Science.gov

Sample records for circumstellar disc envelope

  1. The circumstellar disc in the Bok globule CB 26. Multi-wavelength observations and modelling of the dust disc and envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, J.; Wolf, S.; Launhardt, R.; Padgett, D. L.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Pinte, C.; Duchêne, G.; Ménard, F.; McCabe, C.-E.; Pontoppidan, K.; Dunham, M.; Bourke, T. L.; Chen, J.-H.

    2009-10-01

    Context: Circumstellar discs are expected to be the nursery of planets. Grain growth within such discs is the first step in the planet formation process. The Bok globule CB 26 harbours such a young disc. Aims: We present a detailed model of the edge-on circumstellar disc and its envelope in the Bok globule CB 26. Methods: The model is based on HST near-infrared maps in the I, J, H, and K bands, OVRO and SMA radio maps at 1.1 mm, 1.3 mm and 2.7 mm, and the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 0.9 {μ m} to 3 mm. New photometric and spectroscopic data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Caltech Submilimeter Observatory are also part of our analysis. Using the self-consistent radiative transfer code MC3D, the model we construct is able to discriminate between parameter sets and dust properties of both envelope and disc. Results: We find that the data are fit by a disc that has an inner hole with a radius of 45±5 AU. Based on a dust model including silicate and graphite, the maximum grain size needed to reproduce the spectral millimetre index is 2.5 {μ m}. Features seen in the near-infrared images, dominated by scattered light, can be described as a result of a rotating envelope. Conclusions: Successful employment of ISM dust in both the disc and envelope hint that grain growth may not yet play a significant role for the appearance of this system. A large inner hole implies that CB 26 is a circumbinary disc.

  2. Polarimetric microlensing of circumstellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe; Rahvar, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    We study the benefits of polarimetry observations of microlensing events to detect and characterize circumstellar discs around the microlensed stars located at the Galactic bulge. These discs which are unresolvable from their host stars make a net polarization effect due to their projected elliptical shapes. Gravitational microlensing can magnify these signals and make them be resolved. The main aim of this work is to determine what extra information about these discs can be extracted from polarimetry observations of microlensing events in addition to those given by photometry ones. Hot discs which are closer to their host stars are more likely to be detected by microlensing, owing to more contributions in the total flux. By considering this kind of discs, we show that although the polarimetric efficiency for detecting discs is similar to the photometric observation, but polarimetry observations can help to constraint the disc geometrical parameters e.g. the disc inner radius and the lens trajectory with respect to the disc semimajor axis. On the other hand, the time-scale of polarimetric curves of these microlensing events generally increases while their photometric time-scale does not change. By performing a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that almost four optically thin discs around the Galactic bulge sources are detected (or even characterized) through photometry (or polarimetry) observations of high-magnification microlensing events during 10-yr monitoring of 150 million objects.

  3. The photodissociation of CO in circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamon, G. A.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The CO photodissociation rate for the unshielded ISM is calculated using recent laboratory results which confirm that photodissociation occurs by way of line absorption. A value of 2.0 x 10 to the -10th/s, an order of magnitude higher than the rate used in the past, is obtained. The new rate and a treatment of the radiative transfer and shielding are used to develop a theory for the CO abundance in the circumstellar envelopes of cool, evolved stars, and results are presented on the spatial variation of CO, C, and C(+). It is shown that these distributions play important roles in determining the observational properties of circumstellar envelopes.

  4. Small carbon chains in circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Hinkle, K.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-11-01

    Observations of carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes were made using the Phoenix spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope to determine the abundance of small carbon chain molecules. Vibration-rotation lines of the ν3 antisymmetric stretch of C3 near 2040 cm-1 (4.902 μm) have been used to determine the column density for four carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes: CRL 865, CRL 1922, CRL 2023 and IRC +10216. We additionally calculate the column density of C5 for IRC +10216, and provide an upper limit for five more objects. An upper limit estimate for the C7 column density is also provided for IRC+10216. A comparison of these column densities suggests a revision to current circumstellar chemical models may be needed.

  5. Carbon chemistry of circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieging, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical composition of envelopes surrounding cool evolved stars, as determined from microwave spectroscopic observations, is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent observations with the new large mm-wavelength telescopes and interferometer arrays, and on new theoretical work, especially concerning ion-molecule chemistry of carbon-bearing in these envelopes. Thermal (as opposed to maser) emission lines are discussed. Much progress has been made in the past few years in the theoretical understanding of these objects. It is already clear, however, that observations with the new generation of mm-telescopes will require substantial improvements in the theoretical models to achieve a thorough understanding of the data now becoming available.

  6. Fullerenes and fulleranes in circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun; Sadjadi, SeyedAbdolreza

    2016-07-01

    Three decades of search have recently led to convincing discoveries of cosmic fullerenes. The presence of C60 and C+ 60 in both circumstellar and interstellar environments suggests that these molecules and their derivatives can be efficiently formed in circumstellar envelopes and survive in harsh conditions. Detailed analysis of the infrared bands from fullerenes and their connections with the local properties can provide valuable information on the physical conditions and chemical processes that occurred in the late stages of stellar evolution. The identification of C+ 60 as the carrier of four diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) suggests that fullerene- related compounds are abundant in interstellar space and are essential for resolving the DIB mystery. Experiments have revealed a high hydrogenation rate when C60 is exposed to atomic hydrogen, motivating the attempt to search for cosmic fulleranes. In this paper, we present a short review of current knowledge of cosmic fullerenes and fulleranes and briefly discuss the implications on circumstellar chemistry.

  7. The Circumstellar Envelope of IRC +10216.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keady, John Joseph

    1982-03-01

    Using recently obtained spatial and spectral line data on the circumstellar envelope of IRC +10216, we have attempted to semi-empirically probe the conditions in this envelope. The computational techniques utilized in our analysis accurately incorporate the effects of geometrical extension and velocity fields on the radiative transfer. We have also attempted to account for the non-equilibrium expected in the vibrational level populations of the gas phase species. Our modelling of the spatial distribution of the dust-produced circumstellar radiation field at 5 (mu)m and 11 (mu)m indicates that dust may be condensing in the circumstellar envelope. The dominant opacity source in our calculations, amorphous carbon, also seems to provide sufficient far-infrared flux. Modelling of the SiC emission feature confirms previous results that suggest a nonuniform particle-shape distribution for the SiC. We can produce multi-component absorption lines, very similar to the 2 (mu)m CO first overtone lines seen in IRC +10216, with continuous distributions of material. The requirement is regions of relatively low acceleration. Modelling of our high resolution, high signal-to-noise observations of the CO fundamental and first overtone indicates a mass -loss rate of 1.5(10('-4)) M(,(CIRCLE))/yr. Our calculations to date indicate that the gas reaches terminal velocity between 10 and 20 R(,*). The envelope mass within 100 R(,*) is 3(10('-2)) M(,(CIRCLE)), with the ratio (by mass) of dust to gas being 10('-3). The assumption of a constant mass-loss rate implies an envelope mass of (TURN)1 M(,(CIRCLE)) within 5000 R(,*). The computational techniques utilized are sufficiently adaptable and economical so that considerable future refinement of the modelling is possible.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide in a circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukita, N.; Morris, M.

    1983-01-01

    A search for hydrogen sulfide in the cool circumstellar envelopes of 25 stars was made using the 1(10)-1(01) rotational line at 1.8 mm. It was detected in the bipolar nebula/OH maser OH231.8+4.2, an object having a high rate of mass loss. An approximate analysis indicates that 1/60 of the sulfur in this outflowing envelope is in the form of H2S, a fraction which may be similar to that in the atmosphere of the central star. In addition, the shape of the observed line profile is discussed in terms of a possible variation of the outflow velocity with latitude above the system's equatorial plane.

  9. CO line emission from circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, D.; Hernandez, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Yoshida, H.; Phillips, T. G.

    2006-04-01

    Aims.We present the results of a multi-transition CO observational program conducted on a sample of AGB and post-AGB stars envelopes. We have collected maps and single pointing observations of these envelopes in 5 rotational transitions ranging from J = 1-0 to J = 6-5, including in particular new observations of the CO line at 691 GHz at the CSO. The use of such a set of mm and submm CO line on stellar envelopes is rare and limited to the work of some authors on IRC+10216. Methods: .Using a model for the CO emission of an AGB circumstellar envelope, in combination with a standard LVG approach, we have conducted a systematic modelling analysis using the whole set of CO data collected for a sample of 12 sources. We simultaneously fit all five transitions, taking into account the spatial information provided by the maps. Results: .We find mass-loss rates in the range 1 × 10-7 to 4 × 10-4 M_⊙/yr, and envelope temperatures ranging from 20 K to 1000 K at a radius of 1016 cm. There seem to be a general anti-correlation between mass loss rates and temperature, the high mass loss rate AGBs having low temperatures, and vice versa. We show that most AGB data can be fitted using a constant mass loss rate, at least within the calibration uncertainties associated with the data collected at different frequencies. For some cases though (e.g. CIT 6, R Hya, χ Cyg), a change in the mass loss rate history needs to be invoked to reconcile data at low- and high-J, a scenario already mentioned by several authors to explain observations of WX Psc.

  10. The theoretical polarization of pure scattering axisymmetric circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    The Sobolev approach to the scattering of starlight through a pure scattering circumstellar envelope is developed. The theoretical polarization due to electron scattering in Be star envelopes is calculated for two geometries (an equatorially enhanced envelope and a spheroidal envelope). Only the disk-type envelope is found to yield a maximum polarization consistent with the observed range for Be stars. A lower limit, analytical approximation to the theoretical polarization from a pure scattering envelope is obtained.

  11. Conditions for circumstellar disc formation - II. Effects of initial cloud stability and mass accretion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores is investigated using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation with a focus on the effects of the initial cloud stability and the mass accretion rate. The initial cloud stability greatly alters the disc formation process even for prestellar clouds with the same mass-to-flux ratio. A high mass accretion rate on to the disc-forming region is realized in initially unstable clouds, and a large angular momentum is introduced into the circumstellar region in a short time. The region around the protostar has both a thin infalling envelope and a weak magnetic field, which both weaken the effect of magnetic braking. The growth of the rotation-supported disc is promoted in such unstable clouds. Conversely, clouds in an initially near-equilibrium state show lower accretion rates of mass and angular momentum. The angular momentum is transported to the outer envelope before protostar formation. After protostar formation, the circumstellar region has a thick infalling envelope and a strong magnetic field that effectively brakes the disc. As a result, disc formation is suppressed when the initial cloud is in a nearly stable state. The density distribution of the initial cloud also affects the disc formation process. Disc growth strongly depends on the initial conditions when the prestellar cloud has a uniform density, whereas there is no significant difference in the disc formation process in prestellar clouds with non-uniform densities.

  12. Photochemistry and molecular ions in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Mamon, G. A.; Omont, A.; Lucas, R.

    1987-01-01

    An earlier theory of ionization of C-rich circumstellar envelopes based on the photochemical model is extended to include the temperature dependence of ion-molecule reactions with polar molecules, particularly HCN, and line self-shielding of CO dissociating radiation. The results are applied to the abundances of HCO(+) and HNC in C-rich circumstellar envelopes. With standard parameters for IRC + 10216, the model is found to be consistent with the new upper limit to the antenna temperature of the J = 1-0 line of HCO(+) obtained with the IRAM 30-m telescope. The photochemical model provides a natural explanation of the relatively large ratio of HCN to HNC observed for C-rich circumstellar envelopes, and good agreement is obtained for the H(C-13)N/HNC antenna temperature ratio measured for IRC + 10216.

  13. Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Masset, F.; Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Guillot, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

  14. Photochemistry and molecular ions in oxygen-rich circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamon, G. A.; Glassgold, A. E.; Omont, A.

    1987-01-01

    A theory for the ionization of the circumstellar envelopes around O-rich red giants is developed from the photochemical model. The main source of ionization is photoionization of H2O, OH, and C by the interstellar UV radiation field, supplemented by cosmic-ray ionization of hydrogen. Significant amounts of H3O(+) and HCO(+) are produced, with peak abundances of about 10 to the -7th at intermediate distances from the star. Although H3O(+) may be difficult to detect with current instrumentation, HCO(+) is probably detectable in nearby O-rich envelopes with large millimeter-wave telescopes.

  15. PAH formation in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Frenklach, Michael

    1989-01-01

    While there is growing observational evidence that some fraction of interstellar carbon is in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), the mechanisms by which these molecules might be formed have not been extensively studied. A detailed investigation of PAH production in the outflowing molecular envelopes of carbon-rich red giant star is presented. The gasphase kinetics of a chemical reaction mechanism developed to study soot production in hydrocarbon flames is modified to apply in circumstellar environments. It was found that astrophysically significant quantities of PAH's can be formed in carbon star envelopes provided the gas is sufficiently dense and resides for a long time in the temperature range of 900 to 1100 k. The precise yield of PAH's is very sensitive to astronomical parameters of the envelope (e.g., mass loss rate, outflow velocity, and acetylene abundance) and certain poorly determined chemical reaction rates.

  16. Dust mineralogy in the circumstellar envelope of SVS13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyoshi, T.; Wright, C.; Moore, T.

    It is of great interest to study the mineralogy of circumstellar dust around young stars as it represents the original constituents of planetesimals, hence of the rocky planets like our own Earth. To this end, we have obtained an N-band (8-13 µm) spectrum of a pre-main-sequence star SVS13, using the facility mid-infrared imaging spectrometer COMICS on the Japanese 8.2-m Subaru Telescope atop the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We have fitted various emissivities/absorption coefficients of dust species to the spectrum to examine dust mineralogy in the circumstellar envelope of this remarkable young star. In this presentation, we outline the modelling and highlight some of our findings.

  17. A Bagel-shaped Envelope To Model Circumstellar Material Around Rapidly Rotating Be-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhami, Yamina; Gies, D.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Schaefer, G.

    2009-01-01

    The circumstellar material around Be stars have essentially been studied spectroscopically and interferometrically with disc-shaped models (Waters et al. 1987, Hummel 1994, Gies et al. 2007), where the physical properties are still not very well defined. Schmitz et al. 1983 and Rohrmann et al. 1997, have applied the kinetic theory of gases to steady-state isothermal gaseous masses with differential rotation, and predict bagel-shaped circumstellar envelopes. The theory of a circumstellar torus could very well explain the short and long lived photometric outbursts that have been reported by Mennickent et al.2002, Hubert et al. 1998, and other irregular behaviors such as the spectroscopic transition from a standard B-type star to a Be-type star (Pavlovski et al. 1997). The purpose of this study is to show results on how to model a low-density circumstellar torus around the Be star and to generate visibility curves that could be comparable to observational data obtained with the CHARA long baseline infrared interferometer.

  18. BF Orionis - Evidence for an infalling circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, Alan D.; Barden, Samuel C.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the optical magnitudes and Balmer lines of the Herbig Ae/Be star BF Orionis confirm that the object is an early to mid A-type star, but appears to be below the zero-age main sequence. Enhanced metal-line strengths (once thought to link BF Ori with the Am stars), line asymmetries, and radial velocities are shown to be signatures of an infalling circumstellar envelope. The possibility that BF Ori has a late-type companion is examined, and it is concluded that it does not.

  19. The ionization structure of the circumstellar envelope of Alpha Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The physical processes which affect the ionization of the outer circumstellar envelope of Alpha Ori are analyzed and evaluated. The ultraviolet radiation fields of the chromosphere and the interstellar medium dominate the envelope, and the most common forms of all species are neutral atoms and first ions. Hydrogen recombines just outside the chromosphere, where atoms with smaller ionization potential are essentially fully ionized. The heavier ions gradually recombine with increasing distance from the star, until the interstellar radiation field reverses this trend. The electron fraction in the outer envelope is approximately equal to the abundance of all such heavy atoms, i.e., of the order of 0.0001. The analysis is applied to the case of neutral K, whose density in the envelope has been determined by scattering experiments. The theory predicts that the slope of the K I density distribution should decrease from -1.5 to -3.5 in the outer envelope. The mass loss rate of Alpha Ori implied by the K I scattering experiments is 4 x 10 to the -6th solar mass/yr.

  20. 1612 MHz OH maser emission from axisymmetric circumstellar envelopes - Miras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collison, Alan J.; Fix, John D.

    1992-01-01

    Radiative transfer calculations are performed using a modified form of the Sobolev approximation to determine the inversion of the 1612 MHz line of OH in axisymmetric circumstellar envelopes around Miras. The mass loss is assumed to be occurring in the form of a smooth wind. Line profiles and maps are presented for three models of varying degrees of asymmetry and for various orientations of the envelopes. It is concluded that the axisymmetric models can reproduce many of the features of observed profiles and maps which both the standard, spherically symmetric model and the discrete emission model cannot easily explain. The model profiles reproduce all of the general features seen in the line profiles of real sources.

  1. Polarimetric Models of Circumstellar Discs Including Aggregate Dust Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Mahesh

    The work conducted in this thesis examines the nature of circumstellar discs by investigating irradiance and polarization of scattered light. Two circumstellar discs are investigated. Firstly, H-band high contrast imaging data on the transitional disc of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD169142 are presented. The images were obtained through the polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) technique on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the adaptive optics system NACO. Our observations use longer exposure times, allowing us to examine the edges of the disc. Analysis of the observations shows distinct signs of polarization due to circumstellar material, but due to excessive saturation and adaptive optics errors further information on the disc could not be inferred. The HD169142 disc is then modelled using the 3D radiative transfer code Hyperion. Initial models were constructed using a two disc structure, however recent PDI has shown the existence of an annular gap. In addition to this the annular gap is found not to be devoid of dust. This then led to the construction of a four-component disc structure. Estimates of the mass of dust in the gap (2.10E-6 Msun) are made as well as for the planet (1.53E-5 Msun (0.016 Mjupiter)) suspected to be responsible for causing the gap. The predicted polarization was also estimated for the disc, peaking at ~14 percent. The use of realistic dust grains (ballistic aggregate particles) in Monte Carlo code is also examined. The fortran code DDSCAT is used to calculate the scattering properties for aggregates which are used to replace the spherical grain models used by the radiative transfer code Hyperion. Currently, Hyperion uses four independent elements to define the scattering matrix, therefore the use of rotational averaging and a 50/50 percent population of grains and their enantiomers were explored to reduce the number of contributing scattering elements from DDSCAT. A python script was created to extract the scattering data from the DDSCAT

  2. Direct thermal imaging of circumstellar discs and exo-planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantin, Eric; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Cavarroc, Celine; Sterzik, Michael F.

    2008-07-01

    The phase A study of a mid infrared imager and spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), called METIS, was endorsed in May 2008. Two key science drivers of METIS are: a) direct thermal imaging of exo-planets and b) characterization of circumstellar discs from the early proto-planetary to the late debris phase. Observations in the 10μm atmospheric window (N band) require a contrast ratio between stellar light and emitted photons from the exo-planet or the disc of ~ 105. At shorter wavelengths the contrast between star and reflected light from the planet-disc system exceeds >~ 107 posing technical challenges. By means of end-to-end detailed simulations we demonstrate that the superb spatial resolution of a 42m telescope in combination with stellar light rejection methods such as coronagraphic or differential imaging will allow detections at 10μm for a solar type system down to a star-planet separation of 0.1" and a mass limit for irradiated planets of 1 Jupiter (MJ) mass. In case of self-luminous planets observations are possible further out e.g. at the separation limit of JWST of ~ 0.7", METIS will detect planets >~5MJ. This allows to derive a census of all such exo-planets by means of thermal imaging in a volume limited sample of up to 6pc. In addition, METIS will provide the possibility to study the chemical composition of atmospheres of exo-planets using spectroscopy at moderate spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ~ 100) for the brightest targets. Based on detailed performance and sensitivity estimates, we demonstrate that a mid-infrared instrument on an ELT is perfectly suited to observe gravitationally created structures such as gaps in proto- and post- planetary discs, in a complementary way to space missions (e.g. JWST, SOFIA) and ALMA which can only probe the cold dust emission further out.

  3. Trace Element Condensation in Circumstellar Envelopes of Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1992-07-01

    It is now well established that meteorites contain reduced presolar grains, such as graphite and silicon carbide (SiC), which are probably formed by condensation of dust in the circumstellar envelopes of carbon-rich AGB stars. Here we model condensation in envelopes of carbon stars, with an emphasis on trace elements. Since absolute elemental abundances in stellar atmospheres are generally not known, we assume solar abundances (Anders and Grevesse 1989), except for carbon. A C/O ratio of 2, consistent with the mean and median values of 2.1 and 1.8 respectively, for 61 carbon stars (Gow 1977) was used. The C/O ratio was increased by adding carbon because astrophysicists believe that carbon produced in helium-burning zones may be mixed to the surfaces of C stars (e.g. Lucy 1976). We used physical parameters for the circumstellar shell of the high mass-loss rate, prototypical carbon star IRC +10216 (e.g. Keady et al. 1988, Dominik et al. 1990) and theoretical considerations by Salpeter (1974a,b) to construct a P-T-model of the envelope (see Fig. 1). Thermodynamic equilibrium condensation calculations for a reduced gas include ~600 gaseous and solid compounds of the elements H, C, N, O, S, P, F, Cl, Fe, Mg, Al, Ti, Si, Ca, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and REE. Refractory oxides, sulfides, nitrides, and carbides were considered as condensates. The calculations were done from T = 800 to 2500 K, and P= 10^-5 to 10^-13 bars. The effects of nucleation on condensation temperatures were calculated using the nucleation model discussed by Salpeter (1974a,b) and Cameron and Fegley (1982). The temperature drop required for condensation depends on (P,T, density) in the expanding envelope and also on the abundance, density, and surface energy (Es) of the nucleating compound. The range of E(sub)s values for NaCl-type carbides are about 800-1700 erg/cm^2 (Livey & Murray 1956); however, these data are generally poorly known. Another important variable is the sticking coefficient (s

  4. Direct UV observations of the circumstellar envelope of alpha Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.; Carpenter, K. G.; Pesce, J. E.; Skinner, S.; Brown, A.; Judge, P.

    1988-01-01

    Observations were made in the IUE LWP camera, low dispersion mode, with alpha Ori being offset various distances from the center of the Long Wavelength Large Aperture along its major axis. Signal was acquired at all offset positions and is comprised of unequal components of background/dark counts, telescope-scattered light, and scattered light emanating from the extended circumstellar shell. The star is known from optical and infrared observations to possess an extended, arc-minute sized, shell of cool material. Attempts to observe this shell with the IUE are described, although the deconvolution of the stellar signal from the telescope scattered light requires further calibration effort.

  5. Inhomogeneities in the circumstellar envelope of the A0E herbig star AB aur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskrovnaya, Nina; Pogodin, Mikhail; Najdenov, Ivan; Romanyuk, Iosiff

    1995-02-01

    Simultaneous high-resolution spectroscopy in Hα andUBVRI polarimetric observations are proposed as an effective method for the search for circumstellar inhomogeneities in A0-type Herbig stars. The new results for AB Aur are presented as a successful example of the use of this method. The analysis of about 100 CCD Hα profiles (R = 30 000) and more than 150 polarimetric measurements obtained in January, 1994 allowed to discover a long-lived stream-like inhomogeneity in the circumstellar gaseous envelope.

  6. Anisotropic inverse Compton scattering of photons from the circumstellar disc in PSR B1259-63

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soelen, B.; Meintjes, P. J.; Odendaal, A.; Townsend, L. J.

    2012-11-01

    The gamma-ray binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 consists of a 48 ms pulsar orbiting a Be star. The system is particularly interesting because it is the only gamma-ray binary system where the nature of the compact object is known. The non-thermal radiation from the system is powered by the spin-down luminosity of the pulsar and the unpulsed radiation originates from the stand-off shock front which forms between the pulsar and stellar wind. The Be star/optical companion in the system produces an excess infrared (IR) flux from the associated circumstellar disc. This IR excess provides an additional photon source for inverse Compton scattering. We discuss the effects of the IR excess near periastron, for anisotropic inverse Compton scattering and associated gamma-ray production. We determine the IR excess from the circumstellar disc using a modified version of a curve of growth method, which takes into account the changing optical depth through the circumstellar disc during the orbit. The model is constrained using archive data and additional mid-IR observations obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) during 2011 January. The inverse Compton scattering rate was calculated for three orientations of the circumstellar disc. The predicted gamma-ray light curves show that the disc contribution is a maximum around periastron and not around the disc crossing epoch. This is a result of the disc being brightest near the stellar surface. Additional spectroscopic and near-IR observations were obtained of the system and these are discussed in relation to the possibility of shock heating during the disc crossing epoch. Based, in part, on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 086.D-0136(B), and on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) under programme 2012-1-RSA-003.

  7. Probing the IRC+10 ° 216 circumstellar envelope using spectroscopic observations of background stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Tim; Mauron, Nicolas; McCombie, June; Sarre, Peter

    2004-02-01

    A unique and novel set of observations has been undertaken to study the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the nearby (130 pc) carbon star IRC +10° 216 using optical absorption spectroscopy towards twobackground stars lying beyond the envelope.The primary aim of the observations is to search for diffuse band (DIB)carriers in the CSE. The circumstellar H+2H2column density expected along the line of sight towards the targets islarge compared to that derived from the small interstellar reddening inthis region, E B-V< 0.03 mag. We summarise our mainfindings, already reported in Kendall et al. (2002): The 6284Å DIB is detected in the VLT/UVES spectrum of one target, but clearly arises inthe foreground ISM. No other DIB is seen. Hence the DIB carriers, if present in the CSE, have a low abundance relative to H in the C-rich envelope of IRC +10°216, in comparison with this ratio in theISM. An important new result, previously unreported, concerns the detectionof circumstellar C2 via absorption of the Phillips bandnear 8760Å.

  8. Atomic and molecular hydrogen in the circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of atomic and molecular hydrogen in the expanding circumstellar envelopes of cool evolved stars is discussed. The main concern is to evaluate the effects of photodestruction of H2 by galactic UV radiation, including shielding of the radiation by H2 itself and by dust in the envelope. One of the most important parameters is the H/H2 ratio which is frozen out in the upper atmosphere of the star. For stars with photospheric temperatures greater than about 2500 K, atmospheric models suggest that the outflowing hydrogen is mainly atomic, whereas cooler stars should be substantially molecular. In the latter case, photodissociation of H2 and heavy molecules contribute to the atomic hydrogen content of the outer envelope. The presented estimates indicate that atomic hydrogen is almost at the limit of detection in the C-rich star IRC + 10216, and may be detectable in warmer stars. Failure to detect it would have important implications for the general understanding of circumstellar envelopes.

  9. Chemistry and distribution of daughter species in the circumstellar envelopes of O-rich AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohu; Millar, Tom J.; Heays, Alan N.; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Context. Thanks to the advent of Herschel and ALMA, new high-quality observations of molecules present in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are being reported that reveal large differences from the existing chemical models. New molecular data and more comprehensive models of the chemistry in circumstellar envelopes are now available. Aims: The aims are to determine and study the important formation and destruction pathways in the envelopes of O-rich AGB stars and to provide more reliable predictions of abundances, column densities, and radial distributions for potentially detectable species with physical conditions applicable to the envelope surrounding IK Tau. Methods: We use a large gas-phase chemical model of an AGB envelope including the effects of CO and N2 self-shielding in a spherical geometry and a newly compiled list of inner-circumstellar envelope parent species derived from detailed modeling and observations. We trace the dominant chemistry in the expanding envelope and investigate the chemistry as a probe for the physics of the AGB phase by studying variations of abundances with mass-loss rates and expansion velocities. Results: We find a pattern of daughter molecules forming from the photodissociation products of parent species with contributions from ion-neutral abstraction and dissociative recombination. The chemistry in the outer zones differs from that in traditional PDRs in that photoionization of daughter species plays a significant role. With the proper treatment of self-shielding, the N → N2 and C+→ CO transitions are shifted outward by factors of 7 and 2, respectively, compared with earlier models. An upper limit on the abundance of CH4 as a parent species of (≲2.5 × 10-6 with respect to H2) is found for IK Tau, and several potentially observable molecules with relatively simple chemical links to other parent species are determined. The assumed stellar mass-loss rate, in particular, has an impact on the

  10. Microlensing of circumstellar envelopes. III. Line profiles from stellar winds in homologous expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, M. A.; Ignace, R.; Bryce, H. M.

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines line profile evolution due to the linear expansion of circumstellar material obsverved during a microlensing event. This work extends our previous papers on emission line profile evolution from radial and azimuthal flow during point mass lens events and fold caustic crossings. Both "flavours" of microlensing were shown to provide effective diagnostics of bulk motion in circumstellar envelopes. In this work a different genre of flow is studied, namely linear homologous expansion, for both point mass lenses and fold caustic crossings. Linear expansion is of particular relevance to the effects of microlensing on supernovae at cosmological distances. We derive line profiles and equivalent widths for the illustrative cases of pure resonance and pure recombination lines, modelled under the Sobolev approximation. The efficacy of microlensing as a diagnostic probe of the stellar environs is demonstrated and discussed.

  11. Emission-line spectra of circumstellar envelopes - Infrared hydrogen line fluxes from Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, S. E.; McGregor, P. J.

    1985-09-01

    Fluxes for eight H I emission lines between 1.28 and 4.67 μm are presented for a sample of seven Be stars. Brα fluxes are given for six additional Be stars. The H I line ratios form the basis for an observational test of models for emission from circumstellar shells that have a range of Brα optical depths well in excess of unity. Enough data on optically thick H I, Ca II, and O I line strengths of circumstellar envelope stars now exist that it should be possible to place detailed radiative-transfer calculations of optically thick envelope emission on a secure observational footing. Comparisons of line ratios with the models by Simon et al. for infrared line emission from stellar winds show promise. The Be star H I line ratios can also be compared with similar data for deeply dust-embedded young stellar objects. These enigmatic objects display stronger H I lines per unit luminosity than the Be stars, but share similar overall envelope physical conditions. Several infrared line ratios are examined to lay the groundwork for extinction determinations and guidelines for radiative-transfer models.

  12. Line-driven ablation of circumstellar discs – I. Optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe/Be stars

    PubMed Central

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan; Owocki, Stanley; Sundqvist, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The extreme luminosities of massive, hot OB stars drive strong stellar winds through line-scattering of the star's UV continuum radiation. For OB stars with an orbiting circumstellar disc, we explore here the effect of such line-scattering in driving an ablation of material from the disc's surface layers, with initial focus on the marginally optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe and Be stars. For this we apply a multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code that assumes simple optically thin ray tracing for the stellar continuum, but uses a multiray Sobolev treatment of the line transfer; this fully accounts for the efficient driving by non-radial rays, due to desaturation of line-absorption by velocity gradients associated with the Keplerian shear in the disc. Results show a dense, intermediate-speed surface ablation, consistent with the strong, blueshifted absorption of UV wind lines seen in Be shell stars that are observed from near the disc plane. A key overall result is that, after an initial adjustment to the introduction of the disc, the asymptotic disc destruction rate is typically just an order-unity factor times the stellar wind mass-loss rate. For optically thin Be discs, this leads to a disc destruction time of order months to years, consistent with observationally inferred disc decay times. The much stronger radiative forces of O stars reduce this time to order days, making it more difficult for decretion processes to sustain a disc in earlier spectral types, and so providing a natural explanation for the relative rarity of Oe stars in the Galaxy. Moreover, the decrease in line-driving at lower metallicity implies both a reduction in the winds that help spin-down stars from near-critical rotation, and a reduction in the ablation of any decretion disc; together these provide a natural explanation for the higher fraction of classical Be stars, as well as the presence of Oe stars, in the lower metallicity Magellanic Clouds. We conclude with a

  13. Line-driven ablation of circumstellar discs - I. Optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe/Be stars.

    PubMed

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan; Owocki, Stanley; Sundqvist, J O

    2016-05-21

    The extreme luminosities of massive, hot OB stars drive strong stellar winds through line-scattering of the star's UV continuum radiation. For OB stars with an orbiting circumstellar disc, we explore here the effect of such line-scattering in driving an ablation of material from the disc's surface layers, with initial focus on the marginally optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe and Be stars. For this we apply a multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code that assumes simple optically thin ray tracing for the stellar continuum, but uses a multiray Sobolev treatment of the line transfer; this fully accounts for the efficient driving by non-radial rays, due to desaturation of line-absorption by velocity gradients associated with the Keplerian shear in the disc. Results show a dense, intermediate-speed surface ablation, consistent with the strong, blueshifted absorption of UV wind lines seen in Be shell stars that are observed from near the disc plane. A key overall result is that, after an initial adjustment to the introduction of the disc, the asymptotic disc destruction rate is typically just an order-unity factor times the stellar wind mass-loss rate. For optically thin Be discs, this leads to a disc destruction time of order months to years, consistent with observationally inferred disc decay times. The much stronger radiative forces of O stars reduce this time to order days, making it more difficult for decretion processes to sustain a disc in earlier spectral types, and so providing a natural explanation for the relative rarity of Oe stars in the Galaxy. Moreover, the decrease in line-driving at lower metallicity implies both a reduction in the winds that help spin-down stars from near-critical rotation, and a reduction in the ablation of any decretion disc; together these provide a natural explanation for the higher fraction of classical Be stars, as well as the presence of Oe stars, in the lower metallicity Magellanic Clouds. We conclude with a

  14. Do water fountain jets really indicate the onset of the morphological metamorphosis of circumstellar envelopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Imai, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Small-scale bipolar jets with short dynamical ages from 'water-fountain' (WF) sources are regarded as an indication of the onset of circumstellar envelope morphological metamorphosis of intermediate-mass stars. Such a process usually happens at the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. However, recent studies found that WFs could be AGB stars or even early planetary nebulae. This fact prompted the idea that WFs may not necessarily be objects at the beginning of the morphological transition process. In the present work, we show that WFs could have different envelope morphologies by studying their spectral energy distribution profiles. Some WFs have spherical envelopes that resemble usual AGB stars, while others have aspherical envelopes, which are more common to post-AGB stars. The results imply that WFs may not represent the earliest stage of morphological metamorphosis. We argue further that the dynamical age of a WF jet, which can be calculated from maser proper motions, may not be the real age of the jet. The dynamical age cannot be used to justify the moment when the envelope begins to become aspherical, nor to tell the concrete evolutionary status of the object. A WF jet could be the innermost part of a larger well-developed jet, which is not necessarily a young jet.

  15. Stellar occultation of polarized light from circumstellar electrons. I - Flat envelopes viewed edge on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Fox, Geoffrey K.

    1989-01-01

    The depolarizing and occultation effects of a finite spherical light source on the polarization of light Thomson-scattered from a flat circumstellar envelope seen edge-on are analyzed. The analysis shows that neglect of the finite size of the light source leads to a gross overestimate of the polarization for a given disk geometry. By including occultation and depolarization, it is found that B-star envelopes are necessarily highly flattened disk-type structures. For a disk viewed edge-on, the effect of occultation reduces the polarization more than the inclusion of the depolarization factor alone. Analysis of a one-dimensional plume leads to a powerful technique that permits the electron density distribution to be explicitly obtained from the polarimetric data.

  16. The warm circumstellar envelope and wind of the G9 IIb star HR 6902

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, T.; Baade, R.; Reimers, D.

    2001-12-01

    IUE observations of the eclipsing binary system HR 6902 obtained at various epochs spread over four years indicate the presence of warm circumstellar material enveloping the G9 IIb primary. The spectra show Si Iv and C Iv absorption up to a distance of 3.3 giant radii (Rg). Line ratio diagnostics yields an electron temperature of ~ 78 000 K which appears to be constant over the observed height range. Applying a least square fit absorption line analysis we derive column densities as a function of height. We find that the inner envelope (< 3;Rg) of the bright giant is consistent with a hydrostatic density distribution. The derived line broadening velocity of ~ 70 km s-1 is sufficient to provide turbulent pressure support for the required scale height. However, an improved agreement with observations over the whole height regime including the emission line region is obtained with an outflow model. We demonstrate that the common β power-law as well as a P ∝ ρ wind yield appropriate fit models. Adopting a continuous mass outflow we obtain a mass-loss rate of M⊙=0.8 - 3.4 × 10-11 Msolar yr-1 depending on the particular wind model. The emission lines observed during total eclipse are attributed mostly to resonance scattering of B star photons in the extended envelope of the giant. By means of a multi-dimensional line formation study we show that the global envelope properties are consistent with the wind models derived from the absorption line analysis. We argue that future high resolution UV spectroscopy will resolve the large-scale velocity structure of the circumstellar shell. As an illustration we present theoretical Si Iv and C Iv emission profiles showing model-dependent line shifts and asymmetries.

  17. WIDE BINARY EFFECTS ON ASYMMETRIES IN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyosun; Taam, Ronald E. E-mail: r-taam@northwestern.edu

    2012-11-01

    Observations of increasingly higher spatial resolution reveal the existence of asymmetries in the circumstellar envelopes of a small fraction of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Although there is no general consensus for their origin, a binary companion star may be responsible. Within this framework, we investigate the gravitational effects associated with a sufficiently wide binary system, where Roche lobe overflow is unimportant, on the outflowing envelopes of AGB stars using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The effects due to individual binary components are separately studied, enabling the investigation of the stellar and circumstellar characteristics in detail. The reflex motion of the AGB star alters the wind velocity distribution, thereby determining the overall shape of the outflowing envelope. On the other hand, the interaction of the companion with the envelope produces a gravitational wake, which exhibits a vertically thinner shape. The two patterns overlap and form clumpy structures. To illustrate the diversity of shapes, we present the numerical results as a function of inclination angle. Not only is spiral structure produced by the binary interaction, but arc patterns are also found that represent the former structure when viewed at different inclinations. The arcs reveal a systematic shift of their centers of curvature for cases when the orbital speed of the AGB star is comparable to its wind speed. They take on the shape of a peanut for inclinations nearly edge-on. In the limit of slow orbital motion of the AGB star relative to the wind speed, the arc pattern becomes nearly spherically symmetric. We find that the aspect ratio of the overall oblate shape of the pattern is an important diagnostic probe of the binary as it can be used to constrain the orbital velocity of the AGB star, and moreover, the binary mass ratio.

  18. The Influence of Forming Companions on the Spectral Energy Distributions of Stars with Circumstellar Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhozhay, Olga V.

    2017-04-01

    We study a possibility to detect signatures of brown dwarf companions in a circumstellar disc based on spectral energy distributions. We present the results of spectral energy distribution simulations for a system with a 0.8 M⊙ central object and a companion with a mass of 30 M J embedded in a typical protoplanetary disc. We use a solution to the one-dimensional radiative transfer equation to calculate the protoplanetary disc flux density and assume, that the companion moves along a circular orbit and clears a gap. The width of the gap is assumed to be the diameter of the brown dwarf Hill sphere. Our modelling shows that the presence of such a gap can initiate an additional minimum in the spectral energy distribution profile of a protoplanetary disc at λ = 10-100 μm. We found that it is possible to detect signatures of the companion when it is located within 10 AU, even when it is as small as 3 M J. The spectral energy distribution of a protostellar disc with a massive fragment (of relatively cold temperature 400 K) might have a similar double peaked profile to the spectral energy distribution of a more evolved disc that contains a gap.

  19. Far-infrared and sub-millimetre imaging of HD 76582's circumstellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jonathan P.; Booth, Mark; Holland, Wayne; Matthews, Brenda C.; Greaves, Jane S.; Zuckerman, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Debris discs, the tenuous rocky and icy remnants of planet formation, are believed to be evidence for planetary systems around other stars. The JCMT/SCUBA-2 debris disc legacy survey `SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars' (SONS) observed 100 nearby stars, amongst them HD 76582, for evidence of such material. Here, we present imaging observations by JCMT/SCUBA-2 and Herschel/PACS at sub-millimetre and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. We simultaneously model the ensemble of photometric and imaging data, spanning optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths, in a self-consistent manner. At far-infrared wavelengths, we find extended emission from the circumstellar disc providing a strong constraint on the dust spatial location in the outer system, although the angular resolution is too poor to constrain the interior of the system. In the sub-millimetre, photometry at 450 and 850 μm reveals a steep fall-off that we interpret as a disc dominated by moderately sized dust grains (amin = 36 μm), perhaps indicative of a non-steady-state collisional cascade within the disc. A disc architecture of three distinct annuli, comprising an unresolved component at 20 au and outer components at 80 and 270 au, along with a very steep particle size distribution (γ = 5), is proposed to match the observations.

  20. Type I Superluminous Supernovae as Explosions inside Non-hydrogen Circumstellar Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Elena; Blinnikov, Sergei; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Quimby, Robert; Tolstov, Alexey

    2016-09-01

    A number of Type I (hydrogenless) superluminous supernova (SLSN) events have been discovered recently. However, their nature remains debatable. One of the most promising ideas is the shock interaction mechanism, but only simplified semi-analytical models have been applied so far. We simulate light curves for several Type I SLSN (SLSN-I) models enshrouded by dense, non-hydrogen circumstellar (CS) envelopes, using a multi-group radiation hydrodynamics code that predicts not only bolometric, but also multicolor light curves. We demonstrate that the bulk of SLSNe-I including those with relatively narrow light curves like SN 2010gx or broad ones like PTF09cnd can be explained by the interaction of the SN ejecta with the CS envelope, though the range of parameters for these models is rather wide. Moderate explosion energy (˜(2-4) × 1051 erg) is sufficient to explain both narrow and broad SLSN-I light curves, but ejected mass and envelope mass differ for those two cases. Only 5-10 M ⊙ of non-hydrogen material is needed to reproduce the light curve of SN 2010gx, while the best model for PTF09cnd is very massive: it contains almost 50 M ⊙ in the CS envelope and only 5 M ⊙ in the ejecta. The CS envelope for each case extends from 10 R ⊙ to ˜105 R ⊙ (7 × 1015 cm), which is about an order of magnitude larger than typical photospheric radii of standard SNe near the maximum light. We briefly discuss possible ways to form such unusual envelopes.

  1. Sulphur molecules in the circumstellar envelopes of M-type AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovich, T.; De Beck, E.; Black, J. H.; Olofsson, H.; Justtanont, K.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: The sulphur compounds SO and SO2 have not been widely studied in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. By presenting and modelling a large number of SO and SO2 lines in the low mass-loss rate M-type AGB star R Dor, and modelling the available lines of those molecules in a further four M-type AGB stars, we aim to determine their circumstellar abundances and distributions. Methods: We use a detailed radiative transfer analysis based on the accelerated lambda iteration method to model circumstellar SO and SO2 line emission. We use molecular data files for both SO and SO2 that are more extensive than those previously available. Results: Using 17 SO lines and 98 SO2 lines to constrain our models for R Dor, we find an SO abundance of (6.7 ± 0.9) × 10-6 and an SO2 abundance of 5 × 10-6 with both species having high abundances close to the star. We also modelled 34SO and found an abundance of (3.1 ± 0.8) × 10-7, giving an 32SO/34SO ratio of 21.6 ± 8.5. We derive similar results for the circumstellar SO and SO2 abundances and their distributions for the low mass-loss rate object W Hya. For the higher mass-loss rate stars, we find shell-like SO distributions with peak abundances that decrease and peak abundance radii that increase with increasing mass-loss rate. The positions of the peak SO abundance agree very well with the photodissociation radii of H2O. We also modelled SO2 in two higher mass-loss rate stars but our models for these were less conclusive. Conclusions: We conclude that for the low mass-loss rate stars, the circumstellar SO and SO2 abundances are much higher than predicted by chemical models of the extended stellar atmosphere. These two species may also account for all the available sulphur. For the higher mass-loss rate stars we find evidence that SO is most efficiently formed in the circumstellar envelope, most likely through the photodissociation of H2O and the subsequent reaction between S and OH. The S

  2. Gas phase chemical kinetics at high temperature of carbonaceous molecules: application to circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biennier, L.; Gardez, A.; Saidani, G.; Georges, R.; Rowe, B.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2011-05-01

    Circumstellar shells of evolved stars are a theater of extremely rich physical and chemical processes. More than seventy molecules of varied nature have been identified in the envelopes through their spectral fingerprints in the microwave or far infrared regions. Many of them are carbon chain molecules and radicals and a significant number are unique to the circumstellar medium. However, observational data remain scarce and more than half of the detected species have been observed in only one object, the nearby carbon star IRC + 10216. Chemical kinetic models are needed to describe the formation of molecules in evolved circumstellar outflows. Upcoming terrestrial telescopes such as ALMA will increase the spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude and provide a wealth of data. The determination of relevant laboratory kinetics data is critical to keep up with the development of the observations and of the refinement of chemical models. Today, the majority of reactions studied in the laboratory are the ones involved in combustion and concerning light hydrocarbons. Our objective is to provide the scientific community with rate coefficients of reactions between abundant species in these warm environments. Cyanopolyynes from HC_2N to HC_9N have all been detected in carbon rich circumstellar envelopes in up to 10 sources for HC_3N. Neutral-neutral reactions of the CN radical with unsaturated hydrocarbons could be a dominant route in the formation of cyanopolyynes, even at low temperatures. Our approach aims to bridge the temperature gap between resistively heated flow tubes and shock tubes. The present kinetic measurements are obtained using a new reactor combining a high enthalpy source (Moudens et al. 2011) with a flow tube and a pulsed laser photolysis and laser induced fluorescence system to probe the undergoing chemical reactions. The high enthalpy flow tube has been used to measure the rate constant of the reaction of the CN radical with propane, propene

  3. CO And HI Emission from The Circumstellar Envelopes of Some Evolved Stars*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diep, P. N.; Hoai, D. T.; Nhung, P.; Tuan-Anh, P.; Le Bertre, T.; Winters, J. M.; Matthews, L. D.; Phuong, N. T.; Thao, N. T.; Darriulat, P.

    2016-02-01

    Studies of the CO and HI radio emission of some evolved stars are presented using data collected by the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer and Pico Veleta telescope, the Nançay Radio Telescope and the JVLA and ALMA arrays. Approximate axial symmetry of the physical and kinematic properties of the circumstellar envelope (CSE) are observed in CO emission , in particular, from RS Cnc, EP Aqr and the Red Rectangle. A common feature is the presence of a bipolar outflow causing an enhanced wind velocity in the polar directions. I emission extends to larger radial distances than probed by CO emission and displays features related to the interaction between the stellar outflow and interstellar matter. With its unprecedented sensitivity, FAST will open a new window on such studies. Its potential in this domain is briefly illustrated.

  4. Methanol along the path from envelope to protoplanetary disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N.; Walsh, Catherine; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2014-11-01

    Interstellar methanol is considered to be a parent species of larger, more complex organic molecules. A physicochemical simulation of infalling parcels of matter is performed for a low-mass star-forming system to trace the chemical evolution from cloud to disc. An axisymmetric 2D semi-analytic model generates the time-dependent density and velocity distributions, and full continuum radiative transfer is performed to calculate the dust temperature and the UV radiation field at each position as a function of time. A comprehensive gas-grain chemical network is employed to compute the chemical abundances along infall trajectories. Two physical scenarios are studied, one in which the dominant disc growth mechanism is viscous spreading, and another in which continuous infall of matter prevails. The results show that the infall path influences the abundance of methanol entering each type of disc, ranging from complete loss of methanol to an enhancement by a factor of >1 relative to the prestellar phase. Critical chemical processes and parameters for the methanol chemistry under different physical conditions are identified. The exact abundance and distribution of methanol is important for the budget of complex organic molecules in discs, which will be incorporated into forming planetary system objects such as protoplanets and comets. These simulations show that the comet-forming zone contains less methanol than in the precollapse phase, which is dominantly of prestellar origin, but also with additional layers built up in the envelope during infall. Such intriguing links will soon be tested by upcoming data from the Rosetta mission.

  5. ARCSECOND RESOLUTION MAPPING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE OF VY CANIS MAJORIS

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Roger R.; Moullet, Arielle; Patel, Nimesh A.; Biersteker, John; Derose, Kimberly L.; Young, Kenneth H.

    2012-02-10

    We report Submillimeter Array observations of SO{sub 2} emission in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, with an angular resolution of Almost-Equal-To 1''. SO{sub 2} emission appears in three distinct outflow regions surrounding the central continuum peak emission that is spatially unresolved. No bipolar structure is noted in the sources. A fourth source of SO{sub 2} is identified as a spherical wind centered at the systemic velocity. We estimate the SO{sub 2} column density and rotational temperature assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as well as perform non-LTE radiative transfer analysis using RADEX. Column densities of SO{sub 2} are found to be {approx}10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} in the outflows and in the spherical wind. Comparison with existing maps of the two parent species OH and SO shows the SO{sub 2} distribution to be consistent with that of OH. The abundance ratio f{sub SO{sub 2}}/f{sub SO} is greater than unity for all radii larger than 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. SO{sub 2} is distributed in fragmented clumps compared to SO, PN, and SiS molecules. These observations lend support to specific models of circumstellar chemistry that predict f{sub SO{sub 2}}/f{sub SO}>1 and may suggest the role of localized effects such as shocks in the production of SO{sub 2} in the CSE.

  6. Probing the centre of the large circumstellar disc in M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielbock, M.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V. H.; Nürnberger, D. E. A.; Scheyda, C. M.; Steinacker, J.

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the nature of the hitherto unresolved elliptical infrared emission in the centre of the ~20000au disc silhouette in M17. We combined high-resolution JHKsL' M'-band imaging carried out with Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System/Coudé Near Infrared Camera (NAOS/CONICA) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) with [FeII] narrow-band imaging using SOFI [Son of ISAAC (Infrared Spectrograph and Array Camera)] at the New Technology Telescope (NTT). The analysis is supported by Spitzer/GLIMPSE archival data and by already published Spectrograph for Integral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI)/VLT Integral Field Spectroscopy data. For the first time, we resolve the elongated central infrared emission into a point source and a jet-like feature that extends to the northeast in the opposite direction of the recently discovered collimated H2 jet. They are both orientated almost perpendicular to the disc plane. In addition, our images reveal a curved southwestern emission nebula whose morphology resembles that of the previously detected northeastern one. Both nebulae are located at a distance of 1500au from the disc centre. We describe the infrared point source in terms of a protostar that is embedded in circumstellar material producing a visual extinction of 60 <= AV <= 82. The observed Ks-band magnitude is equivalent to a stellar mass range of 2.8Msolar <= M* <= 8Msolar adopting conversions for a main-sequence star. Altogether, we suggest that the large M17 accretion disc is forming an intermediate to high-mass protostar. Part of the accreted material is expelled through a symmetric bipolar jet/outflow. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile., project nos. 73.C-0170, 73.C-0183 and 75.C-0852. E-mail: nielbock@mpia.de

  7. ALMA view of the circumstellar environment of the post-common-envelope-evolution binary system HD 101584

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, H.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Maercker, M.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Lindqvist, M.; Nyman, L.; Ramstedt, S.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We study the circumstellar evolution of the binary HD 101584, consisting of a post-AGB star and a low-mass companion, which is most likely a post-common-envelope-evolution system. Methods: We used ALMA observations of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 2-1 lines and the 1.3 mm continuum to determine the morphology, kinematics, masses, and energetics of the circumstellar environment. Results: The circumstellar medium has a bipolar hour-glass structure, seen almost pole-on, formed by an energetic jet, ≈150 km s-1. We conjecture that the circumstellar morphology is related to an event that took place ≈500 yr ago, possibly a capture event where the companion spiraled in towards the AGB star. However, the kinetic energy of the accelerated gas exceeds the released orbital energy, and, taking into account the expected energy transfer efficiency of the process, the observed phenomenon does not match current common-envelope scenarios. This suggests that another process must augment, or even dominate, the ejection process. A significant amount of material resides in an unresolved region, presumably in the equatorial plane of the binary system.

  8. SN2012ca: a stripped envelope core-collapse SN interacting with dense circumstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.; Scalzo, R.; Fraser, M.; Pastorello, A.; Childress, M.; Pignata, G.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kotak, R.; Benetti, S.; Della Valle, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Mazzali, P.; Smith, K.; Sullivan, M.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.; Young, D.; Reichart, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report optical and near-infrared observations of SN2012ca with the Public ESO Spectroscopy Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO), spread over one year since discovery. The supernova (SN) bears many similarities to SN1997cy and to other events classified as Type IIn but which have been suggested to have a thermonuclear origin with narrow hydrogen lines produced when the ejecta impact a hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). Our analysis, especially in the nebular phase, reveals the presence of oxygen, magnesium and carbon features. This suggests a core-collapse explanation for SN2012ca, in contrast to the thermonuclear interpretation proposed for some members of this group. We suggest that the data can be explained with a hydrogen- and helium-deficient SN ejecta (Type I) interacting with a hydrogen-rich CSM, but that the explosion was more likely a Type Ic core-collapse explosion than a Type Ia thermonuclear one. This suggests that two channels (both thermonuclear and stripped envelope core-collapse) may be responsible for these SN 1997cy-like events.

  9. The chemistry in circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars: following the origin of the elements to the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Ziurys, Lucy M

    2006-08-15

    Mass loss from evolved stars results in the formation of unusual chemical laboratories: circumstellar envelopes. Such envelopes are found around carbon- and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars and red supergiants. As the gaseous material of the envelope flows from the star, the resulting temperature and density gradients create a complex chemical environment involving hot, thermodynamically controlled synthesis, molecule "freeze-out," shock-initiated reactions, and photochemistry governed by radical mechanisms. In the circumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich star IRC+10216, >50 different chemical compounds have been identified, including such exotic species as C(8)H, C(3)S, SiC(3), and AlNC. The chemistry here is dominated by molecules containing long carbon chains, silicon, and metals such as magnesium, sodium, and aluminum, which makes it quite distinct from that found in molecular clouds. The molecular composition of the oxygen-rich counterparts is not nearly as well explored, although recent studies of VY Canis Majoris have resulted in the identification of HCO(+), SO(2), and even NaCl in this object, suggesting chemical complexity here as well. As these envelopes evolve into planetary nebulae with a hot, exposed central star, synthesis of molecular ions becomes important, as indicated by studies of NGC 7027. Numerous species such as HCO(+), HCN, and CCH are found in old planetary nebulae such as the Helix. This "survivor" molecular material may be linked to the variety of compounds found recently in diffuse clouds. Organic molecules in dense interstellar clouds may ultimately be traced back to carbon-rich fragments originally formed in circumstellar shells.

  10. The chemistry in circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars: Following the origin of the elements to the origin of life

    PubMed Central

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2006-01-01

    Mass loss from evolved stars results in the formation of unusual chemical laboratories: circumstellar envelopes. Such envelopes are found around carbon- and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars and red supergiants. As the gaseous material of the envelope flows from the star, the resulting temperature and density gradients create a complex chemical environment involving hot, thermodynamically controlled synthesis, molecule “freeze-out,” shock-initiated reactions, and photochemistry governed by radical mechanisms. In the circumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich star IRC+10216, >50 different chemical compounds have been identified, including such exotic species as C8H, C3S, SiC3, and AlNC. The chemistry here is dominated by molecules containing long carbon chains, silicon, and metals such as magnesium, sodium, and aluminum, which makes it quite distinct from that found in molecular clouds. The molecular composition of the oxygen-rich counterparts is not nearly as well explored, although recent studies of VY Canis Majoris have resulted in the identification of HCO+, SO2, and even NaCl in this object, suggesting chemical complexity here as well. As these envelopes evolve into planetary nebulae with a hot, exposed central star, synthesis of molecular ions becomes important, as indicated by studies of NGC 7027. Numerous species such as HCO+, HCN, and CCH are found in old planetary nebulae such as the Helix. This “survivor” molecular material may be linked to the variety of compounds found recently in diffuse clouds. Organic molecules in dense interstellar clouds may ultimately be traced back to carbon-rich fragments originally formed in circumstellar shells. PMID:16894164

  11. The Abundance of C2H4 in the Circumstellar Envelope of IRC+10216

    PubMed Central

    Fonfría, J. P.; Hinkle, K. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Richter, M. J.; Agúndez, M.

    2017-01-01

    High spectral resolution mid-IR observations of ethylene (C2H4) towards the AGB star IRC+10216 were obtained using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Eighty ro-vibrational lines from the 10.5 µm vibrational mode ν7 with J ≲ 30 were detected in absorption. The observed lines are divided into two groups with rotational temperatures of 105 and 400 K (warm and hot lines). The warm lines peak at ≃ −14 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity, suggesting that they are mostly formed outwards from ≃ 20R⋆. The hot lines are centered at −10 km s−1 indicating that they come from a shell between 10 and 20R⋆. 35% of the observed lines are unblended and can be fitted with a code developed to model the emission of a spherically symmetric circumstellar envelope. The analysis of several scenarios reveal that the C2H4 abundance relative to H2 in the range 5 − 20R⋆ is 6.9 × 10−8 in average and it could be as high as 1.1 × 10−7. Beyond 20R⋆, it is 8.2 × 10−8. The total column density is (6.5 ± 3.0) × 1015 cm−2. C2H4 is found to be rotationally under local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and vibrationally out of LTE. One of the scenarios that best reproduce the observations suggests that up to 25% of the C2H4 molecules at 20R⋆ could condense onto dust grains. This possible depletion would not influence significantly the gas acceleration although it could play a role in the surface chemistry on the dust grains. PMID:28184097

  12. The Abundance of C2H4 in the Circumstellar Envelope of IRC+10216.

    PubMed

    Fonfría, J P; Hinkle, K H; Cernicharo, J; Richter, M J; Agúndez, M; Wallace, L

    2017-02-01

    High spectral resolution mid-IR observations of ethylene (C2H4) towards the AGB star IRC+10216 were obtained using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Eighty ro-vibrational lines from the 10.5 µm vibrational mode ν7 with J ≲ 30 were detected in absorption. The observed lines are divided into two groups with rotational temperatures of 105 and 400 K (warm and hot lines). The warm lines peak at ≃ -14 km s(-1) with respect to the systemic velocity, suggesting that they are mostly formed outwards from ≃ 20R⋆. The hot lines are centered at -10 km s(-1) indicating that they come from a shell between 10 and 20R⋆. 35% of the observed lines are unblended and can be fitted with a code developed to model the emission of a spherically symmetric circumstellar envelope. The analysis of several scenarios reveal that the C2H4 abundance relative to H2 in the range 5 - 20R⋆ is 6.9 × 10(-8) in average and it could be as high as 1.1 × 10(-7). Beyond 20R⋆, it is 8.2 × 10(-8). The total column density is (6.5 ± 3.0) × 10(15) cm(-2). C2H4 is found to be rotationally under local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and vibrationally out of LTE. One of the scenarios that best reproduce the observations suggests that up to 25% of the C2H4 molecules at 20R⋆ could condense onto dust grains. This possible depletion would not influence significantly the gas acceleration although it could play a role in the surface chemistry on the dust grains.

  13. The Abundance of C2H4 in the Circumstellar Envelope of IRC+10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonfría, J. P.; Hinkle, K. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Richter, M. J.; Agúndez, M.; Wallace, L.

    2017-02-01

    High spectral resolution mid-IR observations of ethylene ({{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4) toward the AGB star IRC+10216 were obtained using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). 80 ro-vibrational lines from the 10.5 μm vibrational mode {ν }7 with J ≲ 30 were detected in absorption. The observed lines are divided into two groups with rotational temperatures of 105 and 400 K (warm and hot lines). The warm lines peak at ≃ ‑14 km s‑1 with respect to the systemic velocity, suggesting that they are mostly formed outwards from ≃ 20{R}\\star . The hot lines are centered at ‑10 km s‑1 indicating that they come from a shell between 10 and 20{\\text{}}{R}\\star . 35% of the observed lines are unblended and can be fitted with a code developed to model the emission of a spherically symmetric circumstellar envelope. The analysis of several scenarios reveals that the {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4 abundance relative to H2 in the range 5‑20R⋆ is 6.9× {10}-8 on average and it could be as high as 1.1 × 10‑7. Beyond 20{\\text{}}{R}\\star , it is 8.2 × 10‑8. The total column density is (6.5 ± 3.0) × 1015 cm‑2. {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4 is found to be rotationally under local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and vibrationally out of LTE. One of the scenarios that best reproduce the observations suggests that up to 25% of the {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4 molecules at 20{\\text{}}{R}\\star could condense onto dust grains. This possible depletion would not significantly influence the gas acceleration although it could play a role in the surface chemistry on the dust grains.

  14. EXPLORATION OF A RELIC CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE IN THE ''WATER FOUNTAIN'' SOURCE IRAS 18286-0959

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Yung, Bosco H. K.; Kwok, Sun; Deguchi, Shuji; Diamond, Philip J. E-mail: junichi@hku.hk E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk E-mail: diamond@skatelescope.org

    2013-07-01

    The water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959 (I18286) was reported as an object exhibiting highly collimated, double-helix stellar jets traced by the H{sub 2}O maser emission. Using the European VLBI Network, we measured the absolute coordinates of the 1612 MHz OH maser emission in I18286, which is very likely associated with a relic of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) developed in the asymptotic giant branch stage of the central star. The location of the OH maser is near the center of the H{sub 2}O maser feature cluster, where one of the originating points of the two jets is located. We also mapped 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission in this object using the Very Long Baseline Array in the seasons of 2006-2007 as well as 2008-2009. In the first three epochs in 2006-2007, we detected at least 90 maser features per epoch. In six epochs in 2008-2009, when the observation data had already been published and analyzed to identify the double-helix jets, we newly identified 14 proper motions of H{sub 2}O maser features which could not be measured in the previous analysis due to their short lifetimes. In this paper, together with the OH maser emission, we focus on ''outlier'' H{sub 2}O maser features, which exhibit slow expansion velocities (V{sub exp} {approx}< 30 km s{sup -1}) and are likely associated with either the relic CSE or an equatorial flow of I18286. They were marginally distinguishable from the maser features associated with the jets in I18286.

  15. Searching for signatures of planet formation in stars with circumstellar debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Eiroa, C.; Villaver, E.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Tentative correlations between the presence of dusty circumstellar debris discs and low-mass planets have recently been presented. In parallel, detailed chemical abundance studies have reported different trends between samples of planet and non-planet hosts. Whether these chemical differences are indeed related to the presence of planets is still strongly debated. Aims: We aim to test whether solar-type stars with debris discs show any chemical peculiarity that could be related to the planet formation process. Methods: We determine in a homogeneous way the metallicity, [Fe/H], and abundances of individual elements of a sample of 251 stars including stars with known debris discs, stars harbouring simultaneously debris discs and planets, stars hosting exclusively planets, and a comparison sample of stars without known discs or planets. High-resolution échelle spectra (R ~ 57 000) from 2-3 m class telescopes are used. Our methodology includes the calculation of the fundamental stellar parameters (Teff, log g, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity) by applying the iron ionisation and equilibrium conditions to several isolated Fe i and Fe ii lines, as well as individual abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. Results: No significant differences have been found in metallicity, individual abundances or abundance-condensation temperature trends between stars with debris discs and stars with neither debris nor planets. Stars with debris discs and planets have the same metallicity behaviour as stars hosting planets, and they also show a similar ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC trend. Different behaviour in the ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC trends is found between the samples of stars without planets and the samples of planet hosts. In particular, when considering only refractory elements, negative slopes are shown in cool giant planet hosts, whilst positive ones are shown in stars hosting low-mass planets. The statistical significance of the

  16. On the formation of metal cyanides and related compounds in the circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Simon

    1996-10-01

    Various pathways to the metal cyanides Na(CN), Mg(CN) and Al(CN) - some of which have been detected in the circumstellar envelope IRC+10216 - are critically assessed. Calculations of rate coefficients for radiative association processes of the types M^++HCN, M^++HNC and M+CN, which are supported by ab initio calculations of the relevant bond strengths, molecular geometries and vibrational frequencies, allow us to conclude that none of these previously proposed pathways to M(CN) can account for the observed abundances of T-Na(CN), MgCN and MgNC within IRC+10216. We propose that the observed sodium and magnesium cyanides are best accounted for by a mechanism involving radiative association of Na^+ and Mg^+ with cyanopolyynes such as HC_5N and HC_7N, and discuss prospects for the formation of Al(CN) by an analogous mechanism. We also estimate the abundance ratios n(NaCN):n(T-Na(CN)) and n(AlCN):n(AlNC), assuming an ion/molecule source for these species and based on calculated themochemical and spectroscopic properties for these isomers; the results suggest that virtually all Na(CN) and Al(CN) should be in the form of T-Na(CN) and linear AlNC respectively, with poor prospects for the detection of the higher energy isomers NaCN and AlCN. Larger homologues of the metal cyanides, such as MNC_2n-1 (M=Na, Mg, Al; n=1,2,3,4...), may also arise in the dissociative recombination of MNC_2n+1H^+ ions. We assess the prospects for formation of the species MgC_2 and MgCCH, and propose also that the metal amides MNH_2 (M=Na, Mg, Al) constitute another class of compound whose formation in IRC+10216 via an ion/molecule mechanism, namely the reaction of M^+ with NH_3, appears highly likely.

  17. CARMA CO(J = 2 - 1) Observations of the Circumstellar Envelope of Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Joanna M.; Brown, Alexander; Redfield, Seth; Richter, Matthew J.; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.

    2012-08-01

    We report radio interferometric observations of the 12C16O 1.3 mm J = 2 - 1 emission line in the circumstellar envelope of the M supergiant α Ori and have detected and separated both the S1 and S2 flow components for the first time. Observations were made with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) interferometer in the C, D, and E antenna configurations. We obtain good u - v coverage (5-280 kλ) by combining data from all three configurations allowing us to trace spatial scales as small as 0farcs9 over a 32'' field of view. The high spectral and spatial resolution C configuration line profile shows that the inner S1 flow has slightly asymmetric outflow velocities ranging from -9.0 km s-1 to +10.6 km s-1 with respect to the stellar rest frame. We find little evidence for the outer S2 flow in this configuration because the majority of this emission has been spatially filtered (resolved out) by the array. We also report a SOFIA-GREAT CO(J = 12 - 11) emission line profile, which we associate with this inner higher excitation S1 flow. The outer S2 flow appears in the D and E configuration maps and its outflow velocity is found to be in good agreement with high-resolution optical spectroscopy of K I obtained at the McDonald Observatory. We image both S1 and S2 in the multi-configuration maps and see a gradual change in the angular size of the emission in the high absolute velocity maps. We assign an outer radius of 4'' to S1 and propose that S2 extends beyond CARMA's field of view (32'' at 1.3 mm) out to a radius of 17'', which is larger than recent single-dish observations have indicated. When azimuthally averaged, the intensity falloff for both flows is found to be proportional to R -1, where R is the projected radius, indicating optically thin winds with ρvpropR -2.

  18. A chemical route to the formation of water in circumstellar envelopes around carbon-rich asymptotic branch stars: Fischer-Tropsch catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willacy, K.

    2004-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysis has been suggested as a means of driving hydrocarbon chemistry in oxygen rich regions such as the protosolar nebula. In addition to producing hydrocarbons, Fischer-Tropsch catalysis also produces water, and it is therefore possible that such processes could account for the recent observations of water in the circumstellar envelope of asymptotic giant branch star IRC +10216.

  19. The young low-mass star ISO-Oph-50: extreme variability induced by a clumpy, evolving circumstellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Alexander; Mužić, Koraljka; Geers, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    ISO-Oph-50 is a young low-mass object in the ˜1 Myr old Ophiuchus star-forming region undergoing dramatic changes in its optical/near/mid-infrared brightness by 2-4 mag. We present new multi-band photometry and near-infrared spectra, combined with a synopsis of the existing literature data. Based on the spectroscopy, the source is confirmed as a mid-M dwarf, with evidence for ongoing accretion. The near-infrared light curves show large-scale variations, with 2-4 mag amplitude in the bands IJHK, with the object generally being bluer when faint. Near its brightest state, the object shows colour changes consistent with variable extinction of ΔAV ˜ 7 mag. High-cadence monitoring at 3.6 μm reveals quasi-periodic variations with a typical time-scale of 1-2 weeks. The best explanation for these characteristics is a low-mass star seen through circumstellar matter, whose complex variability is caused by changing inhomogeneities in the inner parts of the disc. When faint, the direct stellar emission is blocked; the near-infrared radiation is dominated by scattered light. When bright, the emission is consistent with a photosphere strongly reddened by circumstellar dust. Based on the available constraints, the inhomogeneities have to be located at or beyond ˜0.1 au distance from the star. If this scenario turns out to be correct, a major portion of the inner disc has to be clumpy, structured, and/or in turmoil. In its observational characteristics, this object resembles other types of young stellar objects with variability caused in the inner disc. Compared to other objects, however, ISO-Oph-50 is clearly an extreme case, given the large amplitude of the brightness and colour changes combined with the erratic behaviour. ISO-Oph-50 has been near its brightest state since 2013; further monitoring is highly encouraged.

  20. Circumstellar gas associated with HL Tauri - Evidence for a remnant infalling envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, Gary L.; Sloan, Gregory; Stout, Natalie; Strom, Stephen E.; Welty, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular carbon absorption lines in the spectrum of HL Tau has been discovered near 8775 A. These C2 lines have a heliocentric radial velocity of 43 + or - 3 km/s, redshifted by 23 + or - 3 km/s relative to the star and the associated molecular cloud. This velocity difference suggests that the molecular carbon absorption arises in an infalling envelope. Since KI and diffuse interstellar bands are much weaker than expected, the chemical composition and/or excitation conditions in the HL Tau envelope appear to differ substantially from those in the interstellar medium.

  1. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: SCUBA-2 observations of circumstellar discs in L 1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Greaves, J.; Richer, J. S.; Matthews, B. C.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present 850 and 450 μm data from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey obtained with Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and characterize the dust attributes of Class I, Class II and Class III disc sources in L 1495. We detect 23 per cent of the sample at both wavelengths, with the detection rate decreasing through the Classes from I to III. The median disc mask is 1.6 × 10-3 M⊙, and only 7 per cent of Class II sources have disc masses larger than 20 Jupiter masses. We detect a higher proportion of discs towards sources with stellar hosts of spectral type K than spectral type M. Class II discs with single stellar hosts of spectral type K have higher masses than those of spectral type M, supporting the hypothesis that higher mass stars have more massive discs. Variations in disc masses calculated at the two wavelengths suggest that there may be differences in dust opacity and/or dust temperature between discs with hosts of spectral types K to those with spectral type M.

  2. Organic Molecules in Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Envelopes: Methanol and Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Kress, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    The existence of anomalously high abundances of gaseous CH4 has been invoked to explain the unexpectedly high abundances of the carbon-bearing molecules HCN and H2CO in the outflows from O-rich red giants. We have modelled the chemistry that proceeds in the outer envelope when CH4 is injected from the inner envelope. We find that photolysis by the interstellar radiation field drives an ion-neutral chemistry which produces several organic molecules. The calculated abundances of CH3OH, C2H and C2 can be comparable to those calculated for H2CO and HCN. Species such as C2H4, C2H2 and CH3CN can also be abundant. A search for CH3OH and C2H in several O-rich outflows known to exhibit strong HCN emission is needed. As it derives entirely from the CH4 photochain, is insensitive to the envelope temperature distribution, and has accessible transitions at millimetre wavelengths, the detection of the C2H radical would provide further indirect support for the presence of the hypothesized methane.

  3. Extremely Low Mass: The Circumstellar Envelope of a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    What is the environment for planet formation around extremely low mass stars? Is the environment around brown dwarfs and extremely low mass stars conducive and sufficiently massive for planet production? The determining conditions may be set very early in the process of the host object's formation. IRAS 16253-2429, the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated, very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet, indicating environmental disruption. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source to be one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known, and discuss the ramifications for planet formation potential in this extremely low mass system.

  4. Low-mass gas envelopes around accreting cores embedded in radiative 3D discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel

    2016-10-01

    Planets with a core mass larger than few Earth masses and a gaseous envelope not exceeding about 10% of the total mass budget are common. Such planets are present in the Solar System (Uranus, Neptune) and are frequently observed around other stars.Our knowledge about the evolution of gas envelopes is mainly based on 1D models. However, such models cannot investigate the complex interaction between the forming envelope and the surrounding gas disc.In this work we perform 3D hydrodynamics simulations accounting for energy transfer and radiative cooling using the FARGOCA code (Lega et al., MNRAS 440, 2014). In addition to the usually considered heatingsources, namely viscous and compressional heating, we have modeled the energy deposited by the accretion of solids.We show that the thermal evolution of the envelope of a 5 Earth mass core is mainly dominated by compressional heating for accretion rates lower than 5 Earth masses per 105 years.Additionally, we demonstrate efficient gas circulation through the envelope. Under certain conditions, the competition between gas circulation and cooling of the envelope can efficiently delay the onset of runaway accretion. This could help in explaining the population of planets with low-mass gas envelope.

  5. CO line emission from circumstellar envelopes: towards higher-J transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, D.; Bujarrabal, V.; Yoshida, H.; Phillips, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a multi-transition CO observational program conducted on a sample of AGB and post-AGB stars envelopes. Using new observations of the CO line at 691 GHz at the CSO, we have collected maps and single pointing observations of these envelope in 5 rotational transitions ranging from J=1-0 to J=6-5. Using a simplified version of the model of Bujarrabal et al. (1989), we have conducted a systematic modelling analysis using the whole set of CO data collected on a sample of 12 sources. Our modelling approach simultaneously fits all five transitions, taking into account the spatial information provided by the maps. We show that most AGBs data can be fitted using a single mass-loss rate, at least within the calibration uncertainties associated to the data collected at high frequencies. For some cases though, a change in the mass-loss rate history needs to be invoked to reconcile data at low and high-J respectively.

  6. OGLE-BLG182.1.162852: an eclipsing binary with a circumstellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattenbury, N. J.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Udalski, A.; Kozłowski, S.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Skowron, J.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Mróz, P.; Skowron, D.

    2015-02-01

    We present the discovery of a plausible disc-eclipse system OGLE-BLG182.1.162852. The OGLE light curve for OGLE-BLG182.1.162852 shows three episodes of dimming by I ≃ 2-3 mag, separated by 1277 d. The shape of the light curve during dimming events is very similar to that of known disc-eclipse system OGLE-LMC-ECL-11893. The event is presently undergoing a dimming event, predicted to end on 2014 December 30. The next dimming episode for OGLE-BLG182.1.162852 is expected to occur in 2018 March.

  7. Simultaneous K- and L-band Spectroscopy of Be Stars: Circumstellar Envelope Properties from Hydrogen Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, A.; Arias, M. L.; Cidale, L. S.

    2010-05-01

    We present medium-resolution K- and L-band spectra of a sample of eight Be stars, obtained with Gemini/NIRI. The IR K and L bands contain many lines of different hydrogen series that are used as a diagnosis to the physical conditions in the circumstellar environments. We make an analysis on the optical depths of the line-forming regions based on the intensity ratios of Pfγ and Brα lines, the behavior of Humphreys' series, and the fluxes of Brα and Brγ lines. All our targets show spectroscopic and photometric long-term variability; thus, time-resolved K- and L-band spectroscopy is an ideal tool for studying the structure and evolution of the innermost regions of the envelope and to test models on the disk-forming mechanism. We note that the instrumental configuration used allowed us to obtain good quality IR observations and to take profit of Gemini band 3 observing time (allocation time for ranked programs in which the observing conditions are relaxed). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (USA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  8. Interferometric observations of non-maser SiO emission from circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars - Acceleration regions and SiO depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Bieging, John H.

    1993-01-01

    High- and medium-resolution images of SiO J = 2-1(V = 0) from the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of three oxygen-rich stars, Chi Cyg, RX Boo, and IK Tau, were obtained. The SIO images were found to be roughly circular, implying that the CSEs are spherically symmetric on angular-size scales of about 3-9 arcsec. The observed angular half-maximum intensity source radius is nearly independent of the LSR velocity for all three CSEs. Chi Cyg and RX Boo are argued to be less than 450 pc distant, and have mass-loss rates larger than about 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr. In Chi Cyg and RX Boo, the line profiles at the peak of the brightness distribution are rounded, typical of optically-thick emission from a spherical envelope expanding with a constant velocity. In the IK Tau line profiles, an additional narrower central component is present, probably a result of emission from an inner circumstellar shell with a significantly smaller expansion velocity than the extended envelope.

  9. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2005gj: Another TypeIa Supernova in a Massive Circumstellar Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bauer, A.; Blanc, N.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Gilles, S.; Kessler, R.; Kocevski, D.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Thomas, R.C.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B.A.; Rabinowitz, D.; Bauer, A.

    2006-06-01

    We report the independent discovery and follow-up observations of supernova 2005gj by the Nearby Supernova Factory. This is the second confirmed case of a ''hybrid'' Type Ia/IIn supernova, which like the prototype SN 2002ic, we interpret as the explosion of a white dwarf interacting with a circumstellar medium. Our early-phase photometry of SN 2005gj shows that the strength of the interaction between the supernova ejecta and circumstellar material is much stronger than for SN 2002ic. Our .rst spectrum shows a hot continuum with broad and narrow H{alpha} emission. Later spectra, spanning over 4 months from outburst, show clear Type Ia features combined with broad and narrow H{gamma}, H{beta},H{alpha} and He I {lambda}{lambda}5876,7065 in emission. At higher resolution, P Cygni profiles are apparent. Surprisingly, we also observe an inverted P Cygni profile for [O III] {lambda}5007. We find that the lightcurve and measured velocity of the unshocked circumstellar material imply mass loss as recently as 8 years ago. This is in contrast to SN 2002ic, for which an inner cavity in the circumstellar material was inferred. Within the context of the thin-shell approximation, the early lightcurve is well-described by a flat radial density profile for the circumstellar material. However, our decomposition of the spectra into Type Ia and shock emission components allows for little obscuration of the supernova, suggesting an aspherical or clumpy distribution for the circumstellar material. We suggest that the emission line velocity profiles arise from electron scattering rather than the kinematics of the shock. This is supported by the inferred high densities, and the lack of evidence for evolution in the line widths. Ground- and space-based photometry, and Keck spectroscopy, of the host galaxy are used to ascertain that the host galaxy has low metallicity (Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}} < 0.3; 95% confidence) and that this galaxy is undergoing a significant star formation event that

  10. CIRCUMSTELLAR ION-MOLECULE CHEMISTRY: OBSERVATIONS OF HCO{sup +} IN THE ENVELOPES OF O-RICH STARS AND IRC+10216

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, R. L.; Edwards, J. L.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2011-12-10

    Millimeter-wave observations of HCO{sup +} have been conducted toward oxygen-rich circumstellar envelopes, as well as IRC+10216, using the facilities of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The J = 1 {yields} 0 and 2 {yields} 1 transitions of this molecule were measured with the ARO 12 m antenna, while the J = 3 {yields} 2 and 4 {yields} 3 lines were observed using the ARO Sub-Millimeter Telescope. HCO{sup +} was detected toward the supergiant NML Cyg and the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars IK Tau, TX Cam, and W Hya in at least two transitions. The J = 2 {yields} 1 and 3 {yields} 2 lines of this ion were also detected toward IRC+10216, confirming the identification of HCO{sup +} in this object. The line profiles measured for HCO{sup +} toward NML Cyg consist of red- and blueshifted components, suggesting a non-spherical shell. Based on a radiative transfer analysis, the abundances in the O-rich envelopes were f(HCO{sup +}/H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.15-1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}, with the AGB stars typically exhibiting the higher values. In IRC+10216, f(HCO{sup +}/H{sub 2}) {approx} 4.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}, lower than the O-rich counterparts. The abundances of HCO{sup +} were also found to peak at considerable distances from the star, indicative of an outer envelope molecule. Comparison with H{sub 2}O and CO, the main precursor species, suggests that HCO{sup +} is more prevalent in envelopes that have substantial water, but CO also plays a role in its formation. The abundance of HCO{sup +} appears to increase inversely with mass-loss rate, provided the rate is >10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The common appearance of HCO{sup +} in circumstellar gas indicates that, at some level, ion-molecule reactions influence the chemistry of evolved stellar envelopes.

  11. On the relationship between circumstellar disc size and X-ray outbursts in Be/X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monageng, I. M.; McBride, V. A.; Coe, M. J.; Steele, I. A.; Reig, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present long-term Hα monitoring results of five Be/X-ray binaries to study the Be disc size variations and their influence on type II (giant) X-ray outbursts. The work is done in the context of the viscous decretion disc model which predicts that Be discs in binary systems are truncated by resonant torques induced by the neutron star in its orbit. Our observations show that type II outbursts are not correlated (nor anticorrelated) with the disc size, as they are seen to occur both at relatively small and large Be disc radii. We discuss these observations in context of alternate interpretation of Be disc behaviour, such as precession, elongation and density effects, and with cognisance of the limitations of our disc size estimates.

  12. Binary stellar mergers with marginally bound ejecta: excretion discs, inflated envelopes, outflows, and their luminous transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Metzger, Brian D.; Tomida, Kengo

    2016-09-01

    We study mass-loss from the outer Lagrange point (L2) in binary stellar mergers and their luminous transients by means of radiative hydrodynamical simulations. Previously, we showed that for binary mass ratios 0.06 ≲ q ≲ 0.8, synchronous L2 mass-loss results in a radiatively inefficient, dust-forming unbound equatorial outflow. A similar outflow exists irrespective of q if the ratio of the sound speed to the orbital speed at the injection point is sufficiently large, ε ≡ cT/vorb ≳ 0.15. By contrast, for cold L2 mass-loss (ε ≲ 0.15) from binaries with q ≲ 0.06 or q ≳ 0.8, the equatorial outflow instead remains marginally bound and falls back to the binary over tens to hundreds of binary orbits, where it experiences additional tidal torquing and shocking. As the bound gas becomes virialized with the binary, the luminosity of the system increases slowly at approximately constant photosphere radius, causing the temperature to rise. Subsequent evolution depends on the efficiency of radiative cooling. If the bound atmosphere is able to cool efficiently, as quantified by radiative diffusion time being shorter than the advection time (tdiff/tadv ≪ 1), then the virialized gas collapses to an excretion disc, while for tdiff/tadv ≳ 1 an isotropic wind is formed. Between these two extremes, an inflated envelope transports the heat generated near the binary to the surface by meridional flows. In all cases, the radiated luminosity reaches a fraction ˜10-2 to 10-1 of dot{M}v_orb^2/2, where dot{M} is the mass outflow rate. We discuss the implications of our results for transients in the luminosity gap between classical novae and supernovae, such as V1309 Sco and V838 Mon.

  13. Constraining dust properties in circumstellar envelopes of C-stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud: optical constants and grain size of carbon dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, Ambra; Marigo, Paola; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.; Aringer, Bernhard; Girardi, Léo; Pastorelli, Giada; Bressan, Alessandro; Bladh, Sara

    2016-10-01

    We present a new approach aimed at constraining the typical size and optical properties of carbon dust grains in circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of carbon-rich stars (C-stars) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). To achieve this goal, we apply our recent dust growth description, coupled with a radiative transfer code to the CSEs of C-stars evolving along the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch, for which we compute spectra and colours. Then, we compare our modelled colours in the near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) bands with the observed ones, testing different assumptions in our dust scheme and employing several data sets of optical constants for carbon dust available in the literature. Different assumptions adopted in our dust scheme change the typical size of the carbon grains produced. We constrain carbon dust properties by selecting the combination of grain size and optical constants which best reproduce several colours in the NIR and MIR at the same time. The different choices of optical properties and grain size lead to differences in the NIR and MIR colours greater than 2 mag in some cases. We conclude that the complete set of observed NIR and MIR colours are best reproduced by small grains, with sizes between ˜0.035 and ˜0.12 μm, rather than by large grains between ˜0.2 and 0.7 μm. The inability of large grains to reproduce NIR and MIR colours seems independent of the adopted optical data set. We also find a possible trend of the grain size with mass-loss and/or carbon excess in the CSEs of these stars.

  14. The origin and evolution of dust in interstellar and circumstellar environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittet, Douglas C. B.; Leung, Chun M.

    1993-01-01

    This status report covers the period from the commencement of the research program on 1 Jul. 1992 through 30 Apr. 1993. Progress is reported for research in the following areas: (1) grain formation in circumstellar envelopes; (2) photochemistry in circumstellar envelopes; (3) modeling ice features in circumstellar envelopes; (4) episodic dust formation in circumstellar envelopes; (5) grain evolution in the diffuse interstellar medium; and (6) grain evolution in dense molecular clouds.

  15. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  16. Submillimeter observations of circumstellar dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Caroline R.; Leahy, Denis A.; Kwok, Sun

    1992-06-01

    Five late-type stars with circumstellar envelopes were observed with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on 1988 February 7-8. The stars IK Tauri, Alpha Orionis, VY Canis Majoris, CW Leonis, and RW Leonis Minoris were observed in the 450, 800, and 1100 micron wavebands. These data were combined with existing measurements at shorter wavelengths for each star. The combined data were fitted to a circumstellar-dust-shell model based on the computer code by Leung (1975). Derived parameters, including mass-loss rates, are presented for the observed stars.

  17. The circumstellar disc of FS Tau B - a self-consistent model based on observations in the mid-infrared with NACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchschlager, Florian; Wolf, Sebastian; Madlener, David

    2016-10-01

    Protoplanetary discs are a byproduct of the star formation process. In the dense mid-plane of these discs, planetesimals and planets are expected to form. The first step in planet formation is the growth of dust particles from submicrometre-sized grains to macroscopic mm-sized aggregates. The grain growth is accompanied by radial drift and vertical segregation of the particles within the disc. To understand this essential evolutionary step, spatially resolved multi-wavelength observations as well as photometric data are necessary which reflect the properties of both disc and dust. We present the first spatially resolved image obtained with NACO at the VLT in the Lp band of the near edge-on protoplanetary disc FS Tau B. Based on this new image, a previously published Hubble image in H band and the spectral energy distribution from optical to millimetre wavelengths, we derive constraints on the spatial dust distribution and the progress of grain growth. For this purpose we perform a disc modelling using the radiative transfer code MC3D. Radial drift and vertical sedimentation of the dust are not considered. We find a best-fitting model which features a disc extending from 2 au to several hundreds au with a moderately decreasing surface density and Mdisc = 2.8 × 10-2 M⊙. The inclination amounts to i = 80°. Our findings indicate that substantial dust grain growth has taken place and that grains of a size equal to or larger than 1 mm are present in the disc. In conclusion, the parameters describing the vertical density distribution are better constrained than those describing the radial disc structure.

  18. Spectroscopic studies of the classical Cepheid ζ Gem: Analysis of the velocity field in the atmosphere and manifestation of the presence of a circumstellar envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    with those for the B component of the Hα line, they are all formed in the Cepheid's atmosphere. The formation and passage of a shock wave due to the κ-mechanism at work can be responsible for the stronger scatter of the B1 and B2 components in their velocities at phases after the Cepheid's minimum radius. The averaged velocities of the R1 components also change with pulsation phase and differ only slightly from the remaining ones. On the other hand, the mean velocity estimate for the R component of the Hα line at all phases is +32.72 ± 2.50 km s-1 and differs significantly from the bulk of the velocities, suggesting the formation of this component in the envelope around the Cepheid. The unusual behavior of the mean velocities for the R2 components of the metal absorption lines can also point to their formation in the envelope and can be yet another indicator of its presence around ζ Gem.

  19. CONFIRMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR PHOSPHINE

    SciTech Connect

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Encrenaz, P.; Teyssier, D.

    2014-08-01

    Phosphine (PH{sub 3}) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC +10216 and CRL 2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J = 1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J = 2-1 rotational transition of PH{sub 3} in IRC +10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH{sub 3}. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping in excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH{sub 3} in the envelope of IRC +10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R {sub *} from the star, with an abundance of 10{sup –8} relative to H{sub 2}. The detection of PH{sub 3} challenges chemical models, none of which offer a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH{sub 3} holds just 2% of the total available phosphorus in IRC +10216, it is, together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggesting that it could also be an important phosphorus species in other astronomical environments. This is the first unambiguous detection of PH{sub 3} outside the solar system, and is a further step toward a better understanding of the chemistry of phosphorus in space.

  20. Circumstellar matter in Herbig AeBe stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natta, Antonella

    1994-03-01

    I briefly summarize the observational evidence for large envelopes in the immediate environment of Herbig AeBe stars, and the results of star + envelope models. Then, I discuss two alternative possibilities to account for the observed mid-infrared fluxes, namely as the emission of very small grains (VSG) and policyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the envelope, or as due to the emission of circumstellar accretion disks, and suggest how MIR high spatial resolution observations can discriminate between these two hypotheses.

  1. Atomic gas in debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, M. J.; Crawford, I. A.; Casassus, S.

    2017-04-01

    We have conducted a search for optical circumstellar absorption lines in the spectra of 16 debris disc host stars. None of the stars in our sample showed signs of emission line activity in either Hα, Ca II or Na I, confirming their more evolved nature. Four stars were found to exhibit narrow absorption features near the cores of the photospheric Ca II and Na I D lines (when Na I D data were available). We analyse the characteristics of these spectral features to determine whether they are of circumstellar or interstellar origins. The strongest evidence for circumstellar gas is seen in the spectrum of HD 110058, which is known to host a debris disc observed close to edge-on. This is consistent with a recent ALMA detection of molecular gas in this debris disc, which shows many similarities to the β Pictoris system.

  2. Model scattering envelopes of young stellar objects. II - Infalling envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Barbara A.; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We present scattered light images for models of young stellar objects surrounded by dusty envelopes. The envelopes are assumed to have finite angular momentum and are falling in steady flow onto a disk. The model envelopes include holes, such as might be created by energetic bipolar flows. We calculate images using the Monte Carlo method to follow the light scattered in the dusty envelope and circumstellar disk, assuming that the photons originate from the central source. Adopting typical interstellar medium dust opacities and expected mass infall rates for protostars of about 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr, we find that detectable amounts of optical radiation can escape from envelopes falling into a disk as small as about 10-100 AU, depending upon the viewing angle and the size of the bipolar flow cavity. We suggest that the extended optical and near-IR light observed around several young stars is scattered by dusty infalling envelopes rather than disks.

  3. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of circumstellar molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.; Mclaren, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Ammonia has been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of IRC+10216, VY CMa, VX Sgr, and IRC+10420. A number of absorption lines of (N-14)H3 in the nu sub 2 vibration-rotation band around 28 THz (950 per cm) have been observed at a velocity resolution of 0.2 km/s. Typical linewidths are 1 to 4 km/s, and the details of the line profiles provide additional insights on the process of mass loss in these stars.

  4. Protonated acetylene - An important circumstellar and interstellar ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Omont, A.; Guelin, M.

    1992-01-01

    In a circumstellar envelope, a substantial amount of acetylene is transported in a wind to the outer envelope, where it can be photoionized by interstellar radiation and then converted into C2H3(+) by a low-temperature reaction with H2. New chemical modeling calculations indicate that sufficient C2H3(+) may be produced in the outer envelope of IRC + 10216 to be observable. Similar considerations suggest that C2H3(+) should also be detectable in interstellar clouds, provided its rotational spectrum has been measured accurately in the laboratory.

  5. The photochemistry of carbon-rich circumstellar shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, P. J.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of ambient ultraviolet photons on the chemical structure of carbon-rich, circumstellar envelopes is investigated with a simple formulation of the time-dependent, photochemical rate equations valid for optically thick shells. Molecules injected into the shielded inner envelope are broken down when they reach the outer regions where ambient ultraviolet photons can penetrate. A quantitative description of the abundance variations is obtained for the case of uniform expansion by detailed consideration of the shielding of the radiation by the dust and molecules of the envelope. Representative results are presented to illustrate the role of shielding in defining the extent of molecular envelopes, the formation of C I and C II shells by photodestruction of carbon-bearing molecules, and the development of layered chemical structures from the photobreakup of polyatomic molecules. Photochemistry makes the outer parts of thick, carbon-rich envelopes into complex regions containing radicals, ions, and atoms which are of considerable observational and theoretical interest.

  6. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  7. Circumstellar dust in symbiotic novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkic, Tomislav; Kotnik-Karuza, Dubravka

    2015-08-01

    Physical properties of the circumstellar dust and associated physical mechanisms play an important role in understanding evolution of symbiotic binaries. We present a model of inner dust regions around the cool Mira component of the two symbiotic novae, RR Tel and HM Sge, based on the long-term near-IR photometry, infrared ISO spectra and mid-IR interferometry. Pulsation properties and long-term variabilities were found from the near-IR light curves. The dust properties were determined using the DUSTY code which solves the radiative transfer. No changes in pulsational parameters were found, but a long-term variations with periods of 20-25 years have been detected which cannot be attributed to orbital motion.Circumstellar silicate dust shell with inner dust shell temperatures between 900 K and 1300 K and of moderate optical depth can explain all the observations. RR Tel showed the presence of an optically thin CS dust envelope and an optically thick dust region outside the line of sight, which was further supported by the detailed modelling using the 2D LELUYA code. Obscuration events in RR Tel were explained by an increase in optical depth caused by the newly condensed dust leading to the formation of a compact dust shell. HM Sge showed permanent obscuration and a presence of a compact dust shell with a variable optical depth. Scattering of the near-IR colours can be understood by a change in sublimation temperature caused by the Mira variability. Presence of large dust grains (up to 4 µm) suggests an increased grain growth in conditions of increased mass loss. The mass loss rates of up to 17·10-6 MSun/yr were significantly higher than in intermediate-period single Miras and in agreement with longer-period O-rich AGB stars.Despite the nova outburst, HM Sge remained enshrouded in dust with no significant dust destruction. The existence of unperturbed dust shell suggests a small influence of the hot component and strong dust shielding from the UV flux. By the use

  8. The structure of circumstellar shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This document provides a report on research activities carried out with the support of NASA grant NAG 5-1174, the Structure of Circumstellar Shells, funded under the Astrophysics Data Program. The research carried out with the support of this grant is a study of the properties of circumstellar dust shells for which spectra are available through IRAS low resolution spectrometry (LRS). This research consisted of the development and application of models of axisymmetric circumstellar shells and a preliminary survey of the applicability of neural nets for analysis of the IRAS LRS spectra of circumstellar dust shells.

  9. Study of variable extinction of hot stars with circumstellar dust shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Various projects on the topic of hot stars with circumstellar dust are reported. The surface temperature, wind speed, and interstellar reddening were determined for the variable WC7 star HD 193793. Circumstellar carbon monoxide molecules were detected around a hot star. The dust envelope of the star W90 in the young cluster NGC2264 is discussed, and the spectra of low-redshift and X-ray emitting quasars are mentioned.

  10. Observations of Circumstellar Thermochemical Equilibrium: The Case of Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    We will present observations of phosphorus-bearing species in circumstellar envelopes, including carbon- and oxygen-rich shells 1. New models of thermochemical equilibrium chemistry have been developed to interpret, and constrained by these data. These calculations will also be presented and compared to the numerous P-bearing species already observed in evolved stars. Predictions for other viable species will be made for observations with Herschel and ALMA.

  11. Modeling Protostar Envelopes and Disks Seen With ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebey, Susan; Flores-Rivera, Lizxandra; Willacy, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Thermal continuum emission from protostars comes from both the envelope and circumstellar disk. The dust emits on a variety of spatial scales, ranging from sub-arcseconds for disks to roughly 10 arcseconds for envelopes for nearby protostars. We present models of what ALMA should detect that incorporate a self-consistent collapse solution, radiative transfer, and realistic dust properties.

  12. Circumstellar disks and planetary formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huélamo, N.

    2017-03-01

    Circumstellar disks are very common around young intermediate-, low-mass stars, and brown dwarfs. They are the cradle of planetary systems, although the mechanism to form planets is still unknown. In this text I review some advances in the field of circumstellar disks and planetary formation coming from observations.

  13. Discovering metal-poor circumstellar OH masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Steve; Green, James; van Loon, Jacco; Wood, Peter; Imai, Hiroshi; Groenewegen, Martin; Nanni, Ambra

    2014-10-01

    OH masers are excellent signposts for a variety of phenomenon including winds of highly-evolved stars (1612 MHz). Using the superior angular resolution and sensitivity of the ATCA, high spectral resolution of the CABB backend, and close proximity to the LMC (with half solar metallicity), this observation will allow us to extend an important relation involving the evolution of red giants and supergiants in a lower metallicity (van Loon, 2012). With even fewer detections with clear double-peaked profiles, indicating an expansion velocity of the circumstellar envelope, successful observation is vital for the advancement of our stellar mass-loss models. By refining the metallicity dependence of the mass-loss of highly-evolved red giants and supergiants in their superwind phase, we can better understand the evolution of these stars and their feedback within galaxies.

  14. Protostellar disc formation enabled by removal of small dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Caselli, Paola; Li, Zhi-Yun; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Nakamura, Fumitaka

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that a realistic level of magnetization of dense molecular cloud cores can suppress the formation of a rotationally supported disc (RSD) through catastrophic magnetic braking in the axisymmetric ideal MHD limit. In this study, we present conditions for the formation of RSDs through non-ideal MHD effects computed self-consistently from an equilibrium chemical network. We find that removing from the standard MRN distribution the large population of very small grains (VSGs) of ˜ 10 Å to few 100 Å that dominate the coupling of the bulk neutral matter to the magnetic field increases the ambipolar diffusivity by ˜ 1-2 orders of magnitude at densities below 1010/cm-3. The enhanced ambipolar diffusion (AD) in the envelope reduces the amount of magnetic flux dragged by the collapse into the circumstellar disc-forming region. Therefore, magnetic braking is weakened and more angular momentum can be retained. With continuous high angular momentum inflow, RSDs of tens of au are able to form, survive, and even grow in size, depending on other parameters including cosmic ray ionization rate, magnetic field strength, and rotation speed. Some discs become self-gravitating and evolve into rings in our 2D (axisymmetric) simulations, which have the potential to fragment into (close) multiple systems in 3D. We conclude that disc formation in magnetized cores is highly sensitive to chemistry, especially to grain sizes. A moderate grain coagulation/growth to remove the large population of VSGs, either in the prestellar phase or during free-fall collapse, can greatly promote AD and help formation of tens of au RSDs.

  15. DIAGNOSING CIRCUMSTELLAR DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Joseph M.

    2010-08-20

    A numerical model of a circumstellar debris disk is developed and applied to observations of the circumstellar dust orbiting {beta} Pictoris. The model accounts for the rates at which dust is produced by collisions among unseen planetesimals, and the rate at which dust grains are destroyed due to collisions. The model also accounts for the effects of radiation pressure, which is the dominant perturbation on the disk's smaller but abundant dust grains. Solving the resulting system of rate equations then provides the dust abundances versus grain size and dust abundances over time. Those solutions also provide the dust grains' collisional lifetime versus grain size, and the debris disk's optical depth and surface brightness versus distance from the star. Comparison to observations then yields estimates of the unseen planetesimal disk's radius, and the rate at which the disk sheds mass due to planetesimal grinding. The model can also be used to measure or else constrain the dust grain's physical and optical properties, such as the dust grains' strength, their light-scattering asymmetry parameter, and the grains' efficiency of light scattering Q{sub s}. The model is then applied to optical observations of the edge-on dust disk orbiting {beta} Pictoris, and good agreement is achieved when the unseen planetesimal disk is broad, with 75 {approx}< r {approx}< 150 AU. If it is assumed that the dust grains are bright like Saturn's icy rings (Q{sub s} = 0.7), then the cross section of dust in the disk is A{sub d} {approx_equal} 2 x 10{sup 20} km{sup 2} and its mass is M{sub d} {approx_equal} 11 lunar masses. In this case, the planetesimal disk's dust-production rate is quite heavy, M-dot {sub d{approx}}9 M {sub +} Myr{sup -1}, implying that there is or was a substantial amount of planetesimal mass there, at least 110 Earth masses. If the dust grains are darker than assumed, then the planetesimal disk's mass-loss rate and its total mass are heavier. In fact, the apparent dearth

  16. Detection of circumstellar material in a normal type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Patat, F; Chandra, P; Chevalier, R; Justham, S; Podsiadlowski, Ph; Wolf, C; Gal-Yam, A; Pasquini, L; Crawford, I A; Mazzali, P A; Pauldrach, A W A; Nomoto, K; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Elias-Rosa, N; Hillebrandt, W; Leonard, D C; Pastorello, A; Renzini, A; Sabbadin, F; Simon, J D; Turatto, M

    2007-08-17

    Type Ia supernovae are important cosmological distance indicators. Each of these bright supernovae supposedly results from the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf star that, after accreting material from a companion star, exceeds some mass limit, but the true nature of the progenitor star system remains controversial. Here we report the spectroscopic detection of circumstellar material in a normal type Ia supernova explosion. The expansion velocities, densities, and dimensions of the circumstellar envelope indicate that this material was ejected from the progenitor system. In particular, the relatively low expansion velocities suggest that the white dwarf was accreting material from a companion star that was in the red-giant phase at the time of the explosion.

  17. Proper Motions of Water Masers in Circumstellar Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.; Diamond, P. J.; Kemball, A. J.

    We present proper motion measurements of circumstellar water masers obtained with the VLBA. The objects observed include S Persei, VX Sagittarii, U Herculis, VY Canis Majoris, NML Cygni, IK Tauri and RX Bootis. Results of the observations and modeling indicate that the water masers exist in a kinematically complex region of the circumstellar envelope, which is not well fit by the standard model of a uniformly expanding spherical wind. Attempts at fitting an ellipsoidal geometric distribution with a variety of kinematic models are presented. Estimates for the distances of the stars are also discussed. A change in position of the maser spots as a function of velocity has been measured. This effect may be used to place limits on accelerations in the masing gas.

  18. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of SVS13: silicates, quartz and SiC in a protoplanetary disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Wright, Christopher M.; Moore, Toby J. T.

    2015-08-01

    We present N-band (8-13 μm) spectroscopic observations of the low-mass, embedded pre-main-sequence close binary system SVS13. Absorption features are clearly detected which are attributable to amorphous silicates, crystalline forsterite, crystalline enstatite and annealed SiO2. Most intriguingly, a major component of the dust in the envelope or disc around SVS13 appears to be SiC, required to model adequately both the total intensity and polarization spectra. Silicon carbide is a species previously detected only in the spectra of C-rich evolved star atmospheres, wherein it is a dust condensate. It has not been unambiguously identified in the interstellar medium, and never before in a molecular cloud, let alone in close proximity to a forming star. Yet pre-solar grains of SiC have been identified in meteorites, possibly suggesting an interesting parallel between SVS13 and our own Solar-system evolution. The uniqueness of the spectrum suggests that we are either catching SVS13 in a short-lived evolutionary phase and/or that there is something special about SVS13 itself that makes it rare amongst young stars. We speculate on the physical origin of the respective dust species and why they are all simultaneously present towards SVS13. Two scenarios are presented: a disc-instability-induced fragmentation, with subsequent localized heating and orbital evolution first annealing initially amorphous silicates and then dispersing their crystalline products throughout a circumstellar disc; and a newly discovered shock-heating mechanism at the interface between the circumstellar and circumbinary discs providing the crystallization process. One or both of these mechanisms acting on carbon-rich grain material can also feasibly produce the SiC signature.

  19. Carbon stars with oxygen-rich circumstellar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, Michael; Hawkins, I.

    1991-01-01

    The IUE satellite was used to search for companions to two carbon-rich stars with oxygen-rich circumstellar envelopes, EU And and V778 Cyg. Depending upon the amount of interstellar extinction and distances (probably between 1 and 2 kpc from the Sun) to these two stars, upper limits were placed between approx. 1.5 and 6 solar mass to the mass of any main sequence companions. For the 'near' distance of 1 kpc, it seems unlikely that there are white dwarf companions because the detection would be expected of ultraviolet emission from accretion of red giant wind material onto the white dwarf. A new model is proposed to explain the oxygen-rich envelopes. If these stars have a high nitrogen abundance, the carbon that is in excess of the oxygen may be carried in the circumstellar envelopes in HCN rather than C2H2 which is a likely key seed molecule for the formation of carbon grains. Consequently, carbon particles may not form; instead, oxygen-rich silicate dust may nucleate from the SiO present in the outflow.

  20. Circumstellar dust: From protostars to planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardhana, Ray

    2000-11-01

    A combination of theoretical work and observational discoveries over the past three decades has led to significant advances in our understanding of the star and planet formation process. However, many important questions remain to be addressed, especially regarding the earliest phases of protostellar collapse and the transformation of circumstellar disks into planetary systems. In this thesis, I have undertaken a theoretical study of ``Class 0'' protostars and an observational investigation of the evolution of protoplanetary disks, diversity of planetary debris systems, and the kinship between dusty remnants and planets, using a new generation of infrared and sub- millimeter instruments. I present radiative transfer calculations of infalling envelopes surrounding Class 0 sources, compare them to the observed spectral energy distributions and radial intensity profiles, and derive mass infall rates. The rapid infall, probably inevitable given their dense environments, and the relatively flat inferred density distribution, perhaps due to contributions from external cloud material, lead us to suggest that many Class 0 sources could be the protostars of dense regions. It has been suggested that circumstellar disks evolve from massive, optically thick, actively accreting structures to low-mass, optically thin, passive remnants in about 10 Myr. That transition may mark the assembly of grains into planetesimals, or clearing of the disk by planets. I present mid infrared observation of the TW Hydrate Association, a recently identified nearby group of 10-Myr-old stars. The results suggest rapid evolution of inner disks as does our discovery of a spatially- resolved disk with a central cavity around the young A star HR 4796A. I also present the results of mid-infrared imaging of 11 other Vega-like stars, derive global properties of the dust disks, place constraints on their sizes, and discuss several interesting cases in detail. Finally, I report the detection of dust

  1. The structure of circumstellar shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.; Cobb, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Speckle-interferometric measurements are reported for the brightness distributions of the OH/IR stars OH 26.5 + 0.6 and IRC + 10420 at wavelengths which are near the center of and just outside the 10-micron absorption/emission feature produced by circumstellar dust. For OH 26.5 + 0.6, the angular size within the absorption feature is 0.50 + or - 0.02 arcsec, while the angular size outside the feature is less than 0.2 arcsec. For IRC + 10420, the angular sizes inside and outside the emission feature are both 0.42 + or - 0.02 arcsec. Simple models of the circumstellar shells are calculated which can account for the measured angular sizes and flux distributions of the objects. The models give the wavelength dependence of the opacity of the circumstellar material, which is quite different for the two objects.

  2. Circumplanetary discs around young giant planets: a comparison between core-accretion and disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Mayer, L.; Quinn, T.

    2017-01-01

    Circumplanetary discs can be found around forming giant planets, regardless of whether core accretion or gravitational instability built the planet. We carried out state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations of the circumplanetary discs for both formation scenarios, using as similar initial conditions as possible to unveil possible intrinsic differences in the circumplanetary disc mass and temperature between the two formation mechanisms. We found that the circumplanetary discs' mass linearly scales with the circumstellar disc mass. Therefore, in an equally massive protoplanetary disc, the circumplanetary discs formed in the disc instability model can be only a factor of 8 more massive than their core-accretion counterparts. On the other hand, the bulk circumplanetary disc temperature differs by more than an order of magnitude between the two cases. The subdiscs around planets formed by gravitational instability have a characteristic temperature below 100 K, while the core-accretion circumplanetary discs are hot, with temperatures even greater than 1000 K when embedded in massive, optically thick protoplanetary discs. We explain how this difference can be understood as the natural result of the different formation mechanisms. We argue that the different temperatures should persist up to the point when a full-fledged gas giant forms via disc instability; hence, our result provides a convenient criterion for observations to distinguish between the two main formation scenarios by measuring the bulk temperature in the planet vicinity.

  3. The complex circumstellar and circumbinary environment of V356 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Fullard, Andrew G.; Malatesta, Michael A.; Babler, Brian; Bednarski, Daniel; Berdis, Jodi R.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Carciofi, Alex C.; Davidson, James W., Jr.; Keil, Marcus; Meade, Marilyn R.; Nordsieck, Kenneth; Scheffler, Matt; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Wisniewski, John P.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse 45 spectropolarimetric observations of the eclipsing, interacting binary star V356 Sgr, obtained over a period of ˜21 yr, to characterize the geometry of the system's circumstellar material. After removing interstellar polarization from these data, we find that the system exhibits a large intrinsic polarization signature arising from electron scattering. In addition, the lack of repeatable eclipses in the polarization phase curves indicates the presence of a substantial pool of scatterers not occulted by either star. We suggest that these scatterers form either a circumbinary disc coplanar with the gainer's accretion disc or an elongated structure perpendicular to the orbital plane of V356 Sgr, possibly formed by bipolar outflows. We also observe small-scale, cycle-to-cycle variations in the magnitude of intrinsic polarization at individual phases, which we interpret as evidence of variability in the amount of scattering material present within and around the system. This may indicate a mass-transfer or mass-loss rate that varies on the time-scale of the system's orbital period. Finally, we compare the basic polarimetric properties of V356 Sgr with those of the well-studied β Lyr system; the significant differences observed between the two systems suggest diversity in the basic circumstellar geometry of Roche lobe overflow systems.

  4. Measurements of Volatile Circumstellar Isotopes: Effects of Fractionation vs. Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milam, Stefanie

    The origin, evolution, and fate of our Universe and/or Galaxy have puzzled humankind for centuries. One approach to answering this question is to gain further understanding of stellar evolution, since stars are fundamental in galaxy development and evolution. A compilation of stellar composition can reveal the age, dynamics, and possibly the evolutionary state of a galaxy. In particular the volatile isotope ratios carry an imprint of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Primitive materials, such as meteorites and IDPs, have revealed a component of ``atypical" isotopic signatures of these fundamental elements denoting a possible stellar origin. Understanding the processes by which these elements derive is essential for astrophysics on cosmochemical, galactic, stellar, and planetary scales. We propose to analyze data obtained from the Herschel Space Observatory of circumstellar envelopes to definitively measure C, N, and O isotope ratios and test current models of photo-selective isotope fractionation vs. nucleosynthetically determined values. This proposal augments data from the Herschel Space Observatory, primarily from the HIFISTARS program and MESS, though the entire Herschel archive will be searched for relevant data. The broader implications for this study include fundamental data necessary for furthering our current understanding of stellar nucleosynthesis, circumstellar chemistry, Galactic chemical evolution, and the origin of presolar grains found in primitive materials. We will focus on isotopologues of species formed in thermochemical equilibrium and trace their natal, nucleosynthetic isotope ratios. We will analyze Herschel data obtained for a survey of evolved stars with varying degrees of nuclear processing, evolutionary states, and envelope chemistry (e.g. oxygen-rich vs. carbon-rich). A full circumstellar model will be developed for each source to address specific affects that may influence either the ratios or chemistry. The isotope ratios of 12C

  5. Magnetic Field and Early Evolution of Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic field plays a central role in the formation and evolution of circumstellar disks. The magnetic field connects the rapidly rotating central region with the outer envelope and extracts angular momentum from the central region during gravitational collapse of the cloud core. This process is known as magnetic braking. Both analytical and multidimensional simulations have shown that disk formation is strongly suppressed by magnetic braking in moderately magnetised cloud cores in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limit. On the other hand, recent observations have provided growing evidence of a relatively large disk several tens of astronomical units in size existing in some Class 0 young stellar objects. This introduces a serious discrepancy between the theoretical study and observations. Various physical mechanisms have been proposed to solve the problem of catastrophic magnetic braking, such as misalignment between the magnetic field and the rotation axis, turbulence, and non-ideal effect. In this paper, we review the mechanism of magnetic braking, its effect on disk formation and early evolution, and the mechanisms that resolve the magnetic braking problem. In particular, we emphasise the importance of non-ideal effects. The combination of magnetic diffusion and thermal evolution during gravitational collapse provides a robust formation process for the circumstellar disk at the very early phase of protostar formation. The rotation induced by the Hall effect can supply a sufficient amount of angular momentum for typical circumstellar disks around T Tauri stars. By examining the combination of the suggested mechanisms, we conclude that the circumstellar disks commonly form in the very early phase of protostar formation.

  6. Infalling Envelopes and Pre-Main Sequence Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this project is to understand the observed infrared emission of young stellar objects, and explore the implications of this emission for the evolution of dusty envelopes and circumstellar disks. We are using sophisticated radiative transfer methods to compare models with observations, thereby making critical tests of the standard picture of low-mass star formation.

  7. Observational constraints on circumstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1986-01-01

    There is an enormous range in the properties of stars that are losing mass. The red giants responsible for injecting roughly half or more of the material into the interstellar medium are reviewed. The physical properties are described for the out flowing gases. Broadband observation constaints on the dust are described by use of spectrum analysis. Circumstellar dust is identified by carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds.

  8. Dipper discs not inclined towards edge-on orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, M.; Gaidos, E.; Williams, J. P.; Kennedy, G.; Wyatt, M. C.; LaCourse, D. M.; Jacobs, T. L.; Mann, A. W.

    2016-10-01

    The so-called dipper stars host circumstellar discs and have optical and infrared light curves that exhibit quasi-periodic or aperiodic dimming events consistent with extinction by transiting dusty structures orbiting in the inner disc. Most of the proposed mechanisms explaining the dips - i.e. occulting disc warps, vortices, and forming planetesimals - assume nearly edge-on viewing geometries. However, our analysis of the three known dippers with publicly available resolved sub-mm data reveals discs with a range of inclinations, most notably the face-on transition disc J1604-2130 (EPIC 204638512). This suggests that nearly edge-on viewing geometries are not a defining characteristic of the dippers and that additional models should be explored. If confirmed by further observations of more dippers, this would point to inner disc processes that regularly produce dusty structures far above the outer disc mid-plane in regions relevant to planet formation.

  9. THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2011ja: CLUES FROM CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak; Yadav, Naveen; Smith, Randall; Ryder, Stuart; Sutaria, Firoza; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David; Roy, Rupak

    2013-09-01

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shocks the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work, we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array to study the relative importance of processes which accelerate particles and those which amplify magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the explosion date. Multiple Chandra observations allow us to probe the history of variable mass loss from the progenitor. The ejecta expands into a low-density bubble followed by interaction with a higher density wind from a red supergiant consistent with M{sub ZAMS} {approx}> 12 M{sub Sun }. Our results suggest that a fraction of Type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar media set up by non-steady winds.

  10. Infrared observations of circumstellar ammonia in OH/IR supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, R. A.; Betz, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    Ammonia has been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of VY Canis Majoris, VX Sagittarii, and IRC +10420 by means of several absorption lines in the nu-2 vibration-rotation band near 950 kaysers. The line profiles are well resolved (0.2 km/sec resolution) and show the gas being accelerated to terminal expansion velocities near 30 km/sec. The observations reveal a method for determining the position of the central star on VLBI maps of OH maser emission to an accuracy of approximately 0.2 arcsec. A firm lower limit of 2 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm is obtained for the NH3 column density in VY Canis Majoris.

  11. Circumstellar Dust in Symbiotic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkic, T.; Kotnik-Karuza, D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a model of inner dust regions around the cool Mira component of the two symbiotic novae, RR Tel and HM Sge, based on the near-IR photometry, ISO spectra and mid-IR interferometry. The dust properties were determined using the DUSTY code. A compact circumstellar silicate dust shell with inner dust shell temperatures between 900 K and 1300 K and of moderate optical depth can explain all the observations. RR Tel shows the presence of an equatorially enhanced dust density during minimum obscuration. Obscuration events are explained by an increase in optical depth caused by the newly condensed dust. The mass loss rates are significantly higher than in intermediate-period single Miras but in agreement with longer-period O-rich AGB stars.

  12. Bimodality of Circumstellar Disk Evolution Induced by the Hall Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Y.; Iwasaki, K.; Okuzumi, S.; Machida, M. N.; Inutsuka, S.

    2015-09-01

    The formation process of circumstellar disks is still controversial because of the interplay of complex physical processes that occurs during the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In this study, we investigate the effect of the Hall current term on the formation of the circumstellar disk using three-dimensional simulations. In our simulations, all non-ideal effects, as well as the radiation transfer, are considered. The size of the disk is significantly affected by a simple difference in the inherent properties of the prestellar core, namely whether the rotation vector and the magnetic field are parallel or anti-parallel. In the former case, only a very small disk (\\lt 1 {AU}) is formed. On the other hand, in the latter case, a massive and large (\\gt 20 {AU}) disk is formed in the early phase of protostar formation. Since the parallel and anti-parallel properties do not readily change, we expect that the parallel and anti-parallel properties are also important in the subsequent disk evolution and the difference between the two cases is maintained or enhanced. This result suggests that the disk size distribution of the Class 0 young stellar objects is bimodal. Thus, the disk evolution can be categorized into two cases and we may call the parallel and anti-parallel systems Ortho-disk and Para-disk, respectively. We also show that the anti-rotating envelopes against the disk rotation appear with a size of ≳ 200 {AU}. We predict that the anti-rotating envelope will be found in the future observations.

  13. The debris disc around HIP 17439

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüppler, Christian; Löhne, Torsten; Krivov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme DUNES the debris disc around the K2 V star HIP 17439 was observed. In PACS images the disc emission is spatially clearly extended. A simultaneous analysis of photometric observations and radial brightness profiles from the resolved images provides valuable hints for the disc structure. In an analytical model we adopted power laws for the size and radial distribution of the circumstellar dust and tested two different scenarios: (1) a broad dust ring with a radial extent of about 200AU, (2) two independent dust rings separated by a gap of several tens of AU. Both models fit the spectral energy distribution and the radial profiles quite well. In case (1) the parameters found are consistent with dust stemming from an outer planetesimal belt at ~140AU and strong transport mechanisms that drag the particles inward. Model (2) would imply two planetesimal belts, producing a narrow inner and wider outer distribution of dust.

  14. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Duc Cao; Richard Metcalf

    2010-07-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z-testing. A brief analysis of the impact of the safeguards optimization on the rest of plant efficiency, criticality concerns, and overall requirements is presented.

  15. Be discs in binary systems - I. Coplanar orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panoglou, Despina; Carciofi, Alex C.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Cyr, Isabelle H.; Jones, Carol E.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio and eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar binaries. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. We find two limiting cases with respect to the effects of eccentricity: in circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc structure appears smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for small viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. In highly eccentric orbits, the effects are more complex, with the disc structure strongly dependent on the orbital phase. We also studied the effects of binarity in the disc continuum emission. Since the infrared and radio SED are sensitive to the disc size and density slope, the truncation and matter accumulation result in considerable modifications in the emergent spectrum. We conclude that binarity can serve as an explanation for the variability exhibited in observations of Be stars, and that our model can be used to detect invisible companions.

  16. Evidence of Dissipation of Circumstellar Disks from L-band Spectra of Bright Galactic Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabogal, B. E.; Ubaque, K. Y.; García-Varela, A.; Álvarez, M.; Salas, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present L-band spectra of the Be stars γ Cas, ϕ Per, 28 Tau, θ CrB, 66 Oph, o Her, and 28 Cyg, obtained through use of the CID-InSb spectrograph with the 2.1-m telescope at OAN/UNAM San Pedro Martir Observatory. This is the first report of L-band spectra of o Her and θ CrB, and of the data obtained with this spectrograph. We obtain flux ratios of hydrogen lines for these stars, finding that they have optically thin envelopes, except by 66 Oph and θ CrB, which do not show evidence of a circumstellar disk. γ Cas and ϕ Per have flux ratio values of hydrogen lines closer to the optically thick case than the other stars. We use the line flux ratio diagram and optical spectra reported in the literature to study the life cycles of the disks. We find clear evidence of the dissipating process of the envelopes of 66 Oph and 28 Cyg, i.e., they are decaying stars. 28 Tau seems to have passed by a similar process. γ Cas and ϕ Per are stable stars because their circumstellar disks do not show notorious changes for many years. Finally, the stars in a build-up phase, whose envelopes are generated after a decaying phase or for the first time, have not yet been observed in the L-band. It would be useful to monitor more Be stars to observe this class of stars that probably change from a very tenuous envelope to an optically thick circumstellar disk. The line flux ratio diagram seems to confirm that late Be stars have more tenuous disks than early-type Be stars, as they tend to be separated at the left bottom and the top right parts of the diagram, respectively. Larger samples of Be stars are needed to confirm this hypothesis through a statistical analysis.

  17. Infrared Interferometry and Circumstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudé du Foresto, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    Exozodiacal dust plays an important role for the feasibility and dimensioning of future space missions dedicated to the spectroscopic analysis of the atmosphere of Earth-like planets. Thus, a survey of dust clouds around potential targets is called for in order to reduce the need for such observations using space-based missions and not waste time on sources where exo-Earths cannot be detected. Aladdin is an infrared (L band) nulling interferometer optimized for this objective. Although relatively modest in size (two 1-meter class telescopes on a maximum baseline of 32 meters), it takes advantage of the favorable atmospheric conditions of the Antarctic plateau to achieve a sensitivity better than what can be obtained with a pair of 8-meter-class telescopes at a more temperate site. Beyond its main mission, the science potential of Aladdin extends to the study of all kinds of faint circumstellar material (dust and/or molecules) around young, old or main-sequence stars.

  18. Gas Modelling in the Disc of HD 163296

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilling, I.; Woitke, P.; Meeus, G.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W. -F.; Isella, A.; Roberge, A.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Kamp, I.; Pinte, C.; Sandell, G.; Vacca, W. D.; Menard, F.; Mendigutia, I.; Duchene, G.; Dent, W. R. F.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed model fits to observations of the disc around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. This well-studied object has an age of approx. 4Myr, with evidence of a circumstellar disc extending out to approx. 540AU. We use the radiation thermo-chemical disc code ProDiMo to model the gas and dust in the circumstellar disc of HD 163296, and attempt to determine the disc properties by fitting to observational line and continuum data. These include new Herschel/PACS observations obtained as part of the open-time key program GASPS (Gas in Protoplanetary Systems), consisting of a detection of the [Oi] 63 m line and upper limits for several other far infrared lines. We complement this with continuum data and ground-based observations of the CO-12 3-2, 2-1 and CO-13 J=1-0 line transitions, as well as the H2 S(1) transition. We explore the effects of stellar ultraviolet variability and dust settling on the line emission, and on the derived disc properties. Our fitting efforts lead to derived gas/dust ratios in the range 9-100, depending on the assumptions made. We note that the line fluxes are sensitive in general to the degree of dust settling in the disc, with an increase in line flux for settled models. This is most pronounced in lines which are formed in the warm gas in the inner disc, but the low excitation molecular lines are also affected. This has serious implications for attempts to derive the disc gas mass from line observations. We derive fractional PAH abundances between 0.007 and 0.04 relative to ISM levels. Using a stellar and UV excess input spectrum based on a detailed analysis of observations, we find that the all observations are consistent with the previously assumed disc geometry

  19. Laboratory simulation of graphite formation in stellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfeld, W. G.; Hudson, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    A technique has been developed which permits laboratory simulation of graphite condensation in the envelopes of cool, late sequence stars. Processes in the stellar envelope were simulated by allowing hydrogen-carbon mixtures of typical circumstellar composition and temperature to expand freely into vacuum, cooling and supersaturating the vapor. Expansion products were determined mass spectrometrically through the use of molecular beam techniques. The results of laboratory expansions were scaled to those occurring near M and N stars by comparing the number of collisional events in each case. Kinetic considerations indicate that the important rate process in rarefied envelopes will be C2 formation; consequently scaling by termolecular collisions was employed. Results of this study imply that envelope expansions near M giants contribute at most .01 of the observed interstellar grain density. In the case of pulsating N stars, on the other hand, the results are not inconsistent with previous predictions of essentially complete carbon condensation.

  20. Effects of multiquantum transitions on molecular populations in grain-forming circumstellar environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J. A.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Wiant, M.

    1985-01-01

    Simplification of astrophysical calculations can be achieved by invoking the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium; however, recent investigations suggest that this assumption may not be valid for certain astrophysical regions. To examine the effects of multiquantum translation to vibration transitions in expanding circumstellar envelopes, vibrational populations of the lowest 20 levels of CO have been calculated as a function of pressure and radiation density for H atom-CO collisions. Significant departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium is indicated, which implies lower dissociation rates for molecular components and a subsequent enhancement in the rate of grain formation by many orders of magnitude. Stabilization of intermediate species before they can dissociate may facilitate the formation of refractory grain cores in very hot, dilute outflows. As the present calculations indicate, laboratory measurements of state-to-state translation to vibration rates are needed for a more complete understanding of circumstellar chemistry.

  1. CIRCUMSTELLAR MAGNETITE FROM THE LAP 031117 CO3.0 CHONDRITE

    SciTech Connect

    Zega, Thomas J.; Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine; Stroud, Rhonda M.

    2015-07-20

    We report the first microstructural confirmation of circumstellar magnetite, identified in a petrographic thin section of the LaPaz Icefield 031117 CO3.0 chondrite. The O-isotopic composition of the grain indicates an origin in a low-mass (∼2.2 M{sub ⊙}), approximately solar metallicity red/asymptotic giant branch (RGB/AGB) star undergoing first dredge-up. The magnetite is a single crystal measuring 750 × 670 nm, is free of defects, and is stoichiometric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We hypothesize that the magnetite formed via oxidation of previously condensed Fe dust within the circumstellar envelope of its progenitor star. Using an empirically derived rate constant for this reaction, we calculate that such oxidation could have occurred over timescales ranging from approximately ∼9000–500,000 years. This timescale is within the lifetime of estimates for dust condensation within RGB/AGB stars.

  2. Interaction of Supernovae with Circumstellar Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippenko, Alex

    1996-07-01

    The interaction of supernova {SN} ejecta with circumstellar material supplied by the wind of the evolved progenitor star can sometimes provide enough energy to sustain the SN luminosity for several decades. Existing observations of certain Type II SNe strongly favor such an interpretation over other possible late-time energy sources. Some peculiar SNe II have such dense circumstellar winds that interaction with the ejecta substantially alters their observed properties even at early times. The UV spectrum is a powerful diagnostic for probing the conditions in the shocked outer ejecta and circumstellar gas. We propose to observe two old SNs {1979C and 1980K} whose optical and radio characteristics reveal them to be especially well suited for an investigation of the interaction between ejecta and circumstellar gas. We will also observe a more recent SN II {1995N} showing strong evidence for early interaction with circumstellar gas. The fluxes and intensity ratios of UV emission lines will be used to test theoretical models of the interaction. In addition, we will obtain UBVRI and HAlpha images of SN 1979C to obtain a precise offset from an offset star {for the subsequent FOS spectroscopy}, to determine background contamination corrections for previous photometry, to measure accurate current magnitudes, to search for light echoes, and to investigate the stellar population and structure of H II regions in its vicinity. The HST observations will shed light on differences among the 3 objects, as well as on the mass-loss histories of their progenitors.

  3. Spiral-driven accretion in protoplanetary discs . III. Tridimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Lesur, Geoffroy; Fromang, Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    Context. Understanding how accretion proceeds in proto-planetary discs, and more generally, understanding their dynamics, is a crucial questions that needs to be answered to explain the conditions in which planets form. Aims: The role that accretion of gas from the surrounding molecular cloud onto the disc may have on its structure needs to be quantified. Methods: We performed tridimensional simulations using the Cartesian AMR code RAMSES of an accretion disc that is subject to infalling material. Results: For the aspect ratio of H/R ≃ 0.15 and disc mass Md ≃ 10-2M⊙ used in our study, we find that for typical accretion rates of the order of a few 10-7M⊙ yr-1, values of the α parameter as high as a few 10-3 are inferred. The mass that is accreted in the inner part of the disc is typically at least 50% of the total mass that has been accreted onto the disc. Conclusions: Our results suggest that external accretion of gas at moderate values onto circumstellar discs may trigger prominent spiral arms that are reminiscent of recent observations made with various instruments, and may lead to significant transport through the disc. If confirmed from observational studies, such accretion may therefore influence disc evolution.

  4. The Circumstellar Environment of Rigel Probed at High Spatial and Spectral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufer, A.; Chesneau, O.; Stahl, O.; Colvinter, C.; Spang, A.; Dessart, L.; Prinja, R.; Chini, R.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of highly structured circumstellar environments in late B- and early A-type supergiants is well established through extensive spectroscopic, photometric, and polarimetric time series observations. The circumstellar structures are located within a few stellar radii in the transition zone from the stellar photosphere to the inner wind region of the expanding envelopes of the stars. The physical mechanisms that generate the observed circumstellar structures remain subject of debate. Coupling of stellar surface structures into the inner wind regions combined with rotational modulation is generally favoured with the surface structure being results of multi-mode non-radial pulsation patterns or complex magnetic fields structures. However, little observational evidence is available to narrow down the underlying mechanisms. Optical and near-IR interferometry at high spectral resolution has high potential to shed new light on the circumstellar environments of massive supergiants. We present first results from spectro-interferometric studies of the prototypical late-B supergiant Rigel (β Orionis, B8 Ia). Rigel has for the first time been monitored over several rotational cycles with the AMBER 3-beam combiner instrument at the VLTI in 2006-2007 and 2009-2010. The observations targeted the photosphere- and wind-sensitive Brγ line at a resolving power of R=12 000. The analysis of the measured interferometric visibilities provides constraints on the extension of the line-forming region in photosphere and wind; the observed variability of the differential phases across the line profile gives indications on the dynamics and the geometry of the circumstellar structures of Rigel. A possible link between high-velocity absorptions (HVA) and the observed S-shaped signals in the differential phases is discussed.

  5. Elevated temperature envelope forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gane, David H. (Inventor); Starowski, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature envelope forming includes enclosing a part blank and form tool within an envelope sealed against the atmosphere, heat treating the combination while forming pressure holds the envelope and part against the form tool, and allowing part cool down to occur in an inert atmosphere with forming pressure removed. The forming pressure is provided by evacuating the envelope and may be aided by differential force applied between the envelope and the form tool.

  6. First Circumstellar Disk around a Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    arrow). Earlier observations with radio telescopes of the object G339.88-1.26 , deeply embedded in an interstellar nebula, had been interpreted in terms of the possible existence of a circumstellar disk around a high-mass star. It was concluded that the star responsible for heating the surrounding gas must be very hot and also that it must be intrinsically very bright. The star, most likely of spectral type O9, would have a luminosity 10,000 times higher than that of the Sun and a mass of about 20 times that of the Sun. From the measured velocity, the likely distance of this object is about 10,000 light-years. The object is associated with several "spots" of very strong radio emission from methanol molecules (methanol masers). Interestingly, they form a chain in the sky and the measured velocities of the individual spots are indicative for orbital motion in a rotating disk around the central star. The circumstellar disk ESO PR Photo 22/98 ESO PR Photo 22b/98 [JPEG, 640k] The TIMMI 10 µm image of the inclined dust disk around a hot O9 star at the G339.88-1.26 radio source. The diameter of the disk is of the order of 5 arcsec, i.e. at the most probable distance to the object (10,000 lightyears) it is 20,000 times larger than the diameter of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. The new TIMMI observations of G339.88-1.26 showed an elliptical object with strong infrared radiation. The peak of this radiation (as seen in the sky) coincides with the peak of the radio emission. Furthermore, the apparent orientation of the disk is well aligned with that of the methanol maser "spots". There is little doubt that this object is indeed the infrared image of a circumstellar disk, viewed at an angle. As far as known, this is the first direct image of a disk around a very massive star. At a wavelength of 10 µm, however, the central star that is responsible for heating the dust disc, cannot be seen in spite of its rather high luminosity. This is because it radiates mostly in the ultra

  7. Grand Challenges in Protoplanetary Disc Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Ilee, John D.; Forgan, Duncan H.; Facchini, Stefano; Price, Daniel J.; Boneberg, Dominika M.; Booth, Richard A.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Gonzalez, Jean-François; Hutchison, Mark A.; Kamp, Inga; Laibe, Guillaume; Lyra, Wladimir; Meru, Farzana; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Panić, Olja; Rice, Ken; Suzuki, Takeru; Teague, Richard; Walsh, Catherine; Woitke, Peter; Community authors

    2016-10-01

    The Protoplanetary Discussions conference-held in Edinburgh, UK, from 2016 March 7th-11th-included several open sessions led by participants. This paper reports on the discussions collectively concerned with the multi-physics modelling of protoplanetary discs, including the self-consistent calculation of gas and dust dynamics, radiative transfer, and chemistry. After a short introduction to each of these disciplines in isolation, we identify a series of burning questions and grand challenges associated with their continuing development and integration. We then discuss potential pathways towards solving these challenges, grouped by strategical, technical, and collaborative developments. This paper is not intended to be a review, but rather to motivate and direct future research and collaboration across typically distinct fields based on community-driven input, to encourage further progress in our understanding of circumstellar and protoplanetary discs.

  8. Isothermal Circumstellar Dust Shell Model for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, G.; Towers, I. N.; Jovanoski, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model of radiative transfer in circumstellar dust shells. By assuming that the shell is both isothermal and its thickness is small compared to its radius, the model is simple enough for students to grasp and yet still provides a quantitative description of the relevant physical features. The isothermal model can be used in a…

  9. Rapid disappearance of a warm, dusty circumstellar disk.

    PubMed

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B; Rhee, Joseph H; Song, Inseok; Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2012-07-04

    Stars form with gaseous and dusty circumstellar envelopes, which rapidly settle into disks that eventually give rise to planetary systems. Understanding the process by which these disks evolve is paramount in developing an accurate theory of planet formation that can account for the variety of planetary systems discovered so far. The formation of Earth-like planets through collisional accumulation of rocky objects within a disk has mainly been explored in theoretical and computational work in which post-collision ejecta evolution typically is ignored, although recent work has considered the fate of such material. Here we report observations of a young, Sun-like star (TYC 8241 2652 1) where infrared flux from post-collisional ejecta has decreased drastically, by a factor of about 30, over a period of less than two years. The star seems to have gone from hosting substantial quantities of dusty ejecta, in a region analogous to where the rocky planets orbit in the Solar System, to retaining at most a meagre amount of cooler dust. Such a phase of rapid ejecta evolution has not been previously predicted or observed, and no currently available physical model satisfactorily explains the observations.

  10. ALIGNMENT OF PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS DURING THE EMBEDDED PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, Christopher; Batygin, Konstantin; Adams, Fred C. E-mail: kbatygin@gps.caltech.edu

    2014-12-20

    Star formation proceeds via the collapse of a molecular cloud core over multiple dynamical timescales. Turbulence within cores results in a spatially non-uniform angular momentum of the cloud, causing a stochastic variation in the orientation of the disk forming from the collapsing material. In the absence of star-disk angular momentum coupling, such disk-tilting would provide a natural mechanism for the production of primordial spin-orbit misalignments in the resulting planetary systems. However, owing to high accretion rates in the embedded phase of star formation, the inner edge of the circumstellar disk extends down to the stellar surface, resulting in efficient gravitational and accretional angular momentum transfer between the star and the disk. Here, we demonstrate that the resulting gravitational coupling is sufficient to suppress any significant star-disk misalignment, with accretion playing a secondary role. The joint tilting of the star-disk system leads to a stochastic wandering of star-aligned bipolar outflows. Such wandering widens the effective opening angle of stellar outflows, allowing for more efficient clearing of the remainder of the protostar's gaseous envelope. Accordingly, the processes described in this work provide an additional mechanism responsible for sculpting the stellar initial mass function.

  11. Unifying Type II Supernova Light Curves with Dense Circumstellar Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Piro, Anthony L.; Valenti, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    A longstanding problem in the study of supernovae (SNe) has been the relationship between the Type IIP and Type IIL subclasses. Whether they come from distinct progenitors or they are from similar stars with some property that smoothly transitions from one class to another has been the subject of much debate. Here, using one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic SN models, we show that the multi-band light curves of SNe IIL are well fit by ordinary red supergiants surrounded by dense circumstellar material (CSM). The inferred extent of this material, coupled with a typical wind velocity of ∼ 10{--}100 {km} {{{s}}}-1, suggests enhanced activity by these stars during the last ~months to ∼years of their lives, which may be connected with advanced stages of nuclear burning. Furthermore, we find that, even for more plateau-like SNe, dense CSM provides a better fit to the first ∼ 20 days of their light curves, indicating that the presence of such material may be more widespread than previously appreciated. Here we choose to model the CSM with a wind-like density profile, but it is unclear whether this just generally represents some other mass distribution, such as a recent mass ejection, thick disk, or even inflated envelope material. Better understanding the exact geometry and density distribution of this material will be an important question for future studies.

  12. The circumstellar environment of pre-SN Ia systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, E.; Redman, M. P.; Boumis, P.; Kopsacheili, M.; Akras, S., Sabin, L.; Jurkic, T.

    2016-06-01

    Here we explore the possible preexisting circumstellar debris of supernova type Ia systems. Classical, symbiotic and recurrent novae all accrete onto roughly solar mass white dwarfs from main sequence or Mira type companions and result in thermonuclear runaways and expulsion of the accreted material at high velocity. The expelled material forms a fast moving shell that eventually slows to planetary nebula expansion velocities within several hundred years. All such systems are recurrent and thousands of shells (each of about 0.001 Mo) snow plough into the environment. As these systems involve common envelope binaries the material is distributed in a non-spherical shell. These systems could be progenitors of some SN Ia and thus explode into environments with large amounts of accumulated gas and dust distributed in thin non-spherical shells. Such shells should be observable around 100 years after a SN Ia event in a radio flash as the SN Ia debris meets that of the ejected material of the systems previous incarnation.

  13. Redundant disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barack, W. N.; Domas, P. A.; Beekman, S. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A rotatable disc is described that consists of parallel plates tightly joined together for rotation about a hub. Each plate is provided with several angularly projecting spaced lands. The lands of each plate are interposed in alternating relationship between the lands of the next adjacent plate. In this manner, circumferential displacement of adjacent sectors in any one plate is prevented in the event that a crack develops. Each plate is redundantly sized so that, in event of structural failure of one plate, the remaining plates support a proportionate share of the load of the failed plate. The plates are prevented from separating laterally through the inclusion of generally radially extending splines which are inserted to interlock cooperating, circumferentially adjacent lands.

  14. Herschel Views on Stellar and Circumstellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, Christoffel

    2010-05-01

    We review the first results of Herschel on stellar and circumstellar evolution. - For main-sequence stars, PACS and SPIRE measurements of the debris disks surrounding Vega and Beta Pictoris are presented, revealing the disks with unprecedented spatial resolution at the peaks of their spectral energy distribution. - Through imaging and spectroscopic studies, the mass loss mechanisms and histories during the final stages of stellar evolution are investigated. Imaging of the circumstellar environments of AGB stars enables a detailed discussion of the discontinuous nature of the mass loss processes which induce the final evolution. With their moderately high spectral resolution, PACS and SPIRE reveal spectacularly rich molecular diagnostics on the dynamics of and the chemistry in the environments of objects such as CW Leo and VY CMa.

  15. A photoevaporative gap in the closest planet-forming disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolano, Barbara; Rosotti, Giovanni P.; Picogna, Giovanni; Testi, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    The dispersal of the circum-stellar discs of dust and gas surrounding young low-mass stars has important implications for the formation of planetary systems. Photoevaporation from energetic radiation from the central object is thought to drive the dispersal in the majority of discs, by creating a gap which disconnects the outer from the inner regions of the disc and then disperses the outer disc from the inside-out, while the inner disc keeps draining viscously on to the star. In this Letter, we show that the disc around TW Hya, the closest protoplanetary disc to Earth, may be the first object where a photoevaporative gap has been imaged around the time at which it is being created. Indeed, the detected gap in the Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array images is consistent with the expectations of X-ray photoevaporation models, thus not requiring the presence of a planet. The photoevaporation model is also consistent with a broad range of properties of the TW Hya system, e.g. accretion rate and the location of the gap at the onset of dispersal. We show that the central, unresolved 870 μm continuum source might be produced by free-free emission from the gas and/or residual dust inside the gap.

  16. Modeling sgB[e] Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfürst, P.; Feldmeier, A.; Krtička, J.

    2017-02-01

    During their evolution, massive stars are characterized by a significant loss of mass either via spherically symmetric stellar winds or by aspherical mass-loss mechanisms, namely outflowing equatorial disks. However, the scenario that leads to the formation of a disk or rings of gas and dust around these objects is still under debate. Is it a viscous disk or an ouftlowing disk-forming wind or some other mechanism? It is also unclear how various physical mechanisms that act on the circumstellar environment of the stars affect its shape, density, kinematic, and thermal structure. We assume that the disk-forming mechanism is a viscous transport within an equatorial outflowing disk of a rapidly or even critically rotating star. We study the hydrodynamic and thermal structure of optically thick dense parts of outflowing circumstellar disks that may form around, e.g., Be stars, sgB[e] stars, or Pop III stars. We calculate self-consistent time-dependent models of the inner dense region of the disk that is strongly affected either by irradiation from the central star and by contributions of viscous heating effects. We also simulate the dynamic effects of collision between expanding ejecta of supernovae and circumstellar disks that may be form in sgB[e] stars and, e.g., LBVs or Pop III stars.

  17. Braking down an accreting protostar: disc-locking, disc winds, stellar winds, X-winds and Magnetospheric Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, J.

    2013-09-01

    Classical T Tauri stars are low mass young forming stars that are surrounded by a circumstellar accretion disc from which they gain mass. Despite this accretion and their own contraction that should both lead to their spin up, these stars seem to conserve instead an almost constant rotational period as long as the disc is maintained. Several scenarios have been proposed in the literature in order to explain this puzzling "disc-locking" situation: either deposition in the disc of the stellar angular momentum by the stellar magnetosphere or its ejection through winds, providing thereby an explanation of jets from Young Stellar Objects. In this lecture, these various mechanisms will be critically detailed, from the physics of the star-disc interaction to the launching of self-confined jets (disc winds, stellar winds, X-winds, conical winds). It will be shown that no simple model can account alone for the whole bulk of observational data and that "disc locking" requires a combination of some of them.

  18. THE EFFECTS ON SUPERNOVA SHOCK BREAKOUT AND SWIFT LIGHT CURVES DUE TO THE MASS OF THE HYDROGEN-RICH ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, Amanda J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Even, Wesley; Frey, Lucille H.; Fryer, Chris L.; Young, Patrick A.

    2015-06-01

    Mass loss remains one of the primary uncertainties in stellar evolution. In the most massive stars, mass loss dictates the circumstellar medium and can significantly alter the fate of the star. Mass loss is caused by a variety of wind mechanisms and also through binary interactions. Supernovae (SNe) are excellent probes of this mass loss, both the circumstellar material and the reduced mass of the hydrogen-rich envelope. In this paper, we focus on the effects of reducing the hydrogen-envelope mass on the SN light curve, studying both the shock breakout and peak light-curve emission for a wide variety of mass-loss scenarios. Even though the trends of this mass loss will be masked somewhat by variations caused by different progenitors, explosion energies, and circumstellar media, these trends have significant effects on the SN light curves that should be seen in SN surveys. We conclude with a comparison of our results to a few key observations.

  19. Transition-Metal Oxides in Warm Circumstellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Mirosław R.; Kaminski, Tomasz; Tylenda, Romuald

    2013-06-01

    We report on detections and simulations of electronic bands of transition-metal oxides, i.e. ScO, TiO, VO, CrO, YO, and of AlO, in spectra of two red novae V838 Mon and V4332 Sgr. These objects experienced a stellar merger event in 2002 and 1994, respectively, and have very rich circumstellar environments abundant in dust and molecules. We analyzed optical spectra of V838 Mon which show a presence of outflowing material. In this object, electronic systems of oxides are observed in absorption against a photospheric spectrum which resembles that of a late-type supergiant. We present simulations of the absorption bands which allowed us to derive the excitation temperatures of 300-500 K and constrain column densities, which turned out to be very high. Among many interesting features discovered, we identified forbidden transitions of TiO in the b^1Π-X^3Δ and c^{1}Φ-X^{3}Δ systems, which are seen owing to the high column densities and the relatively low temperatures. In the case of the older red nova V4332 Sgr, the main object is surrounded by a circumstellar disc which is seen almost edge-on and obscures the central star. The molecular spectra are seen in emission in this object, what is very unusual in astrophysical sources observed at optical wavelengths. We show that these emission bands arise owing to the special geometry of the star-disk system and that radiative pumping is responsible for excitation of the molecules. From the shapes of the rotational contours, we derive temperatures of about 120 K in this object. Remarkably, the spectra of V4332 Sgr contain features of CrO, which is the first identified signature of this molecule in an astrophysical object. In addition to the excitation and radiative-transfer analysis of the molecular spectra, we discuss chemical pathways that could lead to the observed variety of metal oxides seen in these enigmatic sources. T. Kaminski, M. Schmidt, R. Tylenda, M. Konacki, and M. Gromadzki ApJSuppl., {182} (33), 2009. T

  20. Circumstellar material around young stars in Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    The star cluster associated with the Orion nebula is one of the richest known. Lying at the nearside of the Orion Molecular cloud and at a distance of about 500 pc from us, it contains many premain-sequence stars with ages of about 300,000 yr. The nebula itself is a blister type, representing a wall of material ionized by the hottest star in the Trapezium group (member C). Although this is not the closest star formation region, it is probably the easiest place to detect circumstellar, possibly proto-planetary, material around these solar mass stars. This is because the same process of photoionization that creates the nebula also photoionizes these circumstellar clouds, thus rendering them easily visible. Moreover, their dust component is made visible by extinction of light from the background nebula. Young stars with circumstellar material were found in Orion on the second set of HST images and were called proplyds, indicating their special nature as circumstellar clouds caused to be luminous by being in or near a gaseous nebula. The brightest objects in the field had previously been seen in the optical and radio, and although their true nature had been hypothesized it was the HST images that made it clear what they are. The forms vary from cometlike when near the Trapezium to elliptical when further away, with the largest being 1000 AU and the bright portions of the smallest, which are found closest to the Trapezium, being about 100 AU in diameter. We now have a second set of HST observations made immediately after the refurbishment mission that provides even greater detail and reveals even more of these objects. About half of all the low-luminosity stars are proplyds. The poster paper describes quantitative tests about their fundamental structure and addresses the question of whether the circumstellar material is a disk or shell. One object (HST 16) is seen only in silhouette against the nebula and is easily resolved into an elliptical form of optical depth

  1. FILAMENTARY STAR FORMATION: OBSERVING THE EVOLUTION TOWARD FLATTENED ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Katherine; Looney, Leslie; Johnstone, Doug; Tobin, John E-mail: lwl@illinois.edu E-mail: jtobin@nrao.edu

    2012-12-20

    Filamentary structures are ubiquitous from large-scale molecular clouds (a few parsecs) to small-scale circumstellar envelopes around Class 0 sources ({approx}1000 AU to {approx}0.1 pc). In particular, recent observations with the Herschel Space Observatory emphasize the importance of large-scale filaments (a few parsecs) and star formation. The small-scale flattened envelopes around Class 0 sources are reminiscent of the large-scale filaments. We propose an observationally derived scenario for filamentary star formation that describes the evolution of filaments as part of the process for formation of cores and circumstellar envelopes. If such a scenario is correct, small-scale filamentary structures (0.1 pc in length) with higher densities embedded in starless cores should exist, although to date almost all the interferometers have failed to observe such structures. We perform synthetic observations of filaments at the prestellar stage by modeling the known Class 0 flattened envelope in L1157 using both the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We show that with reasonable estimates for the column density through the flattened envelope, the CARMA D array at 3 mm wavelengths is not able to detect such filamentary structure, so previous studies would not have detected them. However, the substructures may be detected with the CARMA D+E array at 3 mm and the CARMA E array at 1 mm as a result of more appropriate resolution and sensitivity. ALMA is also capable of detecting the substructures and showing the structures in detail compared to the CARMA results with its unprecedented sensitivity. Such detection will confirm the new proposed paradigm of non-spherical star formation.

  2. Cometary ices in forming protoplanetary disc midplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N.; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Furuya, Kenji; Marboeuf, Ulysse; Thiabaud, Amaury; Harsono, Daniel; Visser, Ruud

    2016-10-01

    Low-mass protostars are the extrasolar analogues of the natal Solar system. Sophisticated physicochemical models are used to simulate the formation of two protoplanetary discs from the initial prestellar phase, one dominated by viscous spreading and the other by pure infall. The results show that the volatile prestellar fingerprint is modified by the chemistry en route into the disc. This holds relatively independent of initial abundances and chemical parameters: physical conditions are more important. The amount of CO2 increases via the grain-surface reaction of OH with CO, which is enhanced by photodissociation of H2O ice. Complex organic molecules are produced during transport through the envelope at the expense of CH3OH ice. Their abundances can be comparable to that of methanol ice (few per cent of water ice) at large disc radii (R > 30 au). Current Class II disc models may be underestimating the complex organic content. Planet population synthesis models may underestimate the amount of CO2 and overestimate CH3OH ices in planetesimals by disregarding chemical processing between the cloud and disc phases. The overall C/O and C/N ratios differ between the gas and solid phases. The two ice ratios show little variation beyond the inner 10 au and both are nearly solar in the case of pure infall, but both are subsolar when viscous spreading dominates. Chemistry in the protostellar envelope en route to the protoplanetary disc sets the initial volatile and prebiotically significant content of icy planetesimals and cometary bodies. Comets are thus potentially reflecting the provenances of the midplane ices in the solar nebula.

  3. Dynamics of Supernova Remnants with Ejecta and Circumstellar Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondin, M. J.; Featherstone, N.; Borkowski, J. K.; Reynolds, P. S.

    2001-09-01

    Progenitors of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) blow bubbles in the ambient medium and sweep it into shells with their powerful stellar winds. After the explosion, SN ejecta initially collide with the stellar wind, then with the wind-blown bubble, and finally with a dense wind-swept shell. This collision is particularly energetic for SNe whose progenitors lost most of their outer envelopes just prior to explosion: the brightest galactic supernova remnant (SNR), Cas A, is a prime example of such an interaction with the circumstellar medium (CSM). The SN ejecta are far from being smooth for such remnants, because of vigorous turbulence and mixing of heavy-element ejecta immediately after the explosion and subsequent growth of Ni-Fe bubbles powered by the radioactive decay. We study the interaction of ``bubbly'' SN ejecta with a CSM bubble and a swept CSM shell, using hydrodynamical simulations in 2 and 3 dimensions with the VH-1 hydrocode. We compare our simulations with analytic self-similar (Chevalier & Liang 1989) solutions and with our previous simulations of interaction of bubbly ejecta with a uniform ambient medium. When compared with these simulations, the impact of bubbly ejecta with the shell results in a more vigorous turbulence and mixing. Dense and cool ejecta at the boundaries of adjacent bubbles may penetrate the shell, leading to plume-like and ring-like features. We examine whether such an interaction is responsible for the observed morphology of Cas A as seen by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope, and for the different expansion rates seen at X-ray and radio wavelengths.

  4. The impact of SN 1987A with its circumstellar ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Ding; Mccray, Richard; Slavin, Johnathan

    1994-01-01

    The envleope of SN 1987A will strike its circumstellar ring in 12 +/- 3 yr after explosion (A.D. 1999+/-3), the exact time depending weakly on the uncertain density of diffuse gas between the supernova and the ring. The impact will drive a radiative shock into the ring with velocity approximatley 200-400 km s(exp -1). The shocked ring will become a bright optical and ultraviolet emsiison-line source. A bright arc will suddenly appear at the near side of the ring and grow into an entire ring about 11 months later. The luminosities of the brightest lines, H-alpha H-alpha, N v lambda lambda 1238, 1242, and O VI lambda lambda 1032, 1038 will rise rapidly to approxminately 10(exp 36)-10(exp 37) ergs s(exp -1) and remain bright for several years after impact. The emission lines from the shocked ring will have FWHM approximatley 300-600 km s(exp -1) and complex profiles that will depend on position and will be sensitive to the details of the density distribution of gas in the ring. Strong EUV radiation from the shock will photoionize the unshocked ring, causing emission of narrow FWHM equivalent to 15 km s(exp -1) H-alpha, H-beta and (O III) lambda lambda 4959, 5007 lines with luminosities approximatley 10(exp 35) ergs s(exp -1).The EUV radiation will probably cause the nebulosity beyond the ring to become visable again. The EUV radiation may also illuminate the unshocked outer supernova envelope, causing visible emission of broad FWHM equivalent to 10(exp 4) km s(exp -1) H-alpha and H-beta lines.

  5. HD 172555: Detection of 63 micrometers [OI] Emission in a Debris Disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Barrado, D.; Augereau, J. -C.; Thi, W. F.; Roberge, A.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Duchene, G.; Dent, W. R. F.; Lebreton, J.; Mendigutia, I.; Huelamo, N.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Context. HD 172555 is a young A7 star belonging to the Beta Pictoris Moving Group that harbours a debris disc. The Spitzer IRS spectrum of the source showed mid-IR features such as silicates and glassy silica species, indicating the presence of a warm dust component with small grains, which places HD 172555 among the small group of debris discs with such properties. The IRS spectrum also shows a possible emission of SiO gas. Aims. We aim to study the dust distribution in the circumstellar disc of HD 172555 and to asses the presence of gas in the debris disc. Methods. As part of the GASPS Open Time Key Programme, we obtained Herschel-PACS photometric and spectroscopic observations of the source. We analysed PACS observations of HD 172555 and modelled the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) with a modified blackbody and the gas emission with a two-level population model with no collisional de-excitation. Results. We report for the first time the detection of [OI] atomic gas emission at 63.18 micrometers in the HD 172555 circumstellar disc.We detect excesses due to circumstellar dust toward HD 172555 in the three photometric bands of PACS (70, 100, and 160 m). We derive a large dust particle mass of (4.8 plus-minus 0.6)x10(exp -4) Mass compared to Earth and an atomic oxygen mass of 2.5x10(exp -2)R(exp 2) Mass compared to Earth, where R in AU is the separation between the star and the inner disc. Thus, most of the detected mass of the disc is in the gaseous phase.

  6. Balmer line profiles for infalling T Tauri envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1992-01-01

    The possibility that the Balmer emission lines of T Tauri stars arise in infalling envelopes rather than winds is considered. Line profiles for the upper Balmer lines are presented for models with cone geometry, intended to simulate the basic features of magnetospheric accretion from a circumstellar disk. An escape probability treatment is used to determine line source functions in nonspherically symmetric geometry. Thermalization effects are found to produce nearly symmetric H-alpha line profiles at the same time the higher Balmer series lines exhibit inverse P Cygni profiles. The infall models produce centrally peaked emission line wings, in good agreement with observations of many T Tauri stars. It is suggested that the Balmer emission of many T Tauri stars may be produced in an infalling envelope, with blue shifted absorption contributed by an overlying wind. Some of the observed narrow absorption components with small blueshifts may also arise in the accretion column.

  7. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  8. Photometric and polarimetric clues to the circumstellar environment of RY Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manset, N.; Bastien, P.; Ménard, F.; Bertout, C.; Le van Suu, A.; Boivin, L.

    2009-05-01

    Aims: We investigate the stellar and circumstellar properties of the bright southern T Tauri star RY Lup, a G-type star showing type III variability. Methods: We report simultaneous BV polarimetric and UBV photometric observations obtained during 12 consecutive nights on the 1.0 m and 50 cm telescopes of the European Southern Observatory at La Silla. We compare these data to models. Results: The polarization is high (≈3.0%) when the star is faint and red (V ≈ 12.0, B-V ≈ 1.3), and it is low (≈0.5%) when it is bright and bluer (V ≈ 11.0, B-V ≈ 1.1). The photometric and polarimetric variations share a common period of 3.75 d. Irregular light variations, larger at shorter wavelengths, are also superposed on the cyclic variations and may be due to processes different than the one producing the periodic variations. The linear polarization is produced by dust scattering in an asymmetric (flat) circumstellar envelope. The photometric and polarimetric variations can be explained with an almost edge-on circumstellar disk that is warped close to the star, where it interacts with the star's magnetosphere. The inhomogeneous disk matter contained in the warp corotates with the star and partially occults it during part of the rotation period, which explains the dips in luminosity and the accompanying increase in polarization. All the information available on RY Lup is consistent with a system comprising a G8 star surrounded by an edge-on disk, and we find that the mass of RY Lup is M_star/M⊙= 1.71 ± 0.43, while its age is (1.2± 0.4) × 107 {yr}. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory in La Silla, Chile.

  9. The Envelopes of B[e] Supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds as Seen by Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seriacopi, D. B.; Carciofi, A. C.; Magalhães, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    B[e] supergiants (sgB[e]) are rare, massive post-main sequence stars. Their evolutionary status with respect to other objects on the H-R diagram is still unknown. These stars are surrounded by a non-spherically symmetric circumstellar envelope, from which arises a net intrinsic polarization. Therefore, spectropolarimetry is a very useful tool in the study of these objects. Since emission, absorption, and scattering processes are imprinted in the polarized flux, this technique can provide useful information about the circumstellar structure. We present a study of the envelope structure of RMC 82, a sgB[e] in the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on spectropolarimetric data. Our observations were obtained with the 8.2 m VLT/UT1 telescope at the Paranal Observatory (ESO). We analyzed the Balmer line formation loci, and their corresponding physical conditions. The data was modeled by a bimodal wind model of the circumstellar envelope, consisting of a slow, dense equatorial wind and a fast polar wind. The calculations were done with the radiative transfer code HDUST. Our results suggest that this geometry is indeed consistent with the RMC 82 data. Our best fit parameters are an opening angle of the disk of 15° and a total mass loss rate of 1.0×10-5 M⊙ yr-1 sr-1.

  10. Cold CO Gas in the Envelopes of FU Orionis-type Young Eruptive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Csengeri, T.; Henning, Th.; Moór, A.; Güsten, R.

    2017-02-01

    FU Orionis-type objects (FUors) are young stellar objects experiencing large optical outbursts due to highly enhanced accretion from the circumstellar disk onto the star. FUors are often surrounded by massive envelopes, which play a significant role in the outburst mechanism. Conversely, the subsequent eruptions might gradually clear up the obscuring envelope material and drive the protostar on its way to become a disk-only T Tauri star. Here we present an APEX 12CO and 13CO survey of eight southern and equatorial FUors. We measure the mass of the gaseous material surrounding our targets, locate the source of the CO emission, and derive physical parameters for the envelopes and outflows, where detected. Our results support the evolutionary scenario where FUors represent a transition phase from envelope-surrounded protostars to classical T Tauri stars.

  11. The far-infrared behaviour of Herbig Ae/Be discs: Herschel PACS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, N.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Mendigutía, I.; Sandell, G.

    2016-02-01

    Herbig Ae/Be objects are pre-main sequence stars surrounded by gas- and dust-rich circumstellar discs. These objects are in the throes of star and planet formation, and their characterisation informs us of the processes and outcomes of planet formation processes around intermediate mass stars. Here we analyse the spectral energy distributions of disc host stars observed by the Herschel open time key programme "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems". We present Herschel/PACS far-infrared imaging observations of 22 Herbig Ae/Bes and 5 debris discs, combined with ancillary photometry spanning ultraviolet to sub-millimetre wavelengths. From these measurements we determine the diagnostics of disc evolution, along with the total excess, in three regimes spanning near-, mid-, and far-infrared wavelengths. Using appropriate statistical tests, these diagnostics are examined for correlations. We find that the far-infrared flux, where the disc becomes optically thin, is correlated with the millimetre flux, which provides a measure of the total dust mass. The ratio of far-infrared to sub-millimetre flux is found to be greater for targets with discs that are brighter at millimetre wavelengths and that have steeper sub-millimetre slopes. Furthermore, discs with flared geometry have, on average, larger excesses than flat geometry discs. Finally, we estimate the extents of these discs (or provide upper limits) from the observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  12. 1979-1980 eclipse of zeta Aurigae, I. The circumstellar envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.D.

    1981-09-15

    The resonance lines of Mg/sup +/ and C/sup + + +/ have been studied in the spectrum of zeta Aurigae during 1979 and 1980. A model of the K-star wind far from the K star and its interaction with the B star in the system has been derived. The data suggest a mass loss rate from the K star of 2 x 10/sup -8/ M/sub sun/ yr/sup -1/. The rate of accretion by the B star of material from the K supergiant is such that the matter accreted in the course of about 10 years is of the order of the total mass of the photosphere of the B star.

  13. The structure of SN 1987A's outer circumstellar envelope as probed by light echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin; Sugerman, Ben; Lawrence, Stephen; Kunkel, William

    2001-05-01

    We present ground-based and HST images processed by image subtraction to highlight transient reflection nebulae or ``light echoes'' of the maximum light pulse of the explosion of SN 1987A from surrounding material. Along with numerous structures already discussed elsewhere, we have found (in multiple epochs of data) a new feature opposite the SN from the mysterious ``Napoleon's Hat'' which indicates a symmetric structure due to shocks internal to the SN's red supergiant wind and probably caused by the pile-up of gas due to differential velocities within the outflow. We also show how echoes betray the ram pressure distribution of the progenitor mass loss flow. .

  14. Evolution in circumstellar envelopes of Be stars: From disks to rings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivinius, Th.; Baade, D.; Štefl, S.; Maintz, M.

    2001-11-01

    New series of echelle spectra were obtained to study the medium- and long-term evolution of the disks of several Be stars. Subtle variations in the wings of optically thin and thick emission lines suggest that the conventional, static picture of the disk being in quasi-contact with the central star is justified primarily (or perhaps only) after an outburst event. Some weeks to months later, a low-density region seems to develop above the star and slowly grows outwards. A subsequent outburst may later replenish this cavity. In fact, in two stars this more ring-like structure is apparently at times detached far enough from the star to allow for the formation of a secondary inner disk from the ejecta of a later outburst. This behaviour is not necessarily representative of Be stars in general because in the later spectral sub-types, discrete mass loss events have not so far been observed to play a major role. In the light of the apparent life cycle of such disks, a brief discussion is given of the differences in strength and variability between the winds of Be and normal B stars. It seems possible to attribute these differences to matter that was initially in the disk and therefore largely shielded from the stellar radiation, but that during the course of the inner excavation (or even complete distruction) of the disk becomes exposed. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile, ESO proposal No. 64.H-0548 and on observations with the Wendelstein 80-cm and the Ondřejov 2-m telescopes, both equipped with the HEROS spectrograph provided by the Landessternwarte Heidelberg.

  15. HL Tauri and its circumstellar disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M.

    1983-01-01

    New far infrared observations of HL Tau which support the identification of an edge-on disk surrounding the star are presented. A bolometric luminosity for the star of 7.2 solar luminosities and a ratio of infrared to optical luminosity of 630 are indicated. A circumstellar A(V) of about 7.0 mag is produced, consistent with the silicate optical depth to the star. Data on HL Tau's effective temperature and radius and its position on the HR diagram suggest that the star has recently completed its accretion phase and is only 100,000 yr old. The column masses of ice and silicates are combined with the disk dimensions to build a simple model of the disk for comparison with the primitive solar nebula. Estimates of the far-infrared emitting mass provide independent probes of the mass in larger grains around HL Tau.

  16. The Circumstellar Material of Socket Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, Bruce

    Taking advantage of the IUE's spatial resolution capability, we intend to determine the extent and nature of UV emission associated with socket stars. Socket stars are stars in HII regions surrounded by circumstellar material of an unknown nature. The few good-quality IUE data available suggest that the grains along the line of sight to the socket stars may not be typical interstellar grains. However, it is not clear if the grains suggested by the UV spectra are associated with the socket material or foreground material. Observing time is requested to obtain the UV maps, as well as improved spectra of selected socket stars. New IUE spectra will enable us to determine the presence or absence of UV scattering in the sockets, and to model grain sizes and distributions in the socket material.

  17. Spectroscopic Survey of Circumstellar Disks in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Olguin, Lorenzo; Briceno, Cesar

    2013-07-01

    As a second stage of a project focused on characterizing candidate stars bearing a circumstellar disk in Orion, we present a spectroscopic follow-up of a set of about 170 bright stars. The present set of stars was selected by their optical (UBVRI) and infrared behavior in different color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. Observations were carried out at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional located at the Sierra San Pedro Martir in B.C., Mexico and at the Observatorio Guillermo Haro in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. Low-resolution spectra were obtained for all candidates in the sample. Using the SPTCLASS code, we have obtained spectral types and equivalent widths of the Li I 6707 and Halpha lines for each one of the stars. This project is a cornerstone of a large scale survey aimed to obtain stellar parameters in a homogeneous way using spectroscopic data. This work was partially supported by UNAM-PAPIIT grant IN-109311.

  18. The interaction of supernovae with circumstellar bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Liang, Edison P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of a massive star supernova with the shell created by the fast wind from a blue supergiant, either in the main-sequence phase or in a late evolutionary phase. Making a number of idealizations, the general features of shell interaction are described by semianalytical solutions. The expected properties of the supernova and its environment are discussed, and the hydrodynamics of the interaction is described. It is found that, typically, the shock traversal occurs before the energy transfer is significant. Applications of the model to observed objects are considered, with special attention given to the interaction of SN 1987A with its circumstellar shell, which is expected to occur within decades.

  19. COMMON ENVELOPE EVOLUTION LEADING TO SUPERNOVAE WITH DENSE INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, Roger A.

    2012-06-10

    A variety of supernova events, including Type IIn supernovae and ultraluminous supernovae, appear to have lost up to solar masses of their envelopes in tens to hundreds of years leading up to the explosion. In order to explain the close timing of the mass loss and supernova events, we explore the possibility that the mass loss is driven by common envelope evolution of a compact object (neutron star or black hole) in the envelope of a massive star and the supernova is triggered by the inspiral of the compact object to the central core of the companion star. The expected rate of such events is smaller than the observed rate of Type IIn supernovae but the rates may agree within the uncertainties. The mass loss velocity is related to the escape velocity from the common envelope system and is comparable to the observed velocity of hundreds of kilometers per second in Type IIn events. The mass loss is expected to be denser near the equatorial plane of the binary system and there is good evidence that the circumstellar media in Type IIn supernovae are asymmetric. Some of these supernova types show evidence for energies in excess of the canonical 10{sup 51} erg, which might be the result of explosions from rapid accretion onto a compact object through a disk.

  20. Circumstellar water vapour in M-type AGB stars: constraints from H{2}O(1{10}-1{01}) lines obtained with Odin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maercker, M.; Schöier, F. L.; Olofsson, H.; Bergman, P.; Frisk, U.; . Hjalmarson, Å.; Justtanont, K.; Kwok, S.; Larsson, B.; Olberg, M.; Sandqvist, Aa.

    2009-01-01

    Context: A detailed radiative transfer code has been previously used to model circumstellar ortho-{H_2O} line emission towards six M-type asymptotic giant branch stars using Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer data. Collisional and radiative excitation, including the {ν_2=1} state, was considered. Aims: Spectrally resolved circumstellar {H_2O}(1{10}-1{01}) lines have been obtained towards three M-type AGB stars using the Odin satellite. This provides additional strong constraints on the properties of circumstellar {H_2O}, in particular on the chemistry in the stellar atmosphere, and the photodissociation in the outer envelope. Methods: Infrared Space Observatory and Odin satellite {H_2O} line data are used as constraints for radiative transfer models. Special consideration is taken to the spectrally resolved Odin line profiles, and the effect of excitation to the first excited vibrational states of the stretching modes ({ν_1=1} and {ν_3=1}) on the derived abundances is estimated. A non-local, radiative transfer code based on the accelerated lambda iteration formalism is used. A statistical analysis is performed to determine the best-fit models. Results: The {H_2O} abundance estimates are in agreement with previous estimates. The inclusion of the Odin data sets stronger constraints on the size of the {H_2O} envelope. The {H_2O}(1{10}-1{01}) line profiles require a significant reduction in expansion velocity compared to the terminal gas expansion velocity determined in models of CO radio line emission, indicating that the {H_2O} emission lines probe a region where the wind is still being accelerated. Including the {ν_3=1} state significantly lowers the estimated abundances for the low-mass-loss-rate objects. This shows the importance of detailed modelling, in particular the details of the infrared spectrum in the range 3 to 6 μm, to estimate accurate circumstellar {H_2O} abundances. Conclusions: Spectrally resolved circumstellar {H_2O

  1. The photoproduction of circumstellar OH maser shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, P. J.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of OH shells formed from the photodestruction of H2O by ambient UV photons in the thick, expanding envelopes around cool evolved stars is investigated. The properties of the shells are governed mainly by the envelope shielding which in turn is primarily controlled by the mass-loss rate M. The peak OH densities and column densities through the shells are, respectively, slowly decreasing and increasing functions of M. The characteristic radii of the shells also depend on M, increasing from about 4(15) cm for M = 1(-6) solar mass/yr to about 1(17) cm for M = 1(-4) solar mass/yr; this dependence is well matched by recent observational data, and lends support to the OH photoproduction mechanism.

  2. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  3. Porous dust grains in circumstellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchschlager, Florian; Wolf, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the impact of porous dust grains on the structure and observable appearance of circumstellar disks (Kirchschlager & Wolf 2013). Our study is motivated by observations and laboratory studies which indicate that dust grains in various astrophysical environments are porous. In addition, the modeling of the spatial structure and grain size distribution of debris disks reveals that under the assumption of spherical compact grains the resulting minimum grain size is often significantly larger than the blowout size, which might be a hint for porosity. Using the discrete dipole approximation, we compute the optical properties of spherical, porous grains (Draine & Flatau 1994, 2010). Subsequently, we calculate the blowout sizes for various debris disk systems and grain porosities. We find that the blowout size increases with particle porosity and stellar temperature. In addition, the lower dust equilibrium temperature of porous particles results in a shift of the maximum of the thermal reemission of debris disks towards longer wavelengths. For our studies of the impact of dust grain porosity in protoplanetary disks we use the radiative transfer software MC3D, which is based on the Monte-Carlo method and solves the radiative transfer problem self-consistently (Wolf et al. 1999, Wolf 2003). We find that the spectral energy distribution of protoplanetary disks shows significant differences between the cases of porous and compact grains. In particular, the flux in the optical wavelength range is increased for porous grains. Furthermore, the silicate peak at ~9.8 microns exhibits a strong dependence on the degree of grain porosity. We also investigate the temperature distribution in the disk. In the midplane no influence of porosity is detectable, but in the vertical direction minor changes of a few Kelvin are found. To complete our study we outline the differences between the two grain types in maps of the linear polarization. We detect a polarization reversal in

  4. Models of Interacting Supernovae: Understanding the Physics and Probing the Circumstellar Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Edward

    "Interacting supernovae" are poorly understood astronomical events with great potential for expanding our understanding of how stars evolve and die, and could provide important clues about the early formation of large-scale structures such as galaxies in the universe. Interacting supernovae occur when a star explodes within a dense cloud of material shed from the star in the course of its evolution. The resulting violent interaction between the expanding supernova explosion and the cloud of circumstellar material can lead to an enormously bright visual display --- indeed, many of the brightest supernovae ever recorded are thought to arise from circumstellar interaction. In order to understand the properties of the progenitor star and the details of the circumstellar interaction, there is a need for theoretical models of interacting supernovae. These simulated computer spectra can be directly compared to the spectra observed by telescopes. These models allow us to probe the physical circumstances that underlie the observations. The spectra of interacting supernovae are dominated by strong, narrow emission lines of light elements such as hydrogen and helium. These narrow lines give Type IIn supernovae their designation. Similarly, objects of Type Ian, Ibn, Icn, and IIn are somewhat distinct, but are all defined by the narrow emission lines that result from the interaction of their expanding envelopes with their surroundings. The photosphere in these supernovae is formed in the material accreted during the coasting phase, and most of the luminosity has its origin from the conversion of kinetic explosion energy into luminosity. Both thermonuclear (Type Ia) and core-collapse (Types Ib/Ic and II) supernovae may be the inner engine. In fact, several Type IIn supernovae at early times have later been classified as Type Ia, Type Ib/c, or Type II as their spectra reveal more details about the nature of the central explosion. As a result of the dominance of the interaction

  5. Diagnostics of circumstellar grains in geometric models I: structure and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, J. H. P.; Greaves, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of circumstellar dust has been extensively used to diagnose the sizes and compositions of dust grains. We show that variations of SED slope in the long wavelength (submillimetre to radio) regime can be used to diagnose the gross physical nature (and hence origins) of the dust, using simple geometric models that complement the use of detailed simulations. We consider two dust grain types: (i) clustered aggregates of smaller particles (monomers), and (ii) composite grains comprising ferrous inclusions within a silicate matrix. These types are intended to be analogous to fluffy cometary particles and fragments of compacted asteroids, respectively. Our results indicate that clusters of silicate grains produce a smooth SED, while composite grains with FeS inclusions produce an SED that has a pronounced drop at a wavelength an order of magnitude larger than the grain size, and is flatter at long wavelengths. As a test case, we compare the model predictions to flux measurements of the TW Hydrae disc. This SED shows a drop that only occurs in our models of compacted grains with inclusions. Since the TW Hya discs spans approximately 10-40 AU in radius, fluffy particles from comets were perhaps expected, as in the Sun's Kuiper belt.

  6. The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse. II. Diffraction-limited spectro-imaging from 7.76 to 19.50 μm with VLT/VISIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, P.; Perrin, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Ridgway, S. T.; Cami, J.; Haubois, X.; Verhoelst, T.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Mass-loss occurring in red supergiants (RSGs) is a major contributor to the enrichment of the interstellar medium in dust and molecules. The physical mechanism of this mass loss is however relatively poorly known. Betelgeuse is the nearest RSG, and as such a prime object for high angular resolution observations of its surface (by interferometry) and close circumstellar environment. Aims: The goal of our program is to understand how the material expelled from Betelgeuse is transported from its surface to the interstellar medium, and how it evolves chemically in this process. Methods: We obtained diffraction-limited images of Betelgeuse and a calibrator (Aldebaran) in six filters in the N band (7.76 to 12.81 μm) and two filters in the Q band (17.65 and 19.50 μm), using the VLT/VISIR instrument. Results: Our images show a bright, extended and complex circumstellar envelope at all wavelengths. It is particularly prominent longwards of ≈ 9-10 μm, pointing at the presence of O-rich dust, such as silicates or alumina. A partial circular shell is observed between 0.5 and 1.0″ from the star, and could correspond to the inner radius of the dust envelope. Several knots and filamentary structures are identified in the nebula. One of the knots, located at a distance of 0.9″ west of the star, is particularly bright and compact. Conclusions: The circumstellar envelope around Betelgeuse extends at least up to several tens of stellar radii. Its relatively high degree of clumpiness indicates an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of the material lost by the star. Its extension corresponds to an important intermediate scale, where most of the dust is probably formed, between the hot and compact gaseous envelope observed previously in the near infrared and the interstellar medium. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory, under ESO DDT program 286.D-5007(A).

  7. The structure of protoplanetary discs around evolving young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders; Lambrechts, Michiel; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    The formation of planets with gaseous envelopes takes place in protoplanetary accretion discs on time scales of several million years. Small dust particles stick to each other to form pebbles, pebbles concentrate in the turbulent flow to form planetesimals and planetary embryos and grow to planets, which undergo substantial radial migration. All these processes are influenced by the underlying structure of the protoplanetary disc, specifically the profiles of temperature, gas scale height, and density. The commonly used disc structure of the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) is a simple power law in all these quantities. However, protoplanetary disc models with both viscous and stellar heating show several bumps and dips in temperature, scale height, and density caused by transitions in opacity, which are missing in the MMSN model. These play an important role in the formation of planets, since they can act as sweet spots for forming planetesimals via the streaming instability and affect the direction and magnitude of type-I migration. We present 2D simulations of accretion discs that feature radiative cooling and viscous and stellar heating, and they are linked to the observed evolutionary stages of protoplanetary discs and their host stars. These models allow us to identify preferred planetesimal and planet formation regions in the protoplanetary disc as a function of the disc's metallicity, accretion rate, and lifetime. We derive simple fitting formulae that feature all structural characteristics of protoplanetary discs during the evolution of several Myr. These fits are straightforward for applying to modelling any growth stage of planets where detailed knowledge of the underlying disc structure is required. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Disc-protoplanet interaction. Influence of circumprimary radiative discs on self-gravitating protoplanetary bodies in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyergyovits, M.; Eggl, S.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Theis, Ch.

    2014-06-01

    Context. More than 60 planets have been discovered so far in systems that harbour two stars, some of which have binary semi-major axes as small as 20 au. It is well known that the formation of planets in such systems is strongly influenced by the stellar components, since the protoplanetary disc and the particles within are exposed to the gravitational influence of the binary. However, the question on how self-gravitating protoplanetary bodies affect the evolution of a radiative, circumprimary disc is still open. Aims: We present our 2D hydrodynamical GPU-CPU code and study the interaction of several thousands of self-gravitating particles with a viscous and radiative circumprimary disc within a binary star system. To our knowledge this program is the only one at the moment that is capable to handle this many particles and to calculate their influence on each other and on the disc. Methods: We performed hydrodynamical simulations of a circumstellar disc assuming the binary system to be coplanar. Our grid-based staggered mesh code relies on ideas from ZEUS-2D, where we implemented the FARGO algorithm and an additional energy equation for the radiative cooling according to opacity tables. To treat particle motion we used a parallelised version of the precise Bulirsch - Stoer algorithm. Four models in total where computed taking into account (i) only N-body interaction; (ii) N-body and disc interaction; (iii) the influence of computational parameters (especially smoothing) on N-body interaction; and (iv) the influence of a quiet low-eccentricity disc while running model (ii). The impact velocities were measured at two different time intervals and were compared. Results: We show that the combination of disc- and N-body self-gravity can have a significant influence on the orbit evolution of roughly Moon sized protoplanets. Conclusions: Not only gas drag can alter the orbit of particles, but the gravitational influence of the disc can accomplish this as well. The results

  9. TEM studies of a circumstellar rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Amari, Sachiko; Lewis, Roy S.

    1992-01-01

    Reported here is the discovery of crystals of titanium carbide in a grain of silicon carbide which formed as a circumstellar dust particle in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star. Just as in the case of terrestrial rocks, whose assemblage of minerals gives us clues to the composition and conditions of the environment in which they formed, the titanium carbide crystals and their textural relationship to the silicon carbide give us important clues to the nature of the stellar atmosphere in which they formed. From microscopic studies of the relationships between the atomic planes of the silicon carbide and the titanium carbide, we can show that the titanium carbide cannot have existed as already-formed crystals in a gas around which silicon carbide subsequently condensed. An alternative possibility is that both minerals grew quickly and simultaneously from condensing gas in the rapidly cooling and expanding stellar atmosphere. Other microscopic features of the silicon carbide, such as abundant atomic layer disorder and crystal twinning, similarly suggest rapid grain growth. However, another possibility is that the titanium carbide grew inside of the silicon carbide by diffusion of titanium atoms. Our calculations suggest that this scenario is less likely, given the relatively short times (a year or less) for which stellar condensates can be expected to be exposed to temperatures high enough to make diffusion sufficiently rapid.

  10. Circumstellar Hydrodynamics and Spectral Radiation in ALGOLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Dirk Curtis

    1994-01-01

    Algols are the remnants of binary systems that have undergone large scale mass transfer. This dissertation presents the results of the coupling of a hydrodynamical model and a radiative model of the flow of gas from the inner Lagrangian point. The hydrodynamical model is a fully Lagrangian, three-dimensional scheme with a novel treatment of viscosity and an implementation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method to compute pressure gradients. Viscosity is implemented by allowing particles within a specified interaction length to share momentum. The hydrodynamical model includes a provision for computing the self-gravity of the disk material, although it is not used in the present application to Algols. Hydrogen line profiles and equivalent widths computed with a code by Drake and Ulrich are compared with observations of both short and long period Algols. More sophisticated radiative transfer computations are done with the escape probability code of Ko and Kallman which includes the spectral lines of thirteen elements. The locations and velocities of the gas particles, and the viscous heating from the hydro program are supplied to the radiative transfer program, which computes the equilibrium temperature of the gas and generates its emission spectrum. Intrinsic line profiles are assumed to be delta functions and are properly Doppler shifted and summed for gas particles that are not eclipsed by either star. Polarization curves are computed by combining the hydro program with the Wilson-Liou polarization program. Although the results are preliminary, they show that polarization observations show great promise for studying circumstellar matter.

  11. The circumstellar ring of SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransson, Claes; Migotto, Katia; Larsson, Josefin; Pesce, Dominic; Challis, Peter; Chevalier, Roger A.; France, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert P.; Leibundgut, Bruno; Lundqvist, Peter; McCray, Richard; Spyromilio, Jason; Taddia, Francesco; Jerkstrand, Anders; Mattila, Seppo; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Crotts, Arlin; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun S. J.; Sonneborn, George; Sugerman, Ben

    2016-06-01

    The circumstellar ring of supernova 1987A first became visible a few months after the explosion due to photoionisation by the supernova flash. From 1995 hotspots appeared in the ring and their brightness increased nearly exponentially as a result of interaction with the supernova blast wave. Imaging and spectroscopic observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope now show that both the shocked and the unshocked emission components from the ring have been decreasing since ~ 2009. In addition, the most recent images reveal the brightening of new spots outside the ring. These observations indicate that the hotspots are being dissolved by the shocks and that the blast wave is now expanding and interacting with dense clumps beyond the ring. Based on the currently observed decay we predict that the ring will be destroyed by ~ 2025, while the blast wave will reveal the distribution of gas as it expands outside the ring, thus tracing the mass-loss history of the supernova progenitor.

  12. A database of circumstellar OH masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, D.; Bunzel, F.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new database of circumstellar OH masers at 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz in the Milky Way galaxy. The database (version 2.4) contains 13 655 observations and 2341 different stars detected in at least one transition. Detections at 1612 MHz are considered to be complete until the end of 2014 as long as they were published in refereed papers. Detections of the main lines (1665 and 1667 MHz) and non-detections in all transitions are included only if published after 1983. The database contains flux densities and velocities of the two strongest maser peaks, the expansion velocity of the shell, and the radial velocity of the star. Links are provided for about 100 stars (<5% of all stars with OH masers) to interferometric observations and monitoring programs of the maser emission published since their beginnings in the 1970s. Access to the database is possible over the Web (http://www.hs.uni-hamburg.de/maserdb), allowing cone searches for individual sources and lists of sources. A general search is possible in selected regions of the sky and by defining ranges of flux densities and/or velocities. Alternative ways to access the data are via the German Virtual Observatory and the CDS. The data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/A68

  13. An MCMC Circumstellar Disks Modeling Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Schuyler; Perrin, Marshall D.; Mazoyer, Johan; Choquet, Elodie; Soummer, Remi; Ren, Bin; Pueyo, Laurent; Debes, John H.; Duchene, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe; Menard, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We present an enhanced software framework for the Monte Carlo Markov Chain modeling of circumstellar disk observations, including spectral energy distributions and multi wavelength images from a variety of instruments (e.g. GPI, NICI, HST, WFIRST). The goal is to self-consistently and simultaneously fit a wide variety of observables in order to place constraints on the physical properties of a given disk, while also rigorously assessing the uncertainties in the derived properties. This modular code is designed to work with a collection of existing modeling tools, ranging from simple scripts to define the geometry for optically thin debris disks, to full radiative transfer modeling of complex grain structures in protoplanetary disks (using the MCFOST radiative transfer modeling code). The MCMC chain relies on direct chi squared comparison of model images/spectra to observations. We will include a discussion of how best to weight different observations in the modeling of a single disk and how to incorporate forward modeling from PCA PSF subtraction techniques. The code is open source, python, and available from github. Results for several disks at various evolutionary stages will be discussed.

  14. Pushing the endogenous envelope

    PubMed Central

    Henzy, Jamie E.; Johnson, Welkin E.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of retroviral envelope glycoproteins characterized to date are typical of type I viral fusion proteins, having a receptor binding subunit associated with a fusion subunit. The fusion subunits of lentiviruses and alpha-, beta-, delta- and gammaretroviruses have a very conserved domain organization and conserved features of secondary structure, making them suitable for phylogenetic analyses. Such analyses, along with sequence comparisons, reveal evidence of numerous recombination events in which retroviruses have acquired envelope glycoproteins from heterologous sequences. Thus, the envelope gene (env) can have a history separate from that of the polymerase gene (pol), which is the most commonly used gene in phylogenetic analyses of retroviruses. Focusing on the fusion subunits of the genera listed above, we describe three distinct types of retroviral envelope glycoproteins, which we refer to as gamma-type, avian gamma-type and beta-type. By tracing these types within the ‘fossil record’ provided by endogenous retroviruses, we show that they have surprisingly distinct evolutionary histories and dynamics, with important implications for cross-species transmissions and the generation of novel lineages. These findings validate the utility of env sequences in contributing phylogenetic signal that enlarges our understanding of retrovirus evolution. PMID:23938755

  15. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Circumstellar debris discs (Maldonado+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Eiroa, C.; Villaver, E.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.

    2015-09-01

    The high-resolution spectra used in this work come from several spectrographs and telescopes and have already been used in some of our previous works (Maldonado et al., 2010, Cat. J/A+A/521/A12, 2012, Cat. J/A+A/541/A40, 2013, Cat. J/A+A/554/A84; Martinez-Arnaiz et al., 2010, Cat. J/A+A/520/A79), which can be consulted for details concerning the observing runs and the reduction procedure. Summarising, the data were taken with the following instruments: i) FOCES at the 2.2-m telescope of the Calar Alto observatory (CAHA, Almeria, Spain); ii) SARG at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG, 3.58m), La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain); iii) FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT, 2.56m), La Palma; and iv) HERMES at the Mercator telescope (1.2m), also in La Palma. We used additional spectra from the public library "S4N" (Allende Prieto et al., 2004, Cat. J/A+A/420/183), which contains spectra taken with the 2d coude spectrograph at McDonald Observatory and the FEROS instrument at the ESO 1.52m telescope in La Silla; from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility (http://archive.eso.org/cms/); and from the pipeline processed FEROS and HARPS data archive (http://archive.eso.org/wdb/wdb/eso/repro/form). (2 data files).

  17. SiS in Circumstellar Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Wootten, A.; Clegg, R. E. S.

    1985-07-01

    The author has observed the spectrum of SiS toward the Mira variable IRC+10216, and made a detailed model incorporating a radial SiS abundance gradient due to photodissociation by interstellar UV (Sahai, Wootten, and Clegg 1984). The sensitive search for SiS J = 7-6 and J = 6-5 lines in other carbon-rich, oxygen-rich, and S-type envelopes has revealed three new sources, CIT 6, CRL 2688 and IRC+20370, all of which are carbon-rich.

  18. Circumstellar Surroundings of Young Stellar Objectse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, Fabien

    1992-12-01

    The close surroundings of young low mass stars hold a multitude of physical phenomena related to star formation. This thesis presents a set of works on theoretical, experimental, and observational issues connected with these phenomena. After a description of the properties of T Tauri, FU Orionis and Ae/Be Herbig stars, with a particular emphasis on their accretion disks, I study the vertical structure of such disks which results from the radiative transfer and the hydrostatic equilibrium. The energy dissipation comes from both the viscous friction of disk particles accreting onto the star and from the absorption of the stellar radiation. A disk ``chromosphere'' is shown to result from the grazing stellar radiation. In the following I study the possibility of detecting directly the circumstellar features (disk, binarity, planets, jets,...) thanks to the high angular resolution techniques (adaptive optics and interferometry). I then present the prototype of a coronagraph at high spatial resolution that I designed, modelized, built and tested for that kind of observations. Finally I describe the observations of the young stellar system Z Canis Majoris, which I obtained at the diffraction limit of the 3.6 meter ESO telescope in the near infrared. This object is shown to be composed of a binary system in addition to an elongated disk-like structure perpendicular to the known jet and illuminated not by the central source but by the infrared companion. [A copy of this thesis (which is mostly in french) can be obtained in binary mode by ftp. There is a file 'these_malbet.tar' in the directory '/pub/publications/' at the FTP node 'gag.observ-gr.fr (IP 130.190.200.11)'. By doing 'tar -xvf these_malbet.tar', you create a directory 'these_malbet/' where there is a 'readme' which gives all information.

  19. Signatures of Planets in Circumstellar Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro-Martin, A.; Malhotra, R.

    2004-05-01

    In anticipation of Spitzer Space Telescope observations of unresolved debris disks, we are interested in studying how the structure carved by putative planets in circumstellar dust disks affects the shape of the disk's spectral energy distribution (SED), and consequently whether the disk SED can be used to infer the presence of planets. We use the Solar System Kuiper Belt dust disk as a case study to investigate the effects of giant planets on the dynamics of dust originating in an outer belt of planetesimals. Our main results are the following: (1) The trapping of dust particles in orbital resonances with the giant planets creates density structures in the dust disk. With present computational techniques, the equilibrium radial density distribution of dust can be accurately estimated, but the azimuthal structure is not predictable in detail because it depends sensitively on the times of residence in the various resonances; the latter are highly variable and unpredictable owing to the underlying strong chaotic dynamics. (2) The gravitational scattering of dust grains by massive planets launches a "wind'' of large dust grains that may contribute significantly to the clearing of cirumstellar debris in planetary systems; it may also significantly affect the particle size distribution of the local ISM of a planetary system. (3) The SED of a dust disk with embedded Solar-System-like planets is fundamentally different from that of one without planets, the former showing a significant decrease of the mid IR flux due to the clearing of dust from the inner 10 AU due to gravitational scattering by Jupiter and Saturn. We have calculated model SEDs (from 1 to 340 microns) and expected SPITZER colors, arising from different planetary systems consisting of an outer belt of planetesimals (similar to the Kuiper Belt) and a single planet with a mass of 1, 3 and 10 MJup and a semimajor axis of 1, 5 and 30 AU.

  20. The Circumstellar Environments of Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Christine

    The WFIRST-AFTA mission currently includes the provision for a high contrast imaging instrument with a primary goal of discovering new, low mass exoplanets and characterizing their atmospheres. To date, eight exoplanetary systems have been discovered via direct imaging using the current generation of ground-based high-contrast facilities. Five of those systems, including the iconic beta Pictoris and HR 8799 systems, possess infrared excesses, indicative of the presence of circumstellar dust. Detailed studies of dust and gas morphology in the beta Pictoris disk provided the impetus for searching for, and eventually imaging the planet. These studies further suggest that additional planets orbit the star, but are below current detection thresholds. Such systems will be prime targets for WFIRST-AFTA, which will obtain visual spectroscopy of several spectral features from molecules in the exoplanet atmospheres including CH4, H2O, and CO2. We propose to: (1) model the dust in exoplanetary systems with well characterized planets and infrared excesses to better constrain the dust geometry and particle properties; (2) generate synthetic WFIRST-AFTA images of these disks with embedded known and putative planets using point-spread-functions generated by JPL, and run our simulations though a WFIRST-AFTA pipeline; and (3) evaluate the sensitivity of WFIRST-AFTA to known and putative planets that have a range of masses and distances from their host stars. The proposed simulations will also assist the community in understanding how WFIRST-AFTA will contribute to our knowledge of debris disks and the role that minor bodies play in the delivery of water into the terrestrial planet zone. The proposed project is complementary to the efforts currently being carried out by the Science Definition Team (SDT), which focus on simulating planets embedded in tenuous disks, analogous to the Zodiacal dust system in our Solar System, the Earth s resonant dust ring, and the HR 4796 dust ring

  1. Sparse aperture masking interferometry survey of transitional discs. Search for substellar-mass companions and asymmetries in their parent discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, M.; Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Monnier, J. D.; Ireland, M.; Aarnio, A.; Sitko, M. L.; Calvet, N.; Espaillat, C.; Wilner, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Transitional discs are a class of circumstellar discs around young stars with extensive clearing of dusty material within their inner regions on 10s of au scales. One of the primary candidates for this kind of clearing is the formation of planet(s) within the disc that then accrete or clear their immediate area as they migrate through the disc. Aims: The goal of this survey was to search for asymmetries in the brightness distribution around a selection of transitional disc targets. We then aimed to determine whether these asymmetries trace dynamically-induced structures in the disc or the gap-opening planets themselves. Methods: Our sample included eight transitional discs. Using the Keck/NIRC2 instrument we utilised the Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) interferometry technique to search for asymmetries indicative of ongoing planet formation. We searched for close-in companions using both model fitting and interferometric image reconstruction techniques. Using simulated data, we derived diagnostics that helped us to distinguish between point sources and extended asymmetric disc emission. In addition, we investigated the degeneracy between the contrast and separation that appear for marginally resolved companions. Results: We found FP Tau to contain a previously unseen disc wall, and DM Tau, LkHα330, and TW Hya to contain an asymmetric signal indicative of point source-like emission. We placed upper limits on the contrast of a companion in RXJ 1842.9-3532 and V2246 Oph. We ruled the asymmetry signal in RXJ 1615.3-3255 and V2062 Oph to be false positives. In the cases where our data indicated a potential companion we computed estimates for the value of McṀc and found values in the range of . Conclusions: We found significant asymmetries in four targets. Of these, three were consistent with companions. We resolved a previously unseen gap in the disc of FP Tau extending inwards from approximately 10 au. Based on observations made with the Keck observatory

  2. The Interaction of Supernovae with Their Circumstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippenko, Alex

    1995-07-01

    The interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with circumstellar material supplied by the wind of the evolved progenitor star can sometimes provide enough energy to sustain the SN luminosity for several decades. Existing observations of certain Type II SNe strongly favor such an interpretation over other possible late-time energy sources. Some peculiar SNe II have such dense circumstellar winds that interaction with the ejecta substantially alters their observed properties even at early times. The UV spectrum is a powerful diagnostic for probing the conditions in the shocked outer ejecta and circumstellar gas. We propose to observe two old SNe (t = 7- 15 years) which, due to their extensive radio and optical data records, are particularly well suited for an investigation of the interaction between ejecta and circumstellar gas. We will also observe one of the most recent SNe II (SN 1994Y), which shows strong evidence for very early interaction with its circumstellar medium. The fluxes and intensity ratios of UV emission lines measured in FOS spectra will be used to test theoretical models of the interaction. HST observations of these objects will shed light on differences among them and their shocks, as well as on the mass-loss histories of their progenitor stars.

  3. The highly varying circumstellar debris disk of HD 183324

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry; Montgomery, Sharon Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The 140 Myr-old A0IV-type star HD 183324 possesses many of the same physical characteristics as the stars Beta Pictoris and 49 Ceti, whose circumstellar gas and dust disks are the two best-studied debris disk systems. Here, we compare spectral observations of HD 183324 collected (and archived) in 2009 and 2010 to similarly high-resolution spectral observations of HD 183324 that we collected in 2013. An inspection of these spectra (recorded at visible wavelengths) reveals a remarkably high level of variable circumstellar absorption activity around the star. Such behavior is typical of a stellar system in which gas and dust is being sporadically added to a circumstellar disk due to the evaporation of planetesimal-like objects (“exocomets”) as they fall towards the central star. We present spectral data that show levels of absorption variability of greater than 100% in both the circumstellar CaII-K (3933Å) and FeI (3860Å) line profiles as measured throughout the 5-year period of observations. Such high levels of circumstellar absorption variability may be indicative of an as-yet undetected exoplanet, whose gravitational forces are perturbing the planetesimals orbiting HD 183324.

  4. Holographic optical disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gan; An, Xin; Pu, Allen; Psaltis, Demetri; Mok, Fai H.

    1999-11-01

    The holographic disc is a high capacity, disk-based data storage device that can provide the performance for next generation mass data storage needs. With a projected capacity approaching 1 terabit on a single 12 cm platter, the holographic disc has the potential to become a highly efficient storage hardware for data warehousing applications. The high readout rate of holographic disc makes it especially suitable for generating multiple, high bandwidth data streams such as required for network server computers. Multimedia applications such as interactive video and HDTV can also potentially benefit from the high capacity and fast data access of holographic memory.

  5. Modelling the circumstellar medium in RS Ophiuchi and its link to Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, R. A.; Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.

    2016-03-01

    Recent interpretations of narrow, variable absorption lines detected in some Type Ia supernovae suggest that their progenitors are surrounded by dense, circumstellar material. Similar variations detected in the symbiotic recurrent nova system RS Oph, which undergoes thermonuclear outbursts every 20 years, making it an ideal candidate to investigate the origin of these lines. To this end, we present simulations of multiple mass transfer-nova cycles in RS Oph. We find that the quiescent mass transfer produces a dense, equatorial outflow, i.e. concentrated towards the binary orbital plane, and an accretion disc forms around the white dwarf. The interaction of a spherical nova outburst with these aspherical circumstellar structures produces a bipolar outflow, similar to that seen in Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the 2006 outburst. In order to produce an ionization structure that is consistent with observations, a mass-loss rate of 5 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1 from the red giant is required. The simulations also produce a polar accretion flow, which may explain the broad wings of the quiescent H line and hard X-rays. By comparing simulated absorption line profiles to observations of the 2006 outburst, we are able to determine which components arise in the wind and which are due to the novae. We explore the possible behaviour of absorption line profiles as they may appear should a supernova occur in a system like RS Oph. Our models show similarities to supernovae like SN 2006X, but require a high mass-loss rate, dot{M} ˜ 10^{-6}-10-5 M⊙ yr-1, to explain the variability in SN 2006X.

  6. Optically thick envelopes around ULXs powered by accreating neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Ingram, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Magnetized neutron stars power at least some ultra-luminous X-ray sources. The accretion flow in these cases is interrupted at the magnetospheric radius and then reaches the surface of a neutron star following magnetic field lines. Accreting matter moving along magnetic field lines forms the accretion envelope around the central object. We show that, in case of high mass accretion rates ≳ 1019 g s-1 the envelope becomes closed and optically thick, which influences the dynamics of the accretion flow and the observational manifestation of the neutron star hidden behind the envelope. Particularly, the optically thick accretion envelope results in a multi-color black-body spectrum originating from the magnetospheric surface. The spectrum and photon energy flux vary with the viewing angle, which gives rise to pulsations characterized by high pulsed fraction and typically smooth pulse profiles. The reprocessing of radiation due to interaction with the envelope leads to the disappearance of cyclotron scattering features from the spectrum. We speculate that the super-orbital variability of ultra-luminous X-ray sources powered by accreting neutron stars can be attributed to precession of the neutron star due to interaction of magnetic dipole with the accretion disc.

  7. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - IV. Transitional Type Ibn supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Brown, P. J.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Inserra, C.; Taubenberger, S.; Tomasella, L.; Fraser, M.; Rich, D. J.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Cappellaro, E.; Ergon, M.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Harutyunyan, A.; Huang, F.; Kotak, R.; Lipunov, V. M.; Magill, L.; Miluzio, M.; Morrell, N.; Ochner, P.; Smartt, S. J.; Sollerman, J.; Spiro, S.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Turatto, M.; Valenti, S.; Wang, X.; Wright, D. E.; Yurkov, V. V.; Zampieri, L.; Zhang, T.

    2015-05-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared data of the Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) 2010al and 2011hw. SN 2010al reaches an absolute magnitude at peak of MR = -18.86 ± 0.21. Its early light curve shows similarities with normal SNe Ib, with a rise to maximum slower than most SNe Ibn. The spectra are dominated by a blue continuum at early stages, with narrow P-Cygni He I lines indicating the presence of a slow-moving, He-rich circumstellar medium. At later epochs, the spectra well match those of the prototypical SN Ibn 2006jc, although the broader lines suggest that a significant amount of He was still present in the stellar envelope at the time of the explosion. SN 2011hw is somewhat different. It was discovered after the first maximum, but the light curve shows a double peak. The absolute magnitude at discovery is similar to that of the second peak (MR = -18.59 ± 0.25), and slightly fainter than the average of SNe Ibn. Though the spectra of SN 2011hw are similar to those of SN 2006jc, coronal lines and narrow Balmer lines are clearly detected. This indicates substantial interaction of the SN ejecta with He-rich, but not H-free, circumstellar material. The spectra of SN 2011hw suggest that it is a transitional SN Ibn/IIn event similar to SN 2005la. While for SN 2010al the spectrophotometric evolution favours a H-deprived Wolf-Rayet progenitor (of WN-type), we agree with the conclusion of Smith et al. that the precursor of SN 2011hw was likely in transition from a luminous blue variable to an early Wolf-Rayet (Ofpe/WN9) stage.

  8. D/H Fractionation in Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, J. E.; Qi, C.; Blake, G. A.

    2000-12-01

    In recent years millimeter-wave interferometers have imaged the gas and dust surrounding over a dozen T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars (see Sargent 1996 in Disks and Outflows from Young Stars, pp. 1-23, for review). These studies demonstrate the potential to improve dramatically our understanding of disk physical and chemical structure, providing unique insights that will ultimately enable a more comprehensive understanding of star and planet formation. In particular, through the comparison of disk properties such as (D/H) fractionation with those of comets and Kuiper belt objects the origin of primitive solar system bodies can be investigated. In this study, 1.3 mm transitions of the deuterated species DCN and HDO were detected toward the T Tauri star LkCa 15 using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array (for previous observations of various molecules toward LkCa 15 see Qi, PhD thesis, 2000). The resulting DCN abundance was compared to that found for HCN and H13CN. The measured intensity ratios of the (DCN/HCN) transitions lead to (D/H) ratios of <0.5, but are clearly influenced by opacity in the HCN 1-0 transition. Observations of the optically thin isotope H13CN, yield an estimated DCN/HCN ratio of ~ 0.01. This value is much larger than the estimated protosolar D/H of ~ 1.6e-5 (Gautier & Morel 1997 A&A 323, L9) and quite close to that observed in dark molecular clouds, 0.01-0.05 (Wooten 1987 Astrochem 120, 311), indicating that the assignment of cometary origin using D/H fractionation is a complicated endeavor. Through the combination of the observations presented here and chemical models of circumstellar material, the temperature dependence of fractionation and enrichment of deuterium through gas-grain surface reactions can be explored. Further, although H2O cannot be observed and thus HDO/H2O was not measured, differences in the morphology of maps of the observed emission from DCN and HDO may shed light on differences in fractionation seen in the

  9. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  10. Signatures of planets in circumstellar debris disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro-Martin, Maria Amaya

    2004-12-01

    Main sequence stars are commonly surrounded by debris disks, composed of cold dust continuously replenished by a reservoir of undetected dust-producing planetesimals. In the outer Solar System, Kuiper Belt (KB) objects produce dust by mutual or interstellar grain collisions. The orbital evolution of KB dust has been numerically modeled. Its equilibrium radial density distribution can be accurately estimated even though there are inherent uncertainties in the prediction of structure, owing to the chaotic dynamics of dust orbital evolution imposed by resonant gravitational perturbations of the planets. The particle size distribution of dust is greatly changed from the distribution at production, as a result of radiation forces and the perturbations of the planets. The contribution of KB dust to the population of interplanetary dust particles collected at Earth may be as low as a few percent. Gravitational scattering by giant planets creates an outflow of large grains. We quantify the characteristics of this large-particle outflow in different planetary architectures, discuss its implications for exo-planetary debris disks, and for the interpretation of in-situ dust detection experiments in space probes traveling in the outer Solar System. These outflows may contribute to the clearing of circumstellar debris in planetary systems, affecting the particle size distribution of their local ISM. In anticipation of future observations of unresolved debris disks with Spitzer , we are interested in studying how the structure carved by planets affects the shape of the disk's spectral energy distribution (SED), and consequently if the SED can be used to infer the presence of planets. We numerically calculate the equilibrium spatial density distributions and SEDs of dust disks originated by an outer belt of planetesimals (35-50 AU) in the presence of different planetary configurations, and for a representative sample of chemical compositions. The dynamical models are needed to

  11. Measurement of the sizes of circumstellar dust shells around evolved stars with high mass loss rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. G.; Knapp, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    The research supported by the NASA ADP contract NAG5-1153 has been completed. The attached paper, which will be submitted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal in January 1992, presents the results of this work. Here is a summary of the project and its results. A set of computer programs was developed to process the raw 60 micron and 100 micron IRAS survey data. The programs were designed to detect faint extended emission surrounding a bright unresolved source. Candidate objects were chosen from a list of red giant stars and young planetary nebulae which have been detected in millimeter/submillimeter lines of CO. Of the 279 stars examined, 55 were resolved at 60 microns. The principle results of the study are given. The average age for the shells surrounding the 9 Mira-type stars which are extended is 6 x 10(exp 4) yr. This suggests that the period during which these stars lose mass lasts for approx 10(exp 5) yr. The oldest shell found surrounds U Ori, and the youngest surrounds Mira itself. Some shells appear to be detached from the central star. This phenomenon is more common among older stars, suggesting that the mass loss becomes more episodic as the star sheds its envelope. Although all 8 stars less distant than 200 pc are resolved in the IRAS 60 micron data, 29 stars within 500 pc were not. These stars probably have younger circumstellar shells than those which were resolved. Almost all the carbon stars with distances of 500 pc or less have resolved shells, while only 1/2 of the oxygen-rich stars do. The resolved carbon star shells also are older on average than the oxygen-rich ones. These facts imply that carbon stars have been losing mass for a longer period, on average, than oxygen-rich red giants. Large circumstellar shells tend to be found at large distances from the galactic plane, confirming that the ISM density limits the size to which a dust shell can grow. Surprisingly, even very large shells seem to be nearly spherical, and do not appear to

  12. Bryan total disc arthroplasty: a replacement disc for cervical disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Markus; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Total disc arthroplasty is a new option in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. Several types of cervical disc prostheses currently challenge the gold-standard discectomy and fusion procedures. This review describes the Bryan Cervical Disc System and presents the Bryan prosthesis, its indications, surgical technique, complications, and outcomes, as given in the literature. PMID:22915917

  13. Erosion of circumstellar particle disks by interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Griffith, Caitlin A.

    1989-01-01

    Circumstellar particle disks appear to be a common phenomenon; however, their properties vary greatly. Models of the evolution of such systems focus on internal mechanisms such as interparticle collisions and Poynting-Robertson drag. Herein it is shown that 'sandblasting' by interstellar dust can be an important and even dominant contributor to the evolution of circumstellar particle disks. Stars spend up to about 3 percent of their main-sequence lifetimes within atomic clouds. Among an IRAS sample of 21 nearby main-sequence A stars, beta Pictoris has the brightest disk; it also possesses the smallest random velocity and therefore the slowest predicted erosion rate.

  14. Synthesis of Organic Matter of Prebiotic Chemistry at the Protoplanetary Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snytnikov, Valeriy; Stoynovskaya, Olga; Rudina, Nina

    pressure inside the disc from tens to hundred atmospheres. We simulated unsteady processes in massive circumstellar discs around YSO class O and I. In the computational experiments, we have shown that at a certain stage of its evolution the circumstellar discs of gas and solids produces local areas of high pressure. According to the classical heterogeneous catalysis, a wide range of organic and prebiotic compounds could have been synthesized in these areas. Can we capture these areas of high pressure synthesis in observation of circumstellar discs? Due to the small sizes of such areas they can be hardly ever resolved even with the modern telescopes such as ALMA. However, we can try to detect their signatures in the disc, since the gas of the disc keep the set of organic synthesis products. The idea is to define the signature of the process using laboratory experiments. Varying gas temperature and pressure in laboratory setup we can carry out the catalytic high pressure syntheses and specify the set of gaseous products. These sets of organic compounds observed in the discs may serve as indicators of the emergence of high-pressure areas of prebiotic chemistry. Thus, there is a special interest to the study of YSO class 0 and I by means of observational astronomy. For these objects, first data on the presence of individual organic compounds in massive hydrogen-helium component of the discs appear. The origin of the organic compounds that are associated with chemical reactions in the discs should be separated from the set of organic compounds of the initial molecular cloud.

  15. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOEpatents

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  16. The excess infrared emission of Herbig Ae/Be stars - Disks or envelopes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Kenyon, Scott J.; Calvet, Nuria

    1993-01-01

    It is suggested that the near-IR emission in many Herbig Ae/Be stars arises in surrounding dusty envelopes, rather than circumstellar disks. It is shown that disks around Ae/Be stars are likely to remain optically thick at the required accretion rates. It is proposed that the IR excesses of many Ae/Be stars originate in surrounding dust nebulae instead of circumstellar disks. It is suggested that the near-IR emission of the envelope is enhanced by the same processes that produce anomalous strong continuum emission at temperatures of about 1000 K in reflection nebulae surrounding hot stars. This near-IR emission could be due to small grains transiently heated by UV photons. The dust envelopes could be associated with the primary star or a nearby companion star. Some Ae/Be stars show evidence for the 3.3-6.3-micron emission features seen in reflection nebulae around hot stars, which lends further support to this suggestion.

  17. Studies of circumstellar shells in AGB stars by multifrequency (sub)mm-VLBI observations of maser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomer, F.; Desmurs, J. F.; Bujarrabal, V.; Baudry, A.; de Vicente, P.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Alcolea, J.; Diaz-Pulido, A.; Gómez, M.

    2017-03-01

    VLBI observations of maser emission are a basic tool to study the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) around evolved stars, mainly around AGB and post-AGB stars. The maser lines of water and silicon monoxide are particularly intense. They provide us with high spatial resolution data on the very inner CSEs around AGB stars, including the pulsating layers previous to grain formation and outer regions where the fast expansion characteristic of such envelopes is already present. The analysis of the pumping mechanism of SiO masers and of the physical conditions in the emitting clumps requires accurate maps of the various lines, which show different excitation requirements. A large observational effort is being done to obtain (quasi-)simultaneous multiline data at the highest spatial resolution, using VLBI techniques, which makes possible to compare the relative distribution of the maser lines. We present the state-of-the-art in the field, and discuss preliminary results of SiO masers observed with the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) which provide a new view into the physics of these AGB envelopes. The participation of ALMA in these VLBI arrays will boost the study of these masers, at higher frequencies.

  18. Collisional modelling of the debris disc around HIP 17439

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüppler, Ch.; Löhne, T.; Krivov, A. V.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.

    2014-07-01

    We present an analysis of the debris disc around the nearby K2 V star HIP 17439. In the context of the Herschel DUNES key programme, the disc was observed and spatially resolved in the far-IR with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments. In a previous study, we assumed that the size and radial distribution of the circumstellar dust are independent power laws. There, several scenarios capable of explaining the observations were suggested after exploring a very broad range of possible model parameters. In this paper, we perform a follow-up in-depth collisional modelling of these scenarios to further distinguish between them. In our models we consider collisions, direct radiation pressure, and drag forces, which are the actual physical processes operating in debris discs. We find that all scenarios discussed in the first paper are physically reasonable and can reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution along with the PACS surface brightness profiles reasonably well. In one model, the dust is produced beyond 120 au in a narrow planetesimal belt and is transported inwards by Poynting-Robertson and stellar wind drag. Good agreement with the observed radial profiles would require stellar winds by about an order of magnitude stronger than the solar value, which is not confirmed - although not ruled out - by observations. Another model consists of two spatially separated planetesimal belts, a warm inner and a cold outer one. This scenario would probably imply the presence of planets clearing the gap between the two components. Finally, we show qualitatively that the observations can be explained by assuming the dust is produced in a single, but broad planetesimal disc with a surface density of solids rising outwards, as expected for an extended disc that experiences a natural inside-out collisional depletion. Prospects of distinguishing between the competing scenarios by future observations are discussed.

  19. Chemical evolution of circumstellar matter around young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    van Dishoeck, E F; Blake, G A

    1995-01-01

    Recent observational studies of the chemical composition of circumstellar matter around both high- and low-mass young stellar objects are reviewed. The molecular abundances are found to be a strong function of evolutionary state, but not of system mass or luminosity. The data are discussed with reference to recent theoretical models.

  20. The origin of thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, Sébastien

    2015-03-01

    Thick discs are defined to be disc-like components with a scale height larger than that of the classical discs. They are ubiquitous (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011a), they are made of mostly old and metal-poor stars and are most easily detected in close to edge-on galaxies. Their origin has been considered mysterious and several formation theories have been proposed: • The thick disc being formed secularly by thin disc stars heated by disc overdensities such as giant molecular clouds or spiral arms (Villumsen 1985, ApJ, 290, 75) and by stars moved outwards from their original orbits by radial migration mechanisms (Schönrich & Binney 2009). • The thick disc being formed by the heating of the thin disc by satellites (Quinn et al. 1993) and the tidal stripping of them (Abadi et al. 2003). • The thick disc being formed fast and already thick at high redshift in an highly unstable disc. Inside that thick disc, a thin disc would form afterwards as suggested by Elemgreen & Elmegreen (2006). • The thick disc being formed originally thick at high redshift by the merger of gas-rich protogalactic fragments and a thin disc forming afterwards within it (Brook et al. 2007). The first mechanism is a secular evolution mechanism. The time-scale of the second one is dependent on the merger history of the main galaxy. In the two last mechanisms, the thick disc forms already thick in a short time-scale at high redshift. Recent Milky Way studies, (see, e.g., Bovy et al. 2012), have shown indications that there is no discontinuity between the thin and the thick disc chemical and kinematic properties. Instead, those studies indicate the presence of a monotonic distribution of disc thicknesses. This would suggest a secular origin for the Milky Way thick disc. Studies in external galaxies (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011b), have shown that low-mass disc galaxies have thick disc relative masses much larger than those found in large-mass galaxies

  1. The first velocity space image of a planetary debris disc orbiting a white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manser, Christopher James

    2015-12-01

    Since the first ESS meeting, dusty debris discs at white dwarfs have been firmly established as signposts of evolved planetary systems. We have identified a small number of systems where the circumstellar dust is accompanied by gas. The emission lines from these gaseous components are tracers of dynamic activity in these remnant planetary environments, and provide unparalleled insight into the formation and evolution of the debris discs, and into the properties of the parent planetesimals.Here we present the twelve years of spectroscopy of the prototypical gas disc at SDSS J1228+1040, revealing a spectacular long-term evolution in the morphology of the emission line profiles. Using Doppler tomography, we constructed an image of the gaseous disc in velocity space, and show that the observations are consistent with the precession of a fixed intensity pattern on a period of 27 ± 3 years. We speculate that the underlying cause of this dynamical activity is either a young, not fully circularised disc, or a perturbation of a previously stable and quiescent disc.

  2. Interaction of Supernova Remnants with a Circumstellar Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarkadas, V. V.

    1995-12-01

    We are studying the interaction of supernova remnants (SNRs) with circumstellar shells, with an emphasis on Type II supernovae (SNe). These supernovae arise from massive progenitor stars (> 8 Msun), which lose mass during their lifetime, primarily in the form of a stellar wind. Often the stellar wind creates a circumstellar bubble surrounded by a dense shell. When the star explodes as a supernova, the resulting shock wave eventually collides with this dense shell. In a recent paper on SN 1987A (Chevalier & Dwarkadas, ApJL, 452, L45) we have shown that from the radio and X-ray emission, one can infer the presence of a high density region interior to the dense circumstellar shell. This can be explained as an HII region photoionized by the flux from the pre-supernova star. Using the Zeus code and assuming spherical symmetry, we have studied the dynamics of the shock wave interacting first with the HII region and then the circumstellar shell in SN 1987A. Collision with the HII region results in a significant deceleration of the shock wave, forming a high-density shocked region that grows with time, and is primarily responsible for the X-ray emission. X-ray emission from the reflected shock may begin to dominate when the forward shock hits the dense circumstellar shell and is considerably slowed down. Simulations are in progress with parameters suited to other remnants such as Cas A and W44. Radio and X-ray images of Cas A show a shell structure, which may result from interaction with a stellar bubble. W44 also shows a double-shell structure that may have been produced by a SN explosion inside a pre-existing wind bubble. The interaction is subject to instabilities that may give rise to filamentary structure.

  3. The Galactic stellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltzing, S.; Bensby, T.

    2008-12-01

    The study of the Milky Way stellar discs in the context of galaxy formation is discussed. In particular, we explore the properties of the Milky Way disc using a new sample of about 550 dwarf stars for which we have recently obtained elemental abundances and ages based on high-resolution spectroscopy. For all the stars we also have full kinematic information as well as information about their stellar orbits. We confirm results from previous studies that the thin and the thick discs have distinct abundance patterns. But we also explore a larger range of orbital parameters than what has been possible in our previous studies. Several new results are presented. We find that stars that reach high above the Galactic plane and have eccentric orbits show remarkably tight abundance trends. This implies that these stars formed out of well-mixed gas that had been homogenized over large volumes. We find some evidence that suggest that the event that most likely caused the heating of this stellar population happened a few billion years ago. Through a simple, kinematic exploration of stars with super-solar [Fe/H], we show that the solar neighbourhood contains metal-rich, high velocity stars that are very likely associated with the thick disc. Additionally, the HR1614 moving group and the Hercules and Arcturus stellar streams are discussed and it is concluded that, probably, a large fraction of the groups and streams so far identified in the disc are the result of evolution and interactions within the stellar disc rather than being dissolved stellar clusters or engulfed dwarf galaxies. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Also based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, Spain, and at the European Southern Observatories on La Silla and Paranal, Chile, Proposals no. 65.L-0019(B), 67.B-0108(B), 69.B-0277.

  4. Setting the stage for circumstellar interaction in core-collapse supernovae. II. Wave-driven mass loss in supernova progenitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shiode, Joshua H.; Quataert, Eliot E-mail: eliot@berkeley.edu

    2014-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) powered by interaction with circumstellar material provide evidence for intense stellar mass loss during the final years before core collapse. We have argued that during and after core neon burning, internal gravity waves excited by core convection can tap into the core fusion power and transport a super-Eddington energy flux out to the stellar envelope, potentially unbinding ∼1 solar mass of material. In this work, we explore the internal conditions of SN progenitors using the MESA one-dimensional stellar evolution code in search of those most susceptible to wave-driven mass loss. We focus on simple, order of magnitude considerations applicable to a wide range of progenitors. Wave-driven mass loss during core neon and oxygen fusion happens preferentially in either lower mass (∼20 solar mass zero-age main sequence) stars or massive, sub-solar metallicity stars. Roughly 20% of the SN progenitors we survey can excite 10{sup 46-48} erg of energy in waves that can potentially drive mass loss within a few months to a decade of core collapse. This energy can generate circumstellar environments with 10{sup –3}-1 solar masses reaching 100 AU before explosion. We predict a correlation between the energy associated with pre-SN mass ejection and the time to core collapse, with the most intense mass loss preferentially occurring closer to core collapse. During silicon burning, wave energy may inflate 10{sup –3}-1 solar masses of the envelope to 10-100 s of solar radii. This suggests that some nominally compact SN progenitors (Type Ibc progenitors) will have a significantly different SN shock breakout signature than traditionally assumed.

  5. Circumstellar Dust Shells: Clues to the Evolution of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    2016-06-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are an exotic group of extremely hydrogen- deficient, carbon-rich supergiants that are known for their spectacular declines in brightness (up to 8 mags) at irregular intervals. Two scenarios are currently competing to explain the origins of these stars. One suggests that RCB stars are the products after a binary white dwarf (WD) system merges. The other takes a single, evolved star and has it undergo a final, helium-shell flash (FF) and becoming a cool giant. Recently, observations of elemental abundances in RCB stars have strongly swung the argument in favor of the WD merger model. The FF scenario has maintained its relevancy by seemingly being the only model able to offer a suitable explanation for one RCB feature that merger model has historically struggled with explaining: the presence of cold, circumstellar dust envelopes which might be fossil planetary nebulae (PNe). In reality, the shells could actually be fossil PNe, material left over from the WD merger, or mass lost during the RCB phase, itself. I will present the results of my dissertation, which is to try and discern the nature and history of the far-IR dust shells around RCB stars to help understand the origin of these enigmatic stars. I will discuss our efforts to determine the mass, size, temperature, and morphology of these diffuse structures surrounding a sample of RCB stars using multi-wavelength observations ranging from the ultraviolet to the submillimeter. These observations have provided unprecedented wavelength coverage for both the central stars and their CSM. They have been examined by eye for morphology and have been used in the construction of maximum-light spectral energy distributions (SEDs). I will present the results of our Monte Carlo radiative transfer of the maximum-light SEDs. Finally, I will highlight our work investigating the HI abundance of the envelope of R Coronae Borealis, itself, using archival 21—cm observations from the Arecibo

  6. Herschel/HIFI⋆ observations of the circumstellar ammonia lines in IRC+10216

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, M. R.; He, J. H.; Szczerba, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Decin, L.; Justtanont, K.; Teyssier, D.; Menten, K. M.; Neufeld, D. A.; Olofsson, H.; Planesas, P.; Marston, A. P.; Sobolev, A. M.; de Koter, A.; Schöier, F. L.

    2016-01-01

    Context A discrepancy exists between the abundance of ammonia (NH3) derived previously for the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of IRC+10216 from far-IR submillimeter rotational lines and that inferred from radio inversion or mid-infrared (MIR) absorption transitions. Aims To address the discrepancy described above, new high-resolution far-infrared (FIR) observations of both ortho- and para-NH3 transitions toward IRC+10216 were obtained with Herschel, with the goal of determining the ammonia abundance and constraining the distribution of NH3 in the envelope of IRC+10216. Methods We used the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) on board Herschel to observe all rotational transitions up to the J = 3 level (three ortho- and six para-NH3 lines). We conducted non-LTE multilevel radiative transfer modelling, including the effects of near-infrared (NIR) radiative pumping through vibrational transitions. The computed emission line profiles are compared with the new HIFI data, the radio inversion transitions, and the MIR absorption lines in the ν2 band taken from the literature. Results We found that NIR pumping is of key importance for understanding the excitation of rotational levels of NH3. The derived NH3 abundances relative to molecular hydrogen were (2.8 ± 0.5) × 10−8 for ortho-NH3 and (3.2−0.6+0.7)×10−8 for para-NH3, consistent with an ortho/para ratio of 1. These values are in a rough agreement with abundances derived from the inversion transitions, as well as with the total abundance of NH3 inferred from the MIR absorption lines. To explain the observed rotational transitions, ammonia must be formed near to the central star at a radius close to the end of the wind acceleration region, but no larger than about 20 stellar radii (1σ confidence level). PMID:28065983

  7. H12CN and H13CN excitation analysis in the circumstellar outflow of R Sculptoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberi, M.; Maercker, M.; De Beck, E.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Olofsson, H.; Danilovich, T.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The 12CO/13CO isotopologue ratio in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars has been extensively used as the tracer of the photospheric 12C/13C ratio. However, spatially-resolved ALMA observations of R Scl, a carbon rich AGB star, have shown that the 12CO/13CO ratio is not consistent over the entire CSE. Hence, it can not necessarily be used as a tracer of the 12C/13C ratio. The most likely hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy between the 12CO/13CO and 12C/13C ratios is CO isotopologue selective photodissociation by UV radiation. Unlike the CO isotopologue ratio, the HCN isotopologue ratio is not affected by UV radiation. Therefore, HCN isotopologue ratios can be used as the tracer of the atomic C ratio in UV irradiated regions. Aims: We aim to present ALMA observations of H13CN(4-3) and APEX observations of H12CN(2-1), H13CN(2-1, 3-2) towards R Scl. These new data, combined with previously published observations, are used to determine abundances, ratio, and the sizes of line-emitting regions of the aforementioned HCN isotopologues. Methods: We have performed a detailed non-LTE excitation analysis of circumstellar H12CN(J = 1-0, 2-1, 3-2, 4-3) and H13CN(J = 2-1, 3-2, 4-3) line emission around R Scl using a radiative transfer code based on the accelerated lambda iteration (ALI) method. The spatial extent of the molecular distribution for both isotopologues is constrained based on the spatially resolved H13CN(4-3) ALMA observations. Results: We find fractional abundances of H12CN/H2 = (5.0 ± 2.0) × 10-5 and H13CN/H2 = (1.9 ± 0.4) × 10-6 in the inner wind (r ≤ (2.0 ± 0.25) ×1015 cm) of R Scl. The derived circumstellar isotopologue ratio of H12CN/H13CN = 26.3 ± 11.9 is consistent with the photospheric ratio of 12C/13C 19 ± 6. Conclusions: We show that the circumstellar H12CN/H13CN ratio traces the photospheric 12C/13C ratio. Hence, contrary to the 12CO/13CO ratio, the H12CN/H13CN ratio is not affected by UV

  8. Fast Moreau envelope computation I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucet, Yves

    2006-11-01

    The present article summarizes the state of the art algorithms to compute the discrete Moreau envelope, and presents a new linear-time algorithm, named NEP for NonExpansive Proximal mapping. Numerical comparisons between the NEP and two existing algorithms: The Linear-time Legendre Transform (LLT) and the Parabolic Envelope (PE) algorithms are performed. Worst-case time complexity, convergence results, and examples are included. The fast Moreau envelope algorithms first factor the Moreau envelope as several one-dimensional transforms and then reduce the brute force quadratic worst-case time complexity to linear time by using either the equivalence with Fast Legendre Transform algorithms, the computation of a lower envelope of parabolas, or, in the convex case, the non expansiveness of the proximal mapping.

  9. Exploring the multifaceted circumstellar environment of the luminous blue variable HR Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, C. S.; Trigilio, C.; Leto, P.; Umana, G.; Ingallinera, A.; Cavallaro, F.; Cerrigone, L.; Agliozzo, C.; Bufano, F.; Riggi, S.; Molinari, S.; Schillirò, F.

    2017-03-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic luminous blue variable HR Carinae, based on new high-resolution mid-infrared (IR) and radio images obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), which have been complemented by far-infrared Herschel-Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) observations and ATCA archive data. The Herschel images reveal the large-scale distribution of the dusty emitting nebula, which extends mainly to the north-east direction, up to 70 arcsec from the central star, and is oriented along the direction of the space motion of the star. In the mid-infrared images, the brightness distribution is characterized by two arc-shaped structures, tracing an inner envelope surrounding the central star more closely. At radio wavelengths, the ionized gas emission lies on the opposite side of the cold dust with respect to the position of the star, as if the ionized front were confined by the surrounding medium in the north-south direction. Comparison with previous data indicates significant changes in the radio nebula morphology and in the mass-loss rate from the central star, which has increased from 6.1 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 in 1994-1995 to 1.17 × 10-5 M⊙ yr-1 in 2014. We investigate possible scenarios that could have generated the complex circumstellar environment revealed by our multiwavelength data.

  10. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, Cesar S.; Salama, Farid E-mail: Farid.Salama@nasa.gov

    2013-09-15

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust.

  11. How do accretion discs break?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  12. Revival of the Jumping Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H-J.

    2009-01-01

    Snap discs made of bimetal have many technical applications as thermostats. Jumping discs are a toy version of such snap discs. Besides giving technical information, we describe physical investigations. We show especially how, through simple measurements and calculations, you can determine the initial speed ([approximately equal to]3.5 m…

  13. Hybrid cervical disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Wu, Jau-Ching; Cheng, Henrich; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2017-01-01

    For patients with multilevel cervical stenosis at nonadjacent segments, one of the traditional approaches has included a multilevel fusion of the abnormal segments as well as the intervening normal segment. In this video we demonstrate an alternative treatment plan with tailored use of a combination of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) with an intervening skipped level. The authors present the case of a 72-year-old woman with myeloradiculopathy and a large disc herniation with facet joint degeneration at C3-4 and bulging disc at C5-6. After nonoperative treatment failed, she underwent a single-level ACDF at C3-4 and single-level arthroplasty at C5-6, which successfully relieved her symptoms. No intervention was performed at the normal intervening C4-5 segment. By using ACDF combined with arthroplasty, the authors have avoided a 3-level fusion for this patient and maintained the range of motion of 2 disc levels. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/OrxcPUBvqLk .

  14. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  15. CIRCUMSTELLAR ABSORPTION IN DOUBLE DETONATION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Ken J.; Guillochon, James; Foley, Ryan J.

    2013-06-20

    Upon formation, degenerate He core white dwarfs are surrounded by a radiative H-rich layer primarily supported by ideal gas pressure. In this Letter, we examine the effect of this H-rich layer on mass transfer in He+C/O double white dwarf binaries that will eventually merge and possibly yield a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in the double detonation scenario. Because its thermal profile and equation of state differ from the underlying He core, the H-rich layer is transferred stably onto the C/O white dwarf prior to the He core's tidal disruption. We find that this material is ejected from the binary system and sweeps up the surrounding interstellar medium hundreds to thousands of years before the SN Ia. The close match between the resulting circumstellar medium profiles and values inferred from recent observations of circumstellar absorption in SNe Ia gives further credence to the resurgent double detonation scenario.

  16. Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Circumstellar Disks of B[e] Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, M.

    2017-02-01

    B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) are emission-line objects, presumably in a short-lived phase in the post-main sequence evolution of massive stars. Their intense infrared excess emission indicates large amounts of warm circumstellar dust. It has long been assumed that the stars possess an aspherical wind consisting of a classical line-driven wind in the polar direction and a dense, slow equatorial wind dubbed outflowing disk. The general properties obtained for these disks are in line with this scenario, although current theories have considerable difficulties reproducing the observed quantities. Therefore, more sophisticated observational constraints are needed. These follow from combined optical and infrared spectroscopic studies, which delivered the surprising result that the circumstellar material of B[e]SGs is concentrated in multiple rings revolving the stars on stable Keplerian orbits. Such a scenario requires new ideas for the formation mechanism where pulsations might play an important role.

  17. Envelope glycoprotein of arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Burri, Dominique J; da Palma, Joel Ramos; Kunz, Stefan; Pasquato, Antonella

    2012-10-17

    Arenaviruses include lethal human pathogens which pose serious public health threats. So far, no FDA approved vaccines are available against arenavirus infections, and therapeutic options are limited, making the identification of novel drug targets for the development of efficacious therapeutics an urgent need. Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the matrix protein Z, and the nucleoprotein NP. A crucial step in the arenavirus life-cycle is the biosynthesis and maturation of the GP precursor (GPC) by cellular signal peptidases and the cellular enzyme Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P) yielding a tripartite mature GP complex formed by GP1/GP2 and a stable signal peptide (SSP). GPC cleavage by SKI-1/S1P is crucial for fusion competence and incorporation of mature GP into nascent budding virion particles. In a first part of our review, we cover basic aspects and newer developments in the biosynthesis of arenavirus GP and its molecular interaction with SKI-1/S1P. A second part will then highlight the potential of SKI-1/S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC as a novel target for therapeutic intervention to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.

  18. Masonry building envelope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullan, Phillip C.

    1993-04-01

    Over the past five years, infrared thermography has proven an effective tool to assist in required inspections on new masonry construction. However, with more thermographers providing this inspection service, establishing a standard for conducting these inspections is imperative. To attempt to standardize these inspections, it is important to understand the nature of the inspection as well as the context in which the inspection is typically conducted. The inspection focuses on evaluating masonry construction for compliance with the design specifications with regard to structural components and thermal performance of the building envelope. The thermal performance of the building includes both the thermal resistance of the material as well as infiltration/exfiltration characteristics. Given that the inspections occur in the 'field' rather than the controlled environment of a laboratory, there are numerous variables to be considered when undertaking this type of inspection. Both weather and site conditions at the time of the inspection can vary greatly. In this paper we will look at the variables encountered during recent inspections. Additionally, the author will present the standard which was employed in collecting this field data. This method is being incorporated into a new standard to be included in the revised version of 'Guidelines for Specifying and Performing Infrared Inspections' developed by the Infraspection Institute.

  19. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, Omari; Griffiths, Dianne

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  20. Shadow of a Large Disc Casts New Light on the Formation of High Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    the disc structure and properties, the astronomers then turned to radio astronomy and carried out molecular line spectroscopy at the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer near Grenoble (France) in April 2003. The astronomers have observed the region in the rotational transitions of the 12CO, 13CO and C18O molecules, and in the adjacent continuum at 3 mm. Velocity resolutions of 0.1 and 0.2 km/s, respectively, were achieved. Dieter Nürnberger, member of the team, sees this as a confirmation: "Our 13CO data obtained with IRAM indicate that the disc/envelope system slowly rotates with its north-western part approaching the observer." Over an extent of 30,800 AU a velocity shift of 1.7 km/s is indeed measured (PR Photo 15c/04). From these observations, adopting standard values for the abundance ratio between the different isotopic carbon monoxide molecules (12CO and 13CO) and for the conversion factor to derive molecular hydrogen densities from the mesured CO intensities, the astronomers were also able to derive a conservative lower limit for the disc mass of 110 solar masses. This is by far the most massive and largest accretion disc ever observed directly around a young massive star. The largest silhouette disc so far is known as 114-426 in Orion and has a diameter of about 1,000 AU; however, its central star is likely a low-mass object rather than a massive protostar. Although there are a small number of candidates for massive young stellar objects (YSOs) some of which are associated with outflows, the largest circumstellar disc hitherto detected around these objects has a diameter of only 130 AU. The bipolar nebula ESO PR Photo 15d/04 ESO PR Photo 15d/04 [Preview - JPEG: 450 x 400 pix - 119k] [Normal - JPEG: 913 x 800 pix - 272k] Caption: PR Photo 15d/04 displays a collection of images of the silhouette disc and, perpendicular to that, the bipolar reflection nebula. These images were obtained in different optical and near-infrared wavebands with different instruments

  1. Observations of chemical processing in the circumstellar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundy, L. G.; McMullin, J. P.; Blake, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution interferometer and single-dish observations of young, deeply embedded stellar systems reveal a complex chemistry in the circumstellar environments of low to intermediate mass stars. Depletions of gas-phase molecules, grain mantle evaporation, and shock interactions actively drive chemical processes in different regions around young stars. We present results for two systems, IRAS 05338-0624 and NCG 1333 IRAS 4, to illustrate the behavior found and to examine the physical processes at work.

  2. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: low-mass protoplanetary discs from a SCUBA-2 census of NGC 1333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, P.; Greaves, J. S.; Scholz, A.; Hatchell, J.; Holland, W. S.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2015-02-01

    NGC 1333 is a 1-2 Myr old cluster of stars in the Perseus molecular cloud. We used 850 μm data from the Gould Belt Survey with SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to measure or place limits on disc masses for 82 Class II sources in this cluster. Eight disc candidates were detected; one is estimated to have mass of about 9 MJup in dust plus gas, while the others host only 2-4 MJup of circumstellar material. None of these discs exceeds the threshold for the `minimum mass solar nebula' (MMSN). This reinforces previous claims that only a small fraction of Class II sources at an age of 1-2 Myr have discs exceeding the MMSN threshold and thus can form a planetary system like our own. However, other regions with similarly low fractions of MMSN discs (IC 348, UpSco, σ Ori) are thought to be older than NGC 1333. Compared with coeval regions, the exceptionally low fraction of massive discs in NGC 1333 cannot easily be explained by the effects of UV radiation or stellar encounters. Our results indicate that additional environmental factors significantly affect disc evolution and the outcome of planet formation by core accretion.

  3. Additional constraints on circumstellar disks in the Trapezium Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, John R.; Prosser, Charles F.; Hartmann, Lee; Mccaughrean, Mark J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss new constraints on the population of compact ionized sources in the Trapezium Cluster thought to arise from the ionization by the central OB stars of circumstellar disks around low-mass pre-main sequence stars. We present new HST Planetary Camera observations of two of these candidate disk sources, resolving extended nebulosity around them. One source shows a small-scale (greater than 100 AU) bow-shock structure, previously seen on larger scales by O'Dell et al. We show that the circumstellar disk model is the most likely one for the majority of sources, although it remains plausible that some of the larger objects could be equilibrium globules. We combine the most complete censuses of compact radio sources and stars in the core region to derive the fraction of the stellar population that may be associated with a circumstellar disk. Our estimate of 25-75 percent is comparable to that found for PMS stars in the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds, indicating that the dense cluster environment of the Trapezium has not drastically reduced the frequency of disks seen around pre-main sequence stars.

  4. Circumstellar Environments of Southern M Dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Michele L.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Winters, Jennifer G.; Recons Team

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results from SIRENS, the Search for InfraRed Excesses around Nearby Stars. Our goal is to characterize the circumstellar environments of the most common and closest stars in the Universe, the ubiquitous red dwarfs. In this phase of the study, we search 1404 southern M dwarfs within 25 parsecs of the Sun, as reported in Winters et. al 2014, using (Johnson-Kron-Cousins) optical, (2MASS) near-infrared, and (WISE) mid-infrared photometry for circumstellar disks and low-mass companions. Several studies have recently used WISE photometry to detect circumstellar disks and companions --- searches around members of the nearby young moving groups, objects with parallaxes from Hipparcos, and many northern M stars in the SDSS. However, no work has yet been done that focuses on the nearest red dwarfs, which account for at least 75% of all stars. This study, a volume-limited search around M dwarfs in the southern sky, includes statistical conclusions applicable to a majority of the stars in the universe, and opens potential gateways to a better understanding of star and planet formation.

  5. On the Crystallization of Small Silica Particles in Circumstellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, M.; Müller, E.; Patzer, B.; Lüttke, M.; Sedlmayr, E.

    Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations have revealed the presence of crystalline silicate dust in circumstellar environments of some evolved stars (e.g. Waters et al. 1996, A&A 315, L361). Molster et al. (2001, A&A 366, 923), for instance, reported the discovery of a carbon-rich AGB star surrounded by a highly crystalline silicate dust shell as indicated by the high resolution ISO-SWS spectrum. However, it is still a matter of debate, whether the presence of crystalline dust is restricted only to certain phases of the stellar evolution (e.g. Kemper et al. 2000, A&A 369, 132). In order to understand the process, which leads to the formation of crystalline structures in circumstellar environments, the microphysical rearrangement of small silica particles is investigated by means of molecular dynamic calculations. The results indicate a dynamic coexistence of `amorphous'-like and symmetrical, `crystalline' structures. Such rearrangement processes depend on the energy transfer to the grain governed by the physical conditions of the astrophysical environment. Therefore, the effect of the degree of crystallinity on optical properties is additionally exemplified by Mie calculations. Some implications regarding the condensation and the mineralogy of silicate dust particles in the circumstellar environments of AGB and post-AGB objects are discussed.

  6. Thermodynamics of giant planet formation: shocking hot surfaces on circumplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Mordasini, C.

    2017-02-01

    The luminosity of young giant planets can inform about their formation and accretion history. The directly imaged planets detected so far are consistent with the `hot-start' scenario of high entropy and luminosity. If nebular gas passes through a shock front before being accreted into a protoplanet, the entropy can be substantially altered. To investigate this, we present high-resolution, three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations of accreting giant planets. The accreted gas is found to fall with supersonic speed in the gap from the circumstellar disc's upper layers on to the surface of the circumplanetary disc and polar region of the protoplanet. There it shocks, creating an extended hot supercritical shock surface. This shock front is optically thick; therefore, it can conceal the planet's intrinsic luminosity beneath. The gas in the vertical influx has high entropy which when passing through the shock front decreases significantly while the gas becomes part of the disc and protoplanet. This shows that circumplanetary discs play a key role in regulating a planet's thermodynamic state. Our simulations furthermore indicate that around the shock surface extended regions of atomic - sometimes ionized - hydrogen develop. Therefore, circumplanetary disc shock surfaces could influence significantly the observational appearance of forming gas giants.

  7. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  8. Biomechanics of Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Palepu, V.; Kodigudla, M.; Goel, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Disc degeneration and associated disorders are among the most debated topics in the orthopedic literature over the past few decades. These may be attributed to interrelated mechanical, biochemical, and environmental factors. The treatment options vary from conservative approaches to surgery, depending on the severity of degeneration and response to conservative therapies. Spinal fusion is considered to be the “gold standard” in surgical methods till date. However, the association of adjacent level degeneration has led to the evolution of motion preservation technologies like spinal arthroplasty and posterior dynamic stabilization systems. These new technologies are aimed to address pain and preserve motion while maintaining a proper load sharing among various spinal elements. This paper provides an elaborative biomechanical review of the technologies aimed to address the disc degeneration and reiterates the point that biomechanical efficacy followed by long-term clinical success will allow these nonfusion technologies as alternatives to fusion, at least in certain patient population. PMID:22745914

  9. Mechanotransduction in intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Cheng, Chao-Min; Chen, Chien-Fu; Lai, Po-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Mechanotransduction plays a critical role in intracellular functioning—it allows cells to translate external physical forces into internal biochemical activities, thereby affecting processes ranging from proliferation and apoptosis to gene expression and protein synthesis in a complex web of interactions and reactions. Accordingly, aberrant mechanotransduction can either lead to, or be a result of, a variety of diseases or degenerative states. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanotransduction in the context of intervertebral discs, with a focus on the latest methods of investigating mechanotransduction and the most recent findings regarding the means and effects of mechanotransduction in healthy and degenerative discs. We also provide some discussion of potential directions for future research and treatments. PMID:25267492

  10. SI-BEARING MOLECULES TOWARD IRC+10216: ALMA UNVEILS THE MOLECULAR ENVELOPE OF CWLEO.

    PubMed

    Prieto, L Velilla; Cernicharo, J; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Agúndez, M; Castro-Carrizo, A; Fonfŕia, J P; Marcelino, N; Zúñiga, J; Requena, A; Bastida, A; Lique, F; Guélin, M

    2015-06-01

    We report the detection of SiS rotational lines in high-vibrational states as well as SiO and SiC2 lines in their ground vibrational state toward IRC+10216 during the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Cycle 0. The spatial distribution of these molecules shows compact emission for SiS and a more extended emission for SiO and SiC2, and also proves the existence of an increase in the SiC2 emission at the outer shells of the circumstellar envelope. We analyze the excitation conditions of the vibrationally excited SiS using the population diagram technique, and we use a large velocity gradient model to compare with the observations. We found moderate discrepancies between the observations and the models that could be explained if SiS lines detected are optically thick. Additionally, the line profiles of the detected rotational lines in the high energy vibrational states show a decreasing linewidth with increasing energy levels. This may be evidence that these lines could be excited only in the inner shells, i.e., the densest and hottest, of the circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216.

  11. SI-BEARING MOLECULES TOWARD IRC+10216: ALMA UNVEILS THE MOLECULAR ENVELOPE OF CWLEO

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, L. Velilla; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana–Lacaci, G.; Agúndez, M.; Castro–Carrizo, A.; Fonfŕia, J. P.; Marcelino, N.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Lique, F.; Guélin, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of SiS rotational lines in high-vibrational states as well as SiO and SiC2 lines in their ground vibrational state toward IRC+10216 during the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Cycle 0. The spatial distribution of these molecules shows compact emission for SiS and a more extended emission for SiO and SiC2, and also proves the existence of an increase in the SiC2 emission at the outer shells of the circumstellar envelope. We analyze the excitation conditions of the vibrationally excited SiS using the population diagram technique, and we use a large velocity gradient model to compare with the observations. We found moderate discrepancies between the observations and the models that could be explained if SiS lines detected are optically thick. Additionally, the line profiles of the detected rotational lines in the high energy vibrational states show a decreasing linewidth with increasing energy levels. This may be evidence that these lines could be excited only in the inner shells, i.e., the densest and hottest, of the circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216. PMID:26688711

  12. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine.

  13. Mechanics of Actuated Disc Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkhoda, Sevda; Detournay, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of an actuated disc cutter with the objective of determining the average forces acting on the disc as a function of the parameters characterizing its motion. The specific problem considered is that of a disc cutter revolving off-centrically at constant angular velocity around a secondary axis rigidly attached to a cartridge, which is moving at constant velocity and undercutting rock at a constant depth. This model represents an idealization of a technology that has been implemented in a number of hard rock mechanical excavators with the goal of reducing the average thrust force to be provided by the excavation equipment. By assuming perfect conformance of the rock with the actuated disc as well as a prescribed motion of the disc (perfectly rigid machine), the evolution of the contact surface between the disc and the rock during one actuation of the disc can be computed. Coupled with simple cutter/rock interaction models that embody either a ductile or a brittle mode of fragmentation, these kinematical considerations lead to an estimate of the average force on the cartridge and of the partitioning of the energy imparted by the disc to the rock between the actuation mechanism of the disc and the translation of the cartridge on which the actuated disc is attached.

  14. Herschel observations of the debris disc around HIP 92043

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. P.; Krivov, A. V.; del Burgo, C.; Eiroa, C.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Ertel, S.; Bryden, G.; Liseau, R.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bayo, A.; Danchi, W.; Löhne, T.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Typical debris discs are composed of particles ranging from several micron sized dust grains to km sized asteroidal bodies, and their infrared emission peaks at wavelengths 60-100 μm. Recent Herschel DUNES observations have identified several debris discs around nearby Sun-like stars (F, G and K spectral type) with significant excess emission only at 160 μm. Aims: We observed HIP 92043 (110 Her, HD 173667) at far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths with Herschel PACS and SPIRE. Identification of the presence of excess emission from HIP 92043 and the origin and physical properties of any excess was undertaken through analysis of its spectral energy distribution (SED) and the PACS images. Methods: The PACS and SPIRE images were produced using the HIPE photProject map maker routine. Fluxes were measured using aperture photometry. A stellar photosphere model was scaled to optical and near infrared photometry and subtracted from the far-infared and sub-mm fluxes to determine the presence of excess emission. Source radial profiles were fitted using a 2D Gaussian and compared to a PSF model based on Herschel observations of α Boo to check for extended emission. Results: Clear excess emission from HIP 92043 was observed at 70 and 100 μm. Marginal excess was observed at 160 and 250 μm. Analysis of the images reveals that the source is extended at 160 μm. A fit to the source SED is inconsistent with a photosphere and single temperature black body. Conclusions: The excess emission from HIP 92043 is consistent with the presence of an unresolved circumstellar debris disc at 70 and 100 μm, with low probability of background contamination. The extended 160 μm emission may be interpreted as an additional cold component to the debris disc or as the result of background contamination along the line of sight. The nature of the 160 μm excess cannot be determined absolutely from the available data, but we favour a debris disc interpretation, drawing parallels with

  15. Rethinking Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg

    Accretion discs are staples of astrophysics. Tapping into the gravitational potential energy of the accreting material, these discs are highly efficient machines that produce copious radiation and extreme outflows. While interesting in their own right, accretion discs also act as tools to study black holes and directly influence the properties of the Universe. Black hole X-ray binaries are fantastic natural laboratories for studying accretion disc physics and black hole phenomena. Among many of the curious behaviors exhibited by these systems are black hole state transitions -- complicated cycles of dramatic brightening and dimming. Using X-ray observations with high temporal cadence, we show that the evolution of the accretion disc spectrum during black hole state transitions can be described by a variable disc atmospheric structure without invoking a radially truncated disc geometry. The accretion disc spectrum can be a powerful diagnostic for measuring black hole spin if the effects of the disc atmosphere on the emergent spectrum are well-understood; however, properties of the disc atmosphere are largely unconstrained. Using statistical methods, we decompose this black hole spin measurement technique and show that modest uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere can lead to erroneous spin measurements. The vertical structure of the disc is difficult to constrain due to our ignorance of the contribution to hydrostatic balance by magnetic fields, which are fundamental to the accretion process. Observations of black hole X-ray binaries and the accretion environments near supermassive black holes provide mounting evidence for strong magnetization. Performing numerical simulations of accretion discs in the shearing box approximation, we impose a net vertical magnetic flux that allows us to effectively control the level of disc magnetization. We study how dynamo activity and the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability depend on the

  16. Heat distribution in disc brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenda, Frantisek; Soukup, Josef; Kampo, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is deals by the thermal analysis of the disc brake with floating caliper. The issue is solved by numerically. The half 2D model is used for solution in program ADINA 8.8. Two brake discs without the ventilation are solved. One disc is made from cast iron and the second is made from stainless steel. Both materials are an isotropic. By acting the pressure force on the brake pads will be pressing the pads to the brake disc. Speed will be reduced (slowing down). On the contact surface generates the heat, which the disc and pads heats. In the next part of article is comparison the maximum temperature at the time of braking. The temperatures of both materials for brake disc (gray cast iron, stainless steel) are compares. The heat flux during braking for the both materials is shown.

  17. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  18. Interpreting the extended emission around three nearby debris disc host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. P.; Kirchschlager, F.; Ertel, S.; Augereau, J.-C.; Kennedy, G. M.; Booth, M.; Wolf, S.; Montesinos, B.; Eiroa, C.; Matthews, B.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Cool debris discs are a relic of the planetesimal formation process around their host star, analogous to the solar system's Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. As such, they can be used as a proxy to probe the origin and formation of planetary systems like our own. Aims: The Herschel open time key programmes "DUst around NEarby Stars" (DUNES) and "Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre" (DEBRIS) observed many nearby, sun-like stars at far-infrared wavelengths seeking to detect and characterize the emission from their circumstellar dust. Excess emission attributable to the presence of dust was identified from around ~20% of stars. Herschel's high angular resolution (~7'' FWHM at 100 μm) provided the capacity for resolving debris belts around nearby stars with radial extents comparable to the solar system (50-100 au). Methods: As part of the DUNES and DEBRIS surveys, we obtained observations of three debris disc stars, HIP 22263 (HD 30495), HIP 62207 (HD 110897), and HIP 72848 (HD 131511), at far-infrared wavelengths with the Herschel PACS instrument. Combining these new images and photometry with ancilliary data from the literature, we undertook simultaneous multi-wavelength modelling of the discs' radial profiles and spectral energy distributions using three different methodologies: single annulus, modified black body, and a radiative transfer code. Results: We present the first far-infrared spatially resolved images of these discs and new single-component debris disc models. We characterize the capacity of the models to reproduce the disc parameters based on marginally resolved emission through analysis of two sets of simulated systems (based on the HIP 22263 and HIP 62207 data) with the noise levels typical of the Herschel images. We find that the input parameter values are recovered well at noise levels attained in the observations presented here.

  19. Detection of circumstellar gas associated with GG Tauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrutskie, M. F.; Snell, R. L.; Strom, K. M.; Strom, S. E.; Edwards, S.; Fukui, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Hayashi, M.; Ohashi, N.

    1993-01-01

    Double-peaked (C-12)O (1-0) emission centered on the young T Tauri star GG Tau possesses a line profile which may be modeled on the assumption that CO emission arises in an extended circumstellar disk. While bounds on the observed gas mass can be estimated on this basis, it is suggested that a large amount of mass could lie within a small and optically thick region, escaping detection due to beam-dilution effects. In addition, CO may no longer accurately trace the gas mass due to its dissociation, or freezing into grains, or due to the locking-up of carbon into more complex molecules.

  20. The discrete nature of circumstellar OH maser emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Philip J.; Fix, John D.

    1990-01-01

    The Arecibo radio telescope was used to obtain high-resolution, high-SNR 1612-MHz observations of seven circumstellar OH maser sources. Each spectrum displays the double-peaked emission line profile characteristics of an expanding shell. The jaggedness of the spectra, which varies from source to source, is consistent with statistical fluctuations in the number of discrete emitting elements contributing at a given velocity. In particular, it is found that the spectra of WX Psc and OH 53.6-0.2 contain narrow, weak, isolated emission features which may arise from individual emitting elements.

  1. UV chromospheric and circumstellar diagnostic features among F supergiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.; Worden, S. P.; Giampapa, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of F supergiant stars to evaluate the extension of chromospheric and circumstellar characteristics commonly observed in the slightly cooler G, K, and M supergiant is discussed. An ultraviolet survey was elected since UV features of Mg II and Fe II might persist in revealing outer atmosphere phenomena even among F supergiants. The encompassed spectral types F0 to G0, and luminosity classes Ib, Ia, and Ia-0. In addition, the usefulness of the emission line width-to-luminosity correlation for the G-M stars in both the Ca II and Mg II lines is examined.

  2. Evidence for dust grain growth in young circumstellar disks.

    PubMed

    Throop, H B; Bally, J; Esposito, L W; McCaughrean, M J

    2001-06-01

    Hundreds of circumstellar disks in the Orion nebula are being rapidly destroyed by the intense ultraviolet radiation produced by nearby bright stars. These young, million-year-old disks may not survive long enough to form planetary systems. Nevertheless, the first stage of planet formation-the growth of dust grains into larger particles-may have begun in these systems. Observational evidence for these large particles in Orion's disks is presented. A model of grain evolution in externally irradiated protoplanetary disks is developed and predicts rapid particle size evolution and sharp outer disk boundaries. We discuss implications for the formation rates of planetary systems.

  3. Preparation of ormetoprim sulfadimethoxine medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Romet (a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a typeA medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine discs were prepared at...

  4. Sizes of protoplanetary discs after star-disc encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslau, Andreas; Steinhausen, Manuel; Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Most stars do not form in isolation, but as part of a star cluster or association. These young stars are initially surrounded by protoplanetary discs. In these cluster environments tidal interactions with other cluster members can alter the disc properties. Besides the disc frequency, its mass, angular momentum, and energy, the disc's size is particularly prone to being changed by a passing star. So far the change in disc size has only been investigated for a small number of very specific encounters. Several studies investigated the effect of the cluster environment on the sizes of planetary systems like our own solar system, based on a generalisation of information from this limited sample. We performed numerical simulations covering the wide parameter space typical of young star clusters, to test the validity of this approach. Here the sizes of discs after encounters are presented, based on a size definition that is comparable to the one used in observational studies. We find that, except for encounters between equal-mass stars, the usually applied estimates are insufficient. They tend to severely overestimate the remaining disc size. We show that the disc size after an encounter can be described by a relatively simple dependence on the periastron distance and the mass ratio of the encounter partners. This knowledge allows us, for example, to pin down the types of encounter possibly responsible for the structure of today's solar system. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Synthetic Spectra and Light Curves of Interacting Binaries and Exoplanets with Circumstellar Material: SHELLSPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budaj, Ján

    2012-04-01

    Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. The Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently, a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. ɛ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed a dark, inclined, disk of dust with a central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks: an internal optically thick disk and an external optically thin disk which absorbs and scatters radiation. Shallow mid-eclipse brightening may result from eclipses by nearly edge-on flared (dusty or gaseous) disks. Mid-eclipse brightening may also be due to strong forward scattering and optical properties of the dust which can have an important effect on the light-curves. There are many similarities between interacting binary stars and transiting extrasolar planets. The reflection effect which is briefly reviewed is one of them. The exact Roche shape and temperature distributions over the surface of all currently known transiting extrasolar planets have been determined. In some cases (HAT-P-32b, WASP-12b, WASP-19b), departures from the spherical shape can reach 7-15%.

  6. METAMORPHOSIS OF SN 2014C: DELAYED INTERACTION BETWEEN A HYDROGEN POOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA AND A NEARBY CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Kamble, A.; Patnaude, D. J.; Raymond, J. C.; Challis, P.; Drout, M. R.; Grindlay, J. E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Miller, G. F.; Parrent, J. T.; Sanders, N. E.; Eldridge, J. J.; Fong, W.; Bietenholz, M.; Chornock, R.; Fransson, C.; Fesen, R. A.; Mackey, J.; and others

    2015-12-20

    We present optical observations of supernova SN 2014C, which underwent an unprecedented slow metamorphosis from H-poor type Ib to H-rich type IIn over the course of one year. The observed spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the supernova having exploded in a cavity before encountering a massive shell of the progenitor star’s stripped hydrogen envelope. Possible origins for the circumstellar shell include a brief Wolf–Rayet fast wind phase that overtook a slower red supergiant wind, eruptive ejection, or confinement of circumstellar material by external influences of neighboring stars. An extended high velocity Hα absorption feature seen in near-maximum light spectra implies that the progenitor star was not completely stripped of hydrogen at the time of core collapse. Archival pre-explosion Subaru Telescope Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of the region obtained in 2009 show a coincident source that is most likely a compact massive star cluster in NGC 7331 that hosted the progenitor system. By comparing the emission properties of the source with stellar population models that incorporate interacting binary stars we estimate the age of the host cluster to be 30–300 Myr, and favor ages closer to 30 Myr in light of relatively strong Hα emission. SN 2014C is the best observed member of a class of core-collapse supernovae that fill the gap between events that interact strongly with dense, nearby environments immediately after explosion and those that never show signs of interaction. Better understanding of the frequency and nature of this intermediate population can contribute valuable information about the poorly understood final stages of stellar evolution.

  7. Metamorphosis of SN 2014C: Delayed Interaction between a Hydrogen Poor Core-collapse Supernova and a Nearby Circumstellar Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Kamble, A.; Patnaude, D. J.; Raymond, J. C.; Eldridge, J. J.; Fong, W.; Bietenholz, M.; Challis, P.; Chornock, R.; Drout, M. R.; Fransson, C.; Fesen, R. A.; Grindlay, J. E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Mackey, J.; Miller, G. F.; Parrent, J. T.; Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Zauderer, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present optical observations of supernova SN 2014C, which underwent an unprecedented slow metamorphosis from H-poor type Ib to H-rich type IIn over the course of one year. The observed spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the supernova having exploded in a cavity before encountering a massive shell of the progenitor star’s stripped hydrogen envelope. Possible origins for the circumstellar shell include a brief Wolf-Rayet fast wind phase that overtook a slower red supergiant wind, eruptive ejection, or confinement of circumstellar material by external influences of neighboring stars. An extended high velocity Hα absorption feature seen in near-maximum light spectra implies that the progenitor star was not completely stripped of hydrogen at the time of core collapse. Archival pre-explosion Subaru Telescope Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of the region obtained in 2009 show a coincident source that is most likely a compact massive star cluster in NGC 7331 that hosted the progenitor system. By comparing the emission properties of the source with stellar population models that incorporate interacting binary stars we estimate the age of the host cluster to be 30-300 Myr, and favor ages closer to 30 Myr in light of relatively strong Hα emission. SN 2014C is the best observed member of a class of core-collapse supernovae that fill the gap between events that interact strongly with dense, nearby environments immediately after explosion and those that never show signs of interaction. Better understanding of the frequency and nature of this intermediate population can contribute valuable information about the poorly understood final stages of stellar evolution.

  8. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of nonmetallic or fabric structures for space application is considered. The following structures are suggested: (1) unpressurized space hangars; (2) extendable tunnels for soft docking; and (3) manned habitat for space stations, storage facilities, and work structures. The uses of the tunnel as a passageway: for personnel and equipment, eliminating extravehicular activity, for access to a control cabin on a space crane and between free flyers and the space station are outlined. The personnal occupied woven envelope robot (POWER) device is shown. The woven envelope (tunnel) acts as part of the boom of a crane. Potential applications of POWER are outlined. Several possible deflection mechanisms and design criteria are determined.

  9. Searching for the Expelled Hydrogen Envelope in Type I Supernovae via Late-Time Hα Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinko, J.; Pooley, D.; Silverman, J. M.; Wheeler, J. C.; Szalai, T.; Kelly, P.; MacQueen, P.; Marion, G. H.; Sárneczky, K.

    2017-03-01

    We report the first results from our long-term observational survey aimed at discovering late-time interaction between the ejecta of hydrogen-poor Type I supernovae (SNe I) and the hydrogen-rich envelope expelled from the progenitor star several decades/centuries before explosion. The expelled envelope, moving with a velocity of ∼10–100 km s‑1, is expected to be caught up by the fast-moving SN ejecta several years/decades after explosion, depending on the history of the mass-loss process acting in the progenitor star prior to explosion. The collision between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar envelope results in net emission in the Balmer lines, especially Hα. We look for signs of late-time Hα emission in older SNe Ia/Ibc/IIb with hydrogen-poor ejecta via narrowband imaging. Continuum-subtracted Hα emission has been detected for 13 point sources: 9 SN Ibc, 1 SN IIb, and 3 SN Ia events. Thirty-eight SN sites were observed on at least two epochs, from which three objects (SN 1985F, SN 2005kl, and SN 2012fh) showed significant temporal variation in the strength of their Hα emission in our Direct Imaging Auxiliary Functions Instrument (DIAFI) data. This suggests that the variable emission is probably not due to nearby H ii regions unassociated with the SN and hence is an important additional hint that ejecta–circumstellar medium interaction may take place in these systems. Moreover, we successfully detected the late-time Hα emission from the Type Ib SN 2014C, which was recently discovered as a strongly interacting SN in various (radio, infrared, optical, and X-ray) bands.

  10. An Optical Study of the Circumstellar Environment Around the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Shull, J. Michael; Hurford, Alan P.

    1997-01-01

    Long-slit spectra of two peripheral regions around the Crab Nebula show no H(alpha) emission down to a flux level of 1.5 x 10(exp -7)erg/sq cm s sr (0.63 Rayleigh), corresponding to an emission measure limit of 4.2 cm(sup - 6) pc (3(sigma)) assuming A(sub V)= 1.6(sup m) and T(sub e)=7000 K. This is below the flux levels reported by Murdin & Clark (Nature, 294, 543 (198 1)) for an H(alpha) halo around the Crab. Narrow H(beta) emission as described by Murdin (MNRAS, 269, 89 (1994)) is detected but appears to be Galactic emission unassociated with the remnant. A review of prior searches indicates no convincing observational evidence to support either a high- or low-velocity envelope around the remnant. Spectral scans confirm a well-organized, N-S expansion asymmetry of the filaments with a approx. 500 km/s central velocity constriction as described by MacAlpine et al. (ApJ, 342, 364 (1989)) and Lawrence et (it. (AJ, 109, 2635 (1995)] but questioned by Hester et al. (ApJ, 448, 240 (1995)). The velocity pinching appears to coincide with an cast-west chain of bright [O III] and helium-rich filaments. This expansion asymmetry might be the result of ejecta interaction with a disk of circumstellar matter, but such a model may be inconsistent with H and He filament abundances in the velocity constriction zone. A re-analysis of the remnant's total mass suggests that the filaments contain 4.6 +/- 1.8 M(solar) in ionized and neutral cas, about twice that of earlier estimates. For a 10M(solar) progenitor, this suggests that approx.equals 4M(solar) remains to be detected in an extended halo or wind.

  11. Attenuation of supersoft X-ray sources by circumstellar material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. T. B.; Gilfanov, M.

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested the possibility of significantly obscuring supersoft X-ray sources in relatively modest amounts of local matter lost from the binaries themselves. If correct, then this would have explained the paucity of observed supersoft X-ray sources and would have significance for the search for single-degenerate Type Ia supernova progenitors. We point out that earlier studies of circumbinary obscuration ignored photoionizations of the gas by the emission from the supersoft X-ray source. We revisit the problem using a full, self-consistent calculation of the ionization state of the circumbinary material photoionized by the radiation of the central source. Our results show that the circumstellar mass-loss rates required for obscuration of supersoft X-ray sources is about an order of magnitude larger than those reported in earlier studies, for comparable model parameters. While this does not entirely rule out the possibility of circumstellar material obscuring supersoft X-ray sources, it makes it unlikely that this effect alone can account for the majority of the missing supersoft X-ray sources. We discuss the observational appearance of hypothetical obscured nuclear-burning white dwarfs and show that they have signatures making them distinct from photoionized nebulae around supersoft X-ray sources imbedded in the low-density interstellar medium.

  12. Far-Infrared Water Line Emissions from Circumstellar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wesley; Neufeld, David A.

    1995-01-01

    We have modeled the far-infrared water line emission expected from circumstellar outflows from oxygen-rich late-type stars, as a function of the mass-loss rate and the terminal outflow velocity. For each mass-loss rate and terminal outflow velocity considered, we computed self-consistently the gas density, temperature, outflow velocity, and water abundance as a function of distance from the star. We then used an escape probability method to solve for the equilibrium level populations of 80 rotational states of water and thereby obtained predictions for the luminosity of a large number of far-infrared rotational transitions of water. In common with previous models, our model predicts that water will be copiously produced in the warm circumstellar gas and that water rotational emission will dominate the radiative cooling. However, our use of a realistic radiative cooling function for water leads to a lower gas temperature than that predicted in previous models. Our predictions for the far-infrared water line luminosities are consequently significantly smaller than those obtained in previous studies. Observations to be carried out by the Infrared Space Observatory will provide a crucial test of the models presented here.

  13. Extreme Carbon Overabundance in the 49 Ceti Circumstellar Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, Aki; Welsh, Barry; Kamp, Inga; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Grady, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    We present analysis of C and O absorption in high-resolution HST-STIS FUV spectra of the nearby A1V star 49 Ceti. This disk system is one of the few showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but harboring relatively abundant molecular gas more characteristic of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. Since the disk is nearly edge-on, the line-of-sight to the central star passes through the disk, permitting sensitive probes of the circumstellar gas with absorption spectroscopy.Our FUV spectra show many narrow circumstellar gas lines arising from several atomic species, including neutral carbon (a gas not seen in the local ISM) and neutral oxygen. We present an estimate of the total carbon column density in the line-of-sight gas and limits on the oxygen column density. Comparing the carbon abundance to a previous measurement of the line-of-sight iron abundance, we see that the carbon is extremely overabundant relative to the solar abundance. A similar overabundance is seen in the Beta Pic disk gas, where the carbon brakes other gases from being rapidly blown out by radiation pressure. The carbon in the 49 Cet gas may play a similar role.

  14. The Complex Circumstellar and Circumbinary Environment of V356 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullard, Andrew; Lomax, Jamie R.; Malatesta, Michael A.; Babler, Brian L.; Bednarski, Daniel; Berdis, Jodi; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Carciofi, Alex C.; Davidson, James W.; Keil, Marcus; Meade, Marilyn; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Scheffler, Matt; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Wisniewski, John P.

    2017-01-01

    The eclipsing, interacting binary star V356 Sgr is a particularly exciting object for analysis due to its probable nonconservative mass loss and the possible progenitor link between Roche-lobe overflow systems and core-collapse supernovae. We present the results of 45 spectropolarimetric observations of V356 Sgr taken over 21 years, which we used to characterize the geometry of the system's circumstellar material. We find that V356 Sgr exhibits a large intrinsic polarization signature arising from electron scattering. The lack of repeatable eclipses in the polarization phase curves indicates the presence of a substantial pool of scatterers not occulted by either star. We suggest that these scatterers form either a circumbinary disk coplanar with the gainer's accretion disk, or an elongated structure perpendicular to the orbital plane of V356 Sgr, possibly formed by bipolar outflows.We also observe small-scale, cycle-to-cycle variations in the magnitude of intrinsic polarization at individual phases. These may indicate a mass transfer or mass loss rate that varies on the time-scale of the system's orbital period. Finally, we present a comparison of V356 Sgr with the well studied beta Lyr system; the significant differences observed between the two systems suggests diversity in the basic circumstellar geometry of Roche-lobe overflow binaries.

  15. B[e] Supergiants' Circumstellar Environment: Disks or Rings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.; Kraus, M.; Aret, A.; Cidale, L.; Arias, M. L.; Borges Fernandes, M.

    2017-02-01

    B[e] supergiants are a phase in the evolution of some massive stars for which we have observational evidence but no predictions by any stellar evolution model. The mass-loss during this phase creates a complex circumstellar environment with atomic, molecular, and dust regions usually found in rings or disk-like structures. However, the detailed structure and the formation of the circumstellar environment are not well-understood, requiring further investigation. To address that we initiated an observing campaign to obtain a homogeneous set of high-resolution spectra in both the optical and NIR (using MPG-ESO/FEROS, GEMINI /Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES, respectively). We monitor a number of Galactic B[e] supergiants, for which we examined the [O I] and [Ca II] emission lines and the bandheads of the CO and SiO molecules to probe the structure and the kinematics of their formation regions. We find that the emission from each tracer forms either in a single or multiple equatorial rings.

  16. Transit probability of precessing circumstellar planets in binaries and exomoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, David. V.

    2017-01-01

    Over two decades of exoplanetology have yielded thousands of discoveries, yet some types of systems are yet to be observed. Circumstellar planets around one star in a binary have been found, but not for tight binaries (≲ 5 AU). Additionally, extra-solar moons are yet to be found. This paper motivates finding both types of three-body system by calculating analytic and numerical probabilities for all transit configurations, accounting for any mutual inclination and orbital precession. The precession and relative three-body motion can increase the transit probability to as high as tens of per cent, and make it inherently time-dependent over a precession period as short as 5-10 yr. Circumstellar planets in such tight binaries present a tempting observational challenge: enhanced transit probabilities but with a quasi-periodic signature that may be difficult to identify. This may help explain their present non-detection, or maybe they simply do not exist. Whilst this paper considers binaries of all orientations, it is demonstrated how eclipsing binaries favourably bias the transit probabilities, sometimes to the point of being guaranteed. Transits of exomoons exhibit a similar behaviour under precession, but unfortunately only have one star to transit rather than two.

  17. Circumstellar Dust in the Remnant of Kepler's Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Blair, W. P.; Borkowski, K. J.; Ghavamian, P.; Long, K. S.; Reynolds, S. P.; Sankrit, R.

    2012-01-01

    Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the remains of the supernova of 1604, is widely believed to be the result of a Type Ia supernova, and shows IR, optical, and X-ray evidence for an interaction of the blast wave with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM). We present low-resolution 7.5-38 μm IR spectra of selected regions within the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Spectra of those regions where the blast wave is encountering circumstellar material show strong features at 10 and 18 μm. These spectral features are most consistent with various silicate particles, likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution. While it is possible that some features may arise from freshly formed ejecta dust, morphological evidence suggests that it is more likely that they originate from dust in the CSM. We isolate the dust grain absorption efficiencies for several regions in Kepler and compare them to laboratory data for dust particles of various compositions. The hottest dust in the remnant originates in the regions of dense, radiatively shocked clumps of gas, identified in optical images. Models of collisionally heated dust show that such shocks are capable of heating grains to temperatures of > 150 K. We confirm the finding that Kepler's SNR is still interacting with CSM in at least part of the remnant after 400 years. The significant quantities of silicate dust are consistent with a relatively massive progenitor.

  18. An energetic stellar outburst accompanied by circumstellar light echoes.

    PubMed

    Bond, Howard E; Henden, Arne; Levay, Zoltan G; Panagia, Nino; Sparks, William B; Starrfield, Sumner; Wagner, R Mark; Corradi, R L M; Munari, U

    2003-03-27

    Some classes of stars, including novae and supernovae, undergo explosive outbursts that eject stellar material into space. In 2002, the previously unknown variable star V838 Monocerotis brightened suddenly by a factor of approximately 10(4). Unlike a supernova or nova, it did not explosively eject its outer layers; rather, it simply expanded to become a cool supergiant with a moderate-velocity stellar wind. Superluminal light echoes were discovered as light from the outburst propagated into the surrounding, pre-existing circumstellar dust. Here we report high-resolution imaging and polarimetry of those light echoes, which allow us to set direct geometric distance limits to the object. At a distance of >6 kpc, V838 Mon at its maximum brightness was temporarily the brightest star in the Milky Way. The presence of the circumstellar dust implies that previous eruptions have occurred, and spectra show it to be a binary system. When combined with the high luminosity and unusual outburst behaviour, these characteristics indicate that V838 Mon represents a hitherto unknown type of stellar outburst, for which we have no completely satisfactory physical explanation.

  19. Variable Circumstellar Disks of Classical Be Stars in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhartz, C.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Wisniewski, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    Circumstellar disks are common among many stars, at most spectral types, and at different stages of their lifetimes. Among the near-main-sequence classical Be stars, there is growing evidence that these disks form, dissipate, and reform on timescales that differ from star to star. Using data obtained with the Large Monolithic Imager (LMI) at the Lowell Observatory Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT), along with additional complementary data obtained at the University of Toledo Ritter Observatory (RO), we have begun a long-term monitoring project of a well-studied set of galactic star clusters that are known to contain Be stars. Our goal is to develop a statistically significant sample of variable circumstellar disk systems over multiple timescales. With a robust multi-epoch study we can determine the relative fraction of Be stars that exhibit disk-loss or disk-renewal phases, and investigate the range of timescales over which these events occur. A larger sample will improve our understanding of the prevalence and nature of the disk variability, and may provide insight about underlying physical mechanisms.

  20. Imaginal disc regeneration takes flight.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Iswar K; Serras, Florenci

    2017-04-01

    Drosophila imaginal discs, the larval precursors of adult structures such as the wing and leg, are capable of regenerating after damage. During the course of regeneration, discs can sometimes generate structures that are appropriate for a different type of disc, a phenomenon termed transdetermination. Until recently, these phenomena were studied by physically fragmenting discs and then transplanting them into the abdomens of adult female flies. This field has experienced a renaissance following the development of genetic ablation systems that can damage precisely defined regions of the disc without the need for surgery. Together with more traditional approaches, these newer methods have generated many novel insights into wound healing, the mechanisms that drive regenerative growth, plasticity during regeneration and systemic effects of tissue damage and regeneration.

  1. A circumstellar molecular gas structure associated with the massive young star Cepheus A-HW 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrelles, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1993-01-01

    We report the detection via VLA-D observations of ammonia of a circumstellar high-density molecular gas structure toward the massive young star related to the object Cepheus A-HW 2, a firm candidate for the powering source of the high-velocity molecular outflow in the region. We suggest that the circumstellar molecular gas structure could be related to the circumstellar disk previously suggested from infrared, H2O, and OH maser observations. We consider as a plausible scenario that the double radio continuum source of HW 2 could represent the ionized inner part of the circumstellar disk, in the same way as proposed to explain the double radio source in L1551. The observed motions in the circumstellar molecular gas can be produced by bound motions (e.g., infall or rotation) around a central mass of about 10-20 solar masses (B0.5 V star or earlier).

  2. Intraoral micro-identification discs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, R W

    1991-12-01

    Intraoral micro-identification discs have recently been utilized to provide a more permanent method of personal identification. A wafer of plastic or metal with a surface area of 2.5 to 5 mm2 and carrying identifying numbers and/or letters (indicia) is bonded to the buccal enamel surface of the posterior teeth. Personal identification can occur after the I.D. disc is identified and the indicia is read. Reading of photoreduced indicia requires the aid of a microscope subsequent to the removal of the microdisc. In situ reading of disc indicia is possible using low power handheld magnifiers if the size of the indicia approximates 0.3 mm. Computerization is an integral part of non-custom alpha/numeric type designs, but a custom disc carries a name, address, and other specific information unique to the manufacturer. The use of a computer improves access to the database and it decreases the amount of data placed on the disc. Microdisc bases may be fabricated using a mylar type plastic or they may be manufactured from a stainless steel blank. Plastic discs are constructed with an internal sandwich containing the photo-reduced indicia. Metal discs are marked with a photochemical etch or engraved with a computer driven YAG laser. Attachment of the disc to the enamel surface is accomplished by conventional etching and bonding techniques and are typically bonded to the buccal surface of the maxillary first permanent molar or the second primary molar. Clear composite bonding material covers the disc so that salivary contamination does not result in degradation of the indicia. Orthodontic style discs with a mesh back carry laser written information that may be cemented with conventional orthodontic bonding cement. Standardization of the indicia and overall design is considered to be an important aspect of patient and professional acceptance.

  3. Millimeter-Wave Observations of Circumstellar 14N/15N and 12C/13C Ratios: New Insights into J-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adande, Gilles; Ziurys, Lucy M.; Woolf, Neville

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of 14N/15N and 12C/13C isotopic ratios have been conducted towards circumstellar envelopes of a sample of evolved stars using the J = 3→2 rotational transitions of the isotopologues of HCN, observed with the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Towards the J-type stars Y CVn and RY Dra, where 12C/13C ~ 3, the 14N/15N ratios were found to be 120-180 and 225, respectively. The 14N/15N ratio is thus anomalously low relative to interstellar values and a factor ~100 lower than equilibrium values predicted from the CNO cycle. Combining these results with previous chemical and isotopic prior observations of these stars, we conclude that two anomalous behaviors are likely to have occurred in Y CVn and RY Dra. First, the stellar envelope failed to participate in the normal mixing seen in low mass red giants, in which C and then O are substantially converted to N. Secondly, both the carbon enrichment and anomalous isotopic composition of both 13C and15N could have been caused by a plume of hot gas, hydrogen poor but enriched in 12C, from a helium flash mixing into the envelope.

  4. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  5. Double-disc gate valve

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, Seth J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to an improvement in a conventional double-disc gate valve having a vertically movable gate assembly including a wedge, spreaders slidably engaged therewtih, a valve disc carried by the spreaders. When the gate assembly is lowered to a selected point in the valve casing, the valve discs are moved transversely outward to close inlet and outlet ports in the casing. The valve includes hold-down means for guiding the disc-and-spreader assemblies as they are moved transversely outward and inward. If such valves are operated at relatively high differential pressures, they sometimes jam during opening. Such jamming has been a problem for many years in gate valves used in gaseous diffusion plants for the separtion of uranium isotopes. The invention is based on the finding that the above-mentioned jamming results when the outlet disc tilts about its horizontal axis in a certain way during opening of the valve. In accordance with the invention, tilting of the outlet disc is maintained at a tolerable value by providing the disc with a rigid downwardly extending member and by providing the casing with a stop for limiting inward arcuate movement of the member to a preselected value during opening of the valve.

  6. The Mineralogy of Circumstellar Silicates Preserved in Cometary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2010-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) contain a record of the building blocks of the solar system including presolar grains, molecular cloud material, and materials formed in the early solar nebula. Cometary IDPs have remained relatively unaltered since their accretion because of the lack of parent body thermal and aqueous alteration. We are using coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ion microprobe studies to establish the origins of the various components within cometary IDPs. Of particular interest is the nature and abundance of presolar silicates in these particles because astronomical observations suggest that crystalline and amorphous silicates are the dominant grain types produced in young main sequence stars and evolved O-rich stars. Five circumstellar grains have been identified including three amorphous silicate grains and two polycrystalline aggregates. All of these grains are between 0.2 and 0.5 micrometers in size. The isotopic compositions of all five presolar silicate grains fall within the range of presolar oxides and silicates, having large (17)O-enrichments and normal (18)O/(16)O ratios (Group 1 grains from AGB and RG stars). The amorphous silicates are chemically heterogeneous and contain nanophase FeNi metal and FeS grains in a Mg-silicate matrix. Two of the amorphous silicate grains are aggregates with subgrains showing variable Mg/Si ratios in chemical maps. The polycrystalline grains show annealed textures (equilibrium grains boundaries, uniform Mg/Fe ratios), and consist of 50-100 nm enstatite and pyrrhotite grains with lesser forsterite. One of the polycrystalline aggregates contains a subgrain of diopside. The polycrystalline aggregates form by subsolidus annealing of amorphous precursors. The bulk compositions of the five grains span a wide range in Mg/Si ratios from 0.4 to 1.2 (avg. 0.86). The average Fe/Si (0.40) and S/Si (0.21) ratios show a much narrower range of values and are approximately 50% of their solar

  7. The Three-dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-07-01

    Surrounding SN 1987A is a three-ring nebula attributed to interacting stellar winds, yet no model has successfully reproduced this system. Fortunately, the progenitor's mass-loss history can be reconstructed using light echoes, in which scattered light from the supernova traces the three-dimensional morphology of its circumstellar dust. In this paper, we construct and analyze the most complete map to date of the progenitor's circumstellar environment, using ground- and space-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging analyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 lt-yr from the SN. Previously known structures, such as an inner hourglass, Napoleon's Hat, and a contact discontinuity, are probed in greater spatial detail than before. Previously unknown features are also discovered, such as a southern counterpart to Napoleon's Hat. Careful analyses of these echoes allows the reconstruction of the probable circumstellar environment, revealing a richly structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``Peanut,'' which is believed to be the contact discontinuity between red supergiant and main-sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 lt-yr along the poles and 11 lt-yr near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this Peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 lt-yr. Interior to this is a cylindrical hourglass, 1 lt-yr in radius and 4 lt-yr long, which connects to the Peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41° south and 8° east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. From the hourglass to the large, bipolar lobes, echo fluxes suggest that the gas density drops from 1-3 to >~0.03 cm-3, while the maximum dust-grain size increases from ~0.2 to 2 μm, and the silicate:carbonaceous dust ratio decreases. The nebulae have a total mass of ~1.7 Msolar. The geometry of the three rings is

  8. Medical Information on Optical Disc*

    PubMed Central

    Schipma, Peter B.; Cichocki, Edward M.; Ziemer, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    Optical discs may permit a revolutionary change in the distribution and use of medical information. A single compact disc, similar in size to that used for digital audio recording, can contain over 500 million characters of information that is accessible by a Personal Computer. These discs can be manufactured at a cost lower than that of print on paper, at reasonable volumes. Software can provide the health care professional with nearly instantaneous access to the information. Thus, for the first time, the opportunity exists to have large local medical information collections. This paper describes an application of this technology in the field of Oncology.

  9. Mitral disc-valve variance

    PubMed Central

    Berroya, Renato B.; Escano, Fernando B.

    1972-01-01

    This report deals with a rare complication of disc-valve prosthesis in the mitral area. A significant disc poppet and struts destruction of mitral Beall valve prostheses occurred 20 and 17 months after implantation. The resulting valve incompetence in the first case contributed to the death of the patient. The durability of Teflon prosthetic valves appears to be in question and this type of valve probably will be unacceptable if there is an increasing number of disc-valve variance in the future. Images PMID:5017573

  10. Short-term spectral and polarimetric variability in the Herbig AE star AB Aurigae as an indicator of the circumstellar inhomogeneity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskrovnaya, N. G.; Pogodin, M. A.; Najdenov, I. D.; Romanyuk, I. I.

    1995-06-01

    We present the results of the simultaneous spectral and polarimetric investigation of AB Aur - the Ae Herbig star from the "PCyg" subclass. About 150 high-resolution CCD spectra in the region of Hα and more than 100 UBVRI measurements of the linear polarization were obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory during two seasons in 1993 and 1994. Additional polarimetric observations in the B-band were carried out at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Northern Caucasus). A strong variability of the Hα PCyg-type profile is analyzed on a timescale from hours to months. It is shown to be connected with circumstellar inhomogeneities moving in the envelope. The existence of a strong long-lived stream is supposed on the basis of joint spectral and polarimetric data in January 4-10, 1994.

  11. Design Issues in Video Disc Map Display.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Tables: disc storage capacities under various conditions. Photos: map frames. Constanzo , D.J. (1984a), "The Potential for Video Disc Technology in...discs. Constanzo , D.J. (1984b), "Requirements and Specifications for Cartographic Video Discs", presented as a poster paper at the 1984 Army Science

  12. Enlivening Physics, a Local Video Disc Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how to make and use an inexpensive video disc of physics demonstrations. Discusses the background, production of the disc, subject of the disc including angular momentum, "monkey and the hunter" experiment, Doppler shift, pressure of a constant volume of gas thermometer, and wave effects, and using the disc in classroom. (YP)

  13. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  14. Decellularized allogeneic intervertebral disc: natural biomaterials for regenerating disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhijun; Chen, Kai; Shan, Zhi; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Jiying; Mo, Jian; Ma, Jianjun; Xu, Wenbing; Qin, An; Fan, Shunwu

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is associated with back pain and disc herniation. This study established a modified protocol for intervertebral disc (IVD) decellularization and prepared its extracellular matrix (ECM). By culturing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)(3, 7, 14 and 21 days) and human degenerative IVD cells (7 days) in the ECM, implanting it subcutaneously in rabbit and injecting ECM microparticles into degenerative disc, the biological safety and efficacy of decellularized IVD was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrated that cellular components can be removed completely after decellularization and maximally retain the structure and biomechanics of native IVD. We revealed that allogeneic ECM did not evoke any apparent inflammatory reaction in vivo and no cytotoxicity was found in vitro. Moreover, IVD ECM can induce differentiation of MSCs into IVD-like cells in vitro. Furthermore, allogeneic ECM microparticles are effective on the treatment of rabbit disc degeneration in vivo. In conclusion, our study developed an optimized method for IVD decellularization and we proved decellularized IVD is safe and effective for the treatment of degenerated disc diseases. PMID:26933821

  15. Molecular catastrophes and the formation of circumstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Interstellar dust grains are presumed in part to have their origins in the outer atmospheres of red giant and supergiant stars because, despite the efficiency of shock destruction of grains in the interstellar medium (ISM), meteoritic samples possess isotopic signatures that are consistent with nucleosynthetic origin in the interior of evolved stars. There is ample evidence to suggest that once dust grains form near red giants and supergiants, radiation pressure is sufficient to drive them to infinity. The molecular catastrophe description for the conversion of chromospheric gas into molecular masers and circumstellar dust holds promise for a coherent explanation of the formation of these entities and the process of mas loss from cool, high luminosity objects.

  16. Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE). Survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Chen, Christine; Perrin, Marshall D.; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Schneider, Glenn; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments. HST/AR-12652), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive with advanced post-processing techniques. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. We present the results of the overall reduction campaign and discuss the first statistical analysis of the candidate detections. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here an update and overview of the specifications of this standard.

  17. Variable Circumstellar Disks: Prevalence, Timescales, and Physical Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrow, Anthony; Wisniewski, John P.; Lomax, Jamie R.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Covey, Kevin R.; Gerhartz, Cody; Richardson, Noel; Thao, Pa

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly rotating B-type stars often experience mass ejection that leads to the formation of a circumstellar gas disk, as diagnosed by distinct emission lines present in their spectra. The mass ejection from these stars, known as classical Be stars, sometimes slows or stops, leading to the mass falling back onto the central star and the disk dissipating. The prevalence and time-scale of such disk-loss and disk-replenishment episodes, as well as the underlying physical processes that cause the underlying mass ejection, remain unknown. We are using multi-epoch broad- and narrow-band photometric observations of 12 young open clusters to characterize the prevalence and time-scale of disk-loss and disk-replenishment episodes. We use our observations to gauge which cluster objects exhibit H-alpha emission, which is a primary indicator of Be stars in our clusters. This program is supported by NSF-AST 1411563, 1412110, and 1412135.

  18. A SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF CRYSTALLINE SILICATES IN A PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Poteet, Charles A.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Fischer, William J.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Watson, Dan M.; Remming, Ian S.; McClure, Melissa K.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Tobin, John J.; Sargent, Benjamin A.; Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Allen, Lori E.; Ali, Babar

    2011-06-01

    We present the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph spectrum of the Orion A protostar HOPS-68. The mid-infrared spectrum reveals crystalline substructure at 11.1, 16.1, 18.8, 23.6, 27.9, and 33.6 {mu}m superimposed on the broad 9.7 and 18 {mu}m amorphous silicate features; the substructure is well matched by the presence of the olivine end-member forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). Crystalline silicates are often observed as infrared emission features around the circumstellar disks of Herbig Ae/Be stars and T Tauri stars. However, this is the first unambiguous detection of crystalline silicate absorption in a cold, infalling, protostellar envelope. We estimate the crystalline mass fraction along the line of sight by first assuming that the crystalline silicates are located in a cold absorbing screen and secondly by utilizing radiative transfer models. The resulting crystalline mass fractions of 0.14 and 0.17, respectively, are significantly greater than the upper limit found in the interstellar medium ({approx}<0.02-0.05). We propose that the amorphous silicates were annealed within the hot inner disk and/or envelope regions and subsequently transported outward into the envelope by entrainment in a protostellar outflow.

  19. TIDALLY INDUCED BROWN DWARF AND PLANET FORMATION IN CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, Ingo; Kroupa, Pavel; Goodwin, Simon P.; Stamatellos, Dimitrios; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    2010-07-01

    Most stars are born in clusters and the resulting gravitational interactions between cluster members may significantly affect the evolution of circumstellar disks and therefore the formation of planets and brown dwarfs (BDs). Recent findings suggest that tidal perturbations of typical circumstellar disks due to close encounters may inhibit rather than trigger disk fragmentation and so would seem to rule out planet formation by external tidal stimuli. However, the disk models in these calculations were restricted to disk radii of 40 AU and disk masses below 0.1 M{sub sun}. Here, we show that even modest encounters can trigger fragmentation around 100 AU in the sorts of massive ({approx}0.5 M{sub sun}), extended ({>=}100 AU) disks that are observed around young stars. Tidal perturbation alone can do this; no disk-disk collision is required. We also show that very low mass binary systems can form through the interaction of objects in the disk. In our computations, otherwise non-fragmenting massive disks, once perturbed, fragment into several objects between about 0.01 and 0.1 M{sub sun}, i.e., over the whole BD mass range. Typically, these orbit on highly eccentric orbits or are even ejected. While probably not suitable for the formation of Jupiter- or Neptune-type planets, our scenario provides a possible formation mechanism for BDs and very massive planets which, interestingly, leads to a mass distribution consistent with the canonical substellar initial mass function. As a minor outcome, a possible explanation for the origin of misaligned extrasolar planetary systems is discussed.

  20. Beta Pic-like Circumstellar Gas Disk Around 2 And

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    This grant was awarded to support the data analysis and publication of results from our project entitled P Pic-like Circumstellar Gas Disk Around 2 And . We proposed to obtain FUSE observations of 2 And and study the characteristics and origin of its circumstellar gas. We observed 2 Andromedae with FUSE on 3-4 July 2001 in 11 exposures with a total exposure time of 21,289 seconds through the LWRS aperture. Our data were calibrated with Version 1.8.7 of the CALFUSE pipeline processing software. We corrected the wavelength scale for the heliocentric velocity error in this version of the CALFUSE software. The relative accuracy of the calibrated wavelength scale is +/- 9 km/s . We produced a co-added spectrum in the LiF 1B and LiF 2A channels (covering the 1100 to 1180 A region) by cross-correlating the 11 individual exposures and doing an exposure-time weighted average flux. The final co-added spectra have a signal-to-noise ratio in the stellar continuum near 1150 A of about 20. To obtain an absolute wavelength calibration, we cross-correlated our observed spectra with a model spectrum to obtain the best fit for the photospheric C I lines. Because the photospheric lines are very broad, this yields an absolute accuracy for the wavelength scale of approx.+/- 15 km/s. We then rebinned 5 original pixels to yield the optimal sampling of .033 A for each new pixel, because the calibrated spectra oversample the spectral resolution for FUSE+LWRS (R = 20,000 +/- 2,000).

  1. Eclipse Mapping of Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature distribution and measuring mass accretion rates to showing the evolution of the structure of a dwarf novae disc throughout its outburst cycle, from isolating the spectrum of a disc wind to revealing the geometry of disc spiral shocks. I end with an outline of the future prospects.

  2. Tissue engineering: A live disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hukins, David W. L.

    2005-12-01

    A material-cell hybrid device that mimics the anatomic shape of the intervertebral disc has been made and successfully implanted into mice to show that tissue engineering may, in the future, benefit sufferers from back pain.

  3. Disc Golf, a Growing Sport

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joseph T.; Jones, Richard E.; Runstrom, Michael; Hardy, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    Background Disc golf is a sport played much like traditional golf, but rather than using a ball and club, players throw flying discs with various throwing motions. It has been played by an estimated 8 to 12 million people in the United States. Like all sports, injuries sustained while playing disc golf are not uncommon. Although formalized in the 1970s, it has grown at a rapid pace; however, disc golf–related injuries have yet to be described in the medical literature. Purpose To describe the most common injuries incurred by disc golf players while comparing the different types of throwing styles. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods The data in this study were collected from 883 disc golf players who responded to an online survey collected over a 1-month period. Respondents answered 49 questions related to demographics, experience, style of play, and injury details. Using a chi-square analysis, common injuries sustained in players using backhand and forehand throwing styles were compared. Results More than 81% of respondents stated that they had sustained an injury playing disc golf, including injuries to the elbow (n = 325), shoulder (n = 305), back (n = 218), and knee (n = 199). The injuries were most commonly described as a muscle strain (n = 241), sprain (n = 162), and tendinitis (n = 145). The type of throw primarily used by players varied, with 86.2% using backhand, 12.7% using forehand, and 1.1% using an overhead throw. Players using a forehand throw were more likely to sustain an elbow injury (P = .014). Many players (n = 115) stated they had undergone surgery due to a disc golf–related injury, with the most common surgeries including meniscal, shoulder, spine, and foot/ankle surgeries. Conclusion The majority of surveyed disc golfers sustained at least 1 injury while playing disc golf, with many requiring surgery. The types of injuries sustained by players varied by the types of throw primarily used. As the sport of disc golf continues

  4. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  5. Heat recovery in building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-08-01

    Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to contribute to the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the enthalpy difference between inside and outside. Some studies have indicated that application of such a simple formula may produce an unreasonably high contribution because of heat recovery within the building envelope. The major objective of this study was to provide an improved prediction of the energy load due to infiltration by introducing a correction factor that multiplies the expression for the conventional load. This paper discusses simplified analytical modeling and CFD simulations that examine infiltration heat recovery (IHR) in an attempt to quantify the magnitude of this effect for typical building envelopes. For comparison, we will also briefly examine the results of some full-scale field measurements of IHR based on infiltration rates and energy use in real buildings. The results of this work showed that for houses with insulated walls the heat recovery is negligible due to the small fraction of the envelope that participates in heat exchange with the infiltrating air. However; there is the potential for IHR to have a significant effect for higher participation dynamic walls/ceilings or uninsulated walls. This result implies that the existing methods for evaluating infiltration related building loads provide adequate results for typical buildings.

  6. Percutaneous diode laser disc nucleoplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchetti, P. P.; Longo, Leonardo

    2004-09-01

    The treatment of herniated disc disease (HNP) over the years involved different miniinvasive surgical options. The classical microsurgical approach has been substituted over the years both by endoscopic approach in which is possible to practice via endoscopy a laser thermo-discoplasty, both by percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty. In the last ten years, the percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty have been done worldwide in more than 40000 cases of HNP. Because water is the major component of the intervertebral disc, and in HNP pain is caused by the disc protrusion pressing against the nerve root, a 980 nm Diode laser introduced via a 22G needle under X-ray guidance and local anesthesia, vaporizes a small amount of nucleous polposus with a disc shrinkage and a relief of pressure on nerve root. Most patients get off the table pain free and are back to work in 5 to 7 days. Material and method: to date, 130 patients (155 cases) suffering for relevant symptoms therapy-resistant 6 months on average before consulting our department, have been treated. Eightyfour (72%) males and 46 (28%) females had a percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty. The average age of patients operated was 48 years (22 - 69). The level of disc removal was L3/L4 in 12 cases, L4/L5 in 87 cases and L5/S1 in 56 cases. Two different levels were treated at the same time in 25 patients. Results: the success rate at a minimum follow-up of 6 months was 88% with a complication rate of 0.5%.

  7. Evolution of protoplanetary discs with magnetically driven disc winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Ogihara, Masahiro; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-12-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We considered an initially massive disc with 0.1 M⊙ to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solved the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of mass and angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard α model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass-loss, and disc wind torque, which were adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux that remains, the surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combination of these three parameters, some of which are very different from the surface density expected from the standard accretion. When a PPD is in a wind-driven accretion state with the preserved vertical magnetic field, the radial dependence of the surface density can be positive in the inner region <1-10 au. The mass accretion rates are consistent with observations, even in the very low level of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence. Such a positive radial slope of the surface density strongly affects planet formation because it inhibits the inward drift or even causes the outward drift of pebble- to boulder-sized solid bodies, and it also slows down or even reversed the inward type-I migration of protoplanets. Conclusions: The variety of our calculated PPDs should yield a wide variety of exoplanet systems.

  8. FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: PROPERTIES OF INTERMEDIATE-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS IN OMC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George E.; Henderson, Charles P.; Schoenwald, Justin; Stacey, Gordon; Osorio, Mayra; Macias, Enrique; Thomas Megeath, S.; Fischer, William J.; Ali, Babar; D'Alessio, Paola; De Buizer, James M.; Shuping, Ralph Y.; Keller, Luke D.; Morris, Mark R.; Remming, Ian S.; Stanke, Thomas; Stutz, Amelia; and others

    2012-04-20

    We examine eight young stellar objects in the OMC-2 star-forming region based on observations from the SOFIA/FORCAST early science phase, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, and other results in the literature. We show the spectral energy distributions (SED) of these objects from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, and compare the SEDs with those of sheet collapse models of protostars and circumstellar disks. Four of the objects can be modeled as protostars with infalling envelopes, two as young stars surrounded by disks, and the remaining two objects have double-peaked SEDs. We model the double-peaked sources as binaries containing a young star with a disk and a protostar. The six most luminous sources are found in a dense group within a 0.15 Multiplication-Sign 0.25 pc region; these sources have luminosities ranging from 300 L{sub Sun} to 20 L{sub Sun }. The most embedded source (OMC-2 FIR 4) can be fit by a class 0 protostar model having a luminosity of {approx}50 L{sub Sun} and mass infall rate of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  9. The formation and annealing of circumstellar dust, as gauged by IRAS low-resolution spectra and the microwave maser chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Little-Marenin, Irene R.; Little, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    By comparing IRAS mean colors and LRS spectral differences in a large sample of Mira variables with the chronological sequence for development of microwave maser emission among such stars, it appears possible to describe a dust grain formation and annealing sequence. The early time spectra are dominated by aluminum oxides, which are then overrun by the emergence of silicates. Rather than the growth of silicate mantles on aluminate cores, this sequence is interpreted as a simple result of the higher electron affinity of aluminum for oxygen, resulting in an initial abundance of AlO bonds in the underoxidized grains. Once all the Al becomes fully oxidized, the relative abundances of Al and Si dictate that the AlO signature will be swamped by the growth of the SiO stretching fundamental. The correlations among the proposed dust chronology, the increasingly thick circumstellar envelopes, and the light curve asymmetries of Mira variables are instructive for understanding the evolutionary changes occurring in such stars.

  10. The structure of common-envelope remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the structure and evolution of the remnants of common-envelope evolution in binary star systems. In a common-envelope phase, two stars become engulfed in a gaseous envelope and, under the influence of drag forces, spiral to smaller separations. They may merge to form a single star or the envelope may be ejected to leave the stars in a shorter period orbit. This process explains the short orbital periods of many observed binary systems, such as cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Despite the importance of these systems, and of common-envelope evolution to their formation, it remains poorly understood. Specifically, we are unable to confidently predict the outcome of a common-envelope phase from the properties at its onset. After presenting a review of work on stellar evolution, binary systems, common-envelope evolution and the computer programs used, we describe the results of three computational projects on common-envelope evolution. Our work specifically relates to the methods and prescriptions which are used for predicting the outcome. We use the Cambridge stellar-evolution code STARS to produce detailed models of the structure and evolution of remnants of common-envelope evolution. We compare different assumptions about the uncertain end-of-common envelope structure and envelope mass of remnants which successfully eject their common envelopes. In the first project, we use detailed remnant models to investigate whether planetary nebulae are predicted after common-envelope phases initiated by low-mass red giants. We focus on the requirement that a remnant evolves rapidly enough to photoionize the nebula and compare the predictions for different ideas about the structure at the end of a common-envelope phase. We find that planetary nebulae are possible for some prescriptions for the end-of-common envelope structure. In our second contribution, we compute a large set of single-star models and fit new formulae to the core radii of

  11. Solute permeation across the apoplastic barrier in the perisperm-endosperm envelope in cucumber seeds.

    PubMed

    Amritphale, Dilip; Ramakrishna, P; Singh, Bharat; Sharma, Santosh K

    2010-05-01

    An apoplastic barrier consisting of callose and lipid layers in the perisperm-endosperm (PE) envelope is known to restrict inward and outward transport of solutes in cucurbit seeds. The present work examines permeability properties of the barrier using cucumber seed as a model system. Osmometrically determined osmotic potential of the apoplastic fluid was used as a basis for osmotic studies aimed at examining solute exclusion from the apoplastic barrier in the PE envelope. The assessment of apoplastic permeability involved measuring the amount of anionic and cationic organic dyes diffused into agarose gel discs through the PE envelope. Ionic/non-ionic solutes including polyethylene glycols having Stokes radii envelope as indicated by greater seed thickness/breadth ratios. Permeances of dyes across the PE envelope were in the order: 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) > 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) approximately methyl orange approximately methylene blue > Eosin Y > Janus green approximately crystal violet approximately Evans Blue. Permeation time(0.5) for DCPIP and TTC was 9.71 and 9.96 h, respectively. Dyes having Stokes radii < 0.5 nm showed significant inward as well as outward diffusion across the PE envelope in contrast to restricted diffusion of dyes having Stokes radii > 0.5 nm. Size exclusion limit for apoplastic barrier in cucumber PE envelope was resolved to be about 0.5 nm by dye permeation and around 0.8 nm by osmotic studies. Dye permeances depended primarily on particle size as described by a quadratic polynomial function rather than on charge or log D.

  12. TW HYA ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIP AND NEW WISE-DETECTED CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok; Melis, Carl E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu

    2012-07-20

    We assess the current membership of the nearby, young TW Hydrae association and examine newly proposed members with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to search for infrared excess indicative of circumstellar disks. Newly proposed members TWA 30A, TWA 30B, TWA 31, and TWA 32 all show excess emission at 12 and 22 {mu}m providing clear evidence for substantial dusty circumstellar disks around these low-mass, {approx}8 Myr old stars that were previously shown to likely be accreting circumstellar material. TWA 30B shows large amounts of self-extinction, likely due to an edge-on disk geometry. We also confirm previously reported circumstellar disks with WISE and determine a 22 {mu}m excess fraction of 42{sup +10}{sub -{sub 9}}% based on our results.

  13. Models for circumstellar nebulae around red and blue supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chita, S. M.

    2011-10-01

    In this thesis, we model the circumstellar medium of stars with initial masses of 8, 12, 18 and 20 solar masses, over their entire life from the main sequence until their supernova explosion. During the post-main-sequence stages, stars can evolve through several blue and red supergiant stages depending on their initial mass, composition and rotation rate. The models considered in the second Chapter have long-lasting RSG stages starting after the MS. In this phase, they develop shells of RSG wind material at the location where the free streaming RSG wind is stalled by the thermal pressure of the hot MS bubble, close to the central star. The RSG shells develop violent Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Once these start to grow non-linear, the RSG shell becomes highly structured as clumps form, and shell material mixes with material in the hot bubble. Later, the stars evolve to the BSG stage, during which the RSG shells are completely destroyed. These models return to the RSG stage, and build new RSG shells, which are more massive than those formed earlier. RSG shells are essential for our understanding of bipolar emission nebulae around BSGs. In the third Chapter are shown the results of the wind-wind interaction model of single star with 12 solar masses. On a time scale of a few 10000 yr, a BSG hour-glas shaped nebula expands into the sphere defined by the RSG shell. The faster polar parts of the hour glass hit the inner edge of the RSG shell first. The collision creates a pair of hot and dense polar caps. As time passes, the collision zone moves to lower latitudes of the RSG shell and becomes more confined in latitude. At the same time, the interaction of the BSG wind with the equatorial disk defines a second, ring shaped collision zone in the equatorial plane. These structures are reminiscent of the observed nebulae around the blue supergiant Sher 25. In the Chapter 3 we present calculations that predict the properties of the circumstellar medium for rapidly rotating

  14. Isolating The Building Thermal Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrje, D. T.; Dutt, G. S.; Gadsby, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of the thermal integrity of building envelopes by infrared scanning tech-niques is often hampered in mild weather because temperature differentials across the envelope are small. Combining the infrared scanning with positive or negative building pressures, induced by a "blower door" or the building ventilation system, considerably extends the periods during which meaningful diagnostics can be conducted. Although missing or poorly installed insulation may lead to a substantial energy penalty, it is the search for air leakage sites that often has the largest potential for energy savings. Infrared inspection of the attic floor with air forced from the occupied space through ceiling by-passes, and inspecting the interior of the building when outside air is being sucked through the envelope reveals unexpected leakage sites. Portability of the diagnostic equipment is essential in these surveys which may include access into some tight spaces. A catalog of bypass heat losses that have been detected in residential housing using the combined infrared pressure differential technique is included to point out the wide variety of leakage sites which may compromise the benefits of thermal insulation and allow excessive air infiltration. Detection and suppression of such leaks should be key items in any building energy audit program. Where a calibrated blower door is used to pressurize or evacuate the house, the leakage rate can be quantified and an excessively tight house recognized. Houses that are too tight may be improved with a minimal energy penalty by forced ventilation,preferably with a heat recuperator and/or by providing combustion air directly to the furnace.

  15. Aircraft maneuver envelope warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivens, Courtland C. (Inventor); Rosado, Joel M. (Inventor); Lee, Burnett (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A maneuver envelope warning system for an aircraft having operating limits, operating condition sensors and an indicator driver. The indicator driver has a plurality of visual indicators. The indicator driver determines a relationship between sensed operating conditions and the operating limits; such as, a ratio therebetween. The indicator driver illuminates a number of the indicators in proportion to the determined relationship. The position of the indicators illuminated represents to a pilot in an easily ascertainable manner whether the operational conditions are approaching operational limits of the aircraft, and the degree to which operational conditions lie within or exceed operational limits.

  16. Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: scheduling application; the motivation for the Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN); characteristics of FERN; types of information needed in requests; where information is stored in requests; FERN structures; generic requests; resource availability for pooled resources; expressive notation; temporal constraints; time formats; changes to FERN; sample FERN requests; the temporal relationship between two steps; maximum activity length to limit step delays; alternative requests; the temporal relationship between two activities; and idle resource usage between steps.

  17. Gravitoturbulence in magnetized protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riols, A.; Latter, H.

    2016-08-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) features in several aspects of protostellar disc evolution, most notably in angular momentum transport, fragmentation, and the outbursts exemplified by FU Ori and EX Lupi systems. The outer regions of protostellar discs may also be coupled to magnetic fields, which could then modify the development of GI. To understand the basic elements of their interaction, we perform local 2D ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations with an imposed toroidal field. In the regime of moderate plasma beta, we find that the system supports a hot gravitoturbulent state, characterized by considerable magnetic energy and stress and a surprisingly large Toomre parameter Q ≳ 10. This result has potential implications for disc structure, vertical thickness, ionization, etc. Our simulations also reveal the existence of long-lived and dense `magnetic islands' or plasmoids. Lastly, we find that the presence of a magnetic field has little impact on the fragmentation criterion of the disc. Though our focus is on protostellar discs, some of our results may be relevant for the outer radii of AGN.

  18. Molecules in the atmosphere and circumstellar shell of proto-planetary nebula IRAS22272+5435

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacs, L.; Laure, A.; Sperauskas, J.

    2011-05-01

    IRAS22272+5435 is a typical proto-planetary nebula (PPN) associated in the optical with a carbon-rich star HD235858 which shows a significant s-process enhancement. The star is surrounded by the detached circumstellar envelope (CSE), a result of an earlier mass loss. The best-fit model for the dust shell of IRAS22272+5435 consists of the central star surrounded by two separate sets of dust shells representing a PPN shell and a post-AGB wind shell located in the inner cavity of the PPN shell. A presence of hot dust grains in the inner cavity of the PPN shell and occasional mass ejections driven possibly by pulsations with the period of around 131 days was suspected for this object. The spectrum of IRAS22272+5435 originates at various depths throughout different layers in the atmosphere of HD235858 significantly affected by pulsations and in the CSE. A large number of narrow molecular lines originated in the CSE are present in the optical spectrum of IRAS22272+5435, blueshifted relative to the photospheric lines. The CSE lines of C_2 (1,0), (2,0), (3,0), (4,0) Phillips system and CN (1,0), (2,0), (3,0), (4,0) Red System were identified. Time series of high resolution spectra shows significant changes in the intensity of C_2 and CN photospheric features. The molecular photospheric features are stronger than should be for standard photosphere of G5 supergiant applicable for HD235858, therefore, the temperature of environment where formed the most of molecules is much lower than the effective temperature of 5500 K. The maximal expansion velocity and the maximal C_2 abundance was observed for HD235858 on October 2006 when the photosphere of HD235858 passed the maximal expansion velocity according to the CORAVEL measurements. The lines of CN Red system in general varies in step with C_2, however, the Doppler shift relative to the systemic velocity is lower. Thus, the photospheric molecular features are formed apparently in the cool outflow at different high scale. The

  19. Interstellar medium perturbations on transport-dominated debris discs in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.

    2012-04-01

    I explore the dynamics of small dust particles in transport-dominated circumstellar debris discs in binary star systems. In these tenuous discs the effects of mutual collisions are negligible and their morphology is determined by Poynting-Robertson drag and, possibly, by the strong perturbations induced by the interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) flux of neutral atoms. The force due to the ISM flux can significantly affect the dynamical behaviour of the dust grains, causing a fast inward drift and a large periodic oscillation of both eccentricity and inclination. If the disc is around a star in a binary system, the gravity of the companion star competes with the ISM force and the dynamics is complex. The balance between the two forces depends strongly on the binary semimajor axis aB and eccentricity eB. In a scenario with an ISM flux similar to that observed in the Solar system neighbourhood, the binary secular perturbations, assuming a mass ratio of 0.5, dominate over the ISM force when aB < 600 au and eB= 0.2. This occurs when the dust disc is generated by a parent body ring encompassed between 50 and 60 aufrom the primary star. For a larger binary eccentricity eB= 0.6, the limit moves to aB < 700 au. Within these values of aB, the time-scale of the binary secular perturbations is much shorter than the period of the ISM-induced orbital variations, and the disc shape and density distribution are dominated by the companion gravity. It appears slightly eccentric and, if the binary is coplanar with the disc, only a limited warping due to the ISM perturbations is observed. In this scenario, the strong ISM perturbations, which may significantly affect debris discs around single stars embedded in strong ISM winds, are almost completely silenced. For larger semimajor axes, the scenario is reversed with the ISM perturbations ruling the dynamics of the dust. The disc develops a large clump oriented at 90° with respect to the direction of the ISM flux and it

  20. Chaotic Expansions of Elements of the Universal Enveloping Superalgebra Associated with a Z2-graded Quantum Stochastic Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyre, T. M. W.

    Given a polynomial function f of classical stochastic integrator processes whose differentials satisfy a closed Ito multiplication table, we can express the stochastic derivative of f asDISC="MATH"> We establish an analogue of this formula in the form of a chaotic decomposition for Z2-graded theories of quantum stochastic calculus based on the natural coalgebra structure of the universal enveloping superalgebra.

  1. Probing Shock Breakout and Progenitors of Stripped-envelope Supernovae through their Early Radio Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    We study properties of early radio emission from stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe; those of Type IIb/Ib/Ic). We suggest there is a sub-class of stripped-envelope SNe based on their radio properties, including the optically well-studied Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic) 2002ap and 2007gr, showing a rapid rise to a radio peak within ~10 days and reaching a low luminosity (at least an order of magnitude fainter than a majority of SNe IIb/Ib/Ic). They show a decline after the peak that is shallower than that of other stripped-envelope SNe while their spectral index is similar. We show that all these properties are naturally explained if the circumstellar material (CSM) density is low and therefore the forward shock is expanding into the CSM without deceleration. Since the forward shock velocity in this situation, as estimated from the radio properties, still records the maximum velocity of the SN ejecta following the shock breakout, observing these SNe in radio wavelengths provides new diagnostics on the nature of both the breakout and the progenitor which otherwise require a quite rapid follow-up in other wavelengths. The inferred post-shock breakout velocities of SNe Ic 2002ap and 2007gr are sub-relativistic, ~0.3c. These are higher than that inferred for SN II 1987A, in line with suggested compact progenitors. However, these are lower than expected for a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) progenitor. It may reflect an as yet unresolved nature of the progenitors just before the explosion, and we suggest that the W-R progenitor envelopes might have been inflated which could quickly reduce the maximum ejecta velocity from the initial shock breakout velocity.

  2. PROBING SHOCK BREAKOUT AND PROGENITORS OF STRIPPED-ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE THROUGH THEIR EARLY RADIO EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    We study properties of early radio emission from stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe; those of Type IIb/Ib/Ic). We suggest there is a sub-class of stripped-envelope SNe based on their radio properties, including the optically well-studied Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic) 2002ap and 2007gr, showing a rapid rise to a radio peak within {approx}10 days and reaching a low luminosity (at least an order of magnitude fainter than a majority of SNe IIb/Ib/Ic). They show a decline after the peak that is shallower than that of other stripped-envelope SNe while their spectral index is similar. We show that all these properties are naturally explained if the circumstellar material (CSM) density is low and therefore the forward shock is expanding into the CSM without deceleration. Since the forward shock velocity in this situation, as estimated from the radio properties, still records the maximum velocity of the SN ejecta following the shock breakout, observing these SNe in radio wavelengths provides new diagnostics on the nature of both the breakout and the progenitor which otherwise require a quite rapid follow-up in other wavelengths. The inferred post-shock breakout velocities of SNe Ic 2002ap and 2007gr are sub-relativistic, {approx}0.3c. These are higher than that inferred for SN II 1987A, in line with suggested compact progenitors. However, these are lower than expected for a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) progenitor. It may reflect an as yet unresolved nature of the progenitors just before the explosion, and we suggest that the W-R progenitor envelopes might have been inflated which could quickly reduce the maximum ejecta velocity from the initial shock breakout velocity.

  3. UNVEILING THE EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCE FROM INFALLING ENVELOPES TO KEPLERIAN DISKS AROUND LOW-MASS PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2013-07-20

    We performed Submillimeter Array observations in the C{sup 18}O (2-1) emission line toward six Class 0 and I protostars to study rotational motions of their surrounding envelopes and circumstellar material on 100-1000 AU scales. C{sup 18}O (2-1) emission with intensity peaks located at the protostellar positions is detected toward all six sources. The rotational velocities of the protostellar envelopes as a function of radius were measured from the position-velocity diagrams perpendicular to the outflow directions passing through the protostellar positions. Two Class 0 sources, B335 and NGC 1333 IRAS 4B, show no detectable rotational motion, while L1527 IRS (Class 0/I) and L1448-mm (Class 0) exhibit rotational motions with radial profiles of V{sub rot}{proportional_to}r {sup -1.0{+-}0.2} and {proportional_to}r {sup -1.0{+-}0.1}, respectively. The other Class I sources, TMC-1A and L1489 IRS, exhibit the fastest rotational motions among the sample, and their rotational motions have flatter radial profiles of V{sub rot}{proportional_to}r {sup -0.6{+-}0.1} and {proportional_to}r {sup -0.5{+-}0.1}, respectively. The rotational motions with the radial dependence of {approx}r {sup -1} can be interpreted as rotation with a conserved angular momentum in a dynamically infalling envelope, while those with the radial dependence of {approx}r {sup -0.5} can be interpreted as Keplerian rotation. These observational results demonstrate categorization of rotational motions from infalling envelopes to Keplerian-disk formation. Models of the inside-out collapse where the angular momentum is conserved are discussed and compared with our observational results.

  4. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  5. On the Excitation and Formation of Circumstellar Fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Salas, J.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Jones, A. P.; Micelotta, E. R.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2012-09-01

    We compare and analyze the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of three fullerene-rich planetary nebulae in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds: Tc1, SMP SMC 16, and SMP LMC 56. The three planetary nebulae share many spectroscopic similarities. The strongest circumstellar emission bands correspond to the infrared active vibrational modes of the fullerene species C60 and little or no emission is present from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strengths of the fullerene bands in the three planetary nebulae are very similar, while the ratios of the [Ne III]15.5 μm/[Ne II]12.8 μm fine structure lines, an indicator of the strength of the radiation field, are markedly different. This raises questions about their excitation mechanism and we compare the fullerene emission to fluorescent and thermal models. In addition, the spectra show other interesting and common features, most notably in the 6-9 μm region, where a broad plateau with substructure dominates the emission. These features have previously been associated with mixtures of aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbon solids. We hypothesize on the origin of this band, which is likely related to the fullerene formation mechanism, and compare it with modeled hydrogenated amorphous carbon that present emission in this region.

  6. ON THE EXCITATION AND FORMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR FULLERENES

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard-Salas, J.; Jones, A. P.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2012-09-20

    We compare and analyze the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of three fullerene-rich planetary nebulae in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds: Tc1, SMP SMC 16, and SMP LMC 56. The three planetary nebulae share many spectroscopic similarities. The strongest circumstellar emission bands correspond to the infrared active vibrational modes of the fullerene species C{sub 60} and little or no emission is present from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strengths of the fullerene bands in the three planetary nebulae are very similar, while the ratios of the [Ne III]15.5 {mu}m/[Ne II]12.8 {mu}m fine structure lines, an indicator of the strength of the radiation field, are markedly different. This raises questions about their excitation mechanism and we compare the fullerene emission to fluorescent and thermal models. In addition, the spectra show other interesting and common features, most notably in the 6-9 {mu}m region, where a broad plateau with substructure dominates the emission. These features have previously been associated with mixtures of aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbon solids. We hypothesize on the origin of this band, which is likely related to the fullerene formation mechanism, and compare it with modeled hydrogenated amorphous carbon that present emission in this region.

  7. A Circumstellar Shell Model for the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Blondin, John M.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1996-08-01

    We model the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant in the framework of the circumstellar medium (C SM) interaction picture. In this model, the slow red supergiant wind of the supernova (SN) progenitor was swept into a dense shell by a fast stellar wind in the subsequent blue supergiant stage of the progenitor star. The supernova blast wave propagated quickly (≤ 100 yr) through the tenuous wind-blown bubble located within this shell and then slowed down in the dense (nH ˜15 cm-3) CSM shell. The shell was impulsively accelerated during this interaction stage; during the subsequent interaction with SN ejecta, the shell has been further accelerated to ˜2000 km s-1, the currently observed expansion rate. The comparison of our X-ray emission calculations with the ASCA spectrum suggests that about 8 Msun of X- material is present in Cas A. Most of this mass is located in the CSM shell and in the outlying red supergiant wind. The X-ray continuum and the Fe Kα line are dominated by the shell emission, but prominent Kα complexes of Mg, Si, and S must be produced by SN ejecta with strongly enhanced abundances of these elements. Our hydrodynamical models indicate that about 2 Msun of ejecta have been shocked. An explosion of a stellar He core is consistent with these findings.

  8. Molecular catastrophes and circumstellar SiO masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding the complex SiO maser regions of highly evolved stars can be improved through multiwavelength studies of 'premaser' stars, such as M0-M4 giants and semiregular variables, which can be placed on normal H-R diagrams unlike most of the OH-IR stars. I argue that SiO masers are a key part of the transformation of hot stellar plasma into cold circumstellar silicate dust, in the outflows from evolved, oxygen rich stars. Evidence for this statement rests on the following: (1) red giant mass loss originates in a stochastic, amsotropic manner; (2) SiO maser maps of Miras and red supergiants show numerous maser spots within a few stellar radii; (3) molecules and dust naturally form in a cooling outflow; (4) the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer provided evidence for diverse and variable 10 micron silicate features in Miras, and these shapes correlate well with the proposed maser chronology, suggesting a formation and annealing sequence. The theory for the occurrence of SiO masers involving thermal instability, related 'new' physics, recent calculations and a prediction are discussed.

  9. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    SciTech Connect

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2014-04-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M {sub ☉}).

  10. Light echo detection of circumstellar disks around flaring stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaidos, Eric J.

    1994-01-01

    Light echoes can be used to detect and characterize disks around flaring stars. Such disks are thought to be a hallmark of planet formation but are very difficult to detect by ordinary means. Dwarf emission-line M stars experience flares with luminosities comparable to their quiescent photospheres on time scales of minutes, less than the light travel time across a disk many astronomical units in extent; they are thus ideal candidates for such a search. Bromley (1992) calculated that the detection of Jupiter-sized companions using light echoes requires photometric accuracies better than 1 part in 10(exp 6). However, a disk consisting of grains or small bodies will scatter a much larger fraction of the light than a planet of similar mass. I estimate the light echo amplitutdes from plausible geometries of circumstellar material and present simulation light curves. The light echo amplitudes are typically 1% of the flare and I conclude that such events will be detected best in cases where the flare is eclipsed by the star. An examination of the time scales associated with internal processes in a protoplanetary disks around dM stars indicates that any primordial disks may become undetectable in 10(exp 4) years and will have completely disappeared by 10(exp 8) years, the estimated age of dMe stars in the solar neighborhood. However, searches for light echoes might constrain the amount of material continuing to fall into these young stellar systems in the form of comet-like objects.

  11. On circumstellar disks: Spitzer identifies two possible evolutionary paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.; Marengo, Massimo; Lada, Elizabeth

    Multi-wavelength surveys have vastly improved our understanding of many astrophysical objects, in particular, circumstellar disks. We present our results for the disk population of the young cluster NGC 2264. Our study was based on data obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope combined with previously published optical data. We divide the disk population into 3 classes based on their spectral energy distribution shapes: optically thick disks, homologously depleted anemic disks, and radially depleted transition disks. We find that there are two distinct evolutionary paths for disks: a homologous one, where the disk emission decreases uniformly in NIR and mid-infrared wavelengths (anemic disks) and throughout which most sources pass, and a radially differential one where the emission from the inner region of the disk decreases more rapidly than from the outer region (transition disks). Whether a disk evolves in a homologously or radially depleted fashion is still unknown and may depend on the nature of planet formation in the disk.

  12. The Circumstellar Environments of Born-Again Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Evans, Aneurin; Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles; Eyres, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    When a solar-mass star reaches the end of its main sequence life, has shed a planetary nebula or become a proto-planetary nebula, and is heading towards the white dwarf phase of its evolution, the star may reignite residual surface helium and be "reborn". It retraces its path on the HR diagram and once again becomes a giant: it undergoes a Very Late Thermal Pulse (VLTP) and becomes a "Born-Again Giant" (BAG). This alternate scenario for the demise of low mass stars may occur in as many as 20% of cases. During this phase the star may become a prolific dust producer such that the star is completely obscured and the only means of monitoring its evolution is by observing the ejected dust.Over the past 10-20 years we have used ground-based, spaceborne and airborne infrared (IR) facilities to monitor the spectral energy distributions of the dust shells of stars that have recently undergone VLTPs. Covering a time period from ~1996 to the present, and with recent SOFIA observations that extend the spectral coverage from 1 - 38 microns, we have been able to determine mass-loss rates from the stars, and the physical state, nature and extent of their circumstellar dust shells.Our observations throw light on a phase of the evolution of low mass stars that is very rare, poorly observed, and little understood. Understanding these phenomena can potentially give us a glimpse of the ultimate fate of the Sun.

  13. The absence of circumstellar dust debris around G giants

    SciTech Connect

    Jura, M. )

    1990-12-01

    The IRAS data base has been searched for evidence for circumstellar dust around luminosity class III G giants, stars whose progenitors are mostly main-sequence A stars. While 20 percent of all main-sequence A dwarfs have dust which absorbs at least 5 x 10 to the -6th of the light from the star, less than 3 percent of all G giants have such clouds. One possible explanation for the absence of detectable dust debris around the G giants is that the Poynting-Robertson effect leads to the decay of the dust around the main-sequence A stars, and that the supply of these grains is not renewed indefinitely. In this case, the derived upper limit to the grain radius of about 0.2 cm for the bulk of the grains emitting the far-infrared emission is consistent with data derived from ground-based submillimeter observations. Another possible explanation for the lack of grains around at least some G giants is that the dust around the original A dwarf is mainly composed of relatively volatile material like water ice which thermally evaporates in a relatively short time during the giant phase of higher luminosity. 35 refs.

  14. The absence of circumstellar dust debris around G giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1990-01-01

    The IRAS data base has been searched for evidence for circumstellar dust around luminosity class III G giants, stars whose progenitors are mostly main-sequence A stars. While 20 percent of all main-sequence A dwarfs have dust which absorbs at least 5 x 10 to the -6th of the light from the star, less than 3 percent of all G giants have such clouds. One possible explanation for the absence of detectable dust debris around the G giants is that the Poynting-Robertson effect leads to the decay of the dust around the main-sequence A stars, and that the supply of these grains is not renewed indefinitely. In this case, the derived upper limit to the grain radius of about 0.2 cm for the bulk of the grains emitting the far-infrared emission is consistent with data derived from ground-based submillimeter observations. Another possible explanation for the lack of grains around at least some G giants is that the dust around the original A dwarf is mainly composed of relatively volatile material like water ice which thermally evaporates in a relatively short time during the giant phase of higher luminosity.

  15. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  16. Disc formation in turbulent cloud cores: is magnetic flux loss necessary to stop the magnetic braking catastrophe or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Lima, R.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Lazarian, A.

    2013-03-01

    Recent numerical analysis of Keplerian disc formation in turbulent, magnetized cloud cores by Santos-Lima et al. demonstrated that reconnection diffusion is an efficient process to remove the magnetic flux excess during the buildup of a rotationally supported disc. This process is induced by fast reconnection of the magnetic fields in a turbulent flow. In a similar numerical study, Seifried et al. concluded that reconnection diffusion or any other non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects would not be necessary and turbulence shear alone would provide a natural way to build up a rotating disc without requiring magnetic flux loss. Their conclusion was based on the fact that the mean mass-to-flux ratio (μ) evaluated over a spherical region with a radius much larger than the disc is nearly constant in their models. In this paper, we compare the two sets of simulations and show that this averaging over large scales can mask significant real increases of μ in the inner regions where the disc is built up. We demonstrate that turbulence-induced reconnection diffusion of the magnetic field happens in the initial stages of the disc formation in the turbulent envelope material that is accreting. Our analysis is suggestive that reconnection diffusion is present in both sets of simulations and provides a simple solution for the `magnetic braking catastrophe' which is discussed in the literature in relation to the formation of protostellar accretion discs.

  17. Photoevaporating transitional discs and molecular cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Sui, Ning

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the evolution of photoevaporating protoplanetary discs including mass influx from molecular cloud cores. We examine the influence of cloud core properties on the formation and evolution of transitional discs. We use one-dimensional thin disc assumption and calculate the evolution of the protoplanetary disc. The effects of X-ray photoevaporation are also included. Our calculations suggest that most discs should experience the transitional disc phase within 10 Myr. The formation time of a gap and its initial location are functions of the properties of the cloud cores. In some circumstances, discs can open two gaps by photoevaporation alone. The two gaps form when the gas in the disc can expand to large radius and if the mass at large radius is sufficiently small. The surface density profile of the disc determines whether the two gaps can form. Since the structure of a disc is determined by the properties of a molecular cloud core, the core properties determine the formation of two gaps in the disc. We further find that even when the photoevaporation rate is reduced to 10 per cent of the standard value, two gaps can still form in the disc. The only difference is that the formation time is delayed.

  18. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  19. Discovery of a Circumstellar Disk in the Lagoon Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    Circumstellar disks of gas and dust play a crucial role in the formation of stars and planets. Until now, high-resolution images of such disks around young stars within the Orion Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) constituted the most direct proof of their existence. Now, another circumstellar disk has been detected around a star in the Lagoon Nebula - also known as Messier 8 (M8) , a giant complex of interstellar gas and dust with many young stars in the southern constellation of Sagittarius and four times more distant than the Orion Nebula. The observations were carried out by an international team of scientists led by Bringfried Stecklum (Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany) [1] who used telescopes located at the ESO La Silla observatory and also observations from the HST archive. These new results are paving the road towards exciting research programmes on star formation which will become possible with the ESO Very Large Telescope. The harsh environment of circumstellar disks The existence of circumstellar disks has been inferred from indirect measurements of young stellar objects, such as the spectral energy distribution, the analysis of the profiles of individual spectral lines and measurements of the polarisation of the emitted light [2]. Impressive images of such disks in the Orion Nebula, known as proplyds (PROto-PLanetarY DiskS), have been obtained by the HST during the recent years. They have confirmed the interpretation of previous ground-based emission-line observations and mapping by radio telescopes. Moreover, they demonstrated that those disks which are located close to hot and massive stars are subject to heating caused by the intense radiation from these stars. Subsequently, the disks evaporate releasing neutral gas which streams off. During this process, shock fronts (regions with increased density) with tails of ionised gas result at a certain distance between the disk and the hot star. These objects appear on

  20. STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.; Sargent, Anneila I.

    2009-08-10

    We present new subarcsecond ({approx}0.''7) Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission from circumstellar disks around 11 low- and intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence stars. High-resolution observations for three additional sources were obtained from the literature. In all cases the disk emission is spatially resolved. We adopt a self-consistent accretion disk model based on the similarity solution for the disk surface density and constrain the dust radial density distribution on spatial scales of about 40 AU. Disk surface densities appear to be correlated with the stellar ages where the characteristic disk radius increases from {approx}20 AU to {approx}100 AU over about 5 Myr. This disk expansion is accompanied by a decrease in the mass accretion rate, suggesting that our sample disks form an evolutionary sequence. Interpreting our results in terms of the temporal evolution of a viscous {alpha}-disk, we estimate (1) that at the beginning of the disk evolution about 60% of the circumstellar material was located inside radii of 25-40 AU, (2) that disks formed with masses from 0.05 to 0.4 M {sub sun}, and (3) that the viscous timescale at the disk initial radius is about 0.1-0.3 Myr. Viscous disk models tightly link the surface density {sigma}(R) with the radial profile of the disk viscosity {nu}(R) {proportional_to} R {sup {gamma}}. We find values of {gamma} ranging from -0.8 to 0.8, suggesting that the viscosity dependence on the orbital radius can be very different in the observed disks. Adopting the {alpha} parameterization for the viscosity, we argue that {alpha} must decrease with the orbital radius and that it may vary between 0.5 and 10{sup -4}. From the inferred disk initial radii we derive specific angular momenta, j, for parent cores of (0.8 - 4) x 10{sup -4} km s{sup -1} pc. Comparison with the values of j in dense cores suggests that about 10% of core angular momentum and 30% of the core

  1. ISOPHOT observations of circumstellar disks around young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robberto, M.; Meyer, M. R.; Natta, A.; Beckwith, S. V. W.

    1999-03-01

    We observed 97 stars in five young clusters at 25 and 60 μm with ISOPHOT to determine the frequency of infrared emission from circumstellar disks. The clusters have ages between 1 and 300 Myr. Most stars (5/6) that have near-infrared excess emission, thought to be indicative of accretion disks, exhibit far-infrared emission; only one object that has no excess emission in the near-infrared exhibits far-infrared excess emission. No stars older than 10 Myr have evidence for optically-thick disks. These results show that dust in the disks between about 0.3 and 3 AU disappears on timescales of ~ 10 Myr, identical within the uncertainties to the timescale for cessation of accretion as indicated by near-infrared observations of similar samples. Detection of one object whose dust optical depth is intermediate between opaque and transparent suggests that the duration of the transition phase between optically-thick and thin disk emission is less than 300,000 yr. Broad-band photometry between 2.5 and 100 μm, low resolution spectra between 2 and 12 μm, and 200 μm maps of 18 young stars (1-3 Myr old) in the Taurus and Chamaeleon dark clouds suggests that the irradiation dominates over viscous dissipation of mass accretion in the heating of the disk. The spectral energy distributions are consistent with those predicted by models of disks heated centrally by the stellar/accretion photosphere or by scattering from a diffuse halo surrounding the disk. The observations demonstrate that heating by accretion through the disks contributes little or no power to the energy budget at distances more than a few tenths AU from the central star.

  2. Evidence of Circumstellar Matter Surrounding the Hercules X-1 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, C. S.; Dotani, T.; Nagase, F.; Makino, F.; Deeter, J. E.; Min, K. W.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze data from two eclipse ingresses of Her X-1 observed with Ginga on 1989 April 30 and May 19. These observations occur, respectively, during the MAIN HIGH and SHORT HIGH states in the 35 day modulation of Her X-1 intensity. We find significant residual X-ray flux during eclipse, with a gradual decrease in flux following the occultation of the neutron star by the atmosphere of HZ Her. During the central part of the eclipse the count rate becomes nearly constant, at 0.5 mcrab in the energy range 1.7-36.8 keV. From a spec- tral analysis of the residual emission during the total eclipse of the central source in the MAIN MGH state, we determine the energy spectral index, alpha = 0.8, similar to that before eclipse. A remarkable feature of the eclipse spectrum is that it does not show a significant iron line feature in contrast to massive wind-fed pulsars, such as Vela X-1 and Cen X-3. From a timing analysis of the same eclipse data, we show that there are no pulses. These results imply that the emission comes from the scattering of continuum X-rays by material in a region considerably larger than the companion star. An extended accretion disk corona may be responsible for this scattering. However, partial eclipse of an extended accretion disk corona is insufficient to account for the count rates in mid-eclipse, when known parameters of the binary system are used. Based on the present results, we suggest that scattering occurs not only in the accretion disk corona but also in the circumstellar matter surrounding the system of Her X-1/HZ Her.

  3. Evidence of circumstellar matter surrounding the Hercules X-1 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, C. S.; Dotani, T.; Nagase, F.; Makino, F.; Deeter, J. E.; Min, K. W.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze data from two eclipse ingresses of Her X-1 observed with Ginga on 1989 April 30 and May 19. These observations occur, respectively, during the MAIN HIGH and SHORT HIGH states in the 35 day modulation of Her X-1 intensity. We find significant residual X-ray flux during eclipse, with a gradual decrease in flux following the occultation of the neutron star by the atmosphere of HZ Her. During the central part of the eclipse the count rate becomes nearly constant, at 0.5 mCrab in the energy range 1.7-36.8 keV. From a spectral analysis of the residual emission during the total eclipse of the central source in the MAIN HIGH state, we determine the energy spectral index, alpha = 0.8, similar to that before eclipse. A remarkable feature of the eclipse spectrum is that it does not show a significant iron line feature in contrast to massive wind-fed pulsars, such as Vela X-1 and Cen X-3. From a timing analysis of the same eclipse data, we show that there are no pulses. These results imply that the emission comes from the scattering of continuum X-rays by material in a region considerably larger than the companion star. An extended accretion disk corona may be responsible for this scattering. However, partial eclipse of an extended accretion disk corona may be responsible for this scattering. However, partial eclipse of an extended accretion disk corona is insufficient to account for the count rates in mid-eclipse, when known parameters of the binary system are used. Based on the present results, we suggest that scattering occurs not only in the accretion disk corona but also in the circumstellar matter surrounding the system of Her X-1/HZ Her.

  4. Investigations of the Formation of Carbon Grains in Circumstellar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contreras, Cesar; Salama, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The study of formation and destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. PAHs are important chemical building blocks of interstellar dust. They are detected in interplanetary dust particles and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs, in their neutral and ionized forms, are an important, ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium. Also, the formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, it is imperative that laboratory experiments be conducted to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation from PAH precursors. Studies of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) plasma source are detected and characterized with a high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS) coupled to a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS), thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. We report the first set of measurements obtained in these experiments and identify the species present in the experiments and the ions that are formed in the plasma process. From these unique measurements, we derive information on the size and the structure of interstellar dust grain particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules.

  5. Peripheral Disc Margin Shape and Internal Disc Derangement: Imaging Correlation in Significantly Painful Discs Identified at Provocation Lumbar Discography

    PubMed Central

    Bartynski, W.S.; Rothfus, W.E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Annular margin shape is used to characterize lumbar disc abnormality on CT/MR imaging studies. Abnormal discs also have internal derangement including annular degeneration and radial defects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential correlation between disc-margin shape and annular internal derangement on post-discogram CT in significantly painful discs encountered at provocation lumbar discography (PLD). Significantly painful discs were encountered at 126 levels in 86 patients (47 male, 39 female) studied by PLD where no prior surgery had been performed and response to intradiscal lidocaine after provocation resulted in either substantial/total relief or no improvement after lidocaine administration. Post-discogram CT and discogram imaging was evaluated for disc-margin characteristics (bulge/protrusion), features of disc internal derangement (radial annular defect [RD: radial tear/fissure/annular gap], annular degeneration) and presence/absence of discographic contrast leakage. In discs with focal protrusion, 50 of 63 (79%) demonstrated Grade 3 RD with 13 (21%) demonstrating severe degenerative change only. In discs with generalized-bulge-only, 48 of 63 (76%) demonstrated degenerative change only (primarily Dallas Grade 3) with 15 of 63 (24%) demonstrating a RD (Dallas Grade 3). Differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Pain elimination with intra-discal lidocaine correlated with discographic contrast leakage (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape correlates with features of internal derangement in significantly painful discs encountered at PLD. Discs with focal protrusion typically demonstrate RD while generalized bulging discs typically demonstrated degenerative changes only (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape may provide an important imaging clue to the cause of chronic discogenic low back pain. PMID:22681741

  6. Grand-design Spiral Arms in a Young Forming Circumstellar Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomida, Kengo; Machida, Masahiro N.; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya; Lin, Chia Hui

    2017-01-01

    We study formation and long-term evolution of a circumstellar disk in a collapsing molecular cloud core using a resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation. While the formed circumstellar disk is initially small, it grows as accretion continues, and its radius becomes as large as 200 au toward the end of the Class-I phase. A pair of grand-design spiral arms form due to gravitational instability in the disk, and they transfer angular momentum in the highly resistive disk. Although the spiral arms disappear in a few rotations as expected in a classical theory, new spiral arms form recurrently as the disk, soon becoming unstable again by gas accretion. Such recurrent spiral arms persist throughout the Class-0 and I phases. We then perform synthetic observations and compare our model with a recent high-resolution observation of a young stellar object Elias 2–27, whose circumstellar disk has grand-design spiral arms. We find good agreement between our theoretical model and the observation. Our model suggests that the grand-design spiral arms around Elias 2–27 are consistent with material arms formed by gravitational instability. If such spiral arms commonly exist in young circumstellar disks, it implies that young circumstellar disks are considerably massive and gravitational instability is the key process of angular momentum transport.

  7. [Optic disc granuloma secondary to sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Qu-Knafo, L; Auregan-Giocanti, A

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of optic disc granuloma due to sarcoidosis. A 64-year-old, caucasian female with a history of pulmonary sarcoidosis presented with a vision loss on her left eye. The ophthalmologic examination revealed a discrete optic disc infiltrate compatible with the diagnosis of optic disc granuloma. Fluorescein angiography showed diffusion and impregnation of the granuloma without vascularitis. The optical coherence tomography demonstrated a homogenous and isoreflective lesion at the optic disc. The patient recovered her visual acuity after systemic corticosteroid treatment. Isolated optic disc granuloma is a rare condition of ocular sarcoidosis.

  8. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - VIII. PSN J07285387+3349106, a highly reddened supernova Ibn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Morales-Garoffolo, A.; Terreran, G.; Taubenberger, S.; Noebauer, U. M.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Ciabattari, F.; Dennefeld, M.; Dimai, A.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Harutyunyan, A.; Leonini, S.; Ochner, P.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric observations for the Type Ibn supernova (SN) dubbed PSN J07285387+3349106. Using data provided by amateur astronomers, we monitored the photometric rise of the SN to maximum light, occurred on 2015 February 18.8 UT (JDmax(V) = 245 7072.0 ± 0.8). PSN J07285387+3349106 exploded in the inner region of an infrared luminous galaxy, and is the most reddened SN Ibn discovered so far. We apply multiple methods to derive the total reddening to the SN, and determine a total colour excess E(B - V)tot = 0.99 ± 0.48 mag. Accounting for the reddening correction, which is affected by a large uncertainty, we estimate a peak absolute magnitude of MV = -20.30 ± 1.50. The spectra are dominated by continuum emission at early phases, and He I lines with narrow P-Cygni profiles are detected. We also identify weak Fe III and N II features. All these lines show an absorption component which is blueshifted by about 900-1000 km s-1. The spectra also show relatively broad He I line wings with low contrast, which extend to above 3000 km s-1. From about two weeks past maximum, broad lines of O I, Mg II and the Ca II near-infrared triplet are identified. The composition and the expansion velocity of the circumstellar material, and the presence of He I and α-elements in the SN ejecta indicate that PSN J07285387+3349106 was produced by the core collapse of a stripped-envelope star. We suggest that the precursor was WNE-type Wolf-Rayet star in its dense, He-rich circumstellar cocoon.

  9. COMPARATIVE SPECTRA OF OXYGEN-RICH VERSUS CARBON-RICH CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELLS: VY CANIS MAJORIS AND IRC +10216 AT 215-285 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Dodd, J. L.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.; Milam, S. N. E-mail: jldodd@email.arizona.ed E-mail: lziurys@as.arizona.ed E-mail: Stefanie.N.Milam@nasa.go

    2010-09-01

    A sensitive (1{sigma} rms at 1 MHz resolution {approx}3 mK) 1 mm spectral line survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IRC +10216 has been conducted to compare the chemistries of oxygen- and carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This study was carried out using the Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory with a new Atacama Large Millimeter Array type receiver. This survey is the first to chemically characterize an O-rich circumstellar shell at millimeter wavelengths. In VY CMa, 128 emission features were detected arising from 18 different molecules; and in IRC +10216, 720 lines were observed, assigned to 32 different species. The 1 mm spectrum of VY CMa is dominated by SO{sub 2} and SiS; in IRC +10216, C{sub 4}H and SiC{sub 2} are the most recurrent species. Ten molecules were common to both sources: CO, SiS, SiO, CS, CN, HCN, HNC, NaCl, PN, and HCO{sup +}. Sulfur plays an important role in VY CMa, but saturated/unsaturated carbon dominates the molecular content of IRC +10216, producing CH{sub 2}NH, for example. Although the molecular complexity of IRC +10216 is greater, VY CMa supports a unique 'inorganic' chemistry leading to the oxides PO, AlO, and AlOH. Only diatomic and triatomic compounds were observed in VY CMa, while species with four or more atoms are common in IRC +10216, reflecting carbon's ability to form multiple strong bonds, unlike oxygen. In VY CMa, a new water maser (v {sub 2} = 2) has been found, as well as vibrationally excited NaCl. Toward IRC +10216, vibrationally excited CCH was detected for the first time.

  10. Comparative Spectra of Oxygen-Rich Versus Carbon-Rich Circumstellar Shells: VY Canis Majoris and IRC(plus)10216 at 215-285 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenebaum, E. D.; Dodd, J. L.; Milam, S. N.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive (1sigma rms at 1 MHz resolution approx.3 mK) 1 mm spectral line survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IRC +10216 has been conducted to compare the chemistries of oxygen- and carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This study was carried out using the Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory with a new Atacama Large Millimeter Array type receiver. This survey is the first to chemically characterize an O-rich circumstellar shell at millimeter wavelengths. In VY CMa, 128 emission features were detected arising from 18 different molecules; and in IRC +10216, 720 lines were observed, assigned to 32 different species. The 1 mm spectrum of VY CMa is dominated by SO, and SiS; in IRC +10216, C4H and SiC2 are the most recurrent species. Ten molecules were common to both sources: CO, SiS, SiO, CS, CN, HCN, HNC, NaCl, PN, and HCO(+). Sulfur plays an important role in VY CMa, but saturated/ unsaturated carbon dominates the molecular content of IRC +102.16, producing CH2NH, for example. Although the molecular complexity of IRC +10216 is greater, VY CMa supports a unique "inorganic" chemistry leading to the oxides PO, AlO, and AlOH. Only diatomic and triatomic compounds were observed in VY CMa, while species with four or more atoms are common in IRC +10216, reflecting carbon's ability to form multiple strong bonds, unlike oxygen. In VY CMa, a new water maser (v2 = 2) has been found, as well as vibrationally excited NaCl. Toward IRC +10216, vibrationally excited CCH was detected for the first time.

  11. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters which nuclear facilities may operate within to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a result of the U.S. having no operating nuclear chemical reprocessing plants, there has been a strong interest in obtaining process monitoring data from the ICPP. The ICPP was shut down in 1996 and a recent effort has been made to retrieve the PM data from storage in a data mining effort. In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z- testing7.

  12. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis; Teoh, William; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) provides an alternative to extravehicular activity (EVA) of space suited astronauts and/or use of long slender manipulator arms such as are used in the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. POWER provides the capability for a shirt sleeved astronaut to perform such work by entering a control pod through air locks at both ends of an inflated flexible bellows (access tunnel). The exoskeleton of the tunnel is a series of six degrees of freedom (Six-DOF) articulated links compressible to 1/6 of their fully extended length. The operator can maneuver the control pod to almost any location within about 50 m of the base attachment to the space station. POWER can be envisioned as a series of hollow Six-DOF manipulator segments or arms wherein each arm grasps the shoulder of the next arm. Inside the hollow arms ia a bellow-type access tunnel. The control pod is the fist of the series of linked hollow arms. The fingers of the fist are conventional manipulator arms under direct visual control of the nearby operator in the pod. The applications and progress to date of the POWER system is given.

  13. Illuminating the Role of Spiral Waves in Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee W.

    2017-01-01

    The transport of angular momentum and mass, and the generation of turbulence, play a crucial role in the evolution of a variety of astrophysical disks. Spiral waves, driven for instance by companion bodies or instabilities, have long been recognized as an important means for the aforementioned two processes. In this dissertation talk, I will discuss an instability of spiral waves that I have recently come across. I will begin by presenting the results from a three-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulation which described the growth and saturation of the instability. The spiral wave instability (SWI) arises as inertial modes, natural oscillations in rotating systems, amplify when they resonantly couple to and extract energy from the background spiral waves. This leads to break down of the spiral waves into turbulence when the velocity perturbations caused by unstable inertial modes reach a similar magnitude to those induced by the spiral waves. As an implication of the instability, I will present numerical results and discuss the consequence of the SWI when it acts on the spiral waves driven by a Jupiter-mass planet in a protoplanetary disk. I find that the planet-driven spiral arms are destabilized via the SWI, generating hydrodynamic turbulence and sustained vertical flows that are associated with long wavelength inertial modes. The associated vertical diffusion rate measured from the simulations is such that solid particles with sizes up to a few centimeters are vertically mixed within the first scale height in a protosolar nebula-like disk. Since circumstellar disks are believed to remain laminar, and thus to induce no or very little particle stirring as suggested by recent magnetocentrifugal wind models, the results imply that the SWI can be the mechanism controlling the degree of vertical settling of solid particles in planet-hosting disks. In particular, if accretion of mm- to cm-sized pebbles dominates the growth of terrestrial bodies, the stirring of solid

  14. Measuring the structure and composition of circumstellar debris disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballering, Nicholas Paul

    In this dissertation, I measure the structure and composition of circumstellar debris disks to probe the underlying planetary systems. In Chapter 1, I provide an introduction to the field of debris disks. I highlight our current observational and theoretical understanding of the field, rather than providing a detailed history. This is intended to give the reader context and motivation for the subsequent chapters. I also describe important developments in debris disk science that are not the focus of this dissertation, but are nevertheless vital for a complete overview. In Chapter 2, I describe my analysis of a large sample of cold (<130 K) debris disks seen in Spitzer/IRS data. Previous work had suggested a common temperature for these disk components, regardless of spectral type. I find that there is trend with spectral type and argue that the locations of cold disks are not set by snow lines, but more likely by the formation/evolution of planets. This work was published in Ballering et al. (2013). In Chapter 3, I turn my focus to the warm (˜190 K) debris components identified in Chapter 2--specifically those exhibiting silicate emission features. I show that these features arise from exozodiacal dust in the habitable zones around these stars. This was published in Ballering et al. (2014). In Chapter 4, I examine the remainder of the warm disks to investigate what mechanism sets their location. I find that for many systems, the locations trace the water snow line in the primordial protoplanetary disk, rather than the current snow line. This favors the interpretation that warm debris components arise from asteroid belts in these systems. This study will be published soon. In Chapter 5, I analyze images of the debris disk around beta Pictoris at five different wavelengths, including in thermal emission and scattered light. I find that matching the disk brightness at all wavelengths constrains the composition of the dust, with a mixture of astronomical silicates and

  15. Asymmetric Circumstellar Matter in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, S. P.; Blondin, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) are not well understood, but are likely to be of diverse origin, including single- and double-degenerate binary systems. Among single-degenerate progenitors, substantial amounts of circumstellar material (CSM) are expelled prior to the SN explosions by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companions to the accreting white dwarfs. A subsequent collision of SN ejecta with the dense AGB wind has been detected among several distant SNe such as SN 2002ic, SN 2008J, and more recently PTF11kx. Dense CSM ejected by an AGB companion is present in the remnant of Kepler's SN of 1604, a Type Ia event. Observations of distant SNe hint at strongly asymmetric CSM distributions. A recent study of the CSM in Kepler's SNR by Burkey et al. indicates a large (factor of 10) density contrast between the dense, disk-like equatorial outflow and the more tenuous AGB wind above the orbital plane. A significant fraction of mature Type Ia SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) shows the presence of dense Fe-rich ejecta in their interiors that cannot be explained by standard models of Type Ia explosions in a uniform ambient interstellar medium. We explore the hypothesis that these remnants originated in Type Ia explosions with strongly asymmetric CSM distributions such as found in Kepler's SNR. We present results of 2-D hydrodynamical simulations of the interaction of SN ejecta with asymmetric, disk-like AGB winds throughout the whole adiabatic stage of SNR evolution. Dense, asymmetric, and highly-ionized Fe-rich ejecta are indeed present in the simulated remnants, while the blast wave assumes a spherical shape shortly after passage through the ambient CSM. We also present simulated X-ray images and spectra and compare them with X-ray observations of selected remnants in the LMC. These remnants include DEM L238 and L249, recently observed by Suzaku, whose X-ray emission is strongly dominated by dense Fe-rich ejecta in their interiors. We contrast these

  16. Resource envelope concepts for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, K. Y.; Weiler, J. D.; Tokaz, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Seven proposed methods for creating resource envelopes for Space Station Freedom mission planning are detailed. Four reference science activity models are used to illustrate the effect of adding operational flexibility to mission timelines. For each method, a brief explanation is given along with graphs to illustrate the application of the envelopes to the power and crew resources. The benefits and costs of each method are analyzed in terms of resource utilization. In addition to the effect on individual activities, resource envelopes are analyzed at the experiment level.

  17. Radio Supernovae: Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I.) of Supernova Progenitor Stars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-24

    ar X iv :0 90 2. 40 59 v1 [ as tr o- ph .H E ] 2 4 Fe b 20 09 Radio Supernovae : Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I.) of Supernova Progenitor...FEB 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radio Supernovae : Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I...of Supernova Progenitor Stars 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  18. Tidal Distortion of the Envelope of an AGB Star IRS 3 near Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Wardle, M.; Cotton, W.; Schödel, R.; Royster, M. J.; Roberts, D. A.; Kunneriath, D.

    2017-03-01

    We present radio and millimeter continuum observations of the Galactic center taken with the Very Large Array (VLA) and ALMA at 44 and 226 GHz, respectively. We detect radio and millimeter emission from IRS 3, lying ∼4.″5 NW of Sgr A*, with a spectrum that is consistent with the photospheric emission from an AGB star at the Galactic center. Millimeter images reveal that the envelope of IRS 3, the brightest and most extended 3.8 μm Galactic center stellar source, consists of two semicircular dust shells facing the direction of Sgr A*. The outer circumstellar shell, at a distance of 1.6 × 104 au, appears to break up into “fingers” of dust directed toward Sgr A*. These features coincide with molecular CS (5–4) emission and a near-IR extinction cloud distributed between IRS 3 and Sgr A*. The NE–SW asymmetric shapes of the IRS 3 shells seen at 3.8 μm and radio are interpreted as structures that are tidally distorted by Sgr A*. Using the kinematics of CS emission and the proper motion of IRS 3, the tidally distorted outflowing material from the envelope after 5000 yr constrains the distance of IRS 3 to ∼0.7 pc in front of or ∼0.5 pc behind Sgr A*. This suggests that the mass loss by stars near Sgr A* can supply a reservoir of molecular material near Sgr A*. We also present dark features in radio continuum images coincident with the envelope of IRS 3. These dusty stars provide examples in which high-resolution radio continuum images can identify dust-enshrouded stellar sources embedded in an ionized medium.

  19. Proto-planetary disc evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosotti, Giovanni Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Planets form from gas and dust discs in orbit around young stars. The timescale for planet formation is constrained by the lifetime of these discs. The properties of the formed planetary systems depend thus on the evolution and final dispersal of the discs, which is the main topic of this thesis. Observations reveal the existence of a class of discs called "transitional", which lack dust in their inner regions. They are thought to be the last stage before the complete disc dispersal, and hence they may provide the key to understanding the mechanisms behind disc evolution. X-ray photoevaporation and planet formation have been studied as possible physical mechanisms responsible for the final dispersal of discs. However up to now, these two phenomena have been studied separately, neglecting any possible feedback or interaction. In this thesis we have investigated what is the interplay between these two processes. We show that the presence of a giant planet in a photo-evaporating disc can significantly shorten its lifetime, by cutting the inner regions from the mass reservoir in the exterior of the disc. This mechanism produces transition discs that for a given mass accretion rate have larger holes than in models considering only X-ray photo-evaporation, constituting a possible route to the formation of accreting transition discs with large holes. These discs are found in observations and still constitute a puzzle for the theory. Inclusion of the phenomenon called "thermal sweeping", a violent instability that can destroy a whole disc in as little as 10 4 years, shows that the outer disc left can be very short-lived (depending on the X-ray luminosity of the star), possibly explaining why very few non accreting transition discs are observed. However the mechanism does not seem to be efficient enough to reconcile with observations. In this thesis we also show that X-ray photo-evaporation naturally explains the observed correlation between stellar masses and accretion

  20. Radiative accelerations in stellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    In stars which are sufficiently quiescent, changes in the relative abundances of the chemical elements can result from gravitational settling and from levitation produced by radiation pressure forces, usually expressed as radiative accelerations g_rad. Those changes can affect the structure of such stars, due to modifications in opacities, and can lead to marked peculiarities in observed atmospheric abundances. It is necessary to consider diffusive movements both in the atmospheres and in much deeper layers of the stellar envelopes. For the envelopes the equation of radiative transfer can be solved in a diffusion approximation and, for an element k in ionization stage j, one obtains expressions for g_rad(j, k) proportional to the total radiative flux, to the Rosseland-mean opacity kappa_R (which may depend on the abundance of k), and to a dimensionless quantity gamma(j, k) which, due to saturation effects, can be sensitive to the abundance of k. The radiative accelerations are required for each ionization stage, because the diffusion coefficients depend on j. Using atomic data obtained in the course of the work of the Opacity Project (OP), we calculate kappa_R and gamma(j, k) for the chemical elements C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni. We start from standard Solar system abundances, and then vary the abundance of one element at a time (element k) by a factor chi. The following results are obtained and are available at the Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). (1) Files stages.zz (where zz specifies the nuclear charge of the selected element k) containing values of kappa_R and gamma(j, k) on a mesh of values of (T, N_e, chi), where T is temperature, and N_e is electron density. We include derivatives of kappa_R and gamma(j, k) with respect to chi, which are used for making interpolations. (2) A code add.f which reads a file stages.zz and writes a file acc.zz containing values of gamma(k) obtained on summing the gamma(j, k

  1. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, F. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) concept has evolved over the course of the study. The goal of the project was the development of methods and algorithms for solid modeling for the flexible robot arm.

  2. Transcriptional regulation at the yeast nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Steglich, Babett; Sazer, Shelley; Ekwall, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The spatial organization of the genome inside the nucleus affects many nuclear processes, such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene transcription. In metazoans, the nuclear periphery harbors mainly repressed genes that associate with the nuclear lamina. This review discusses how peripheral positioning is connected to transcriptional regulation in yeasts. Tethering of reporter genes to the nuclear envelope was found to result in transcriptional silencing. Similarly, repression of the silent mating type loci and subtelomeric genes is influenced by their position close to the nuclear envelope. In contrast, active genes are bound by nucleoporins and inducible genes associate with the nuclear pore complex upon activation. Taken together, these results portray the nuclear envelope as a platform for transcriptional regulation, both through activation at nuclear pores and silencing at the nuclear envelope. PMID:24021962

  3. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF AXIAL FIBRILS, OUTER ENVELOPE, AND CELL DIVISION OF CERTAIN ORAL SPIROCHETES

    PubMed Central

    Listgarten, M. A.; Socransky, S. S.

    1964-01-01

    Listgarten, M. A. (Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Forsyth Dental Center, Boston, Mass.), and S. S. Socransky. Electron microscopy of axial fibrils, outer envelope, and cell division of certain oral spirochetes. J. Bacteriol. 88:1087–1103. 1964.—The ultrastructure of axial fibrils and outer envelopes of a number of oral spirochetes was studied in thin sections and by negative contrast. The axial fibrils measured 150 to 200 A in diameter. Only one end of each fibril was inserted subterminally into the protoplasmic cylinder by means of a 400 A wide disc. The free ends of fibrils inserted near one end of the cylinder extended toward, and overlapped in close apposition, the free ends of fibrils inserted at the other end. In thin sections, some axial fibrils showed a substructure, suggestive of a dense central core. The outer envelopes of most spirochetes appeared to consist of 80 A wide polygonal structural subunits. However, in one large spirochete, the outer envelope demonstrated a “pin-striped” pattern. Cell division in a pure culture of Treponema microdentium was studied by negative contrast. Results suggested that this organism divides by transverse fission, the outer envelope being last to divide. During the course of division, new axial fibrils appeared to originate on either side of the point of constriction of the protoplasmic cylinder. Flagellalike extensions which were found in rapidly dividing organisms were due to protruding axial fibrils, and appeared to be the result of cell division. Some evidence is presented to support the concept of a homologous origin for axial fibrils and flagella. Images PMID:14219024

  4. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  5. Constraints on the circumstellar dust around KIC 8462852

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. A.; Scicluna, P.; Kemper, F.; Geach, J. E.; Dunham, M. M.; Morata, O.; Ertel, S.; Ho, P. T. P.; Dempsey, J.; Coulson, I.; Petitpas, G.; Kristensen, L. E.

    2016-05-01

    We present millimetre (Submillimeter Array) and submillimetre (SCUBA-2) continuum observations of the peculiar star KIC 8462852 which displayed several deep and aperiodic dips in brightness during the Kepler mission. Our observations are approximately confusion-limited at 850 μm and are the deepest millimetre and submillimetre photometry of the star that has yet been carried out. No significant emission is detected towards KIC 8462852. We determine upper limits for dust between a few 10-6 M⊕ and 10-3 M⊕ for regions identified as the most likely to host occluding dust clumps and a total overall dust budget of <7.7 M⊕ within a radius of 200 au. Such low limits for the inner system make the catastrophic planetary disruption hypothesis unlikely. Integrating over the Kepler light curve we determine that at least 10-9 M⊕ of dust is required to cause the observed Q16 dip. This is consistent with the currently most favoured cometary breakup hypothesis, but nevertheless implies the complete breakup of ˜30 Comet 1/P Halley type objects. Finally, in the wide SCUBA-2 field of view we identify another candidate debris disc system that is potentially the largest yet discovered.

  6. Type Ia supernovae within dense carbon- and oxygen-rich envelopes: a model for `Super-Chandrasekhar' explosions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noebauer, U. M.; Taubenberger, S.; Blinnikov, S.; Sorokina, E.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the consequences of fairly normal Type Ia supernovae being embedded in compact and dense envelopes of carbon- and oxygen-rich circumstellar material by means of detailed radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Our main focus rests on exploring the effects of the interaction between ejecta and circumstellar material on the ejecta evolution and the broad-band light curve. In our calculations, we find that a strong reverse shock efficiently decelerates and compresses the ejecta material. This leads to a significant broadening of the optical light curve, a longer rise to maximum and a slower decline in the tail phase. During the interaction, substantial radiative energy is generated, which mostly emerges in the extreme ultraviolet and X-ray regime. Only if reprocessing due to radiation-matter interactions is very efficient, a significant boost in the optical light curve is observed. We discuss these findings in particular in the context of the superluminous event SN 2009dc. As our calculations are able to reproduce a number of its peculiar properties, we conclude that the flavour of the interaction scenario investigated in this work constitutes a promising candidate to explain such `Super-Chandrasekhar' supernovae.

  7. [Polish nomenclature of lumbar disc disease].

    PubMed

    Radło, Paweł; Smetkowski, Andrzej; Tesiorowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is one of the most common damage of musculoskeletal system. The incidence of pain of lumbosacral spine is estimated approximately on 60-90% in general population, whereas the incidence of disc herniation in patients experiencing low back pain is about 91%. Despite the high incidence and uncomplicated pathogenesis of disc disease there is a problem with the nomenclature. In the vast majority of cases, the naming confusion stems from ignorance of the etiology of low back pain. Different terminologies: morphological, topographical, Radiological and Clinical are used interchangeably. In addition, diagnosis is presented in a variety of languages: Polish, English and Latin. Moreover, the medical and traditional language are used alternately. The authors found in Polish literature more, than 20 terms to describe lumbar disc herniation. All of these terms in the meaning of the authors are used to determine one pathology--mechanical damage to the intervertebral disc and moving the disc material beyond the anatomical area.

  8. Genetic diversity of koala retroviral envelopes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqin; Gorman, Kristen; Santiago, Jan Clement; Kluska, Kristen; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2015-03-17

    Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A) were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  9. Cooling of neutron stars with diffusive envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Fortin, M.; Haensel, P.; Yakovlev, D. G.; Zdunik, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    We study the effects of heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars on their cooling. To this aim, we perform cooling simulations using newly constructed models of the envelopes composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) varying the mass of lighter ions (H, He or C) in the envelope. The results are compared with those calculated using the standard models of the envelopes which contain the layers of lighter (accreted) elements (H, He and C) on top of the Fe layer, varying the mass of accreted elements. The main effect is that the chemical composition of the envelopes influences their thermal conductivity and, hence, thermal insulation of the star. For illustration, we apply these results to estimate the internal temperature of the Vela pulsar and to study the cooling of neutron stars of ages of 105-106 yr at the photon cooling stage. The uncertainties of the cooling models associated with our poor knowledge of chemical composition of the heat insulating envelopes strongly complicate theoretical reconstruction of the internal structure of cooling neutron stars from observations of their thermal surface emission.

  10. The joke envelope: a neglected precursor of the psychic envelope concept in Freud's writing.

    PubMed

    Spero, Moshe Halevi

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of the primeval skin ego, psychic envelope, and related pre-ego containing and wrapping functions elaborated respectively by Esther Bick, Didier Anzieu, and Francis Tustin occupy an important position in contemporary psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice. The psychic envelope begins as a virtual mental protostructure ("proto" because it is not yet based on fully symbolized representations) that holds the budding mind together pending further developments. With maturity, the enveloping functions adopt symbolized, metaphoric form (for example, the aesthetic use of cloth, the analytic framework), but can regress to more concrete and pathological forms. The aforementioned authors based their ideas on a cluster of specific allusions to the idea of a psychic covering, barrier, or envelope in Freud's work. Yet they neglected one reference, hidden in Freud's analysis of the structure ofjokes and humor: the 'joke envelope"--die witzige Einkleidung. The present essay explores Freud's use of the term Einkleidung, including his intriguing idea that a joke requires three people whereas a dream does not and the fact that Freud nowhere speaks of a "dream envelope. "I take the "joke envelope" beyond its original context and posit a relationship between laughter and the early, normative traumas of breathing, crying, and loss, and the dawn of rhythmic envelopes that enable mentalization. Jokes and joking symbolically repeat the early rupture and rapture of breathing and self-other differentiation and the internalization of maternal containing and envelopment.

  11. The Subarcsecond 10 Micron Size of LkH alpha 101: Constraints on Circumstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danen, R. M.; Gwinn, C. R.; Bloemhof, E. E.

    1995-07-01

    Operating slightly beyond the formal diffraction limit of a 3 m telescope, we have obtained λ = 10 microns images with subarcsecond spatial resolution of the pre-main-sequence emission-line star LkHα 101. Our measurements show that mid-infrared radiation emanates from within 135 AU of the star, on the same spatial scale as a strong ionized wind deduced from radio observations. The point-spread function of our infrared instrument, at the 3 m Shane Telescope, has FWHM 0".740±0".022, as measured for the unresolved star α Tau. Raw images of the core component of LkHα 101 have FWHM 0".768±0".021 after deconvolution, we set a 95% confidence upper limit of 0".34 (270 AU) for the FWHM diameter of the core. Our measured flux density of 325±27 Jy for the unresolved core accounts for most of the 10 microns emission from the central arcminute of LkHα 101. Our observation implies that ≍12% of the total luminosity of LkHα 101 is radiated by this unresolved core; thus, the unresolved core emission must be either optically thin, or anisotropically distributed about the star. For optically thin emission from dust, graphite or glassy carbon grains with radii less than α ≍ 0.15 microns can be excluded as contributing significantly to the unresolved 10 microns emission based on our upper limit of the source size and our measurement of the flux density, along with the observed spectrum. Similarly, silicate grains with radii less than α ≍ 0.3 microns can be excluded; although, based on the spectrum, silicate grains of any size are unlikely a dominant source of the mid-infrared core emission, if optically thin. The observation of an ionized stellar wind suggests as a model for the unresolved core a spherically symmetric, optically thin envelope of dust with an r-2 density distribution (characteristic of a uniform outflow). This model is consistent with our observations and with the spectral energy distribution, if the dust grains are graphite or glassy carbon and have

  12. Observations of molecular envelopes of late-type stars: CRL 618, CRL 2688, CRL 3068, and CIT 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukasaku, Sadafumi; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Akimasa; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Kaifu, Norio; Irvine, William M.

    1994-01-01

    The HC3N, HC5N, HC7N, CCH, C4H, SiS, and HNC molecules were observed in the circumstellar envelopes of CRL 618, CRL 2688, CIT 6, and CRL 3068 with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The observed relative abundances of the cyanopolyynes, CCH, and C4H in these late-type stars are similar to those for IRC +10216. However, it was found that the abundance of HNC increased with the physical evolutionary stage of the stars. In CRL 2688, it is also found that HNC is more concentrated in the inner region than SiS. The production mechanism of HNC is discussed by considering ultraviolet radiation from the central stars. The HC3N J = 4-3 transition was observed to have a P Cygni line profile in CRL 618.

  13. Close-packing of growing discs

    SciTech Connect

    Bursill, L.A.; Xudong, F. . School of Physics)

    1988-12-01

    Spiral lattices are derived by allowing growing discs to aggregate under a close-packing rule. Both Fibonacci and Lucas numbers of visible spirals arise naturally, dependent only on the choice of growth centre. Both the rate of convergence towards an ideal spiral, and chirality, are determined by the initial placement of the first few discs (initial conditions). Thus the appearance of spiral packings is no more or less mysterious than the appearance of hexagonal packed arrays of equal discs.

  14. The Circumstellar Environment of Low Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, Harold M.

    1999-01-01

    The final technical report of the NASA grant project is presented. The goals of the grant were to: (1) analyze the data from the Far-Infrared (FIR) Camera on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO); (2) acquire additional data at other wavelengths for models and (4) to develop source models for the Young stellar objects (YSOs)under study. The complete Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) from 10 microns out to 1.3 mm for all sources being studied have been obtained. The FIR imaging data was processed to reveal the maximum angular resolution possible, which allows us to model the disk. To model the disk we have the high resolution millimeter interferometry data. In summary the results to date are: (1) the vast majority of embedded YSOs in Taurus are compact at 100 microns. The models mos consistent with our data and other observations are either dominated by disk emissions, or envelopes that have relatively steep density gradients; (2) the submillimeter/millimeter photometer suggests that models are very successful. Disk emission plays an important role and must be considered when predicting the overall emission. (3) in the two cases, where we seem to have extended emission, we have to investigate other possible source models than a Shu collapse.

  15. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  16. The quiescent phase of galactic disc growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    We perform a series of controlled N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies within non-growing, live dark matter haloes of varying mass and concentration. Our initial conditions include either a low-mass disc or a compact bulge. New stellar particles are continuously added on near-circular orbits to the existing disc, so spiral structure is continuously excited. To study the effect of combined spiral and giant molecular cloud (GMC) heating on the discs, we introduce massive, short-lived particles that sample a GMC mass function. An isothermal gas component is introduced for a subset of the models. We perform a resolution study and vary parameters governing the GMC population, the histories of star formation and radial scale growth. Models with GMCs and standard values for the disc mass and halo density provide the right level of self-gravity to explain the age-velocity dispersion relation of the solar neighbourhood (Snhd). GMC heating generates remarkably exponential vertical profiles with scaleheights that are radially constant and agree with observations of galactic thin discs. GMCs are also capable of significantly delaying bar formation. The amount of spiral-induced radial migration agrees with what is required for the metallicity distribution of the Snhd. However, in our standard models, the outward-migrating populations are not hot enough vertically to create thick discs. Thick discs can form in models with high baryon fractions, but the corresponding bars are too long, the young stellar populations too hot and the discs flare considerably.

  17. Probing the circumstellar environment of the Herbig Be star HD 100546 with FUSE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleuil, M.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Roberge, A.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Feldman, P. D.; Ferlet, R.; Martin, C.

    2002-12-01

    We present an analysis of Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra probing the gaseous circumstellar environment of the Herbig Be star HD 100546. Numerous narrow absorption lines of circumstellar origin are observed from molecular and atomic gas, neutral and weakly ionized. At short wavelengths where the stellar flux is undetected, strong and broad emission lines due to highly ionised species such as C III and O VI are present. These lines formed in a dense and hot gas, collisionally heated, probe a region which extends over a few stellar radii above the star's surface. Comparison of two spectra recorded two years apart, reveal strong variations not limited to the atomic circumstellar lines as previously reported but which also affect the photospheric flux itself as well as the emission lines at short wavelengths. Our results highlight a complex circumstellar environment with evidences of a high temperature emission gas related to a chromospheric complex close to the stellar surface, sporadic wind and accretion phenomena which affect mainly volatile species like N I and O I(1D). Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. FUSE is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  18. Thermal metamorphism of Si2O3 - (A circumstellar dust analog)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J. A.; Donn, B.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal behavior of Si2O3, the metastable condensate from SiO vapor,has been studied experimentally. Si2O3 and its successor, amorphous quartz, have previously been shown to have infrared spectral features similar to some that appear in the spectra of grains in oxygen-rich circumstellar regions. Thermal annealing experiments show that only one Si2O3 decay process operates over the range between 750-1000 K. This process is a unimolecular disproportionation. The rate of this transformation can be expressed as k/hr = 10 to the 9th exp (-40 kcal/mole/RT). By using this rate constant, it is found that a significant fraction of freshly nucleated circumstellar grains can survive passage through a typical circumstellar shell virtually unaltered in structure. It is emphasized that this is only the first in a series of laboratory experiments intended to study the metamorphism of newly condensed circumstellar material ejected into the interstellar medium. Grains similar to these might have been incorporated into the primitive solar nebula, provided that they could also survive passage through the general interstellar medium.

  19. Solitary Alfven wave envelopes and the modulational instability

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, C.F.

    1987-06-01

    The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the modulational instability of circularly polarized dispersive Alfven wave envelopes. It also may be used to determine the properties of finite amplitude localized stationary wave envelopes. Such envelope solitons exist only in conditions of modulational stability. This leaves open the question of whether, and if so, how, the modulational instability produces envelope solitons. 12 refs.

  20. Total Disc Replacement in Lumbar Degenerative Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) was introduced for the first time to the world market for the surgical management of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). It seems like the right time to sum up the relevant results in order to understand where LTDR stands on now, and is heading forward to. The pathogenesis of DDD has been currently settled, but diagnosis and managements are still controversial. Fusion is recognized as golden standard of surgical managements but has various kinds of shortcomings. Lately, LTDR has been expected to replace fusion surgery. A great deal of LTDR reports has come out. Among them, more than 5-year follow-up prospective randomized controlled studies including USA IDE trials were expected to elucidate whether for LTDR to have therapeutic benefit compared to fusion. The results of these studies revealed that LTDR was not inferior to fusion. Most of clinical studies dealing with LTDR revealed that there was no strong evidence for preventive effect of LTDR against symptomatic degenerative changes of adjacent segment disease. LTDR does not have shortcomings associated with fusion. However, it has a potentiality of the new complications to occur, which surgeons have never experienced in fusion surgeries. Consequently, longer follow-up should be necessary as yet to confirm the maintenance of improved surgical outcome and to observe any very late complications. LTDR still may get a chance to establish itself as a substitute of fusion both nominally and virtually if it eases the concerns listed above. PMID:26713139

  1. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, M.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and grain growth, which are coupled in a two-way process. Aims: We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension Df = 2. Methods: Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. Results: The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the charging state of grains. The greater the difference between the thermal velocities of the metal and the dominant molecular ion, the greater the change in the mean grain charge. Agglomerates have more negative excess charge on average than compact spherical particles of the same mass. The rise in the mean grain charge is proportional to N1/6 in the ion-dust limit. We find that grain charging in a non-stationary disc environment is expected to lead to similar results. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dust growth and settling in regions where the dust growth is limited by the so-called "electro-static barrier" do not prevent the dust material from remaining the dominant charge carrier.

  2. [Standardized terminology for disc disease].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Pérez, M; Gil Sierra, A; Sánchez Martín, A; Gallego Gómez, P; Pereira Boo, D

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the terminology used to describe morphological alterations in the intervertebral discs. Radiologists must be able to communicate information about the type, location, and severity of these alterations to medical and surgical clinicians. It is crucial to use simple, standard, and unified terminology to ensure comprehension not only among radiologists but also with professionals from the different specialties for whom the radiology reports are written (fundamentally traumatologists and neurosurgeons). This terminology will help ensure a more accurate diagnosis and better patient management.

  3. Exocomet Circumstellar Fe I Absorption in the Beta Pictoris Gas Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Montgomery, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    We present an archival study of 27 circumstellar Fe i (λ3860 Å) and Ca ii (λ3933 Å) absorption spectra of the β Pictoris system recorded over the 2003-2014 timeframe. We have detected several transient absorption events at velocities red-shifted by >+20 km s-1 from the main central absorption line profiles of both Fe i and Ca ii. Such events can be attributed to the presence of kilometer-sized infalling evaporating bodies (i.e., exocomets) on their grazing approach to the central star. The majority of the transient absorption events detected in the Fe i profiles occur at velocities in the +35 to +50 km s-1 range. This is consistent with that found for Ca ii gas that has been sublimated from the “D” family of β Pictoris exocomets recently found by Kiefer et al. These spectra also reveal that the strength of the main component of the Fe i absorption line at V helio ˜ +21 km s-1 has weakened by ˜30% since 2011. Since neutrals, when ionized, are the main source of the ion-braking mechanism of Brandeker for circumstellar gas in the β Pictoris system, then this may have some measurable effect on the size and/or location of the main circumstellar gas disk. Finally we note that we have failed to detect any circumstellar Fe i absorption in our previously reported spectra of similar gas disks surrounding 28 young A-type stars. Thus, it would appear that the β Pictoris is anomalous with regards to circumstellar Fe i absorption.

  4. Stellar discs in Aquarius dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBuhr, Jackson; Ma, Chung-Pei; White, Simon D. M.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the gravitational interactions between live stellar discs and their dark matter haloes, using Λ cold dark matter haloes similar in mass to that of the Milky Way taken from the Aquarius Project. We introduce the stellar discs by first allowing the haloes to respond to the influence of a growing rigid disc potential from z = 1.3 to 1.0. The rigid potential is then replaced with star particles which evolve self-consistently with the dark matter particles until z = 0.0. Regardless of the initial orientation of the disc, the inner parts of the haloes contract and change from prolate to oblate as the disc grows to its full size. When the disc's normal is initially aligned with the major axis of the halo at z = 1.3, the length of the major axis contracts and becomes the minor axis by z = 1.0. Six out of the eight discs in our main set of simulations form bars, and five of the six bars experience a buckling instability that results in a sudden jump in the vertical stellar velocity dispersion and an accompanying drop in the m = 2 Fourier amplitude of the disc surface density. The bars are not destroyed by the buckling but continue to grow until the present day. Bars are largely absent when the disc mass is reduced by a factor of 2 or more; the relative disc-to-halo mass is therefore a primary factor in bar formation and evolution. A subset of the discs is warped at the outskirts and contains prominent non-coplanar material with a ring-like structure. Many discs reorient by large angles between z = 1 and 0, following a coherent reorientation of their inner haloes. Larger reorientations produce more strongly warped discs, suggesting a tight link between the two phenomena. The origins of bars and warps appear independent: some discs with strong bars show little disturbances at the outskirts, while the discs with the weakest bars show severe warps.

  5. Use NASA GES DISC Data in ArcGIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Wenli; Pham, Long B.; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes GIS relevant data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), GES DISC Services and Support for GIS Users, and use cases of GES DISC data in ArcGIS.

  6. CARBON CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVELOPE OF VY CANIS MAJORIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR OXYGEN-RICH EVOLVED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ziurys, L. M.; Tenenbaum, E. D.; Pulliam, R. L.; Woolf, N. J.; Milam, S. N. E-mail: emilyt@as.arizona.edu E-mail: nwoolf@as.arizona.edu

    2009-04-20

    Observations of the carbon-bearing molecules CO, HCN, CS, HNC, CN, and HCO{sup +} have been conducted toward the circumstellar envelope of the oxygen-rich red supergiant star, VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). CO and HCN were also observed toward the O-rich shells of NML Cyg, TX Cam, IK Tau, and W Hya. Rotational transitions of these species at 1 mm, 0.8 mm, and 0.4 mm were measured with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, including the J = 6 {yields} 5 line of CO at 691 GHz toward TX Cam and W Hya. The ARO 12 m was used for 2 mm and 3 mm observations. Four transitions were observed for HCO{sup +} in VY CMa, the first definitive identification of this ion in a circumstellar envelope. Molecular line profiles from VY CMa are complex, indicating three separate outflows: a roughly spherical flow and separate red- and blueshifted winds, as suggested by earlier observations. Spectra from the other sources appear to trace a single outflow component. The line data were modeled with a radiative transfer code to establish molecular abundances relative to H{sub 2} and source distributions. Abundances for CO derived for these objects vary over an order of magnitude, f {approx} 0.4-5 x 10{sup -4}, with the lower values corresponding to the supergiants. For HCN, a similar range in abundance is found (f {approx} 0.9-9 x 10{sup -6}), with no obvious dependence on the mass-loss rate. In VY CMa, HCO{sup +} is present in all three outflows with f {approx} 0.4-1.6 x 10{sup -8} and a spatial extent similar to that of CO. HNC is found only in the red- and blueshifted components with [HCN]/[HNC] {approx} 150-190, while [CN]/[HCN] {approx} 0.01 in the spherical flow. All three velocity components are traced in CS, which has a confined spatial distribution and f {approx} 2-6 x 10{sup -7}. These observations suggest that carbon-bearing molecules in O-rich shells are produced by a combination of photospheric shocks and photochemistry. Shocks may play a more

  7. Morphologically complex protostellar envelopes : structure and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John J.

    I present an in-depth study of protostars and their surrounding envelopes of dense gas and dust, using a multitude of observational methods to reveal new details of the star formation process. I use mid-infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with photometry spanning the near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, to construct a model of the L1527 protostellar system. I modeled both the spectral energy distribution and resolved scattered light images to determine physical properties of the protostellar system. The nature of the apparent central point source in the Spitzer images was uncertain until high-resolution L-band imaging from the Gemini observatory resolved the point source into a disk in scattered light, having a radius of 200 AU. Protostellar envelopes are also often found to cast shadows against the 8 micron Galactic background in Spitzer imaging, enabling direct probes of envelope structure. The shadow images show that the dense envelopes around twenty-two Class 0 protostars are generally morphologically complex from 0.1 pc scales down to ˜1000 AU; they are often filamentary, and frequently non-axisymmetric. The observed envelope structure indicates a likely origin in turbulent cloud structure rather than a quasi-static/equilibrium formation. The complex envelope structure also may indicate an increased likelihood of fragmentation during collapse, forming close binaries. To further characterize these envelopes, I have observed them in the dense molecular gas tracers nthp and nht, both of which closely follow the 8 micron extinction morphology. The magnitude of the velocity gradients and envelope complexity on ˜10000 AU scales indicates that the velocity structure may reflect large-scale infall in addition to the often assumed rotation. Comparisons with three-dimensional filamentary and symmetric rotating collapse models reinforce the interpretation of velocities reflecting large-scale infall, showing that the structure of the envelope

  8. Intervertebral disc replacement. Experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kostuik, J P

    1997-04-01

    Arthrodesis of the lumbosacral spine, although satisfactory for a majority of patients, has long term sequelae in 30% of patients. This is particularly true for adjacent segment degeneration. Numerous attempts at providing a mobile motion segment have been made in the past. The current status of the development of dynamic intervertebral prosthesis, including biomechanical and clinical data have been presented. The relevant material properties of plastics, ceramics, and metal are presented with the conclusion that metals currently present with the greatest longevity without undue fatigue and wear as many as 100,000,000 cycles (40 years use) as an alternative to spinal fusion. An analysis of the kinematics of the motion segment have resulted, together with the material properties in the development of a dynamic intervertebral disc for use in the lumbar spine. The disc resembles a normal motion segment. In motion stiffness and center of rotation, wear debris development in 1/300 equivalent to that of a total hip prosthesis for the same given time. Safety features include immediate screw fixation to prevent displacement, a wedge elastic (spring) shape, and a bony porous ingrowth surface. The prosthesis is constructed of cobalt chromium and titanium with minimal corrosive properties on long term testing.

  9. The cell envelope proteome of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Smith, K P; Fields, J G; Voogt, R D; Deng, B; Lam, Y-W; Mintz, K P

    2015-04-01

    The cell envelope of gram-negative bacteria serves a critical role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis, resistance to external stress, and host-pathogen interactions. Envelope protein composition is influenced by the physiological and environmental demands placed on the bacterium. In this study, we report a comprehensive compilation of cell envelope proteins from the periodontal and systemic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans VT1169, an afimbriated serotype b strain. The urea-extracted membrane proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics. The membrane proteome, isolated from actively growing bacteria under normal laboratory conditions, included 648 proteins representing 27% of the predicted open reading frames in the genome. Bioinformatic analyses were used to annotate and predict the cellular location and function of the proteins. Surface adhesins, porins, lipoproteins, numerous influx and efflux pumps, multiple sugar, amino acid and iron transporters, and components of the type I, II and V secretion systems were identified. Periplasmic space and cytoplasmic proteins with chaperone function were also identified. A total of 107 proteins with unknown function were associated with the cell envelope. Orthologs of a subset of these uncharacterized proteins are present in other bacterial genomes, whereas others are found exclusively in A. actinomycetemcomitans. This knowledge will contribute to elucidating the role of cell envelope proteins in bacterial growth and survival in the oral cavity.

  10. Adaptive Spectral Envelope Estimation for Doppler Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kathpalia, Aditi; Karabiyik, Yucel; Eik-Nes, Sturla; Tegnander, Eva; Ekroll, Ingvild; Kiss, Gabriel; Torp, Hans

    2016-07-07

    Estimation of accurate maximum velocities and spectral envelope in ultrasound Doppler blood flow spectrograms are both essential for clinical diagnostic purposes. However, obtaining accurate maximum velocity is not straightforward due to intrinsic spectral broadening and variance in the power spectrum estimate. The method proposed in this work for maximum velocity point detection has been developed by modifying an existing method - Signal Noise Slope Intersection (SNSI), incorporating in it steps from an altered version of another method called Geometric Method (GM). Adaptive noise estimation from the spectrogram ensures that a smooth spectral envelope is obtained post detection of these maximum velocity points. The method has been tested on simulated Doppler signal with scatterers possessing a parabolic flow velocity profile constant in time, steady and pulsatile string phantom recordings as well as in vivo recordings from uterine, umbilical, carotid and subclavian arteries. Results from simulation experiments indicate a bias of less than 2.5% in maximum velocities when estimated for a range of peak velocities, Doppler angles and SNR levels. Standard deviation in the envelope is low - less than 2% in case of experiments done by varying the peak velocity and Doppler angle for steady phantom and simulated flow; and also less than 2% in case of experiments done by varying SNR but keeping constant flow conditions for in vivo and simulated flow. Low variability in the envelope makes the prospect of using the envelope for automated blood flow measurements possible and is illustrated for the case of Pulsatility Index estimation in uterine and umbilical arteries.

  11. Featured Image: Orbiting Stars Share an Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This beautiful series of snapshots from a simulation (click for a better look!) shows what happens when two stars in a binary system become enclosed in the same stellar envelope. In this binary system, one of the stars has exhausted its hydrogen fuel and become a red giant, complete with an expanding stellar envelope composed of hydrogen and helium. Eventually, the envelope expands so much that the companion star falls into it, where it releases gravitational potential energy into the common envelope. A team led by Sebastian Ohlmann (Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies and University of Wrzburg) recently performed hydrodynamic simulations of this process. Ohlmann and collaborators discovered that the energy release eventually triggers large-scale flow instabilities, which leads to turbulence within the envelope. This process has important consequences for how these systems next evolve (for instance, determining whether or not a supernova occurs!). You can check out the authors video of their simulated stellar inspiral below, or see their paper for more images and results from their study.CitationSebastian T. Ohlmann et al 2016 ApJ 816 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L9

  12. COMPLEX STRUCTURE IN CLASS 0 PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, John J.; Hartmann, Lee; Looney, Leslie W.; Chiang, Hsin-Fang

    2010-04-01

    We use archived Infrared Array Camera images from the Spitzer Space Telescope to show that many Class 0 protostars exhibit complex, irregular, and non-axisymmetric structure within their dusty envelopes. Our 8 {mu}m extinction maps probe some of the densest regions in these protostellar envelopes. Many of the systems are observed to have highly irregular and non-axisymmetric morphologies on scales {approx}>1000 AU, with a quarter of the sample exhibiting filamentary or flattened dense structures. Complex envelope structure is observed in regions spatially distinct from outflow cavities, and the densest structures often show no systematic alignment perpendicular to the cavities. These results indicate that mass ejection is not responsible for much of the irregular morphologies we detect; rather, we suggest that the observed envelope complexity is mostly the result of collapse from protostellar cores with initially non-equilibrium structures. The striking non-axisymmetry in many envelopes could provide favorable conditions for the formation of binary systems. We also note that protostars in the sample appear to be formed preferentially near the edges of clouds or bends in filaments, suggesting formation by gravitational focusing.

  13. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Y.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Hosokawa, T.; Yoshida, N.; Omukai, K.; Yorke, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a potential pathway to seed supermassive black holes in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper, we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity with realistic variable accretion from a circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds 104 M⊙. The disc fragments by gravitational instability, creating many clumps that migrate inward to fall on to the star. The resulting accretion history is highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer quiescent phases. We show that the disc for the direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability than normal Pop III cases. Next, we conduct a stellar evolution calculation using the obtained accretion history. Our results show that, regardless of the variable accretion, the stellar radius monotonically increases with almost constant effective temperature at Teff ≃ 5000 K as the stellar mass increases. The resulting UV feedback is too weak to hinder accretion due to the low flux of stellar UV photons. The insensitivity of stellar evolution to variable accretion is attributed to the fact that time-scales of variability, ≲103 yr, are too short to affect the stellar structure. We argue that this evolution will continue until the SMS collapses to produce a black hole by the general relativistic instability after the mass reaches ≳105 M⊙.

  14. Spiral Waves in Accretion Discs - Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffin, H. M. J.

    Spirals shocks have been widely studied in the context of galactic dynamics and protostellar discs. They may however also play an important role in some classes of close binary stars, and more particularly in cataclysmic variables. In this paper, we review the physics of spirals waves in accretion discs, present the results of numerical simulations and consider whether theory can be reconcilied with observations.

  15. Circular plate capacitor with different discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paffuti, Giampiero; Cataldo, Enrico; Di Lieto, Alberto; Maccarrone, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we write a system of integral equations for a capacitor composed of two discs of different radii, generalizing Love's equation for equal discs. We compute the complete asymptotic form of the capacitance matrix for both large and small distances obtaining a generalization of Kirchhoff's formula for the latter case.

  16. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  17. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  18. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  19. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  20. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  1. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, M.; Morris, M. R.; Frank, A.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Duschl, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and secondly, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabilizes the inner disc rim against rapid inward migration. Furthermore, this interaction causes instabilities that continuously create clumps that are individually unstable against tidal shearing. Thus the occurrence of such unstable clumps does not necessarily mean that the disc is itself a transient phenomenon. The next steps in this investigation are to explore the effect of the magnetorotational instability on the disc evolution and to test whether the results presented here persist for longer time-scales than those considered here.

  2. Rapid radiative clearing of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Owen, James E.

    2016-04-01

    The lack of observed transition discs with inner gas holes of radii greater than ˜50 au implies that protoplanetary discs dispersed from the inside out must remove gas from the outer regions rapidly. We investigate the role of photoevaporation in the final clearing of gas from low mass discs with inner holes. In particular, we study the so-called `thermal sweeping' mechanism which results in rapid clearing of the disc. Thermal sweeping was originally thought to arise when the radial and vertical pressure scalelengths at the X-ray heated inner edge of the disc match. We demonstrate that this criterion is not fundamental. Rather, thermal sweeping occurs when the pressure maximum at the inner edge of the dust heated disc falls below the maximum possible pressure of X-ray heated gas (which depends on the local X-ray flux). We derive new critical peak volume and surface density estimates for rapid radiative clearing which, in general, result in rapid dispersal happening less readily than in previous estimates. This less efficient clearing of discs by X-ray driven thermal sweeping leaves open the issue of what mechanism (e.g. far-ultraviolet heating) can clear gas from the outer disc sufficiently quickly to explain the non-detection of cold gas around weak line T Tauri stars.

  3. About detection of precessing circumpulsar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimani, Catia

    2016-08-01

    Detections of circumpulsar discs and planetary systems through electromagnetic observations appear quite rare. In the case of PSR 1931+24 and B0656+14, the hypothesis of a precessing disc penetrating the pulsar light cylinder is found consistent with radio and gamma observations from these stars. Disc self-occultation and precession may affect electromagnetic measurements. We investigate here under which conditions gravitational waves generated by circumpulsar disc precession may be detected by the proposed second-generation space interferometers DECI-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and Big Bang Observer. The characteristics of circumpulsar detectable precessing discs are estimated as a function of distance from the Solar system. Speculations on detection rates are presented.

  4. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Bursalı, Adem; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4–5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  5. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  6. Roentgenographic measurement of lumbar intervertebral disc height.

    PubMed

    Andersson, G B; Schultz, A; Nathan, A; Irstam, L

    1981-01-01

    The influences of differences in both intervertebral motion segment orientations and in reader judgments on measurements of the apparent intervertebral disc heights in lateral roentgenographs of the lumbar spine were examined. Forty-nine roentgenographs were obtained of nine discs that were titled laterally up to +/- 10 degrees, and rotated longitudinally up to +/- 20 degrees. Three orthopaedic surgeons and three radiologists measured disc heights from five of these roentgenographs, all using the same measurement method. The differences in apparent height that resulted from the orientation changes and differences in judgments among the six readers were considerable, usually of the order of one half of the nominal disc height. The results show that, while roentgenographic measurements can be used to estimate disc height, accurate measurements cannot readily be made from routine roentgenographs, and the interpretation should always be cautious.

  7. Ultradonut topology of the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Torbati, Mehdi; Lele, Tanmay P.; Agrawal, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a unique topological structure formed by lipid membranes in eukaryotic cells. Unlike other membrane structures, the nuclear envelope comprises two concentric membrane shells fused at numerous sites with toroid-shaped pores that impart a “geometric” genus on the order of thousands. Despite the intriguing architecture and vital biological functions of the nuclear membranes, how they achieve and maintain such a unique arrangement remains unknown. Here, we used the theory of elasticity and differential geometry to analyze the equilibrium shape and stability of this structure. Our results show that modest in- and out-of-plane stresses present in the membranes not only can define the pore geometry, but also provide a mechanism for destabilizing membranes beyond a critical size and set the stage for the formation of new pores. Our results suggest a mechanism wherein nanoscale buckling instabilities can define the global topology of a nuclear envelope-like structure. PMID:27647910

  8. Drug design from the cryptic inhibitor envelope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Jin; Liang, Xiaofei; Wu, Qinglin; Najeeb, Javaria; Zhao, Jinshi; Gopalaswamy, Ramesh; Titecat, Marie; Sebbane, Florent; Lemaitre, Nadine; Toone, Eric J; Zhou, Pei

    2016-02-25

    Conformational dynamics plays an important role in enzyme catalysis, allosteric regulation of protein functions and assembly of macromolecular complexes. Despite these well-established roles, such information has yet to be exploited for drug design. Here we show by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that inhibitors of LpxC--an essential enzyme of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in Gram-negative bacteria and a validated novel antibiotic target--access alternative, minor population states in solution in addition to the ligand conformation observed in crystal structures. These conformations collectively delineate an inhibitor envelope that is invisible to crystallography, but is dynamically accessible by small molecules in solution. Drug design exploiting such a hidden inhibitor envelope has led to the development of potent antibiotics with inhibition constants in the single-digit picomolar range. The principle of the cryptic inhibitor envelope approach may be broadly applicable to other lead optimization campaigns to yield improved therapeutics.

  9. Drug design from the cryptic inhibitor envelope

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-Jin; Liang, Xiaofei; Wu, Qinglin; Najeeb, Javaria; Zhao, Jinshi; Gopalaswamy, Ramesh; Titecat, Marie; Sebbane, Florent; Lemaitre, Nadine; Toone, Eric J.; Zhou, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Conformational dynamics plays an important role in enzyme catalysis, allosteric regulation of protein functions and assembly of macromolecular complexes. Despite these well-established roles, such information has yet to be exploited for drug design. Here we show by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that inhibitors of LpxC—an essential enzyme of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in Gram-negative bacteria and a validated novel antibiotic target—access alternative, minor population states in solution in addition to the ligand conformation observed in crystal structures. These conformations collectively delineate an inhibitor envelope that is invisible to crystallography, but is dynamically accessible by small molecules in solution. Drug design exploiting such a hidden inhibitor envelope has led to the development of potent antibiotics with inhibition constants in the single-digit picomolar range. The principle of the cryptic inhibitor envelope approach may be broadly applicable to other lead optimization campaigns to yield improved therapeutics. PMID:26912110

  10. Envelope Solitons in Acoustically Dispersive Vitreous Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic radiation-induced static strains, displacements, and stresses are manifested as rectified or dc waveforms linked to the energy density of an acoustic wave or vibrational mode via the mode nonlinearity parameter of the material. An analytical model is developed for acoustically dispersive media that predicts the evolution of the energy density of an initial waveform into a series of energy solitons that generates a corresponding series of radiation-induced static strains (envelope solitons). The evolutionary characteristics of the envelope solitons are confirmed experimentally in Suprasil W1 vitreous silica. The value (-11.9 plus or minus 1.43) for the nonlinearity parameter, determined from displacement measurements of the envelope solitons via a capacitive transducer, is in good agreement with the value (-11.6 plus or minus 1.16) obtained independently from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The agreement provides strong, quantitative evidence for the validity of the model.

  11. The role of thermodynamics in disc fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatellos, Dimitris; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    2009-12-01

    Thermodynamics play an important role in determining the way a protostellar disc fragments to form planets, brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We explore the effect that different treatments of radiative transfer have in simulations of fragmenting discs. Three prescriptions for the radiative transfer are used: (i) the diffusion approximation of Stamatellos et al.; (ii) the barotropic equation of state (EOS) of Goodwin et al. and (iii) the barotropic EOS of Bate et al. The barotropic approximations capture the general evolution of the density and temperature at the centre of each proto-fragment but (i) they do not make any adjustments for particular circumstances of a proto-fragment forming in the disc and (ii) they do not take into account thermal inertia effects that are important for fast-forming proto-fragments in the outer disc region. As a result, the number of fragments formed in the disc and their properties are different, when a barotropic EOS is used. This is important not only for disc studies but also for simulations of collapsing turbulent clouds, as in many cases in such simulations stars form with discs that subsequently fragment. We also examine the difference in the way proto-fragments condense out in the disc at different distances from the central star using the diffusion approximation and following the collapse of each proto-fragment until the formation of the second core (ρ ~= 10-3gcm-3). We find that proto-fragments forming closer to the central star tend to form earlier and evolve faster from the first to the second core than proto-fragments forming in the outer disc region. The former have a large pool of material in the inner disc region that they can accrete from and grow in mass. The latter accrete more slowly and they are hotter because they generally form in a quick abrupt event.

  12. From Cores to Envelopes to Disks: A Multi-scale View of Magnetized Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.

    2014-12-01

    protostellar envelope may be a turning point: at larger scales B-fields may still retain the memory of the global B-field drawn in from the ambient medium; but at smaller scales the B-fields may be affected by the dynamics of both envelope and disk rotation. This sets the stage for ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array), which will soon reveal the morphology of B-fields in circumstellar disks themselves.

  13. [NESPRINS--nuclear envelope proteins ensuring integrity].

    PubMed

    Pershina, E G; Morozova, K N; Kiseleva, E V

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the nesprins (nuclear envelope spectrin-repeat proteins), which are recently discovered family of nuclear envelope proteins. These proteins play an important role in maintaining the cellular architecture and establish the link between the nucleus and other sub-cellular compartments. Many tissue-specific diseases including lipodystrophies, hearing loss, cardiac and skeletal myopathies are associated with nesprins mutations. These proteins comprise of multiple tissue specific isoforms which contain spectrin repeats providing interaction of nesprins with other nuclear membrane proteins, cytoskeleton and intranuclear matrix. We summarize recent findings and suggestions about nesprins structural organization and function inside the cell. Human diseases caused by abnormal nesprins expression are also described.

  14. Consumer access to utility billing envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Anglin, M.K.

    1984-09-13

    Billing envelope inserts are a medium of advertising used by utilities for a variety of purposes, from encouraging conservation to expressing political opinions. Recently, consumer groups have begun to assert a right of access to the same medium. A constitutional right of reply has been advocated. Commissions have found regulatory authority to direct companies to provide access on the basis of several different theories. At least two states have passed legislation permitting consumer groups to use bill inserts to solicit members and contributions. When examined, these developments reveal a trend of granting organizations access to utility billing envelopes.

  15. Perception and coding of envelopes in weakly electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Stamper, Sarah A; Fortune, Eric S; Chacron, Maurice J

    2013-07-01

    Natural sensory stimuli have a rich spatiotemporal structure and can often be characterized as a high frequency signal that is independently modulated at lower frequencies. This lower frequency modulation is known as the envelope. Envelopes are commonly found in a variety of sensory signals, such as contrast modulations of visual stimuli and amplitude modulations of auditory stimuli. While psychophysical studies have shown that envelopes can carry information that is essential for perception, how envelope information is processed in the brain is poorly understood. Here we review the behavioral salience and neural mechanisms for the processing of envelopes in the electrosensory system of wave-type gymnotiform weakly electric fishes. These fish can generate envelope signals through movement, interactions of their electric fields in social groups or communication signals. The envelopes that result from the first two behavioral contexts differ in their frequency content, with movement envelopes typically being of lower frequency. Recent behavioral evidence has shown that weakly electric fish respond in robust and stereotypical ways to social envelopes to increase the envelope frequency. Finally, neurophysiological results show how envelopes are processed by peripheral and central electrosensory neurons. Peripheral electrosensory neurons respond to both stimulus and envelope signals. Neurons in the primary hindbrain recipient of these afferents, the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL), exhibit heterogeneities in their responses to stimulus and envelope signals. Complete segregation of stimulus and envelope information is achieved in neurons in the target of ELL efferents, the midbrain torus semicircularis (Ts).

  16. Lumbar herniated disc: spontaneous regression

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Kasım Zafer

    2017-01-01

    Background Low back pain is a frequent condition that results in substantial disability and causes admission of patients to neurosurgery clinics. To evaluate and present the therapeutic outcomes in lumbar disc hernia (LDH) patients treated by means of a conservative approach, consisting of bed rest and medical therapy. Methods This retrospective cohort was carried out in the neurosurgery departments of hospitals in Kahramanmaraş city and 23 patients diagnosed with LDH at the levels of L3−L4, L4−L5 or L5−S1 were enrolled. Results The average age was 38.4 ± 8.0 and the chief complaint was low back pain and sciatica radiating to one or both lower extremities. Conservative treatment was administered. Neurological examination findings, durations of treatment and intervals until symptomatic recovery were recorded. Laségue tests and neurosensory examination revealed that mild neurological deficits existed in 16 of our patients. Previously, 5 patients had received physiotherapy and 7 patients had been on medical treatment. The number of patients with LDH at the level of L3−L4, L4−L5, and L5−S1 were 1, 13, and 9, respectively. All patients reported that they had benefit from medical treatment and bed rest, and radiologic improvement was observed simultaneously on MRI scans. The average duration until symptomatic recovery and/or regression of LDH symptoms was 13.6 ± 5.4 months (range: 5−22). Conclusions It should be kept in mind that lumbar disc hernias could regress with medical treatment and rest without surgery, and there should be an awareness that these patients could recover radiologically. This condition must be taken into account during decision making for surgical intervention in LDH patients devoid of indications for emergent surgery. PMID:28119770

  17. Structure of the Thylakoids and Envelope Membranes of the Cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa1

    PubMed Central

    Giddings, Thomas H.; Wasmann, Cathy; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    1983-01-01

    The cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa Korsch. are photosynthetically active obligate endosymbionts in which phycobiliproteins serve as the major accessory pigments. Freeze-fracture electron micrographs of thylakoids in isolated cyanelles reveal long parallel rows of particles covering most of the E-face, while a more random particle arrangement is evident in some areas. The center-to-center spacing of particles within these rows is about 10 nanometers. Their mean diameter was measured at 9.4 nanometers. The particles on the P-face have a mean diameter of 7.2 nanometers. Thylakoids that retained nearly the full complement of phycobiliproteins (determined spectrophotometrically and by gel electrophoresis) were isolated from the cyanelles. In thin sections of these preparations, rows of disc-shaped phycobilisomes are evident on the surface of the thylakoids. The spacing of the rows of phycobilisomes corresponds to that of the rows of E-face particles (approximately 45 nanometers, center to center). The periodicity of the disc-shaped phycobilisomes within a row is 10 nanometers suggesting a one-to-one association between phycobilisomes and E-face particles. In addition, visualization of the protoplasmic surface (PS) of isolated thylakoids by freeze-etch electron microscopy shows that rows of disc-shaped phycobilisomes are aligned directly above rows of particles exhibiting two subunits, presumably the P-surface projections of the 10-nanometer intramembrane particles. These observations, together with earlier studies indicating that the 10-nanometer E-face particles probably represent photosystem II (PSII) complexes, suggest that phycobilisomes are positioned on the thylakoid surface in direct contact with PSII centers within the thylakoid membrane. The inner envelope membrane of the cyanelles, observed in freeze-fracture replicas, resembles cyanobacterial plasma membranes and is dissimilar to the chloroplast envelope membranes of red or green algae. The envelope of

  18. Autologous adipose stem cells and polylactide discs in the replacement of the rabbit temporomandibular joint disc

    PubMed Central

    Ahtiainen, Katja; Mauno, Jari; Ellä, Ville; Hagström, Jaana; Lindqvist, Christian; Miettinen, Susanna; Ylikomi, Timo; Kellomäki, Minna; Seppänen, Riitta

    2013-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc lacks functional replacement after discectomy. We investigated tissue-engineered bilayer polylactide (PLA) discs and autologous adipose stem cells (ASCs) as a potential replacement for the TMJ disc. These ASC discs were pre-cultured either in control or in differentiation medium, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 for one week. Prior to implantation, expression of fibrocartilaginous genes was measured by qRT-PCR. The control and differentiated ASC discs were implanted, respectively, in the right and left TMJs of rabbits for six (n = 5) and 12 months (n = 5). Thereafter, the excised TMJ areas were examined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and histology. No signs of infection, inflammation or foreign body reactions were detected at histology, whereas chronic arthrosis and considerable condylar hypertrophy were observed in all operated joints at CBCT. The left condyle treated with the differentiated ASC discs appeared consistently smoother and more sclerotic than the right condyle. The ASC disc replacement resulted in dislocation and morphological changes in the rabbit TMJ. The ASC discs pre-treated with TGF-β1 enhanced the condylar integrity. While adverse tissue reactions were not shown, the authors suggest that with improved attachment and design, the PLA disc and biomaterial itself would hold potential for TMJ disc replacement. PMID:23720535

  19. Spontaneous Regression of Herniated Lumbar Disc with New Disc Protrusion in the Adjacent Level

    PubMed Central

    Gürcan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs was reported occasionally. The mechanisms proposed for regression of disc herniation are still incomplete. This paper describes and discusses a case of spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs with a new disc protrusion in the adjacent level. A 41-year-old man was admitted with radiating pain and numbness in the left lower extremity with a left posterolateral disc extrusion at L5-S1 level. He was admitted to hospital with low back pain due to disc herniation caudally immigrating at L4-5 level three years ago. He refused the surgical intervention that was offered and was treated conservatively at that time. He had no neurological deficit and a history of spontaneous regression of the extruded lumbar disc; so, a conservative therapy, including bed rest, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, was advised. In conclusion, herniated lumbar disc fragments may regress spontaneously. Reports are prone to advise conservative treatment for extruded or sequestrated lumbar disc herniations. However, these patients should be followed up closely; new herniation at adjacent/different level may occur. Furthermore, it is important to know which herniated disk should be removed and which should be treated conservatively, because disc herniation may cause serious complications as muscle weakness and cauda equine syndrome. PMID:27429818

  20. G11.2-0.3: The Young Remnant of a Stripped-envelope Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.

    2016-03-01

    We present results of a 400 ks Chandra observation of the young shell supernova remnant (SNR) G11.2-0.3, containing a pulsar and pulsar-wind nebula (PWN). We measure a mean expansion rate for the shell since 2000 of 0.0277 ± 0.0018% yr-1, implying an age between 1400 and 2400 yr, and making G11.2-0.3 one of the youngest core-collapse SNRs in the Galaxy. However, we find very high absorption (AV ˜ 16m ± 2m), confirming near-IR determinations and ruling out a claimed association with the possible historical SN of 386 CE. The PWN shows strong jets and a faint torus within a larger, more diffuse region of radio emission and nonthermal X-rays. Central soft thermal X-ray emission is anticorrelated with the PWN; that, and more detailed morphological evidence, indicates that the reverse shock has already reheated all ejecta and compressed the PWN. The pulsar characteristic energy-loss timescale is well in excess of the remnant age, and we suggest that the bright jets have been produced since the recompression. The relatively pronounced shell and diffuse hard X-ray emission in the interior, enhanced at the inner edge of the shell, indicate that the immediate circumstellar medium into which G11.2-0.3 is expanding was quite anisotropic. We propose a possible origin for G11.2-0.3 in a stripped-envelope progenitor that had lost almost all its envelope mass, in an anisotropic wind or due to binary interaction, leaving a compact core whose fast winds swept previously lost mass into a dense irregular shell, and which exploded as a SN cIIb or Ibc.

  1. Intervertebral disc properties: challenges for biodevices.

    PubMed

    Costi, John J; Freeman, Brian J C; Elliott, Dawn M

    2011-05-01

    Intervertebral disc biodevices that employ motion-preservation strategies (e.g., nucleus replacement, total disc replacement and posterior stabilization devices) are currently in use or in development. However, their long-term performance is unknown and only a small number of randomized controlled trials have been conducted. In this article, we discuss the following biodevices: interbody cages, nuclear pulposus replacements, total disc replacements and posterior dynamic stabilization devices, as well as future biological treatments. These biodevices restore some function to the motion segment; however, contrary to expectations, the risk of adjacent-level degeneration does not appear to have been reduced. The short-term challenge is to replicate the complex biomechanical function of the motion segment (e.g., biphasic, viscoelastic behavior and nonlinearity) to improve the quality of motion and minimize adjacent level problems, while ensuring biodevice longevity for the younger, more active patient. Biological strategies for regeneration and repair of disc tissue are being developed and these offer exciting opportunities (and challenges) for the longer term. Responsible introduction and rigorous assessment of these new technologies are required. In this article, we will describe the properties of the disc, explore biodevices currently in use for the surgical treatment of low back pain (with an emphasis on lumbar total disc replacement) and discuss future directions for biological treatments. Finally, we will assess the challenges ahead for the next generation of biodevices designed to replace the disc.

  2. The Quiescent Growth Of Galactic Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, James

    2016-09-01

    We use N-bodies to simulate the growth since redshift 2 of an isolated disc in a live halo. Giant molecular clouds (GMCs), The bar and spiral structure all play key roles in the evolution of the disc. Our GMCs are short-lived and have masses drawn from a mass spectrum. Their number density is related to the SFR. For the expected number densities and likely maximum masses of GMCs, they heat the disc very effectively at early times, and either postpone or cancel bar formation. They generate remarkably exponential vertical profiles. Spiral structure drives a level of radial migration that agrees well with that predicted by models of local chemical evolution. The radial patterns of star formation include different levels of inside-out growth. The radial scale length of the final disc is always greater than any of the scale lengths used for star formation and rather independent of the extent of inside-out growth. The only way to obtain a thick disc nearly as massive as those observed is to include in the initial conditions a massive, extended object that will be compressed into the present thick disc by the gravity of the thin disc.

  3. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vadalà, Gianluca; Russo, Fabrizio; Ambrosio, Luca; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments. Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers (e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration. PMID:27247704

  4. EARLY THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2013-02-10

    We performed a series of hydrodynamical calculations of an ultrarelativistic jet propagating through a massive star and the circumstellar matter (CSM) to investigate the interaction between the ejecta and the CSM. We succeed in distinguishing two qualitatively different cases in which the ejecta are shocked and adiabatically cool. To examine whether the cocoon expanding at subrelativistic speeds emits any observable signal, we calculate the expected photospheric emission from the cocoon. It is found that the emission can explain early thermal X-ray emission recently found in some long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The result implies that the difference of the circumstellar environment of long GRBs can be probed by observing their early thermal X-ray emission.

  5. Chemical separation of disc components using RAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojno, Jennifer; Kordopatis, Georges; Steinmetz, Matthias; McMillan, Paul; Matijevič, Gal; Binney, James; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Boeche, Corrado; Just, Andreas; Grebel, Eva K.; Siebert, Arnaud; Bienaymé, Olivier; Gibson, Brad K.; Zwitter, Tomaž; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Navarro, Julio F.; Parker, Quentin A.; Reid, Warren; Seabroke, George; Watson, Fred

    2016-10-01

    We present evidence from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of chemically separated, kinematically distinct disc components in the solar neighbourhood. We apply probabilistic chemical selection criteria to separate our sample into α-low (`thin disc') and α-high (`thick disc') sequences. Using newly derived distances, which will be utilized in the upcoming RAVE DR5, we explore the kinematic trends as a function of metallicity for each of the disc components. For our α-low disc, we find a negative trend in the mean rotational velocity (Vφ) as a function of iron abundance ([Fe/H]). We measure a positive gradient ∂Vφ/∂[Fe/H] for the α-high disc, consistent with results from high-resolution surveys. We also find differences between the α-low and α-high discs in all three components of velocity dispersion. We discuss the implications of an α-low, metal-rich population originating from the inner Galaxy, where the orbits of these stars have been significantly altered by radial mixing mechanisms in order to bring them into the solar neighbourhood. The probabilistic separation we propose can be extended to other data sets for which the accuracy in [α/Fe] is not sufficient to disentangle the chemical disc components a priori. For such data sets which will also have significant overlap with Gaia DR1, we can therefore make full use of the improved parallax and proper motion data as it becomes available to investigate kinematic trends in these chemical disc components.

  6. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill; William Charlton; Robert Bean

    2008-07-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of “non-traditional” operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes.

  7. The Methodology of Data Envelopment Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    The methodology of data envelopment analysis, (DEA) a linear programming-based method, is described. Other procedures often used for measuring relative productive efficiency are discussed in relation to DEA, including ratio analysis and multiple regression analysis. The DEA technique is graphically illustrated for only two inputs and one output.…

  8. Ultraviolet Opacity and Fluorescence in Supernova Envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Hongwei; McCray, Richard

    1996-01-01

    By the time the expanding envelope of a Type 2 supernova becomes transparent in the optical continuum, most of the gamma-ray luminosity produced by radioactive Fe/Co/Ni clumps propagates into the hydrogen/helium envelope and is deposited there, if at all. The resulting fast electrons excite He 1 and H 1, the two- photon continua of which are the dominant internal sources of ultraviolet radiation. The UV radiation is blocked by scattering in thousands of resonance lines of metals and converted by fluorescence into optical and infrared emission lines that escape freely. We describe results of Monte Carlo calculations that simulate non-LTE scattering and fluorescence in more than five million allowed lines of Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. For a model approximating conditions in the envelope of SN 1987A, the calculated emergent spectrum resembles the observed one. For the first 2 yr after explosion, the ultraviolet radiation (lambda less than or approximately equals 3000) is largely blocked and converted into a quasi continuum of many thousands of weak optical and infrared emission lines and some prominent emission features, such as the Ca 2 lambdalambda8600 triplet. Later, as the envelope cools and expands, it becomes more transparent, and an increasing fraction of the luminosity emerges in the UV band.

  9. Discriminating Dysarthria Type from Envelope Modulation Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Julie M.; LeGendre, Sue; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrated the ability of temporally based rhythm metrics to distinguish among dysarthrias with different prosodic deficit profiles (J. M. Liss et al., 2009). The authors examined whether comparable results could be obtained by an automated analysis of speech envelope modulation spectra (EMS), which quantifies the…

  10. 14 CFR 23.333 - Flight envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... any combination of airspeed and load factor on and within the boundaries of a flight envelope (similar... altitudes between sea level and 20,000 feet. The gust velocity may be reduced linearly from 50 f.p.s. at 20... considered at altitudes between sea level and 20,000 feet. The gust velocity may be reduced linearly from...

  11. 14 CFR 23.333 - Flight envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... any combination of airspeed and load factor on and within the boundaries of a flight envelope (similar... altitudes between sea level and 20,000 feet. The gust velocity may be reduced linearly from 50 f.p.s. at 20... considered at altitudes between sea level and 20,000 feet. The gust velocity may be reduced linearly from...

  12. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  13. Right to Light: Ralph Knowles's Solar Envelope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, David

    1979-01-01

    At the University of Southern California solar-access design research project, Barry Knowles and students have devised a solar envelope: the largest volumetric container over a land parcel that allows solar access to all adjacent neighbors within useful time constraints. (Author/MLF)

  14. Diffraction-limited spatial resolution of circumstellar shells at 10 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Townes, C. H.; Vanderwyck, A. H. B.

    1983-01-01

    A new spatial array instrument provided diffraction-limited mid-infrared intensity profiles of the type-M supergiant stars alpha Orionis and alpha Scorpii, both of which are known to exhibit excess 10 microns radiation due to the presence of circumstellar dust shells. In the case of alpha Ori, there is a marked asymmetry in the dust distribution, with peak intensity of dust emission a distance of 0.9 inches from the star.

  15. Alma Observations Of Circumstellar Disks In The Upper Scorpius Ob Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenfeld, Scott

    2016-07-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the total dust masses of these disks. We find that disk dust masses in Upper Scorpius are a factor of 4.5 times lower than those in the younger Taurus star forming region, clear evidence of disk evolution between 1-2 Myr and 5-10 Myr.

  16. Stellar and Circumstellar Properties of the Pre-Main-Sequence Binary GV Tau From Infrared Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-20

    NIRSPEC (McLean et al.1998), on the 10 m Keck II telescope atop Mauna Kea , Hawaii. Spectra were acquired through the 0.43200 (3 pixel) wide slit...summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct obser- vations from...these data to characterize the stellar and circumstellar properties of the A 1 Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory from

  17. Hot circumstellar material resolved around β Pic with VLTI/PIONIER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defrère, D.; Lebreton, J.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J.-C.; Berger, J.-P.; di Folco, E.; Ertel, S.; Kluska, J.; Montagnier, G.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Traub, W.; Zins, G.

    2012-10-01

    Aims: We aim at resolving the circumstellar environment around β Pic in the near-infrared in order to study the inner planetary system (<200 mas, i.e., ~4 AU). Methods: Precise interferometric fringe visibility measurements were obtained over seven spectral channels dispersed across the H band with the four-telescope VLTI/PIONIER interferometer. Thorough analysis of interferometric data was performed to measure the stellar angular diameter and to search for circumstellar material. Results: We detected near-infrared circumstellar emission around β Pic that accounts for 1.37% ± 0.16% of the near-infrared stellar flux and that is located within the field-of-view of PIONIER (i.e., ~200 mas in radius). The flux ratio between this excess and the photosphere emission is shown to be stable over a period of 1 year and to vary only weakly across the H band, suggesting that the source is either very hot (≳1500 K) or dominated by the scattering of the stellar flux. In addition, we derive the limb-darkened angular diameter of β Pic with an unprecedented accuracy (θLD= 0.736 ± 0.019 mas). Conclusions: The presence of a small H-band excess originating in the vicinity of β Pic is revealed for the first time thanks to the high-precision visibilities enabled by VLTI/PIONIER. This excess emission is likely due to the scattering of stellar light by circumstellar dust and/or the thermal emission from a yet unknown population of hot dust, although hot gas emitting in the continuum cannot be firmly excluded. Based on data collected at the ESO Paranal Observatory under commissioning time and programme 088.C-0266.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Database of circumstellar OH masers (Engels+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, D.; Bunzel, F.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new database of circumstellar OH masers at 1612, 1665, and 1667MHz in the Milky Way galaxy in tabular form. The database (version 2.4) contains 13655 observations and 2341 different stars detected in at least one transition and includes published data until end of 2014. Interferometric follow-up observations and monitor programs are stored in two auxiliary tables. (3 data files).

  19. Adaptive envelope protection methods for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, Suraj

    Carefree handling refers to the ability of a pilot to operate an aircraft without the need to continuously monitor aircraft operating limits. At the heart of all carefree handling or maneuvering systems, also referred to as envelope protection systems, are algorithms and methods for predicting future limit violations. Recently, envelope protection methods that have gained more acceptance, translate limit proximity information to its equivalent in the control channel. Envelope protection algorithms either use very small prediction horizon or are static methods with no capability to adapt to changes in system configurations. Adaptive approaches maximizing prediction horizon such as dynamic trim, are only applicable to steady-state-response critical limit parameters. In this thesis, a new adaptive envelope protection method is developed that is applicable to steady-state and transient response critical limit parameters. The approach is based upon devising the most aggressive optimal control profile to the limit boundary and using it to compute control limits. Pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of the proposed approach are conducted at the Georgia Tech Carefree Maneuver lab for transient longitudinal hub moment limit protection. Carefree maneuvering is the dual of carefree handling in the realm of autonomous Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Designing a flight control system to fully and effectively utilize the operational flight envelope is very difficult. With the increasing role and demands for extreme maneuverability there is a need for developing envelope protection methods for autonomous UAVs. In this thesis, a full-authority automatic envelope protection method is proposed for limit protection in UAVs. The approach uses adaptive estimate of limit parameter dynamics and finite-time horizon predictions to detect impending limit boundary violations. Limit violations are prevented by treating the limit boundary as an obstacle and by correcting nominal control

  20. How Does Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease Affect the Disc Deformation at the Cephalic Levels In Vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobai; Xia, Qun; Passias, Peter; Li, Weishi; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Objective . To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) on the disc deformation at the adjacent level and at the level one above the adjacent level during end ranges of lumbar motion. Summary of Background Data It has been reported that in patients with DDD, the intervertebral discs adjacent to the diseased levels have a greater tendency to degenerate. Although altered biomechanics have been suggested to be the causative factors, few data have been reported on the deformation characteristics of the adjacent discs in patients with DDD. Methods Ten symptomatic patients with discogenic low back pain between L4 and S1 and with healthy discs at the cephalic segments were involved. Eight healthy subjects recruited in our previous studies were used as a reference comparison. The in vivo kinematics of L3–L4 (the cephalic adjacent level to the degenerated discs) and L2–L3 (the level one above the adjacent level) lumbar discs of both groups were obtained using a combined magnetic resonance imaging and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique at functional postures. Deformation characteristics, in terms of areas of minimal deformation (defined as less than 5%), deformations at the center of the discs, and maximum tensile and shear deformations, were compared between the two groups at the two disc levels. Results In the patients with DDD, there were significantly smaller areas of minimal disc deformation at L3–L4 and L2–L3 than the healthy subjects (18% compared with 45% of the total disc area, on average). Both L2–L3 and L3–L4 discs underwent larger tensile and shear deformations in all postures than the healthy subjects. The maximum tensile deformations were higher by up to 23% (of the local disc height in standing) and the maximum shear deformations were higher by approximately 25% to 40% (of the local disc height in standing) compared with those of the healthy subjects. Conclusion Both the discs of the adjacent

  1. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Polarimetry of a Circumstellar Disk around UX Tau A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabyn, G.; Grady, C. A.; Currie, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present H-band polarimetric imagery of UX Tau A taken with HiCIAO/AO188 on the Subaru Telescope. UX Tau A has been classified as a pre-transitional disk object, with a gap structure separating its inner and outer disks. Our imagery taken with the 0.15" (21 AU) radius coronagraphic mask has revealed a strongly polarized circumstellar disk surrounding UX Tau A which extends to 120 AU, at a spatial resolution of 0.1" (14 AU). It is inclined by 46 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees as the west side is nearest. Although SED modeling and sub-millimeter imagery suggested the presence of a gap in the disk, with the inner edge of the outer disk estimated to be located at 25 - 30 AU, we detect no evidence of a gap at the limit of our inner working angle (23AU) at the near-infrared wavelength. We attribute the observed strong polarization (up to 66 %) to light scattering by dust grains in the disk. However, neither polarization models of the circumstellar disk based on Rayleigh scattering nor Mie scattering approximations were consistent with the observed azimuthal profile of the polarization degrees of the disk. Instead, a geometric optics model of the disk with nonspherical grains with the radii of 30 micrometers is consistent with the observed profile. We suggest that the dust grains have experienced frequent collisional coagulations and have grown in the circumstellar disk of UX Tau A.

  2. Fullerenes and fullerene-related molecules in the circumstellar environment of evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Luis, J. J.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Kameswara Rao, N.; Manchado, A.; Cataldo, F.

    2017-03-01

    Fullerenes, highly resistant and stable tridimensional carbon molecules, have attracted much attention since their discovery at laboratory by Kroto and collaborators; e.g., fullerenes and fullerene-related molecules may explain several phenomena in Astrophysics such as the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) and the UV bump. The recent detection of the most common fullerenes (C_{60} and C_{70}) in the circumstellar environment of evolved stars like planetary nebulae (PNe) has raised the idea that other forms of carbon such as hydrogenated fullerenes, buckyonions, and carbon nanotubes may be widespread in the Universe and it has permitted to study the DIBs towards fullerene-rich space environments for the first time. In particular, here we present: i) the first possible detection of two diffuse bands of circumstellar origin (diffuse circumstellar bands, DCBs) at 4428 and 5780 Å around PN Tc1; and ii) the non-detection of fullerene-related molecules such as hydrogenated fullerenes(fulleranes like C_{60}H_{36} and C_{60}H_{18}) in the 3-5 μm spectral range in C_{60}-rich PNe. Our non-detections together with the (tentative) fulleranes detection in a proto-PN suggests that fulleranes may be formed in the short transition phase between asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and PNe but they are quickly destroyed by the UV radiation field from the central star.

  3. Observing the Circumstellar Environment of the Eruptive FUor/EXor Protostar V1647 Ori with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, David; Cieza, Lucas A.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tobin, John J.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fu Ori (FUor) and EXor objects represent a short-lived stage of protostellar evolution characterized by intense mass accretion events which cause extreme variability in the form of outbursts. While it is well demonstrated that these objects exhibit sudden outbursts (ΔV~2-6), the mechanism causing such variability is not well understood. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the circumstellar environment of these objects are essential to distinguish between different outbursting mechanisms. We present ALMA observations of the FUor/EXor object V1647 Ori as part of an ALMA campaign, which has observed a combined eight FUor and EXor type objects. Deeply embedded in the dark cloud LDN 1630 (L1630), V1647 Ori is one of a few FUor/EXor objects to have been extensively studied at multiple wavelengths before, during and after an outburst. We present preliminary results derived from ALMA 12CO, 13CO, C18O and continuum observations of the circumstellar environment of V1647 Ori. By measuring gas/dust masses and gas kinematics of the circumstellar disk, we investigate the potential mechanisms producing variability in these eruptive protostars during an essential, yet rarely observed, stage of pre-main sequence stellar evolution.

  4. Short-Lived Circumstellar Interaction in a Low-Luminosity Type IIP Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Valenti, Stefano; Arcavi, Iair; McCully, Curtis; Howell, Dale Andrew

    2017-01-01

    While interaction with circumstellar material is known to play an important role in Type IIn supernovae, analyses of the more common Type IIP and IIL supernovae have not traditionally included interaction as a significant power source. However, recent campaigns to observe supernovae within days of explosion have revealed narrow emission lines of high-ionization species in the earliest spectra of luminous Type II supernovae of all subclasses. These "flash spectroscopy" features indicate the presence of a confined shell of material around the progenitor star. Here we present the first low-luminosity supernova to show flash spectroscopy features, SN 2016bkv. This supernova peaked at MV = -16 mag and has expansion velocities around maximum light of < 2000 km s-1, placing it at the faint/slow end of the distribution of Type IIP supernovae (similar to SN 2005cs). The detection of flash spectroscopy features in this event demonstrates that circumstellar interaction plays a role even in a low-luminosity Type IIP supernovae. Conversely, it implies that the range of luminosities of Type II supernovae is not solely driven by the presence of circumstellar material.

  5. Adaptive Spectral Envelope Estimation for Doppler Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kathpalia, Aditi; Karabiyik, Yucel; Eik-Nes, Sturla H; Tegnander, Eva; Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Kiss, Gabriel; Torp, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Estimation of accurate maximum velocities and spectral envelope in ultrasound Doppler blood flow spectrograms are both essential for clinical diagnostic purposes. However, obtaining accurate maximum velocity is not straightforward due to intrinsic spectral broadening and variance in the power spectrum estimate. The method proposed in this paper for maximum velocity point detection has been developed by modifying an existing method-signal noise slope intersection, incorporating in it steps from an altered version of another method called geometric method. Adaptive noise estimation from the spectrogram ensures that a smooth spectral envelope is obtained postdetection of these maximum velocity points. The method has been tested on simulated Doppler signal with scatterers possessing a parabolic flow velocity profile constant in time, steady and pulsatile string phantom recordings, as well as in vivo recordings from uterine, umbilical, carotid, and subclavian arteries. The results from simulation experiments indicate a bias of less than 2.5% in maximum velocities when estimated for a range of peak velocities, Doppler angles, and SNR levels. Standard deviation in the envelope is low-less than 2% in the case of experiments done by varying the peak velocity and Doppler angle for steady phantom and simulated flow, and also less than 2% in the case of experiments done by varying SNR but keeping constant flow conditions for in vivo and simulated flow. Low variability in the envelope makes the prospect of using the envelope for automated blood flow measurements possible and is illustrated for the case of pulsatility index estimation in uterine and umbilical arteries.

  6. The envelope-based cyclic periodogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesani, P.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclostationary analysis has proven effective in identifying signal components for diagnostic purposes. A key descriptor in this framework is the cyclic power spectrum, traditionally estimated by the averaged cyclic periodogram and the smoothed cyclic periodogram. A lengthy debate about the best estimator finally found a solution in a cornerstone work by Antoni, who proposed a unified form for the two families, thus allowing a detailed statistical study of their properties. Since then, the focus of cyclostationary research has shifted towards algorithms, in terms of computational efficiency and simplicity of implementation. Traditional algorithms have proven computationally inefficient and the sophisticated "cyclostationary" definition of these estimators slowed their spread in the industry. The only attempt to increase the computational efficiency of cyclostationary estimators is represented by the cyclic modulation spectrum. This indicator exploits the relationship between cyclostationarity and envelope analysis. The link with envelope analysis allows a leap in computational efficiency and provides a "way in" for the understanding by industrial engineers. However, the new estimator lies outside the unified form described above and an unbiased version of the indicator has not been proposed. This paper will therefore extend the analysis of envelope-based estimators of the cyclic spectrum, proposing a new approach to include them in the unified form of cyclostationary estimators. This will enable the definition of a new envelope-based algorithm and the detailed analysis of the properties of the cyclic modulation spectrum. The computational efficiency of envelope-based algorithms will be also discussed quantitatively for the first time in comparison with the averaged cyclic periodogram. Finally, the algorithms will be validated with numerical and experimental examples.

  7. Validating predictions from climate envelope models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watling, J.; Bucklin, D.; Speroterra, C.; Brandt, L.; Cabal, C.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species’ distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967–1971 (t1) and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998–2002 (t2). Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences) was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences) was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on species.

  8. Si-BEARING MOLECULES TOWARD IRC+10216: ALMA UNVEILS THE MOLECULAR ENVELOPE OF CWLeo

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, L. Velilla; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agúndez, M.; Fonfría, J. P.; Marcelino, N.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Lique, F.

    2015-06-01

    We report the detection of SiS rotational lines in high-vibrational states as well as SiO and SiC{sub 2} lines in their ground vibrational state toward IRC+10216 during the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Cycle 0. The spatial distribution of these molecules shows compact emission for SiS and a more extended emission for SiO and SiC{sub 2} and also proves the existence of an increase in the SiC{sub 2} emission at the outer shells of the circumstellar envelope (CSE). We analyze the excitation conditions of the vibrationally excited SiS using the population diagram technique, and we use a large velocity gradient model to compare with the observations. We found moderate discrepancies between the observations and the models that could be explained if SiS lines detected are optically thick. Additionally, the line profiles of the detected rotational lines in the high-energy vibrational states show a decreasing linewidth with increasing energy levels. This may be evidence that these lines could be excited only in the inner shells, i.e., the densest and hottest, of the CSE of IRC+10216.

  9. Morphology and kinematics of the gas envelope of the variable AGB star π1 Gruis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhung, Pham Tuyet; Hoai, Do Thi; Diep, Pham Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Thao, Nguyen Thi; Anh, Pham Tuan; Darriulat, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Observations of the 12CO(3-2) emission from the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the variable star π1 Gru using the compact array of the ALMA observatory have been recently made accessible to the public. An analysis of the morphology and kinematics of the CSE is presented with a result very similar to that obtained earlier for 12CO(2-1) emission using the Submillimeter Array. A quantitative comparison is made using their flared disk model. A new model is presented that provides a significantly better description of the data, using radial winds and smooth evolutions of the radio emission and wind velocity from the stellar equator to the poles. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA# <2012.1.00524.S>. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea) in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The data are retrieved from the JVO portal (http://jvo.nao.ac.jp/portal) operated by the NAOJ.

  10. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional... disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc prosthesis... Food and Drug Administration on or before March 30, 1999, for any interarticular disc...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional... disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc prosthesis... Food and Drug Administration on or before March 30, 1999, for any interarticular disc...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional... disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc prosthesis... Food and Drug Administration on or before March 30, 1999, for any interarticular disc...

  13. The Psp system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis integrates envelope stress-sensing and envelope-preserving functions.

    PubMed

    Datta, Pratik; Ravi, Janani; Guerrini, Valentina; Chauhan, Rinki; Neiditch, Matthew B; Shell, Scarlet S; Fortune, Sarah M; Hancioglu, Baris; Igoshin, Oleg A; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2015-08-01

    The bacterial envelope integrates essential stress-sensing and adaptive functions; thus, envelope-preserving functions are important for survival. In Gram-negative bacteria, envelope integrity during stress is maintained by the multi-gene Psp response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was thought to lack the Psp system since it encodes only pspA and no other psp ortholog. Intriguingly, pspA maps downstream from clgR, which encodes a transcription factor regulated by the MprAB-σ(E) envelope-stress-signaling system. clgR inactivation lowered ATP concentration during stress and protonophore treatment-induced clgR-pspA expression, suggesting that these genes express Psp-like functions. We identified a four-gene set - clgR, pspA (rv2744c), rv2743c, rv2742c - that is regulated by clgR and in turn regulates ClgR activity. Regulatory and protein-protein interactions within the set and a requirement of the four genes for functions associated with envelope integrity and surface-stress tolerance indicate that a Psp-like system has evolved in mycobacteria. Among Actinobacteria, the four-gene module occurred only in tuberculous mycobacteria and was required for intramacrophage growth, suggesting links between its function and mycobacterial virulence. Additionally, the four-gene module was required for MprAB-σ(E) stress-signaling activity. The positive feedback between envelope-stress-sensing and envelope-preserving functions allows sustained responses to multiple, envelope-perturbing signals during chronic infection, making the system uniquely suited to tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  14. Nuclear membrane: nuclear envelope PORosity in fission yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Sazer, Shelley

    2010-11-09

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes closed mitosis but 'virtual nuclear envelope breakdown' at anaphase of meiosis II, in which the nuclear envelope is structurally closed but functionally open.

  15. Thermodynamics and fluid dynamics of the double shell (envelope) house

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, V.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of the envelope house are summarized and a systems approach to the house heat energy flows is presented. Some basic principles of physics in the area of thermodynamic conduction are discussed in relation to the envelope concept. (MHR)

  16. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  17. The action of three antiseptics/disinfectants against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.

    PubMed

    Wood, A; Payne, D

    1998-04-01

    The antiviral action of chloroxylenol, benzalkonium chloride and cetrimide/chlorhexidine was assessed against a range of enveloped and non-enveloped human viruses using a suspension test method. Viral suspensions of 10(6)-10(7) pfu/TCID50 or sfu were prepared in each of the antiseptic/disinfectant solutions in the presence of a bovine serum/yeast extract mixture to simulate 'dirty conditions'. During incubation, aliquots were removed at predetermined timepoints up to 10 min to assess the kinetics of inactivation. Results indicate that all products were effective in inactivating the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, whilst being ineffective in inactivating human coronavirus, also enveloped, and the non-enveloped viruses. The exception to this was the benzalkonium chloride-based product (Dettol Hospital Concentrate) which was active against the non-enveloped human coxsackie virus. Four antiseptic/disinfectant solutions with chloroxylenol, benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide/chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine were also assessed for antiviral effect against human immunodeficiency virus in the presence of whole human blood. All four solutions proved to be effective within 1 min despite the cytotoxic nature of the compounds to the detection system.

  18. Treatment of lumbar disc herniation by percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and modified PLDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiao fei; Li, Hong zhi; Wu, Ru zhou; Sui, Yun xian

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To study the micro-invasive operative method and to compare the effect of treatment of PLDD and modified PLDD for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Method: Vaporized part of the nucleus pulposus in single or multiple point after acupuncture into lumbar disc, to reach the purpose of the decompression of the lumbar disc. Result: Among the 19 cases of the regular PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 63.2%, and among the 40 cases of the modified PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 82.5%. Conclusion: The modified PLDD has good effect on the treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: intervertebral disc disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Low Back Pain Fact Sheet Educational Resources (8 links) American Association ... MalaCards: intervertebral disc disease Merck Manual Consumer Version: Low Back Pain Merck Manual Consumer Version: Neck Pain The Children's ...

  20. Dynamical modelling of galactic disc outskirts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.

    2017-03-01

    I review briefly some dynamical models of structures in the outer parts of disc galaxies, including models of polar rings, tidal tails and bridges. I then discuss the density distribution in the outer parts of discs. For this, I compare observations to results of a model in which the disc galaxy is in fact the remnant of a major merger, and find good agreement. This comparison includes radial profiles of the projected surface density and of stellar age, as well as time evolution of the break radius and of the inner and outer disc scale lengths. I also compare the radial projected surface density profiles of dynamically motivated mono-age populations and find that, compared to older populations, younger ones have flatter density profiles in the inner region and steeper in the outer one. The break radius, however, does not vary with stellar age, again in good agreement with observations.

  1. [Disc electrophoresis of collagen protein (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Reitmayr, P; Verzár, F

    1975-01-01

    The composition of proteins extracted from tendon collagen is investigated by disc electrophoresis. No qualitative differences can be demonstrated between young and old collagen. The action of formaldehyde and methionine on the tendons has no effect on the electrophoretic picture.

  2. Carriers of the mid-IR emission bands in PNe reanalysed. Evidence of a link between circumstellar and interstellar aromatic dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joblin, C.; Szczerba, R.; Berné, O.; Szyszka, C.

    2008-10-01

    Context: It has been shown that the diversity of the aromatic emission features can be rationalized into different classes of objects, in which differences between circumstellar and interstellar matter are emphasised. Aims: We probe the links between the mid-IR emitters observed in planetary nebulae (PNe) and their counterparts in the interstellar medium in order to probe a scenario in which the latter have been formed in the circumstellar environment of evolved stars. Methods: The mid-IR (6-14 μm) emission spectra of PNe and compact H II regions were analysed on the basis of previous work on photodissociation regions (PDRs). Galactic, Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) objects were considered in our sample. Results: We show that the mid-IR emission of PNe can be decomposed as the sum of six components. Some components made of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and very small grain (VSG) populations are similar to those observed in PDRs. Others are fitted in an evolutionary scenario involving the destruction of the aliphatic component observed in the post-AGB stage, as well as strong processing of PAHs in the extreme conditions of PNe that leads to a population of very large ionized PAHs. This species called PAHx are proposed as the carriers of a characteristic band at 7.90 μm. This band can be used as part of diagnostics that identify PNe in nearby galaxies and is also observed in galactic compact H II regions. Conclusions: These results support the formation of the aromatic very small dust particles in the envelopes of evolved stars, in the Milky Way, as well as in the LMC and SMC, and their subsequent survival in the interstellar medium. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the

  3. Postrefurbishment mission Hubble Space Telescope images of the core of the Orion Nebula: Proplyds, Herbig-Haro objects, and measurements of a circumstellar disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Wen, Zheng

    1994-01-01

    We report on observations of M42 made with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) immediately after the successful repair and refurbishment mission. Images were made in the strongest optical emission lines of H I, (N II), and (O III) and in a bandpass close to V. In a previous paper, the term proplyd was introduced to describe young stars surrounded by circumstellar material rendered visible by being in an H II region. We confirm the proplyd nature of 17 of 18 objects found earlier with the HST, incorporate 13 previously known sources into the class on the basis of their emission-line appearance, and find 26 additional members not seen previously in other wavelengths. Half of the 110 stars brighter than V = 21 show proplyd structure, which implies that more than half of the stars have circumstellar material since nebular structures are more difficult to detect than stars. The highly variable forms of the proplyds can be explained on the basis of balance of ambient stellar gas pressure and radial pressure arising from the stellar wind and radiation pressure of the dominant stars in the region. Arguments are presented explaining the proplyds as disks or flattened envelopes surrounding young stars, hence they are possible planetary disks. The characteristic mass of ionized material is 2 x 10(exp 28) g, which becomes a lower limit to the total mass of the proplyds. A new, coordinate-based, designation scheme for compact sources and stars in the vicinity of M42 is proposed and applied. Evidence is presented that one of the previously known bright Herbig-Haro objects (HH 203) may be the result of a stream of material coming from a proplyd shocking against the neutral lid that covers M42. One object, 183-405, is a proplyd seen only in silhouette against the bright nebular background. It is elliptical, with dimensions 0.9 sec by 1.2 sec and surrounds a pre-main-sequence star of at least 0.2 solar mass. The outer parts of this stellar disk are optically thin and allow column mass

  4. Evidence from stellar rotation of enhanced disc dispersal. I. The case of the triple visual system BD-21 1074 in the β Pictoris association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, S.; Monard, B.; Biazzo, K.; Melo, C. H. F.; Frasca, A.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The early stage of stellar evolution is characterized by a magnetic coupling between a star and its accretion disc, known as a star-disc locking mechanism. The disc-locking prevents the star to spin its rotation up, and its timescale depends on the disc lifetime, which should not be longer than about 10 Myr. Some mechanisms can significantly shorten this lifetime, allowing a few stars to start spinning up much earlier than other stars and increasing the observed rotation period dispersion among coeval stars. Aims: In the present study, we aim to investigate how the properties of the circumstellar environment can shorten the disc lifetime, more specifically the presence of a close stellar companion. Methods: We have identified a few multiple stellar systems, composed of stars with similar masses, which belong to associations with a known age. Since all parameters that are responsible for the rotational evolution, with the exception of environment properties and initial stellar rotation, are similar for all components, we expect that significant differences among the rotation periods can only arise from differences in the disc lifetimes. A photometric timeseries allowed us to measure the rotation periods of each component, while high-resolution spectra provided us with the fundamental parameters, v sin i and chromospheric line fluxes. Results: In the present study, we have collected timeseries photometry of BD-21 1074, a member of the 21 Myr old β Pictoris association, and measured the rotation periods of its brightest components A and B. They differ significantly, and the component B, which has a closer companion C, rotates faster than the more distant and isolated component A. It also displays a slightly higher chromospheric activity level. Conclusions: Since components A and B have similar mass, age, and initial chemical composition, we can ascribe the rotation period difference to either different initial rotation periods or different disc

  5. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  6. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOEpatents

    Mrochek, John E.; Dinsmore, Stanley R.; Chandler, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    A four-port disc valve for sampling erosive, high temperature process streams. A rotatable disc defining opposed first and second sampling cavities rotates between fired faceplates defining flow passageways positioned to be alternatively in axial alignment with the first and second cavities. Silicon carbide inserts and liners composed of .alpha. silicon carbide are provided in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities to limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation when used under harsh process conditions.

  7. Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaek, Ekkachai

    The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints

  8. A Coronagraphic Survey for Circumstellar Disks Around Main Sequence and Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalas, Paul George

    1996-12-01

    We search for optical reflection nebulosity around ~100 main sequence and pre-main sequence stars to test the hypothesis that Vega-like stars possess replenished dust disks. A Lyot coronagraph is used to suppress light from the central star and to observe the circumstellar environment closer to planet-forming regions than is possible through direct imaging. A model of scattered light from axisymmetric circumstellar disks is developed to establish the sensitivity limits of our observations. Circumstellar nebulosities are detected around four main sequence stars: β Pic, BD +31o 643, HR 241, and HR 1307. No circumstellar disks are found around ~100 other main sequence stars, including Vega, Fomalhaut, HD 98800, HR 4796, and 51 Oph. Non-detections of disks in the main sequence sample, combined with the sensitivity limits, suggest that the optical scattering cross-section of dust at 102 - 103 AU radii is not strongly correlated to the thermal cross-section at 1-10 AU radii. We show that the prominence of the β Pic disk is primarily a result of its large scattering cross-section, rather than its edge-on inclination or close proximity to the Sun (Kalas & Jewitt 1996). Five types of asymmetry are identified and measured in the disk morphology (Kalas & Jewitt 1995). The observed tilt of the midplane may result from a small inclination (<= 5o) of the disk to our line of sight, combined with a non-isotropic scattering phase function. The remaining four asymmetries indicate a non-axisymmetric distribution of orbiting dust particles between 150 and 800 AU projected radius. The disk may have been gravitationally perturbed in the past 102 to 103 years, though a perturbing agent is not detected. A nebulosity imaged near the B5V double star BD +31o 643 is identified as a circumstellar disk candidate based on its morphological similarity to β Pic and our model disks (Kalas & Jewitt 1997). The disk has a position angle 131o, a projected radius of ~2000 AU, an inclination of i

  9. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-03-28

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation.

  10. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  11. Application of the Envelope Difference Index to Spectrally Sparse Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Pamela; Hoover, Eric; Gallun, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Amplitude compression is a common hearing aid processing strategy that can improve speech audibility and loudness comfort but also has the potential to alter important cues carried by the speech envelope. In previous work, a measure of envelope change, the Envelope Difference Index (EDI; Fortune, Woodruff, & Preves, 1994), was moderately…

  12. THE WIDESPREAD OCCURRENCE OF WATER VAPOR IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPES OF CARBON-RICH ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS: FIRST RESULTS FROM A SURVEY WITH HERSCHEL /HIFI

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, D. A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Melnick, G.; Szczerba, R.; Schmidt, M.; Decin, L.; Alcolea, J.; De Koter, A.; Dominik, C.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Schoeier, F. L.; Justtanont, K.; Olofsson, H.; Bujarrabal, V.; Planesas, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Teyssier, D.; Marston, A. P.; Menten, K.

    2011-02-01

    We report the preliminary results of a survey for water vapor in a sample of eight C stars with large mid-IR continuum fluxes: V384 Per, CIT 6, V Hya, Y CVn, IRAS 15194-5115, V Cyg, S Cep, and IRC+40540. This survey, performed using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, entailed observations of the lowest transitions of both ortho- and para-water: the 556.936 GHz 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01} and 1113.343 GHz 1{sub 11}-0{sub 00} transitions, respectively. Water vapor was unequivocally detected in all eight of the target stars. Prior to this survey, IRC+10216 was the only carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star from which thermal water emissions had been discovered, in that case with the use of the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Our results indicate that IRC+10216 is not unusual, except insofar as its proximity to Earth leads to a large line flux that was detectable with SWAS. The water spectral line widths are typically similar to those of CO rotational lines, arguing against the vaporization of a Kuiper Belt analog being the general explanation for water vapor in carbon-rich AGB stars. There is no apparent correlation between the ratio of the integrated water line fluxes to the 6.3 {mu}m continuum flux-a ratio which measures the water outflow rate-and the total mass-loss rate for the stars in our sample.

  13. Validation of Sodium MRI of Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenyang; McArdle, Erin; Fenty, Matthew; Witschey, Walter; Elliott, Mark; Sochor, Matthew; Reddy, Ravinder; Borthakur, Arijitt

    2009-01-01

    Study Design This study demonstrated the diagnostic potential of sodium MRI for non-invasive quantification of PG in the intervertebral discs. Objective To determine the existence of a linear correlation between intervertebral disc [Na] measured from sodium MRI and [PG] measurement from DMMB assay. Summary of Background Data Previous studies have shown the possibility of quantifying [Na] in vivo using sodium MRI, however none has shown a direct linear correlation between [Na] measured from sodium MRI and [PG]. Methods 3D sodium MRI images of bovine discs were acquired and converted into [Na] maps. Samples were systematically removed from the discs for DMMB assay. The removal locations were photographically recorded and applied to the [Na] maps to extract the [Na] measurements for comparison. In vivo sodium MRI scans were also carried out on a pair of symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Results The linear regression fit of [Na] versus [PG] data yielded a significant linear correlation coefficient of 0.71. The in vivo sodium MRI image of the symptomatic subject showed significant [Na] decrease when compared to that of the asymptomatic subject. Conclusion Sodium MRI's specificity for PG in the intervertebral discs makes it a promising diagnostic tool for the earlier phase of disc degeneration. PMID:20147881

  14. Radio Monitoring of Protoplanetary Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubach, C.; Maddison, S. T.; Wright, C. M.; Wilner, D. J.; Lommen, D. J. P.; Koribalski, B.

    2017-01-01

    Protoplanetary disc systems observed at radio wavelengths often show excess emission above that expected from a simple extrapolation of thermal dust emission observed at short millimetre wavelengths. Monitoring the emission at radio wavelengths can be used to help disentangle the physical mechanisms responsible for this excess, including free-free emission from a wind or jet, and chromospheric emission associated with stellar activity. We present new results from a radio monitoring survey conducted with Australia Telescope Compact Array over the course of several years with observation intervals spanning days, months and years, where the flux variability of 11 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon and Lupus star forming regions was measured at 7 and 15 mm and 3 and 6 cm. Results show that for most sources are variable to some degree at 7 mm, indicating the presence of emission mechanisms other than thermal dust in some sources. Additionally, evidence of grain growth to cm-sized pebbles was found for some sources that also have signs of variable flux at 7 mm. We conclude that multiple processes contributing to the emission are common in T Tauri stars at 7 mm and beyond, and that a detection at a single epoch at radio wavelengths should not be used to determine all processes contributing to the emission.

  15. A search for ultraviolet circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha Piscis Austrinus (Fomalhaut), a possible Beta Pictoris-like system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, K.-P.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Kondo, Yoji

    1994-01-01

    Archival high-dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra have been used to search for circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha PsA (A3 V), a nearby (6.7 pc) proto-planetary system candidate. Recent sub-millimeter mapping observations around the region of alpha PsA indicate a spatially resolved dust disk like the one seen around Beta Pic. To determine how closely this putative disk resembles that of Beta Pic, we have searched for signatures of circumstellar gaseous absorption in all the available IUE high-dispersion data of alpha PsA. Examination of co-added IUE spectra shows weak circumstellar absorptions from excited levels in the resonance multiplet of Fe II near 2600 A. We also conclude that the sharp C I feature near 1657 A, previously identified as interstellar absorption toward alpha PsA, likely has a circumstellar origin. However, because the weakness of these absorption features, we will consider the presence of circumstellar gas as tentative and should be verified by using the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. No corresponding circumstellar absorption is detected in higher ionization Fe III and Al III. Since the collisionally ionized nonphotospheric Al III resonance absorption seen in Beta Pic is likely formed close to the stellar surface, its absence in the UV spectra of alpha PsA could imply that, in contrast with Beta Pic, there is no active gaseous disk infall onto the central star. In the alpha PsA gaseous disk, if we assume a solar abundance for iron and all the iron is in the form of Fe II, plus a disk temperature of 5000 K, the Fe II UV1 absorption at 2611.8743 A infers a total hydrogen column density along the line of sight through the circumstellar disk of N(H) approximately equals 3.8 x 10(exp 17)/cm.

  16. Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease: Disc Degeneration Symptoms and Magnetic Resonance Image Findings

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Shafaq; Rehmani, Muhammad Asim Khan; Raees, Aisha; Alvi, Arsalan Ahmad; Ashraf, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional and observational. Purpose To evaluate the different aspects of lumbar disc degenerative disc disease and relate them with magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and symptoms. Overview of Literature Lumbar disc degenerative disease has now been proven as the most common cause of low back pain throughout the world. It may present as disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, facet joint arthropathy or any combination. Presenting symptoms of lumbar disc degeneration are lower back pain and sciatica which may be aggravated by standing, walking, bending, straining and coughing. Methods This study was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012. Study was conducted on the diagnosed patients of lumbar disc degeneration. Diagnostic criteria were based upon abnormal findings in MRI. Patients with prior back surgery, spine fractures, sacroiliac arthritis, metabolic bone disease, spinal infection, rheumatoid arthritis, active malignancy, and pregnancy were excluded. Results During the targeted months, 163 patients of lumbar disc degeneration with mean age of 43.92±11.76 years, came into Neurosurgery department. Disc degeneration was most commonly present at the level of L4/L5 105 (64.4%).Commonest types of disc degeneration were disc herniation 109 (66.9%) and lumbar spinal stenosis 37 (22.7%). Spondylolisthesis was commonly present at L5/S1 10 (6.1%) and associated mostly with lumbar spinal stenosis 7 (18.9%). Conclusions Results reported the frequent occurrence of lumbar disc degenerative disease in advance age. Research efforts should endeavor to reduce risk factors and improve the quality of life. PMID:24353850

  17. The role of disc self-gravity in circumbinary planet systems - I. Disc structure and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, Matthew M.; Pierens, Arnaud; Nelson, Richard P.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating circumbinary discs around binaries whose parameters match those of the circumbinary planet-hosting systems Kepler-16, Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Previous work has shown that non-self-gravitating discs in these systems form an eccentric precessing inner cavity due to tidal truncation by the binary, and planets which form at large radii migrate until stalling at this cavity. Whilst this scenario appears to provide a natural explanation for the observed orbital locations of the circumbinary planets, previous simulations have failed to match the observed planet orbital parameters. The aim of this work is to examine the role of self-gravity in modifying circumbinary disc structure as a function of disc mass, prior to considering the evolution of embedded circumbinary planets. In agreement with previous work, we find that for disc masses between one and five times the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), disc self-gravity affects modest changes in the structure and evolution of circumbinary discs. Increasing the disc mass to 10 or 20 MMSN leads to two dramatic changes in disc structure. First, the scale of the inner cavity shrinks substantially, bringing its outer edge closer to the binary. Secondly, in addition to the eccentric inner cavity, additional precessing eccentric ring-like features develop in the outer regions of the discs. If planet formation starts early in the disc lifetime, these changes will have a significant impact on the formation and evolution of planets and precursor material.

  18. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  19. Constant envelope chirped OFDM power efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dida, Mussa A.; Hao, Huan; Anjum, M. R.; Ran, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Fractional Fourier OFDM or simply chirped OFDM performs better in time-frequency selective channel than its convectional OFDM. Although chirped OFDM outperforms OFDM it still inherits Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) drawback as a convectional OFDM. To eliminate PAPR drawback Constant Envelope OFDM was developed and for better performance in time frequency selective channel Constant Envelope Fractional Fourier OFDM (CE-COFDM) is used. Its BER performance is analyzed and compared to chirped OFDM and OFDM in AWGN and Rayleigh channel. The simulations show the BER performance of CE-COFDM is the same as chirped OFDM and OFDM. The power efficiency of CE-COFDM is also studied and different simulations performed shows CE-COFDM is more power efficient than chirped OFDM and convectional OFDM for class A and class B Linear Power Amplifier (LPA).

  20. Envelope instability and the fourth order resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhao, Ya Liang

    2014-12-01

    The well-known envelope instability or the second order even collective mode [I. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. E 57, 4 (1998)] and the fourth order resonance 4 σ =360 ° due to the nonlinear space charge effect in high intensity beams have been studied previously. A wide stop band around 15° is found in a pure periodic focusing channel. In addition, it is illustrated that the fourth order resonance dominates over the envelope instability and practically replaces it in the stop band [D. Jeon et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 054204 (2009)]. In this paper, for a continuous beam with remarkable space charge, our 2D self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation work with the code topopic shows these two kinds of effects respectively in a periodic focusing defocusing (FD) channel. For a fixed tune depression η =0.8 , a stop band with a width of almost 15° is also demonstrated. Moreover, it is confirmed that analytical results of the rms envelope instability diagram are a valid tool to interpret the width of the stop band. Emittance growth rates in stop band are also well explained. It is found that, for a nearly rms matched beam, the emittance growth in the stop band is almost proportional to the saturation time of the nonlinear instability of the envelope, which happens in a quick manner and takes only a few FD cells. In contrast, the fourth order resonance is independent of rms matching and will be accompanied by beam evolution as "a long term effect" once the related mechanism is excited.

  1. The cell envelope glycoconjugates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Angala, Shiva Kumar; Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Wheat, William H.; Jackson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the second most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent. The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of the disease in humans, is a source of unique glycoconjugates and the most distinctive feature of the biology of this organism. It is the basis of much of Mtb pathogenesis and one of the major causes of its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. At the same time, the unique structures of Mtb cell envelope glycoconjugates, their antigenicity and essentiality for mycobacterial growth provide opportunities for drug, vaccine, diagnostic and biomarker development, as clearly illustrated by recent advances in all of these translational aspects. This review focuses on our current understanding of the structure and biogenesis of Mtb glycoconjugates with particular emphasis on one of most intriguing and least understood aspect of the physiology of mycobacteria: the translocation of these complex macromolecules across the different layers of the cell envelope. It further reviews the rather impressive progress made in the last ten years in the discovery and development of novel inhibitors targeting their biogenesis. PMID:24915502

  2. DENVER DISC FILTER IN CO91107, SHOWING FIVE DOUBLESIDED DISCS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DENVER DISC FILTER IN CO-91-107, SHOWING FIVE DOUBLE-SIDED DISCS AND DRIVE MOTOR. NOTE FOUR VERTICAL SLURRY FEED PIPES FROM OVERHEAD MANIFOLD AND SUCTION PIPE IN FOREGROUND. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  3. Preparation of ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine-medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Romet ( a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a type A medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine discs were prepare...

  4. Colours of bulges and discs within galaxy clusters and the signature of disc fading on infall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Michael J.; Stevenson, Jeffrey B.; Smith, Russell J.; Wegner, Gary A.; Lucey, John R.; Simard, Luc

    2010-11-01

    The origins of the bulge and disc components of galaxies are of primary importance to understanding galaxy formation. Here bulge-disc decomposition is performed simultaneously in B and R bands for 922 bright galaxies in eight nearby (z < 0.06) clusters with deep redshift coverage using photometry from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) Fundamental Plane Survey. The total galaxy colours follow a universal colour-magnitude relation (CMR). The discs of L* galaxies are 0.24 mag bluer in B - R than bulges. Bulges have a significant CMR slope while the CMR slope of discs is flat. Thus the slope of the CMR of the total light is driven primarily (60 per cent) by the bulge CMR, and to a lesser extent (40 per cent) by the change in the bulge-to-total ratio as a function of magnitude. The colours of the bulge and disc components do not depend on the bulge-to-total ratio, for galaxies with bulge-to-total ratios greater than 0.2. While the colours of the bulge components do not depend significantly on environment, the median colours of discs vary significantly, with discs in the cluster centre redder by 0.10 mag than those at the virial radius. Thus while star formation in bulges appears to be regulated primarily by mass-dependent, and hence presumably internal, processes, that of discs is affected by the cluster environment.

  5. Modeling and optimization of an elastic arthroplastic disc for a degenerated disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouchani, Azadeh; Ravari, Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Farid

    2011-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the L3-L4 motion segment using ABAQUS v 6.9 has been developed. The model took into account the material nonlinearities and is imposed different loading conditions. In this study, we validated the model by comparison of its predictions with several sets of experimental data. Disc deformation under compression and segmental rotational motions under moment loads for the normal disc model agreed well with the corresponding in vivo studies. By linking ABAQUS with MATLAB 2010.a, we determined the optimal Young s modulus as well as the Poisson's ratio for the artificial disc under different physiologic loading conditions. The results of the present study confirmed that a well-designed elastic arthroplastic disc preferably has an annulus modulus of 19.1 MPa and 1.24 MPa for nucleus section and Poisson ratio of 0.41 and 0.47 respectively. Elastic artificial disc with such properties can then achieve the goal of restoring the disc height and mechanical function of intact disc under different loading conditions and so can reduce low back pain which is mostly caused due to disc degeneration.

  6. Multiscale envelope manifold for enhanced fault diagnosis of rotating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2015-02-01

    The wavelet transform has been widely used in the field of machinery fault diagnosis for its good property of band-pass filtering. However, the filtered signal still faces the contamination of in-band noise. This paper focuses on wavelet enveloping, and proposes a new method, called multiscale envelope manifold (MEM), to extract the envelope information of fault impacts with in-band noise suppression. The MEM addresses manifold learning on the wavelet envelopes at multiple scales. Specifically, the proposed method is conducted by three following steps. First, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with complex Morlet wavelet base is introduced to obtain the wavelet envelopes at all scales. Second, the wavelet envelopes are restricted in one or more narrow scale bands to simply include the envelope information of fault impacts. The scale band is determined through a smoothness index-based (SI-based) selection method by considering the impulsiveness inside the power spectrum. Third, the manifold learning algorithm is conducted on the wavelet envelopes at selected scales to extract the intrinsic envelope manifold of fault-related impulses. The MEM combines the envelope information at multiple scales in a nonlinear approach, and may thus preserve the factual envelope structure of machinery fault. Simulation studies and experimental verifications confirm that the new method is effective for enhanced fault diagnosis of rotating machines.

  7. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential complications associated with CDR. The published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.0%; range, 0%-3.1%), revision (mean, 0.2%; range, 0%-0.5%), and removal (mean, 1.2%; range, 0%-1.9%) following CDR are low and comparable to the published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.7%; range; 0%-3.4%), revision (mean, 1.5%; range, 0%-4.7%), and removal (mean, 2.0%; range, 0%-3.4%) following cervical arthrodesis. The surgical interventions following CDR range from the repositioning to explantation followed by fusion or the reimplantation to posterior foraminotomy or fusion. Strict patient selection, careful preoperative radiographic review and surgical planning, as well as surgical technique may reduce adverse events and the need for future intervention. Minimal literature and no guidelines exist for the approaches and techniques in revision and for the removal of implants following CDR. Adherence to strict indications and precise surgical technique may reduce the number of reoperations, revisions, and removals following CDR. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, assessing the implant survivorship and its effect on the revision and removal rates. PMID:26097667

  8. Structures induced by companions in galactic discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyziropoulos, P. E.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Gravvanis, G. A.; Patsis, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the structures induced on a galactic disc by repeated flybys of a companion in decaying eccentric orbit around the disc. Our system is composed of a stellar disc, bulge and live dark matter halo, and we study the system's dynamical response to a sequence of a companion's flybys, when we vary (i) the disc's temperature (parametrized by Toomre's Q-parameter) and (ii) the companion's mass and initial orbit. We use a new 3D Cartesian grid code: MAIN (Mesh-adaptive Approximate Inverse N-body solver). The main features of MAIN are reviewed, with emphasis on the use of a new Symmetric Factored Approximate Sparse Inverse matrix in conjunction with the multigrid method that allows the efficient solution of Poisson's equation in three space variables. We find that (i) companions need to be assigned initial masses in a rather narrow window of values in order to produce significant and more long-standing non-axisymmetric structures (bars and spirals) in the main galaxy's disc by the repeated flyby mechanism. (ii) A crucial phenomenon is the antagonism between companion-excited and self-excited modes on the disc. Values of Q > 1.5 are needed in order to allow for the growth of the companion-excited modes to prevail over the growth of the disc's self-excited modes. (iii) We give evidence that the companion-induced spiral structure is best represented by a density wave with pattern speed nearly constant in a region extending from the inner Lindblad resonance to a radius close to, but inside, corotation.

  9. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis. PMID:27217655

  10. Antiviral Activity of Graphene–Silver Nanocomposites against Non-Enveloped and Enveloped Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chang, Pai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of novel antiviral materials is important because many infectious diseases are caused by viruses. Silver nanoparticles have demonstrated strong antiviral activity, and graphene is a potential antimicrobial material due to its large surface area, high carrier mobility, and biocompatibility. No studies on the antiviral activity of nanomaterials on non-enveloped viruses have been reported. To investigate the antiviral activity of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and GO sheets with silver particles (GO-Ag) against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, feline coronavirus (FCoV) with an envelope and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) without an envelope were chosen. The morphology and sizes of GO and GO-Ag were characterized by transmission, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A virus inhibition assay was used to identify the antiviral activity of GO and GO-Ag. Go-Ag inhibited 25% of infection by FCoV and 23% by IBDV, whereas GO only inhibited 16% of infection by FCoV but showed no antiviral activity against the infection by IBDV. Further application of GO and GO-Ag can be considered for personal protection equipment to decrease the transmission of viruses. PMID:27104546

  11. Reconstructing the star formation history of the Milky Way disc(s) from chemical abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snaith, O.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.; Katz, D.; Gómez, A.

    2015-06-01

    We develop a chemical evolution model to study the star formation history of the Milky Way. Our model assumes that the Milky Way has formed from a closed-box-like system in the inner regions, while the outer parts of the disc have experienced some accretion. Unlike the usual procedure, we do not fix the star formation prescription (e.g. Kennicutt law) to reproduce the chemical abundance trends. Instead, we fit the abundance trends with age to recover the star formation history of the Galaxy. Our method enables us to recover the star formation history of the Milky Way in the first Gyrs with unprecedented accuracy in the inner (R < 7-8 kpc) and outer (R > 9-10 kpc) discs, as sampled in the solar vicinity. We show that half the stellar mass formed during the thick-disc phase in the inner galaxy during the first 4-5 Gyr. This phase was followed by a significant dip in star formation activity (at 8-9 Gyr) and a period of roughly constant lower-level star formation for the remaining 8 Gyr. The thick-disc phase has produced as many metals in 4 Gyr as the thin-disc phase in the remaining 8 Gyr. Our results suggest that a closed-box model is able to fit all the available constraints in the inner disc. A closed-box system is qualitatively equivalent to a regime where the accretion rate maintains a high gas fraction in the inner disc at high redshift. In these conditions the SFR is mainly governed by the high turbulence of the interstellar medium. By z ~ 1 it is possible that most of the accretion takes place in the outer disc, while the star formation activity in the inner disc is mostly sustained by the gas that is not consumed during the thick-disc phase and the continuous ejecta from earlier generations of stars. The outer disc follows a star formation history very similar to that of the inner disc, although initiated at z ~ 2, about 2 Gyr before the onset of the thin-disc formation in the inner disc.

  12. Envelope structure of deeply embedded young stellar objects in the Serpens Molecular Cloud.

    PubMed

    Hogerheijde, M R; van Dishoeck, E F; Salverda, J M; Blake, G A

    1999-03-01

    Aperture-synthesis and single-dish (sub-) millimeter molecular-line and continuum observations reveal in great detail the envelope structure of deeply embedded young stellar objects (SMM 1 = FIRS 1, SMM 2, SMM 3, SMM 4) in the densely star-forming Serpens Molecular Cloud. SMM 1, 3, and 4 show partially resolved (>2" = 800 AU) continuum emission in the beam of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array at lambda = 3.4-1.4 mm. The continuum visibilities accurately constrain the density structure in the envelopes, which can be described by a radial power law with slope -2.0 +/- 0.5 on scales of 300 to 8000 AU. Inferred envelope masses within a radius of 8000 AU are 8.7, 3.0, and 5.3 Msolar for SMM 1, 3, and 4, respectively. A point source with 20%-30% of the total flux at 1.1 mm is required to fit the observations on long baselines, corresponding to warm envelope material within approximately 100 AU or a circumstellar disk. No continuum emission is detected interferometrically toward SMM 2, corresponding to an upper limit of 0.2 Msolar assuming Td = 24 K. The lack of any compact dust emission suggests that the SMM 2 core does not contain a central protostar. Aperture-synthesis observations of the 13CO, C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, HCN, H13CN, N2H+ 1-0, SiO 2-1, and SO 2(2)-1(1) transitions reveal compact emission toward SMM 1, 3, and 4. SMM 2 shows only a number of clumps scattered throughout the primary field of view, supporting the conclusion that this core does not contain a central star. The compact molecular emission around SMM 1, 3, and 4 traces 5"-10" (2000-4000 AU) diameter cores that correspond to the densest regions of the envelopes, as well as material directly associated with the molecular outflow. Especially prominent are the optically thick HCN and HCO+ lines that show up brightly along the walls of the outflow cavities. SO and SiO trace shocked material, where their abundances may be enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude over dark-cloud values. A total of 31 molecular

  13. Envelope structure of deeply embedded young stellar objects in the Serpens Molecular Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogerheijde, M. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Salverda, J. M.; Blake, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    Aperture-synthesis and single-dish (sub-) millimeter molecular-line and continuum observations reveal in great detail the envelope structure of deeply embedded young stellar objects (SMM 1 = FIRS 1, SMM 2, SMM 3, SMM 4) in the densely star-forming Serpens Molecular Cloud. SMM 1, 3, and 4 show partially resolved (>2" = 800 AU) continuum emission in the beam of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array at lambda = 3.4-1.4 mm. The continuum visibilities accurately constrain the density structure in the envelopes, which can be described by a radial power law with slope -2.0 +/- 0.5 on scales of 300 to 8000 AU. Inferred envelope masses within a radius of 8000 AU are 8.7, 3.0, and 5.3 Msolar for SMM 1, 3, and 4, respectively. A point source with 20%-30% of the total flux at 1.1 mm is required to fit the observations on long baselines, corresponding to warm envelope material within approximately 100 AU or a circumstellar disk. No continuum emission is detected interferometrically toward SMM 2, corresponding to an upper limit of 0.2 Msolar assuming Td = 24 K. The lack of any compact dust emission suggests that the SMM 2 core does not contain a central protostar. Aperture-synthesis observations of the 13CO, C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, HCN, H13CN, N2H+ 1-0, SiO 2-1, and SO 2(2)-1(1) transitions reveal compact emission toward SMM 1, 3, and 4. SMM 2 shows only a number of clumps scattered throughout the primary field of view, supporting the conclusion that this core does not contain a central star. The compact molecular emission around SMM 1, 3, and 4 traces 5"-10" (2000-4000 AU) diameter cores that correspond to the densest regions of the envelopes, as well as material directly associated with the molecular outflow. Especially prominent are the optically thick HCN and HCO+ lines that show up brightly along the walls of the outflow cavities. SO and SiO trace shocked material, where their abundances may be enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude over dark-cloud values. A total of 31 molecular

  14. ON ABSORPTION BY CIRCUMSTELLAR DUST, WITH THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2012aw AS A CASE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanek, C. S.; Khan, R.; Dai, X.

    2012-11-01

    We use the progenitor of SN 2012aw to illustrate the consequences of modeling circumstellar dust using Galactic (interstellar) extinction laws that (1) ignore dust emission in the near-IR and beyond, (2) average over dust compositions, and (3) mischaracterize the optical/UV absorption by assuming that scattered photons are lost to the observer. The primary consequences for the progenitor of SN 2012aw are that both the luminosity and the absorption are significantly overestimated. In particular, the stellar luminosity is most likely in the range 10{sup 4.8} < L {sub *}/L {sub Sun} < 10{sup 5.0} and the star was not extremely massive for a Type IIP progenitor, with M {sub *} < 15 M {sub Sun }. Given the properties of the circumstellar dust and the early X-ray/radio detections of SN 2012aw, the star was probably obscured by an ongoing wind with M-dot {approx}10{sup -5.5} to 10{sup -5.0} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} at the time of the explosion, roughly consistent with the expected mass-loss rates for a star of its temperature (T{sub *} {approx_equal} 3600{sup +300} {sub -200} K) and luminosity. In the spirit of Galactic extinction laws, we supply simple interpolation formulae for circumstellar extinction by dusty graphitic and silicate shells as a function of wavelength ({lambda} {>=} 0.3 {mu}m) and total (absorption plus scattering) V-band optical depth ({tau}{sub V} {<=} 20). These do not include the contributions of dust emission, but provide a simple, physical alternative to incorrectly using interstellar extinction laws.

  15. Simulation of compact circumstellar shells around Type Ia supernovae and the resulting high-velocity features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2017-01-01

    For Type Ia supernovae that are observed prior to B-band maximum (approximately 18-20 days after the explosion) Ca absorption features are observed at velocities of order 10,000 km/s faster than the typical photospheric features. These high velocity features weaken in the first couple of weeks, disappearing entirely by a week after B-band maximum. The source of this high velocity material is uncertain: it may be the result of interaction between the supernova and circumstellar material or may be the result of plumes or bullets of material ejected during the course of the explosion. We simulate interaction between a supernova and several compact circumstellar shells, located within 0.03 solar radii of the progenitor white dwarf and having masses of 0.02 solar masses or less. We use FLASH to perform hydrodynamic simulations of the system to determine the structure of the ejecta and shell components after the interaction, then use these results to generate synthetic spectra with 1 day cadence for the first 25 days after the explosion. We compare the evolution of the velocity and pseudo-equivalent width of the Ca near-infrared triplet features in the synthetic spectra to observed values, demonstrating that these models are consistent with observations. Additionally, we fit the observed spectra of SN 2011fe (Parrent 2012, Pereira 2013) prior to B-band maximum using these models and synthetic spectra and provide an estimate for Ca abundance within the circumstellar material with implications for the mechanism by which the white dwarf explodes.

  16. Circumstellar dust, PAHs and stellar populations in early-type galaxies: insights from GALEX and WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonian, Gregory V.; Martini, Paul

    2017-02-01

    A majority of early-type galaxies contain interstellar dust, yet the origin of this dust, and why the dust sometimes exhibits unusual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ratios, remains a mystery. If the dust is internally produced, it likely originates from the large number of asymptotic giant branch stars associated with the old stellar population. We present GALEX and WISE elliptical aperture photometry of ˜310 early-type galaxies with Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and/or ancillary data from ATLAS3D, to characterize their circumstellar dust and the shape of the radiation field that illuminates the interstellar PAHs. We find that circumstellar dust is ubiquitous in early-type galaxies, which indicates some tension between stellar population age estimates and models for circumstellar dust production in very old stellar populations. We also use dynamical masses from ATLAS3D to show that WISE W1 (3.4 μm) mass-to-light ratios are consistent with the initial mass function variation found by previous work. While the stellar population differences in early-type galaxies correspond to a range of radiation field shapes incident upon the diffuse dust, the ratio of the ionization-sensitive 7.7 μm/11.3 μm PAH feature does not correlate with the shape of the radiation field, nor to variations with the size-sensitive 11.3 μm/17 μm ratio. The 7.7 μm/11.3 μm PAH ratio does tend to be smaller in galaxies with proportionally greater H2 emission, which is evidence that processing of primarily smaller grains by shocks is responsible for the unusual ratios, rather than substantial differences in the overall PAH size or ionization distribution.

  17. Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

  18. Lubrication regimes in lumbar total disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, A; Shepherd, D E T

    2007-08-01

    A number of total disc arthroplasty devices have been developed. Some concern has been expressed that wear may be a potential failure mode for these devices, as has been seen with hip arthroplasty. The aim of this paper was to investigate the lubrication regimes that occur in lumbar total disc arthroplasty devices. The disc arthroplasty was modelled as a ball-and-socket joint. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory was used to calculate the minimum film thickness of the fluid between the bearing surfaces. The lubrication regime was then determined for different material combinations, size of implant, and trunk velocity. Disc arthroplasties with a metal-polymer or metal-metal material combination operate with a boundary lubrication regime. A ceramic-ceramic material combination has the potential to operate with fluid-film lubrication. Disc arthroplasties with a metal-polymer or metal-metal material combination are likely to generate wear debris. In future, it is worth considering a ceramic-ceramic material combination as this is likely to reduce wear.

  19. From the atmosphere to the circumstellar environment in cool evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittkowski, M.; Paladini, C.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss and illustrate contributions that optical interferometry has made on our current understanding of cool evolved stars. We include red giant branch (RGB) stars, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and red supergiants (RSGs). Studies using optical interferometry from visual to mid-infrared wavelengths have greatly increased our knowledge of their atmospheres, extended molecular shells, dust formation, and winds. These processes and the morphology of the circumstellar environment are important for the further evolution of these stars toward planetary nebulae (PNe) and core-collapse supernovae (SNe), and for the return of material to the interstellar medium.

  20. Circumstellar Gas-Disk Variability Around A-Type Stars: The Detection of Exocomets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Montgomery, Sharon

    2013-07-01

    We present medium spectral resolution (R ∼ 60,000) observations of the CaII K-line (3,933 Å) absorption profiles observed toward 21 nearby A-type stars thought to possess circumstellar gas debris disks. The stars were repeatedly observed over two observing runs on the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald Observatory, Texas in 2011 May and 2012 November. Nightly changes in the absorption strength of the CaII K-line near the stellar radial velocity were observed in four of the stars (HD 21620, HD 110411, HD 145964 and HD 183324). This type of absorption variability indicates the presence of a circumstellar gas disk around these stars. We also have detected weak absorption features that sporadically appear with velocities in the range ± 100 km s-1 of the main circumstellar K-line in the spectra of HD 21620, HD 42111, HD 110411 and HD 145964. Due to the known presence of both gas and dust disks surrounding these four stars, these transient absorption features are most probably associated with the presence of Falling Evaporated Bodies (FEBs, or exocomets) that are thought to liberate gas on their grazing trajectory toward and around the central star. This now brings the total number of A-type stars in which the evaporation of CaII gas from protoplanetary bodies (i.e., exocomets) has been observed to vary on a nightly basis to 10 systems. A statistical analysis of the 10 A-stars showing FEB-activity near the CaII K-line compared to 21 A-type stars that exhibit no measurable variability reveals that FEB-activity occurs in significantly younger stellar systems that also exhibit chemical peculiarities. The presence of FEB-activity does not appear to be associated with a strong mid-IR excess. This is probably linked to the disk inclination angle, since unless the viewing angle is favorable the detection of time-variable absorption may be unlikely. Additionally, if the systems are more evolved then the evaporation of gas due to FEB activity could have ceased

  1. Material considerations for intervertebral disc replacement implants.

    PubMed

    Taksali, Sudeep; Grauer, Jonathan N; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2004-01-01

    Cervical and lumbar disc replacements are being performed with increasing frequency. Much of the background for the development for these implants is drawn from the literature of other joint replacements that have been in evolution and use for decades. Important variables for the function and longevity of such disc arthroplasty implants are clearly defined by the material properties of the components used for their production. The most frequently considered materials are cobalt-chrome alloys, titanium alloys, stainless steels, polyethylene, polyurethane and ceramics. In addition to implant materials, the interfaces of such materials must be considered. The bearing surfaces of an implant, in particular, are at risk of wear and failure. Overall, successful, long-term total disc arthroplasty requires a thorough understanding of biomaterials and how they can be used to achieve their desired goals.

  2. Effects of disc midplane evolution on CO snowline location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panić, O.; Min, M.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature changes in the planet forming disc midplanes carry important physico-chemical consequences, such as the effect on the locations of the condensation fronts of molecules - the snowlines. Snowlines impose major chemical gradients and possibly foster grain growth. The aim of this paper is to understand how disc midplane temperature changes with gas and dust evolution, and identify trends that may influence planet formation or allow to constrain disc evolution observationally. We calculate disc temperature, hydrostatic equilibrium and dust settling in a mutually consistent way from a grid of disc models at different stages of gas loss, grain growth and hole opening. We find that the CO snowline location depends very strongly on disc properties. The CO snowline location migrates closer to the star for increasing degrees of gas dispersal and dust growth. Around a typical A type star, the snowline can be anywhere between several tens and a few hundred au, depending on the disc properties such as gas mass and grain size. In fact, gas loss is as efficient as dust evolution in settling discs, and flat discs may be gas-poor counterparts of flared discs. Our results, in the context of different pre-main sequence evolution of the luminosity in low- and intermediate-mass stars suggests very different thermal (and hence chemical) histories in these two types of discs. Discs of T Tauri stars settle and cool down while discs of Herbig Ae stars may remain rather warm throughout the pre-main sequence.

  3. Modeling pollutant penetration across building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, De-Ling; Nazaroff, William W.

    2001-04-01

    As air infiltrates through unintentional openings in building envelopes, pollutants may interact with adjacent surfaces. Such interactions can alter human exposure to air pollutants of outdoor origin. We present modeling explorations of the proportion of particles and reactive gases (e.g., ozone) that penetrate building envelopes as air enters through cracks and wall cavities. Calculations were performed for idealized rectangular cracks, assuming regular geometry, smooth inner crack surface and steady airflow. Particles of 0.1-1.0 {micro}m diameter are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or larger, assuming a pressure difference of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles are significantly removed by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. In addition to crack geometry, ozone penetration depends on its reactivity with crack surfaces, as parameterized by the reaction probability. For reaction probabilities less than {approx}10{sup -5}, penetration is complete for cracks heights greater than 1 mm. However, penetration through mm scale cracks is small if the reaction probability is {approx}10{sup -4} or greater. For wall cavities, fiberglass insulation is an efficient particle filter, but particles would penetrate efficiently through uninsulated wall cavities or through insulated cavities with significant airflow bypass. The ozone reaction probability on fiberglass fibers was measured to be 10{sup -7} for fibers previously exposed to high ozone levels and 6 x 10{sup -6} for unexposed fibers. Over this range, ozone penetration through fiberglass insulation would vary from >90% to {approx}10-40%. Thus, under many conditions penetration is high; however, there are realistic circumstances in which building envelopes can provide substantial pollutant removal. Not enough is yet known about the detailed nature of pollutant penetration

  4. Shift in apparent contrast of disc at Secchi disc depth in coastal sea areas.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hisayuki; Inada, Mari; Choi, Sokjin; Narita, Miho

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between Secchi disc depth and amount of suspended material in seawater varies depending on the particular marine area. To identify the cause of this dependence, we calculated the apparent contrast (C (SD)) at each Secchi disc depth in different coastal sea areas. When the turbidity from the surface to the Secchi disc depth was uniform, the C (SD) was distributed in the range of 1.3 to 0.001 for a Secchi disc depth (Z (SD)) of 2-18 m. Z (SD) tended to decrease as C (SD) became larger. The dominant wavelength for the sea color was 475-500 nm for a Secchi disc depth of 13-18 m, and 500-575 nm for a Z(SD) of 2-6 m, shifting to longer wavelengths as the Secchi disc depth increased. That is, when Z (SD) decreased, the dominant wavelength of the sea color, and the C (SD) increased simultaneously. This phenomenon seems to occur because the contrast threshold for the human eye is higher at longer wavelengths. In other words, the contrast threshold is visibly indistinguishable when the apparent contrast in ocean waters with low Secchi disc depths is high. This phenomenon occurs because the human eye is affected by the color of the sea.

  5. Disc in Flames: Roles of TNF-α and IL-1β in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zariel I.; Schoepflin, Zachary R.; Choi, Hyowon; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2016-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is an important mechanical structure that allows range of motion of the spinal column. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, incited by aging, traumatic insult, genetic predisposition, or other factors, is often defined by functional and structural changes in the tissue, including excessive breakdown of the extracellular matrix, increased disc cell senescence and death, and compromised biomechanical function of the tissue. Intervertebral disc degeneration is strongly correlated with low back pain, which is a highly prevalent and costly condition, significantly contributing to loss in productivity and health care costs. Disc degeneration is a chronic, progressive condition, and current therapies are limited and often focused on symptomatic pain relief rather than curtailing the progression of the disease. Inflammatory processes, exacerbated by cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β are believed to be key mediators of disc degeneration and low back pain. In this review, we describe the contributions of TNF-α and IL-1β to changes seen during disc degeneration at the cellular and tissue level, new evidence suggesting a link between infection of the spine and low back pain, and the emerging therapeutic modalities aimed at combating these processes. PMID:26388614

  6. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - VI. Observations of two distant Type Ibn supernova candidates discovered by La Silla-QUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, A.; Hadjiyska, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Valenti, S.; Turatto, M.; Fasano, G.; Benitez-Herrera, S.; Baltay, C.; Benetti, S.; Botticella, M. T.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ellman, N.; Feindt, U.; Filippenko, A. V.; Fraser, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Graham, M. L.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Kelly, P. L.; Kotak, R.; Kowalski, M.; McKinnon, R.; Morales-Garoffolo, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Sullivan, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Walker, E. S.; Yaron, O.; Young, D. R.

    2015-05-01

    We present optical observations of the peculiar stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw discovered by the La Silla-QUEST survey. LSQ12btw reaches an absolute peak magnitude of Mg = -19.3 ± 0.2, and shows an asymmetric light curve. Stringent pre-discovery limits constrain its rise time to maximum light to less than 4 d, with a slower post-peak luminosity decline, similar to that experienced by the prototypical SN Ibn 2006jc. LSQ13ccw is somewhat different: while it also exhibits a very fast rise to maximum, it reaches a fainter absolute peak magnitude (Mg = -18.4 ± 0.2), and experiences an extremely rapid post-peak decline similar to that observed in the peculiar SN Ib 2002bj. A stringent pre-discovery limit and an early marginal detection of LSQ13ccw allow us to determine the explosion time with an uncertainty of ±1 d. The spectra of LSQ12btw show the typical narrow He I emission lines characterizing Type Ibn SNe, suggesting that the SN ejecta are interacting with He-rich circumstellar material. The He I lines in the spectra of LSQ13ccw exhibit weak narrow emissions superposed on broad components. An unresolved Hα line is also detected, suggesting a tentative Type Ibn/IIn classification. As for other SNe Ibn, we argue that LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw likely result from the explosions of Wolf-Rayet stars that experienced instability phases prior to core collapse. We inspect the host galaxies of SNe Ibn, and we show that all of them but one are hosted in spiral galaxies, likely in environments spanning a wide metallicity range.

  7. Light-curve modelling of superluminous supernova 2006gy: collision between supernova ejecta and a dense circumstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Blinnikov, Sergei I.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Yoshida, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2013-01-01

    We show model light curves of superluminous supernova 2006gy on the assumption that the supernova is powered by the collision of supernova ejecta and a dense circumstellar medium. The initial conditions are constructed based on the shock breakout condition, assuming that the circumstellar medium is dense enough to cause a shock breakout within it. We perform a set of numerical light-curve calculations using the one-dimensional multigroup radiation hydrodynamics code stella. We succeed in reproducing the overall features of the early light curve of SN 2006gy with a circumstellar medium of mass about 15 M⊙ (the average mass-loss rate is ˜0.1 M⊙ yr-1). Thus, the progenitor of SN 2006gy is likely a very massive star. The density profile of the circumstellar medium is not well constrained by light-curve modelling alone, but our modelling disfavours a circumstellar medium formed by steady mass loss. The ejecta mass is estimated to be comparable to or less than 15 M⊙ and the explosion energy is expected to be more than 4 × 1051 erg. No 56Ni is required to explain the early light curve. We find that multidimensional effects, e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which is expected to take place in the cool dense shell between the supernova ejecta and the dense circumstellar medium, are important in understanding supernovae powered by shock interaction. We also show the evolution of optical and near-infrared model light curves of high-redshift superluminous supernovae. They can potentially be used to identify SN 2006gy-like superluminous supernovae in future optical and near-infrared transient surveys.

  8. The protein translocon of the plastid envelopes.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Aleksandar; Alavi, Marcel; Becker, Thomas; Hörmann, Friederike; Küchler, Michael; Soll, Jürgen; Thomson, Rowena; Schleiff, Enrico

    2004-05-14

    The Toc and Tic translocon facilitate import of preproteins into chloroplasts. In the past, it was speculated that several translocon subunits act specifically for different types of precursor proteins or in different tissues. To generate a comprehensive picture of the expression and tissue-specific localization of the translocon subunits, their transcript levels were analyzed in roots and leaves. Certain Tocs and Tics were found to be tissue-specific. The protein composition of the transloci in the envelope membranes of chloroplasts was analyzed to describe the function and possible stoichiometry. In contrast to Tic subunits, several Toc subunits seem to have a high turnover.

  9. Surface area coefficients for airship envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, W S

    1922-01-01

    In naval architecture, it is customary to determine the wetted surface of a ship by means of some formula which involves the principal dimensions of the design and suitable constants. These formulas of naval architecture may be extended and applied to the calculation of the surface area of airship envelopes by the use of new values of the constants determined for this purpose. Surface area coefficients were calculated from the actual dimensions, surfaces, and volumes of 52 streamline bodies, which form a series covering the entire range of shapes used in the present aeronautical practice.

  10. Low heat-leak cryogenic envelope

    DOEpatents

    DeHaan, James R.

    1976-10-19

    A plurality of cryogenic envelope sections are joined together to form a power transmission line. Each of the sections is comprised of inner and outer tubes having multilayer metalized plastic spirally wrapped within a vacuum chamber formed between the inner and outer tubes. A refrigeration tube traverses the vacuum chamber, but exits one section and enters another through thermal standoffs for reducing heat-leak from the outer tube to the refrigeration tube. The refrigeration tube passes through a spirally wrapped shield within each section's vacuum chamber in a manner so that the refrigeration tube is in close thermal contact with the shield, but is nevertheless slideable with respect thereto.

  11. Aerodynamic investigations of a disc-wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrache, Alexandru; Frunzulica, Florin; Grigorescu, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-disc, for a civil application in the fire-fighting system. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using a CFD code, named ANSYS Fluent, in the flow speed range up to 25 m/s, at lower and higher angle of attack. The simulation is three-dimensional, using URANS completed by a SST turbulence model. The results are used to examine the flow around the disc with increasing angle of attack and the structure of the wake.

  12. Splint-assisted disc plication surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Omar; Logan, Greg; Komath, Deepak; Grossman, Patrick; Ayliffe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chronic disc displacement may lead to long-term pain. Temporomandibular joint surgery is reserved for those patients whose symptoms remain severe despite conservative treatment. We looked at the of effect of modified meniscopexy on patients with chronic disc displacement without reduction who did not respond to non-surgical pain management treatment. In this retrospective study a total of 59 joints was treated and all patients except one underwent splint assisted bilateral meniscopexy: this patient had splint assisted unilateral meniscopexy. At the time of presentation and following treatment all patients underwent clinical examination and were required to complete a pain and functional questionnaire. All patients reported improvement following treatment. PMID:28149454

  13. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOEpatents

    Mrochek, J.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Chandler, E.W.

    1986-01-07

    A four-port disc valve is described for sampling erosive, high temperature process streams. A rotatable disc defining opposed first and second sampling cavities rotates between fired faceplates defining flow passageways positioned to be alternatively in axial alignment with the first and second cavities. Silicon carbide inserts and liners composed of [alpha] silicon carbide are provided in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities to limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation when used under harsh process conditions. 1 fig.

  14. [Biology and mechanobiology of the intervertebral disc].

    PubMed

    González Martínez, Emilio; García-Cosamalón, José; Cosamalón-Gan, Iván; Esteban Blanco, Marta; García-Suarez, Olivia; Vega, José A

    2017-01-24

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is noted for its low cell content, and being the largest avascular structure of human body. The low amount of cells in the disc have to adapt to an anaerobic metabolism with low oxygen pressure and acidic pH. Apart from surviving in an adverse microenvironment, they are exposed to a high level of mechanical stress. The biological adaptation of cells to acidosis and hyperosmolarity conditions are regulated by mechanoproteins, which are responsible for converting a mechanical signal into a cellular response, thus modifying its gene expression. Mechanobiology helps us to better understand the pathophysiology of IVD and its potential biological repair.

  15. Area Minimizing Discs in Metric Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytchak, Alexande