <span class="hlt">circulation</span> by joining them into a single, global cycle. This simple yet complete diagnostic is furthermore proposed as a tool for the intercomparison of climate <span class="hlt">simulations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011136','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011136"><span id="translatedtitle">Human Performance Modeling and <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> for Launch Team <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peaden, Cary J.; Payne, Stephen J.; Hoblitzell, Richard M., Jr.; Chandler, Faith T.; LaVine, Nils D.; Bagnall, Timothy M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes ongoing research into modeling and <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of humans for launch team analysis, training, and evaluation. The initial research is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) and NASA's Exploration Program and is focused on current and future launch team operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The paper begins with a description of existing KSC launch team environments and procedures. It then describes the goals of new <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> and Analysis of Launch Teams (SALT) research. The majority of this paper describes products from the SALT team's initial proof-of-concept effort. These products include a nominal case task analysis and a discrete event model and <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of launch team performance during the final phase of a shuttle countdown; and a first proof-of-concept training demonstration of launch team communications in which the computer plays most roles, and the trainee plays a role of the trainee's choice. This paper then describes possible next steps for the research team and provides conclusions. This research is expected to have significant value to NASA's Exploration Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24998907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24998907"><span id="translatedtitle">Preparation, <span class="hlt">applications</span>, and digital <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of carbon interdigitated array electrodes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, B A</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Carbon interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes with features sizes down to 1.2 μm were fabricated by controlled pyrolysis of patterned photoresist. Cyclic voltammetry of reversible redox species produced the expected steady-state currents. The collection efficiency depends on the IDA electrode spacing, which ranged from around 2.7 to 16.5 μm, with the smaller dimensions achieving higher collection efficiencies of up to 98%. The signal amplification because of redox cycling makes it possible to detect species at relatively low concentrations (10(-5) molar) and the small spacing allows detection of transient electrogenerated species with much shorter lifetimes (submillisecond). Digital <span class="hlt">simulation</span> software that accounts for both the width and height of electrode elements as well as the electrode spacing was developed to model the IDA electrode response. The <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are in quantitative agreement with experimental data for both a simple fast one electron redox reaction and an electron transfer with a following chemical reaction at the IDAs with larger gaps whereas currents measured for the smallest IDA electrodes, that were larger than the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> currents, are attributed to convection from induced charge electrokinetic flow. PMID:24998907</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1170082','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1170082"><span id="translatedtitle">Preparation, <span class="hlt">Applications</span>, and Digital <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of Carbon Interdigitated Array Electrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.</p> <p>2014-12-16</p> <p>Carbon interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes with features sizes down to 1.2 μm were fabricated by controlled pyrolysis of patterned photoresist. Cyclic voltam-metry of reversible redox species produced the expected steady-state currents. The collection efficiency depends on the IDA electrode spacing, which ranged from around 2.7 to 16.5 μm, with the smaller dimensions achieving higher collection efficiencies of up to 98%. The signal amplification because of redox cycling makes it possible to detect species at relatively low concentrations (10–5 molar) and the small spacing allows detection of transient electrogenerated species with much shorter lifetimes (submillisecond). Digital <span class="hlt">simulation</span> software that accounts for both the width and height of electrode elements as well as the electrode spacing was developed to model the IDA electrode response. The <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are in quantitative agreement with experimental data for both a simple fast one electron redox reaction and an electron transfer with a following chemical reaction at the IDAs with larger gaps whereas currents measured for the smallest IDA electrodes, that were larger than the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> currents, are attributed to convection from induced charge electrokinetic flow. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012PhDT.......254G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012PhDT.......254G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of dynamic Monte Carlo technique in proton beam radiotherapy using Geant4 <span class="hlt">simulation</span> toolkit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, Fada</p> <p></p> <p>Monte Carlo method has been successfully applied in <span class="hlt">simulating</span> the particles transport problems. Most of the Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulation</span> tools are static and they can only be used to perform the static <span class="hlt">simulations</span> for the problems with fixed physics and geometry settings. Proton therapy is a dynamic treatment technique in the clinical <span class="hlt">application</span>. In this research, we developed a method to perform the dynamic Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of proton therapy using Geant4 <span class="hlt">simulation</span> toolkit. A passive-scattering treatment nozzle equipped with a rotating range modulation wheel was modeled in this research. One important <span class="hlt">application</span> of the Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulation</span> is to predict the spatial dose distribution in the target geometry. For simplification, a mathematical model of a human body is usually used as the target, but only the average dose over the whole organ or tissue can be obtained rather than the accurate spatial dose distribution. In this research, we developed a method using MATLAB to convert the medical images of a patient from CT scanning into the patient voxel geometry. Hence, if the patient voxel geometry is used as the target in the Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, the accurate spatial dose distribution in the target can be obtained. A data analysis tool---root was used to score the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results during a Geant4 <span class="hlt">simulation</span> and to analyze the data and plot results after <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Finally, we successfully obtained the accurate spatial dose distribution in part of a human body after treating a patient with prostate cancer using proton therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9778435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9778435"><span id="translatedtitle">Errors associated with metabolic control analysis. <span class="hlt">Application</span> Of Monte-Carlo <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of experimental data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D</p> <p>1998-09-21</p> <p>The errors associated with experimental <span class="hlt">application</span> of metabolic control analysis are difficult to assess. In this paper, we give examples where Monte-Carlo <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of published experimental data are used in error analysis. Data was <span class="hlt">simulated</span> according to the mean and error obtained from experimental measurements and the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> data was used to calculate control coefficients. Repeating the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> 500 times allowed an estimate to be made of the error implicit in the calculated control coefficients. In the first example, state 4 respiration of isolated mitochondria, Monte-Carlo <span class="hlt">simulations</span> based on the system elasticities were performed. The <span class="hlt">simulations</span> gave error estimates similar to the values reported within the original paper and those derived from a sensitivity analysis of the elasticities. This demonstrated the validity of the method. In the second example, state 3 respiration of isolated mitochondria, Monte-Carlo <span class="hlt">simulations</span> were based on measurements of intermediates and fluxes. A key feature of this <span class="hlt">simulation</span> was that the distribution of the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> control coefficients did not follow a normal distribution, despite <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of the original data being based on normal distributions. Consequently, the error calculated using <span class="hlt">simulation</span> was greater and more realistic than the error calculated directly by averaging the original results. The Monte-Carlo <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are also demonstrated to be useful in experimental design. The individual data points that should be repeated in order to reduce the error in the control coefficients can be highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4840301Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4840301Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the efficiency and accuracy of new methods for atmospheric opacity and radiative transfer calculations in planetary general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zube, Nicholas Gerard; Zhang, Xi; Natraj, Vijay</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>General <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models often incorporate simple approximations of heating between vertically inhomogeneous layers rather than more accurate but computationally expensive radiative transfer (RT) methods. With the goal of developing a GCM package that can model both solar system bodies and exoplanets, it is vital to examine up-to-date RT models to optimize speed and accuracy for heat transfer calculations. Here, we examine a variety of interchangeable radiative transfer models in conjunction with MITGCM (Hill and Marshall, 1995). First, for atmospheric opacity calculations, we test gray approximation, line-by-line, and correlated-k methods. In combination with these, we also test RT routines using 2-stream DISORT (discrete ordinates RT), N-stream DISORT (Stamnes et al., 1988), and optimized 2-stream (Spurr and Natraj, 2011). Initial tests are run using Jupiter as an example case. The results can be compared in nine possible configurations for running a complete RT routine within a GCM. Each individual combination of opacity and RT methods is contrasted with the "ground truth" calculation provided by the line-by-line opacity and N-stream DISORT, in terms of computation speed and accuracy of the approximation methods. We also examine the effects on accuracy when performing these calculations at different time step frequencies within MITGCM. Ultimately, we will catalog and present the ideal RT routines that can replace commonly used approximations within a GCM for a significant increase in calculation accuracy, and speed comparable to the dynamical time steps of MITGCM. Future work will involve examining whether calculations in the spatial domain can also be reduced by smearing grid points into larger areas, and what effects this will have on overall accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.134..304S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.134..304S"><span id="translatedtitle">On the relevance of tidal forcing in modelling the Mediterranean thermohaline <span class="hlt">circulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sannino, G.; Carillo, A.; Pisacane, G.; Naranjo, C.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The four dominant constituents of the semi-diurnal and diurnal tides have been implemented in a regional eddy-resolving Mediterranean version of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model to assess the role played by tides on the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> Mediterranean thermohaline <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. To this aim we have compared two 10-year hindcast <span class="hlt">simulations</span> differing only for the inclusion/omission of tidal forcing. Following the recent recommendations suggested by Sannino et al. (2014) both <span class="hlt">simulations</span> use the same model having a substantial increment of the horizontal resolution in the region of the Strait of Gibraltar. The results suggest that <span class="hlt">application</span> of explicit tidal forcing in a Mediterranean model has non negligible effects on the <span class="hlt">simulated</span> <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in addition to the expected intensification of local mixing processes. The western basin exhibits an immediate response to the different characteristics of the inflowing AW observable in the modified deep water convection processes in the Gulf of Lion. The inclusion of tidal forcing also induces changes in the intermediate <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of the Tyrrhenian Sea bringing to a better representation of local structures and a reinforcement of the global thermohaline cell. LIW dispersal paths in the eastern basin are also affected by tides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008cosp...37.2288O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008cosp...37.2288O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Hybrid <span class="hlt">Simulations</span>: <span class="hlt">Applications</span> to Bow Shock and Dayside Magnetosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omidi, Nojan; Sibeck, David; Phan, Tai; Eastwood, Jonathan</p> <p></p> <p>With the advent of global hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) <span class="hlt">simulations</span> it has become possible to examine magnetospheric processes and their interconnections on ion time and spatial scales. This capability combined with multi-spacecraft missions such as Cluster and THEMIS provide an unprecedented opportunity to perform detailed, quantitative comparisons between theory and observations to examine basic paradigms and build new ones. To illustrate this capability, this presentation focuses on a number of topics related to the bow shock and dayside magnetosphere. One topic concerns the formation of the ion foreshock boundary predicted by global hybrid <span class="hlt">simulations</span> and their relationship to the observed phenomenon of foreshock cavities. Interaction of solar wind discontinuities with the bow shock lead to a variety of phenomena such as hot flow anomalies (HFAs) or initiation of magnetic reconnection in the magnetosheath. We show examples of both processes in hybrid <span class="hlt">simulations</span> and comparisons with spacecraft observations. In regards to HFAs, recent THEMIS measurements provide detailed information on their magnetosheath signatures. Understanding of these signatures and impacts on the magnetosphere/ionosphere system remains an important topic of investigation. Magnetic reconnection in the magnetosheath provides an opportunity to examine this important process in relative isolation and symmetric plasma conditions. Here, we address the impact of discontinuity thickness and magnetic shear on the nature of the resulting reconnection and the implications for time dependency and geometry (anti-parallel vs component) of reconnection at the magnetopause. The final topic of the presentation is the formation of flux transfer events (FTEs) at the magnetopause and their subsequent motion and interaction with the cusps. This interaction involves secondary magnetic reconnection and acceleration of plasma into the cusp. As we illustrate, this process may account for the formation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8193E..2DY','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8193E..2DY"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of multiple projector technologies for HWIL <span class="hlt">simulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Hong; Fei, Jindong; Yang, Zhaowei; Du, Huijie; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Yi</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>IR projectors applied in HWIL <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are responsible for generating a radiometric output which is similar to the imager output for a real world targets and background in desired wavelength to the seeker under test. Projector technologies meet more challenge as seekers performances improving. A variety of projectors has been constructed to satisfy different use. This paper describes three projectors which include a dual-band IR extended source projector, a MWIR Digital Micromirror Device(DMD) projector and a LWIR resistive array projector.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4366....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4366....1K"><span id="translatedtitle">Hardware-in-the-loop <span class="hlt">simulation</span> for undersea vehicle <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kelf, Michael A.</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>Torpedoes and other Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUV) are employed by submarines and surface combatants, as well as aircraft, for undersea warfare. These vehicles are autonomous devices whose guidance systems rival the complexity of the most sophisticated air combat missiles. The tactical environment for undersea warfare is a difficult one in terms of target detection,k classification, and pursuit because of the physics of underwater sounds. Both hardware-in-the-loop and all-digital <span class="hlt">simulations</span> have become vital tools in developing and evaluating undersea weapon and vehicle guidance performance in the undersea environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970005471&hterms=satellite+geometry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsatellite%2Bgeometry','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970005471&hterms=satellite+geometry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsatellite%2Bgeometry"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of Direct <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Monte Carlo to Satellite Contamination Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rault, Didier F. G.; Woronwicz, Michael S.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A novel method is presented to estimate contaminant levels around spacecraft and satellites of arbitrarily complex geometry. The method uses a three-dimensional direct <span class="hlt">simulation</span> Monte Carlo algorithm to characterize the contaminant cloud surrounding the space platform, and a computer-assisted design preprocessor to define the space-platform geometry. The method is applied to the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite to estimate the contaminant flux incident on the optics of the halogen occultation experiment (HALOE) telescope. Results are presented in terms of contaminant cloud structure, molecular velocity distribution at HALOE aperture, and code performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860041641&hterms=ohms+law&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dohms%2Blaw','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860041641&hterms=ohms+law&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dohms%2Blaw"><span id="translatedtitle">Hybrid <span class="hlt">simulation</span> codes with <span class="hlt">application</span> to shocks and upstream waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Winske, D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Hybrid codes in which part of the plasma is represented as particles and the rest as a fluid are discussed. In the past few years such codes with particle ions and massless, fluid electrons have been applied to space plasmas, especially to collisionless shocks. All of these <span class="hlt">simulation</span> codes are one-dimensional and similar in structure, except for how the field equations are solved. The various approaches that are used (resistive Ohm's law, predictor-corrector, Hamiltonian) are described in detail and results from the various codes are compared with examples taken from collisionless shocks and low frequency wave phenomena upstream of shocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..33.1588Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..33.1588Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Research and <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> on <span class="hlt">Application</span> of the Mobile IP Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yibing, Deng; Wei, Hu; Minghui, Li; Feng, Gao; Junyi, Shen</p> <p></p> <p>The paper analysed the mobile node, home agent, and foreign agent of mobile IP network firstly, some key technique, such as mobile IP network basical principle, protocol work principle, agent discovery, registration, and IP packet transmission, were discussed. Then a network <span class="hlt">simulation</span> model was designed, validating the characteristic of mobile IP network, and some advantages, which were brought by mobile network, were testified. Finally, the conclusion is gained: mobile IP network could realize the expectation of consumer that they can communicate with others anywhere.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdAtS..23..299Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdAtS..23..299Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil moisture retrieval from satellite images and its <span class="hlt">application</span> to heavy rainfall <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in eastern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, D. M.; Su, B. K.; Zhao, M.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>The soil water index (SWI) from satellite remote sensing and the observational soil moisture from agricultural meteorological stations in eastern China are used to retrieve soil moisture. The analysis of correlation coefficient (CORR), root-mean-squaxe-error (RMSE) and bias (BIAS) shows that the retrieved soil moisture is convincible and close to the observation. The method can overcome the difficulties in soil moisture observation on a large scale and the retrieved soil moisture may reflect the distribution of the real soil moisture objectively. The retrieved soil moisture is used as an initial scheme to replace initial conditions of soil moisture (NCEP) in the model MM5V3 to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the heavy rainfall in 1998. Three heavy rainfall processes during 13-14 June, 18-22 June, and 21-26 July 1998 in the Yangtze River valley are analyzed. The first two processes show that the intensity and location of <span class="hlt">simulated</span> precipitation from SWI are better than those from NCEP and closer to the observed values. The <span class="hlt">simulated</span> heavy rainfall for 21-26 July shows that the update of soil moisture initial conditions can improve the model's performance. The relationship between soil moisture and rainfall may explain that the stronger rainfall intensity for SWI in the Yangtze River valley is the result of the greater <span class="hlt">simulated</span> soil moisture from SWI prior to the heavy rainfall date than that from NCEP, and leads to the decline of temperature in the corresponding area in the heavy rainfall days. Detailed analysis of the heavy rainfall on 13-14 June shows that both land-atmosphere interactions and atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> were responsible for the heavy rainfall, and it shows how the SWI <span class="hlt">simulation</span> improves the <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. The development of mesoscale systems plays an important role in the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> regarding the change of initial soil moisture for SWI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7273235','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7273235"><span id="translatedtitle">The northern wintertime divergence extrema at 200 hPa and MSLP cyclones as <span class="hlt">simulated</span> in the AMIP integration by the ECMWF general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyle, J.S. )</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Divergence and convergence centers at 200 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) cyclones are located every 6 hours for a 10-year GCM <span class="hlt">simulation</span> for the boreal winters from 1980 to 1988. The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> used the observed monthly mean SST for the decade. Analysis of the frequency, locations, and strengths of these centers and cyclones give insight into the dynamical response of the model to the varying SST. IT is found that (1) the model produces reasonable climatologies of upper-level divergence and MSLP cyclones. (2) The model distribution of anomalies of divergence/convergence centers and MSLP cyclones is consistent with available observations for the 1982-83 and 2986-87 El Nino events. (3) The tropical Indian Ocean is the region of greatest divergence activity and interannual variability in the model. (4) The variability of the divergence centers is greater than that of the convergence centers. (5) Strong divergence centers are chiefly oceanic events in the midlatitudes but are more land based in the tropics, except in the Indian. (6) Locations of divergence/convergence centers can be a useful tool for the intercomparison of global atmospheric <span class="hlt">simulations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23792838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23792838"><span id="translatedtitle">The German VR <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Realism Scale--psychometric construction for virtual reality <span class="hlt">applications</span> with virtual humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Virtual training <span class="hlt">applications</span> with high levels of immersion or fidelity (for example for social phobia treatment) produce high levels of presence and therefore belong to the most successful Virtual Reality developments. Whereas display and interaction fidelity (as sub-dimensions of immersion) and their influence on presence are well researched, realism of the displayed <span class="hlt">simulation</span> depends on the specific <span class="hlt">application</span> and is therefore difficult to measure. We propose to measure <span class="hlt">simulation</span> realism by using a self-report questionnaire. The German VR <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Realism Scale for VR training <span class="hlt">applications</span> was developed based on a translation of scene realism items from the Witmer-Singer-Presence Questionnaire. Items for realism of virtual humans (for example for social phobia training <span class="hlt">applications</span>) were supplemented. A sample of N = 151 students rated <span class="hlt">simulation</span> realism of a Fear of Public Speaking <span class="hlt">application</span>. Four factors were derived by item- and principle component analysis (Varimax rotation), representing Scene Realism, Audience Behavior, Audience Appearance and Sound Realism. The scale developed can be used as a starting point for future research and measurement of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> realism for <span class="hlt">applications</span> including virtual humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5423..411B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5423..411B"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">application</span> of JBI technology to distributed <span class="hlt">simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Broadstock, Tom</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is continually conducting research into new technologies for future aerospace command and control. The Virtual Testbed for Advanced Command and Control (VTAC), an AFRL/IFSD effort under development, provides a realistic context for developing, demonstrating, and assessing information technologies for command and control. VTAC incorporates collaborative technologies with modeling and <span class="hlt">simulation</span> to drive and evaluate proposed command and control systems. The most recent phase of VTAC development focuses upon applying the AFRL Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) to distribute information efficiently throughout the VTAC. To this end, efforts are under way to integrate JBI with two key components of the VTAC: the AFRL Collaborative Enterprise Environment (CEE) and the High Level Architecture (HLA). CEE is the collaborative framework for VTAC, while HLA provides VTAC a capability for distributed <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. These integration efforts promise new and interesting information and decision flows within the VTAC. Areas under investigation include data representation methodologies, intelligent agents, and user interfaces. The integration of JBI, CEE, and HLA promises to enhance VTAC capabilities in support of key initiatives such as Agile Research and Development/Science and Technology, Predictive Battlespace Awareness, and Effects-Based Operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537821"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Station gas-grain <span class="hlt">simulation</span> facility: <span class="hlt">application</span> to exobiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKay, C P; Stoker, C R; Morris, J; Conley, G; Schwartz, D</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Space Station provides an environment in which the forces required to suspend particles during an experiment can be reduced by as much as six orders of magnitude. This reduction in levitation force enables us to perform many new experiments in a variety of disciplines. We have grouped these experiments into two categories: 1) those involving an individual particle or the interaction between a few particles and 2) those involving clouds in particles. We consider only particle experiments at this stage because cloud experiments suffer from electrostatic interactions and levitation-forced coalescence therefore requiring considerably more space, mass and crew interaction. The displacement of a particle resulting from g-jitter for ballistic, Knudsen and Stokes flow regimes is considered in detail and the radiation, acoustic, electrostatic and electromagnetic levitation mechanisms to control this motion are reviewed. We have selected the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of organic haze production ion Titan as an example experiment for detailed study. The objective of this experiment is to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the photolysis of methane and the subsequent formation of the organic haze particles in the upper atmosphere of Titan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33M0398S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33M0398S"><span id="translatedtitle">Prognostic Aspects of Sub-seasonal Rainfall Characteristics using the Outputs of General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model: An <span class="hlt">Application</span> of Statistical Downscaling and Temporal Disaggregation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, A.; Mohanty, U. C.; Ghosh, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Most regions of India experience varied rainfall duration during the southwest monsoon, changes in which exhibit major impact not only agriculture, but also other sectors like hydrology, agriculture, food and fodder storage etc. In addition, changes in sub-seasonal rainfall characteristics highly impact the rice production. As part of the endeavor seasonal climate outlook, as well as information for weather within climate may be helpful for advance planning and risk management in agriculture. The General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Model (GCM) provide an alternative to gather information for weather within climate but variability is very low in comparison to observation. On the other hand, the spatial resolution of GCM predicted rainfall is not found at the observed station/grid point. To tackle the problem, initially a statistical downscaling over 19 station of Odisha state is undertaken using the atmospheric parameters predicted by a GCM (NCEP-CFSv2). For the purpose, an extended domain is taken for analyzing the significant zone for the atmospheric parameters like zonal wind at 850hPa, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), geopotential height. A statistical model using the pattern projection method is further developed based on empirical orthogonal function. The downscaled rainfall is found better in association with station observation in comparison to raw GCM prediction in view of deterministic and probabilistic skill measure. Further, the sub-seasonal and seasonal forecast from the GCMs can be used at different time steps for risk management. Therefore, downscaled seasonal/monthly rainfall is further converted to sub-seasonal/daily time scale using a non-homogeneous markov model. The <span class="hlt">simulated</span> weather sequences are further compared with the observed sequence in view of categorical rainfall events. The outcomes suggest that the rainfall amount are overestimated for excess rainfall and henceforth larger excess rainfall events can be realized. The skill for prediction of rainfall</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/898153','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/898153"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometry Description Markup Language for Physics <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> And Analysis <span class="hlt">Applications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chytracek, R.; McCormick, J.; Pokorski, W.; Santin, G.; /European Space Agency</p> <p>2007-01-23</p> <p>The Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) is a specialized XML-based language designed as an <span class="hlt">application</span>-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors associated with physics measurements. It serves to implement ''geometry trees'' which correspond to the hierarchy of volumes a detector geometry can be composed of, and to allow to identify the position of individual solids, as well as to describe the materials they are made of. Being pure XML, GDML can be universally used, and in particular it can be considered as the format for interchanging geometries among different <span class="hlt">applications</span>. In this paper we will present the current status of the development of GDML. After having discussed the contents of the latest GDML schema, which is the basic definition of the format, we will concentrate on the GDML processors. We will present the latest implementation of the GDML ''writers'' as well as ''readers'' for either Geant4 [2], [3] or ROOT [4], [10].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991TellB..43...82H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991TellB..43...82H"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hasselmann, Klaus</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>Recent numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> using global ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models are reviewed together with model experiments involving further important climate sub-systems with which the ocean interacts: the atmosphere, the air-sea interface and the global carbon cycle. A common feature of all ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> experiments considered is the strong sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> to relatively minor changes in surface forcing, particularly to the buoyancy fluxes in regions of deep water formation in high latitudes. This may explain some of the well-known deficiencies of past global ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. The strong sensitivity may also have been the cause of rapid climate changes observed in paleoclimatic records and can lead further to significant natural climate variability on the time scales of a few hundred years through the stochastic forcing of the ocean by atmospheric weather variability. Gobal warming computations using two different coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the "business-as-usual" scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change yield a significantly stronger warming delay due to the heat uptake by the oceans in the Southern Ocean than estimated on the basis of box-diffusion models. Recent advances in surface wave modelling, illustrated by a comparison of wave height fields derived from the WAM model and the GEOSAT altimeter, hold promise for the development of an improved representation of ocean-atmosphere coupling based on an explicit description of the dynamical processes at the air-sea interface. Global carbon cycle <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with a three dimensional carbon cycle model tuned to reproduce past variations of carbon cycle indices show a significant impact of variations in the ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> on the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and thereby on climate. The series of experiments suggest that for the study of climate in the time scale range from 10<img src="/entityImage/script/2212.gif" alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991TellA..43...82H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991TellA..43...82H"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> and climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hasselmann, Klaus</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>Recent numerical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> using global ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models are reviewed together with model experiments involving further important climate sub-systems with which the ocean interacts: the atmosphere, the air-sea interface and the global carbon cycle. A common feature of all ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> experiments considered is the strong sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> to relatively minor changes in surface forcing, particularly to the buoyancy fluxes in regions of deep water formation in high latitudes. This may explain some of the well-known deficiencies of past global ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. The strong sensitivity may also have been the cause of rapid climate changes observed in paleoclimatic records and can lead further to significant natural climate variability on the time scales of a few hundred years through the stochastic forcing of the ocean by atmospheric weather variability. Gobal warming computations using two different coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the "business-as-usual" scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change yield a significantly stronger warming delay due to the heat uptake by the oceans in the Southern Ocean than estimated on the basis of box-diffusion models. Recent advances in surface wave modelling, illustrated by a comparison of wave height fields derived from the WAM model and the GEOSAT altimeter, hold promise for the development of an improved representation of ocean-atmosphere coupling based on an explicit description of the dynamical processes at the air-sea interface. Global carbon cycle <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with a three dimensional carbon cycle model tuned to reproduce past variations of carbon cycle indices show a significant impact of variations in the ocean <span class="hlt">circulation</span> on the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and thereby on climate. The series of experiments suggest that for the study of climate in the time scale range from 10<img src="/entityImage/script/2212.gif" alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4095901','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4095901"><span id="translatedtitle">High-fidelity <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. <span class="hlt">Application</span> of zonal detached eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy <span class="hlt">simulations</span> (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft <span class="hlt">applications</span> as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering <span class="hlt">applications</span> is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) <span class="hlt">applications</span>. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024411"><span id="translatedtitle">High-fidelity <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. <span class="hlt">Application</span> of zonal detached eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua</p> <p>2014-08-13</p> <p>This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy <span class="hlt">simulations</span> (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft <span class="hlt">applications</span> as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering <span class="hlt">applications</span> is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) <span class="hlt">applications</span>. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024411"><span id="translatedtitle">High-fidelity <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. <span class="hlt">Application</span> of zonal detached eddy <span class="hlt">simulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua</p> <p>2014-08-13</p> <p>This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy <span class="hlt">simulations</span> (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft <span class="hlt">applications</span> as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering <span class="hlt">applications</span> is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) <span class="hlt">applications</span>. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26101029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26101029"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupled <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of Heart Valves: <span class="hlt">Applications</span> to Clinical Practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bakhaty, Ahmed A; Mofrad, Mohammad R K</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The last few decades have seen great advances in the understanding of heart valves, and consequently, in the development of novel treatment modalities and surgical procedures for valves afflicted by disease. This is due in part to the profound advancements in computing technology and noninvasive medical imaging techniques that have made it possible to numerically model the complex heart valve systems characterized by distinct features at different length scales and various interacting processes. In this article, we highlight the importance of explicitly coupling these multiple scales and diverse processes to accurately <span class="hlt">simulate</span> the true behavior of the heart valves, in health and disease. We examine some of the computational modeling studies that have a direct consequence on clinical practice. PMID:26101029</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1691S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1691S"><span id="translatedtitle">TID <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of Advanced CMOS Devices for Space <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sajid, Muhammad</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects caused by accumulation of charges at silicon dioxide, substrate/silicon dioxide interface, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) for scaled CMOS bulk devices as well as at Buried Oxide (BOX) layer in devices based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology to be operated in space radiation environment. The radiation induced leakage current and corresponding density/concentration electrons in leakage current path was presented/depicted for 180nm, 130nm and 65nm NMOS, PMOS transistors based on CMOS bulk as well as SOI process technologies on-board LEO and GEO satellites. On the basis of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> results, the TID robustness analysis for advanced deep sub-micron technologies was accomplished up to 500 Krad. The correlation between the impact of technology scaling and magnitude of leakage current with corresponding total dose was established utilizing Visual TCAD Genius program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.667B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.667B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of different weather pattern classifications to <span class="hlt">simulated</span> future climate conditions for Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartholy, J.; Pongracz, R.; Philipp, A.; Beck, C.; Kern, A.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The main goals of the research are (i) to compare weather pattern classification methods for Central Europe (COST733 domain 07 covering 43-58°N, 3-26°E) using observed and <span class="hlt">simulated</span> present climate (1961-1990), and (ii) to analyze the climate change effects on weather patterns for the same region using different classification methods. The observed climate is represented by the ECMWF ERA40 datasets, and the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> experiments were accomplished for future climate conditions (2071-2100) using two emission scenarios (A2 and B2) in the frame of the EU-project PRUDENCE (Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects). High resolution (50 km × 50 km) <span class="hlt">simulated</span> daily values of meteorological variables (mean sea level pressure, temperature, precipitation) have been obtained from the regional climate model (RCM) outputs of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). DMI used the HIRHAM4 RCM (developed jointly by DMI and the Max-Planck Institute in Hamburg), for which the boundary conditions were provided by the HadAM3H/HadCM3 global climate model of the UK Met Office. For the weather pattern classification we use the COST733 classification software (version 0.19-17). The 12 available classification methods (grouped into (i) optimization algorithms, (ii) leader algorithms, (iii) PCA based methods, and (iv) threshold based methods) are applied to the ERA40 daily mean sea level pressure database for 1961-1990 using 9, 18, and 27 weather pattern types. The resulting <span class="hlt">circulation</span> pattern types from 1961-1990 classifications of the mean sea level pressure fields are applied to the classification of the 2071-2100 period for both A2 and B2 scenarios. Frequency distribution changes of <span class="hlt">circulation</span> pattern types are analyzed in the selected domain by 2071-2100 period for both A2 and B2 scenarios relative to the 1961-1990 reference period. Furthermore, temperature anomaly and precipitation pattern changes are evaluated in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15386145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15386145"><span id="translatedtitle">Toxicity of parking lot runoff after <span class="hlt">application</span> of <span class="hlt">simulated</span> rainfall.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenstein, D; Tiefenthaler, L; Bay, S</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Stormwater runoff is an important source of toxic substances to the marine environment, but the effects of antecedent dry period, rainfall intensity, and duration on the toxicity of runoff are not well understood. In this study, <span class="hlt">simulated</span> rainfall was applied to parking lots to examine the toxicity of runoff while controlling for antecedent period, intensity, and duration of rainfall. Parking areas were divided into high and low use and maintained and unmaintained treatments. The parking stalls were cleaned by pressure washing at time zero. <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> rainfall was then applied to subplots of the parking lots so that antecedent periods of 1, 2, and 3 months were achieved, and all of the runoff was collected for analysis. On a separate parking lot, rainfall was applied at a variety of intensities and durations after a 3-month antecedent period. Runoff samples were tested for toxicity using the purple sea urchin fertilization test. Every runoff sample tested was found to be toxic. Mean toxicity for the sea urchin fertilization test ranged from 2.0 to 12.1 acute toxic units. The toxicity increased rapidly during the first month but then decreased approximately to precleaning levels and remained there. No difference in toxicity was found between the different levels of use or maintenance treatments. The intensity and duration of rainfall were inversely related to degree of toxicity. For all intensities tested, toxicity was always greatest in the first sampling time interval. Dissolved zinc was most likely the primary cause of toxicity based on toxicant characterization of selected runoff samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920061737&hterms=taylor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtaylor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920061737&hterms=taylor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtaylor"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of spatially evolving turbulence and the <span class="hlt">applicability</span> of Taylor's hypothesis in compressible flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Sangsan; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>For the numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of inhomogeneous turbulent flows, a method is developed for generating stochastic inflow boundary conditions with a prescribed power spectrum. Turbulence statistics from spatial <span class="hlt">simulations</span> using this method with a low fluctuation Mach number are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which validates the procedure. Turbulence statistics from spatial <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are also compared to those from temporal <span class="hlt">simulations</span> using Taylor's hypothesis. Statistics such as turbulence intensity, vorticity, and velocity derivative skewness compare favorably with the temporal <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. However, the statistics of dilatation show a significant departure from those obtained in the temporal <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. To directly check the <span class="hlt">applicability</span> of Taylor's hypothesis, space-time correlations of fluctuations in velocity, vorticity, and dilatation are investigated. Convection velocities based on vorticity and velocity fluctuations are computed as functions of the spatial and temporal separations. The profile of the space-time correlation of dilatation fluctuations is explained via a wave propagation model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24491604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24491604"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of training and <span class="hlt">simulated</span> combat stress on leg tourniquet <span class="hlt">application</span> accuracy, time, and effectiveness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schreckengaust, Richard; Littlejohn, Lanny; Zarow, Gregory J</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The lower extremity tourniquet failure rate remains significantly higher in combat than in preclinical testing, so we hypothesized that tourniquet placement accuracy, speed, and effectiveness would improve during training and decline during <span class="hlt">simulated</span> combat. Navy Hospital Corpsman (N = 89), enrolled in a Tactical Combat Casualty Care training course in preparation for deployment, applied Combat <span class="hlt">Application</span> Tourniquet (CAT) and the Special Operations Forces Tactical Tourniquet (SOFT-T) on day 1 and day 4 of classroom training, then under <span class="hlt">simulated</span> combat, wherein participants ran an obstacle course to apply a tourniquet while wearing full body armor and avoiding <span class="hlt">simulated</span> small arms fire (paint balls). <span class="hlt">Application</span> time and pulse elimination effectiveness improved day 1 to day 4 (p < 0.005). Under <span class="hlt">simulated</span> combat, <span class="hlt">application</span> time slowed significantly (p < 0.001), whereas accuracy and effectiveness declined slightly. Pulse elimination was poor for CAT (25% failure) and SOFT-T (60% failure) even in classroom conditions following training. CAT was more quickly applied (p < 0.005) and more effective (p < 0.002) than SOFT-T. Training fostered fast and effective <span class="hlt">application</span> of leg tourniquets while performance declined under <span class="hlt">simulated</span> combat. The inherent efficacy of tourniquet products contributes to high failure rates under combat conditions, pointing to the need for superior tourniquets and for rigorous deployment preparation training in <span class="hlt">simulated</span> combat scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720018627','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720018627"><span id="translatedtitle">Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and <span class="hlt">circulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pritchard, D. W.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and <span class="hlt">circulation</span> on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the <span class="hlt">circulation</span> patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The <span class="hlt">application</span> of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......253L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......253L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of Laser Additive Manufacturing and its <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Yousub</p> <p></p> <p>Laser and metal powder based additive manufacturing (AM), a key category of advanced Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM), produces metallic components directly from a digital representation of the part such as a CAD file. It is well suited for the production of high-value, customizable components with complex geometry and the repair of damaged components. Currently, the main challenges for laser and metal powder based AM include the formation of defects (e.g., porosity), low surface finish quality, and spatially non-uniform properties of material. Such challenges stem largely from the limited knowledge of complex physical processes in AM especially the molten pool physics such as melting, molten metal flow, heat conduction, vaporization of alloying elements, and solidification. Direct experimental measurement of melt pool phenomena is highly difficult since the process is localized (on the order of 0.1 mm to 1 mm melt pool size) and transient (on the order of 1 m/s scanning speed). Furthermore, current optical and infrared cameras are limited to observe the melt pool surface. As a result, fluid flows in the melt pool, melt pool shape and formation of sub-surface defects are difficult to be visualized by experiment. On the other hand, numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, based on rigorous solution of mass, momentum and energy transport equations, can provide important quantitative knowledge of complex transport phenomena taking place in AM. The overarching goal of this dissertation research is to develop an analytical foundation for fundamental understanding of heat transfer, molten metal flow and free surface evolution. Two key types of laser AM processes are studied: a) powder injection, commonly used for repairing of turbine blades, and b) powder bed, commonly used for manufacturing of new parts with complex geometry. In the powder injection <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, fluid convection, temperature gradient (G), solidification rate (R) and melt pool shape are calculated using a heat transfer</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050186838&hterms=advantages+reality+show&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dadvantages%2Breality%2Bshow','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050186838&hterms=advantages+reality+show&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dadvantages%2Breality%2Bshow"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of <span class="hlt">Simulated</span> Annealing and Related Algorithms to TWTA Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Radke, Eric M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Simulated</span> Annealing (SA) is a stochastic optimization algorithm used to search for global minima in complex design surfaces where exhaustive searches are not computationally feasible. The algorithm is derived by <span class="hlt">simulating</span> the annealing process, whereby a solid is heated to a liquid state and then cooled slowly to reach thermodynamic equilibrium at each temperature. The idea is that atoms in the solid continually bond and re-bond at various quantum energy levels, and with sufficient cooling time they will rearrange at the minimum energy state to form a perfect crystal. The distribution of energy levels is given by the Boltzmann distribution: as temperature drops, the probability of the presence of high-energy bonds decreases. In searching for an optimal design, local minima and discontinuities are often present in a design surface. SA presents a distinct advantage over other optimization algorithms in its ability to escape from these local minima. Just as high-energy atomic configurations are visited in the actual annealing process in order to eventually reach the minimum energy state, in SA highly non-optimal configurations are visited in order to find otherwise inaccessible global minima. The SA algorithm produces a Markov chain of points in the design space at each temperature, with a monotonically decreasing temperature. A random point is started upon, and the objective function is evaluated at that point. A stochastic perturbation is then made to the parameters of the point to arrive at a proposed new point in the design space, at which the objection function is evaluated as well. If the change in objective function values (Delta)E is negative, the proposed new point is accepted. If (Delta)E is positive, the proposed new point is accepted according to the Metropolis criterion: rho((Delta)f) = exp((-Delta)E/T), where T is the temperature for the current Markov chain. The process then repeats for the remainder of the Markov chain, after which the temperature is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP31A1840C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP31A1840C"><span id="translatedtitle">Concurrent Sr/Ca Ratios and Bomb Test 14C Records from a Porites evermanni Colony on Kure Atoll: SST, Climate Change, Ocean <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> and Management <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Covarrubias, S.; Potts, D.; Siciliano, D.; Andrews, A.; Franks, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> timeline of when carbon isotope spikes appear in this region from large scale atomic testing. Changes in 14C along the length of our core have important implications for understanding regional oceanic <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, and for the life history age validation of marine organisms, including long-lived fishes whose calcareous otoliths retain a 14C signal. These results have direct <span class="hlt">application</span> for improved management of commercially important reef and bottom fishes of Hawaii. By tracing the bomb 14C signal in the otolith (ear bone) of regional fishes, important population parameters can be validated (e.g. age of maturity and longevity). At present, the bomb 14C record is incomplete for the Hawaiian Archipelago, but the work presented will fill the void.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812646','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812646"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing the <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Speed of Sensor Network <span class="hlt">Applications</span> by Asynchronization of Interrupt Service Routines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Joe, Hyunwoo; Woo, Duk-Kyun; Kim, Hyungshin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Sensor network <span class="hlt">simulations</span> require high fidelity and timing accuracy to be used as an implementation and evaluation tool. The cycle-accurate and instruction-level <span class="hlt">simulator</span> is the known solution for these purposes. However, this type of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> incurs a high computation cost since it has to model not only the instruction level behavior but also the synchronization between multiple sensors for their causality. This paper presents a novel technique that exploits asynchronous <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of interrupt service routines (ISR). We can avoid the synchronization overheads when the interrupt service routines are <span class="hlt">simulated</span> without preemption. If the causality errors occur, we devise a rollback procedure to restore the original synchronized <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. This concept can be extended to any instruction-level sensor network <span class="hlt">simulator</span>. Evaluation results show our method can enhance the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> speed up to 52% in the case of our experiments. For <span class="hlt">applications</span> with longer interrupt service routines and smaller number of preemptions, the speedup becomes greater. In addition, our <span class="hlt">simulator</span> is 2 to 11 times faster than the well-known sensor network <span class="hlt">simulator</span>. PMID:23966200</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B51A0353L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B51A0353L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulating</span> Two-way Interactive Vegetation-Biophysical Processes and Atmospheric- Mesoscale <span class="hlt">Circulations</span> During 2001 Santarem Field Campaign Using SiB-RAMS Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, L.; Denning, S. A.; Baker, I.; Uliasz, M.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Simple Biosphere Model Version 2.5 (SiB2.5) is coupled with the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to study the two-way interactions between the land surface and atmosphere during the dry season 2001 Santarem field campaign. The evaluations against flux tower and nearby meteorological station observations show that the SiB-RAMS is able to capture the variability in observed meteorology and CO2 concentration, as well as surface fluxes of CO2, H, and LE, during the 15- day <span class="hlt">simulation</span> time period, 1 through 15 August 2001. The mechanically forced low-level convergence on the eastside of Tapajos" river has significant impact on observed ecosystem carbon fluxes, and is taken into account when tower fluxes are generalized to a large region. The impact of CO2 source from the Tapajos River was also examined by performing numerical sensitivity experiments with and without specifying river CO2 effluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes is 5 umol/m2/s, which is determined by boat measurement. The results show that the river CO2 effluxes modify the spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, especially at night. Our <span class="hlt">simulation</span> also indicated the Amazon Basin continues to be a carbon sink even when the additional CO2 from the river to the atmosphere is accounted for. The additional CO2 source enhances carbon uptake over vegetated land on the lee side of Tapajos" river. Furthermore, a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) was used to quantify the contribution of river CO2 effluxes to tower observed variability in CO2 flux and concentration. A transect of 10 virtual towers was placed across the Tapajos River with 4-km spacing between each tower in the east-west direction. The particles were released and tracked backward in time at each tower. The influence function was calculated and integrated with the surface CO2 fluxes <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by SiB-RAMS. The experiment demonstrates that LPDM is capable to determine when</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874738"><span id="translatedtitle">Virtual and <span class="hlt">simulated</span> striated toolmarks for forensic <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baiker, Martin; Petraco, Nicholas D K; Gambino, Carol; Pieterman, René; Shenkin, Peter; Zoon, Peter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Large numbers of experimental toolmarks of screwdrivers are often required in casework of toolmark examiners and in research environments alike, to be able to recover the angle of attack of a crime scene mark and to determine statistically meaningful properties of toolmarks respectively. However, in practice the number of marks is limited by the time needed to create them. In this article, we present an approach to predict how a striated mark of a particular tool would look like, using 3D surface datasets of screwdrivers. We compare these virtual toolmarks qualitatively and quantitatively with real experimental marks in wax and show that they are very similar. In addition we study toolmark similarity, dependent on the angle of attack, with a very high angular resolution of 1°. The results show that for the tested type of screwdriver, our toolmark comparison framework yields known match similarity scores that are above the mean known non-match similarity scores, even for known match differences in angle of attack of up to 40°. In addition we demonstrate an approach to automatically recover the angle of attack of an experimental toolmark and experiments yield high accuracy and precision of 0.618 ± 4.179°. Furthermore, we present a strategy to study the structural elements of striated toolmarks using wavelet analysis, and show how to use the results to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> realistic toolmarks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010APS..DPPBP9104G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010APS..DPPBP9104G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">DSC -- Disruption <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Code for Tokamaks and ITER <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galkin, S. A.; Grubert, J. E.; Zakharov, L. E.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Arguably the most important issue facing the further development of magnetic fusion via advanced tokamaks is to predict, avoid, or mitigate disruptions. This recently became the hottest challenging topic in fusion research because of several potentially damaging effects, which could impact the ITER device. To address this issue, two versions of a new 3D adaptive Disruption <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> Code (DSC) will be developed. The first version will solve the ideal reduced 3D MHD model in the real geometry with a thin conducting wall structure, utilizing the adaptive meshless technique. The second version will solve the resistive reduced 3D MHD model in the real geometry of the conducting structure of the tokamak vessel and will finally be parallelized. The DSC will be calibrated against the JET disruption data and will be capable of predicting the disruption effects in ITER, as well as contributing to the development of the disruption mitigation scheme and suppression of the RE generation. The progress on the first version of the 3D DSC development will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AIPC.1430.1918P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AIPC.1430.1918P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of magnetic flux leakage: <span class="hlt">Application</span> to tube inspection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prémel, Denis; Fnaeich, E. A.; Djafa, S.; Pichon, L.; Trillon, A.; Bisiaux, B.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The detection of flaws in steel pipes using Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) consists in detecting magnetic flux leaks outside the pipe, either with a magnetic sensor or with an induction coil, while the pipe is rotating. In the Vallourec group, many NDT units use MFL for testing ferromagnetic pipes. In order to improve the performances of flaw detection, CEA LIST and the Vallourec Research Aulnoye (VRA) group are collaborating on MFL modelling. The aim is to be able to perform parametric studies thanks to a fast 3D numerical model dedicated to MFL systems. A simplified 2D geometry has already been derived for the development of first <span class="hlt">simulation</span> tools. When considering the B-H curve of ferromagnetic materials, the non-linear magnetostatic problem can be solved with the generalized boundary element method (BEMG), which comes to the evaluation of two equivalent scalar potentials: the surface charge density and the volume charge density. When applying the Galerkin method for the discretization of integral equations, the particularity of this numerical model lies in the implementation of high order basis functions for the interpolation of the scalar unknowns. This paper presents some first numerical results for the numerical validation of the semi-analytical model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/790037','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/790037"><span id="translatedtitle">Matrix-free constructions of <span class="hlt">circulant</span> and block <span class="hlt">circulant</span> preconditioners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Chao; Ng, Esmond G.; Penczek, Pawel A.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>A framework for constructing <span class="hlt">circulant</span> and block <span class="hlt">circulant</span> preconditioners (C) for a symmetric linear system Ax=b arising from certain signal and image processing <span class="hlt">applications</span> is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme does not make explicit use of matrix elements of A. It is ideal for <span class="hlt">applications</span> in which A only exists in the form of a matrix vector multiplication routine, and in which the process of extracting matrix elements of A is costly. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the fact that for many linear systems arising from signal or image processing <span class="hlt">applications</span>, eigenvectors of A can be well represented by a small number of Fourier modes. Therefore, the construction of C can be carried out in the frequency domain by carefully choosing its eigenvalues so that the condition number of C{sup T} AC can be reduced significantly. We illustrate how to construct the spectrum of C in a way such that the smallest eigenvalues of C{sup T} AC overlaps with those of A extremely well while the largest eigenvalues of C{sup T} AC are smaller than those of A by several orders of magnitude. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the preconditioner on accelerating the solution of linear systems arising from image reconstruction <span class="hlt">application</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616501A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616501A"><span id="translatedtitle">GPU Developments for General <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Appleyard, Jeremy; Posey, Stan; Ponder, Carl; Eaton, Joe</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Current trends in high performance computing (HPC) are moving towards the use of graphics processing units (GPUs) to achieve speedups through the extraction of fine-grain parallelism of <span class="hlt">application</span> software. GPUs have been developed exclusively for computational tasks as massively-parallel co-processors to the CPU, and during 2013 an extensive set of new HPC architectural features were developed in a 4th generation of NVIDIA GPUs that provide further opportunities for GPU acceleration of general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models used in climate science and numerical weather prediction. Today computational efficiency and <span class="hlt">simulation</span> turnaround time continue to be important factors behind scientific decisions to develop models at higher resolutions and deploy increased use of ensembles. This presentation will examine the current state of GPU parallel developments for stencil based numerical operations typical of dynamical cores, and introduce new GPU-based implicit iterative schemes with GPU parallel preconditioning and linear solvers based on ILU, Krylov methods, and multigrid. Several GCMs show substantial gain in parallel efficiency from second-level fine-grain parallelism under first-level distributed memory parallel through a hybrid parallel implementation. Examples are provided relevant to science-scale HPC practice of CPU-GPU system configurations based on model resolution requirements of a particular <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Performance results compare use of the latest conventional CPUs with and without GPU acceleration. Finally a forward looking discussion is provided on the roadmap of GPU hardware, software, tools, and programmability for GCM development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860023786','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860023786"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory evaluation and <span class="hlt">application</span> of microwave absorption properties under <span class="hlt">simulated</span> conditions for planetary atmospheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steffes, P. G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>After long arduous work with the <span class="hlt">simulator</span>, measurements of the refractivity and absorptivity of nitrogen under conditions similar to those for Titan were completed. The most significant measurements, however, were those of the microwave absorption from gaseous ammonia under <span class="hlt">simulated</span> conditions for the Jovian atmospheres over wavelengths from 1.3 to 22 cm. The results of these measurements are critical in that they confirm the theoretical calculation of the ammonia opacity using the Ben-Reuven lineshape. The <span class="hlt">application</span> of both these results, and results obtained previously, to planetary observations at microwave frequencies were especially rewarding. <span class="hlt">Applications</span> of the results for ammonia to radio astronomical observations of Jupiter in the 1.3 to 20 cm wavelength range and the <span class="hlt">application</span> of results for gaseous H2SO4 under <span class="hlt">simulated</span> Venus conditions are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014242','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014242"><span id="translatedtitle">COAMPS <span class="hlt">Application</span> to Dispersion Scavenging Problem: Heavy Precipitation <span class="hlt">Simulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chin, H; Cederwall, R</p> <p>2004-05-05</p> <p>Precipitation scavenging can effectively remove particulates from the atmosphere. Therefore, this process is of importance in the real-time modeling of atmospheric transport for hazardous materials. To account for the rainfall effect in LLNL operational dispersion model, a modified version of a standard below-cloud aerosol scavenging model has been developed to handle the emergency response in this scenario (Loosmore and Cerdewall, 2003, hereafter referred to as LC). Two types of rain data can be used to incorporate precipitation scavenging in the dispersion model; realtime measurements (rain gauge and radar), and model prediction. The former approach has been adopted in LC's study for the below-cloud scavenging problem based on the surface rain measurements. However, the in-cloud scavenging effect remains unresolved as a restriction of available real-time measurements in providing the vertical structure of precipitation systems. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility to incorporate three-dimensional precipitation structure of forecast data into the dispersion model. Therefore, both in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging effects can be included in LLNL aerosol scavenging model. To this end, a mesoscale model (Naval Research Laboratory 3-D weather forecast model, COAMPS) is used to demonstrate this <span class="hlt">application</span> using a mid-west severe storm case occurring on July 18, 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PrAeS..42..174T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PrAeS..42..174T"><span id="translatedtitle">Inverse <span class="hlt">simulation</span> as a tool for flight dynamics research—Principles and <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomson, Douglas; Bradley, Roy</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The technique of inverse <span class="hlt">simulation</span> is finding <span class="hlt">application</span> in many and varied fields. As the name implies this technique is used to calculate the control action required to achieve a specified system response. The field of aircraft flight dynamics is particularly suited to this form of <span class="hlt">simulation</span> as the question of what control actions must the pilot (or automatic flight control system) take for the aircraft to fly along a particular trajectory (a landing approach, for example) is often asked. This paper looks specifically at the <span class="hlt">application</span> of inverse <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in flight dynamics. The aim is not only to give an overview of the various techniques and <span class="hlt">applications</span> but also to provide guidance to potential users of the technique on several of the physical and numerical features often observed in the results. An extensive review of the methodologies used within the family of inverse <span class="hlt">simulations</span> is presented followed by a formal treatment of the theoretical development of inverse <span class="hlt">simulation</span> as an established technique. A case study involving the inverse <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of a helicopter flying a slalom manoeuvre is presented to demonstrate the <span class="hlt">application</span> of inverse <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in a flight dynamics analysis. An important feature of the use of inverse <span class="hlt">simulation</span> is that it is necessary to define the output response required-in the case of flight dynamics the required flight path has to be modelled. Some of the methods used are documented, and their validity discussed. The paper also gives an insight into the types of problem which can be addressed by inverse <span class="hlt">simulation</span> by detailing some of the many <span class="hlt">applications</span> to which it has been put in the past. These include studies of rotorcraft handling qualities, performance and design, and pilot modelling as well as model validation. An important element of this paper is the formal, theoretical analysis of some of the numerical and physical features exhibited by inverse <span class="hlt">simulation</span> which should aid potential users to interpret their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930026726&hterms=united+states+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dunited%2Bstates%2Bclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930026726&hterms=united+states+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dunited%2Bstates%2Bclimate%2Bchange"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional climates in the GISS global <span class="hlt">circulation</span> model - Synoptic-scale <span class="hlt">circulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hewitson, B.; Crane, R. G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A major weakness of current general <span class="hlt">circulation</span> models (GCMs) is their perceived inability to predict reliably the regional consequences of a global-scale change, and it is these regional-scale predictions that are necessary for studies of human-environmental response. For large areas of the extratropics, the local climate is controlled by the synoptic-scale atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span>, and it is the purpose of this paper to evaluate the synoptic-scale <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. A methodology for validating the daily synoptic <span class="hlt">circulation</span> using Principal Component Analysis is described, and the methodology is then applied to the GCM <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of sea level pressure over the continental United States (excluding Alaska). The analysis demonstrates that the GISS 4 x 5 deg GCM Model II effectively <span class="hlt">simulates</span> the synoptic-scale atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> over the United States. The modes of variance describing the atmospheric <span class="hlt">circulation</span> of the model are comparable to those found in the observed data, and these modes explain similar amounts of variance in their respective datasets. The temporal behavior of these <span class="hlt">circulation</span> modes in the synoptic time frame are also comparable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/820786','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/820786"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Application</span> of adaptive mesh refinement to particle-in-cell <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of plasmas and beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vay, J.-L.; Colella, P.; Kwan, J.W.; McCorquodale, P.; Serafini, D.B.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Westenskow, G.; Adam, J.-C.; Heron, A.; Haber, I.</p> <p>2003-11-04</p> <p>Plasma <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are often rendered challenging by the disparity of scales in time and in space which must be resolved. When these disparities are in distinctive zones of the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> domain, a method which has proven to be effective in other areas (e.g. fluid dynamics <span class="hlt">simulations</span>) is the mesh refinement technique. We briefly discuss the challenges posed by coupling this technique with plasma Particle-In-Cell <span class="hlt">simulations</span>, and present examples of <span class="hlt">application</span> in Heavy Ion Fusion and related fields which illustrate the effectiveness of the approach. We also report on the status of a collaboration under way at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory between the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group (ANAG) and the Heavy Ion Fusion group to upgrade ANAG's mesh refinement library Chombo to include the tools needed by Particle-In-Cell <span class="hlt">simulation</span> codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790031864&hterms=gravity+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgravity%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790031864&hterms=gravity+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgravity%2Bdata"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> gravity modeling to spacecraft-tracking data - Analysis and <span class="hlt">application</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, R. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Abbott, E. A.; Zisk, S. H.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>It is proposed that line-of-sight gravity measurements derived from spacecraft-tracking data can be used for quantitative subsurface density modeling by suitable orbit <span class="hlt">simulation</span> procedures. Such an approach avoids complex dynamic reductions and is analogous to the modeling of conventional surface gravity data. This procedure utilizes the vector calculations of a given gravity model in a simplified trajectory integration program that <span class="hlt">simulates</span> the line-of-sight gravity. Solutions from an orbit <span class="hlt">simulation</span> inversion and a dynamic inversion on Doppler observables compare well (within 1% in mass and size), and the error sources in the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> approximation are shown to be quite small. An <span class="hlt">application</span> of this technique is made to lunar crater gravity anomalies by <span class="hlt">simulating</span> the complete Bouguer correction to several large young lunar craters. It is shown that the craters all have negative Bouguer anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6769657','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6769657"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of geothermal reservoirs: Fundamental processes, computer <span class="hlt">simulation</span>, and field <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pruess, K.</p> <p>1988-09-01</p> <p>This article attempts to critically evaluate the present state of the art of geothermal reservoir <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Methodological aspects of geothermal reservoir modeling are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on flow in fractured media. Then we examine <span class="hlt">applications</span> of numerical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> to studies of reservoir dynamics, well test design and analysis, and modeling of specific fields. Tangible impacts of reservoir <span class="hlt">simulation</span> technology on geothermal energy development are pointed out. We conclude with considerations on possible future developments in the mathematical modeling of geothermal fields. 45 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16041566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16041566"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Circulating</span> serotonin in vertebrates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maurer-Spurej, E</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> serotonin is unclear and whether or not serotonin is present in the blood of non-mammalian species is not known. This study provides the first evidence for the presence of serotonin in thrombocytes of birds and three reptilian species, the endothermic leatherback sea turtle, the green sea turtle and the partially endothermic American alligator. Thrombocytes from a fresh water turtle, American bullfrog, Yellowfin tuna, and Chinook salmon did not contain serotonin. Serotonin is a vasoactive substance that regulates skin blood flow, a major mechanism for endothermic body temperature regulation, which could explain why <span class="hlt">circulating</span> serotonin is present in warm-blooded species. The temperature sensitivity of human blood platelets with concomitant changes in serotonin content further supports a link between <span class="hlt">circulating</span> serotonin and thermoregulation. Phylogenetic comparison of the presence of <span class="hlt">circulating</span> serotonin indicated an evolutionary divergence within reptilian species that might coincide with the emergence of endothermy. PMID:16041566</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketing+AND+demographics&pg=7&id=EJ259390','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketing+AND+demographics&pg=7&id=EJ259390"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural Determination of <span class="hlt">Circulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blankenburg, William B.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Analyzes the effects of both structural factors (demographics, economic conditions, and competition) and discretionary factors (content, design, and marketing techniques) and concludes that it is the former that determine a newspaper's <span class="hlt">circulation</span>. (FL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013tucv.book...55L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013tucv.book...55L"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Circulation</span> and Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Limaye, Sanjay S.; Rengel, Miriam</p> <p></p> <p>The deep atmosphere of Venus ( ˜ 180 km including the thermosphere) presents both observational and modeling challenges. Its thick, nearly uniform global cloud cover makes it difficult to fathom the vertical structure of the global <span class="hlt">circulation</span> through available techniques that are applied to Earth's atmosphere. Further, the slow rotation of the planet and the consequential prevailing cyclostrophic balance restricts easy inferences about the meridional flow and <span class="hlt">circulation</span> (Gierasch et al. 1997, Read 1986, Schubert et al. 2007).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......192K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......192K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Simulation</span> of direct current microdischarges for microthruster <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kothnur, Prashanth Srinivasa</p> <p></p> <p>The structure of direct-current microdischarges (MDs) is investigated using a detailed two-dimensional multispecies continuum model. MDs are direct-current (DC) discharges that operate at pressures of 100--1000 Torr and geometric dimensions in the 10--100 micron range. The motivation for this work comes from our proposed <span class="hlt">application</span> of a MD-based electrothermal thruster for small satellite propulsion. The physical and chemical character of MDs, including the sheath-bulk plasma structure, effect of high-pressure and high-temperature plasma chemistry, effect of geometric configuration, and effect of bulk gas flow through the active discharge region is studied. The two-dimensional model, developed as part of this study, consists of two modules, a plasma module and a flow module. The plasma module solves conservation equations for plasma species continuity, electron energy and neutral gas energy, and Poisson's equation for the self-consistent electric field. The flow module solves bulk gas momentum and mass conservation equations. Two discharge geometries are considered, the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) geometry, and the flow-through hollow-electrode (HE) geometry. Results indicate that the MHCD operates in an abnormal glow discharge mode with charged and excited metastable species densities of order 1020 m -3, electron temperatures of tens of eV, and gas temperatures of several hundreds of Kelvin above the ambient temperature. Most of the model predictions are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data for MHCD discharges under similar conditions. The HE geometry is used to study plasma-flow interactions. The effect of pressure (250--1000 Torr), power input (0.5--1 Torr), and flow rates (0--225 sccm) on helium discharge properties is studied. The results show that the HE discharge operates in an abnormal discharge mode that transitions toward an increasingly normal mode as either the pressure or the flow rate is increased. The discharge</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780034807&hterms=lemon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlemon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780034807&hterms=lemon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlemon"><span id="translatedtitle">Electro-optic and holographic measurement techniques for the atmospheric sciences. [considering spacecraft <span class="hlt">simulation</span> <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moore, W. W., Jr.; Lemons, J. F.; Kurtz, R. L.; Liu, H.-K.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A comprehensive examination is made of recent advanced research directions in the <span class="hlt">applications</span> of electro-optical and holographic instrumentations and methods to atmospheric sciences problems. In addition, an overview is given of the in-house research program for environmental and atmospheric measurements with emphasis on particulates systems. Special treatment is made of the instrument methods and <span class="hlt">applications</span> work in the areas of laser scattering spectrometers and pulsed holography sizing systems. Selected engineering tests data on space <span class="hlt">simulation</span> chamber programs are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920015299&hterms=computer+vision&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcomputer%2Bvision','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920015299&hterms=computer+vision&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcomputer%2Bvision"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer graphics testbed to <span class="hlt">simulate</span> and test vision systems for space <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cheatham, John B.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Artificial intelligence concepts are applied to robotics. Artificial neural networks, expert systems and laser imaging techniques for autonomous space robots are being studied. A computer graphics laser range finder <span class="hlt">simulator</span> developed by Wu has been used by Weiland and Norwood to study use of artificial neural networks for path planning and obstacle avoidance. Interest is expressed in <span class="hlt">applications</span> of CLIPS, NETS, and Fuzzy Control. These <span class="hlt">applications</span> are applied to robot navigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2876','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2876"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the 200 hPa <span class="hlt">circulation</span> in CSM and CCM3 <span class="hlt">simulations</span> and NCEP and ERA reanalysis: seasonal cycle and interannual variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyle, J.S.</p> <p>1998-10-08</p> <p> to SST anomalies, which exacerbates the poor ocean <span class="hlt">simulation</span> in the tropical Pacific. There are errors in the CCM3 integration which foreshadow, deficiencies in the CSM integration, so the ocean is not solely at fault. The amount of disagreement between the ERA and NCEP divergence fields on the time scales of the annual cycle and low frequency variations indicates that this field is poorly defined, and in some regions unknown</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6g5319Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6g5319Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A modified method of characteristics and its <span class="hlt">application</span> in forward and inversion <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of underwater explosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Chengjiao; Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Chenchen</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This paper introduces a modified method of characteristics and its <span class="hlt">application</span> in forward and inversion <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of underwater explosion. Compared with standard method of characteristics which is appropriate to homoentripic flow problem, the modified method can be also used to deal with isentropic flow problem such as underwater explosion. Underwater explosion of spherical TNT and composition B explosives are <span class="hlt">simulated</span> by using the modified method, respectively. Peak pressures and flow field pressures are obtained, and they are coincident with those from empirical formulas. The comparison demonstrates the modified is feasible and reliable in underwater explosion <span class="hlt">simulation</span>. Based on the modified method, inverse difference schemes and inverse method are introduced. Combined with the modified, the inverse schemes can be used to deal with gas-water interface inversion of underwater explosion. Inversion <span class="hlt">simulations</span> of underwater explosion of the explosives are performed in water, and equation of state (EOS) of detonation product is not needed. The peak pressures from the forward <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are provided as boundary conditions in the inversion <span class="hlt">simulations</span>. Inversion interfaces are obtained and they are mainly in good agreement with those from the forward <span class="hlt">simulations</span> in near field. The comparison indicates the inverse method and the inverse difference schemes are reliable and reasonable in interface inversion <span class="hlt">simulation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3040783','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3040783"><span id="translatedtitle">Surgical model-view-controller <span class="hlt">simulation</span> software framework for local and collaborative <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Halic, Tansel; Arikatla, Venkata Sreekanth; Lu, Zhonghua; De, Suvranu</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Surgical <span class="hlt">simulations</span> require haptic interactions and collaboration in a shared virtual environment. A software framework for decoupled surgical <span class="hlt">simulation</span> based on a multi-controller and multi-viewer model-view-controller (MVC) pattern was developed and tested. Methods A software framework for multimodal virtual environments was designed, supporting both visual interactions and haptic feedback while providing developers with an integration tool for heterogeneous architectures maintaining high performance, simplicity of implementation, and straightforward extension. The framework uses decoupled <span class="hlt">simulation</span> with updates of over 1,000 Hz for haptics and accommodates networked <span class="hlt">simulation</span> with delays of over 1,000 ms without performance penalty. Results The <span class="hlt">simulation</span> software framework was implemented and was used to support the design of virtual reality-based surgery <span class="hlt">simulation</span> systems. The framework supports the high level of complexity of such <span class="hlt">applications</span> and the fast response required for interaction with haptics. The efficacy of the framework was tested by implementation of a minimally invasive surgery <span class="hlt">simulator</span>. Conclusion A decoupled <span class="hlt">simulation</span> approach can be implemented as a framework to handle simultaneous processes of the system at the various frame rates each process requires. The framework was successfully used to develop collaborative virtual environments (VEs) involving geographically distributed users connected through a network, with the results comparable to VEs for local users. PMID:20714933</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=software+AND+behaviour&pg=3&id=EJ1076186','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=software+AND+behaviour&pg=3&id=EJ1076186"><span id="translatedtitle">A Systematic Review of Agent-Based Modelling and <span class="hlt">Simulation</span> <span class="hlt">Applications</span> in the Higher Education Domain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gu, X.; Blackmore, K. L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of a systematic review of agent-based modelling and <span class="hlt">simulation</span> (ABMS) <span class="hlt">applications</span> in the higher education (HE) domain. Agent-based modelling is a "bottom-up" modelling paradigm in which system-level behaviour (macro) is modelled through the behaviour of individual local-level agent interactions (micro).…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23514937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23514937"><span id="translatedtitle">CloudMC: a cloud computing <span class="hlt">application</span> for Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miras, H; Jiménez, R; Miras, C; Gomà, C</p> <p>2013-04-21</p> <p>This work presents CloudMC, a cloud computing <span class="hlt">application</span>-developed in Windows Azure®, the platform of the Microsoft® cloud-for the parallelization of Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulations</span> in a dynamic virtual cluster. CloudMC is a web <span class="hlt">application</span> designed to be independent of the Monte Carlo code in which the <span class="hlt">simulations</span> are based-the <span class="hlt">simulations</span> just need to be of the form: input files → executable → output files. To study the performance of CloudMC in Windows Azure®, Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">simulations</span> with penelope were performed on different instance (virtual machine) sizes, and for different number of instances. The instance size was found to have no effect on the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> runtime. It was also found that the decrease in time with the number of instances followed Amdahl's law, with a slight deviation due to the increase in the fraction of non-parallelizable time with increasing number of instances. A <span class="hlt">simulation</span> that would have required 30 h of CPU on a single instance was completed in 48.6 min when executed on 64 instances in parallel (speedup of 37 ×). Furthermore, the use of cloud computing for parallel computing offers some advantages over conventional clusters: high accessibility, scalability and pay per usage. Therefore, it is strongly believed that cloud computing will play an important role in making Monte Carlo dose calculation a reality in future clinical practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/170218','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/170218"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple platform <span class="hlt">application</span> of 3D CAD PIC <span class="hlt">simulations</span> in pulsed power</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peratt, A.L.; Mostrom, M.A.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>With the availability of 80--125 MHz microprocessors, the methodology developed for the <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of problems in pulsed power and plasma physics on modern day supercomputers is now amenable to <span class="hlt">application</span> on a wide range of platforms including laptops and workstations. While execution speeds with these processors do not match those of large scale computing machines, resources such as computer-aided-design (CAD) and graphical analysis codes are available to automate <span class="hlt">simulation</span> setup and process data. This paper reports on the adaptation of IVORY, a three-dimensional, fully-electromagnetic, particle-in-cell <span class="hlt">simulation</span> code, to this platform independent CAD environment. The primary purpose of this talk is to demonstrate how rapidly a pulsed power/plasma problem can be scoped out by an experimenter on a dedicated workstation. Demonstrations include a magnetically insulated transmission line, power flow in a graded insulator stack, a relativistic klystron oscillator, and the dynamics of a coaxial thruster for space <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSemi..37g4001S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSemi..37g4001S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and <span class="hlt">simulation</span> of carbon nanotube field effect transistor and its circuit <span class="hlt">application</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Amandeep; Saini, Dinesh Kumar; Agarwal, Dinesh; Aggarwal, Sajal; Khosla, Mamta; Raj, Balwinder</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) is modelled for circuit <span class="hlt">application</span>. The model