Science.gov

Sample records for cis opinion surveys

  1. Florida Employer Opinion Survey. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    Two surveys were directed to Florida employers that employed former vocational education students in 1988. The surveys obtained information describing employer opinions regarding general and specific vocational preparation of workers for employment. The 1989-90 employer general opinion survey examined hiring needs, general preparation, and…

  2. Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets.

  3. Opinion Survey -- Revision and Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Johns--presents a series of statements about important social , political, and economic issues. Respondents are asked to agree or disagree with each...to current social , political and economic issues--issues which generate the strongest emotional responses. I gave this survey to nationally...religion as being the only ’true’ one.. .Religious leaders love him, political demagogues love him, and advertising copywriters love him, because he

  4. [Opinion survey among nursing students on family].

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Akemi

    2002-12-01

    Earlier discharges of patients from hospital are increasing needs for supports for home medical care, which is causing changes in the activities of medical providers for patients and family members. Meanwhile, it is suggested that the younger generation is more indifferent to family members along with the increase of nuclear families or households consisting of only one member. This time, the author conducted an opinion survey among nursing students for the purpose of understanding how nursing students think of the family and using the data as a reference for the education. The survey was conducted in FY2000 and FY2001 for the questions selected from the "National Lifestyle Popularity Survey". The results indicate that nursing students intend to have families while keeping working and are willing to fulfill their responsibilities as a family member of which relation is close. It is considered possible to guide nursing students to practice nursing respecting the position and feeling of the patient by letting them understand social changes and the individuality of the patient based on the way nursing students think of the family.

  5. Assessing Public Opinions and Attitudes Through Citizen Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owings, Thomas G.

    Attitude and opinion research requires considerable planning, careful design of survey procedures and sampling techniques, and practical ways of collecting, analyzing, and reporting results. The following suggestions are based on the extensive public opinion research conducted by the University of Alabama. (1) Decide what specific problem is to be…

  6. Surveying Older Adults' Opinions on Housing: Recommendations for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Shubair, Mamdouh M.; Michalos, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    There is paucity of research investigating opinions and attitudes of seniors 55 years of age and older in relation to housing accommodation and services sensitive to the needs of the senior population. We describe the results of a cross-sectional survey soliciting opinions and attitudes of seniors with respect to a variety of housing issues…

  7. Surveying Older Adults' Opinions on Housing: Recommendations for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Shubair, Mamdouh M.; Michalos, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    There is paucity of research investigating opinions and attitudes of seniors 55 years of age and older in relation to housing accommodation and services sensitive to the needs of the senior population. We describe the results of a cross-sectional survey soliciting opinions and attitudes of seniors with respect to a variety of housing issues…

  8. Continuous Opinion Dynamics Under Bounded Confidence:. a Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Jan

    Models of continuous opinion dynamics under bounded confidence have been presented independently by Krause and Hegselmann and by Deffuant et al. in 2000. They have raised a fair amount of attention in the communities of social simulation, sociophysics and complexity science. The researchers working on it come from disciplines such as physics, mathematics, computer science, social psychology and philosophy. In these models agents hold continuous opinions which they can gradually adjust if they hear the opinions of others. The idea of bounded confidence is that agents only interact if they are close in opinion to each other. Usually, the models are analyzed with agent-based simulations in a Monte Carlo style, but they can also be reformulated on the agent's density in the opinion space in a master equation style. The contribution of this survey is fourfold. First, it will present the agent-based and density-based modeling frameworks including the cases of multidimensional opinions and heterogeneous bounds of confidence. Second, it will give the bifurcation diagrams of cluster configuration in the homogeneous model with uniformly distributed initial opinions. Third, it will review the several extensions and the evolving phenomena which have been studied so far, and fourth it will state some open questions.

  9. A Survey of Undergraduate Student Opinions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Kathleen

    The results of the Student Reaction to College survey, given to students at Arizona's three public universities, are presented as one of the working papers in the final report of the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and Competitiveness. Results indicate the following: students from all three universities are very…

  10. Student Opinions About Health Services at Miami. Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Michael J.

    A random sample of Miami University undergraduate and graduate students were surveyed to determine their opinions about health care at the university. Most of the questions dealt with the university's student health service and satisfaction with the quality of medical treatment at the facility, perception of the staff's performance and interest in…

  11. DIMENSIONS OF THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT--THE SCHOOL OPINION SURVEY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RECTOR, WILLIAM H.; SHAW, MERVILLE C.

    THIS MONOGRAPH PRESENTS TECHNICAL AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION SUPPLEMENTAL TO PREVIOUS PUBLICATIONS CONCERNING THE GENERAL OUTLINE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCHOOL OPINION SURVEY (SOS), WHICH DELINEATES SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS OF THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT. THE INTRODUCTION INCLUDES THE GUIDANCE MODEL, THE NEED FOR THE SOS TO HELP PUPIL PERSONNEL…

  12. A Survey of Parental Opinions on Corporal Punishment in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In a survey of 129 parents of military dependents, 51% supported the use of corporal punishment in schools and 37% disagreed. Analysis of the responses displayed a relationship between parental attitudes on the use of corporal punishment and opinion of the positive effects of physical punishment on children's behavior. (Author/CL)

  13. 2006 Public Opinion Survey on Education in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Spradlin, Terry E.; Zapf, Jason S.; Chien, Rosanne W.

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 Public Opinion Survey on Education in Indiana gauged the attitudes and perceptions of a representative sample of Hoosiers on such key educational issues as kindergarten and pre-kindergarten programs, No Child Left Behind and P.L. 221, school funding and taxes, teacher quality, school choice and charter schools, and the achievement gap in…

  14. Student Opinion Survey, 1976. Research Report: BCC 1-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Norman

    A student opinion survey was administered to a sample of 1,100 students at Bronx Community College (BCC) in 1976. Respondent ethnicity distribution was 46.2% black, 29.1% hispanic, 17.0% white, 1.5% Oriental, and 6.3% other. More than half of the respondents were in either liberal arts and music (42.8%) or business curricula (21.8%). Results…

  15. A practitioner survey of opinions toward regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Ingrid; Murray, Peter E; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Kuttler, Sergio; Namerow, Kenneth N

    2009-09-01

    The success of regenerative endodontic procedures requires practitioner acceptance, but little or no evidence is available. The purpose of this survey was to collect the opinions of attendee's of the 2008 Endodontic Board of Diplomates 2008 Summer Conference on the issue of regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). After Nova Southeastern University institutional review board approval, 100 copies of a survey were circulated, and 56 completed surveys were returned anonymously. The survey found that 96% of participants thought that more regenerative therapies should be incorporated into treatments. Although only 14% of participants had used umbilical cord or stem cell banking for themselves or a relative, 63% thought that stem cell banking would be useful to regenerate dental tissues. Most (89%) of the participants would be willing to save teeth and dental tissues for stem cell banking. These results suggest that endodontic practitioners are supportive and optimistic about the future use of REPs.

  16. Obstetricians’ Opinions of the Optimal Caesarean Rate: A Global Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Francesca L.; Cresswell, Jenny A.; Ronsmans, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Background The debate surrounding the optimal caesarean rate has been ongoing for several decades, with the WHO recommending an “acceptable” rate of 5–15% since 1997, despite a weak evidence base. Global expert opinion from obstetric care providers on the optimal caesarean rate has not been documented. The objective of this study was to examine providers’ opinions of the optimal caesarean rate worldwide, among all deliveries and within specific sub-groups of deliveries. Methods A global online survey of medical doctors who had performed at least one caesarean in the last five years was conducted between August 2013 and January 2014. Respondents were asked to report their opinion of the optimal caesarean rate—defined as the caesarean rate that would minimise poor maternal and perinatal outcomes—at the population level and within specific sub-groups of deliveries (including women with demographic and clinical risk factors for caesareans). Median reported optimal rates and corresponding inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were calculated for the sample, and stratified according to national caesarean rate, institutional caesarean rate, facility level, and respondent characteristics. Results Responses were collected from 1,057 medical doctors from 96 countries. The median reported optimal caesarean rate was 20% (IQR: 15–30%) for all deliveries. Providers in private for-profit facilities and in facilities with high institutional rates reported optimal rates of 30% or above, while those in Europe, in public facilities and in facilities with low institutional rates reported rates of 15% or less. Reported optimal rates were lowest among low-risk deliveries and highest for Absolute Maternal Indications (AMIs), with wide IQRs observed for most categories other than AMIs. Conclusions Three-quarters of respondents reported an optimal caesarean rate above the WHO 15% upper threshold. There was substantial variation in responses, highlighting a lack of consensus around

  17. Community psychiatry: results of a public opinion survey.

    PubMed

    Lauber, Christoph; Nordt, Carlos; Haker, Helene; Falcato, Luis; Rössler, Wulf

    2006-05-01

    Mental health authorities must know the public's attitude to community psychiatry when planning community mental health services. However, previous studies have only investigated the impact of demographic variables on the attitude to community psychiatry. To assess the influence of psychological and sociological parameters on the public opinion of community psychiatry in Switzerland. Linear regression analyses of the results of a public opinion survey on a representative population sample in Switzerland (n = 1737). Most respondents have positive attitudes to community psychiatry. In the regression analysis (R2 adjusted = 21.2%), negative emotions towards mentally ill people as depicted in the vignette, great social distance, a positive attitude to restrictions, negative stereotypes, high rigidity and no participation in community activities significantly influenced negative attitudes to community psychiatry. Additionally, other parameters, e.g. contact with mentally ill people and the nationality of the interviewee, have a significant influence. In planning psychiatric community services, general individual traits and emotive issues should be considered because they influence the response towards community psychiatry facilities in the host community.

  18. Survey data reflecting popular opinions of the causes and mitigation of climate change.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jonathan E

    2017-10-01

    The data presented within this manuscript reports the results of a 20-question opinion survey concerning popular beliefs regarding the causes of and possible mitigation of climate change. The results and opinions from 746 survey respondents are presented. The data reflects certain misconceptions of climate change, and is useful for investigators to begin forming opinions of the public's knowledge regarding the potentially inflammatory topics of climate change, greenhouse gases, and geo-engineering.

  19. Survey of opinion of secondary school students on organ donation.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, F A; Souqiyyeh, M Z; Al-Attar, B; Jaralla, A; Al Swailem, A R

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a survey of opinion of a sample of senior high school students in Saudi Arabia to evaluate their awareness of the importance of organ donation and concept of brain death. There were 839 students from nine schools, 745 males and 94 females. The participants were not primed about these topics before answering the questionnaire, which was answered at school. The study group declared the level of education of the parents. Twenty three percent knew about the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, but 61% could only guess its function. Fifty eight percent could not differentiate between "natural 11 death and brain death and 93% were not aware of how to document it. Elaboration on these questions showed variable explanations. Sixty eight percent agreed to donate organs of relatives in case of brain death, and 91% would donate a kidney to their relatives. However, 38% agreed to donate organs of their own to organ failure patients other then relatives. Thirty five percent knew about the organ donation cards, but only 12% carried them, and only 48% would consent to include the word "donor" on their driving licenses. Forty two percent knew about the opinion of Islamic religion toward organ donation. Thirty one percent agreed to send patients for organ transplantation abroad due to their belief that transplantation technology in Saudi Arabia is lacking, There were no significant differences in the answers according to schools, gender, students of different curricula, having a friend or relative with organ failure, or the level of the education of the parents. This study suggests the great need for education of the new generation about the importance of organ donation and the concept of brain death. We believe that including these topics in the curricula of schools would help disseminating this knowledge to the public in Saudi Arabia.

  20. PVMapper: Report on the Second Public Opinion Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Juliet Carlisle; Jeffrey Joe; Stephanie Kane; Dave Koehler; David Solan

    2013-06-01

    This report has been developed as an integral part of the PVMapper project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s SunShot program. The objective of the SunShot program is to reduce the total costs of solar energy systems. The scope of PVMapper is to develop a geographic information system (GIS) based project planning tool to identify optimal utility-scale solar facility sites. The specific objectives of the project are to 1) develop the software on an open-source platform; 2) integrate the appropriate data sets and GIS layers; 3) include a measure of social risk and public acceptance; 4) enable customization of variable weights; 5) provide a free and accessible platform for software download; and 6) provide a sustainability plan to ensure future relevance of the software. When completed, PVMapper is intended to be used by solar developers, Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJs), and other interested parties. This project supports SunShot’s objective by reducing the non-hardware balance of system costs (“soft costs”) for utility-scale solar project development. In order to accomplish the third project objective – including a measure of social risk and public acceptance within PVMapper – the project team has developed a time-series public opinion survey, administered yearly over the course of the three-year project. This report highlights the results and preliminary analyses from the second survey in this series. While the results of this survey are valuable to both PVMapper and future utility-scale solar development, the time-series design is extremely important. The completion of the series enables the extension of the dataset to much richer information. For example, the research team altered this iteration to sharpen the focus on specific topics (those posing potentially higher risks) and target specific locations in the oversample (such as communities near existing facilities). Using similar

  1. Canadian radiation oncologists' opinions regarding peer review: A national survey.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Hasan, Haroon; Parsons, Christina; Tyldesley, Scott; Howard, A Fuchsia; Bobinski, Mary Anne; Goddard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To determine Canadian radiation oncologists' (ROs) views regarding the benefits, workload implications, and legal liability of the peer review quality assurance (QA) process. A 26-item anonymous survey was electronically distributed to all current practicing ROs in Canada through the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncologists membership to obtain their opinions regarding peer review. The survey was completed by 145 (36%) of 404 ROs. Most (82%) reported their practice is moderately or very busy and more than two-thirds (69%) felt stressed by their workload. A peer review process is standard at 92% of respondents' institutions. The majority reported this consists of weekly meetings where ROs and other health care providers convene to review radiation treatment plans; some have tumor site-specific rounds while others have 1 meeting for all sites. Nearly all (97%) found this type of QA is beneficial for review of radical plans and 71% found it is beneficial for palliative plans. Incorporating peer review into their current work schedule for all sites was deemed by 37% of respondents to be not or slightly difficult, while 40% found it moderately difficult and 22% very or extremely difficult. The majority (91%) reported that creating a work code to document QA meetings would be helpful and 69% stated that extra resources such as scheduling protected time, designating other health care providers QA coordinators, and increasing overall RO manpower are needed to implement effective peer review. Over half (52%) felt documenting QA meeting minutes would increase legal liability. The majority of ROs who responded found that peer review is beneficial and participate in peer review for at least some of the tumor sites they treat. However, most stated that extra resources are required to effectively implement QA for all tumor sites in their current schedule. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Opinions Expressed by Students at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, 1989 Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, A. E., II

    1989-01-01

    Opinions of 681 University of Nebraska at Omaha students concerning college services and the college environment were surveyed, and results compared with four previous surveys. The survey utilized the standardized instrument developed by the American College Testing Corporation along with a series of local information questions. The survey's four…

  3. An opinion and practice survey on the structure and management of data and safety monitoring boards.

    PubMed

    Tereskerz, Patti M; Guterbock, Thomas M; Kermer, Deborah A; Moreno, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    There is little to no empirical data available on how data and safety monitoring boards (DSMBs) are structured and how they operate. The purpose of this study was to provide data on this. To accomplish this goal, we administered a random survey on current structure and management practices and opinions as reported by principal investigators (PIs) and biostatisticians. We also surveyed Institutional Review Board (IRB) community members, as proxies for the public, as to their opinions on how DSMBs should be structured and managed. A final purpose was to compare opinions about what should be taking place to what is actually happening.

  4. COMPENDIUM: SURVEYS EVALUATING KNOWLEDGE AND OPINIONS CONCERNING HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, Lorena Faith; Cooper, Christy; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2008-10-01

    This compendium updates a 2003 literature review of surveys of knowledge and opinions of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Its purpose is to ensure that results of comparable surveys are considered in surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Over twice as many studies related to the DOE survey have been published since 2003 than prior to that date. The fact that there have been significantly more studies implies that there have been further demonstration projects and/or increased interest in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The primary findings of these 15 new surveys, all of which were conducted in Europe (E) or North America (NA), to the DOE surveys are as follows: 1.Respondents who are more educated are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (NA). 2.Respondents who are more knowledgeable about hydrogen and/or fuel cells are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (E, NA). 3.When asked about issues of trust, respondents generally expressed distrust of the government or political parties but trusted scientists and environmental protection organizations (E). 4.Technical knowledge about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is low (E, NA). 5.Respondents may express opinions about a technology even when they are lacking in knowledge of that technology (E). 6.Women and men have different priorities when deciding on an automobile purchase (E). 7.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of decreased safety (E, NA). 8.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of increased cost (E, NA). The DOE surveys are similar to surveys that examine technical knowledge of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, although the technical questions are certainly different. The DOE surveys are also similar to the opinion surveys in that they address many of the same issues, such as safety, sources of energy information, or trust. There are many differences between the surveys reviewed in this compendium and the DOE surveys. The

  5. A National Opinion Survey of Aviation Maintenance Training Regulations. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William B.; Ziegler, Charles F., Jr.

    A national survey examined the opinions of aircraft maintenance training school administrators and instructors concerning the suitability of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 147 (FAR 147) to regulate effectively today's training programs. Responding to the mail survey instrument were 163 persons representing 90 schools in 37 states. Included among…

  6. Latino Public Opinion Survey of Pre-Kindergarten Programs: Knowledge, Preferences, and Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Valencia, Perez & Echeveste (VPE) and the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) designed a survey to capture Latino adults' opinions about the benefits, importance, and costs associated with enrolling children in pre-kindergarten programs. The objective of the survey was to gauge support for government-subsidized pre-kindergarten programs among…

  7. A National Opinion Survey of Aviation Maintenance Training Regulations. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William B.; Ziegler, Charles F., Jr.

    A national survey examined the opinions of aircraft maintenance training school administrators and instructors concerning the suitability of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 147 (FAR 147) to regulate effectively today's training programs. Responding to the mail survey instrument were 163 persons representing 90 schools in 37 states. Included among…

  8. A Survey of Teachers' Opinions on the Primary Diploma Course in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In response to a request from the General Teaching Council for Scotland, the Aberdeen University Education Department offered to carry out a survey of teachers' opinions on the Primary Diploma Courses in Scottish Colleges of Education. Surveys principals and teachers in their second year of teaching. (Author/RK)

  9. City College of San Francisco 1997 Sexual Harassment Student Opinion Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA. Office of Institutional Research, Planning and Grants.

    This document describes the findings of a 1997 sexual harassment student opinion survey conducted at City College of San Francisco. Survey questions were jointly developed by the Sexual Harassment Prevention Sub-Committee of the Diversity Advisory Committee and the Office of Research and Planning, approved by the College Advisory Council, and…

  10. Continuous Quality Improvement in Student Affairs: A Survey of Staff Opinions on the Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaney, Gary D.; Osit, Carla J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the results of a survey which queried student affairs staff members about their opinions on the importance of and their satisfaction with 37 aspects of their work environments. Discusses results of the survey and addresses efforts to improve the work climate. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/GCP)

  11. Virginia's Opinion on K-12 Education and School Choice. School Choice Survey in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This statistically representative survey of 1,203 likely Virginia voters illustrates public opinion on a wide range of K-12 education issues. The underlying purpose of the Friedman Foundation's state surveys is to measure voter knowledge and attitudes toward public institutions and policies, innovative ideas, and the state's K-12 education system.…

  12. The Development of the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kier, Meredith W.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Osborne, Jason W.; Albert, Jennifer L.

    2014-06-01

    Internationally, efforts to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers have been on the rise. It is often the goal of such efforts that increased interest in STEM careers should stimulate economic growth and enhance innovation. Scientific and educational organizations recommend that efforts to interest students in STEM majors and careers begin at the middle school level, a time when students are developing their own interests and recognizing their academic strengths. These factors have led scholars to call for instruments that effectively measure interest in STEM classes and careers, particularly for middle school students. In response, we leveraged the social cognitive career theory to develop a survey with subscales in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In this manuscript, we detail the six stages of development of the STEM Career Interest Survey. To investigate the instrument's reliability and psychometric properties, we administered this 44-item survey to over 1,000 middle school students (grades 6-8) who primarily were in rural, high-poverty districts in the southeastern USA. Confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the STEM-CIS is a strong, single factor instrument and also has four strong, discipline-specific subscales, which allow for the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subscales to be administered separately or in combination. This instrument should prove helpful in research, evaluation, and professional development to measure STEM career interest in secondary level students.

  13. The 2008 "Education Next"-PEPG Survey of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, William G.; West, Martin R.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Americans clearly have had their fill of a sluggish economy and an unpopular war. Their frustration now may also extend to public education. This article presents the results of the second annual national survey of U.S. adults conducted under the auspices of "Education Next" and the Program on Education Policy and Governance (PEPG) at…

  14. The 2008 "Education Next"-PEPG Survey of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, William G.; West, Martin R.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Americans clearly have had their fill of a sluggish economy and an unpopular war. Their frustration now may also extend to public education. This article presents the results of the second annual national survey of U.S. adults conducted under the auspices of "Education Next" and the Program on Education Policy and Governance (PEPG) at…

  15. Climate Change to the Year 2000: A Survey of Expert Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for the Future, Menlo Park, CA.

    This survey of expert opinion was conducted by the National Defense University, Washington, D.C. to quantify the likelihood of significant changes in climate and their practical consequences. The major objectives of the study are embodied in four tasks. This publication presents the results of the first task only: the definition and estimation of…

  16. Who's Who Among American High School Students: Eleventh National Opinion Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Communications, Inc., Northbrook, IL.

    An awareness of student opinions is important, because today's students are tomorrow's leaders. The eleventh annual "Who's Who Among American High School Students" questionnaire was completed by 24,000 high school juniors and seniors identified as student leaders and high achievers. The survey showed that although high achievers expressed little…

  17. Teachers' Opinion Survey on the Use of ICT Tools to Support Attendance-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Sanchez, Jose Juan; Aleman, Elena Chirino

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on the results obtained from a teachers' opinion survey on the use of ICT tools to support of attendance-based teaching. In order to carry out this study, it was necessary to design a questionnaire to collect data among all in-service teachers with access to the university virtual campus. The findings show that…

  18. Survey of stakeholders' opinions of community psychiatric nursing services.

    PubMed

    Shanley, E; Watson, G; Cole, A

    2001-06-01

    The paper describes a telephone survey of the views of representatives of users, purchasers and providers of community psychiatric nursing services on services in Scotland. The telephone interview protocol was based on seven themes derived from interviewing 63 users, purchasers and providers throughout the UK. Descriptive statistics were used to present the responses in the survey to the forced choice questions. Responses to the open ended questions were coded, categorized and computed. The paper describes the responses by the major stakeholders to each of the themes. Overall, the quality of the existing services was placed in the 'good' category. However, criticism was directed at the insufficient numbers of Community Psychiatric Nurses in the service, the inadequate amount of time spent with clients and their poorly organized method of working. Other findings and stakeholders' recommendations are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of the disturbance caused by aircraft noise by opinion surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremond, J.

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the disturbance caused by aircraft noise was evaluated. The use of a questionnaire as a scale rather than considering isolated question responses is seen as more objective. A standardized structure for questionnaires of the opinion surveys on aircraft noise, which includes a set of questions permitting the analysis of the disturbance caused by different daily activities is recommended. The statistical processing of the answers, to achieve the most reliable evaluation of disturbance felt are discussed.

  20. Smart Investment 2002 Public Opinion Survey: Highlights & Key Findings [and] Statewide Community Perception Analysis, 2002. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lorna; Purcell, Jennifer K.

    The Smart Investment 2002 Public Opinion Survey measures public opinion about the importance and effectiveness of college programs, interest in possible future participation in colleges classes, satisfaction with information received from other colleges, and other topics. The survey was conducted on the phone and used 1,190 adult Washington…

  1. Short-term leprosy forecasting from an expert opinion survey

    PubMed Central

    Deiner, Michael S.; Worden, Lee; Rittel, Alex; Ackley, Sarah F.; Liu, Fengchen; Blum, Laura; Scott, James C.; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an expert survey of leprosy (Hansen’s Disease) and neglected tropical disease experts in February 2016. Experts were asked to forecast the next year of reported cases for the world, for the top three countries, and for selected states and territories of India. A total of 103 respondents answered at least one forecasting question. We elicited lower and upper confidence bounds. Comparing these results to regression and exponential smoothing, we found no evidence that any forecasting method outperformed the others. We found evidence that experts who believed it was more likely to achieve global interruption of transmission goals and disability reduction goals had higher error scores for India and Indonesia, but lower for Brazil. Even for a disease whose epidemiology changes on a slow time scale, forecasting exercises such as we conducted are simple and practical. We believe they can be used on a routine basis in public health. PMID:28813531

  2. A survey of attitude and opinions of endodontic residents towards regenerative endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Utneja, Shivani; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Ansari, Mohammed Irfan; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this survey was to study the level of awareness, current state of knowledge and opinions towards regenerative endodontic treatments amongst the endodontic residents of India. Settings and Design: Questionnaire based survey was designed. Materials and Methods: After approval from the organizing committee of 26th Federation of Operative Dentistry of India and 19th Indian Endodontic Society National conference 2011, 200 copies of the questionnaire were circulated amongst the endodontic residents in conservative dentistry and endodontics at various colleges across the country about regenerative endodontic procedures. The survey included profile of the respondents and consisted of 23 questions about their knowledge, attitude and opinions regarding use of these procedures as part of future dental treatment. Results: The survey showed that half the participants (50.6%) had received continued education in stem cells and/or regenerative dental treatments. The majority of participants were of the opinion (86.6%) that regenerative therapy should be incorporated into dentistry, and most of them (88%) were willing to acquire training in learning this new treatment strategy. The results indicated that half of the participants (52.6%) were already using some type of regenerative therapy in their clinical practice; however, with a majority of these limited to use of membranes, scaffolds or bioactive materials. Conclusions: These results reflect that endodontic residents are optimistic about the use of regenerative endodontic procedures; however, a need for more research and training was felt. PMID:23956532

  3. A survey of attitude and opinions of endodontic residents towards regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Utneja, Shivani; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Ansari, Mohammed Irfan; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this survey was to study the level of awareness, current state of knowledge and opinions towards regenerative endodontic treatments amongst the endodontic residents of India. Questionnaire based survey was designed. After approval from the organizing committee of 26(th) Federation of Operative Dentistry of India and 19(th) Indian Endodontic Society National conference 2011, 200 copies of the questionnaire were circulated amongst the endodontic residents in conservative dentistry and endodontics at various colleges across the country about regenerative endodontic procedures. The survey included profile of the respondents and consisted of 23 questions about their knowledge, attitude and opinions regarding use of these procedures as part of future dental treatment. The survey showed that half the participants (50.6%) had received continued education in stem cells and/or regenerative dental treatments. The majority of participants were of the opinion (86.6%) that regenerative therapy should be incorporated into dentistry, and most of them (88%) were willing to acquire training in learning this new treatment strategy. The results indicated that half of the participants (52.6%) were already using some type of regenerative therapy in their clinical practice; however, with a majority of these limited to use of membranes, scaffolds or bioactive materials. These results reflect that endodontic residents are optimistic about the use of regenerative endodontic procedures; however, a need for more research and training was felt.

  4. Alberta euthanasia survey: 1. Physicians' opinions about the morality and legalization of active euthanasia.

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, T D; Verhoef, M J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the opinions of a sample of Alberta physicians about the morality and legalization of active euthanasia, the determinants of these opinions and the frequency and sources of requests for assistance in active euthanasia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Alberta physicians, grouped by site and type of practice. SETTING: Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2002 (46%) of the licensed physicians in Alberta were mailed a 38-item questionnaire in May through July 1991; usable responses were returned by 1391 (69%). RESULTS: Of the respondents 44% did believe that it is sometimes right to practice active euthanasia; 46% did not. Moral acceptance of active euthanasia correlated with type of practice and religious affiliation and activity. In all, 28% of the physicians stated that they would practice active euthanasia if it were legalized, and 51% indicated that they would not. These opinions were significantly related to sex, religious affiliation and activity, and country of graduation. Just over half (51%) of the respondents stated that the law should be changed to permit patients to request active euthanasia. Requests (usually from patients) were reportedly received by 19% of the physicians, 78% of whom received fewer than five. CONCLUSIONS: This survey revealed severely disparate opinions among Alberta physicians about the morality of active euthanasia. In particular, religious affiliation and activity were associated with the polarized opinions. The desire for active euthanasia, as inferred from requests by patients, was not frequent. Overall, there was no strong support expressed by the physicians for the personal practice of legalized active euthanasia. These data will be vital to those involved in health education and public policy formation about active euthanasia in Alberta and the rest of Canada. PMID:8500029

  5. Analysis of national representative opinion surveys concerning gestational surrogacy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kohta; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Minai, Junko; Yanaihara, Takumi; Takeda, Yasuhisa; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2006-05-01

    Although gestational surrogacy offers several advantages, this procedure has given rise to some ethical and legal issues. We aimed to clarify the factors affecting the attitude of the Japanese toward gestational surrogacy. Cross-sectional study. Nationwide opinion surveys concerning assisted reproductive technologies (ART) were carried out in 1999 and 2003. Participants included 2568 and 3647 people from the general public surveyed in 1999 and 2003, respectively (1564 people received only the questionnaire, and 2083 people received a questionnaire and brochure about ART). Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval from logistic regression models for factors affecting the attitude toward gestational surrogacy. In both surveys, approximately half of respondents approved of gestational surrogacy; 20-30% disapproved of the procedure. People with high socioeconomic status clearly expressed their opinion on this issue. A liberal attitude toward gender role promoted approval of gestational surrogacy; a liberal attitude toward family had the opposite effect. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic status affects people's expression of their opinion regarding this issue, while attitudes toward this procedure were influenced by individual belief. Considering socioeconomic status and diversity of individual belief is required for further discussion on this topic.

  6. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rindermann, Heiner; Becker, David; Coyle, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Following Snyderman and Rothman (1987, 1988), we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education (quantity and quality), wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim world, Latin America, Israel, Jews in the West, Roma (gypsies), and Muslim immigrants. Education was rated by N = 71 experts as the most important cause of international ability differences. Genes were rated as the second most relevant factor but also had the highest variability in ratings. Culture, health, wealth, modernization, and politics were the next most important factors, whereas other factors such as geography, climate, test bias, and sampling error were less important. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations of the survey (e.g., response rates and validity of expert opinions). PMID:27047425

  7. Surgeon-industry conflict of interest: survey of North Americans' opinions regarding surgeons consulting with industry.

    PubMed

    DiPaola, Christian P; Dea, Nicolas; Noonan, Vanessa K; Bailey, Christopher S; Dvorak, Marcel F S; Fisher, Charles G

    2014-04-01

    Surgeon-industry conflict of interest (COI) has become a source of considerable interest. Professional medical societies, industry, and policy makers have attempted to regulate potential COI without consideration for public opinion. The objective of this study was to report on the opinions of individuals representing the general public regarding surgeon-industry consulting relationships. Web-based survey. Survey was administered using a "spine Web site," and opinions are collected on surgeon-industry consulting and regulation. Associations among responses to similar questions were assessed to ensure validity and subgroup analysis performed for respondent age, sex, education, insurance, employment, and patient status. Six hundred ten of 642 surveys had complete data. The sample population comprised more females and was older and more educated than the American population. About 80% of respondents felt it was ethical and either beneficial or of no influence to the quality of health care if surgeons were consultants for surgical device companies. Most felt disclosure of an industry relationship was important and paying surgeons royalties for devices, other than those they directly implant, would not affect quality of care. Respondents support multidisciplinary surgeon-industry COI regulation and trust doctors and their professional societies to head this effort. Despite the known potential negative impact of surgeon-industry COI on patient care, this study revealed that this does not seem to be reflected in the opinion of the general public. The respondents felt that disclosure is deemed one of the most important means of self-regulation and COI management, which is in agreement with current trends of most spine societies and journals that are increasing the stringency of disclosure policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using expert opinion surveys to rank threats to endangered species: a case study with sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Donlan, C Josh; Wingfield, Dana K; Crowder, Larry B; Wilcox, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about how specific anthropogenic hazards affect the biology of organisms. Quantifying the effect of regional hazards is particularly challenging for species such as sea turtles because they are migratory, difficult to study, long lived, and face multiple anthropogenic threats. Expert elicitation, a technique used to synthesize opinions of experts while assessing uncertainty around those views, has been in use for several decades in the social science and risk assessment sectors. We conducted an internet-based survey to quantify expert opinion on the relative magnitude of anthropogenic hazards to sea turtle populations at the regional level. Fisheries bycatch and coastal development were most often ranked as the top hazards to sea turtle species in a geographic region. Nest predation and direct take followed as the second and third greatest threats, respectively. Survey results suggest most experts believe sea turtles are threatened by multiple factors, including substantial at-sea threats such as fisheries bycatch. Resources invested by the sea turtle community, however, appear biased toward terrestrial-based impacts. Results from the survey are useful for conservation planning because they provide estimates of relative impacts of hazards on sea turtles and a measure of consensus on the magnitude of those impacts among researchers and practitioners. Our survey results also revealed patterns of expert bias, which we controlled for in our analysis. Respondents with no experience with respect to a sea turtle species tended to rank hazards affecting that sea turtle species higher than respondents with experience. A more-striking pattern was with hazard-based expertise: the more experience a respondent had with a specific hazard, the higher the respondent scored the impact of that hazard on sea turtle populations. Bias-controlled expert opinion surveys focused on threatened species and their hazards can help guide and expedite species recovery plans.

  9. [Response rates in three opinion surveys performed through online questionnaires in the health setting].

    PubMed

    Aerny Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Astray Mochales, Jenaro; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Blanco Ancos, Luis Miguel; Lópaz Pérez, Ma Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The main advantages of online questionnaires are the speed of data collection and cost savings, but response rates are usually low. This study analyzed response rates and associated factors among health professionals in three opinion surveys in the autonomous region of Madrid. The participants, length of the questionnaire and topic differed among the three surveys. The surveys were conducted by using paid Internet software. The institutional e-mail addresses of distinct groups of health professionals were used. Response rates were highest in hospitals (up to 63%) and administrative services and were lowest in primary care (less than 33%). The differences in response rates were analyzed in primary care professionals according to age, sex and professional category and only the association with age was statistically significant. None of the surveys achieved a response rate of 60%. Differences were observed according to workplace, patterns of Internet usage, and interest in the subject.

  10. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4(th) International BCI conference, which took place in May-June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents' opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, we assessed respondents' expectations on the marketability of different BCI applications (BCIs for healthy people, BCIs for assistive technology, BCIs-controlled neuroprostheses and BCIs as therapy tools). Third, we investigated opinions about ethical issues related to BCI research for the development of assistive technology: informed consent process with locked-in patients, risk-benefit analyses, team responsibility, consequences of BCI on patients' and families' lives, liability and personal identity and interaction with the media. Finally, we asked respondents which issues are urgent in BCI research.

  11. Emerging doctor of pharmacy program in India: A survey on general opinion of selected educated Indians

    PubMed Central

    Garipelly, Raman; Garg, Shilpa; Mateti, Uday Venkat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness and perception of general educated Indian individuals about Doctor of Pharmacy course. Methods: A cross-sectional structured Pharm.D questionnaire survey was conducted at educational institutions of India mainly through e-mails. Pharm.D questionnaire survey was conducted over a period of six months. The questionnaire was classified into four major categories, including course-related questions, roles-related questions, critical comparative questions, and opinion-based questions. The responses were collected and analyzed to assess the opinions and attitudes of the study population regarding the course Pharm.D. Findings: Out of 2819 responses, 66.01% agreed that Indian syllabus, teaching procedure, and hospital training in institutions are enough to prepare an ideally graduated Pharm.D. Respondents of about 70.59% agreed that Pharm.Ds should take care of complete responsibility of drug therapy rather than physicians prescribing the medications and Pharm.Ds fixing the dose. The statement “Pharm.Ds play a vital role in improving medication adherence through patient counseling” was accepted by 47.80%, whereas 41.40% did not accept it as they felt that the Pharm.D's role in this regard is not more than the physician's role, and 10.80% suggested that other healthcare professionals would play a better role. Among all the respondents, 73.64% of the study population was found to be ready for giving equal credit and respect to Pharm.Ds as physicians. Conclusion: Our survey emphasizes on the opinion of educated people of having Pharm.Ds in both government and private hospitals to take care of complete therapy and for improving medication adherence. PMID:24991589

  12. Emerging doctor of pharmacy program in India: A survey on general opinion of selected educated Indians.

    PubMed

    Garipelly, Raman; Garg, Shilpa; Mateti, Uday Venkat

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness and perception of general educated Indian individuals about Doctor of Pharmacy course. A cross-sectional structured Pharm.D questionnaire survey was conducted at educational institutions of India mainly through e-mails. Pharm.D questionnaire survey was conducted over a period of six months. The questionnaire was classified into four major categories, including course-related questions, roles-related questions, critical comparative questions, and opinion-based questions. The responses were collected and analyzed to assess the opinions and attitudes of the study population regarding the course Pharm.D. Out of 2819 responses, 66.01% agreed that Indian syllabus, teaching procedure, and hospital training in institutions are enough to prepare an ideally graduated Pharm.D. Respondents of about 70.59% agreed that Pharm.Ds should take care of complete responsibility of drug therapy rather than physicians prescribing the medications and Pharm.Ds fixing the dose. The statement "Pharm.Ds play a vital role in improving medication adherence through patient counseling" was accepted by 47.80%, whereas 41.40% did not accept it as they felt that the Pharm.D's role in this regard is not more than the physician's role, and 10.80% suggested that other healthcare professionals would play a better role. Among all the respondents, 73.64% of the study population was found to be ready for giving equal credit and respect to Pharm.Ds as physicians. Our survey emphasizes on the opinion of educated people of having Pharm.Ds in both government and private hospitals to take care of complete therapy and for improving medication adherence.

  13. The Opinions of GP's Patients About Suicide, Assisted Suicide, Euthanasia, and Suicide Prevention: An Italian Survey.

    PubMed

    Poma, Stefano Zanone; Vicentini, Silvia; Siviero, Francesca; Grossi, Antonello; Toniolo, Emanuele; Baldo, Vincenzo; De Leo, Diego

    2015-08-01

    A survey about opinions on end-of-life issues of a population represented by 1,171 people in the waiting room of general practitioners' surgeries was conducted in a province of northern Italy. Most subjects did not consider suicide as a reasonable option even in cases of a serious and incurable disease. Moreover, subjects did not consider euthanasia as a possible option either; however, they did express an opposite attitude when considering euthanasia in a third-person perspective. People with a personal history of suicidal behavior appear to present as a different population, overall expressing more open attitudes.

  14. National Opinion Ballot Report, October 1993. Results of National Opinion Survey on U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norpoth, Helmut

    This publication reports on the results of 35,793 high school participants in the Foreign Policy Association's 1993 study and discussion program focusing on opinions about U.S. foreign policy. The topics highlighted in the research include: (1) the U.S. in a New World; (2) the United Nations; (3) Germany's role; (4) China; (5) Trade; (6) Russian…

  15. Opinion of stakeholders on existing curriculum for postgraduate (MD) course in Pharmacology: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Badyal, Dinesh K.; Daniel, Sujit R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To survey the opinion about various curricular components of Doctor of Medicine (MD) pharmacology curriculum in India by stakeholders, including faculty and students. Materials and Methods: An online survey was done to evaluate the various curricular components of MD pharmacology curriculum being used in India. A total of 393 respondents including faculty, MD students, and other stakeholders completed the survey. The survey was developed using SurveyMonkey platform and link to survey was E-mailed to stakeholders. The results were expressed as percentages. Results: There was a balanced representation of respondents from various designations, teaching experience, regions, and age groups. Most of the respondents (83%) were aware of the MD pharmacology curriculum. However, they reported that it is more inclined to knowledge domain. About half of respondents (53%) said that animal experiments are being used. The most common teaching methods mentioned are seminars (98.5%), journal clubs (95%), and practical exercises by postgraduates (73%), but there is less use of newer methods (25%) in theory and less of clinical pharmacology exercise (39%) in practical classes. The log books are maintained but not assessed regularly. Internal assessment is sparingly used. Conclusion: The MD pharmacology curriculum needs to be made uniform at the national level and updated to include the newer methods in teaching-learning and assessment. There should be sharing of newer methods at a common platform implemented at the national level. PMID:28031602

  16. Opinion of stakeholders on existing curriculum for postgraduate (MD) course in Pharmacology: A survey.

    PubMed

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Daniel, Sujit R

    2016-10-01

    To survey the opinion about various curricular components of Doctor of Medicine (MD) pharmacology curriculum in India by stakeholders, including faculty and students. An online survey was done to evaluate the various curricular components of MD pharmacology curriculum being used in India. A total of 393 respondents including faculty, MD students, and other stakeholders completed the survey. The survey was developed using SurveyMonkey platform and link to survey was E-mailed to stakeholders. The results were expressed as percentages. There was a balanced representation of respondents from various designations, teaching experience, regions, and age groups. Most of the respondents (83%) were aware of the MD pharmacology curriculum. However, they reported that it is more inclined to knowledge domain. About half of respondents (53%) said that animal experiments are being used. The most common teaching methods mentioned are seminars (98.5%), journal clubs (95%), and practical exercises by postgraduates (73%), but there is less use of newer methods (25%) in theory and less of clinical pharmacology exercise (39%) in practical classes. The log books are maintained but not assessed regularly. Internal assessment is sparingly used. The MD pharmacology curriculum needs to be made uniform at the national level and updated to include the newer methods in teaching-learning and assessment. There should be sharing of newer methods at a common platform implemented at the national level.

  17. [Opinion survey on the use of personal health records in the Region of Murcia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Fernández Alemán, José Luis; Hernández, Isabel; Sánchez García, Ana Belén

    2013-01-01

    To identify the opinions of patients of the Murcia Health Service on the adoption of personal health records (PHRs) and the factors associated with these opinions. A cross sectional and descriptive study was performed by personal survey of a sample of individuals (N=156) aged between 14 and 80 years old in five public health facilities of districts VI and VII of the Health Service of Murcia. A total of 87.8% of the population stated they would use PHRs. Respondents aged 24-33 years old were 13.15 times more willing to use PHRs (95% CI: 1.09-157.42) than people over 63 years old. A lower probability of using PHRs was found in people who did not use the Internet, with an odds ratio of 0.31 (95% CI: 0.07-1.29); this difference was not statistically significant. Most of the patients surveyed had never heard of PHRs but most would be willing to use them. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Bed bugs, public health, and social justice: Part 2, An opinion survey.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Christopher; Jones, Susan C

    2011-04-01

    Bed bug infestations have resurged globally, nationally, and locally, yet the public health community in the U.S. has yet to mount a coordinated response to the escalating bed bug problem. Surveys of attendees at the 2009 National Environmental Health Association Annual Educational Conference & Exhibition, 2009 Ohio Association of Health Commissioners Fall Conference, 2009 Central Ohio Bed Bug Summit, and 2010 Hamilton County Council on Aging Annual Conference were conducted to gauge opinions about bed bugs. Survey results revealed that 90% of all respondents considered bed bugs to be a public health concern, and 73% indicated that bed bugs pose an environmental justice concern. These findings, which indicate that bed bugs are an inescapable public health mandate with environmental justice undertones, should rally public health agencies at federal, state, and local levels to respond with authority of agency to the escalating bed bug problem.

  19. Indoor UV tanning operator opinion regarding youth access: an electronic survey.

    PubMed

    Hester, Eric J; Johnson, Kathryn R; Crane, Lori A; Schilling, Lisa M; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2004-11-01

    Adolescents frequently use indoor tanning facilities, but little is known about tanning facility operator opinions regarding this use. Objective To assess indoor tanning operator attitudes and stated practices regarding youth access. We electronically surveyed 89 indoor tanning facilities and 130 spas with active e-mail addresses. The survey response rate was 21% for both indoor tanning facilities (19/89) and spas (27/130). Most tanning operators (92%) felt that a client can be too young to receive indoor tanning, and most felt that written parental permission should be required (80%). Most facilities required adult accompaniment (92%), and most operators had discouraged a customer from receiving indoor tanning based on age (77%). The reported age of the youngest patron receiving indoor tanning ranged from 5 to 21 years. Our sample of indoor tanning facility operators believed that minimum age and parental consent regulations for indoor tanning should be required.

  20. Problems, Satisfactions and Habits of Off-Campus Students at UT-Knoxville. 1975 Commuter Opinion Survey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scroggins, Don; Haskins, Jack B.

    This is the last report on the Commuter Opinion Survey conducted during the spring quarter of 1975 at the University of Tennessee (UT) at Knoxville. It is a complete, detailed report on all findings and tabulations from the survey, including a statement of methodology. An important added feature is a complete cross-tabulation of all results by…

  1. SURVEY OF STAFF OPINIONS ABOUT EXTENDED HAEMODIALYSIS TREATMENT TIME AND SERVICE IMPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Singh, Seema; Procter, Susan; Power, Albert; Pusey, Charles; Choi, Peter; Duncan, Neill; Brown, Edwina

    2015-09-01

    We explored the potential impact of staff opinions and service provision upon patient's willingness to recruit to a clinical trial studying the effects of extended treatment time (TT) on haemodialysis (HD), six hours versus four hours for a period of twenty-four weeks. We conducted a local survey of dialysis nurses and a national survey of multidisciplinary HD staff opinions to extended TT including clinical benefits, tolerance to, prescription and ability to accommodate extended TT on in-centre HD programmes. The survey was completed by 56/134 (42%) local nurses and the national survey by 15/72 (21%) of dialysis providers across the UK (35% nurses and 75% other healthcare professionals). The majority of respondents felt extended TT was clinically beneficial but only 42% of nurses would recommend extended TT compared to 95% of non-nursing healthcare professionals (p < 0.0001). Although 45% of nurses felt that it was well tolerated, non-nursing healthcare professionals suggested this was significantly higher at 75% (p < 0.05). The negative impact on service provision was agreed by 83% of nurses with the need to facilitate shifts within a finite time period and pressure to find session spaces being cited. There is conflict between the understanding that extended TT is clinically beneficial and its prescription & delivery to patients. Enrolment to studies examining HD delivery strategies may be influenced by service provision and staff attitudes. In centre HD has been designed to maximise patient throughput and we may need to consider more flexible settings in which to deliver longer treatment time: Home HD maybe a solution. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  2. Research capacity of respiratory therapists: A survey of views, opinions and barriers

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Concetta; Kenaszchuk, Chris

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is increasing in health care services. This means that respiratory therapists (RTs) should be effective consumers, users and producers of scientific research pertaining to respiratory therapy technology and respiratory physiology. However, little is known about RT opinions and attitudes toward research. Survey instruments to measure them are also uncommon. OBJECTIVE: The present article presents the results of a survey of RTs regarding research attitudes including interest, self-perceived skill and barriers. METHODS: A survey was developed in consultation with practicing RTs and education researchers. It was fielded in six academic hospitals in Toronto, Ontario. Surveys were completed and returned anonymously. Descriptive statistics and associations were examined. Subgroup differences were tested using ANOVA methods. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 112 RTs (response rate 26.9%). The majority (approximately 80%) of respondents agreed that respiratory therapy research is important, that research can advance the profession and that RTs are suited to performing respiratory therapy research. More than 70% were interested in performing research as long as barriers were eliminated. Among eight potential barriers, lack of time was ranked as the top barrier 59% of the time. Lack of interest in performing research was the least relevant barrier. RTs’ educational attainment was positively associated with willingness to perform research and belief in having the skills needed for research. CONCLUSION: Many RTs want to conduct research. They would need substantial support, including increased research exposure during respiratory therapy training, more time and support from trained researchers. PMID:26078597

  3. [An opinion survey among readers of Revista Médica de Chile].

    PubMed

    Bunout B, Daniel; Reyes B, Humberto

    2008-09-01

    A few objective indicators support the relevance of articles published in medical journals, such as the ISI Impact Factor and Citation Indices. However, a feedback from the readers can help to improve a journal. To report the results of an opinion survey addressed to readers of Revista Médica de Chile, in June-August 2007. A survey was devised and distributed electronically or by mail among all subscribers. It requested information about gender, age, site of work, proportion of time dedicated to clinical practice, teaching or research, plus their opinion about the contents and format of the journal, inviting them to propose improvements. The survey was distributed to 1274 subscribers (98.7% physicians, most living in Chile) and was responded by 309 (24%). Those who responded were practicing medicine for a mean of 24 +/- 13 (SD) years and did not differ in gender, age or years of medical practice from those that did not respond. Sixty-three percent practiced as internists and dedicated 63 +/- 26 (SD) % of their time to clinical practice, 21 +/- 16% to teaching activities and 16 +/- 17% to research. More than half of respondents qualified the sections of the journal as good or excellent. Fifty-one per cent requested to include more clinical topics updates, 35% more articles on evidence based medicine and 34% more articles focused on continuing medical education. The more frequent free suggestions referred to changes in the format of the journal. Most readers are satisfied with the journal's contents. Suggested changes were referred to review articles and the journal's format.

  4. [Nurses with pediatricians in pediatric outpatient clinics:
    a survey on family pediatricians' opinions].

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Immacolata; Biagioli, Valentina; Graziosi, Federica; Vanelli, Elvira; Tiozzo, Emanuela; Gawronski, Orsola; D'Elpidio, Giuliana; Buonomo, Ersilia; Villani, Alberto; Raponi, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    . Nurses with pediatricians in pediatric outpatient clinics: a survey on family pediatricians' opinions. Pediatric nurses next to family pediatricians could contribute to several activities, included limiting inappropriate access to the emergency room. To describe the perceived benefit of the activities that could be performed by pediatric nurses in the pediatrician's clinic according to the opinion of family pediatricians. Pilot on-line survey with family pediatricians, using list of activities grouped in four areas: "Care of pediatric patients with illnesses and disabilities", "Health education", "Prevention of diseases" and "Coordination and organizational activities". For each activity a judgement of benefit (1= not useful at all; 6= very useful) was reported. Overall, 178 family pediatricians participated in the survey; 55% of them were female, mean age was 55 years. They rated as very useful both the presence of a pediatric nurse in their clinic (mean 5.37+1.06) and would recommend it to a colleague (5.36+1.05). Health education was perceived as the most important area of activity (4.88+0.97). The more they considered useful the pediatric nurse in their clinic, the higher they rated relevant the activities of the pediatric nurse (r=0.60-0.70). Older and more experienced pediatricians found less useful educational (r=-0.19 p<0.05; r=-0.23 p<0.01) and prevention (r=-0.18 p<0.05; r=-0.24 p<0.01) activities compared to younger and less experienced pediatricians. Pediatricians consider very helpful a pediatric nurse in their clinic, for clinical, educational and organizational activities.

  5. Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages: results from a 2011 national public opinion survey.

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gollust, Sarah E

    2013-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages including nondiet sodas, sport drinks, and energy drinks has been linked with obesity. Recent state and local efforts to tax these beverages have been unsuccessful. Enactment will be unlikely without public support, yet little research is available to assess how to effectively make the case for such taxes. The objectives were to assess public opinion about arguments used commonly in tax debates regarding sugar-sweetened beverages and to assess differences in public opinion by respondents' political party affiliation. A public opinion survey was fielded in January-March 2011 using a probability-based sample of respondents from a large, nationally representative online panel to examine public attitudes about nine pro- and eight anti-tax arguments. These data were analyzed in August 2011. Findings indicated greater public agreement with anti- than pro-tax arguments. The most popular anti-tax argument was that a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is arbitrary because it does not affect consumption of other unhealthy foods (60%). A majority also agreed that such taxes were a quick way for politicians to fill budget holes (58%); an unacceptable intrusion of government into people's lives (53.8%); opposed by most Americans (53%); and harmful to the poor (51%). No pro-tax arguments were endorsed by a majority of the public. Respondents reported highest agreement with the argument that sugar-sweetened beverages were the single largest contributor to obesity (49%) and would raise revenue for obesity prevention (41%). Without bolstering public support for existing pro-tax messages or developing alternative pro-tax messages, enacting such policies will be difficult. Message-framing studies could be useful in identifying promising strategies for persuading Americans that taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages are warranted. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Opinions and trends in biomaterials education: report of a 2003 Society for Biomaterials survey.

    PubMed

    Karp, Jeffrey M; Friis, Elizabeth A; Dee, Kay C; Winet, Howard

    2004-07-01

    The Society for Biomaterials (SFB) aims to serve its members through acting as a forum for the exchange of information and ideas. To aid in the practical development of the SFB and more specifically biomaterials education, all active, associate, and student members were surveyed. In general, the survey asked questions regarding respondent demographics, experiences and activities with the SFB, and opinions about biomaterials education. Perceptions and needs of biomaterials-related education and career-related training practices were a specific focus of the survey. A total of 140 individuals responded to the survey for a response rate of 18%. Members from industry felt that new hires, in general, should be better trained in product development, regulatory issues for new materials and devices, and in the relevant testing required. When asked what was missing from their professional education, many respondents commented that business training in areas such as negotiations, management, and understanding the needs outside of academia was lacking. Also, many respondents seemed to have trouble identifying with what they were supposed to know and felt a "lack of set professional knowledge." This study has raised many ideas and questions that require further discussion. The results should ultimately be useful for helping the SFB decide how best to focus future efforts in biomaterials education.

  7. Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists and abortion: a survey of knowledge, opinions and practices

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Lisa A; García, Sandra G; Díaz, Juan; Yam, Eileen A

    2005-01-01

    Background Abortion laws are extremely restrictive in Brazil. The knowledge, opinions of abortion laws, and abortion practices of obstetrician-gynecologists can have a significant impact on women's access to safe abortion. Methods We conducted a mail-in survey with a 10% random sample of obstetrician-gynecologists affiliated with the Brazilian Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We documented participants' experiences performing abortion under a range of legal and illegal circumstances, and asked about which abortion techniques they had experience with. We used chi-square tests and crude logistic regression models to determine which sociodemographic, knowledge-related, or practice-related variables were associated with physician opinion. Results Of the 1,500 questionnaires that we mailed out, we received responses from 572 (38%). Less than half (48%) of the respondents reported accurate knowledge about abortion law and 77% thought that the law should be more liberal. One-third of respondents reported having previous experience performing an abortion, and very few of these physicians reported having experience with manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) or with misoprostol with either mifepristone or methotrexate. Physicians that favored liberalization of the law were more likely to have correct knowledge about abortion law, and to be in favor of public funding for abortion services. Conclusion Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists need more information on abortion laws and on safe, effective abortion procedures. PMID:16288647

  8. Public opinion on alcohol policies in the United States: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, A C; Harwood, E M; Toomey, T L; Denk, C E; Zander, K M

    2000-01-01

    We surveyed the U.S. non-institutionalized population age 18+ on opinions regarding 23 alcohol control policies (N = 7,021). The cooperation rate among contacted households was 70% and the overall response rate was 54%. Results showed high levels of public support for most alcohol control policies. Over 80% support restrictions on alcohol use in public places, such as parks, beaches, concert venues, and on college campuses. Eighty-two percent support increased alcohol taxes, provided the funds are used for treatment or prevention programs. Over 60% support alcohol advertising and promotion restrictions, such as banning billboard advertising, banning promotion at sporting events, or banning liquor and beer advertising on television. Multivariate regression analyses indicated significant relationships between alcohol policy opinions and a variety of sociodemographic, political orientation, and behavioral measures. However, the absolute differences in alcohol policy support across groups is small. There is a strong base of support for alcohol control policies in the U.S., and such support is found among whites and ethnics of color, young and old, rich and poor, and conservatives, moderates, and liberals.

  9. A survey of biosecurity-related practices, opinions and communications across dairy farm veterinarians and advisors.

    PubMed

    Sayers, R G; Good, M; Sayers, G P

    2014-05-01

    Biosecurity at farm-level can often be poorly implemented, and lack of information has been cited by many studies as a potential explanation. Veterinary practitioners (VPs) and dairy advisors (DAs) play a central role in the provision of animal health and management services to dairy farmers. The objective of this study was to document and compare biosecurity-related practices and opinions across VPs and DAs in Ireland. A selection of veterinary experts (VEs) from outside of Ireland was also surveyed. Questionnaires were completed and response rates of 47% (VPs), 97% (DAs), and 65% (VEs) were achieved. Significant differences were identified in the promotion and implementation of biosecurity between VPs and DAs, with a higher proportion of VPs regularly receiving requests from (P = 0.004), and dispensing advice to (P < 0.0001), their farm clients. Communication between DAs and VPs was sub-optimal with over 60% of each group not in regular communication with each other. With regard to the main farmer motivation for biosecurity implementation, the majority of VPs (62%) prioritised external factors such as 'economic benefit' and 'mandatory obligation', while the majority of DAs prioritised health/animal-related factors (69%), which were similar to those of farmers (83.1%), although they remained significantly less likely (OR = 1.8) than farmers to choose such motivators (P = 0.005). Inconsistencies in the implementation of, and in opinions relating to, farm biosecurity were highlighted across all the groups surveyed emphasising the need for standardised information and improved communication.

  10. Physicians' experience and opinion on contraindications to allergen immunotherapy: The CONSIT survey.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Del Rio, Pablo; Pitsios, Constantinos; Tsoumani, Marina; Pfaar, Oliver; Paraskevopoulos, Giannis; Gawlik, Radoslaw; Valovirta, Erkka; Larenas-Linnemann, Desirée; Demoly, Pascal; Calderón, Moises A

    2017-05-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only disease-modifying treatment in allergy but several contraindications limit its use. To collect the outcome of using AIT in theoretically contraindicated situations in real patients in the Contraindications to Specific ImmunoTherapy (CONSIT) survey. The CONSIT is an electronic European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology survey conducted to gather the safety outcomes of patients undergoing subcutaneous, sublingual, or venom AIT and the opinions of physicians on each of 17 selected conditions: children younger than 5 years; starting AIT during pregnancy; controlled severe asthma; arrhythmias; coronary disease; cancer; autoimmune disease; bone marrow and solid organ transplantation; human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; previous anaphylaxis during AIT; use of β-blockers, angiotensin-converting inhibitors, cyclosporine, and methotrexate; and inability to communicate. Safety using AIT was reported in a 3-point scale: 1, "no problems"; 2, "minor problems" (requiring only dose modifications); and 3, "major problems" (AIT not tolerated). Each physician was asked about the degree of contraindication that each condition should have: no contraindication (score 1), relative contraindication (score 2), or absolute contraindication (score 3). Five hundred twenty physicians (75% Europeans, 89% allergists) reported on approximately 45,000 patients undergoing AIT with any of these conditions. Major problems were infrequent, occurring more frequently in patients with asthma (9.9%) and with previous anaphylaxis from AIT (9.5%). Regarding opinions, experienced physicians scored a significantly lower mean for all conditions than non-experienced physicians for all routes. Major problems were infrequent and experienced physicians were less likely to be restrictive in the use of AIT. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Revalidation and electronic cataract surgery audit: a Scottish survey on current practice and opinion.

    PubMed

    Megaw, R; Rane-Malcolm, T; Brannan, S; Smith, R; Sanders, R

    2011-11-01

    To determine current knowledge and opinion on revalidation, and methods of cataract surgery audit in Scotland and to outline the current and future possibilities for electronic cataract surgery audit. In 2010 we conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, Scottish-wide survey on revalidation knowledge and opinion, and cataract audit practice among all senior NHS ophthalmologists. Results were anonymised and recorded manually for analysis. In all, 61% of the ophthalmologists surveyed took part. Only 33% felt ready to take part in revalidation, whereas 76% felt they did not have adequate information about the process. Also, 71% did not feel revalidation would improve patient care, but 85% agreed that cataract surgery audit is essential for ophthalmic practice. In addition, 91% audit their cataract outcomes; 52% do so continuously. Further, 63% audit their subspecialist surgical results. Only 25% audit their cataract surgery practice electronically, and only 12% collect clinical data using a hospital PAS system. Funding and system incompatibility were the main reasons cited for the lack of electronic audit setup. Currently, eight separate hospital IT patient administration systems are used across 14 health boards in Scotland. Revalidation is set to commence in 2012. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists will use cataract outcome audit as a tool to ensure surgical competency for the process. Retrospective manual auditing of cataract outcome is time consuming, and can be avoided with an electronic system. Scottish ophthalmologists view revalidation with scepticism and appear to have inadequate knowledge of the process. However, they strongly agree with the concept of cataract surgery audit. The existing and future electronic applications that may support surgical audit are commercial electronic records, web-based applications, centrally funded software applications, and robust NHS connections between community and hospital.

  12. National survey of provider opinions on controversial characteristics of liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Secunda, Katharine; Gordon, Elisa J; Sohn, Min W; Shinkunas, Laura A; Kaldjian, Lauris C; Voigt, Michael D; Levitsky, Josh

    2013-04-01

    Candidate selection for liver transplantation presents challenging ethical issues that require balancing the principles of justice and utility. The goal of this study was to assess the opinions of U.S. transplant providers regarding the ways in which controversial medical and psychosocial characteristics influence patient eligibility for liver transplantation. An online, anonymous survey about adult patient characteristics was sent to providers (hepatologists, surgeons, psychiatrists, and social workers) at all 102 active adult liver transplant centers in the United States. A majority of the providers (251/444 or 56.5%) completed the survey. The providers were queried about 8 characteristics, and the 3 that were ranked most controversial were incarceration, marijuana use, and psychiatric diagnoses. Most providers identified a patient age ≥ 80 years (62.7%), a body mass index ≥ 45 kg/m2 (56.6%), and current incarceration with a lifetime sentence (54.7%) as absolute contraindications to liver transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, the identification of absolute contraindications varied significantly with the provider type, the center volume, and the geographical region. Less than half of the providers reported that their centers had written policies regarding most of the characteristics examined. In conclusion, providers differ significantly in their opinions on controversial patient characteristics and transplant contraindications. Along with a paucity of literature data on outcomes, these provider differences may play a role in the fact that many centers do not have formal policies for selecting patients with these characteristics. Evidence-based data on the outcomes of such patients are needed to guide the formation of written policies to better standardize eligibility criteria.

  13. [Opinion survey on the use of assisted reproductive technologies applied to inhabitants of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Florencia; Teitelbom, Berta; Russo, Moisés; Salas, Sofía P; Zegers Hochschild, Fernando

    2013-07-01

    Advances in reproductive medicine and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have a great impact in the lives of people and the conformation of their families. To report the results of an opinion survey applied to inhabitants of Santiago, Chile about the use of ART to conceive. A survey was designed and applied to a random representative sample of 1.500 people between the ages of 18 and 65 in the 34 municipalities of Santiago. Eighty eight percent of respondents support the use of medical assistance to conceive children. Wide approval exists for the use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) by heterosexual couples, even when not married (85.9%) and by single women (70.4%), by both mole and female participants of every socioeconomic level, age group and religious affiliation. Support decreases significantly when the use of IVF is considered for post-menopausal women (35.1 %) and by same-sex couples (26.6%). Results of this survey indicate that the majority of inhabitants in Santiago favor the use of ART, including IVF. This support decreases significantly for elderly women and homosexual couples.

  14. The U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Baseline Survey: Assessing Knowledge and opinions about Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Christy; Truett, Lorena Faith; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    To design and maintain its education program, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program conducted a statistically-valid national survey to measure knowledge and opinions of hydrogen among key target audiences. The Hydrogen Baseline Knowledge Survey provides a reference for designing the DOE hydrogen education strategy and will be used in comparisons with future surveys to measure changes in knowledge and opinions over time. The survey sampled four U.S. populations: (1) public; (2) students; (3) state and local government officials; and (4) potential large-scale hydrogen end-users in three business categories Questions measured technical understanding of hydrogen and opinions about hydrogen safety. Other questions assessed visions of the likelihood of future hydrogen applications and sources of energy information. Several important findings were discovered, including a striking lack of technical understanding across all survey groups, as well as a strong correlation between technical knowlege and opinions about safety: those who demonstrated an understanding of hydrogen technologies expressed the least fear of its safe use.

  15. Surgeon-industry conflict of interest: survey of opinions regarding industry-sponsored educational events and surgeon teaching: clinical article.

    PubMed

    DiPaola, Christian P; Dea, Nicolas; Dvorak, Marcel F; Lee, Robert S; Hartig, Dennis; Fisher, Charles G

    2014-03-01

    Conflict of interest (COI) as it applies to medical education and training has become a source of considerable interest, debate, and regulation in the last decade. Companies often pay surgeons as faculty for educational events and often sponsor and give financial support to major professional society meetings. Professional medical societies, industry, and legislators have attempted to regulate potential COI without consideration for public opinion. The practice of evidence-based medicine requires the inclusion of patient opinion along with best available evidence and expert opinion. The primary goal of this study was to assess the opinion of the general population regarding surgeon-industry COI for education-related events. A Web-based survey was administered, with special emphasis on the surgeon's role in industry-sponsored education and support of professional societies. A survey was constructed to sample opinions on reimbursement, disclosure, and funding sources for educational events. There were 501 completed surveys available for analysis. More than 90% of respondents believed that industry funding for surgeons' tuition and travel for either industry-sponsored or professional society educational meetings would either not affect the quality of care delivered or would cause it to improve. Similar results were generated for opinions on surgeons being paid by industry to teach other surgeons. Moreover, the majority of respondents believed it was ethical or had no opinion if surgeons had such a relationship with industry. Respondents were also generally in favor of educational conferences for surgeons regardless of funding source. Disclosures of a surgeon-industry relationship, especially if it involves specific devices that may be used in their surgery, appears to be important to respondents. The vast majority of respondents in this study do not believe that the quality of their care will be diminished due to industry funding of educational events, for surgeon

  16. Cross-cultural factorial validation of the Clinical Interview Schedule – Revised (CIS-R); findings from a nationally representative survey (EMPIRIC)

    PubMed Central

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Castro-Costa, Erico; Dewey, Michael E; Nazroo, James; Prince, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical Interview Schedule – Revised (CIS-R) has been widely adopted across cultures to assess common mental disorders. We assessed the factorial validity of the CIS-R across ethnic minority groups, using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in England in 2000. The sample comprised White British (n = 837), Irish (n = 733), Black Caribbean (n = 694), Bangladeshi (n = 650), Indian (n = 643) and Pakistani (n = 724) respondents. Ordered logistic regression determined the reporting of CIS-R symptoms. Principal components analysis (PCA) determined the underlying construct of the CIS-R in White British participants. These factor solutions were then assessed for “best fit” using confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) across all ethnic groups. In ordered logistic regression analyses, there was heterogeneity in the reporting of worries, phobias, panic and somatic symptoms across ethnic minority groups relative to the White British group. “Best” fit solutions confirmed through CFA were models where all symptoms were allowed to vary across ethnic groups, or models where an underlying “depression-anxiety” construct was held invariant while “somatic symptoms” were permitted to vary across groups, although differences between models assessed were slight. In conclusion, there may be benefits in assessing the functioning of certain CIS-R items within specific cultural contexts to ensure adequate face validity of the CIS-R. PMID:24478128

  17. The "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" (POSHA-S): Summary Framework and Empirical Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was developed to make available worldwide a standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering that is practical, reliable, valid, and translatable. Mean data from past field studies as comparisons for interpretation of "POSHA-S" results are reported. Method: Means…

  18. The "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" (POSHA-S): Summary Framework and Empirical Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was developed to make available worldwide a standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering that is practical, reliable, valid, and translatable. Mean data from past field studies as comparisons for interpretation of "POSHA-S" results are reported. Method: Means…

  19. A Survey of First-Year Biology Student Opinions Regarding Live Lectures and Recorded Lectures as Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcock, D. C.; Chua, W. H.; Hekman, M.; Levin, M. T.; Brown, S.

    2017-01-01

    A cohort of first-year biology students was surveyed regarding their opinions and viewing habits for live and recorded lectures. Most respondents (87%) attended live lectures as a rule (attenders), with 66% attending more than two-thirds of the lectures. In contrast, only 52% accessed recordings and only 13% viewed more than two-thirds of the…

  20. GPs opinions and perceptions of chiropractic in Sweden and Norway: a descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sweden, chiropractic is not included in mainstream health care. In Norway chiropractic is a recognized health care profession. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of chiropractic among Swedish and Norwegian General Practitioners (GPs). Methods Eight hundred surveys in each country were distributed randomly by post to Swedish and Norwegian GPs offices. The survey contained two main sections: Experiences and opinions about chiropractic and referral patterns. The data were then described and compared between the countries. Results In Sweden the response rate was 44.8% and in Norway 45.3%. More than half of the Swedish GPs participating in this study stated that they had poor knowledge about chiropractic, while just a tenth of Norwegian GPs stated the same. Nearly all Norwegian GPs had some experience of chiropractic treatment whilst a fairly large number of the Swedish GPs said that they had no experience at all of chiropractic. It was twice as common for GPs in Norway to refer patients to a chiropractor as compared to Sweden. However, Swedish and Norwegian GPs agreed that chiropractors were competent to treat musculo-skeletal conditions with an adequate education to be part of mainstream medicine. Conclusions Swedish and Norwegian GPs agree that chiropractors are competent to treat musculoskeletal conditions. However, there are many differences in GPs perceptions of chiropractic between the two countries and the overall picture indicates that chiropractic is more accepted and recognised as a health care profession in Norway. PMID:24128386

  1. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2010: series of public opinion surveys.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dagmar; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Benkovic, Vanesa

    2011-10-15

    To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking.

  2. A pilot survey of trial court judges' opinions on pro se competence after Indiana v. Edwards.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James L; Leonard, Cecilia; Kaufman, Andrew R; Way, Bruce B

    2010-01-01

    In Indiana v. Edwards, the U.S. Supreme Court held that a higher standard may be required for pro se competence (PSC) than for competence to stand trial (CST). However, the Court refrained from elaborating a specific standard. The trial judge is in the best position to make more fine-tuned mental capacity decisions. This pilot study surveyed trial judges' opinions about PSC to help forensic evaluators structure their assessments. Eighteen of 400 New York State trial judges surveyed replied. Trial judges regarded disorders of cognitive impairment (n = 10) and psychosis (n = 4) to be potentially limiting for PSC. Responses relating to which domains should be assessed were heterogeneous, but the most common were intellectual and analytic abilities (n = 10), legal knowledge/experience (n = 9), and language abilities (n = 8). Several judges listed factors that are not traditionally part of CST evaluations, such as having a rational reason for proceeding pro se and a willingness to accept the assistance of standby counsel.

  3. A survey to determine public opinion about the ethics and governance of farm animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Jayson L; Norwood, F Bailey

    2008-10-01

    To determine the attitude of the public toward farm animal welfare and identify beliefs regarding how decisions about farm animal welfare should be made. Telephone survey. A random sample of 1,019 US households. US households were contacted by telephone and asked to take part in a survey consisting of 48 items. A majority (437/773 [56.4%]) of respondents believed decisions about farm animal welfare should be made by experts rather than being based on the views of the public. Such advocates of expert decision making were less likely to believe the government should regulate farm animal welfare. Most (420/773 [54.3%]) respondents believed decisions about farm animal welfare should be based on scientific measures of animal well-being, as opposed to moral and ethical considerations. Those individuals who believed farm animal welfare decisions should be made by experts and be based on scientific measures were the least concerned about farm animal welfare issues. People who believed animal welfare decisions should be made by experts and be based on scientific measures were most responsive to information about use of gestation crates for sows. These results should help increase recognition that changing public opinion is not simply a matter of convincing the public to support positions established by veterinarians and animal scientists. People's views about the role of the democratic process in regulating technologic change are important determinants of whether people accept the changes in animal agriculture that have occurred during the past century.

  4. Healthy eating opinion survey for individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mark, Amy E; Riley, Dana L; McDonnell, Lisa A; Pipe, Andrew L; Reid, Robert D

    2014-08-01

    To develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of a questionnaire to measure intentions and beliefs about healthy eating in individuals at risk for coronary heart disease. The Healthy Eating Opinion Survey was developed using the theory of planned behavior. An open-ended elicitation questionnaire was administered to 21 participants, and a 46-item questionnaire was developed for further testing. Test-retest reliability of each question on the survey was assessed by calculating the correlation coefficients between the responses over a 2- week period in 17 participants. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity of the questionnaire in a sample of 388 participants. The responses to the elicitation questions were used to develop behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs questions for the final questionnaire. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.22-0.90, with the majority (89%) of correlations being moderate to strong. Internal consistency was good, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.74-0.92. All intentions questions loaded onto a single factor; attitude questions loaded onto two factors; subjective norm questions loaded onto two factors; perceived behavioral control questions loaded onto one factor; behavioral beliefs questions loaded onto one factor; normative beliefs questions loaded onto one factor; and control beliefs questions loaded onto one factor. The questionnaire was found to be a reliable, valid questionnaire to assess beliefs and intentions toward eating a healthy diet in individuals at risk for coronary heart disease.

  5. Students' opinion of tobacco control policies recommended for US colleges: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, N; Regan, S; Moran, S; Wechsler, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive tobacco control policies for US colleges and universities have been proposed by several groups in order to counter the rising use of tobacco by students enrolled in these institutions. Student opinion of these policies is not known, and concern about student opposition is one barrier that deters administrators from adopting the policies. This study measured student support for recommended college tobacco control policies. Design: Mailed survey of US college students (2001 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study). Setting: 119 nationally representative, four-year colleges and universities in the USA. Participants: 10 904 randomly selected undergraduate students enrolled at participating schools. Main outcome measures: Students' opinion of 7 proposed tobacco control policies. Results: A majority of students supported each policy. Over three quarters of students favoured smoke-free policies for all college buildings, residences, and dining areas, while 71% supported prohibiting tobacco advertising and sponsorship of campus social events, 59% favoured prohibiting tobacco sales on campus, and 51% supported smoke-free campus bars. All policies had more support among non-smokers than smokers (p < 0.001). Among smokers, support for policies was inversely related to intention to quit and intensity of tobacco consumption. Because college students' tobacco consumption is low, a majority of smokers favoured banning smoking in college buildings and dining areas and prohibiting tobacco marketing on campus. Conclusions: Student support for proposed campus tobacco control policies is strong, even among smokers, and broadly based across demographic subgroups. These findings should provide reassurance to college administrators who are considering adopting these policies. PMID:12958381

  6. Orthopaedic resident and program director opinions of resident duty hours: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Mir, Hassan R; Cannada, Lisa K; Murray, Jayson N; Black, Kevin P; Wolf, Jennifer M

    2011-12-07

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) established national guidelines for resident duty hours in July 2003. Following an Institute of Medicine report in December 2008, the ACGME recommended further restrictions on resident duty hours that went into effect in July 2011. We conducted a national survey to assess the opinions of orthopaedic residents and of directors of residency and fellowship programs in the U.S. regarding the 2003 and 2011 ACGME resident duty-hour regulations and the effects of these regulations on resident education and patient care. A fifteen-item questionnaire was electronically distributed by the Candidate, Resident, and Fellow Committee of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) to all U.S. orthopaedic residents (n = 3860) and directors of residency programs (n = 184) and fellowship programs (n = 496) between January and April 2011. Thirty-four percent (1314) of the residents and 27% (185) of the program directors completed the questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed to detect differences between the responses of residents and program directors and between the responses of junior and senior residents. The responses of orthopaedic residents and program directors differed significantly (p < 0.001) for fourteen of the fifteen survey items. The responses of residents and program directors were divergent for questions regarding the 2003 rules. Overall, 71% of residents thought that the eighty-hour work week was appropriate, whereas only 38% of program directors agreed (p < 0.001). Most program directors (70%) did not think that the 2003 duty-hour rules had improved patient care, whereas only 24% of residents responded in the same way (p < 0.001). The responses of residents and program directors to questions regarding the 2011 duty-hour rules were generally compatible, but the degree to which they perceived the issues was different. Only 18% of residents and 19% of program directors thought

  7. Who's your expert? Use of an expert opinion survey to inform development of American Psychiatric Association practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yager, Joel; Kunkle, Robert; Fochtmann, Laura J; Reid, Sara M; Plovnick, Robert; Nininger, James E; Silverman, Joel J; Vergare, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    For many clinical questions in psychiatry, high-quality evidence is lacking. Credible practice guidelines for such questions depend on transparent, reproducible, and valid methods for assessing expert opinion. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a method for assessing expert opinion to aid in the development of practice guidelines by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). A "snowball" process initially soliciting nominees from three sets of professional leaders was used to identify experts on a guideline topic (psychiatric evaluation). In a Web-based survey, the experts were asked to rate their level of agreement that specific assessments improve specific outcomes when they are included in an initial psychiatric evaluation. The experts were also asked about their own practice patterns with respect to the doing of the assessments. The main outcome measures are the following: number of nominated experts, number of experts who participated in the survey, and number and nature of quantitative and qualitative responses. The snowball process identified 1,738 experts, 784 (45 %) of whom participated in the opinion survey. Participants generally, but not always, agreed or strongly agreed that the assessments asked about would improve specified outcomes. Participants wrote 716 comments explaining why they might not typically include some assessments in an initial evaluation and 1,590 comments concerning other aspects of the topics under consideration. The snowball process based on initial solicitation of Psychiatry's leaders produced a large expert panel. The Web-based survey systematically assessed the opinions of these experts on the utility of specific psychiatric assessments, providing useful information to substantiate opinion-based practice guidelines on how to conduct a psychiatric evaluation. The considerable engagement of respondents shows promise for using this methodology in developing future APA practice guidelines.

  8. Opinion survey on proposals for improving code stroke in Murcia Health District V, 2014.

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, M; Martínez-Sánchez, M A; Morales-Camacho, V; Valera-Albert, M; Atienza-Ayala, S V; Limiñana-Alcaraz, G

    2017-05-01

    Stroke is a time-dependent neurological disease. Health District V in the Murcia Health System has certain demographic and geographical characteristics that make it necessary to create specific improvement strategies to ensure proper functioning of code stroke (CS). The study objectives were to assess local professionals' opinions about code stroke activation and procedure, and to share these suggestions with the regional multidisciplinary group for code stroke. This cross-sectional and descriptive study used the Delphi technique to develop a questionnaire for doctors and nurses working at all care levels in Area V. An anonymous electronic survey was sent to 154 professionals. The analysis was performed using the SWOT method (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats). Researchers collected 51 questionnaires. The main proposals were providing training, promoting communication with the neurologist, overcoming physical distances, using diagnostic imaging tests, motivating professionals, and raising awareness in the general population. Most of the interventions proposed by the participants have been listed in published literature. These improvement proposals were forwarded to the Regional Code Stroke Improvement Group. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. A survey of providers' knowledge, opinions, and practices regarding induced abortion in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Horace; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana; McFarlane, Shelly; Hamilton, Pansy; Frederick, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    To determine the stance of providers in Jamaica regarding the suggested change in abortion law and proposal to train providers. A face-to-face anonymous survey of 35 obstetrician-gynecologists (Obs) and 228 general practitioners (GPs) in Kingston was used to assess knowledge, opinions and practice. Demand for abortion was high: 94.7% of GPs and 100% of Obs had been asked to perform an abortion. Although 50.7% of GPs and 70.6% of Obs had performed abortions, 81.2% and 88.6%, respectively, had referred women to another provider. Training was more likely for Obs (65.7% versus 52.2%; P<0.001). Patient assessment was appropriate, but written guidelines, counseling, and social services referral were uncommon. More Obs knew the laws (62.9% versus 42.5%; P=0.052). Most participants did not agree to abortion under any circumstance, but only 25.3% had moral or religious objections, and only 9.4% refused to perform abortions because they were illegal. Most providers felt that abortions should be made more accessible, and almost all felt that abortions should be performed only by Obs. Demand for abortions is high in Jamaica, but many doctors refer clients to another provider. Patient assessment is good, but support services need improvement. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Policy implications of a national public opinion survey on abortion in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Sandra G; Tatum, Carrie; Becker, Davida; Swanson, Karen A; Lockwood, Karin; Ellertson, Charlotte

    2004-11-01

    In Mexico, recent political events have drawn increased public attention to the subject of abortion. In 2000, using a national probability sample, we surveyed 3000 Mexicans aged 15-65 about their knowledge and opinions on abortion. Forty-five per cent knew that abortion was sometimes legal in their state, and 79% felt that abortion should be legal in some circumstances. A majority of participants believed that abortion should be legal when a woman's life is at risk (82%), a woman's health is in danger (76%), pregnancy results from rape (64%) or there is a risk of fetal impairment (53%). Far fewer respondents supported legal abortion when a woman is a minor (21%), for economic reasons (17%), when a woman is single (11%) or because of contraceptive failure (11%). In spite of the influence of the Church, most Mexican Catholics believed the Church and legislators' personal religious beliefs should not factor into abortion legislation, and most supported provision of abortions in public health services in cases when abortion is legal. To improve safe, legal abortion access in Mexico, efforts should focus on increasing public knowledge of legal abortion, decreasing the Church's political influence on abortion legislation, reducing the social stigma associated with sexuality and abortion, and training health care providers to offer safe, legal abortions.

  11. DATA COLLECTION, QUALITY ASSURANCE, AND ANALYSIS PLAN FOR THE 2008/2009 HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELLS KNOWLEDGE AND OPINIONS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoyer, Richard L; Truett, Lorena Faith; Diegel, Susan W

    2008-09-01

    The 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Survey, conducted for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program will measure the levels of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies within five target populations: (1) the general public, (2) students, (3) personnel in state and local governments, (4) potential end users of hydrogen fuel and fuel cell technologies in business and industry, and (5) safety and code officials. The ultimate goal of the surveys is a statistically valid, nationally based assessment. Distinct information collections are required for each of the target populations. Each instrument for assessing baseline knowledge is targeted to the corresponding population group. While many questions are identical across all populations, some questions are unique to each respondent group. The biggest data quality limitation of the hydrogen survey data (at least of the general public and student components) will be nonresponse bias. To ensure as high a response rate as possible, various measures will be taken to minimize nonresponse, including automated callbacks, cycling callbacks throughout the weekdays, and availability of Spanish speaking interviewers. Statistical adjustments (i.e., sampling weights) will also be used to account for nonresponse and noncoverage. The primary objective of the data analysis is to estimate the proportions of target population individuals who would respond to the questions in the various possible ways. Data analysis will incorporate necessary adjustments for the sampling design and sampling weights (i.e., probability sampling). Otherwise, however, the analysis will involve standard estimates of proportions of the interviewees responding in various ways to the questions. Sample-weight-adjusted contingency table chi-square tests will also be computed to identify differences between demographic groups The first round of Knowledge and Opinions Surveys was conducted in 2004. Analysis of these surveys produced a

  12. Moms and Schools Survey: Nationwide Public Opinion on Schooling. Polling Paper No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Moms and Schools Educational Choice, conducted by Braun Research, Inc. (BRI), measures Americans views on area schools (district, charter, or private), school type preferences, and school vouchers. In this paper, Moms, report response levels of public opinion. For some questions, discussion to examine differences of voter opinion (sometimes using…

  13. Survey of Parent Opinions on Modular Scheduling at General William Mitchell High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Roslyn M.

    Mitchell High has been operating under a modular scheduling system for two years. Earlier studies have measured student and faculty opinion. This study was designed to sample parent opinion. Four hundred parents, constituting a 20% random sampling of the 2,000 students enrolled in grades 10-12, were mailed questionnaires in May 1969. Responses…

  14. Survey of Bam earthquake survivors' opinions on medical and health systems services.

    PubMed

    Nia, Masoud Saghafi; Nafissi, Nahid; Moharamzad, Yashar

    2008-01-01

    On 26 December 2003, a catastrophic earthquake measuring 6.6 on the Richter scale devastated large areas of the city of Bam in southeastern Iran. More than 40,000 people died, tens of thousands were injured, and almost 20,000 homes were destroyed. Many national and international search-and-rescue teams were dispatched to the area to provide medical and health services and assist in the evacuation of survivors to undamaged areas. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the opinions of survivors about medical responses provided, and the process of reconstruction of health infrastructures. This was a descriptive study performed two years after the earthquake. Stratified, two-stage area sampling was used to enroll 211 survivors into the survey. A designed questionnaire was applied to evaluate the respondents' opinions about medical and health responses. The respondents were asked to score their satisfaction on a variety of services on a five-point scale, with 1 being "very poor" and 5 being "very good". Family members and relatives comprised the majority of first responders for those injured or trapped (127, 60.2%). Field hospitals deployed by the Red Crescent, international relief teams, and military forces were the first medical facilities for 98 (46.4%) of the casualties. As denoted by the mean values for the satisfaction scores, transportation by aircraft to the backup hospitals received the highest score (4.2), followed by international assistance (4.1), first medical care (3.5), search and rescue (3.3), primary transportation (3.1), and reconstruction and the quality of access to the infrastructures of the city (2.6). Two years after the earthquake, 151 (71.5%) respondents still were living in connexes (temporary accommodations or shelters for victims to live in; resemble a small hotel), only 33 (15.6%) had access to safe drinking water, and 44 (20.9%) did not have sufficient supplies of sanitary food. In addition to reinforcing the medical and health

  15. The Future of Forest Management on NIPF Lands in the South: Results of an Expert Opinion Survey

    Treesearch

    Steverson O. Moffat; Frederick W. Cubbage; Anthony J. Cascio; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1998-01-01

    A survey was sent to each state forester in the 13 states in the Southeast and South Central Regions to ask their opinions regarding the future of forest management on NIPF lands in their state. The results indicate that changes are in store for NIPF lands between now and 2020. Planted pine is projected to increase 7% in area in the South, largely at the expense of...

  16. Thalassemia treatment and prevention in Uva Province, Sri Lanka: a public opinion survey.

    PubMed

    Mudiyanse, Rasnayaka M

    2006-01-01

    -free marriages advocates promotion of marriages where at least one partner is a non-carrier. Success of such a project could be monitored at the time of marriage. This opinion survey indicates that the public is motivated to promote carrier screening and the prevention of thalassemia.

  17. Public Opinion regarding Juvenile Life without Parole in Consecutive Statewide Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Allen, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Abolition of the death penalty results in life without parole (LWOP) as the most severe sanction for convicted juveniles. Although internationally the use of LWOP for juveniles is rare, 2,225 youth have been sentenced to LWOP within the United States. To address the dearth of public opinion on the issue, the authors proposed questions to the…

  18. Public Opinion regarding Juvenile Life without Parole in Consecutive Statewide Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Allen, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Abolition of the death penalty results in life without parole (LWOP) as the most severe sanction for convicted juveniles. Although internationally the use of LWOP for juveniles is rare, 2,225 youth have been sentenced to LWOP within the United States. To address the dearth of public opinion on the issue, the authors proposed questions to the…

  19. The Dimensions of Privacy: A National Opinion Research Survey of Attitudes Toward Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westin, Alan F.; And Others

    This report of a Louis Harris poll on national opinions toward privacy includes the questions asked of each respondent and the responses given in categories related to age, sex, employment, income, and other factors. There are chapters on privacy and the individual; personal privacy in relation to governmental and business institutions; privacy…

  20. A Survey of Nutrition Knowledge and Opinion of Wisconsin Elementary Teachers and Food Service Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Francis B.

    Conducted by the Wisconsin Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program, this study was designed to (1) assess public and private elementary school teachers' and public school food managers' nutrition knowledge, and (2) to ascertain their opinions on various topics related to nutrition education. The first section of the report provides…

  1. Introduction of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs in Canada: an opinion survey on regulatory policy.

    PubMed

    Mintzes, Barbara; Barer, Morris; Lexchin, Joel; Bassett, Ken L

    2005-06-01

    Canada is strongly influenced by US cross-border direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) and has held consultations to discuss introduction of DTCA since 1996. This article describes a survey of Canadian drug policy experts carried out in 2001, during one such legislative review. The survey results are compared to more recent DTCA policy developments. We recruited key informants on pharmaceutical policy to complete a faxed questionnaire that queried their opinions on DTCA information quality, effects on drug and health care use, and regulatory issues. Respondents were asked about the evidence they had used to back their opinions. Analysis was descriptive. Of 79 identified potential participants, 60 (76%) participated, 40% of whom were from federal and provincial government; 3% were private insurers; 18%, 15%, and 8% were from health professional groups, consumer groups, and patient groups, respectively; 8% and 7% were from pharmaceutical and advertising industries, respectively. Opinions were highly polarized on the effects of DTCA on drug and health care use. Advertising and pharmaceutical industry respondents were generally positive, public sector, health professional and consumer groups generally negative. Over 80% believed DTCA leads to higher private and public drug costs and more frequent physician visits. Fewer judged billboards or television to be appropriate media for DTCA than magazines or the Internet, and most believed that children and adolescents should not be targeted. Given the polarization observed within this survey, we examined how DTCA policy has evolved in Canada since 2001. The federal government has legislative authority over DTCA, but bears few of the additional costs potentially incurred through policy change. These fall to the provinces, which provide an eroding patchwork of public coverage for prescription drugs in the face of rapidly increasing costs. No new federal legislation has been tabled since 2001. However, considerable shifts in

  2. The U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Baseline Survey: Assessing Knowledge and Opinions about Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Christy; Truett, Lorena Faith; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    Data were collected in surveys of four component populations. The purpose was to serve as a reference for designing a hydrogen education program and as a baseline for measuring changes in understanding and awareness over time. Comparisons of the baseline data with future results will be made when the survey is fielded again (2008 and 2011). The methodology was successful in measuring knowledge levels and opinions of the target populations. Because the survey instruments were very similar, comparisons could be made among the target populations. These comparisons showed wide differences in knowledge levels between the government agencies and the other populations. General public, students, and potential large scale end user respondents had a general lack of knowledge about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. There was a correlation between technical knowledge of hydrogen fuel cell technologies and opinions about the safe use of hydrogen. Respondents who demonstrated a greater understanding of the concepts of a hydrogen economy and hydrogen fuel cell technology expressed less fear about the safe use of hydrogen.

  3. Adaptation and Validation of the Brief Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) in a Colombian Sample and Factorial Equivalence with the Spanish Version

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Juan Carlos; Soler, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward sexuality are a key variable for sexual health. It is really important for psychology and education to have adapted and validated questionnaires to evaluate these attitudes. Therefore, the objective of this research was to adapt, validate and calculate the equivalence of the Colombia Sexual Opinion Survey as compared to the same survey from Spain. To this end, a total of eight experts were consulted and 1,167 subjects from Colombia and Spain answered the Sexual Opinion Survey, the Sexual Assertiveness Scale, the Massachusetts General Hospital-Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, and the Sexuality Scale. The evaluation was conducted by online and the results show adequate qualitative and quantitative properties of the items, with adequate reliability and external validity and compliance with the strong invariance between the two countries. Consequently, the Colombia Sexual Opinion Survey is a valid and reliable scale and its scores can be compared with the ones from the Spain survey, with minimum bias. PMID:27627114

  4. [Value of public opinion polls for evaluating the acceptability of epidemiologic surveys in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Boutin, J P; Lahanier, D; Roux, J

    1989-01-01

    A prevalence study on non communicable diseases related to nutrition, alcoholism and tabagism is planned in French Polynesia. The methodology used, although complicated, has been successful in insular states of the South Pacific with either traditional or transitional ways of life. Acceptability level of the study in the urban area of Papeete (Tahiti) has been tested by a public opinion poll using the quota method in order to obtain valuable information on feasibility of the project. The public opinion poll showed that 75% of people would participate, 19.5% would be reluctant and 5.5% would hesitate. The good results must be carefully interpreted with regards to the multi-ethnic structure of French Polynesian population, and to the limits of the quota method.

  5. Non-response bias in a community survey of drinking, alcohol-related experiences and public opinion on alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Langley, John; Room, Robin

    2012-11-01

    The continuing decline in response rates to household surveys is a concern for the health and social sciences as it increases the risk of selective non-response biasing the estimates of interest. We analysed non-response bias in a postal survey measuring drinking behaviour, experience of harm and opinion on local government alcohol policies among residents in six New Zealand communities. The Continuum of Resistance model, which suggests that late respondents to a survey are most similar to non-respondents on the measures of interest, was used to guide our investigation. Men, younger people, those of Māori descent and those living in more deprived areas were less likely to respond to our survey than women, older people, those not of Māori descent and those living in comparatively affluent areas. Late respondents more closely resembled non-respondents demographically than early respondents. The prevalence of binge drinking and experience of assault was higher, and support for restrictive local government alcohol policies lower, among late respondents. Assuming the drinking behaviour and alcohol-related experiences of non-respondents were the same as those of late respondents, prevalence was under-estimated by 3.4% (relative difference: 13%) and 2.1% (relative difference: 21%) for monthly binge drinking and assault respectively. Policy support was not over-estimated. The findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that surveys under-estimate risk behaviour because of selective non-response and this bias increases as response rates fall. Notably, public opinion may not be subject to such misestimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M.T.E.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample’s prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these. PMID:26295247

  7. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors.

    PubMed

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M T E

    2015-08-18

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample's prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these.

  8. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 24th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey represents information compiled by the largest national survey of adolescent leaders and high achievers. Of the 5,000 students selected demographically from "Who's Who Among American High School Students," 1,957 responded. All students surveyed had "A" or "B" averages, and 98% planned on attending college. Questions were asked about…

  9. Scholarly Metrics Baseline: A Survey of Faculty Knowledge, Use, and Opinion about Scholarly Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSanto, Dan; Nichols, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a faculty survey conducted at the University of Vermont during academic year 2014-2015. The survey asked faculty about: familiarity with scholarly metrics, metric-seeking habits, help-seeking habits, and the role of metrics in their department's tenure and promotion process. The survey also gathered faculty…

  10. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 25th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted during the spring of 1994 for the purpose of determining the attitudes of student leaders in the nation's high schools. Eight thousand surveys were sent out to students, of which 3177 were returned. All students surveyed were members of the junior or senior class during the 1993-94 academic year. They were selected for…

  11. A survey of opinions regarding wishes toward the end-of-life among Thai elderly.

    PubMed

    Srinonprasert, Varalak; Kajornkijaroen, Aksara; Bangchang, Patawee Na; Wangtrakuldee, Genis; Wongboonsin, Janewit; Kuptniratsaikul, Vanasiri; Kornbongkotmas, Sakaorat; Assanasen, Jintana; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of wishes toward the end-of-life is crucial for carrying out high quality palliative care. However, advance directive is not commonly available among Thais, particularly for non-cancerous older patients. The present study aimed to explore Thai older person's wishes toward cares needed at the end-of-life. A convenience sample of 100 older patients, who attended geriatric clinic at a university hospital in Thailand, was recruited. A 3-page questionnaire developed to suit Thai culture was utilized to elicit opinions concerning circumstances around end-of-life period. All participants were Buddhists with mean age of 75.9 (8.2). Toward the end-of-life, the majority wanted to know the truth about their illnesses and to be free from uncomfortable symptoms. Seventy-five percent did not want "prolong-life" treatments when chance of surviving is slim. Age less than 70 and having education of no more than 6 years were factors associated with being unwilling to prolong suffering with OR of 9.88 (1.20-81.57, p = 0.03) and 3.15 (1.11-8.95, p = 0.03), respectively. Interestingly, fifty-six percent of elderly did not want to die at home. Age less than 70 was the only factor significantly associated with being unwilling to die at home with OR of 2.80 (95% CI = 1.05-7.47, p = 0.04). The present study illustrated older persons' opinions in relation to cares at the end-of-life from a Thai perspective, which showed some similarities and differences when compared to western countries. These opinions should be crucial for carrying out optimal and qualitative end-of-life care for older people when advanced care planning is not in place for the individual.

  12. The use of online word of mouth opinion in online learning: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Sandars, John; Walsh, Kieran

    2009-04-01

    There is increasing use of online word of mouth opinion (user feedback) systems for general services but its use in online learning has not been previously investigated. To understand why users of BMJ Learning provide and read word of mouth feedback, and whether this feedback influences uptake of modules by prospective users. Online questionnaire of users of BMJ Learning who had completed online user feedback. 109 questionnaires were completed (response rate 25%). The main motivation to contribute was to influence the authors of the module (66%), and 43% stated that they wanted to help other users to make an informed choice. 16% stated that they wanted to develop an online community of learners. The main motivation to read the user feedback was to see if they agreed with the comments (56%). Online word of mouth opinion (user feedback) appears to be useful for online learners. There are also system design considerations since the attempt to create an online community of learners that is desired by some users will not be appreciated by others. Further research with a larger number of users is recommended to confirm the findings.

  13. A Survey On Spine Surgeons’ Opinions On The Release Of The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Data

    PubMed Central

    Koerner, John D.; Shah, Anuj; Arnold, Paul M.; Isaacs, Robert E.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Radcliff, Kristen E.

    2015-01-01

    Background In April 2014 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released a dataset for the public which included information on services provided by physicians and healthcare providers for Medicare beneficiaries in the 2012 calendar year. The objective of this study is to determine spine surgeons’ opinions on the release of the CMS data, and determine how they feel this information may affect patient care. Methods A survey was sent to members of the Association for Collaborative Spine Research (ACSR) regarding their practice patterns and opinions on the release of the CMS data. Determinants included surgical subspecialty, practice setting, years in practice and region. The average response was collected for each question and compared across groups. Additionally, questions in which greater than 75% of respondents either agreed (agree or strongly agree) or disagreed (disagree or strongly disagree) were identified. Results Seventy-six surgeons completed the survey, and while the overall interobserver reliability between each question was only slight (κ = 0.11), more than 75% of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed with five statements and, more than 75% of respondents either disagreed or strongly disagreed with six statements. While 86% of surgeons are in favor of more transparency, 83% of respondents felt that without the proper context, the data released does not accurately portray spine surgery. Additionally, 96% of spine surgeons do not believe the CMS data helps patients decide which spine surgeon is best for them. Conclusions The small percentage of spine surgeons who responded to this survey are in favor of more transparency but do not feel the release of the CMS data either accurately represents spine surgeons or will help patients better identify the appropriate surgeon. In spite of these concerns, it is unlikely the release of the CMS data will significantly impact the accessibility of a spine surgeon to a Medicare beneficiary. PMID

  14. Experience and opinions on post-graduate dementia training in the UK: a survey of selected consultant geriatricians.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Deborah J F; Allan, Louise; Reynish, Emma; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Vardy, Emma Rachael Louise Cunningham

    2014-03-01

    people with dementia are more likely to come into contact with a geriatrician than any other hospital specialty. Whilst it is known that there are some geriatricians with a special interest in dementia, it is unclear how this group of clinicians gained experience, and what their opinions are on current training. we obtained a list of geriatricians known to have an interest in dementia care (known as dementia champions) from the British Geriatric Society Dementia and Similar Disorders Special Interest Group. We contacted 100 'dementia champions' with an invitation to respond to a questionnaire relating to their role, experience and opinions on current training in dementia within geriatric medicine. fifty-five geriatricians responded. Ninety-one per cent were consultant physicians, and 71% were not involved in outpatient diagnostic services. Fifty-six per cent reported that their experience was via clinical attachments with old age psychiatry, and 47% regarded themselves as 'self-taught'. The majority felt that current training was inadequate with a need for more structure and time spent on attachments, less geographical variation, more training at undergraduate level and throughout other specialties and better collaboration with psychiatry. this is the first survey of the views of geriatricians leading on dementia care in acute hospitals within the UK. It gives a useful insight into how they have gained their own experience, and their opinions on how training may be improved. Equipped with the right training and expertise in diagnosis and management of dementia perhaps geriatricians may feel more confident in taking a lead in dementia care.

  15. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  16. 21st Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted by Who's Who Among American High School Students during the spring of 1990, to determine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. A survey of high achievers sent to 5,000 students was completed and returned by approximately 2,000 students. All students were members of the junior or senior class during the…

  17. A Preliminary Survey of Professional and Student Opinion of Special Education Practice in Contemporary Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Boykov, Dmitriy

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 27 Russian students and educators enrolled in a defectology course found that most respondents were knowledgeable of and supported inclusion practices advocated in the United States and Western Europe, although belief in traditional practices of segregation of individuals with disabilities was also evident. The survey also addressed…

  18. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  19. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  20. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  1. [A survey on the use of patent expired drugs in psychiatric disorders: the psychiatrists' and neurologists' opinion and competence].

    PubMed

    Bersani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The use of generic drugs is an increasing phenomenon in Italy, as well as in most other Countries. In front of this, the level of information of medical doctors about their characteristics is still frequently uncompletely defined and insufficiently documented. The Survey "InfoMind" explored by an on line questionnaire the level of knowledge and the principal modes of use of generic drugs in a wide group of Italian Psychiatrists and Neurologists. The attention was focused on the use of generic drugs both in general and in the field of antidepressant treatments. In the group of participants (246) who fulfilled the questionnaire, a valid degree of attention to the critical issues related to the use of generic drugs and a variable level of information with respect to the explored areas were found. Main topics of discordant opinions were those of the pharmacokinetic differences among generic and original drugs, the related potential influence on clinical response, the regulatory rules on production and quality control of generic drugs respect to original. The main issues emerged as critical also respect the use of antidepressant drugs. Also the opinions regarding the legal implications of the choice of prescribed drugs appear variable and of the greatest interest.

  2. Opinions on Kampo and reasons for using it – results from a cross-sectional survey in three Japanese clinics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo) is often used in Japan, but very little data on its users are available. We investigated who uses Kampo, the reasons and opinions for its use. Methods Questionnaire survey in three Japanese outpatient clinics offering Kampo in different settings: Kampo only, Kampo and traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo and Western medicine. Before seeing the doctor, patients were asked about socio-demographic data, medical history, experience with Kampo, general health-related opinions and behaviours, opinions about Western medicine and Kampo, and reasons for Kampo utilization. Descriptive statistics and predictors for Kampo use were calculated. Results A total of 354 questionnaires were completed. Participants were 50.97 ± 15.60 (mean ± SD) years of age, 68% were female. Of all patients, 73% (n = 202) were using Kampo currently and 84% (297) had taken Kampo before. Questions on general health-related opinions and behaviour revealed a strong environmental awareness. The most frequent indications for earlier Kampo use were: common cold (36%), gastrointestinal complaints (30%), oversensitivity to cold (“Hi’e-sho”; 29%), stress/anxiety (21%), and shoulder stiffness (20%). Kampo users suffered more often from chronic illnesses (OR 2.88 [1.48-5.58]). Beliefs in underlying philosophy (Wu Xing (adjusted OR 3.08, [1.11-8.55]), Ying and Yang (OR 2.57 [1.15-5.73], a holistic way of seeing the patient (OR 2.17 [1.53-3.08]), and in Kampo efficacy (OR 2.62 [1.66-4.13]) were positively associated with Kampo use. So was, interestingly, conviction of the efficacy of Western medicine (OR 1.87 [1.28-2.74]). Half of the patients had a general preference for a combination of Kampo and Western treatment. Conclusions Most patients visiting a clinic that also provided Kampo had previous experience with Kampo. Usage was associated with beliefs in philosophical Kampo concepts and its efficacy. PMID:23680097

  3. Targeting improved patient outcomes using innovative product listing agreements: a survey of Canadian and international key opinion leaders

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Melissa; Henshall, Chris; Garrison, Louis P; Griffin, Adrian D; Coyle, Doug; Long, Stephen; Khayat, Zayna A; Anger, Dana L; Yu, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To address the uncertainty associated with procuring pharmaceutical products, product listing agreements (PLAs) are increasingly being used to support responsible funding decisions in Canada and elsewhere. These agreements typically involve financial-based rebating initiatives or, less frequently, outcome-based contracts. A qualitative survey was conducted to improve the understanding of outcome-based and more innovative PLAs (IPLAs) based on input from Canadian and international key opinion leaders in the areas of drug manufacturing and reimbursement. Methods Results from a structured literature review were used to inform survey development. Potential participants were invited via email to partake in the survey, which was conducted over phone or in person. Responses were compiled anonymously for review and reporting. Results Twenty-one individuals participated in the survey, including health technology assessment (HTA) key opinion leaders (38%), pharmaceutical industry chief executive officers/vice presidents (29%), ex-payers (19%), and current payers/drug plan managers/HTA (14%). The participants suggested that ~80%–95% of Canadian PLAs are financial-based rather than outcomes-based. They indicated that IPLAs offer important benefits to patients, payers, and manufacturers; however, several challenges limit their use (eg, administrative burden, lack of agreed-upon endpoint). They noted that IPLAs are useful in rapidly evolving therapeutic areas and those associated with high unmet need, a quantifiable endpoint, and/or robust data systems. The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance, and other arms-length organizations could play important roles in identifying uncertainty and endpoints and brokering pan-Canadian PLAs. Industry should work collaboratively with payers to identify uncertainty and develop innovative mechanisms to address it. Conclusion The survey results indicated that while

  4. Opinions of the ePortfolio and workplace-based assessments: a survey of core medical trainees and their supervisors.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Ameet; Dubrey, Simon; Das, Saroj

    2014-10-01

    Since the introduction of Modernising Medical Careers in 2005, the electronic portfolio (ePortfolio) and workplace based assessments (WPBAs) have become integral, yet anecdotally controversial, components of postgraduate medical training. In this multi-centre, survey-based study, we looked at core medical trainees and trainers in the Northwest London region and their opinions of the ePortfolio and WPBAs. Our results demonstrate mixed feelings regarding these tools, with 60% of trainees stating that their training had not benefited from the use of an ePortfolio. 53% of trainers felt that feedback sessions with their trainees were useful; however 70% of them cited difficulties in fitting the required number of assessments within their clinical schedule. Overall, if implemented correctly, the ePortfolio and WPBAs are potentially powerful tools in the education and development of trainee doctors. However, improvements in mentoring and feedback may be needed to experience the full benefits of this system.

  5. Current opinions on medical radiation: a survey of oncologists regarding radiation exposure and dose reduction in oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Burke, Lauren M B; Bashir, Mustafa R; Neville, Amy M; Nelson, Rendon C; Jaffe, Tracy A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oncologists' opinions about the use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging of oncology patients. An electronic survey was e-mailed to 2,725 oncologists at the top 50 National Cancer Institute-funded cancer centers. The survey focused on opinions on CT dose reduction in oncology patients and current philosophies behind long-term imaging in these patients. The response rate was 15% (415 of 2,725). Eighty-two percent of respondents stated that their patients or families have expressed anxiety regarding radiation dose from medical imaging. Although fewer than half of oncologists (48%) did not know whether CT dose reduction techniques were used at their institutions, only 25% were concerned that small lesions may be missed with low-dose CT techniques. The majority of oncologists (63%) follow National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for imaging follow-up, while the remainder follow other national guidelines such as those of the Children's Oncology Group, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, or clinical trials. Ninety percent of respondents believe that long-term surveillance in oncology patients is warranted, particularly in patients with breast cancer, melanoma, sarcoma, and pediatric malignancies. The majority of oncologists would consider the use of low-dose CT imaging in specific patient populations: (1) children and young women, (2) those with malignancies that do not routinely metastasize to the liver, and (3) patients undergoing surveillance imaging. Cumulative radiation exposure is a concern for patients and oncologists. Among oncologists, there is support for long-term imaging surveillance despite lack of national guidelines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Conditions required for a law on active voluntary euthanasia: a survey of nurses' opinions in the Australian Capital Territory.

    PubMed Central

    Kitchener, B; Jorm, A F

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To ascertain which conditions nurses believe should be in a law allowing active voluntary euthanasia (AVE). DESIGN: Survey questionnaire posted to registered nurses (RNs). SETTING: Australian Capital Territory (ACT) at the end of 1996, when active voluntary euthanasia was legal in the Northern Territory. SURVEY SAMPLE: A random sample of 2,000 RNs, representing 54 per cent of the RN population in the ACT. MAIN MEASURES: Two methods were used to look at nurses' opinions. The first involved four vignettes which varied in terms of critical characteristics of each patient who was requesting help to die. The respondents were asked if the law should be changed to allow any of these requests. There was also a checklist of conditions, most of which have commonly been included in Australian proposed laws on AVE. The respondents chose those which they believed should apply in a law on AVE. RESULTS: The response rate was 61%. Support for a change in the law to allow AVE was 38% for a young man with AIDS, 39% for an elderly man with early stage Alzheimer's disease, 44% for a young woman who had become quadriplegic and 71% for a middle-aged woman with metastases from breast cancer. The conditions most strongly supported in any future AVE law were: "second doctor's opinion", "cooling off period", "unbearable protracted suffering", "patient fully informed about illness and treatment" and "terminally ill". There was only minority support for "not suffering from treatable depression", "administer the fatal dose themselves" and "over a certain age". CONCLUSION: Given the lack of support for some conditions included in proposed AVE laws, there needs to be further debate about the conditions required in any future AVE bills. PMID:10070635

  7. Rotational spectrum of cis-cis HOONO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Fry, Juliane L.; Miller, Charles E.

    2004-03-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of cis-cis peroxynitrous acid, HOONO, has been observed. Over 220 transitions, sampling states up to J'=67 and Ka'=31, have been fitted with an rms uncertainty of 48.4 kHz. The experimentally determined rotational constants agree well with ab initio values for the cis-cis conformer, a five-membered ring formed by intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The small, positive inertial defect Δ=0.075667(60) amu Å2 and lack of any observable torsional splittings in the spectrum indicate that cis-cis HOONO exists in a well-defined planar structure at room temperature.

  8. A survey of pharmacists' opinions and practices related to the sale of cigarettes in pharmacies-revisited.

    PubMed

    Kotecki, Jerome E; Hillery, DeAnna L

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to follow-up on important findings from a 1996 statewide survey of Indiana pharmacists regarding their opinions and practices related to the sale of cigarettes in pharmacies. More specifically, this study was designed to (1) collect 2001 state-wide data concerning the percentage of Indiana pharmacies selling cigarettes and to learn what pharmacists think about the sale of cigarettes in their stores; (2) compare these findings with results from a 1996 study; and collect new information on (3) whether a cigarette selling policy in pharmacies in which pharmacists are employed differs from their professional and personal values; (4) pharmacists' opinions related to state-wide initiatives on tobacco control in Indiana; and (5) the level of involvement with smoking cessation activities by community pharmacists. A 1996 survey instrument of Indiana pharmacists opinions and practices related to the sale of cigarettes in pharmacies served as the basis for questionnaire design. In addition, 11 new items were added to assess the three new objectives of the study. This questionnaire was administered to half of the 1,280 pharmacies in Indiana. Collected data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings reveal that independent pharmacies had significantly reduced their sale of cigarettes from 1996 while there was no significant change among retail chain pharmacies. Additionally, significantly more pharmacists in 2001 believed that pharmacies should not sell cigarettes compared to five years ago. Also, more than three-fourths of pharmacists who worked in pharmacies that sold cigarettes felt it differed from their professional values. When it came to pharmacists involvement in tobacco control activities, results were mixed. This study found that the majority of pharmacists do not ask their patients about their smoking habits. In addition, an overwhelming majority of Indiana pharmacists were unfamiliar with a number

  9. Ordering Diagnostic Imaging: A Survey of Ontario Physiotherapists' Opinions on an Expanded Scope of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Jodie Ng Fuk; De Luca, Krista; Goldan, Sana; Imam, Abdullah; Li, Boris; Zabjek, Karl; Chu, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore Ontario physiotherapists' opinions on their ability to order diagnostic imaging (DI). Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to all registered members of the College of Physiotherapists of Ontario. Descriptive statistics were calculated using response frequencies. Practice characteristics were compared using χ2 tests and Wilcoxon rank–sum tests. Results: Of 1,574 respondents (21% response rate), 42% practised in orthopaedics and 53% in the public sector. Most physiotherapists were interested in ordering DI (72% MRI/diagnostic ultrasound, 78% X-rays/computed tomography scans). Respondents with an orthopaedic caseload of 50% or more (p<0.001) and those in the private sector (p<0.001) were more interested in ordering DI. Respondents preferred a DI course that combined face-to-face and Web-based components and one that was specific to their area of practice. Most respondents perceived minimal barriers to the uptake of ordering DI, and most agreed that support from other health care professionals would facilitate uptake. Conclusion: The majority of Ontario physiotherapists are interested in ordering DI. For successful implementation of a health care change, such as physiotherapists' ability to order DI, educational needs and barriers to and facilitators of the uptake of the authorized activity should be considered. PMID:25931666

  10. Ordering diagnostic imaging: a survey of ontario physiotherapists' opinions on an expanded scope of practice.

    PubMed

    Chong, Jodie Ng Fuk; De Luca, Krista; Goldan, Sana; Imam, Abdullah; Li, Boris; Zabjek, Karl; Chu, Anna; Yeung, Euson

    2015-01-01

    To explore Ontario physiotherapists' opinions on their ability to order diagnostic imaging (DI). An online questionnaire was sent to all registered members of the College of Physiotherapists of Ontario. Descriptive statistics were calculated using response frequencies. Practice characteristics were compared using χ(2) tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Of 1,574 respondents (21% response rate), 42% practised in orthopaedics and 53% in the public sector. Most physiotherapists were interested in ordering DI (72% MRI/diagnostic ultrasound, 78% X-rays/computed tomography scans). Respondents with an orthopaedic caseload of 50% or more (p<0.001) and those in the private sector (p<0.001) were more interested in ordering DI. Respondents preferred a DI course that combined face-to-face and Web-based components and one that was specific to their area of practice. Most respondents perceived minimal barriers to the uptake of ordering DI, and most agreed that support from other health care professionals would facilitate uptake. The majority of Ontario physiotherapists are interested in ordering DI. For successful implementation of a health care change, such as physiotherapists' ability to order DI, educational needs and barriers to and facilitators of the uptake of the authorized activity should be considered.

  11. An AUPN/ANA survey of department leader opinions on the health of US academic neurology.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Matthew; Mobley, William C

    2004-10-26

    The Association of University Professors of Neurology and the American Neurologic Association surveyed the leaders of academic neurology programs in the United States to assess the current financial health of academic neurology. The survey, completed in late 2002, addressed program relations with hospitals and medical schools and the effects of financial pressures on program operations, clinical responsibilities, research, teaching, and faculty development. Response patterns suggest academic neurology is challenged on several levels and indicate a need for strategic reflection and focused research to better gauge the state of neurology in the United States and to develop solutions for program survival and evolution.

  12. 76 FR 67405 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Federal Statistical System Public Opinion Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... 7 day moving estimates that provided nearly immediate feedback on public reaction to national events... communications campaign messaging. The Census Bureau used this feedback to make communication campaign decisions... household. The survey conducts Spanish-language interviews for respondents who speak only Spanish....

  13. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 27th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 27th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,370 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1996 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  14. 22nd Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This study surveyed high school students (N=1,879) who were student leaders or high achievers in the spring of 1991 for the purpose of determining their attitudes. Students were members of the junior or senior high school class during the 1990-91 academic year and were selected for recognition by their principals or guidance counselors, other…

  15. 22nd Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This study surveyed high school students (N=1,879) who were student leaders or high achievers in the spring of 1991 for the purpose of determining their attitudes. Students were members of the junior or senior high school class during the 1990-91 academic year and were selected for recognition by their principals or guidance counselors, other…

  16. Opinion Survey Conducted in Florida: Public Speaks on Schools and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Richard W.

    1972-01-01

    In order to find out how the general public as well as educators and students really think of Florida's public schools, the Florida State Department of Education sponsored a statewide survey, as part of the ESEA Title III. (Author/JM)

  17. Academic Libraries, Facebook and MySpace, and Student Outreach: A Survey of Student Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Ruth Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study surveyed 366 Valparaiso University freshmen to discover their feelings about librarians using Facebook and MySpace as outreach tools. The vast majority of respondents had online social network profiles. Most indicated that they would be accepting of library contact through those Web sites, but a sizable minority reacted negatively to…

  18. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 26th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…

  19. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 29th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report presents the 1998 statistical findings of the annual survey to determine the attitudes of national high school student leaders. Questionnaires were completed by 3,123 high school juniors and seniors, all of whom were selected for recognition in "Who's Who among American High School Students." In addition to demographic…

  20. Who's Who among American High School Students: Tenth National Opinion Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Communications, Inc., Northbrook, IL.

    Attitudes of student leaders in high schools throughout the United States were examined in a survey conducted by Who's Who Among American High School Students and Northbrook, Illinois. Subjects were students who had been selected for inclusion in Who's Who during the 1978-79 academic year. Some 23,200 completed questionnaires were analyzed on…

  1. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 28th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 28th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,210 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1997 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the…

  2. "Is This Ethical?" A Survey of Opinion on Principles and Practices of Document Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragga, Sam

    1996-01-01

    Reprints a corrected version of an article originally published in the volume 43, number 1 issue of this journal. Presents results of a national survey of technical communicators and technical communication teachers assessing the ethics of seven document design cases involving manipulation of typography, illustrations, and photographs. Offers…

  3. Expert opinion survey on the impacts of air pollutants on forests of the USA

    Treesearch

    J.M. Pye; J.E. de Steiguer; C. Love

    1988-01-01

    A panel of experts was surveyed to obtain five air pollutants (SO2 NO2, O3, H2SO4, and HNO3) on growth, mortality, and leaf area of forests of the continental U.S. for later input to economic analysis. Results from the first two of three...

  4. Communicating Chemical Risks for Social Learning: Findings from an Expert Opinion Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyytimaki, Jari; Assmuth, Timo; Hilden, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Environmental and health risks caused by chemical substances have been intensively debated in various arenas of science and policy, and in news media. The impacts of risk debates on the public have been widely studied, while less attention has been paid to expert views. We present results from a cross-national survey charting expert views on the…

  5. Who's Who among American High School Students: Tenth National Opinion Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Communications, Inc., Northbrook, IL.

    Attitudes of student leaders in high schools throughout the United States were examined in a survey conducted by Who's Who Among American High School Students and Northbrook, Illinois. Subjects were students who had been selected for inclusion in Who's Who during the 1978-79 academic year. Some 23,200 completed questionnaires were analyzed on…

  6. Maximizing Use of Community Resources in the Teaching of English: A Survey of Professional Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Harris Reed

    This study surveyed high school English teachers, supervisors of English, and English Education professors in Florida as to the "feasibility" of community oriented English instruction. The model for this curriculum was the Parkway Program of Philadelphia, where students take courses from business and professional people. The results show that all…

  7. 12th Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's Outstanding Teen Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    The report, fact sheets, and news releases cite findings of a survey involving 22,000 Ss to determine the attitudes of high school student leaders. Responses were tabulated for the following areas: demographics, government mandates/taxes, American institutions, domestic issues, foreign issues/defense, religious beliefs/practices, marriage/sex,…

  8. Communicating Chemical Risks for Social Learning: Findings from an Expert Opinion Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyytimaki, Jari; Assmuth, Timo; Hilden, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Environmental and health risks caused by chemical substances have been intensively debated in various arenas of science and policy, and in news media. The impacts of risk debates on the public have been widely studied, while less attention has been paid to expert views. We present results from a cross-national survey charting expert views on the…

  9. "Is This Ethical?" A Survey of Opinion on Principles and Practices of Document Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragga, Sam

    1996-01-01

    Reprints a corrected version of an article originally published in the volume 43, number 1 issue of this journal. Presents results of a national survey of technical communicators and technical communication teachers assessing the ethics of seven document design cases involving manipulation of typography, illustrations, and photographs. Offers…

  10. Forensic medicine experts' opinion on medico-legal autopsies in hospital deaths: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Deepak Herald; Pant, Sadip; Menezes, Ritesh George

    2013-10-01

    Medico-legal autopsy is conducted routinely in some countries and selectively in others in hospital deaths. This study was conducted to evaluate the views of the forensic medicine experts regarding this matter. A questionnaire pro forma was sent to sixty-five forensic medicine experts practicing in different medical institutions all around India. Designations and experiences of the participants were noted by requests in the same questionnaire. Their specific experience in conducting medico-legal autopsy in hospital deaths was also requested for. Responses were charted in frequency distribution tables and analyzed using SPSS, version 17.0. One-third of the participants felt that a medico-legal autopsy was necessary in all the hospital death cases as defined in the present study. Ten percent of the participants opined that a medico-legal autopsy was unnecessary in hospital deaths. The majority of the experts mentioned finding the cause of death, followed by finding the manner of death and collecting the evidentiary materials, as the reasons for medico-legal autopsy in hospital deaths. Twenty percent of the participants felt that internal findings at autopsy poorly matched with the case records. All the experts agreed that external autopsy findings matched with the hospital case records. Nearly two-third of the participants felt that it was difficult in some cases to interpret the autopsy findings without case records from the hospital where the deceased was treated. Our findings suggest that the exercise of carrying out medico-legal autopsy routinely in every hospital death as evident in the Indian framework is often unnecessary as per the experts' opinion. Autopsy findings in hospital deaths often correlate with hospital case records.

  11. The Touche Ross Survey of Business Executives on Non-Profit Boards. An Opinion Study Based on Interviews with 309 Business Executives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Forecasts, Inc., New York, NY.

    Three hundred eight business executives from boards of nonprofit educational, social service, or cultural organizations were surveyed for their opinions on their roles. It was found that a single overriding concern is the ever-increasing demand for commitment and accountability. This is reflected particularly in three issues: time, money, and…

  12. The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher, 1996. Students Voice Their Opinions On: Violence, Social Tension and Equality among Teens. Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This report, the first in a series of four 1996 releases of students' opinions, represents a continued effort by MetLife to provide insight and understanding to the issues of violence and social tension in American public schools. The survey focuses on the social climate of the nation's public schools from the perspective of public school students…

  13. Teenager Views on Issues Related to Traffic Safety Education and the Licensing of Teenage Drivers: Results of a Statewide Opinion Survey on Washington Teenage Drivers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Gary J.; Kinch, Robert

    In Washington, the existence of driver education programs is being threatened by tough economic times. To determine the opinions of teenage drivers about their traffic safety education (TSE) experience, the process of learning to drive, and the licensing of 16- and 17-year-olds, 10 percent of TSE students (N=1,070) were surveyed. Further data were…

  14. The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher, 1996. Students Voice Their Opinions On: Their Education, Teachers and Schools. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This report, the second in a series of four 1996 releases of students' opinions, represents a continued effort by MetLife to provide insight and understanding to current issues of education in American public schools. The survey sought student information on the education they receive from the perspective of public school students in middle and…

  15. Attitudes and Beliefs About Domestic Violence: Results of a Public Opinion Survey. I. Definitions of Domestic Violence, Criminal Domestic Violence, and Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Worden, Alissa Pollitz

    2005-01-01

    This study reports analyses and findings from a public opinion survey designed to explore beliefs about domestic violence (DV) -- what it is, when it is against the law, and how prevalent it is. The project interviewed 1,200 residents from six New York communities. The analyses reveal substantial first hand and second hand experience with DV and…

  16. Surveying opinions of 149 registrants to the Research Registry: Awareness of and attitudes towards research registration.

    PubMed

    Agha, Riaz A; Jafree, Daniyal J; Vella-Baldacchino, Martinique; Limb, Christopher; Kusu-Orkar, Ter-Er; Millip, Mirabel C; Fowler, Alexander J

    2017-03-01

    Research registration is an important ethical principle in the Declaration of Helsinki, however, progress to increase registration has been slow. Understanding the attitudes of users towards registries may provide insights into increase research registration. In this survey-based study, we sought to gain insight from users of a single global research registry, the Research Registry(®) (www.researchregistry.com). A Google Forms survey was created and emailed to all users of the Research Registry(®) (n = 1432). Multiple choice and free-text answers were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis respectively. From 925 contactable registrations, 149 (16.1%) completed the survey. The most commonly registered study type was retrospective cohort (32.2%). 23 registrations (15.4%) were made during the planning or conception of the study, whereas 67 (45.0%) registered at the time of journal submission, or during the peer review process. Of those that declared whether they had performed unregistered research or not, 51 (45.5%) participants had previously performed unregistered research. Registrants were most commonly made aware of the Research Registry(®) through submission to the International Journal of Surgery (IJS) family of journals (n = 57, 47.5%). Survey participants identified the most important features of registration to be its convenience, including the ease, time and cost of registration. Thematic analysis revealed the most common motive for registration to be as a mandatory requirement of journal submission, and that registration can be improved by simplification of the registration process. Registries must focus on engaging their network of users to ensure that research registration is a dynamic process. They need to adopt a user-centered and agile approach to their development, with a strong focus on "customer service". Moreover, by working in partnership with journals, it is possible to improve compliance with registration. Copyright

  17. Pharmacy Staff Opinions Regarding Diabetic Retinopathy Screenings in the Community Setting: Findings from a Brief Survey

    PubMed Central

    Law, Miranda G.; Komura, Stephanie; Murchison, Ann P.; Pizzi, Laura T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a retinal vascular disorder that affects more than 4.1 million people in the United States. New methods of detecting and ensuring adequate follow-up of this life-altering disease are vital to improving patient outcomes. Wills Eye Hospital and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are conducting a collaborative study to initiate a novel diabetic retinopathy screening in the community setting. Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a more widespread, large-scale implementation of this novel model of care for diabetic retinopathy screening in the community setting. Methods A simple, self-administered survey was distributed to pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, student pharmacists, and Wills Eye Hospital interns. The survey consisted of open-ended questions and responders were given 1 week to respond. A total of 22 surveys were distributed and 16 were completed. The responses were culled and analyzed to assess the feasibility of implementing this novel screening model in the pharmacy. Results The response rate to this pilot survey was 72%. The majority of the responding pharmacy staff members indicated that diabetic retinopathy screening in community pharmacies would greatly benefit patients and could improve patient care. However, they also noted barriers to implementing the screening, such as concerns about the cost of carrying out the screenings, the cost of the equipment needed to be purchased, and the lack of time and shortage of pharmacy staff. Conclusion The potential exists for pharmacists to positively influence diabetes care by implementing retinopathy care through the early detection of the disease and reinforcement of the need for follow-up; however, real-world barriers must be addressed before widespread adoption of such a novel model of care becomes feasible. PMID:24991381

  18. Implementing Global Fund programs: a survey of opinions and experiences of the Principal Recipients across 69 countries.

    PubMed

    Wafula, Francis; Marwa, Charles; McCoy, David

    2014-03-24

    Principal Recipients (PRs) receive money from the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) to manage and implement programs. However, little research has gone into understanding their opinions and experiences. This survey set out to describe these, thereby providing a baseline against which changes in PR opinions and experiences can be assessed as the recently introduced new funding model is rolled out. An internet based questionnaire was administered to 315 PRs. A total of 115 responded from 69 countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. The study was conducted between September and December 2012. Three quarters of PRs thought the progress update and disbursement request (PU/DR) system was a useful method of reporting grant progress. However, most felt that the grant negotiation processes were complicated, and that the grant rating system did not reflect performance.While nearly all PRs were happy with the work being done by sub-Recipients (92%) and Fund Portfolio Managers (86%), fewer were happy with the Office of the Inspector General (OIG). Non-government PRs were generally less happy with the OIG's work compared to government PRs.Most PRs thought the Global Fund's Voluntary Pooled Procurement system made procurement easier. However, only 29% said the system should be made compulsory.When asked which aspects of the Global Fund's operations needed improvement, most PRs said that the Fund should re-define and clarify the roles of different actors, minimize staff turnover at its Secretariat, and shorten the grant application and approval processes. All these are currently being addressed, either directly or indirectly, under a new funding model. Vigorous assessments should nonetheless follow the roll-out of the new model to ensure the areas that are most likely to affect PR performance realize sustained improvement. Opinions and experiences with the Global Fund were varied, with PRs having good communication with Fund

  19. [Opinion survey on information, communication and treatment in an Emergency Department].

    PubMed

    García-García, A; Arévalo-Velasco, A; García-Iglesias, M A; Sánchez-Barba, M; Delgado-Vicente, M A; Bajo-Bajo, A; Diego-Robledo, F

    2015-01-01

    To gather specific details about the information, communication, and treatment as regards users of hospital emergency services using a telephone survey, in order to implement improvement measures, if necessary. A prospective study was conducted in two emergency departments in Salamanca. A total of 400 patients were included in the study (mean age 56.4±20.5years, 58.4% women). A telephone survey was performed with 19 items, of which 12 required responses on a Likert-type scale, with scores of 1 (very bad) to 5 (very good). The remainder of the questions allowed to answer "yes" or "no". The treatment received by the professionals in general was evaluated positively by 86% of the patients; with 92% reporting they were respectful, 87% were treated by doctors and 71% received treatment from nurses. More than one-quarter (27.5%) did not recall receiving information from blue point staff (personnel specially trained to provide information. Statistical significance (P=.045) was found in relation to the kindness and respect shown by nurses. Most patients that were admitted to the observation area of the emergency department were not informed about the visiting hours (P=.003). Perception of care received by patients is good, while in relation to information and communication it is evidently improvable, and could be assessed using the survey that is proposed in order to detect and use the weaknesses in these aspects of health care as implementation initiatives. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. The potential Public Health Impact of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: Global Opinion Survey of Topic Specialists.

    PubMed

    Waddell, L A; Rajić, A; Stärk, K D C; McEwen, S A

    2016-05-01

    Global research knowledge has accumulated over the past few decades, and there is reasonable evidence for a positive association between Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease in humans, although its role as a human pathogen has not been entirely accepted. For this reason, management of public health risk due to M. paratuberculosis remains an important policy issue in agri-food public health arenas in many countries. Responsible authorities must decide whether existing mitigation strategies are sufficient to prevent or reduce human exposure to M. paratuberculosis. A Web-based questionnaire was administered to topic specialists to elicit empirical knowledge and opinion on the overall public health impact of M. paratuberculosis, the importance of various routes of human exposure to the pathogen, existing mitigation strategies and the need for future strategies. The questionnaire had four sections and consisted of 20 closed and five open questions. Topic specialists believed that M. paratuberculosis is likely a risk to human health (44.8%) and, given the paucity of available evidence, most frequently ranked it as a moderate public health issue (40.1%). A significant correlation was detected between topic specialists' commitment to M. paratuberculosis in terms of the number of years or proportion of work dedicated to this topic, and the likelihood of an extreme answer (high or low) to the above questions. Topic specialists identified contact with ruminants and dairy products as the most likely routes of exposure for humans. There was consensus on exposure routes for ruminants and what commodities to target in mitigation efforts. Described mandatory programmes mainly focused on culling diseased animals and voluntary on-farm prevention programmes. Despite ongoing difficulties in the identification of subclinical infections in animals, the topic specialists largely agreed that further enhancement of on-farm programmes in affected commodities by

  1. Prevailing Opinions on Connected Health in Austria: Results from an Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Naszay, Marlene; Stockinger, Andreas; Jungwirth, David

    2016-01-01

    New technological developments affect almost every sector of our daily lives, including the healthcare sector. We evaluated how connected health applications, subsumed as eHealth and telemedicine, are perceived in relation to socio-demographic characteristics. The current cross-sectional, online survey collected self-reported data from a non-probability convenience sample of 562 Austrian adults (58.9% females). The concept of eHealth and telemedicine was poorly established among the study population. While most participants already used mobile devices, they expressed a quite low desirability of using various telemedicine applications in the future. Study participants perceived that the most important overall benefits for implementing connected health technology were better quality of healthcare, location-independent access to healthcare services, and better quality of life. The respective three top-ranked overall barriers were data security, lack of acceptance by doctors, and lack of technical prerequisites. With regard to aging societies, healthcare providers, and users alike could take advantage of inexpensive, consumer-oriented connected health solutions that address individual needs of specific target groups. The present survey identified issues relevant for successful implementation of ICT-based healthcare solutions, providing a compilation of several areas requiring further in-depth research. PMID:27529261

  2. Genetically Modified (GM) Mosquito Use to Reduce Mosquito-Transmitted Disease in the US: A Community Opinion Survey

    PubMed Central

    Adalja, Amesh; Sell, Tara Kirk; McGinty, Meghan; Boddie, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika, pose a public health threat to the US, particularly Florida, the Gulf Coast states, and Hawaii. Recent autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya in Florida, the recent dengue outbreak in Hawaii, and the potential for future local spread of Zika in the US, has led to the consideration of novel approaches to mosquito management. One such novel approach, the release of sterile genetically modified mosquitoes, has been proposed as a possible intervention, and a trial release of GM mosquitoes is being considered in one Florida community. However, this proposal has been controversial. The objective of this research was to increase understanding of community knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mosquito control and GM mosquitoes.   Methods: An 18-question self-administered survey was mailed to all households in the identified Key West, Florida neighborhood where a GM mosquito trial has been proposed. This survey was fielded between July 20, 2015 and November 1, 2015. The main outcome variable was opposition to the use of GM mosquitoes. Measures included demographic information and opinions on mosquitoes, mosquito control, and vector-borne diseases.   Results: A majority of survey respondents did not support use of GM mosquitoes as a mosquito control method. Discussion: Reasons for opposition included general fears about possible harmful impacts of this intervention, specific worries about human and animal health impacts from the GM mosquitoes, and environmental concerns about potential negative effects on the ecosystem. Residents were more likely to oppose GM mosquito use if they had a low perception of the potential risks posed by diseases like dengue and chikungunya, if they were female, and if they were less concerned about the need to control mosquitoes in general. These findings suggest a need for new approaches to risk communication, including

  3. Opinions and perceptions regarding the impact of new regulatory guidelines: A survey in Indian Clinical Trial Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Rashmi; Borde, Sanghratna; Madas, Sapna; Nagarkar, Aarti; Salvi, Sundeep; Limaye, Sneha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical research in India experienced dramatic changes with series of stringent guidelines introduced by regulatory authorities. These guidelines posed significant challenges for the clinical trial industry. Objective: To assess the perceptions and opinion of Indian Investigators about the new regulatory guidelines. Methods: We developed a survey questionnaire on recent regulatory guidelines which was hosted on a web portal. Seventy-three investigators from India participated in the survey. Results: Central registration of Ethics Committees (ECs) was agreed by 90.1% participants, 76.8% participants agreed to compensation of subjects for study related Serious Adverse Events (SAE's). The compulsion to include government sites in clinical trials was not agreed by 49.3% participants while 21.2% agreed to it. Restriction on a number of trials per investigator was agreed by 49.3% of participants while 40.9% disagreed. Participants (50.7%) disagreed to the introduction of audio-video (AV) recording of informed consent, 36.6% agreed and 12.7% were neutral. Discussion: Participants observed that post central registration; ECs have improved systems with adequate member composition, functional Standard Operating Procedures, and timely approvals. Participants agreed that compensation of study related SAE's would assure subject protection and safety. The introduction of AV consenting was strongly debated sighting sociocultural issues in the implementation of the same. Conclusion: Participants endorsed guidelines pertaining to the central registration of ECs, SAE related compensation. Restrictions on a number of trials per investigator and AV consenting were debated ardently. The response of the survey participants who are clinical trial investigators in India showed general acceptance, effectiveness and anticipated compliance to the new regulatory guidelines. PMID:27141474

  4. Genetically Modified (GM) Mosquito Use to Reduce Mosquito-Transmitted Disease in the US: A Community Opinion Survey.

    PubMed

    Adalja, Amesh; Sell, Tara Kirk; McGinty, Meghan; Boddie, Crystal

    2016-05-25

    Mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika, pose a public health threat to the US, particularly Florida, the Gulf Coast states, and Hawaii. Recent autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya in Florida, the recent dengue outbreak in Hawaii, and the potential for future local spread of Zika in the US, has led to the consideration of novel approaches to mosquito management. One such novel approach, the release of sterile genetically modified mosquitoes, has been proposed as a possible intervention, and a trial release of GM mosquitoes is being considered in one Florida community. However, this proposal has been controversial. The objective of this research was to increase understanding of community knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mosquito control and GM mosquitoes.   An 18-question self-administered survey was mailed to all households in the identified Key West, Florida neighborhood where a GM mosquito trial has been proposed. This survey was fielded between July 20, 2015 and November 1, 2015. The main outcome variable was opposition to the use of GM mosquitoes. Measures included demographic information and opinions on mosquitoes, mosquito control, and vector-borne diseases.   A majority of survey respondents did not support use of GM mosquitoes as a mosquito control method. Reasons for opposition included general fears about possible harmful impacts of this intervention, specific worries about human and animal health impacts from the GM mosquitoes, and environmental concerns about potential negative effects on the ecosystem. Residents were more likely to oppose GM mosquito use if they had a low perception of the potential risks posed by diseases like dengue and chikungunya, if they were female, and if they were less concerned about the need to control mosquitoes in general. These findings suggest a need for new approaches to risk communication, including educational efforts surrounding mosquito control and

  5. Young Plastic Surgeons Forum member survey: Part II. Advocacy in plastic surgery: opinions toward the ASPS and PlastyPAC.

    PubMed

    Ver Halen, Jon P; Chen, Andrew; Jeffers, Lynn; Basu, C Bob

    2014-08-01

    Given the continued evolution of the American health system, the authors explored young plastic surgeons' attitudes on challenges affecting the specialty and the future role of organized plastic surgery and its advocacy mission. A 21-question online survey was distributed to all members of the Young Plastic Surgeons Forum. Questions were related to demographics, attitudes toward policy issues, participation in the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, and its advocacy efforts. The survey was e-mailed to 2155 Forum members, of which 397 responded (19% response rate). Young plastic surgeons appear to be interested in American Society of Plastic Surgeons and PlastyPAC, as evidenced by a higher than normal response rate to this survey and rate of contribution. However, a lack of awareness about the details of the organizations and mechanisms for involvement remains. Scope-of-practice issues and encroachment on the specialty by noncore providers remain the top concern of young plastic surgeons. Other top concerns were financial barriers to participation in advocacy efforts and concerns with return on investment on PlastyPAC contributions. A majority received minimal or no public policy education on issues affecting plastic surgery during training. A minority currently participate in American Society of Plastic Surgeons advocacy efforts. These data represent the first such collection of opinions from Young Plastic Surgeons members regarding goals and directions of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and PlastyPAC. These organizations are in a uniquely strong position to enlist participation from and provide for the future success of the profession's younger members.

  6. Survey of pediatricians' opinions on donation after cardiac death: are the donors dead?

    PubMed

    Joffe, Ari R; Anton, Natalie R; deCaen, Allan R

    2008-11-01

    There has been debate in the ethics literature as to whether the donation-after-cardiac-death donor is dead after 5 minutes of absent circulation. We set out to determine whether pediatricians consider the donation-after-cardiac-death donor as dead. A survey was mailed to all 147 pediatricians who are affiliated with the university teaching children's hospital. The survey had 4 pediatric patient scenarios in which a decision was made to donate organs after 5 minutes of absent circulation. Background information described the organ shortage, and the debate about the term "irreversibility" applied to death in donation after cardiac death. Descriptive statistics were used, with responses between groups compared by using the chi(2) statistic. The response rate was 54% (80 of 147). In each scenario, when given a patient described as dead with absent circulation for 5 minutes,

  7. [Opinion survey about purchasing nonprescription drugs over the internet in remote islands--survey among internet-literate inhabitants].

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Tadahiko; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Shintarou; O-mura, Heiji; Nagase, Masayoshi; Sakumoto, Seiji; Sugahara, Masanori; Kitahara, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Cho-Ichiro; Yamashita, Noboru; Yoshitani, Kiyomitu; Miki, Akiko; Satoh, Hiroki; Hori, Satoko; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2011-01-01

    The revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act that came into force in June 2009 prohibits the sales of nonprescription drugs by mail. However, as a provisional measure, regular users and inhabitants of remote islands that do not have pharmacies or drug stores would be able to purchase nonprescription drugs by mail for two years. However, this regulation is now being discussed from the perspectives of safety and convenience. The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey on the purchasing of nonprescription drugs over the Internet by inhabitants of remote islands belonging to Goto City in Nagasaki prefecture. The results showed that approximately 78.0% of the Internet-literate respondents living on large islands (with pharmacies, drug stores, and pharmacists, e.g., Fukue-shima), 65.4% of the Internet-literate respondents living on small islands scattered around large islands (where pharmacies, drug stores, and pharmacists are not located, e.g., Mae-shima) had purchased necessities except nonprescription drugs, but the rate of purchasing nonprescription drugs over the Internet was approximately less than 10%. The results of this survey suggest that it is not necessary to purchase nonprescription drugs over the Internet. However, owing to a small but significant minority of inhabitants who need to purchase nonprescription drugs over the Internet, there is an urgent need for establishing an optimum system for supplying medicinal products to remote islands.

  8. The cost of medicines in the United Kingdom. A survey of general practitioners' opinions and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Silcock, J; Ryan, M; Bond, C M; Taylor, R J

    1997-01-01

    Prescribing costs in general practice continue to grow. Their importance is underlined by the amount of information concerned with costs that general practitioners (GPs) receive, and by the existence of target budgets. In 1986 and 1991, surveys showed that GPs agreed that cost should be borne in mind when choosing medicines, but that their knowledge of drug prices was often inaccurate. This study assessed the current knowledge and attitudes of GPs in the UK in respect of prescribing costs, and examined the influence of various developments in general practice since 1986 on the accuracy of drug price estimation. 1000 randomly selected GP principals (500 in Scotland and 125 in each of 4 English health regions) were sent a postal questionnaire. The GPs' level of agreement with 5 statements concerned with prescribing costs, and the accuracy of their estimates of the basic price of 31 drugs, were analysed. Most GPs (71%) agreed that prescribing costs should be taken into account when deciding on the best treatment for patients. Fundholders were more likely than non-fundholders: (i) to agree that prescribing costs could be reduced without affecting patient care; (ii) to agree that providing more information on costs would lower the cost of prescribing; and (iii) to comment that cost guidelines had changed their prescribing habits. Fundholders were less likely than non-fundholders to reject the principle of fixed limits on prescribing costs. Overall, one-third of the price estimates given were accurate (within 25% of the actual cost). For the most expensive drugs in the survey [those priced over 10 pounds sterling (Pound) per pack], half of the price estimates were accurate. There were significant differences between non-fundholders' and fundholders' estimates of the price of less expensive drugs (those priced at less than 10 pounds per pack). Use of a formulary or computer-displayed drug price information did not affect the accuracy of price estimates. It may be that GPs

  9. Public Opinion Regarding Whether Speaking With Patients About Firearms Is Appropriate: Results of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Azrael, Deborah; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Matthew

    2016-10-18

    Health care providers have been encouraged to discuss firearms with patients; whether patients view these discussions as appropriate is unclear. To estimate, in a national sample, the perceived appropriateness of provider discussions about firearms. Probability-based online survey conducted in April 2015. Analyses used survey weights to generate nationally representative estimates. U.S. adults. 3914 English-speaking adults (55% participation rate). Participants were asked, "In general, would you think it is never, sometimes, usually, or always appropriate for physicians and other health professionals to talk to their patients about firearms?" A majority (66% [95% CI, 63% to 69%]) of participants said that it is at least sometimes appropriate for providers to talk to patients about firearms. Specifically, 23% (CI, 20% to 25%) said that provider discussions about firearms were always appropriate, 14% (CI, 11% to 16%) said that they were usually appropriate, and 30% (CI, 27% to 33%) thought they were sometimes appropriate; 34% (CI, 31% to 37%) felt that such discussions were never appropriate. Views varied by firearm ownership: 54% (CI, 52% to 57%) of gun owners said that provider discussions are at least sometimes appropriate, compared with 67% (CI, 62% to 71%) of nonowners living with an owner and 70% (CI, 66% to 74%) of nonowners not living with an owner. Firearm owners who were more likely to think that firearm discussions are at least sometimes appropriate included those with children at home (62% [CI, 57% to 67%]), those who thought that having a gun at home increases suicide risk (75% [CI, 67% to 83%), and those who thought that provider discussions of seat belts are at least sometimes appropriate (73% [CI, 70% to 75%]). The provider discussion question did not specify clinical context. Two thirds of non-firearm owners and over one half of firearm owners in the United States believe that health care provider discussions about firearms are at least sometimes

  10. Nurses' expert opinions of workplace interventions for a healthy working environment: a Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    Doran, Diane; Clarke, Sean; Hayes, Laureen; Nincic, Vera

    2014-09-01

    Much has been written about interventions to improve the nursing work environment, yet little is known about their effectiveness. A Delphi survey of nurse experts was conducted to explore perceptions about workplace interventions in terms of feasibility and likelihood of positive impact on nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and nurse retention. The interventions that received the highest ratings for likelihood of positive impact included: bedside handover to improve communication at shift report and promote patient-centred care; training program for nurses in dealing with violent or aggressive behaviour; development of charge nurse leadership team; training program focused on creating peer-supportive atmospheres and group cohesion; and schedule that recognizes work balance and family demands. The overall findings are consistent with the literature that highlights the importance of communication and teamwork, nurse health and safety, staffing and scheduling practices, professional development and leadership and mentorship. Nursing researchers and decision-makers should work in collaboration to implement and evaluate interventions for promoting practice environments characterized by effective communication and teamwork, professional growth and adequate support for the health and well-being of nurses.

  11. Survey of doctors' opinions of the legalisation of physician assisted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Lee, William; Price, Annabel; Rayner, Lauren; Hotopf, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Background Assisted dying has wide support among the general population but there is evidence that those providing care for the dying may be less supportive. Senior doctors would be involved in implementing the proposed change in the law. We aimed to measure support for legalising physician assisted dying in a representative sample of senior doctors in England and Wales, and to assess any association between doctors' characteristics and level of support for a change in the law. Methods We conducted a postal survey of 1000 consultants and general practitioners randomly selected from a commercially available database. The main outcome of interest was level of agreement with any change in the law to allow physician assisted suicide. Results The corrected participation rate was 50%. We analysed 372 questionnaires. Respondents' views were divided: 39% were in favour of a change to the law to allow assisted suicide, 49% opposed a change and 12% neither agreed nor disagreed. Doctors who reported caring for the dying were less likely to support a change in the law. Religious belief was also associated with opposition. Gender, specialty and years in post had no significant effect. Conclusion More senior doctors in England and Wales oppose any step towards the legalisation of assisted dying than support this. Doctors who care for the dying were more opposed. This has implications for the ease of implementation of recently proposed legislation. PMID:19261197

  12. Community water fluoridation: attitudes and opinions from the New Zealand Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Whyman, Robin A; Mahoney, Erin K; Børsting, Torunn

    2016-04-01

    To report the responses of adult participants in the 2009 New Zealand Oral Health Survey (NZOHS) to questions about community water fluoridation (CWF). The study used quantitative data from the NZOHS. All adult participants aged 18 years and over in the nationally representative NZOHS sample were included in the study (n=3475). Univariate analysis and multinominal logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between variables. Overall, 57.7% of respondents thought that there were dental benefits to adding fluoride to drinking water and 31.7% responded that they did not know. More than 45% of respondents did not know whether there were health risks from adding fluoride to drinking water. Overall, 42.0% of respondents were strongly or somewhat in favour of CWF. People in the Māori, Pacific and Asian ethnic groups, from the two most deprived quintiles, with no education after high school and who brushed their teeth less than twice a day expressed significantly greater uncertainty about CWF than other population groups. This study suggests further research is required to gain a greater understanding of health literacy about CWF and the cultural appropriateness of CWF in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. The job competency of radiological technologists in Korea based on specialists opinion and questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although there are over 40,000 licensed radiological technologists (RTs) in Korea, job competency standards have yet to be defined. This study aims to clarify the job competency of Korean RTs. Methods A task force team of 11 professional RTs were recruited in order to analyze the job competency of domestic and international RTs. A draft for the job competency of Korean RTs was prepared. A survey was then conducted sampling RTs and the attitudes of their competencies were recorded from May 21 to July 30, 2016. Results We identified five modules of professionalism, patient management, health and safety, operation of equipment, and procedure management and 131 detailed job competencies for RTs in Korea. “Health and safety” had the highest average score and “professionalism” had the lowest average score for both job performance and importance. The content validity ratios for the 131 subcompetencies were mostly valid. Conclusion Establishment of standard guidelines for RT job competency for multidisciplinary healthcare at medical institutions may be possible based on our results, which will help educators of RT training institutions to clarify their training and education. PMID:28502973

  14. Online Survey of US Dermatologists' Sunscreen Opinions: Perceptions, Recommendation Factors, and Self-Usage.

    PubMed

    Farberg, Aaron S; Rigel, Adam C; Rigel, Darrell S

    2016-09-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology and dermatologists' themselves, have recommended public education and patient counseling regarding sunscreen. The purpose of this study was to determine US dermatologists' actual sunscreen perceptions as well as their recommendations and personal usage. 540 practicing US dermatologists responded to an online survey that assessed each physician's perception of safety and efficacy of sunscreen, recommendation factors, and personal usage. Dermatologists have an overall positive view of sunscreen. 99% of dermatologists agree that regular sunscreen use helps lower skin cancer risk, reduces subsequent photoaging, and recommend their family/friends use sunscreen. Most dermatologists believe that oxybenzone and retinyl palmitate are safe in sunscreen (86% and 85%, respectively). Dermatologists used multiple sunscreen recommendation criteria including Sun Protection Factor (SPF) level, broad spectrum protection, cosmetic elegance/feel, and photostability (96%, 98%, 85%, and 68%, respectively). The use of sunscreen remains a critical part of sun protection. Therefore, it is important to assess and understand the perspective and patient recommendations provided by dermatologists.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1121-1123.

  15. Stigma and Public Support for Insurance Parity and Government Spending on Mental Health: Findings from a 2013 National Opinion Survey

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to gauge current attitudes among Americans about policies to: (1) require insurance parity for mental health, drug and alcohol abuse benefits and (2) increase government spending on mental health treatment. Methods A web-based public opinion survey (N=1,517) was conducted with a national sample of Americans, and examined how respondents’ socio-economic characteristics, political predispositions, personal experience, and attitudes toward persons with mental illness were associated with policy support. Results Sixty-nine percent of Americans supported insurance parity and 59 percent supported increasing government spending on mental health. Democrats were more supportive than Republicans or Independents. Personal experience was associated with higher support, and those expressing stigma in their attitudes toward persons with mental illness were less supportive of both policies. Conclusions Most Americans favored policies to expand insurance and funding for mental health treatment, but stigma was associated with lower support for both policies. This finding reinforces the importance developing robust anti-stigma efforts, particularly in an era when mental illness is increasingly linked to dangerousness in news media portrayals. PMID:25270496

  16. Familiarity, opinions, experiences and knowledge about scalp cooling: a Dutch survey among breast cancer patients and oncological professionals

    PubMed Central

    Peerbooms, Mijke; van den Hurk, Corina JG; Breed, Wim PM

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Scalp cooling (SC) is applied to reduce chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA). The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ familiarity and opinions and oncological professionals’ attitude and knowledge about SC in the Netherlands. Methods: Ex breast cancer patients, nurses and medical oncologists (MDs) from SC and non-SC hospitals filled out questionnaires. Results: The majority of MDs and nurses were satisfied with the results of SC, as were SC patients. Over 33% of MDs and nurses perceived their knowledge level insufficient to inform patients about effectiveness, which was over 43% for information about safety. MDs main reason to not apply SC was doubt about effectiveness and safety. Nurses generally offered SC to a minority of eligible patients. Patients were frequently unfamiliar with SC before diagnosis. Seventy percent of SC patients with insufficient results (20/52) reported to mind it very much. With expected success rates of 35% and 50%, respectively, 36% and 54% of patients would use SC again. Conclusion: Room for improvement has been shown for both patients’ familiarity and oncological professionals’ knowledge about SC. Sharing knowledge about results, safety and patients’ experiences will improve patient counseling and SC availability. The results of this survey led to the development of a national standard on CIA and SC. PMID:27981090

  17. Survey of patient opinion on tobacco cessation counseling and services in a dental teaching institution and hospital.

    PubMed

    Kadanakuppe, Sushi; Aradhya, Shankar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the opinion of dental patients who use tobacco towards receiving tobacco cessation counseling and services in a dental college and hospital setting. A cross-sectional descriptive survey method using a structured questionnaire was used in this study. Participants were patients attending The Oxford Dental College, Hospital, and Research Center, Bengaluru, India. Each patient in the clinic waiting room was asked by the investigator to complete a 29-item self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis using Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Ninety-six percent (n = 770) of tobacco users had previously attempted to quit tobacco and 95.7% were willing to quit. Sixteen percent (n = 132) of respondents reported that they currently used tobacco. About 83% of tobacco users agreed that the student dentist should ask patients whether or not they use tobacco, 79.4% agreed that the student dentist should advise tobacco users to quit, and 81.4% agreed that student dentists should offer information on quitting tobacco to patients who want to quit. Only 12.5% (n = 100) of the patients who use tobacco were aware of the community resources available to quit tobacco. This study shows that patients expect and felt comfortable with receiving tobacco cessation counseling services by oral health professionals in a dental hospital setting.

  18. An internist's role in perioperative medicine: a survey of surgeons' opinions

    PubMed Central

    PausJenssen, Lisa; Ward, Heather A; Card, Sharon E

    2008-01-01

    Background Literature exists regarding the perioperative role of internists. Internists rely on this literature assuming it meets the needs of surgeons without actually knowing their perspective. We sought to understand why surgeons ask for preoperative consultations and their view on the internist's role in perioperative medicine. Methods Survey of surgeons in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada regarding an internist's potential role in perioperative care. Results Fifty-nine percent responded. The majority request a preoperative consultation for a difficult case (83%) or specific problem (81%). While almost half feel that a preoperative consultation is to "clear" a patient for surgery, 33% disagree with this statement. The majority believe the internist should discuss risk with the patient. Aspects of the preoperative consultation deemed most important are cardiac medication optimization (93%), cardiac risk stratification (83%), addition of β-blockers (76%), and diabetes management (74%). Conclusion Surgeons perceive the most important roles for the internist as cardiac risk stratification and medication management. Areas of controversy identified amongst the surgeons included who should inform the patient of their operative risk, and whether the internist should follow the patient daily postoperatively. Unclear expectations have the potential to impact on patient safety and informed consent unless acknowledged and acted on by all. We recommend that internists performing perioperative consults communicate directly with the consulting physician to ensure that all parties are in accordance as to each others duties. We also recommend that the teaching of perioperative consults emphasizes the interdisciplinary communication needed to ensure that patient needs are not neglected when one specialty assumes the other will perform a function. PMID:18208614

  19. The opinion of clinical staff regarding painfulness of procedures in pediatric hematology-oncology: an Italian survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Beliefs of caregivers about patient's pain have been shown to influence assessment and treatment of children's pain, now considered an essential part of cancer treatment. Painful procedures in hematology-oncology are frequently referred by children as the most painful experiences during illness. Aim of this study was to evaluate professionals' beliefs about painfulness of invasive procedures repeatedly performed in Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Units. Methods Physicians, nurses, psychologists and directors working in Hemato-Oncology Units of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology (AIEOP) were involved in a wide-nation survey. The survey was based on an anonymous questionnaire investigating beliefs of operators about painfulness of invasive procedures (lumbar puncture, bone marrow aspirate and bone marrow biopsy) and level of pain management. Results Twenty-four directors, 120 physicians, 248 nurses and 22 psychologists responded to the questionnaire. The score assigned to the procedural pain on a 0-10 scale was higher than 5 in 77% of the operators for lumbar puncture, 97.5% for bone marrow aspiration, and 99.5% for bone marrow biopsy. The scores assigned by nurses differed statistically from those of the physicians and directors for the pain caused by lumbar puncture and bone marrow aspiration. Measures adopted for procedural pain control were generally considered good. Conclusions Invasive diagnostic-therapeutic procedures performed in Italian Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Units are considered painful by all the caregivers involved. Pain management is generally considered good. Aprioristically opinions about pain depend on invasiveness of the procedure and on the professional role. PMID:21663631

  20. Current and future perspectives on lumbar degenerative disc disease: a UK survey exploring specialist multidisciplinary clinical opinion

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDDD) being significantly associated with non-specific low back pain and effective treatment remaining elusive, specialist multidisciplinary clinical stakeholder opinion remains unexplored. The present study examines the views of such experts. Design A reliable and valid electronic survey was designed to establish trends using theoretical constructs relating to current assessment and management practices. Clinicians from the Society of Back Pain Research (SBPR) UK were invited to take part. Quantitative data were collated and coded using Bristol Online Surveys (BOS) software, and content analysis was used to systematically code and categorise qualitative data. Setting Specialist multidisciplinary spinal interest group in the UK. Participants 38/141 clinically active, multidisciplinary SBPR members with specialist spinal interest participated. Among them, 84% had >9 years postgraduate clinical experience. Interventions None. Outcome measures Frequency distributions were used to establish general trends in quantitative data. Qualitative responses were coded and categorised in relation to each theme and percentage responses were calculated. Results LDDD symptom recurrence, in the absence of psychosocial influence, was associated with physical signs of joint stiffness (26%), weakness (17%) and joint hypermobility (6%), while physical factors (21%) and the ability to adapt (11%) were postulated as reasons why some experience pain and others do not. No one management strategy was supported exclusively or with consensus. Regarding effective modalities, there was no significant difference between allied health professional and medic responses (p=0.1–0.8). The future of LDDD care was expressed in terms of improvements in patient communication (35%), patient education (38%) and treatment stratification (24%). Conclusions Results suggest that multidisciplinary expert spinal clinicians appear to follow UK

  1. A national survey of program director opinions of core competencies and structure of hand surgery fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Sears, Erika Davis; Larson, Bradley P; Chung, Kevin C

    2012-10-01

    We assessed hand surgery program directors' opinions of essential components of hand surgery training and potential changes in the structure of hand surgery programs. We recruited all 74 program directors of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-accredited hand surgery fellowship programs to participate. We designed a web-based survey to assess program directors' support for changes in the structure of training programs and to assess opinions of components that are essential for graduates to be proficient. Respondents were asked to rate 9 general areas of practice, 97 knowledge topics, and 172 procedures. Each component was considered essential if 50% or more of respondents thought that graduates must be fully knowledgeable of the topic and be able to perform the procedure at the end of training. The response rate was 84% (n = 62). A minority of program directors (n = 15; 24%) supported creation of additional pathways for hand surgery training, and nearly three-quarters (n = 46; 74%) preferred a fellowship model to an integrated residency model. Most program directors (n = 40; 65%) thought that a 1-year fellowship was sufficient to train a competent hand surgeon. Wrist, distal radius/ulna, forearm, and peripheral nerve conditions were rated as essential areas of practice. Of the detailed components, 76 of 97 knowledge topics and 98 of 172 procedures were rated as essential. Only 48% respondents (n = 30) rated microsurgery as it relates to free tissue transfer as essential. However, small and large vessel laceration repairs were rated as essential by 92% (n = 57) and 77% (n = 48) of respondents, respectively. This study found resistance to prolonging the length of fellowship training and introduction of an integrated residency pathway. To train all hand surgeons in essential components of hand surgery, programs must individually evaluate exposure provided and find innovative ways to augment training when necessary. Studies of curriculum content in hand

  2. A survey of first-year biology student opinions regarding live lectures and recorded lectures as learning tools.

    PubMed

    Simcock, D C; Chua, W H; Hekman, M; Levin, M T; Brown, S

    2017-03-01

    A cohort of first-year biology students was surveyed regarding their opinions and viewing habits for live and recorded lectures. Most respondents (87%) attended live lectures as a rule (attenders), with 66% attending more than two-thirds of the lectures. In contrast, only 52% accessed recordings and only 13% viewed more than two-thirds of the available recordings. Respondents regarded lectures as efficient for information delivery (75%), and 89% enjoyed live lectures because they were useful for learning (89%), understanding coursework (94%), and keeping up with the subject (93%). Lecture enjoyment was driven less by entertainment (34%) or interaction with the lecturers (47%), although most students preferred an entertaining lecturer to a factual expert (72%). Exam marks were positively correlated with the number of lectures attended (P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with the number of recordings viewed (P < 0.05), although marks were similar for lecture attenders and nonattenders (P > 0.05). Lecture attenders mostly missed lectures to complete assessments during the same week (68%), whereas nonattenders were more likely to miss lectures due to outside commitments or preference for study from books or recorded lectures (P < 0.001). Recordings were used to replace missed lectures (64%), rather than for revision, and were viewed mostly alone (96%) in one sitting (65%). Only 22% of respondents agreed that some lectures could be replaced by recordings, but 59% agreed with having some videoconference lectures from experts on another campus. Overall, this cohort showed a clear preference for live lectures over recordings, with limited support for synchronous videoconference lectures. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Sleeping through the night: a community survey of parents' opinions about and expectations of infant sleep consolidation.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jacqueline Mary Terese; Motoi, Gabriel; Blampied, Neville Morris

    2013-07-01

    This study examined parents' expectations of and opinions about infant sleep consolidation, the temporal timing and definitions of sleeping through the night and sources of advice about their infant's sleep. Participants were 412 parents (mean age 31 years ±6.8) with a child 2 years or younger recruited at shopping malls and other public places. Parents completed a brief survey on (i) the nocturnal duration they considered an infant should sustain uninterrupted sleep; (ii) a temporal location within the night for a criterion for sleeping through the night; (iii) their agreement or disagreement with Moore and Ucko's (1957) 24:00-05:00 h criterion defining sleeping through the night; and (iv) the sources of advice they had sought about infant's sleep. Parents expected infants to sustain sleep on average for 9.6 ± 3.4 h, with trends indicating the more children in the family (P = 0.02; d = 0.26) and lower family socio-economic status (P = 0.01; d = 0.34) the shorter the durations expected. Sleeping through the night was defined within a temporal location from 20:00 to 06:30 h. Over 80% of parents disagreed that 24:00-05:00 h criterion defined sleeping through the night. Forty-seven per cent of parents had sought advice regarding their infants' sleep, with Child Health Care Nurses the most popular source. New Zealand parents have realistic expectations of infant capabilities for sleep consolidation that were within contemporary clinical guidelines. A new parent-based definition of sleeping through the night is presented that has social and developmental validity. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. The Rough and the Smooth--Students' Experiences of O.U. Study. Open-Ended Feedback from the Student Opinion Survey. The "Pete Davey Survey." Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robin; Morgan, Alistair

    The Student Opinion Survey was sent to a random sample of 2,600 Open University (OU) students who had gained at least two credits and were studying during 1984. The response rate was 84 percent. Responses to open-ended questions on about one-third of those questionnaires were analyzed to determine the significant phenomena in students' experiences…

  5. Prioritizing Approaches to Engage Community Members and Build Trust in Biobanks: A Survey of Attitudes and Opinions of Adults within Outpatient Practices at the University of Maryland.

    PubMed

    Overby, Casey Lynnette; Maloney, Kristin A; Alestock, Tameka DeShawn; Chavez, Justin; Berman, David; Sharaf, Reem Maged; Fitzgerald, Tom; Kim, Eun-Young; Palmer, Kathleen; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2015-07-28

    Achieving high participation of communities representative of all sub-populations is needed in order to ensure broad applicability of biobank study findings. This study aimed to understand potentially mutable attitudes and opinions commonly correlated with biobank participation in order to inform approaches to promote participation in biobanks. Adults from two University of Maryland (UMD) Faculty Physicians, Inc. outpatient practices were invited to watch a video and complete a survey about a new biobank initiative. We used: Chi-square to assess the relationship between willingness to join the biobank and participant characteristics, other potentially mutable attitudes and opinions, and trust in the UMD. We also used t-test to assess the relationship with trust in medical research. We also prioritize proposed actions to improve attitudes and opinions about joining biobanks according to perceived responsiveness. 169 participants completed the study, 51% of whom indicated a willingness to join the biobank. Willingness to join the biobank was not associated with age, gender, race, or education but was associated with respondent comfort sharing samples and clinical information, concerns related to confidentiality, potential for misuse of information, trust in UMD, and perceived health benefit. In ranked order, potential actions we surveyed that might alleviate some of these concerns include: increase chances to learn more about the biobank, increase opportunities to be updated, striving to put community concerns first, including involving community members as leaders of biobank research, and involving community members in decision making. This study identified several attitudes and opinions that influence decisions to join a biobank, including many concerns that could potentially be addressed by engaging community members. We also demonstrate our method of prioritizing ways to improve attitudes and opinions about joining a biobank according to perceived responsiveness.

  6. Results of the 2004 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoyer, Richard L; Truett, Lorena Faith; Cooper, Christy

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program focuses on overcoming critical barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen fuel cell technology. The transition to a new, hydrogen-based energy economy requires an educated human infrastructure. With this in mind, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted statistical surveys to measure and establish baselines for understanding and awareness about hydrogen, fuel cells, and a hydrogen economy. The baseline data will serve as a reference in designing an education program, and it will be used in comparisons with future survey results (2008 and 2011) to measure changes in understanding and awareness. Scientific sampling was used to survey four populations: (1) the general public, ages 18 and over; (2) students, ages 12-17; (3) state and local government officials; and (4) potential large-scale hydrogen users. It was decided that the survey design should include about 1,000 individuals in each of the general public and student categories, about 250 state and local officials, and almost 100 large-scale end users. The survey questions were designed to accomplish specific objectives. Technical questions measured technical understanding and awareness of hydrogen technology. Opinion questions measured attitudes about safety, cost, the environment, and convenience, as well as the likelihood of future applications of hydrogen technology. For most of the questions, "I don't know" or "I have no opinion" were acceptable answers. Questions about information sources assessed how energy technology information is received. The General Public and Student Survey samples were selected by random digit dialing. Potential large-scale end users were selected by random sampling. The State and Local Government Survey was of the entire targeted population of government officials (not a random sample). All four surveys were administered by computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). For each population, the length of the survey was less than 15

  7. A survey of UK prescribers' experience of, and opinions on, anthelmintic prescribing practices for livestock and equines.

    PubMed

    Easton, Stephanie; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Bartley, David J; Hotchkiss, Emily; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine practices, attitudes and experiences of UK prescribers of anthelmintics for horses and livestock. A questionnaire was sent by direct email to groups licenced to prescribe these medicines. These were veterinarians, Suitably Qualified Persons (SQPs, registered with the Animal Medicines Training Regulatory Authority) and veterinary pharmacists. The survey was also advertised through social media. It comprised questions relating to demographics, training experiences, current prescribing practices, as well as personal opinions on anthelmintic selection, diagnostics and anthelmintic resistance. A total of 193 veterinarians and 326 SQPs were included in final analysis. Pharmacists were excluded from detailed analysis due to the low numbers that responded (n=3). The results indicated that SQP participants were more likely to receive post-certification parasitology training than the veterinarians, and that both channels consulted similar sources for information about helminths and their control (paper articles in journals, online sources). The SQP participants stated a higher frequency of face-to-face interactions with clients/customers (96.1%) than the veterinarians (76.4%), who stated a higher frequency of telephone interactions (55.1% and 73.5%, respectively). Veterinarians were more likely to state that there were specific factors that limited interactions with their clients (54.1%) than SQPs (19.6%), such as competition from other suppliers. SQP participants considered a wider range of factors as important when deciding on which anthelmintic to recommend (i.e. knowledge of specific parasites, knowledge of specific anthelmintics, discussion of measures to avoid anthelmintic resistance and time to talk with clients/customers); however, the veterinarian participants were more likely to consider the results of diagnostic tests. While discussions about anthelmintic resistance were stated with similar frequency in both groups, less

  8. The Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) and Bipolar Adjective Scale (BAS): aspects of validity.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Williams, Mandy J; Ware, Mercedes B; Guendouzi, Jacqueline; Reichel, Isabella K

    2014-01-01

    In order to estimate instrument validity, attitudes toward stuttering measured by the newly developed Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) and the Woods and Williams (1976) semantic differential scale (referred to herein as the Bipolar Adjective Scale [BAS]) are compared in college students on one occasion as well as before and after coursework on fluency disorders. Undergraduate and graduate students (n=321) from four universities filled out online versions of the POSHA-S and BAS. Two-thirds were speech-language pathology (SLP) majors; one-third were students in other majors. A subset of the SLP students (n=35) filled out the two instruments again after 8-13 weeks of coursework on fluency disorders. Correlations between all ratings of the POSHA-S and BAS were run for the 321 students. Only 26% of the correlations were statistically significant (R ≥ ± 0.129), and the large majority of these reflected small relationships. POSHA-S ratings were correlated with up to 77% of the items of the BAS while BAS items were correlated with up to 45% of the POSHA-S ratings. After coursework on stuttering, students' attitudes improved on both instruments, but more on the POSHA-S than the BAS. Greater evidence of discriminant validity than convergent validity characterized the POSHA-S and BAS. Both measures showed improved attitudes after fluency disorders coursework, but more so for the POSHA-S, confirming previous reports of construct validity. The POSHA-S taps relevant constructs not included in the BAS, which provide advantages for intracultural, international, and other comparisons of public attitudes toward stuttering. The reader will be able to: (1) describe differentiating characteristics of the POSHA-S and BAS as measures of public attitudes toward stuttering, (2) describe the overlap and lack of overlap in the constructs measured by POSHA-S and BAS, (3) describe discriminant versus convergent validity and (4) describe advantages of the POSHA

  9. Chemotherapy drug handling in first opinion small animal veterinary practices in the United Kingdom: results of a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Edery, E G

    2017-03-07

    To investigate how first opinion small animal veterinary surgeons in the UK handled chemotherapeutic agents, a questionnaire was distributed at the 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association congress and by internet. Chemotherapy was regularly offered by 70.4 per cent of the respondents. Gold standards defined according to available guidelines for safe handling of antineoplastic drugs were poorly followed by general practitioners with only 2 per cent of respondents complying with all of them. Dedicated facilities for preparation and administration of cytotoxic drugs were variably available among participants. The level of training of staff indirectly involved in handling chemotherapy was appropriate in less than 50 per cent of practices. No association was found between demographic characteristics of the sampled population and the decision to perform chemotherapy. The results of this study raise concerns about the safety of the veterinary staff in first opinion practices involved in handling chemotherapy.

  10. Identifying deficiencies in national and foreign medical team responses through expert opinion surveys: implications for education and training.

    PubMed

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Corte, Francesco Della; Foletti, Marco; Gallardo, Alba Ripoll; Ragazzoni, Luca; Kaptan, Kubilay; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Gotz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Heselmann, Deike; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Khorrram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Kostanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Fisher, Philipp

    2014-08-01

    Unacceptable practices in the delivery of international medical assistance are reported after every major international disaster; this raises concerns about the clinical competence and practice of some foreign medical teams (FMTs). The aim of this study is to explore and analyze the opinions of disaster management experts about potential deficiencies in the art and science of national and FMTs during disasters and the impact these opinions might have on competency-based education and training. This qualitative study was performed in 2013. A questionnaire-based evaluation of experts' opinions and experiences in responding to disasters was conducted. The selection of the experts was done using the purposeful sampling method, and the sample size was considered by data saturation. Content analysis was used to explore the implications of the data. This study shows that there is a lack of competency-based training for disaster responders. Developing and performing standardized training courses is influenced by shortcomings in budget, expertise, and standards. There is a lack of both coordination and integration among teams and their activities during disasters. The participants of this study emphasized problems concerning access to relevant resources during disasters. The major findings of this study suggest that teams often are not competent during the response phase because of education and training deficiencies. Foreign medical teams and medically related nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) do not always provide expected capabilities and services. Failures in leadership and in coordination among teams are also a problem. All deficiencies need to be applied to competency-based curricula.

  11. Opinion: Mycopedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Craig

    2004-01-01

    A teacher at the university of Utah describes his opinion by citing examples of experimental, innovative, avant-garde, a number of literary traditions adopted in college classrooms. The advantages and the dangers of these being pedagogy are explained.

  12. Opinion: Mycopedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Craig

    2004-01-01

    A teacher at the university of Utah describes his opinion by citing examples of experimental, innovative, avant-garde, a number of literary traditions adopted in college classrooms. The advantages and the dangers of these being pedagogy are explained.

  13. Alberta euthanasia survey: 2. Physicians' opinions about the acceptance of active euthanasia as a medical act and the reporting of such practice.

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, M J; Kinsella, T D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the opinions of Alberta physicians about the acceptance of active euthanasia as a medical act (the "medicalization" of active euthanasia) and the reporting of colleagues practising active euthanasia, as well as the sociodemographic correlates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Alberta physicians, grouped by site and type of practice. SETTING: Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2002 (46%) of the licensed physicians in Alberta were mailed a 38-item questionnaire in May through July 1991; usable responses were returned by 1391 (69%). RESULTS: Although only 44% of the respondents considered active euthanasia morally "right" at least 70% opted to medicalize the practice if it were legal by restricting it to be performed by physicians and to be taught at medical sites. Even though active euthanasia is criminal homicide in Canada, 33% of the physicians stated that they would not report a colleague participating in the act of anyone, and 40% and 60% stated that they would not report a colleague to medical or legal authorities respectively. Acceptance or rejection of active euthanasia as a medical act was strongly related to religious affiliation and activity (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This survey about active euthanasia revealed profound incongruities in the opinions of the sample of Alberta physicians concerning their ethical and social duties in the practice of medicine. These data highlight the need for relevant modifications of health education policies concerning biomedical ethics and physicians' obligations to society. PMID:8500030

  14. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica K; Bruce, Stephanie J; Dale, Arnja R

    2017-07-03

    Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  15. Publishers' Opinions about Book Paper. Report of a Survey for the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jane

    This paper presents the findings of a 1982 survey of members of the Association of American University Presses and other American book publishing firms with a net worth of of $500,000 or more. A low survey response rate of 25 percent is noted. Survey findings are reported as follows: (1) acid-free paper is used by 65 percent of respondents; (2) of…

  16. French district nurses' opinions towards euthanasia, involvement in end‐of‐life care and nurse–patient relationship: a national phone survey

    PubMed Central

    Bendiane, M‐K; Galinier, A; Favre, R; Ribiere, C; Lapiana, J‐M; Obadia, Y; Peretti‐Watel, P

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess French district nurses' opinions towards euthanasia and to study factors associated with these opinions, with emphasis on attitudes towards terminal patients. Design and setting An anonymous telephone survey carried out in 2005 among a national random sample of French district nurses. Participants District nurses currently delivering home care who have at least 1 year of professional experience. Of 803 district nurses contacted, 602 agreed to participate (response rate 75%). Main outcome measures Opinion towards the legalisation of euthanasia (on a five‐point Likert scale from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”), attitudes towards terminal patients (discussing end‐of‐life issues with them, considering they should be told their prognosis, valuing the role of advance directives and surrogates). Results Overall, 65% of the 602 nurses favoured legalising euthanasia. Regarding associated factors, this proportion was higher among those who discuss end‐of‐life issues with terminal patients (70%), who consider competent patients should always be told their prognosis (81%) and who value the role of advance directives and surrogates in end‐of‐life decision‐making for incompetent patients (68% and 77% respectively). Women and older nurses were less likely to favour legalising euthanasia, as were those who believed in a god who masters their destiny. Conclusions French nurses are more in favour of legalising euthanasia than French physicians; these two populations contrast greatly in the factors associated with this support. Further research is needed to investigate how and to what extent such attitudes may affect nursing practice and emotional well‐being in the specific context of end‐of‐life home care. PMID:18055901

  17. Personalised, predictive and preventive medication process in hospitals—still rather missing: professional opinion survey on medication safety in Czech hospitals (based on professional opinions of recognised Czech health care experts)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The survey had the following aims: (1) to rationalise the hypothesis that risks and losses relating to medication process' errors in Czech hospitals are at least comparable with the other developed countries and EU countries especially, (2) to get a valid professional opinion/estimate on the rate of adverse drug events happening in Czech hospitals, (3) to point out that medication errors represent real and serious risks and (4) to induce the hospital management readiness to execute fundamental changes and improvements to medication processes. We read through a lot of studies inquiring into hospitals' medication safety. Then, we selected the studies which brought reliable findings and formulated credible conclusions. Finally, we addressed reputable Czech experts in health care and asked them structured questions whether the studies' findings and conclusions corresponded with our respondents' own experience in the Czech hospital clinical practice and what their own estimates of adverse drug events' consequences were like. Based on the reputable Czech health care expert opinions/estimates, the rate of a false drug administration may exceed 5%, and over 7% of those cause serious health complications to Czech hospital inpatients. Measured by an average length of stay (ALOS), the Czech inpatients, harmed by a false drug administration, stay in hospital for more than 2.6 days longer than necessary. Any positive changes to a currently used, traditional, ways of drug dispensing and administration, along with computerisation, automation, electronic traceability, validation, or verification, must well pay off. Referring to the above results, it seems to be wise to follow the EU priorities in health and health care improvements. Thus, a right usage of the financial means provided by the EC—in terms of its new health programmes for the period 2014–2020 (e.g. Horizon 2020)—has a good chance of a good result in doing the right things right, at the right time and in the

  18. Family members of deceased palliative care patients receiving bereavement anniversary cards: a survey on the recipient's reactions and opinions.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Swantje; Mai, Sandra Stephanie; Gerlach, Christina; Windschmitt, Ulrike; Feldmann, Karl-Heinz; Weber, Martin

    2017-04-19

    Bereavement support is part of palliative care. Sending out bereavement anniversary cards is one intervention of follow-up support for the bereaved. This study evaluated the suitability of bereavement anniversary cards as an appropriate method in bereavement care. A questionnaire was sent to each card recipient since the starting point of this practice (October 2014-June 2015). Data was analyzed descriptively. 24 of 68 deliverable questionnaires were returned (response rate 35%). 22 out of 24 recipients felt pleased receiving the card. No participant felt annoyed on receiving the bereavement anniversary card; every participant agreed to at least one positive reaction (i.e. pleased, grateful or consoled). The participants' reactions and opinions about receiving the anniversary card were decidedly positive and indicate the continuation of this practice. Those few less pleased reactions may be related to timing and the first anniversary of the patients' death and therefore an expression of grief rather than a dissatisfaction with bereavement anniversary cards, as such.

  19. Exposure to and opinions towards sex education among adolescent students in Mumbai: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine students' exposure to sex education and identify students' perceptions of accessibility to sexual health advice and their preferences in implementing sex education. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in junior colleges in Mumbai in 2010. The self-administered questionnaire investigated male and female students' (aged 15-17) exposure and opinions towards sex education. Data was entered into and analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Results The questionnaire was completed by 427 students. Almost 90% of students believed it important to have sex education as part of school curriculum; over 60% reported prior exposure to sex education in school. However, only 45% were satisfied they had good access to advice about contraception and sexual health, particularly, females reported more limited access. Conclusions The majority responding indicated a desire for more widespread implementation of school-based sex education, particularly amongst female respondents. PMID:21999485

  20. [Change of surgeons' opinion against anesthesiologists after introduction of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols: questionnaire survey among surgeons who participated ERAS care].

    PubMed

    Shida, Dai; Tagawa, Kyoko; Takahashi, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Takeo; Inoue, Satoru

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols aim to improve patient care, reducing complication rates, and shortening hospital stay following colorectal surgery in Europe. In cooperation of colorectal surgeons and anesthesiologists, ERAS protocols were initially introduced in our hospital to the patients who underwent open colorectal resection in July 2010. Using a questionnaire, we surveyed the change of surgeons' opinion against anesthesiologists after introduction of ERAS among 15 surgeons at Metropolitan Bokutoh hospital. Surgeons realized that introduction of ERAS made strong communication between surgeons and anesthesiologists. And they also thought it is not surgeons themselves nor anesthesiologists themselves but 'team care' which could produce positive outcome of ERAS. Introduction of ERAS as collaboration of surgeons and anesthesiologists resulted in facilitating communication of surgeons and anesthesiologists.

  1. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively

  2. Landmark opinions

    SciTech Connect

    Julian Levy

    2007-08-15

    On April 2, 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court issued two landmark opinions affecting the regulation of air quality in the United States. The first addressed one facet of what constitutes a modification under New Source Review (NSR) and the second addressed the issue of global climate change, specifically carbon dioxide emissions. For this month's issue, EM invited five leaders in the field of air quality to give their perspectives on these court opinions to gauge what they might mean for future air quality regulations. Titles of the five features are: Two landmark interpretations of the Clean Air Act: EPA authority to regulate greenhouse gases and increases in annual emissions trigger NSR (pp 6-10); Court examines EPA's interpretation of the Clean Air Act (pp 11,13); New Jersey: a state's perspective (pp 14-15); Supreme Court delivers historic environmental rulings (pp 17-18); and an industry perspective on the Supreme Court rulings (pp 20-21).

  3. A School Staff Opinion Survey Predicts Student Achievement in Victoria, Australia: Evidence from a Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Tedra F.; Goddard, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Effective school reform requires communication with and buy-in from key stakeholders. In recent years, stakeholder surveys have become increasingly prominent tools for promoting better understanding of how school factors contribute to student success. The key purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between Victorian school scores on…

  4. A Survey of the Deaf Community Concerning Their Opinions, Needs and Knowledge of Audiology and Audiology Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Charles E.; Martin, Frederick N.

    1987-01-01

    A survey questionnaire of 32 adult deaf subjects evaluated their knowledge of and interest in audiology and services of audiologists. Issues examined included communication, practices in audiology, deafness, hearing, the auditory system, delivery of specific services to the deaf community and general interrelationships in the deaf community.…

  5. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece(*): Use and Utility of Animal Models of Disease for Nonclinical Safety Assessment: A Pharmaceutical Industry Survey.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sherry J; Couch, Jessica; Guzzie-Peck, Peggy; Keller, Douglas A; Kemper, Ray; Otieno, Monicah A; Schulingkamp, Robert J; Jones, Thomas W

    2017-04-01

    An Innovation and Quality (IQ) Consortium focus group conducted a cross-company survey to evaluate current practices and perceptions around the use of animal models of disease (AMDs) in nonclinical safety assessment of molecules in clinical development. The IQ Consortium group is an organization of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with the mission of advancing science and technology. The survey queried the utilization of AMDs during drug discovery in which drug candidates are evaluated in efficacy models and limited short-duration non-Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) toxicology testing and during drug development in which drug candidates are evaluated in GLP toxicology studies. The survey determined that the majority of companies used AMDs during drug discovery primarily as a means for proactively assessing potential nonclinical safety issues prior to the conduct of toxicology studies, followed closely by the use of AMDs to better understand toxicities associated with exaggerated pharmacology in traditional toxicology models or to derisk issues when the target is only expressed in the disease state. In contrast, the survey results indicated that the use of AMDs in development is infrequent, being used primarily to investigate nonclinical safety issues associated with targets expressed only in disease states and/or in response to requests from global regulatory authorities.

  6. Using the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey to Examine the Prevalence and Characteristics of Families Who Home Educate in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma; Nelson, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    This paper has two aims, first to examine the feasibility of using an omnibus survey to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of families who home educate and secondly to provide an empirical contribution to recent research on home education in the UK. Because there is no statutory requirement for families who home educate to register with…

  7. Using the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey to Examine the Prevalence and Characteristics of Families Who Home Educate in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma; Nelson, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    This paper has two aims, first to examine the feasibility of using an omnibus survey to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of families who home educate and secondly to provide an empirical contribution to recent research on home education in the UK. Because there is no statutory requirement for families who home educate to register with…

  8. Speaking of Kids: A National Survey of Children and Parents. Report of the National Opinion Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Children, Washington, DC.

    This document reports the results of a nationwide survey of more than 1,700 households conducted by the National Commission on Children. Children between the ages of 10 and 17 and their parents were interviewed concerning the quality of their family life and the nature of their relationships with each other and with institutions that affect…

  9. Knowledge, opinions and factors influencing practices regarding sugar in oral paediatric medications: a survey of Dunedin pharmacy staff.

    PubMed

    Chow, M; Costain, S; Brosnan, M; Murray, C

    2016-06-01

    Sugar, a known aetiological factor in dental decay, has been used in paediatric medications as a bulking agent, preservative and to improve taste. Although artificial sweeteners have largely replaced sugar, some prescribed and over-the-counter (OTC) paediatric medications and supplements containing sugar are still available in New Zealand. Little is currently known about the knowledge, opinions and practices of staff in NZ pharmacies regarding sugar-containing paediatric medications. This study was carried out to investigate these factors. After ethical approval was obtained, questionnaires were delivered to all staff members at pharmacies in the greater Dunedin area. Quantitative statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 22.0 with the alpha value set at 0.05. Qualitative data were analysed using a general inductive technique. A total of 58 questionnaires were returned giving a pharmacy response rate of 63.0%. Some 29.9% of respondents thought the inclusion of sugar in medications necessary and 77.6% agreed that sugar in paediatric medications can contribute to dental decay. Most of the 67.2% who reported that they do not give advice to customers regarding sugar in medications and oral health, felt it was not a priority. Parental request was the main factor determining provision or recommendations regarding sugar-free options (87.9%). Although choice of a sugar-free medication can be limited by many factors, inter-professional collaboration and knowledge sharing on this topic would be advantageous. In addition, the provision of more formalised education, either as part of undergraduate pharmacy curricula or as part of continuing education, should be considered.

  10. Survey of Ocular Prosthetics Rehabilitation in the United Kingdom, Part 1: Anophthalmic Patients' Aetiology, Opinions, and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Abbariki, Mojgan; Alqudah, Noor; Cook, Anne E

    2017-07-01

    Ocular prostheses are constructed to aid cosmetic, functional, and psychological rehabilitation of anophthalmic patients. Part-1 of this study aimed to evaluate anophthalmic patients' opinions, attitudes, and experience about aspects related to their postfit ocular prostheses. One hundred sixty questionnaires were delivered to anophthalmic patients inquiring about different information such as age, gender, occupation, eye-loss cause, prosthesis type, prosthesis-wearing frequency, prosthesis-cleaning frequency, and problems encountered. A total of 126 questionnaires were returned (response rate was 78.8%). Data was analyzed using SPSS software (P <0.05). The patients were 74 males and 52 females (57.55 years ± 17.57). Almost 50% of the patients lost their eye due to trauma that was the highest among other causes (P <0.05). High proportion clean their prosthesis daily (37.4%) which was the highest among other cleaning regimes (P <0.05). Almost 30.3% experienced having problems with their prosthetic eye. Patients who clean their prosthetic eye every 6 months have experienced more problems (P <0.05). Majority of patients wear their prosthetic eyes 24 hours (92%) (P <0.05). Half of patients who received a prosthetic eye for the first time experienced problems with it (P <0.05) such as excess discharge (45%), infection (25%), and soreness (20%). However, the problems were independent of prosthesis-type (P >0.05). Trauma is the most common cause of anophthalmic patients in the North-West of England. Anophthalmic patients are likely to experience problems with their prosthetic eye if they have lost their natural eye due to disease; it is their first prosthesis; or if they clean it once every 6 months.

  11. Do Consultation Psychiatrists, Forensic Psychiatrists, Psychiatry Trainees, and Health Care Lawyers Differ in Opinion on Gray Area Decision-Making Capacity Cases? A Vignette-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Armontrout, James; Gitlin, David; Gutheil, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in the area of medical decision-making capacity has demonstrated relatively poor agreement between experienced evaluators in "gray area" cases. We performed a survey to determine the level of agreement about gray area decision-making capacity case scenarios within and between individuals of different professional backgrounds. Participants received a survey consisting of 3 complicated decision-making capacity vignettes with an accompanying "yes/no" question regarding capacity and a certainty scale for each vignette. Participants were identified from mailing lists of professional organizations and local hospitals. We received responses from psychiatry trainees, consultation-liaison psychiatrists, forensic psychiatrists, and lawyers with experience in health care law. Results were analyzed using SPSS. Across the 3 vignettes, the percentage agreeing that the individual described had capacity to refuse medical treatment ranged between 35% and 40% for trainees, 33% and 67% for consult psychiatrists, 41% and 76% for forensic psychiatrists, and 40% and 83% for health care lawyers. Only question 2 reached significance between-group differences (Pearson χ(2) = 11.473, p < 0.01). Across vignettes, trainees were less likely to consider patients to have capacity for decision-making than were forensic psychiatrists and lawyers. As found in previous research, agreement among experienced evaluators appears generally low in gray area capacity cases. It is noteworthy that individuals of different professional backgrounds at times offer divergent between-group opinions on capacity. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Global Health Professions Student Survey--Turkey: second-hand smoke exposure and opinions of medical students on anti-tobacco law.

    PubMed

    Inandi, Tacettin; Caman, Ozge Karadag; Aydin, Neriman; Onal, Ayşe Emel; Kaypmaz, Ayşe; Turhan, Ebru; Erguder, Toker; Warren, Wick C

    2013-09-01

    This study, as a part of "the Global Health Professions Student Survey" (GHPSS), aimed to assess medical students' tobacco use, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS), and opinions as well as smoking policies at medical faculties in Turkey. The study was conducted in 2010 as a school-based survey of third-year students in 12 medical schools. GHPSS uses a standardised methodology for selecting schools (probability proportional to student enrolment size) and data processing. In total, data from 1,217 of third year medical students were analysed. Prevalence of current tobacco use among participating students was 28.5%. Exposure to SHS in the last seven days was 46.9% at home, and 42.2% in other places. Among smokers, over 7 in 10 students reported smoking on medical school premises during the past 30 days and the past year. Medical students' exposure to SHS is common and smoking on medical school premises/buildings constitutes a problem. Turkey passed an anti-tobacco law in 2008, yet enforcement of the law must be stronger. In addition, medical schools must evaluate, and likely revise their education curricula to better prepare medical students to advocate tobacco control.

  13. A survey of Core Medical Trainees' opinions on the ePortfolio record of educational activities: beneficial and cost-effective?

    PubMed

    Johnson, S; Cai, A; Riley, P; Millar, L M; McConkey, H; Bannister, C

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate Core Medical Trainees' (CMTs) opinions on the role of the ePortfolio in postgraduate education. Cross-sectional survey of 91 CMTs in five NHS trusts within the South Thames Deanery. Completed surveys were received from 80 Core Medical Trainees. A total of 84% agreed that an ongoing record of progress is necessary, only 5% felt the ePortfolio represents value for money; 78% of respondents were unclear as to how the Freedom of Information Act (2000) impacts on the ePortfolio, and most were uninformed of the extent to which their entries can be accessed by third parties. Trainees recognise the importance of recording ongoing progress, but most consider the ePortfolio to be poor value for money. There is uncertainty regarding ownership of information held on ePortfolio, and to what extent it can be accessed. There are inadequate opportunities to discuss concerns. This requires further deliberation and until things are clarified, trainees may not fully engage with the resource.

  14. Survey of Australian equine veterinarians evaluating their biosecurity training and perceptions and opinions about the management of the 2007 equine influenza outbreak.

    PubMed

    Schemann, K; Toribio, J-A L M L; Taylor, M R; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the level of biosecurity training among Australian equine veterinarians and to assess their perceptions of biosecurity and infectious disease risk and their opinions about the management of the 2007 equine influenza (EI) outbreak. Cross-sectional study. A survey was conducted among equine veterinarians attending the 2010 annual conference of the Equine Veterinarians Australia (EVA) in New South Wales, Australia. Data were collected using a self-completed questionnaire and analysed using Fisher's exact tests to assess veterinarians' levels of biosecurity training, their perceptions of infectious disease and views regarding the 2007 EI outbreak management. A total of 46 of the 196 (23.5%) attending veterinarians completed the questionnaire. Significantly greater proportions of recently graduated veterinarians received theoretical and practical biosecurity training at veterinary schools than their older counterparts. The majority of respondents considered their likelihood of spreading infectious diseases from one client's horse to another to be low (84%). More than half (58%) of the veterinarians considered that hand-washing/wearing gloves was very effective in preventing disease spread. However, around one-quarter (27%) reported a degree of reservation about the practicality of performing general biosecurity practices in everyday working life. Overall, veterinarians were satisfied with the EI outbreak response, but had mixed opinions about the control measures and communications used. Levels of biosecurity training and the frequency of biosecurity advice provided by veterinarians have increased over time, although the practicality of biosecurity practices is a concern for some veterinarians. Further investigations of the barriers to the use of various biosecurity practices are required in order to inform training programs. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. A Review of Brain-Computer Interface Games and an Opinion Survey from Researchers, Developers and Users

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Minkyu; Lee, Mijin; Choi, Jinyoung; Jun, Sung Chan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology for healthy users has attracted considerable interest, and BCI games are especially popular. This study reviews the current status of, and describes future directions, in the field of BCI games. To this end, we conducted a literature search and found that BCI control paradigms using electroencephalographic signals (motor imagery, P300, steady state visual evoked potential and passive approach reading mental state) have been the primary focus of research. We also conducted a survey of nearly three hundred participants that included researchers, game developers and users around the world. From this survey, we found that all three groups (researchers, developers and users) agreed on the significant influence and applicability of BCI and BCI games, and they all selected prostheses, rehabilitation and games as the most promising BCI applications. User and developer groups tended to give low priority to passive BCI and the whole head sensor array. Developers gave higher priorities to “the easiness of playing” and the “development platform” as important elements for BCI games and the market. Based on our assessment, we discuss the critical point at which BCI games will be able to progress from their current stage to widespread marketing to consumers. In conclusion, we propose three critical elements important for expansion of the BCI game market: standards, gameplay and appropriate integration. PMID:25116904

  16. Career Preferences and Opinions on Animal Welfare and Ethics: A Survey of Veterinary Students in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Amelia R; Caspar, Georgina L; Collins, Teresa; Degeling, Christopher; Fawcett, Anne; Fisher, Andrew D; Freire, Rafael; Hazel, Susan J; Hood, Jennifer; Johnson, A Jane; Lloyd, Janice; Phillips, Clive J C; Stafford, Kevin; Tzioumis, Vicky; McGreevy, Paul D

    Historically, the veterinary profession has understood animal welfare primarily in terms of animal health and productivity, with less recognition of animals' feelings and mental state. Veterinary students' career preferences and attitudes to animal welfare have been the focus of several international studies. As part of a survey in Australia and New Zealand, this study reports on whether veterinary students prioritize animal welfare topics or professional conduct on the first day of practice and examines links between students' career preferences and their institution, gender, and year of study. The questionnaire was designed to explore the importance that students assign to topics in animal welfare and ethics. Of the 3,320 students invited to participate in the online survey, a total of 851 students participated, representing a response rate of 25.5%. Students' preferences increased for companion-animal practice and decreased for production-animal practice as they progressed through their studies. Females ranked the importance of animal welfare topics higher than males, but the perceived importance declined for both genders in their senior years. In line with previous studies, this report highlighted two concerns: (1) the importance assigned to animal welfare declined as students progressed through their studies, and (2) males placed less importance overall on animal welfare than females. Given that veterinarians have a strong social influence on animal issues, there is an opportunity, through enhanced education in animal welfare, to improve student concern for animal welfare and in turn improve animal care and policy making by future veterinarians.

  17. Risk perception of pregnancy promotes disapproval of gestational surrogacy: analysis of a nationally representative opinion survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kohta; Sawa, Rintaro; Muto, Kaori; Kusuda, Satoshi; Banno, Kouji; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2011-07-01

    To clarify the relationship between the general attitude towards gestational surrogacy and risk perception about pregnancy and infertility treatment. This study analysed the data of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from 2007 concerning assisted reproductive technologies. The participants represented the general Japanese population. We used this data to carry out multivariate analysis. The main outcome measures were adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression models for factors including the effect of pregnancy risk perception on the attitude toward gestational surrogacy. In this survey, 3412 participants responded (response rate of 68.2%). With regard to the attitude towards gestational surrogacy, 54.0% of the respondents approved of it, and 29.7% stated that they were undecided. The perception of a high level of risk concerning ectopic pregnancy, threatened miscarriage or premature birth, and pregnancy-induced hypertension influenced the participants' attitudes towards gestational surrogacy. Moreover, this perception of risk also contributed to a disapproval of the technique. Our findings suggest that a person who understands the risks associated with pregnancy might clearly express their disapproval of gestational surrogacy.

  18. Risk Perception of Pregnancy Promotes Disapproval of Gestational Surrogacy: Analysis of a Nationally Representative Opinion Survey in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kohta; Sawa, Rintaro; Muto, Kaori; Kusuda, Satoshi; Banno, Kouji; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2011-01-01

    Background To clarify the relationship between the general attitude towards gestational surrogacy and risk perception about pregnancy and infertility treatment. Materials and Methods This study analysed the data of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from 2007 concerning assisted reproductive technologies. The participants represented the general Japanese population. We used this data to carry out multivariate analysis. The main outcome measures were adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression models for factors including the effect of pregnancy risk perception on the attitude toward gestational surrogacy. Results In this survey, 3412 participants responded (response rate of 68.2%). With regard to the attitude towards gestational surrogacy, 54.0% of the respondents approved of it, and 29.7% stated that they were undecided. The perception of a high level of risk concerning ectopic pregnancy, threatened miscarriage or premature birth, and pregnancy-induced hypertension influenced the participants’ attitudes towards gestational surrogacy. Moreover, this perception of risk also contributed to a disapproval of the technique. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a person who understands the risks associated with pregnancy might clearly express their disapproval of gestational surrogacy. PMID:24963363

  19. A review of brain-computer interface games and an opinion survey from researchers, developers and users.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Minkyu; Lee, Mijin; Choi, Jinyoung; Jun, Sung Chan

    2014-08-11

    In recent years, research on Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology for healthy users has attracted considerable interest, and BCI games are especially popular. This study reviews the current status of, and describes future directions, in the field of BCI games. To this end, we conducted a literature search and found that BCI control paradigms using electroencephalographic signals (motor imagery, P300, steady state visual evoked potential and passive approach reading mental state) have been the primary focus of research. We also conducted a survey of nearly three hundred participants that included researchers, game developers and users around the world. From this survey, we found that all three groups (researchers, developers and users) agreed on the significant influence and applicability of BCI and BCI games, and they all selected prostheses, rehabilitation and games as the most promising BCI applications. User and developer groups tended to give low priority to passive BCI and the whole head sensor array. Developers gave higher priorities to "the easiness of playing" and the "development platform" as important elements for BCI games and the market. Based on our assessment, we discuss the critical point at which BCI games will be able to progress from their current stage to widespread marketing to consumers. In conclusion, we propose three critical elements important for expansion of the BCI game market: standards, gameplay and appropriate integration.

  20. Current prescribing practices and opinions about growth hormone therapy: results of a nationwide survey of paediatric endocrinologists.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Dana S; Woo, Jason; Butsch, Robert; Huett, Beverley

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of several new treatment indications for recombinant hGH, endocrinologists are being asked to make some difficult decisions regarding eligibility for treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize prevailing attitudes about GH diagnosis and treatment among paediatric endocrinologists. We sent surveys to all active US members of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society (LWPES) listed in the 2004-05 directory (excluding our own group of physicians). Thirty-eight per cent of the surveys were returned and 182 met eligibility for analysis. Surveys were divided into four parts: demographic data, answers reflecting current diagnosis practices for GH deficiency and treatment with GH, attitudes and clinical practice for the idiopathic short stature (ISS) diagnosis, and four case studies. Through a series of questions, we elicited the influence towards prescribing GH of current height, growth velocity, predicted height, pubertal progression and other variables. Results were entered into a Microsoft Access database and statistical evaluation was conducted. Eighty-eight per cent of respondents answered 'no' to the statement that there is good consensus on who should be treated with GH and over 90% answered 'no' to the statement that secretagogue testing was the best way to determine if a child would benefit from GH. Factors listed by respondents as important for prescribing GH include: growth velocity less than the 25th percentile, target height less than the 5th percentile and pubertal stage greater than Tanner 2. Current height was also important; however, answers varied as to what height percentile indicated the need for treatment. When queried about prescribing practices for nonstraightforward cases, 62% of respondents answered that the cost of GH influenced their decision to treat, 55% responded that concerns of future unknown side-effects affected their decision and 37% noted family persistence influenced their decision. In response to

  1. Exploring the Use of information and communication technologies and social networks among university nursing faculty staff. An opinion survey.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Sánchez García, Ana Belén; López Montesinos, María José; Marqués-Sánchez, Pilar; Bayón Darkistade, Enrique; Pérez Rivera, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    This work sought to analyze the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and social networks among the university nursing faculty staff in Spain. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using a questionnaire on ICT skills designed to comply with the research objective, which was evaluated by experts and which was subjected to exploratory analysis of principal components; the reliability of this instrument measured with Cronbach's alpha was 0.85. The information technology tool used to publish the questionnaire on line was Limesurvey. The sample comprised 165 professors from 25 Nursing Faculties and Schools from universities in Spain. Seventy one percent of the total surveyed used internet services to look for information, 63% used the internet as a means for formation and learning, and 72% used it as a communication platform (e-mail and virtual platforms like Sakai and Moodle). Although 51% of the teaching staff surveyed had more than 120 students registered in their courses, hypothesis testing revealed that the number of students in class is not a determining factor for the teaching staff to have greater interest to update its knowledge in ICTs. Younger professors use new technologies more profusely and the most-valued advantage of using ICTs was quick access to information. Professors perceive that after the Bologna Declaration, which requires modifying their teaching-learning processes through the new teaching methodologies, a drop has been produced in their performance and that of their peers in their area of knowledge. The nursing teaching staff is making strong efforts to confront the new challenges posed by ICTs to train the professionals of the 21st century. It is fundamental to pay special attention to improving the university teaching staff's skills in managing ICTs, promoting the implementation of the knowledge acquired.

  2. Results of the 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys Conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoyer, Richard L; Truett, Lorena Faith; Cooper, Christy; Chew, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCT) conducts comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of fuel cells in diverse sectors of the economy - with emphasis on applications that will most effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment. Expanding the use of fuel cells requires a sustained education effort to lay the foundation for future commercial market introduction. The FCT education subprogram seeks to facilitate fuel cell demonstrations and support future commercialization by providing technically accurate and objective information to key target audiences both directly and indirectly involved in the use of fuel cells today. These key target audiences include a public that is familiar and comfortable with using a new fuel, state and local government officials who understand the near-term realities and long-term potential of the technology, an educated business and industry component, and trained safety and codes officials. With this in mind, the DOE FCT program established an education key activity to address the training and informational needs of target audiences that have a role in the near-term transition and the long-term development of a hydrogen economy. Whether or not changes can be attributed to the program, designing and maintaining an effective education program entails measuring baseline awareness and periodically measuring what has been learned. The purpose of this report is to document the data and results of statistical surveys undertaken in 2008 and 2009 to measure and establish changes in understanding and awareness about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies since a baseline survey was conducted in 2004. This report is essentially a data book, a digest of the survey data and an exposition of changes in knowledge of and opinions about hydrogen and fuel cell technology since 2004. Many conclusions can be made from the survey data. However, the

  3. A Survey of Italian Physicians' Opinion about Stem Cells Research: What Doctors Prefer and What the Law Requires

    PubMed Central

    Frati, Paola; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; D'Errico, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the Italian physicians' knowledge/information level about the therapeutic potential of stem cells, the research choice between embryonic and cordonal stem cells, and the preference between autologous and heterologous storage of cordonal stem cells, we performed a national survey. The questionnaire—distributed to 3361 physicians—involved physicians of different religious orientations and of different medical specialities. Most of the physicians involved (67%) were Catholics, and the majority were gynaecologists and paediatricians (43%) who are mainly in charge to inform future mothers about the possibility of cordonal stem cells conservation. The majority of the physicians interviewed do not have specific knowledge about stem cells (59%), most of them having only generic information (92%). The largest part of physicians prefer to use umbilical cord blood cells rather than embryonic stem cells. Nevertheless, a large percentage of physicians were in favour of embryo research, especially when embryos are supernumerary (44% versus 34%). Eighty-seven % of the physicians interviewed proved to have a general knowledge about stem cells and believe in their therapeutic potential. They prefer research on cordonal stem cells rather than on embryo stem cells. Although they are in favour of heterologous stem cells donation, they still prefer cryopreservation for personal use. PMID:24877099

  4. [The medical dissertation--no definitive model. Results of a survey about obtaining a doctorate contradict frequently stated opinions].

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, M; Strate, J; Pabst, R

    2003-12-05

    The relevance of medical dissertations is controversial in Germany. The "Wissenschaftsrat" (Science Council) of Germany even made the radical proposal of abolishing medical dissertations, in their present form, in the recently published "Guidelines on writing a thesis". Using a questionnaire with 22 items all students submitting their dissertations within one year at the Medical School in Hannover were asked to participate in a survey about the dissertation, supervision, time spent on it and publishing the results. The answers were evaluated statistically by explorative data analysis. A total of 232 questionnaires were evaluated, which is equivalent to a response rate of 87% (47% were women). A majority of 69% had prepared their thesis in a clinical institution. The supervision during various phases of the dissertation was graded as good. Altogether 90% thought that it had been personally worth-while. In 57% of cases the data of the dissertation had already been published and in 39 % of these cases the author of the dissertation was listed as first author of the publication. In agreement with former studies in German universities an overwhelming majority of 90% of respondents graded dissertations as a significant part of their medical studies, although requiring much additional time. They would recommend such a research phase to younger students as highly valuable. These results are in contrast to many repeatedly made statements.

  5. A survey of Italian physicians' opinion about stem cells research: what doctors prefer and what the law requires.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; D'Errico, Stefano; Sicuro, Lorella; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the Italian physicians' knowledge/information level about the therapeutic potential of stem cells, the research choice between embryonic and cordonal stem cells, and the preference between autologous and heterologous storage of cordonal stem cells, we performed a national survey. The questionnaire--distributed to 3361 physicians--involved physicians of different religious orientations and of different medical specialities. Most of the physicians involved (67%) were Catholics, and the majority were gynaecologists and paediatricians (43%) who are mainly in charge to inform future mothers about the possibility of cordonal stem cells conservation. The majority of the physicians interviewed do not have specific knowledge about stem cells (59%), most of them having only generic information (92%). The largest part of physicians prefer to use umbilical cord blood cells rather than embryonic stem cells. Nevertheless, a large percentage of physicians were in favour of embryo research, especially when embryos are supernumerary (44% versus 34%). Eighty-seven % of the physicians interviewed proved to have a general knowledge about stem cells and believe in their therapeutic potential. They prefer research on cordonal stem cells rather than on embryo stem cells. Although they are in favour of heterologous stem cells donation, they still prefer cryopreservation for personal use.

  6. Opinions on Dental Erosive Lesions, Knowledge of Diagnosis, and Treatment Strategies among Norwegian Dentists: A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mulic, Aida; Vidnes-Kopperud, Simen; Skaare, Anne B.; Tveit, Anne Bjørg; Young, Alix

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate dentists' general experience, knowledge about diagnosis, and treatment of dental erosive wear in young adults. A questionnaire was sent to 1262 Norwegian public dental health-employed dentists. The response rate was 60%. Results indicated that most dentists recorded erosive wear, half of them used a specific scoring system, and half registered lesions at the tooth surface level. Lesions were reported most often on palatal surfaces of upper anterior teeth (79% of dentists), on occlusal surfaces of lower 1st molars (74%), and on upper 1st molars (32%). Half the dentists used clinical photographs for documentation and 60% made study models. While 40% reported more erosive lesions in males, 36% reported no gender differences. High intake of carbonated beverages and acidic juices were reported as the most common cause by 97% and 72% of the dentists, respectively. Only 21% of dentists recorded the patient's dietary history, and 73% never measured saliva secretion. The majority (78%) of the dentists treated patients with erosive wear themselves. In general, the survey suggests that the dentists are relatively up to date regarding the clinical recording, diagnosis, and treatment of dental erosive wear. However, dietary and salivary analyses were not given priority, and early, preventive treatment was lacking. PMID:22927855

  7. Awareness of racial and socioeconomic health disparities in the United States: the national opinion survey on health and health disparities, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Booske, Bridget C; Robert, Stephanie A; Rohan, Angela M K

    2011-07-01

    Recent initiatives aim to improve public awareness of health disparities. However, little research has actually documented the US public's awareness of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic health disparities. We sought to determine 1) whether the US public is aware of racial, educational, and income disparities in health, 2) whether awareness differs across these disparity domains, and 3) what respondent characteristics are associated with awareness of racial, educational, and income disparities in health. We conducted the National Opinion Survey on Health and Health Disparities with 2,791 US adults. We asked respondents to answer questions about disparities in health between 1 of several pairs of population subgroups: African Americans versus whites, non-high school graduates versus high school graduates, high school graduates versus college graduates, the poor versus the middle class, or the middle class versus the rich. We used χ(2) tests and logistic regression to compare correlates of respondents' awareness of disparities across the different pairs of population subgroups. Most respondents were aware of health disparities between the poor and middle class (73%); fewer were aware of health disparities between African Americans and whites (46%). Although respondents recognized that education is associated with many positive life outcomes, they were less aware of the link between education and health. Respondents who were younger, less educated, lower-income, healthier, or politically conservative were less likely to be aware of health disparities. Public awareness of disparities in health differs depending on both the type of disparity and the characteristics of the individual respondent.

  8. A cross-sectional survey of Australian and New Zealand public opinion on methods totriage intensive care patients in an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Winston; Myburgh, John; McGuinness, Shay; Chalmers, Debra; Parke, Rachael; Blyth, Fiona; Seppelt, Ian; Parr, Michael; Hooker, Claire; Blackwell, Nikki; DeMonte, Shannon; Gandhi, Kalpesh; Kol, Mark; Kerridge, Ian; Nair, Priya; Saunders, Nicholas M; Saxena, Manoj K; Thanakrishnan, Govindasamy; Naganathan, Vasi

    2017-09-01

    An influenza pandemic has the potential to overwhelm intensive care resources, but the views of the general public on how resources should be allocated in such a scenario were unknown. We aimed to determine Australian and New Zealand public opinion on how intensive care unit beds should be allocated during an influenza pandemic. A postal questionnaire was sent to 4000 randomly selected registered voters; 2000 people each from the Australian Electoral Commission and New Zealand Electoral Commission rolls. The respondents' preferred method to triage ICU patients in an influenza pandemic. Respondents chose from six methods: use a "first in, first served" approach; allow a senior doctor to decide; use pre-determined health department criteria; use random selection; use the patient's ability to pay; use the importance of the patient to decide. Respondents also rated each of the triage methods for fairness. Australian respondents preferred that patients be triaged to the ICU either by a senior doctor (43.2%) or by pre-determined health department criteria (38.7%). New Zealand respondents preferred that triage be performed by a senior doctor (45.9%). Respondents from both countries perceived triage by a senior doctor and by pre-determined health department criteria to be fair, and the other four methods of triage to be unfair. In an influenza pandemic, when ICU resources would be overwhelmed, survey respondents preferred that ICU triage be performed by a senior doctor, but also perceived the use of pre-determined triage criteria to be fair.

  9. Nationwide survey of neuro-specialists' opinions on anticoagulant therapy after intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Koichiro; Koga, Masatoshi; Okada, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazumi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Okuda, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Furui, Eisuke; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kario, Kazuomi; Nezu, Tomohisa; Minematsu, Kazuo; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2012-01-15

    A nationwide survey was conducted regarding anticoagulant therapy in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) on warfarin with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). A questionnaire on standard therapeutic strategy for warfarin-related ICH in patients with NVAF was mailed to 416 institutes. A total of 329 physicians (79%) responded with a completed questionnaire. On admission, all respondents stopped warfarin medication and 94% normalized the international normalized ratio (INR) mainly by Vitamin K (63%), followed by fresh frozen plasma (20%), and prothrombin complex concentrate (10%). Afterwards, 91% of the respondents restarted anticoagulation and 3% used antiplatelet for prevention of thromboembolism, but the remaining 6% disagreed with restarting antithrombotic therapy. As contraindications for resuming anticoagulation, recurrent ICH (59%) and poor functional condition (59%) were often chosen. Of those who restarted anticoagulation, the timing was within 4 days in 7%, 5 to 7 days in 21%, 8 to 14 days in 25%, 15 to 28 days in 28% and 29 days or later in 18%. The major key finding on follow-up CT to restart anticoagulation was the absorption tendency of hematomas (47%). When restarting anticoagulation, 76% of the respondents used warfarin alone and 20% used either unfractionated heparin plus warfarin or heparin alone. A large majority of respondents responsible for ICH management stopped oral warfarin medication and normalized INR on admission, and restarted anticoagulation after acute ICH in patients with NVAF. However, the strategies to normalize INR and to restart anticoagulant therapy varied greatly and depended on each individual physician's decision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal Medicine Clerkship Directors' opinion regarding clinical input in the preclinical years: the 2002 CDIM basic science survey results.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kevin; Crespo, Lynn; Wallach, Paul; Elnicki, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Input from both basic science and clinical faculty members is needed to promote further integration of medical curricula. To assess current views of clerkship directors about the role and relationship of the basic sciences to clinical years in medical education. As part of the 2002 Annual CDIM Survey, questions regarding basic science curriculum were included; 89 of 123 CDIM members responded (72%). Overall, respondents felt participation from both basic science and clinical faculty members is necessary to define basic science course content. Nearly 89% of clerkship directors indicated curricular review should be collaborative and interdepartmental; 93% felt that this review effort should occur frequently. Supporting the growing philosophy that the structure of the preclinical years should involve increased clinically relevant integration, 58% favored an integrated organ system approach rather than the traditional departmental structure (18%). In addition, in order of ranking, respondents felt that small group (M = 2.0 +/- 0.9) and problem-based learning (M = 2.1 +/- 1.1) are better approaches than the standard lecture format (M = 2.8 +/- 1.2). Although clerkship directors recognized the need for increased clinical input in the preclinical years, many reported a lack of knowledge regarding the amount of clinical exposure students received in the basic science years (33%), frequency of peer review of the basic science courses (20%), and who performed peer review of the basic science courses at their institution (36%). Medical clerkship directors believe that basic science education should be developed collaboratively, organized by organ system, and presented in small groups.

  11. A survey of awareness, opinion and reported use of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) of the Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pitimana-Aree, Siriporn; Uerpairojkit, Ketchada; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Virankabutra, Tanit; Charuluxananan, Somrat

    2007-09-01

    Up to the present (2006), The Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand (RCAT) has proposed and revised six practice guidelines. For guidelines to achieve their objectives, anyone who gets involved needs to be aware of the guidelines, be able to accept, and adhere to them. Although the authors did introduce their guidelines by several passive means, the authors have not yet ascertained what the result were. The primary objective of the present study was to assess awareness, opinion, limitation, and reported use of guidelines. The secondary objective was to identify factors associated with variation, agreement, and reported use of guidelines. A cross sectional, self-report survey study was conducted. An anonymous questionnaire including prepaid-addressed reply envelopes was mailed to 600 anesthesiologists and 1,300 nurse anesthetists, nationwide, based on the college's list. The questions covered respondents' general characteristics: awareness, agreement, and reported use of the existing guidelines; opinion on implementation media, which guidelines the members need, their local guidelines, and the impact of guidelines on their practice. All data were extracted and reported using descriptive statistics. Multiple logistic regression was done to identify factors associated with an agreement with and a reported use of the guidelines. The overall response rate was 33.4% and nurse anesthetists had a higher response than anesthesiologists. Forty-six percent of the respondents were aware of the existing guidelines. This result corresponded to percentage of those who had read the guidelines (41%). Among the six existing guidelines, the least two guidelines reported use of and agreement with, were those for labor analgesia and conscious sedation (23-28%, 24-28%). The guidelines for spinal anesthesia received the most response (46%). For respondents who had read the guidelines, most of them (80% to 94%) rated the level of agreement and reported use as good to excellent

  12. Absorption of CIS Immigrants into Israeli Schools: A Semipermeable Enclave Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia; Sabar, Naama; Shoham, Edna; Shapira, Rina

    2001-01-01

    Examined how immigrants from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) assimilated into Israeli society and schools. Data from observations, interviews, and surveys indicated that educational policies and school arrangements, and CIS immigrants' high self-esteem, produced a semipermeable enclave. CIS students acquired the Hebrew language and…

  13. Absorption of CIS Immigrants into Israeli Schools: A Semipermeable Enclave Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia; Sabar, Naama; Shoham, Edna; Shapira, Rina

    2001-01-01

    Examined how immigrants from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) assimilated into Israeli society and schools. Data from observations, interviews, and surveys indicated that educational policies and school arrangements, and CIS immigrants' high self-esteem, produced a semipermeable enclave. CIS students acquired the Hebrew language and…

  14. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  15. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  16. Environment and Public Opinion in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichenor, P. J.; And Others

    Surveys conducted in Minnesota in 1969 and 1970 to obtain public opinion regarding environmental issues are discussed. Several generalizations are made about the state of public opinion about the environmental issue, as follows: (1) The environmental issue has reached public prominence through a sequence from professional and interest-group…

  17. Similarities and differences between stakeholders' opinions on using Health Technology Assessment (HTA) information across five European countries: results from the EQUIPT survey.

    PubMed

    Vokó, Zoltan; Cheung, Kei Long; Józwiak-Hagymásy, Judit; Wolfenstetter, Silke; Jones, Teresa; Muñoz, Celia; Evers, Silvia M A A; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; de Vries, Hein; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2016-05-26

    The European-study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco (EQUIPT) project aimed to study transferability of economic evidence by co-creating the Tobacco Return On Investment (ROI) tool, previously developed in the United Kingdom, for four sample countries (Germany, Hungary, Spain and the Netherlands). The EQUIPT tool provides policymakers and stakeholders with customized information about the economic and wider returns on the investment in evidence-based tobacco control, including smoking cessation interventions. A Stakeholder Interview Survey was developed to engage with the stakeholders in early phases of the development and country adaptation of the ROI tool. The survey assessed stakeholders' information needs, awareness about underlying principles used in economic analyses, opinion about the importance, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tobacco control interventions, and willingness to use a Health Technology Assessment (HTA) tool such as the ROI tool. A cross sectional study using a mixed method approach was conducted among participating stakeholders in the sample countries and the United Kingdom. The individual questionnaire contained open-ended questions as well as single choice and 7- or 3-point Likert-scale questions. The results corresponding to the priority and needs assessment and to the awareness of stakeholders about underlying principles used in economic analysis are analysed by country and stakeholder categories. Stakeholders considered it important that the decisions on the investments in tobacco control interventions should be supported by scientific evidence, including prevalence of smoking, cost of smoking, quality of life, mortality due to smoking, and effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and budget impact of smoking cessation interventions. The proposed ROI tool was required to provide this granularity of information. The majority of the stakeholders were aware of the general principles of economic analyses used in

  18. Personalised, predictive and preventive medication process in hospitals-still rather missing: professional opinion survey on medication safety in Czech hospitals (based on professional opinions of recognised Czech health care experts).

    PubMed

    Veselik, Zeno

    2014-01-01

    (1) to rationalise the hypothesis that risks and losses relating to medication process' errors in Czech hospitals are at least comparable with the other developed countries and EU countries especially, (2) to get a valid professional opinion/estimate on the rate of adverse drug events happening in Czech hospitals, (3) to point out that medication errors represent real and serious risks and (4) to induce the hospital management readiness to execute fundamental changes and improvements to medication processes. We read through a lot of studies inquiring into hospitals' medication safety. Then, we selected the studies which brought reliable findings and formulated credible conclusions. Finally, we addressed reputable Czech experts in health care and asked them structured questions whether the studies' findings and conclusions corresponded with our respondents' own experience in the Czech hospital clinical practice and what their own estimates of adverse drug events' consequences were like. Based on the reputable Czech health care expert opinions/estimates, the rate of a false drug administration may exceed 5%, and over 7% of those cause serious health complications to Czech hospital inpatients. Measured by an average length of stay (ALOS), the Czech inpatients, harmed by a false drug administration, stay in hospital for more than 2.6 days longer than necessary. Any positive changes to a currently used, traditional, ways of drug dispensing and administration, along with computerisation, automation, electronic traceability, validation, or verification, must well pay off. Referring to the above results, it seems to be wise to follow the EU priorities in health and health care improvements. Thus, a right usage of the financial means provided by the EC-in terms of its new health programmes for the period 2014-2020 (e.g. Horizon 2020)-has a good chance of a good result in doing the right things right, at the right time and in the right way. All citizens of the EU may

  19. Recent trends in the management of Graves' hyperthyroidism in Japan: opinion survey results, especially on the combination therapy of antithyroid drug and thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Sugawa, H; Kosugi, S; Ueda, M; Hai, N; Matsuda, A

    1997-08-01

    An opinion survey concerning the management of Graves' hyperthyroidism was conducted among the council members of the Japan Thyroid Association. The selection of 3 major treatments by 90 respondents for their patients was 98.6 +/- 4.2% for antithyroid drug (ATD), 7.8 +/- 12.6% for partial thyroidectomy and 5.2 +/- 8.1% for radioiodide. They expressed a movement away from the past trend of surgery because of postoperative complications and unsatisfactory therapeutic results, and they assumed a further reduction in the future. On the other hand, the frequency of radioiodide treatment was not considered to have decreased greatly, and they expected a slight increase in the future. Of the respondents, 65% suggested that hyperthyroidism should be completely cured even if the patient would fall into hypothyroidism. The major reasons for choosing surgery or radioiodide after ATD were the adverse effects of ATD and the age and social backgrounds of the patients. Large goiter size was the 3rd reason for surgery but was a minimal indicator for radioiodide. As for ATD treatment, none of the respondents reported the routine application of any uniform fixed-time therapy protocol. Japanese Graves' patients were shown to be less responsive to ATD than Caucasian patients. This was assumed to result at least from high iodide intake, and half of them had ordered their patients to restrict iodide intake. Furthermore, 78% of them had treated with a combined therapy of ATD and thyroid hormone. Most of them apply this for selected patients mainly to lower TSH receptor antibody activity, to better control their patients and to reduce the goiter size. All but 8 (9%) did not give T4 (or T3) after the cessation of ATD, and they felt this to be unnecessary, doubtful about the effect, unsuitable or even possible to induce recurrence. The excellent findings reported by Hashizume et al. (N Engl J Med 324: 947-953, 1991) are well known among them. However, most of them did not agree with the

  20. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 006 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF cis - 1,2 - DICHLOROETHYLENE and trans - 1,2 - DICHLOROETHYLENE ( CAS Nos . cis : 156 - 59 - 2 ; trans : 156 - 60 - 5 ; mixture : 540 - 59 - 0 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS )

  1. University Opinion Poll 8A: Bicycles on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ronald; And Others

    The University Opinion Poll conducted a two-stage survey of campus bicycle usage and opinions toward campus bicycle facilities. In the first stage, 952 persons, 78% of a random sample of students and staff reported their commuting habits and opinions about campus bicycle lanes. In the second stage, 139 persons, 84% of a sample of student and staff…

  2. Opinion Integration and Summarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yue

    2011-01-01

    As Web 2.0 applications become increasingly popular, more and more people express their opinions on the Web in various ways in real time. Such wide coverage of topics and abundance of users make the Web an extremely valuable source for mining people's opinions about all kinds of topics. However, since the opinions are usually expressed as…

  3. Public Opinion in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Alan D.

    The purposes of this book are to summarize and analyze the nature of public opinion in contemporary America and to examine the implications of that nature for the possibility of a functioning democracy. Material in the four sections covers the following topics: "The Study of Public Opinion: Political Theory and Methodology"--opinions and…

  4. Opinion Integration and Summarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yue

    2011-01-01

    As Web 2.0 applications become increasingly popular, more and more people express their opinions on the Web in various ways in real time. Such wide coverage of topics and abundance of users make the Web an extremely valuable source for mining people's opinions about all kinds of topics. However, since the opinions are usually expressed as…

  5. Caesium cis-tetrachloridodioxidorhenate(VII).

    PubMed

    Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Lis, Tadeusz

    2008-02-01

    The title crystal structure, Cs[ReCl(4)O(2)], consists of cis-tetrachloridodioxidorhenate(VII) anions and caesium cations. The distorted octahedral anion has nearly C(2v) symmetry, with a cis arrangement of the oxide ligands. The Re-Cl bond lengths for the Cl atoms trans to the oxide ligands are affected by the trans influence of the Re-O bonds and are longer than for the Cl atoms cis to the oxide ligands [average of 2.472 (2) A versus average of 2.322 (2) A, respectively]. There are ten Cl atoms from six cis-tetrachloridodioxidorhenate(VII) anions in the neighbourhood of the caesium cation.

  6. Retailer opinions about and compliance with family smoking prevention and tobacco control act point of sale provisions: a survey of tobacco retailers.

    PubMed

    Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-11

    The objectives of this study were to document retailer opinions about tobacco control policy at the point of sale (POS) and link these opinions with store level compliance with sales and marketing provisions of the Tobacco Control Act. This study conducted interviews of 252 tobacco retailers in three counties in North Carolina and linked their opinions with in-person observational audit data of their stores' compliance with POS policies. We conducted analyses examining retailer factors associated with noncompliance using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) controlling for individual, store, neighborhood, and county factors. Over 90 % of retailers support minors' access provisions and a large minority (over 40 %) support graphic warnings and promotion bans. Low levels of support were found for a potential ban on menthol cigarettes (17 %). Store noncompliance with tobacco control policies was associated with both more reported retailer barriers to compliance and less support for POS policies. Awareness of and source of information about tobacco control regulations were not associated with compliance when accounting for neighborhood and county characteristics. Retailers expressed some support for a wide range of POS policies. Advocates and government agencies tasked with enforcement can work with retailers as stakeholders to enhance support, mitigate barriers, and promote compliance with tobacco control efforts at the point of sale.

  7. Explaining opinion polarisation with opinion copulas

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    An empirically founded and widely established driving force in opinion dynamics is homophily i.e. the tendency of “birds of a feather” to “flock together”. The closer our opinions are the more likely it is that we will interact and converge. Models using these assumptions are called bounded confidence models (BCM) as they assume a tolerance threshold after which interaction is unlikely. They are known to produce one or more clusters, depending on the size of the bound, with more than one cluster being possible only in the deterministic case. Introducing noise, as is likely to happen in a stochastic world, causes BCM to produce consensus which leaves us with the open problem of explaining the emergence and sustainance of opinion clusters and polarisation. We investigate the role of heterogeneous priors in opinion formation, introduce the concept of opinion copulas, argue that it is well supported by findings in Social Psychology and use it to show that the stochastic BCM does indeed produce opinion clustering without the need for extra assumptions. PMID:28829802

  8. Results of the 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys Conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoyer, R. L.; Truett, Tykey; Cooper, Christy; Chew, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    This report presents results of a 2008/2009 survey of hydrogen and fuel cell awareness conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 2008/2009 survey follows up on a similar DOE survey conducted in 2004, measuring levels of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in four populations: (1) the general public, (2) students, (3) personnel in state and local governments, and (4) potential end users of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in business and industry. The 2008/2009 survey includes these four groups and adds a fifth group, safety and code officials. The same survey methods were used for both surveys; the 2008/2009 survey report includes a comparison of 2004 and 2008/2009 findings. Information from these surveys will be used to enhance hydrogen and fuel cell education strategies.

  9. The Davis Social Environment-1990: A Report of Student Opinions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Jane M.

    A study was done to examine student opinion of the social environment on the University of California Davis campus in Spring 1990 as a follow up to a similar study conducted in 1987. The study used the Student Opinion Survey and mailed it to a stratified random sample of 1,649 students. Of the surveys sent, 57.7 percent were returned. The…

  10. Evidence-Based Practice: a survey regarding behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers of Brazilian physical therapists from São Paulo state

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Tatiane M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Costa, Leonardo O. P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has been widely used by health professionals. However, no study in Brazil has investigated the data regarding the knowledge and difficulties related to EBP from a representative sample of physical therapists. OBJECTIVE: To identify behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers of Brazilian physical therapists from the state of São Paulo regarding EBP. METHOD: A customized questionnaire about behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers regarding EBP was sent by email to a sample of 490 physical therapists registered by the Registration Board of São Paulo, Brazil. Physical therapists who did not respond to the questionnaire were contacted by telephone and/or letter. The data were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: The final response rate was 64.4% (316/490). Because 60 physical therapists were no longer practicing, 256 answers were analyzed. The physical therapists reported that they routinely read scientific papers (89.5%) as a resource for professional development, followed by continuing education courses (88.3%) and books (86.3%). Approximately 35% of the respondents reported a clear understanding of the implementation of research findings in their practice; approximately 37% reported no difficulties in critically appraising scientific papers; and 67.2% strongly agreed that EBP is important for their practice. The most commonly reported barriers were related to difficulties in obtaining full-text papers (80.1%), using EBP may represent higher cost (80.1%) and the language of publication of the papers (70.3%). CONCLUSION: Physical therapists from São Paulo state believe that they have knowledge and skills to use EBP. Although they have favorable opinions regarding its implementation, they still encounter difficulties in implementing EBP successfully. PMID:26443977

  11. Survival of extreme opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Huang, Ding-wei

    2009-12-01

    We study the survival of extreme opinions in various processes of consensus formation. All the opinions are treated equally and subjected to the same rules of changing. We investigate three typical models to reach a consensus in each case: (A) personal influence, (B) influence from surroundings, and (C) influence to surroundings. Starting with uniformly distributed random opinions, our calculated results show that the extreme opinions can survive in both models (A) and (B), but not in model (C). We obtain a conclusion that both personal influence and passive adaptation to the environment are not sufficient enough to eradicate all the extreme opinions. Only the active persuasion to change the surroundings eliminates the extreme opinions completely.

  12. A Survey of the Attitudes, Opinions and Behavior of Citizens of Colorado with Regard to Library Services. Volume Five, Technical Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Market Research Services, Inc., Denver.

    The Colorado Council for Library Development commissioned a state survey to facilitate long range library planning. A survey was designed by Colorado Market Research Services, Inc. and directed to adults throughout the state to ascertain the information needs of the sample population. Citizens were queried as to the frequency of their library use,…

  13. Polymorphism of linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid) and alpha-linolenic acid (cis-9, cis-12, cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid).

    PubMed

    Ueno, S; Miyazaki, A; Yano, J; Furukawa, Y; Suzuki, M; Sato, K

    2000-10-01

    Crystallization and polymorphic properties of linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12-Octadecadienoic acid) (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (cis-9, cis-12, cis-15-Octadecatrienoic acid) (alpha-LNA) have been studied by optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The DSC analyses presented three polymorphs in LA, and two polymorphs in alpha-LNA. The XRD patterns of the higher- and lower-temperature forms in LA and alpha-LNA showed orthorhombic O'(//)+O-like and O'(//) subcell, which were similar to those of alpha- and gamma-forms of mono-unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. From the solvent crystallization of LA and alpha-LNA in acetonitrile, single crystals of the higher temperature polymorphs have been obtained. The crystal habits of truncated rhombic shape were also similar to those of alpha-forms of the mono-unsaturated fatty acids. The enthalpy and entropy values of fusion and dissolution of the alpha-forms of LA, alpha-LNA and oleic acid showed that the two values decreased with increasing number of the cis-double bond.

  14. Comparing Patients’ Opinions on the Hospital Discharge Process Collected With a Self-Reported Questionnaire Completed Via the Internet or Through a Telephone Survey: An Ancillary Study of the SENTIPAT Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    (P=.58 for discharge logistics organization, P=.12 for preplanned posthospital continuity-of-care organization, and P=.35 for patients’ impressions at the time of discharge). The total satisfaction score (median 0.83, IQR 0.72-0.92) indicated the patients’ high satisfaction. Conclusions The direct transmission of personal health data via the Internet requires patients’ active participation and those planning surveys in the domain explored in this study should anticipate a lower response rate than that issued from a similar survey conducted by telephone interviews. Nevertheless, collecting patients’ opinions on their hospital discharge via the Internet proved operational; study results indicate that conducting such surveys via the Internet yields similar estimates to those obtained via a telephone survey. The results support the establishment of a permanent dedicated website that could also be used to obtain users’ opinions on other aspects of their hospital stay and follow-up. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01769261; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01769261 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ZDF5bdQb). PMID:26109261

  15. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  16. Arabic-speaking migrants’ attitudes, opinions, preferences and past experiences concerning the use of interpreters in healthcare: a postal cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Good communication is an important prerequisite for equal treatment in a healthcare encounter. One way to overcome language barriers when patients and healthcare staff do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. Few previous studies have been found investigating the use of interpreters, and just one previous study from the perspective of European migrants, which showed that they perceived interpreters as a communication aid and a guide in the healthcare system as regards information and practical matters. No previous study has gathered quantitative information to focus on non-European migrants’ attitudes to the use of interpreters in healthcare encounters. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate Arabic-speaking individuals’ attitudes, opinions, preferences and past experiences concerning the use of interpreters in healthcare in order to: (i) understand how persons’ expectations and concerns regarding interpreters may vary, both within and across cultural/linguistic populations; (ii) understand the consequences of diverse opinions/expectations for planning responsive services; and (iii) confirm findings from previous qualitative studies. Method A postal cross-sectional study using a structured self-administered 51-item questionnaire was used to describe and document aspects of Arabic-speaking individuals’ attitudes to the use of interpreters in healthcare. The sample of 53 Arabic-speaking migrants was recruited from three different places. Participants were mostly born in Iraq and had a high level of education and were almost equally divided between genders. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results The main findings were that most of the participants perceived the interpreter’s role as being a communication aid and a practical aid, interpreting literally and objectively. Trust in the professional interpreter was related to qualification as an interpreter and personal contact with face

  17. [Opinions of Brazilian physicians on artificial fertilization from the ethics point of view].

    PubMed

    Meira, A R; Martins, A M

    1993-10-01

    An ethical opinion survey was carried out among Brazilian physicians regarding artificial insemination. The results showed no statistical difference between opinions of physicians from the various regions of the country.

  18. Surveys of Stroke Patients and Their Next of Kin on Their Opinions towards Decision-Making and Consent for Stroke Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Angamuthu, Nithia; Queck, Kian Kheng; Menon, Sumytra; Ho, Shu Swen; Ang, Elaine; De Silva, Deidre Anne

    2017-02-01

    Early initiation of stroke thrombolysis is associated with improved outcomes. Procurement of consent is a key factor in prolonging the door-to-needle duration. This study aimed to determine the attitudes and preferences of stroke patients and their next of kin (NOK) towards decision-making for stroke thrombolysis in Singapore. We surveyed acute ischaemic stroke patients (n = 171) who presented beyond the 4.5-hour therapeutic window and their NOK (n = 140) using a questionnaire with scenarios on obtaining consent for intravenous thrombolysis. In the patient survey, 83% were agreeable for their NOK to decide on their behalf if mentally incapacitated and 74% were agreeable for the doctor to decide if the NOK was absent. In the NOK survey, the majority (81%) wanted to be consulted before mentally capacitated patients made their decision; 72% and 74%, meanwhile, were willing to decide on behalf of a mentally capacitated and mentally incapacitated patient, respectively. In the scenario where a doctor recommended a mentally incapacitated stroke patient to undergo thrombolysis but the family declined, there was a near equal split in preference to follow the family's or doctor's decision in both the patient and NOK surveys. The survey found that in the decision-making process for stroke thrombolysis, there was no clear consensus on the preference for the decision maker of the mentally incapacitated patient. In Singapore, there is a strong influence of the NOK in decision-making for thrombolysis.

  19. Nigerian lawyers and reproductive health rights: a survey of knowledge, practices and opinions on law reforms among the bar and bench in north eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mairiga, Abdulkarim Garba; Geidam, Ado Dan'azumi; Bako, Babagana; Ibrahim, Abdullahi

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of practicing Nigerian lawyers towards issues relating to reproductive health and reproductive rights, and their opinions about abortion law reform. It was a population- based study which consisted of interviews with practicing lawyers in north-east Nigeria. The results showed poor knowledge of issues related to reproductive health and reproductive rights among the lawyers. However, the majority (56.9%) disagreed that a woman can practice family planning without the consent of her husband. The prevalence of contraceptive use among the lawyers was low and attitude to abortion law not satisfactory. Only few lawyers (22.4%) supported safe abortion in cases of failed contraception. We conclude that reproductive health advocates must target legal professionals with a view to educating them on issues relating to sexual and reproductive health and rights. Lawyers in Nigeria should undergo capacity building in reproductive health laws and be encouraged to specialize in reproductive rights protection as obtainable in other developed countries.

  20. Opinions concerning euthanasia, life-sustaining treatment and acceleration of death: results of an Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) survey.

    PubMed

    Catania, C; Zagonel, V; Fosser, V; La Verde, N; Bertetto, O; Iacono, C; Venturini, M; Radice, D; Adamoli, L; Boccardo, F

    2008-11-01

    Advance directives, acceleration of death, euthanasia and 'life-sustaining treatment' have sparked much heated debate among the media, the public, doctors and political leaders. We evaluate the personal opinions of Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) members. A 30-item questionnaire was developed and delivered to all 1,832 AIOM members. Six-hundred and eighty-five (37%) oncologists completed and returned the questionnaires. Sixty-three per cent felt culturally and psychologically prepared to face these issues. Fifty-four per cent believed that what had been decided while the patient enjoyed good health is no longer applicable in an advanced state of terminal illness. Thirty-nine per cent believed that doctors should abide by these directives, while 49% believed that this should be discussed on a case-by-case basis. Fourteen per cent of oncologists were favourable towards euthanasia and 42% only in particular circumstances. Fifty-six per cent had received at least one request for accelerating death: 15% consented, 50% discussed it with the patient and 31% refused. Advance directives, euthanasia, accelerated death and life-sustaining treatment represent considerable challenges for Italian oncologists. Although prepared to face these issues, AIOM members ask for a debate within the medical world and for a shared judicial regulation.

  1. The Development of a Community Survey To Measure Public Opinion Concerning the Implementation of a Continuous School Year Pilot Program, September-December 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, J. E.

    This report presents the results of a 1,044-person survey taken to determine public attitudes towards the concept of year-round schools in Guam. The study indicates the people of Guam will support a pilot 45-15 plan for two years in three elementary schools; and that variables such as sex, nationality, determination of leave schedules, and desire…

  2. Accountability for All: What Voters Want from Education Candidates. 2002 Public Education Network/"Education Week" National Survey of Public Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Editorial Projects in Education, Bethesda, MD.

    This report presents information from a national survey commissioned in January 2002 by the Public Education Network and Education Week. The poll examines the attitudes of American voters towards public schools and reveals what they want politicians to do about education once they are in office. Overall, Americans assign great value to public…

  3. A Report on Opinion Surveys of Parents, Students, and Staff of Four-Track Year-Round Schools in Cajon Valley, 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Sam

    Reported are results of surveys, during the 1987-88 school year, of parents, teachers, classified personnel, principals, and students in the four four-track, year-round schools in Cajon Valley (California). Cajon Valley Union is an elementary district with 19 elementary schools (16 are K-6 and three are K-5), one middle school (grades 6-8), and…

  4. Roles, Titles and Opinions of Selected State Extension Sheep Specialists, A Partial Summary of a Nationwide Survey. A Research Summary of a Graduate Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazzal, Najeeb T.; And Others

    This survey-type study had the following purposes: (1) to consider the sheep and Extension sheep situation and trends in the nation; (2) to gather information regarding titles and duties of sheep specialists; (3) to collect copies of available job descriptions; and (4) to identify some reasons why sheep numbers have continued to decline.…

  5. A Survey of U.S Adults’ Opinions about Conduct of a Nationwide Precision Medicine Initiative® Cohort Study of Genes and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Devaney, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A survey of a population-based sample of U.S adults was conducted to measure their attitudes about, and inform the design of the Precision Medicine Initiative’s planned national cohort study. Methods An online survey was conducted by GfK between May and June of 2015. The influence of different consent models on willingness to share data was examined by randomizing participants to one of eight consent scenarios. Results Of 4,777 people invited to take the survey, 2,706 responded and 2,601 (54% response rate) provided valid responses. Most respondents (79%) supported the proposed study, and 54% said they would definitely or probably participate if asked. Support for and willingness to participate in the study varied little among demographic groups; younger respondents, LGBT respondents, and those with more years of education were significantly more likely to take part if asked. The most important study incentive that the survey asked about was learning about one’s own health information. Willingness to share data and samples under broad, study-by-study, menu and dynamic consent models was similar when a statement about transparency was included in the consent scenarios. Respondents were generally interested in taking part in several governance functions of the cohort study. Conclusions A large majority of the U.S. adults who responded to the survey supported a large national cohort study. Levels of support for the study and willingness to participate were both consistent across most demographic groups. The opportunity to learn health information about one’s self from the study appears to be a strong motivation to participate. PMID:27532667

  6. The Community Intercomparison Suite (CIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson-Parris, Duncan; Schutgens, Nick; Cook, Nick; Kipling, Zak; Kershaw, Phil; Gryspeerdt, Ed; Lawrence, Bryan; Stier, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Earth observations (both remote and in-situ) create vast amounts of data providing invaluable constraints for the climate science community. Efficient exploitation of these complex and highly heterogeneous datasets has been limited however by the lack of suitable software tools, particularly for comparison of gridded and ungridded data, thus reducing scientific productivity. CIS (http://cistools.net) is an open-source, command line tool and Python library which allows the straight-forward quantitative analysis, intercomparison and visualisation of remote sensing, in-situ and model data. The CIS can read gridded and ungridded remote sensing, in-situ and model data - and many other data sources 'out-of-the-box', such as ESA Aerosol and Cloud CCI product, MODIS, Cloud CCI, Cloudsat, AERONET. Perhaps most importantly however CIS also employs a modular plugin architecture to allow for the reading of limitless different data types. Users are able to write their own plugins for reading the data sources which they are familiar with, and share them within the community, allowing all to benefit from their expertise. To enable the intercomparison of this data the CIS provides a number of operations including: the aggregation of ungridded and gridded datasets to coarser representations using a number of different built in averaging kernels; the subsetting of data to reduce its extent or dimensionality; the co-location of two distinct datasets onto a single set of co-ordinates; the visualisation of the input or output data through a number of different plots and graphs; the evaluation of arbitrary mathematical expressions against any number of datasets; and a number of other supporting functions such as a statistical comparison of two co-located datasets. These operations can be performed efficiently on local machines or large computing clusters - and is already available on the JASMIN computing facility. A case-study using the GASSP collection of in-situ aerosol observations

  7. Psychiatric Opinion and Homosexuality: A Short Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, R. F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    In a survey of opinion among 100 psychiatrists and 93 trainees in Australia, the majority endorsed the view either that "homosexuality is a developmental anomaly not necessarily or commonly associated with neurotic symptoms" or that "homosexuality is a normal variant like left-handedness." (Author)

  8. Psychiatric Opinion and Homosexuality: A Short Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, R. F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    In a survey of opinion among 100 psychiatrists and 93 trainees in Australia, the majority endorsed the view either that "homosexuality is a developmental anomaly not necessarily or commonly associated with neurotic symptoms" or that "homosexuality is a normal variant like left-handedness." (Author)

  9. Teachers' Opinions About Some Teaching Material Involving History of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Koop, Anthony J.

    1978-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was used to gauge the opinions of mathematics teachers about some history of mathematics materials recently developed for use in the classroom. Teachers' opinions of the materials were generally favorable, but a sizeable proportion responded that they would not use the material in their own teaching. (Author/MN)

  10. Assigned Positions for In-Class Debates Influence Student Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In-class debates are frequently used to encourage student engagement. Ideally, after researching both sides of the debate, students will form their own opinions based on what they have learned. However, in a large course of Environmental Science, opinions of students, when surveyed after the debate, were remarkably consistent with the position…

  11. Educators' Opinions about Speech-Language Pathology Services in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 628 educators examined opinions about the role and performance of school speech-language pathologists. Overall, responses indicated positive opinions about speech-language pathologist services, but some uncertainty about their roles with certain student groups and the adequacy of their training in behavior management, reading,…

  12. University Opinion Poll 9: Child Care, MPIRG, Lettuce. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ronald; And Others

    The University Opinion Poll conducted a survey of student opinion on issues related to University-sponsored day care, the role of the Minnesota Public Interest Research Group (MPIRG) and the University's policy on buying lettuce for its food services. Four hundred fifty-two respondents, 76% of a random sample of University of Minnesota students,…

  13. Survey of expert opinions and related recommendations regarding bridging therapy using hypomethylating agents followed by allogeneic transplantation for high-risk MDS.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sang Kyun; Moon, Joon Ho

    2015-08-01

    According to current guidelines on therapeutic strategies for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), cytoreductive therapies before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) are not widely recommended for patients with high-risk MDS or refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) who are eligible for allogeneic SCT because of controversial evidence on the role of such therapies. Yet, while treatment with hypomethylating agents (HMAs) has a critical limitation in eradicating MDS clones, the use of HMA treatment as a bridge to allogeneic SCT has become a focus with the hope of improving the SCT outcome based on the chance of achieving complete remission or reducing the blast percentage safely and effectively before allogeneic SCT. However, a consensus needs to be established on the use of HMAs as a bridging therapy for high-risk MDS or RAEB. Thus, the Korean AML/MDS working party group surveyed 34 Korean MDS experts on their bridging therapies for high-risk MDS. Accordingly, this paper presents the survey questionnaire and resulting data, along with a summary of the consensus and related recommendations regarding strategies using HMA treatment and allogeneic SCT based on reported studies and the current survey results.

  14. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    DOEpatents

    Drinkard, Jr., William F.; Long, Mark O.; Goozner; Robert E.

    1998-07-14

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  15. Low cost CIS device processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Başol, B. M.; Kapur, V. K.; Leidholm, C. R.; Roe, R.; Halani, A.; Norsworthy, G.

    1997-02-01

    CIS films were grown on soda-lime glass/Mo substrates using a low cost, non-vacuum technique. Morphology of the resulting layers was improved and solar cells with 12.4% total area efficiency were demonstrated on these films. A submodule of about 25 cm2 area was also fabricated with a conversion efficiency of 8.17%. Work is now in progress to grow films containing Ga and/or S and to take this technology to larger scale production.

  16. The Importance of Bone Mineral Density in Hip Arthroplasty: Results of a Survey Asking Orthopaedic Surgeons about Their Opinions and Attitudes Concerning Osteoporosis and Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kolbow, Kristina; Lazovic, Djordje; Maus, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Objective. In patients scheduled to undergo total joint arthroplasty of the hip, the bone quality around the joint affects the safety of prosthetic implantation. Bone strength is clinically assessed by measuring bone mineral density (BMD); therefore we asked if BMD is important to orthopaedic surgeons performing hip arthroplasty. Methods. In a 14-question survey, we asked about treatment patterns with respect to BMD, osteoporosis work-up, and treatment for patients with low BMD scheduled to undergo hip arthroplasty. Results. 72% of all asked orthopaedics reported to use cementless implants as a standard in hip arthroplasty. Over 60% reported that low BMD is a reason to reconsider operation strategies, but only 4% performed BMD measurement preoperatively. 26% would change their treatment strategy in case of a BMD (T-Score) between −1.5 and −2 and 40% in case of a T-score between −2 and −2.5, and 29% would change their intraoperative strategy if a T-score smaller than −2.5 was measured. Conclusion. The majority of orthopaedic surgeons who responded to the survey reported that they do not perform routine measurement of BMD before arthroplasty. However, most surgeons commented that low bone mineral density will influence their surgical plan and the implant design. PMID:27999686

  17. A national online survey of final year medical students' opinion on the General Medical Council's proposed reforms to the undergraduate medical assessment system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran Z; Sear, John W

    2007-09-01

    The General Medical Council (GMC) is holding consultations in order to decide on the proposed changes to the undergraduate medical assessment. In the last round of consultation only eight medical students formally responded nationally. To determine the views of a larger proportion of final year medical students across the country on the proposed changes to the undergraduate medical assessment. An online national survey of 10 medical schools, from which 401 responses from final year medical students were collected. The results indicate the medical students' views on the GMC's proposed changes to standardise the assessment system. The majority of the students were in favour of having a say in any changes to their future assessment. They agreed with the principle that there should be a consistency between assessments at different medical schools and currently their results did not represent preparedness to practice.

  18. A national online survey of final year medical students' opinion on the General Medical Council's proposed reforms to the undergraduate medical assessment system

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kamran Z; Sear, John W

    2007-01-01

    Background The General Medical Council (GMC) is holding consultations in order to decide on the proposed changes to the undergraduate medical assessment. In the last round of consultation only eight medical students formally responded nationally. Aim To determine the views of a larger proportion of final year medical students across the country on the proposed changes to the undergraduate medical assessment. Method An online national survey of 10 medical schools, from which 401 responses from final year medical students were collected. Results and discussion The results indicate the medical students' views on the GMC's proposed changes to standardise the assessment system. The majority of the students were in favour of having a say in any changes to their future assessment. They agreed with the principle that there should be a consistency between assessments at different medical schools and currently their results did not represent preparedness to practice. PMID:17823229

  19. Abundant raw material for cis-regulatory evolution in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockman, Matthew V.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in gene expression and regulation--due in particular to the evolution of cis-regulatory DNA sequences--may underlie many evolutionary changes in phenotypes, yet little is known about the distribution of such variation in populations. We present in this study the first survey of experimentally validated functional cis-regulatory polymorphism. These data are derived from more than 140 polymorphisms involved in the regulation of 107 genes in Homo sapiens, the eukaryote species with the most available data. We find that functional cis-regulatory variation is widespread in the human genome and that the consequent variation in gene expression is twofold or greater for 63% of the genes surveyed. Transcription factor-DNA interactions are highly polymorphic, and regulatory interactions have been gained and lost within human populations. On average, humans are heterozygous at more functional cis-regulatory sites (>16,000) than at amino acid positions (<13,000), in part because of an overrepresentation among the former in multiallelic tandem repeat variation, especially (AC)(n) dinucleotide microsatellites. The role of microsatellites in gene expression variation may provide a larger store of heritable phenotypic variation, and a more rapid mutational input of such variation, than has been realized. Finally, we outline the distinctive consequences of cis-regulatory variation for the genotype-phenotype relationship, including ubiquitous epistasis and genotype-by-environment interactions, as well as underappreciated modes of pleiotropy and overdominance. Ordinary small-scale mutations contribute to pervasive variation in transcription rates and consequently to patterns of human phenotypic variation.

  20. Abundant raw material for cis-regulatory evolution in humans.

    PubMed

    Rockman, Matthew V; Wray, Gregory A

    2002-11-01

    Changes in gene expression and regulation--due in particular to the evolution of cis-regulatory DNA sequences--may underlie many evolutionary changes in phenotypes, yet little is known about the distribution of such variation in populations. We present in this study the first survey of experimentally validated functional cis-regulatory polymorphism. These data are derived from more than 140 polymorphisms involved in the regulation of 107 genes in Homo sapiens, the eukaryote species with the most available data. We find that functional cis-regulatory variation is widespread in the human genome and that the consequent variation in gene expression is twofold or greater for 63% of the genes surveyed. Transcription factor-DNA interactions are highly polymorphic, and regulatory interactions have been gained and lost within human populations. On average, humans are heterozygous at more functional cis-regulatory sites (>16,000) than at amino acid positions (<13,000), in part because of an overrepresentation among the former in multiallelic tandem repeat variation, especially (AC)(n) dinucleotide microsatellites. The role of microsatellites in gene expression variation may provide a larger store of heritable phenotypic variation, and a more rapid mutational input of such variation, than has been realized. Finally, we outline the distinctive consequences of cis-regulatory variation for the genotype-phenotype relationship, including ubiquitous epistasis and genotype-by-environment interactions, as well as underappreciated modes of pleiotropy and overdominance. Ordinary small-scale mutations contribute to pervasive variation in transcription rates and consequently to patterns of human phenotypic variation.

  1. Abundant raw material for cis-regulatory evolution in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockman, Matthew V.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in gene expression and regulation--due in particular to the evolution of cis-regulatory DNA sequences--may underlie many evolutionary changes in phenotypes, yet little is known about the distribution of such variation in populations. We present in this study the first survey of experimentally validated functional cis-regulatory polymorphism. These data are derived from more than 140 polymorphisms involved in the regulation of 107 genes in Homo sapiens, the eukaryote species with the most available data. We find that functional cis-regulatory variation is widespread in the human genome and that the consequent variation in gene expression is twofold or greater for 63% of the genes surveyed. Transcription factor-DNA interactions are highly polymorphic, and regulatory interactions have been gained and lost within human populations. On average, humans are heterozygous at more functional cis-regulatory sites (>16,000) than at amino acid positions (<13,000), in part because of an overrepresentation among the former in multiallelic tandem repeat variation, especially (AC)(n) dinucleotide microsatellites. The role of microsatellites in gene expression variation may provide a larger store of heritable phenotypic variation, and a more rapid mutational input of such variation, than has been realized. Finally, we outline the distinctive consequences of cis-regulatory variation for the genotype-phenotype relationship, including ubiquitous epistasis and genotype-by-environment interactions, as well as underappreciated modes of pleiotropy and overdominance. Ordinary small-scale mutations contribute to pervasive variation in transcription rates and consequently to patterns of human phenotypic variation.

  2. [Opinion of the citizens, opinion of the officials].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    No government can survive without consulting the opinion of the governed. Even dictators cannot be completely ignorant of the needs and sentiments of the population. This truth applies as well in intimate aspects of life related to conscience and morality. Mexican federal and local legislators lack means of consulting the citizenry. Only a few localities have the type of procedures to determine the will of the electorate used in nations of long democratic tradition. Abortion and other matters of conscience should be subjected to referendum. At present, referenda are impracticable in Mexico. Reflecting the situation in secular society, the Catholic Church hierarchy lacks means of consulting that would at least temper the authoritarian condemnation by the Pope of contraception and birth control and the obsessive opposition to condoms, the best HIV preventive. It is difficult to gauge the true weight of the pope¿s influence in Mexico, but many lawmakers and authorities consider it definitive. The Church hierarchy neither consults the faithful nor listens to those within the Church who recommend modification of doctrines regarding reproduction. Surveys reveal that Catholic men and women use contraception, and women have obtained abortions without considering themselves outside the religious community. Legislators and officials should know what people really think, and citizens should be provided with information to enable them to form their own opinions.

  3. Public opinion on community-based education and exercise programs for managing hip and knee osteoarthritis-like symptoms: results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Aileen M; Palaganas, Marvilyn; Li, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In North America, delivery of targeted exercise and education programs by health professionals for people with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) poses challenges related to cost and access. Linking the wellness and health sectors could increase program availability. We evaluated if people with OA were willing to participate in programs delivered by trainers in community centers/gyms. Methods We conducted an online survey of the general public in Canada over a period of 2 months. Participants included those aged ≥30 years with self-reported chronic OA-like knee or hip pain. We evaluated access to community/fitness centers, exercise frequency, interest in attending an evidence-based program twice a week for 6 weeks, and willingness to pay. Analyses included descriptive statistics with 95% confidence intervals and chi-square tests to evaluate factors associated with willingness to attend the program. Results After removing duplicate records, 751 respondents completed the survey with 408 likely having hip and/or knee OA and never having received a joint replacement. These 408 respondents had an age range of 30 to ≥75 years and 86% were female. Of the 408, (63.7%) were between 45 and 64 years of age. Only two respondents reported that a community center was >1 hour away. One hundred and fifty-six (38%) reported a current membership, and 203 (50.4%) reported exercise 3 days/wk, 120 (29.8%) <3 days, and 80 (19.9%) reported no exercise. Two hundred and ninety-seven respondents (73.7%) were willing to attend a program, and, of these, 26% were willing to pay $100 Cdn or more. Age, sex, access to a community center/gym, current gym membership, and current frequency of exercise were not significantly associated with willingness to attend a program. Conclusion Almost 75% of respondents with OA, despite one in three having a community center membership, were interested in attending a targeted program delivered in community/fitness centers. A program in the

  4. Public opinion on community-based education and exercise programs for managing hip and knee osteoarthritis-like symptoms: results of a survey.

    PubMed

    Davis, Aileen M; Palaganas, Marvilyn; Li, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    In North America, delivery of targeted exercise and education programs by health professionals for people with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) poses challenges related to cost and access. Linking the wellness and health sectors could increase program availability. We evaluated if people with OA were willing to participate in programs delivered by trainers in community centers/gyms. We conducted an online survey of the general public in Canada over a period of 2 months. Participants included those aged ≥30 years with self-reported chronic OA-like knee or hip pain. We evaluated access to community/fitness centers, exercise frequency, interest in attending an evidence-based program twice a week for 6 weeks, and willingness to pay. Analyses included descriptive statistics with 95% confidence intervals and chi-square tests to evaluate factors associated with willingness to attend the program. After removing duplicate records, 751 respondents completed the survey with 408 likely having hip and/or knee OA and never having received a joint replacement. These 408 respondents had an age range of 30 to ≥75 years and 86% were female. Of the 408, (63.7%) were between 45 and 64 years of age. Only two respondents reported that a community center was >1 hour away. One hundred and fifty-six (38%) reported a current membership, and 203 (50.4%) reported exercise 3 days/wk, 120 (29.8%) <3 days, and 80 (19.9%) reported no exercise. Two hundred and ninety-seven respondents (73.7%) were willing to attend a program, and, of these, 26% were willing to pay $100 Cdn or more. Age, sex, access to a community center/gym, current gym membership, and current frequency of exercise were not significantly associated with willingness to attend a program. Almost 75% of respondents with OA, despite one in three having a community center membership, were interested in attending a targeted program delivered in community/fitness centers. A program in the wellness sector may be a viable option to

  5. The public acceptance of smallpox vaccination to fight bioterrorism in Japan: results of a large-scale opinion survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hajime; Tomio, Jun; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Iwasaki, Emiko

    2011-09-01

    This study examines the public acceptance of smallpox vaccinations in the event of a terrorist attack using smallpox. The article also provides public health professionals with the information necessary for such smallpox management. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a city in Japan asking about prospective action when smallpox vaccination is advised after a terrorist attack and factors that could influence individual decisions about such vaccination. Only a tiny fraction of people (0.12%) expressed their rejection of vaccination. Of the respondents, 63.6% showed their intent to be vaccinated promptly when such a measure was required; 28.6% wanted to decide for themselves, having some reservations. Those in the younger age group, those suffering from hypertension/cardiac diseases, and those who considered the threat of smallpox terrorism less seriously were likely to reserve their vaccination decisions until after examining information. Communication programs regarding smallpox vaccination should be well planned beforehand and should especially target those people who reserve their decisions at such times. Health professionals should also be well equipped with all information necessary for appropriate and effective smallpox management in the face of such a bioterrorism attack or the strong potential of one.

  6. Differences in Black and White Opinion on Important Issues of Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for New Black Leadership, Washington, DC.

    Drawing mainly on cross tabulations of some variables from the General Social Survey of the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research at the University of Connecticut, this paper reports black and white Americans' opinions on key issues of policy debate in the United States. In some cases, opinions are reported over a span as long as 22 years. When…

  7. Adult opinions about the age at which children can be left home alone, bathe alone, or bike alone: Second Injury Control and Risk Survey (ICARIS-2)☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Karin A.; Dellinger, Ann; West, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem This study describes adult opinions about child supervision during various activities. Methods Data come from a survey of U.S. adults. Respondents were asked the minimum age a child could safely: stay home alone; bathe alone; or ride a bike alone. Respondents with children were asked if their child had ever been allowed to: play outside alone; play in a room at home for more than 10minutes alone; bathe with another child; or bathe alone. Results The mean age that adults believed a child could be home alone was 13.0years (95% CI=12.9–13.1), bathe alone was 7.5years (95% CI=7.4–7.6), or bike alone was 10.1years (95% CI= 10.0–10.3). There were significant differences by income, education, and race. Discussion Assessing adult’s understanding of the appropriate age for independent action helps set a context for providing guidance on parental supervision. Guidelines for parents should acknowledge social norms and child development stages. Impact on Industry Knowledge of social norms can help guide injury prevention messages for parents. PMID:22974688

  8. Advanced research on cis-Neonicotinoids.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xusheng; Ye, Zhejun; Bao, Haibo; Liu, Zewen; Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Zhong; Qian, Xuhong

    2011-01-01

    cis-Neonicotinoids are a type of neonicotinoid, in which the nitro or the cyano group are in cis-configuration relative to heteroaromatic moiety, which show excellent activities against a range of insect species. This review covers cis-neonicotinoids with commercialization perspectives, structural optimization (phenylazoneonicotinoids and chlorothiazolyl analogues of Paichongding), modes of action studies, radiao-synthesis of Paichongding and Cycloxaprid, and photostability of neonicotinoids.

  9. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany - Experience of applicants with the review of requests for opinion of the Ethics Committees - results of a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA)

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Hagen; Busta, Susanne; Riedel, Axel; Zöllner, Gereon; Jost, Bertfried

    2009-01-01

    The review of requests for a positive opinion of the ethics committees (application procedure) as a requirement to start a clinical trial in Germany has been completely redesigned with the transposition of EU Directive 2001/20/EC in the 12th Amendment of the German Medicines Act in August 2004. The experience of applicants (sponsors, legal representatives of sponsors in the EU and persons or organizations authorized by the sponsors to make the application, respectively) in terms of interactions with the ethics committees in Germany has been positive overall, especially with respect to ethics committee adherence to the statutory timelines applicable for review of requests. However, inconsistencies between ethics committees exist in terms of the form and content of the requirements for application documents and their evaluation. With the objective of further improving both the quality of applications and the evaluation of those applications by ethics committees, a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA) was conducted from January to April 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective ethics committee in charge of the coordinating principal investigator (coordinating ethics committee), the type and frequency of formal and content-related objections to applications according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Regulation were systematically documented, and qualitative and quantitative analyses performed. 21 out of 44 members of the VFA participated in the survey. 288 applications for Phase I–IV studies submitted between January and December 2007 to 40 ethics committees were evaluated. This survey shows that about one in six applications is incomplete and has formal and/or content objections, respectively, especially those that pertain to documents demonstrating the qualification of the investigator and/or suitability of the facilities. These objections are attributable to some extent

  10. Distribution, biological activities, metabolism, and the conceivable function of cis-zeatin-type cytokinins in plants.

    PubMed

    Gajdosová, Silvia; Spíchal, Lukás; Kamínek, Miroslav; Hoyerová, Klára; Novák, Ondrej; Dobrev, Petre I; Galuszka, Petr; Klíma, Petr; Gaudinová, Alena; Zizková, Eva; Hanus, Jan; Dancák, Martin; Trávnícek, Bohumil; Pesek, Bedrich; Krupicka, Martin; Vanková, Radomíra; Strnad, Miroslav; Motyka, Václav

    2011-05-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are plant hormones affecting numerous developmental processes. Zeatin and its derivatives are the most important group of isoprenoid CKs. Zeatin occurs as two isomers: while trans-zeatin (transZ) was found to be a bioactive substance, cis-zeatin (cisZ) was reported to have a weak biological impact. Even though cisZ derivatives are abundant in various plant materials their biological role is still unknown. The comprehensive screen of land plants presented here suggests that cisZ-type CKs occur ubiquitously in the plant kingdom but their abundance might correlate with a strategy of life rather than with evolutionary complexity. Changing levels of transZ and cisZ during Arabidopsis ontogenesis show that levels of the two zeatin isomers can differ significantly during the life span of the plant, with cisZ-type CKs prevalent in the developmental stages associated with limited growth. A survey of the bioassays employed illustrates mild activity of cisZ and its derivatives. No cis↔trans isomerization, which would account for the effects of cisZ, was observed in tobacco cells and oat leaves. Differences in uptake between the two isomers resulting in distinct bioactivity have not been detected. In contrast, cisZ and transZ have a different metabolic fate in oat and tobacco. Analysis of a CK-degrading enzyme, cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX), reveals that Arabidopsis possesses two isoforms, AtCKX1 expressed in stages of active growth, and AtCKX7, both of which have the highest affinity for the cisZ isomer. Based on the present results, the conceivable function of cisZ-type CKs as delicate regulators of CK responses in plants under growth-limiting conditions is hypothesized.

  11. Decoding cis-regulatory systems in ascidians.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, Takehiro

    2005-02-01

    Ascidians, or sea squirts, are lower chordates, and share basic gene repertoires and many characteristics, both developmental and physiological, with vertebrates. Therefore, decoding cis-regulatory systems in ascidians will contribute toward elucidating the genetic regulatory systems underlying the developmental and physiological processes of vertebrates. cis-Regulatory DNAs can also be used for tissue-specific genetic manipulation, a powerful tool for studying ascidian development and physiology. Because the ascidian genome is compact compared with vertebrate genomes, both intergenic regions and introns are relatively small in ascidians. Short upstream intergenic regions contain a complete set of cis-regulatory elements for spatially regulated expression of a majority of ascidian genes. These features of the ascidian genome are a great advantage in identifying cis-regulatory sequences and in analyzing their functions. Function of cis-regulatory DNAs has been analyzed for a number of tissue-specific and developmentally regulated genes of ascidians by introducing promoter-reporter fusion constructs into ascidian embryos. The availability of the whole genome sequences of the two Ciona species, Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi, facilitates comparative genomics approaches to identify cis-regulatory DNAs. Recent studies demonstrate that computational methods can help identify cis-regulatory elements in the ascidian genome. This review presents a comprehensive list of ascidian genes whose cis-regulatory regions have been subjected to functional analysis, and highlights the recent advances in bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches to cis-regulatory systems in ascidians.

  12. Anisotropic opinion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neirotti, Juan

    2016-07-01

    We consider the process of opinion formation in a society of interacting agents, where there is a set B of socially accepted rules. In this scenario, we observed that agents, represented by simple feed-forward, adaptive neural networks, may have a conservative attitude (mostly in agreement with B ) or liberal attitude (mostly in agreement with neighboring agents) depending on how much their opinions are influenced by their peers. The topology of the network representing the interaction of the society's members is determined by a graph, where the agents' properties are defined over the vertexes and the interagent interactions are defined over the bonds. The adaptability of the agents allows us to model the formation of opinions as an online learning process, where agents learn continuously as new information becomes available to the whole society (online learning). Through the application of statistical mechanics techniques we deduced a set of differential equations describing the dynamics of the system. We observed that by slowly varying the average peer influence in such a way that the agents attitude changes from conservative to liberal and back, the average social opinion develops a hysteresis cycle. Such hysteretic behavior disappears when the variance of the social influence distribution is large enough. In all the cases studied, the change from conservative to liberal behavior is characterized by the emergence of conservative clusters, i.e., a closed knitted set of society members that follow a leader who agrees with the social status quo when the rule B is challenged.

  13. Anisotropic opinion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Neirotti, Juan

    2016-07-01

    We consider the process of opinion formation in a society of interacting agents, where there is a set B of socially accepted rules. In this scenario, we observed that agents, represented by simple feed-forward, adaptive neural networks, may have a conservative attitude (mostly in agreement with B) or liberal attitude (mostly in agreement with neighboring agents) depending on how much their opinions are influenced by their peers. The topology of the network representing the interaction of the society's members is determined by a graph, where the agents' properties are defined over the vertexes and the interagent interactions are defined over the bonds. The adaptability of the agents allows us to model the formation of opinions as an online learning process, where agents learn continuously as new information becomes available to the whole society (online learning). Through the application of statistical mechanics techniques we deduced a set of differential equations describing the dynamics of the system. We observed that by slowly varying the average peer influence in such a way that the agents attitude changes from conservative to liberal and back, the average social opinion develops a hysteresis cycle. Such hysteretic behavior disappears when the variance of the social influence distribution is large enough. In all the cases studied, the change from conservative to liberal behavior is characterized by the emergence of conservative clusters, i.e., a closed knitted set of society members that follow a leader who agrees with the social status quo when the rule B is challenged.

  14. Survey of egg farmers regarding the ban on conventional cages in the EU and their opinion of alternative layer housing systems in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Stadig, L M; Ampe, B A; Van Gansbeke, S; Van den Bogaert, T; D'Haenens, E; Heerkens, J L T; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-03-01

    On 1 January 2012, conventional cages for laying hens were banned in the European Union (EU); all egg farmers must now use alternative hen housing systems. In total, 218 Flemish egg farmers were surveyed in 2013 to 2014 regarding which housing systems they currently use, their degree of satisfaction with the system, and how they experienced the transition from conventional cages to an alternative system. The response rate was 58.3% (127 respondents). Of these, 43 (33.9%) were no longer active as an egg farmer, mainly due to the ban on conventional cages. The respondents who were active as egg farmers both before and after the transition (84, 66.1%) mainly judged the ban as negative for their own finances and for the competitive position of the Belgian egg industry, but were neutral or positive regarding the general consequences for their own business. Most respondents' hens were housed in either aviary systems (47.7%) or in alternative cage systems (38.2%). When choosing a new system, the fit into the farm and consumer demand were the most important factors. Consumer demand was the main reason for choosing a system with free-range access. In general, egg farmers were satisfied with the system they chose, although this differs between systems. When asked to compare the alternative systems to conventional cages, alternatives were judged to be better for hen welfare and consumer demand, but similar or worse for all other aspects, especially labor. Egg farmers previously using conventional cages judged alternative systems more negatively than those who had no prior experience with conventional cages. Farmers who had experience with free-range systems judged these more positively than those without this experience, e.g., for egg consumer demand, profitability, and hen welfare. These results can possibly be extrapolated to other EU countries in which conventional cages were the most common housing system until 2012, and lessons can be drawn from the farmers' experiences

  15. Senior Noncommissioned Officers’ APR Opinion Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    in any manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented...2 Average Rank Order of Rating Factors ............................... 7 3 Kendal Coefficient of Concordance Values for Rank Ordering of Rating...questionnaire was divided into four sections, The first section (Appendix A, Part I) dealt with demographic and personal information such u age, grade, sex

  16. Student Opinion Surveys at Northeastern University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajdek, Anthony J.; Kim, Sungwoo

    1999-01-01

    Presents the 15-year story of the student affairs research operation at Northeastern University, covering the initial buildup, the demise due to institutional downsizing, and the resurrection. (Author)

  17. Opinion Elicitation in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Marijn; Neviarouskaya, Alena; Prendinger, Helmut

    The paper describes a novel method for opinion elicitation, which is based on the popular 3D online world of “Second Life”. Here people, as avatars, are put into a somewhat realistic context related to the topic for which opinions are sought. We hypothesize that this kind of concrete, interactive context supports the evocation of opinions better than non-context methods, e.g. only showing related images. To confirm our hypothesis, we conducted a small pilot study, which compares the influence of static and interactive context methods on the opinions expressed by subjects. The opinion elicitation scenario in Second Life is supported by the automatic retrieval of opinions from the web. The results of a study indicate that subjects show more reasoned opinions in the interactive condition. A demo illustrating the content of this paper is available.

  18. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  19. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  20. West European public opinion on security: a comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation empirically explored the security opinion formation process within the British, French, and West Germany populations. Basic theory assumed two sources of security opinion. First, the actions and official statements of political elites furnish strong but transient influence in forming public attitudes, which, in turn, are a basis for opinions. Second, attributes predispose individuals to adopt attitudes, and thus opinions. The influence of attributes is less forceful than are elite cues, but attributes give some stability to opinion - attributes being immutable or slow to change. The analysis of the influence of attributes and attitudes on opinion was based on results of 1976-1982 public opinion surveys. The findings both supported the assumptions on the opinion forming roles of attributes and elite cues and addressed related issues of current interest. The probable security predisposition of the contemporary West European successor generation, an altered role for Europeans holding post material values, and the functional - as opposed to geographic - nature of the supranationalist attitude were among major topics addressed. The dissertation ends with a prediction on mid-term stability and change in the role and functioning of the Atlantic alliance.

  1. 78 FR 73238 - Currently Approved Information Collection: Comment Request for Customer Satisfaction and Opinion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... United States Mint Currently Approved Information Collection: Comment Request for Customer Satisfaction... United States Mint customer satisfaction and opinion surveys and focus group interviews. DATES: Written... satisfaction and opinion surveys will allow the United States Mint to assess the acceptance of,...

  2. Readership Surveys Build Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohle, Bob

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of students' opinions of their school newspaper. Lists four changes that were based on the survey results: (1) added emphasis on meeting students' personal interest needs, (2) increase in short feature and humorous stories, (3) more persuasive editorial and opinion pieces, and (4) increase in advertising benefits for…

  3. Plant growth inhibition by cis-cinnamoyl glucosides and cis-cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hiradate, Syuntaro; Morita, Sayaka; Furubayashi, Akihiro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Harada, Jiro

    2005-03-01

    Spiraea thunbergii Sieb. contains 1-O-cis-cinnamoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (CG) and 6-O-(4'-hydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-1-O-cis-cinnamoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (BCG) as major plant growth inhibiting constituents. In the present study, we determined the inhibitory activity of CG and BCG on root elongation of germinated seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), red clover (Trifolium pratense), timothy (Phleum pratense), and bok choy (Brassica rapa var chinensis) in comparison with that of two well-known growth inhibitors, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and (+)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid (cis-ABA), as well as two related chemicals of CG and BCG, cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA) and trans-cinnamic acid (trans-CA). The EC50 values for CG and BCG on lettuce were roughly one-half to one-quarter of the value for cis-ABA. cis-Cinnamic acid, which is a component of CG and BCG, possessed almost the same inhibitory activity of CG and BCG, suggesting that the essential chemical structure responsible for the inhibitory activity of CG and BCG is cis-CA. The cis-stereochemistry of the methylene moiety is apparently needed for high inhibitory activity, as trans-CA had an EC50 value roughly 100 times that of CG, BCG, and cis-CA. Growth inhibition by CG, BCG, and cis-CA was influenced by the nature of the soil in the growing medium: alluvial soil preserved the bioactivity, whereas volcanic ash and calcareous soils inhibited bioactivity. These findings indicate a potential role of cis-CA and its glucosides as allelochemicals for use as plant growth regulators in agricultural fields.

  4. Substrate influences on CIS device performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson-Elli, D.F.; Moore, C.B.; Gay, R.R.; Jensen, C.L.

    1994-12-31

    It has been reported that the substrate plays an active role in copper indium diselenide (CIS) devices. The physical properties of the substrate, i.e., thermal expansion coefficient, chemical composition, strain point, surface quality and cleanliness may all play a role in device efficiency and process reproducibility. For example, sodium is known to influence the conductivity of CIS, and that soda lime glass (SLG) introduces sodium into the CIS. In the experiments reported here, the sodium level in the CIS was varied by (a) changing the substrate composition and (b) the use of SiO{sub x}N{sub y} and SiN{sub x} barrier layers. Cells were fabricated on the candidate substrate and barrier layer combinations. V{sub oc} was observed to drop with the addition of barrier layers to sodium containing glasses. The films were also analyzed for sodium by SIMS. The cell performance and SIMS analysis are presented and their significance is discussed.

  5. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  6. Communications and Public Opinion: A Public Opinion Quarterly Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert O., Ed.

    The phenomenon of the close relationship between communication and public opinion is shown in this book to have played a major role historically in the measurement of support for political policies, officials, and candidates. The communications media influence public opinion and are subject to it; yet the precise nature and definition of public…

  7. University Opinion Poll 8C, Fall 1973. Research Bulletin, University of Minnesota, V14 N8 January 28, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, William

    The University Opinion Poll conducted a survey to obtain an estimate of student and staff opinion toward alcohol on campus. Four hundred seventy students and staff, 77% of a random sample of all students and staff at the University of Minnesota, were contacted for their opinions. Most respondents favor having alcoholic beverages on campus and…

  8. How Public Opinion is Formed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Edward M.

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the evolution of the definition of public relations by examining cultural and personal determinants of public opinion. Outlines functions of communicators and opinionmakers in forming and influencing public opinion. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park,…

  9. Teacher Transfers: A Survey of Teachers' Opinions on Factors Influencing Their Period of Stay in Schools with a Low Staff-Retention Rate. Studies in Rural Education No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamp, P. A.; Beck, T. M.

    One of the most powerful deterrents to teacher retention appears to be isolation, the fact of being geographically separated from communities to which they feel akin or from the amenities and services to which they are accustomed. This 1978 study, conducted with the limited objective of ascertaining teachers' opinions of the ways in which aspects…

  10. Coronavirus cis-Acting RNA Elements.

    PubMed

    Madhugiri, R; Fricke, M; Marz, M; Ziebuhr, J

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses have exceptionally large RNA genomes of approximately 30 kilobases. Genome replication and transcription is mediated by a multisubunit protein complex comprised of more than a dozen virus-encoded proteins. The protein complex is thought to bind specific cis-acting RNA elements primarily located in the 5'- and 3'-terminal genome regions and upstream of the open reading frames located in the 3'-proximal one-third of the genome. Here, we review our current understanding of coronavirus cis-acting RNA elements, focusing on elements required for genome replication and packaging. Recent bioinformatic, biochemical, and genetic studies suggest a previously unknown level of conservation of cis-acting RNA structures among different coronavirus genera and, in some cases, even beyond genus boundaries. Also, there is increasing evidence to suggest that individual cis-acting elements may be part of higher-order RNA structures involving long-range and dynamic RNA-RNA interactions between RNA structural elements separated by thousands of nucleotides in the viral genome. We discuss the structural and functional features of these cis-acting RNA elements and their specific functions in coronavirus RNA synthesis. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Photochemical trans-/cis-isomerization and quantitation of zearalenone in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Köppen, Robert; Riedel, Juliane; Proske, Matthias; Drzymala, Sarah; Rasenko, Tatjana; Durmaz, Vedat; Weber, Marcus; Koch, Matthias

    2012-11-28

    The emphasis of the present work was to investigate the photochemical conversion of trans- to cis-zearalenone in edible oils under real-life conditions. For quantitation purposes a cis-zearalenone standard was synthesized and characterized for its identity and purity (≥95%) by (1)H NMR, X-ray crystallography, HPLC fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection. In a sample survey of 12 edible oils (9 corn oils, 3 hempseed oils) from local supermarkets all corn oils contained trans-zearalenone (median 194 μg/kg), but no cis-zearalenone was detected. For alteration studies trans-zearalenone contaminated corn oils were exposed to sunlight over 4 and 30 weeks, revealing an obvious shift toward cis-zearalenone up to a cis/trans ratio of 9:1 by storage in colorless glass bottles. Irradiation experiments of trans-zearalenone in different organic solvents confirmed the preferred formation of cis-zearalenone possibly caused by entropic effects rather than by enthalpic entities as investigated by quantum chemical and classical force field simulations.

  12. Advances in the CIS research at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.; Bhattacharya, R.N.; Granata, J.; Webb, J.; Niles, D.; Contreras, M.A.; Wiesner, H.; Hasoon, F.S.; Noufi, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the research of the CIS Team at NREL in three major areas: absorber deposition; understanding the role of chemical bath deposited (CBD) CdS in CIS junctions; and in the development of devices without CdS. Low cost, scaleable processes chosen for absorber fabrication include sputtering, electrodeposition (ED), and close spaced sublimation (CSS). The interaction between the CBD and the CIS has been investigated and the results show that Cd might be instrumental in shaping the interface. The authors have also developed a process to fabricate a 13.5% efficiency ZnO/CuInGaSe{sub 2} device without CdS or other buffer layers.

  13. Cis and Trans Isomers of Cycloalkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H.

    2005-09-01

    As a rule, a trans disubstituted alkene is more stable than the corresponding cis isomer. For cycloalkenes of fewer than eleven members, cis isomers are more stable than their trans counterparts. Although this exception to the normal rule is occasionally noted in beginning organic chemistry textbooks, it is often done without a careful analysis of the reasons behind it. The purpose of this article is to provide that analysis. In order for a cycloalkene to accommodate a trans double bond one or more of the following nonideal geometries must occur: a twisted π bond; pyramidal sp 2 -carbon atoms; nonideal sp 3 bond angles; or longer than normal C C single and double bonds. This article provides a list of experimentally determined relative energies of the cis and trans isomers within the series cycloheptene cycloundecene, along with computationally derived energies at several levels of theory. It also examines the geometric distortions through which cycloalkenes relieve the strain introduced by a trans double bond.

  14. Chefs' opinions of restaurant portion sizes.

    PubMed

    Condrasky, Marge; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Flood, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-08-01

    The objectives were to determine who establishes restaurant portion sizes and factors that influence these decisions, and to examine chefs' opinions regarding portion size, nutrition information, and weight management. A survey was distributed to chefs to obtain information about who is responsible for determining restaurant portion sizes, factors influencing restaurant portion sizes, what food portion sizes are being served in restaurants, and chefs' opinions regarding nutrition information, health, and body weight. The final sample consisted of 300 chefs attending various culinary meetings. Executive chefs were identified as being primarily responsible for establishing portion sizes served in restaurants. Factors reported to have a strong influence on restaurant portion sizes included presentation of foods, food cost, and customer expectations. While 76% of chefs thought that they served "regular" portions, the actual portions of steak and pasta they reported serving were 2 to 4 times larger than serving sizes recommended by the U.S government. Chefs indicated that they believe that the amount of food served influences how much patrons consume and that large portions are a problem for weight control, but their opinions were mixed regarding whether it is the customer's responsibility to eat an appropriate amount when served a large portion of food. Portion size is a key determinant of energy intake, and the results from this study suggest that cultural norms and economic value strongly influence the determination of restaurant portion sizes. Strategies are needed to encourage chefs to provide and promote portions that are appropriate for customers' energy requirements.

  15. Public opinion and purchasing.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, A.; Charny, M.; Hanmer-Lloyd, S.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To explore the use of a questionnaire to obtain representative public opinions on health services. To examine residents' priorities, knowledge, and views on the public's role in decision making. DESIGN--Self administered postal questionnaire. POPULATION--Random sample of 1500 residents in Bath District Health Authority, drawn from electoral registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Levels of agreement or disagreement with statements provided and degree of importance given to services and aspects of services. RESULTS--70 questionnaires were returned unopened. Completed questionnaires were returned by 704 (49.2%) of the 1430 remaining residents. Kidney dialysis was thought very important by 559 (87%) respondents and family planning by only 58 (9%). Public priorities did not seem to reflect value for money. Clear information about treatment was rated as very important by 530 (76%) and comfortable waiting areas by 70 (10%). 372 (53%) of respondents said that they would definitely travel to a hospital outside the district to reduce their wait for surgery. Knowledge of the services provided by the authority and the money available to it was poor. 446 (65%) respondents wanted greater public involvement in decision making. CONCLUSIONS--A postal questionnaire can provide useful information about public priorities and perceptions about the services provided. More information about health services and their costs and benefits should be given to the public to assist greater public participation in decision making. PMID:1571639

  16. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  17. Leader's opinion priority bounded confidence model for network opinion evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meixia; Xie, Guangqiang

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the weight of trust someone given to participate in the interaction in Hegselmann-Krause's type consensus model is the same and virtual social networks among individuals with different level of education, personal influence, etc. For differences between agents, a novelty bounded confidence model was proposed with leader's opinion considered priority. Interaction neighbors can be divided into two kinds. The first kind is made up of "opinion leaders" group, another kind is made up of ordinary people. For different groups to give different weights of trust. We also analyzed the related characteristics of the new model under the symmetrical bounded confidence parameters and combined with the classical HK model were analyzed. Simulation experiment results show that no matter the network size and initial view is subject to uniform distribution or discrete distribution. We can control the "opinion-leader" good change the number of views and values, and even improve the convergence speed. Experiment also found that the choice of "opinion leaders" is not the more the better, the model well explain how the "opinion leader" in the process of the evolution of the public opinion play the role of the leader.

  18. Cis-regulatory mutations in human disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Cis-acting regulatory sequences are required for the proper temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Variation in gene expression is highly heritable and a significant determinant of human disease susceptibility. The diversity of human genetic diseases attributed, in whole or in part, to mutations in non-coding regulatory sequences is on the rise. Improvements in genome-wide methods of associating genetic variation with human disease and predicting DNA with cis-regulatory potential are two of the major reasons for these recent advances. This review will highlight select examples from the literature that have successfully integrated genetic and genomic approaches to uncover the molecular basis by which cis-regulatory mutations alter gene expression and contribute to human disease. The fine mapping of disease-causing variants has led to the discovery of novel cis-acting regulatory elements that, in some instances, are located as far away as 1.5 Mb from the target gene. In other cases, the prior knowledge of the regulatory landscape surrounding the gene of interest aided in the selection of enhancers for mutation screening. The success of these studies should provide a framework for following up on the large number of genome-wide association studies that have identified common variants in non-coding regions of the genome that associate with increased risk of human diseases including, diabetes, autism, Crohn's, colorectal cancer, and asthma, to name a few. PMID:19641089

  19. Cis-regulatory mutations in human disease.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Douglas J

    2009-07-01

    Cis-acting regulatory sequences are required for the proper temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Variation in gene expression is highly heritable and a significant determinant of human disease susceptibility. The diversity of human genetic diseases attributed, in whole or in part, to mutations in non-coding regulatory sequences is on the rise. Improvements in genome-wide methods of associating genetic variation with human disease and predicting DNA with cis-regulatory potential are two of the major reasons for these recent advances. This review will highlight select examples from the literature that have successfully integrated genetic and genomic approaches to uncover the molecular basis by which cis-regulatory mutations alter gene expression and contribute to human disease. The fine mapping of disease-causing variants has led to the discovery of novel cis-acting regulatory elements that, in some instances, are located as far away as 1.5 Mb from the target gene. In other cases, the prior knowledge of the regulatory landscape surrounding the gene of interest aided in the selection of enhancers for mutation screening. The success of these studies should provide a framework for following up on the large number of genome-wide association studies that have identified common variants in non-coding regions of the genome that associate with increased risk of human diseases including, diabetes, autism, Crohn's, colorectal cancer, and asthma, to name a few.

  20. Alport syndrome: facts and opinions

    PubMed Central

    Kashtan, Clifford

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, I review recent advances in Alport syndrome genetics, diagnostics, and therapeutics. I also offer some opinions regarding strategies to optimize the early identification of affected individuals to promote early therapeutic intervention. PMID:28163907

  1. Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Scientific Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Allan

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of media coverage and public opinion in scientific controversy. A survey of coverage of controversies arising regarding sociobiology, water fluoridation, nuclear power and the Three Mile Island disaster indicates that the media play an active role in shaping and constructing controversy rather than just reporting it. (JMF)

  2. Interest group opinions about fuel reduction in southern Appalachia

    Treesearch

    Carin E. Vadala; Robert D. Bixler; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2013-01-01

    Opinions of interested publics and interest groups (n = 640) about fuel reduction (FR) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains were investigated through social survey using both pictorial and written questions. The study identified three discrete groups based on knowledge of forest history in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, attitudes toward social and ecological...

  3. Class Teacher Candidates' Opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ural Keles, Pinar; Aydin, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Class teacher candidates' opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms. The study was carried out with 101 teacher candidates who were studying in the 3rd grade of Agri Ibrahim Çeçen University Classroom Teacher Department in 2016-2017 academic year. Of the students who participated in the survey, 56 were…

  4. The Misperception of Public Opinion Toward Capital Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarrell, Edmund F.; Sandys, Marla

    1996-01-01

    Contends that often lawmakers misread their constituents' opinions on important issues. Presents data from an Indiana survey that suggest support for the death penalty vanishes when citizens are given the option of life in prison without possibility of parole combined with a requirement of work and restitution. (MJP)

  5. The Misperception of Public Opinion Toward Capital Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarrell, Edmund F.; Sandys, Marla

    1996-01-01

    Contends that often lawmakers misread their constituents' opinions on important issues. Presents data from an Indiana survey that suggest support for the death penalty vanishes when citizens are given the option of life in prison without possibility of parole combined with a requirement of work and restitution. (MJP)

  6. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Professional Opinion Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, Elizabeth J.; Hughes, Anne K.; Hayward, R. Anna; Parker, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    The Professional Opinion Scale (POS) was developed to measure social work values orientation. Objective: A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the POS. Method: This cross-sectional study used a mailed survey design with a national random (simple) sample of members of the National Association of Social Workers. Results: The study…

  7. Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions on Teaching Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan; Karsantik, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' opinions on teaching thinking skills. 134 senior pre-service pre-school, English and mathematics teachers studying at a state university in Istanbul participated in the study which is designed based on survey model. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was…

  8. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  9. Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Scientific Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Allan

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of media coverage and public opinion in scientific controversy. A survey of coverage of controversies arising regarding sociobiology, water fluoridation, nuclear power and the Three Mile Island disaster indicates that the media play an active role in shaping and constructing controversy rather than just reporting it. (JMF)

  10. Teachers' Opinions about the Use of Body Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzer, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…

  11. Opinions on Marijuana: Sex Differences at a Western Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Hugh

    1972-01-01

    College freshmen were surveyed to determine their opinions regarding marijuana. Analysis of the data showed that male students in all cases were ahead of female students in exploring the marijuana sub-culture. The data provides a basis for judging future trends in this controversial area of student life. (Author)

  12. Speech-Language Pathologists' Opinions on Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie; Mohling, Sara; Stremlau, Aliza

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the opinions of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) on response to intervention (RTI). Questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 randomly selected elementary and secondary SLPs throughout the United States. Mean results of 583 respondents (29.15%) indicated that SLPs agreed on 37 Likert-type items and responded…

  13. Teachers' Opinions about the Use of Body Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzer, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…

  14. Speech-Language Pathologists' Opinions on Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie; Mohling, Sara; Stremlau, Aliza

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the opinions of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) on response to intervention (RTI). Questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 randomly selected elementary and secondary SLPs throughout the United States. Mean results of 583 respondents (29.15%) indicated that SLPs agreed on 37 Likert-type items and responded…

  15. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of cis-p-menth-8-ene-1,7-diol, cis-p-menthane-1,7-diol, and cis-p-menthane-1,7,8-triol.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Christoph; Effenberger, Franz

    2005-04-22

    The natural products cis-p-menthane-1,7-diol (cis-IV), cis-p-menth-8-ene-1,7-diol (cis-I) and cis-p-menthane-1,7,8-triol (cis-II) are obtained starting from the corresponding cis-cyanohydrins, cis-2 and cis-7, respectively, by chemical transformation of the cyano into the hydroxymethyl group. The key step of the synthesis is the very high cis-selectivity (> or = 96 %) of the MeHNL-catalyzed HCN addition to 4-alkylcyclohexanones. From 4-isopropylcyclohexanone (1) the cyanohydrin cis-2 and from 4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexanone (6) the cyanohydrin cis-7 result almost quantitatively. Regioselective hydroxylation of cis-I affords the triol cis-II. X-ray crystal structure determinations of the final products confirm their cis-configuration.

  17. Examining Student Opinions on Computer Use Based on the Learning Styles in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Kemal; Bindak, Recep

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the opinions of high school students, who have different learning styles, related to computer use in mathematics education. High school students' opinions on computer use in mathematics education were collected with both qualitative and quantitative approaches in the study conducted with a survey model. For…

  18. Determining Attitudes and Opinions of Adjunct Instructors Who Teach Online and in Traditional Classroom Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    The attitudes and opinions of a selected sample of adjunct instructors toward their academic standings in their profession along with their opinions of the efficacy of online instructional teaching as opposed to the traditional classroom environment were examined in this study. An email survey and recorded interviews were used to collect the data.…

  19. Ethical Issues in the Study of Bereavement: The Opinions of Bereaved Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Andrea M.; Konnert, Candace A.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies examine ethical issues in bereavement research and none survey the opinions of bereaved individuals who have not previously participated in bereavement research. This study examined the theoretical opinions of bereaved adults about ethical issues such as attitudes toward bereavement research, timing and methods of recruitment, and…

  20. Teachers' Opinions of Student Dropout from Formal Music Education Centres of the Canary Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo Socorro, Sonia; Escandell Bermúdez, María Olga; Castro Sánchez, José Juan

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-five teachers were surveyed to determine their opinion of student dropout from formal music centres in the Canary Islands. The goal of the study was to investigate the causes of dropout and strategies to prevent it. Teachers' opinions were collected by means of a questionnaire. The influence of the environment on the…

  1. Parent and Teacher Opinions of Eight Different Ways of Thinking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maycock, George

    2017-01-01

    Parents and teachers at seven elementary schools were surveyed to determine their opinions of the importance of Gardner's eight different ways of thinking and learning. Parent and teacher opinions were highest in the four areas of logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, linguistic and interpersonal, which were all rated very important. Next in…

  2. Faculty Opinions on the Use of Master's Degree End of Program Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Susan K.; Snead, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Library and Information Studies (LIS) faculty members responded to a survey of their opinions on the use, advantages, and disadvantages of a variety of end of program assessments (EPAs) in LIS master's programs. Portfolio was the most widely preferred top choice for EPAs, but opinions ranged from preference for no EPA to preference for a…

  3. The Vocational Homemaking Teacher Opinion Leader as a Referent in the Communication of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Frances Yoakam

    To investigate the feasibility of using opinion leaders to introduce new ideas in vocational homemaking, 124 vocational homemaking teachers and three regional supervisors of three representative regions in Ohio were surveyed by group-interview technique to determine if vocational homemaking opinion leaders were selected as sources of advice and…

  4. Teachers' Opinions of Student Dropout from Formal Music Education Centres of the Canary Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo Socorro, Sonia; Escandell Bermúdez, María Olga; Castro Sánchez, José Juan

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-five teachers were surveyed to determine their opinion of student dropout from formal music centres in the Canary Islands. The goal of the study was to investigate the causes of dropout and strategies to prevent it. Teachers' opinions were collected by means of a questionnaire. The influence of the environment on the…

  5. Dynamical model for competing opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, S. R.; Gonçalves, S.

    2012-05-01

    We propose an opinion model based on agents located at the vertices of a regular lattice. Each agent has an independent opinion (among an arbitrary, but fixed, number of choices) and its own degree of conviction. The latter changes every time two agents which have different opinions interact with each other. The dynamics leads to size distributions of clusters (made up of agents which have the same opinion and are located at contiguous spatial positions) which follow a power law, as long as the range of the interaction between the agents is not too short; i.e., the system self-organizes into a critical state. Short range interactions lead to an exponential cutoff in the size distribution and to spatial correlations which cause agents which have the same opinion to be closely grouped. When the diversity of opinions is restricted to two, a nonconsensus dynamic is observed, with unequal population fractions, whereas consensus is reached if the agents are also allowed to interact with those located far from them. The individual agents' convictions, the preestablished interaction range, and the locality of the interaction between a pair of agents (their neighborhood has no effect on the interaction) are the main characteristics which distinguish our model from previous ones.

  6. Second opinion in breast pathology: policy, practice and perception.

    PubMed

    Geller, Berta M; Nelson, Heidi D; Carney, Patricia A; Weaver, Donald L; Onega, Tracy; Allison, Kimberly H; Frederick, Paul D; Tosteson, Anna N A; Elmore, Joann G

    2014-11-01

    To assess the laboratory policies, pathologists' clinical practice and perceptions about the value of second opinions for breast pathology cases among pathologists practising in the USA. Cross-sectional data were collected from 252 pathologists who interpret breast specimens in eight states using a web-based survey. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise findings. Most participants had >10 years of experience interpreting breast specimens (64%), were not affiliated with academic centres (73%) and were not considered experts by their peers (79%). Laboratory policies mandating second opinions varied by diagnosis: invasive cancer 65%; ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) 56%; atypical ductal hyperplasia 36% and other benign cases 33%. 81% obtained second opinions in the absence of policies. Participants believed they improve diagnostic accuracy (96%) and protect from malpractice suits (83%), and were easy to obtain, did not take too much time and did not make them look less adequate. The most common (60%) approach to resolving differences between the first and second opinion is to ask for a third opinion, followed by reaching a consensus. Laboratory-based second opinion policies vary for breast pathology but are most common for invasive cancer and DCIS cases. Pathologists have favourable attitudes towards second opinions, adhere to policies and obtain them even when policies are absent. Those without a formal policy may benefit from supportive clinical practices and systems that help obtain second opinions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Are extinction opinions extinct?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Extinction models vary in the information they require, the simplest considering the rate of certain sightings only. More complicated methods include uncertain sightings and allow for variation in the reliability of uncertain sightings. Generally extinction models require expert opinion, either as a prior belief that a species is extinct, or to establish the quality of a sighting record, or both. Is this subjectivity necessary? We present two models to explore whether the individual quality of sightings, judged by experts, is strongly informative of the probability of extinction: the ‘quality breakpoint method’ and the ‘quality as variance method’. For the first method we use the Barbary lion as an exemplar. For the second method we use the Barbary lion, Alaotra grebe, Jamaican petrel and Pohnpei starling as exemplars. The ‘quality breakpoint method’ uses certain and uncertain sighting records, and the quality of uncertain records, to establish whether a change point in the rate of sightings can be established using a simultaneous Bayesian optimisation with a non-informative prior. For the Barbary lion, there is a change in subjective quality of sightings around 1930. Unexpectedly sighting quality increases after this date. This suggests that including quality scores from experts can lead to irregular effects and may not offer reliable results. As an alternative, we use quality as a measure of variance around the sightings, not a change in quality. This leads to predictions with larger standard deviations, however the results remain consistent across any prior belief of extinction. Nonetheless, replacing actual quality scores with random quality scores showed little difference, inferring that the quality scores from experts are superfluous. Therefore, we deem the expensive process of obtaining pooled expert estimates as unnecessary, and even when used we recommend that sighting data should have minimal input from experts in terms of assessing the

  8. Study of cis-cinnamic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Shing; Guo, Di; Wang, Xiao Li; Yin, Zhi Qi; Xia, Bing; Li, Ning

    2005-01-01

    Trans-cinnamic acid (CA) can be isomerized to cis-CA in Arabidopsis thaliana extract under sunlight. Piperonylic acid treatment of Arabidopsis under ultraviolet (UV) light increased the level of cis-CA in these treated tissues. Similarly, cis-CA was also detected from Oryza sativa seedlings grown under sunlight. These results suggest that cis-CA may occur in planta. Application of cis-CA to seedlings of both wild type Arabidopsis and auxin-insensitive mutants, aux1 and axr2, resulted in nearly identical dose response curves in root growth, indicating that the mode of action by which cis-CA affects plant growth is different from that of auxins. According to root growth inhibition assay, cis-CA is nearly 10 times more active than trans-CA. These results suggest that cis-CA is a unique plant growth regulator but its in vivo function remains to be elucidated.

  9. Opinion Dynamics with Confirmation Bias

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Background Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. Methodology/Principal Findings We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect–when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) –and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. Conclusions The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development. PMID:25007078

  10. cis-Regulatory control circuits in development.

    PubMed

    Howard, Meredith L; Davidson, Eric H

    2004-07-01

    During development, an organism undergoes many rounds of pattern formation, generating ever-greater complexity with each ensuing round of cell division and specification. The instructions for executing this process are encoded in the cis-regulatory modules that direct the expression of developmental transcription factors and signaling molecules. Each transcription factor binding site within a cis-regulatory module contributes information about when, where, or how much a gene is turned on, and by dissecting the modules driving a given gene, all the inputs governing expression of the gene can be accurately identified. Furthermore, by mapping the output of each gene to the inputs of other genes, it is possible to reverse engineer developmental circuits and even whole networks. At this higher level of organization, common bilaterian strategies for specifying progenitor fields, locking down regulatory states, and driving development forward emerge.

  11. Status of flexible CIS research at ISET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basol, B. M.; Kapur, V. K.; Minnick, A.; Halani, A.; Leidholm, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin film solar cells fabricated on light-weight, flexible substrates are very attractive for space applications. In this work CulnSe2 (CIS) based thin film devices were processed on metallic foil substrates using the selenization technique. CIS deposition method involved reaction of electron-bean evaporated Cu-In precursor layers with a selenizing atmosphere at around 400 C. Several metallic foils such as Mo, Ti, Al, Ni, and Cu were evaluated as possible substrates for these devices. Solar cells with AM1.5 efficiencies of 9.0-9.34 percent and good mechanical integrity were demonstrated on Mo and Ti foils. Monolithic integration of these devices was also demonstrated up to 4 in x 4 in size.

  12. Cis-regulatory Elements and Human Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Siepel, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Modification of gene regulation has long been considered an important force in human evolution, particularly through changes to cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that function in transcriptional regulation. For decades, however, the study of cis-regulatory evolution was severely limited by the available data. New data sets describing the locations of CREs and genetic variation within and between species have now made it possible to study CRE evolution much more directly on a genome-wide scale. Here, we review recent research on the evolution of CREs in humans based on large-scale genomic data sets. We consider inferences based on primate divergence, human polymorphism, and combinations of divergence and polymorphism. We then consider “new frontiers” in this field stemming from recent research on transcriptional regulation. PMID:25218861

  13. PDSS/IMC CIS user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Spacelab Payload Development Support System PDSS Image Motion Compensator (IMC) computer interface simulation (CIS) user's manual is given. The software provides a real time interface simulation for the following IMC subsystems: the Dry Rotor Reference Unit, the Advanced Star/Target Reference Optical sensor, the Ultra Violet imaging telescope, the Wisconson Ultraviolet Photopolarimetry Experiment, the Cruciform Power distributor, and the Spacelab Experiment Computer Operating System.

  14. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Aaron T; Stormo, Gary D

    2016-01-15

    Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1) chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2) gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3) gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF) occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1) combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2) combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species. Copyright © 2016 Spivak and Stormo.

  15. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Aaron T.; Stormo, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1) chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2) gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3) gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF) occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1) combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2) combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species. PMID:26772747

  16. Fragrance material review on cis-jasmone.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-10-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of cis-jasmone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. cis-Jasmone is a member of the fragrance structural group ketones cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones. The common characteristic structural element of the group members is a cyclopentanone or cyclopentenone ring with a straight or branched chain alkane or alkene substituent. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for cis-jasmone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergy, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire ketones cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all ketones cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physician opinions concerning legal abortion in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn; Rochat, Roger; Fink, Lauren; Richardson, Kalie; Brack, Chelsey; Comeau, Dawn

    2017-08-01

    Since the decriminalisation of abortion in 2006, women in Colombia have continued to seek clandestine abortions, endangering their health and contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity. The goal of this study was to explore physicians' opinions towards and knowledge about legal abortion in Bogotá, Colombia, and key barriers to the legal abortion access. We conducted 13 key informant interviews followed by a survey with a probability sample of 49 doctors working in public hospitals in Bogotá. Interview and survey data showed lack of technical experience in the provision of abortion and nuanced opinions towards its practice. Key informants described ignorance and lack of abortion training in medical schools as key barriers to provision. In the survey, 16/49 respondents had performed an abortion, 24/49 had referred a woman for an abortion and only 33/49 showed correct knowledge of the law.

  18. Undergraduate Students' Opinions with Regard to Ubiquitous MOOC for Enhancing Cross-Cultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plangsorn, Boonrat; Na-Songkhla, Jaitip; Luetkehans, Lara M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study undergraduate students' opinions with regard to the ubiquitous massive open online course (MOOC) for enhancing cross-cultural competence. This descriptive research applied a survey method. The survey data were collected by using survey questionnaires and online questionnaires from 410 undergraduate students…

  19. The opinions of Polish nurses and patients on nursing protests.

    PubMed

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Marc, Malgorzata; Nagorska, Malgorzata; Januszewicz, Pawel; Ryzko, Jozef

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explore nurses' and patients' opinions about nurses in Poland going on strike. The study was carried out in Poland between January and June 2009, using 150 nurses and 150 hospitalized patients. The study was conducted using two questionnaire surveys. The main reasons why nursing strikes are organized, in the opinions of nurses, are: higher wages, the improvement of working conditions and the improvement of the image of the nursing profession. The main reasons why nursing strikes are organized, in the opinions of patients, are: higher wages, not abiding standards of employment by government and the improvement of the image of the nursing profession. The main reasons for a lack of active participation in strikes are holidays and occupational and economic matters. Patients and nurses support nursing strikes. Both nurses (53.3%) and patients (42%) said that organizing nursing strikes is right and might improve the occupational situation of nurses.

  20. AACC CEO Survey: Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) conducted a survey of community college chief executive officers (CEOs) to collect their opinions on current issues, and gather information on their compensation. This report provides the results from this survey. The AACC CEO Survey was sent to 960 public community college presidents.…

  1. Opinion evolution in open community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Qiuhui; Qin, Yao; Xu, Yiqun; Tong, Mengfei; He, Mingfeng

    We consider a dynamic group composed with a constant number of people and the people will change periodically. Every member in the community owns a value of confidence — a mechanism that measures the agent’s coherence to his or her own attitude. Based on Cellular Automata, the opinions of all agents are synchronously updated. As long as the updating frequency and updating proportion are appropriate, the open system can reach a democracy-like steady state. The majority of agents in the community will hold the same opinion.

  2. Balancer effects in opinion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Taksu; Morimoto, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of contrarian agent, the balancer, to the Galam model of opinion dynamics, which features group-majority update, in order to account for the existence of social skepticism over one-sidedness. We find that, along with majoritarian floaters and single-sided inflexibles, the inclusion of balancers, who normally act as floaters but oppose inflexibles in their presence, brings about the emergence of a critical point on parametric plane of the dynamical system. Around the critical point, three distinct phases of opinion dynamics separated by discontinuous changes are found.

  3. Strategic Communications in Opinion Diffusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    providing explicit answers to the dynamics of opinion formation in a social group. One of the early models in this class was studied by DeGroot [2]. In...the DeGroot model, individuals start with an initial opinion profile represented by a vector of probabilities. The update process is captured by a...representing the relative trust that agent i places on agent j’s belief). Some generalizations of the Degroot model were investigated in [3]–[7] in which

  4. Community Size, Perceptions of Majority Opinion and Opinion Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Charles T.; Oshagan, Hayg

    A study examined structural determinants of opinion expression by merging two theoretical perspectives: the "spiral of silence" model advanced by Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, and the structural approach to communication research offered by Phillip Tichenor, George Donohue, and Clarice Olien. The study also distinguished between different…

  5. A Follow-Up Web-Based Survey: Test and Measurement Expert Opinions on the Psychometric Properties of Out-of-Level Tests. Out-of-Level Testing Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielinski, John; Minnema, Jane; Thurlow, Martha

    A Web-based survey of 25 experts in testing theory and large-scale assessment examined the utility of out-of-level testing for making decisions about students and schools. Survey respondents were given a series of scenarios and asked to judge the degree to which out-of-level testing would affect the reliability and validity of test scores within…

  6. Does the weather influence public opinion about climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, S. D.; McDaniel, J.

    2010-12-01

    Public opinion in North America about the science of anthropogenic climate change and the motivation for policy action has been variable over the past twenty years. The trends in public opinion over time have been attributed the general lack of pressing public concern about climate change to a range of political, economic and psychological factors. One driving force behind the variability in polling data from year to year may be the weather itself. The difference between what we “expect” - the climate - and what we “get” - the weather - can be a major source of confusion and obfuscation in the public discourse about climate change. For example, reaction to moderate global temperatures in 2007 and 2008 may have helped prompt the spread of a “global cooling” meme in the public and the news media. At the same time, a decrease in the belief in the science of climate change and the need for action has been noted in opinion polls. This study analyzes the relationship between public opinion about climate change and the weather in the U.S. since the mid-1980s using historical polling data from several major organizations (e.g. Gallup, Pew, Harris Interactive, ABC News), historical monthly air temperature (NCDC) and a survey of opinion articles from major U.S. newspapers (Washington Post, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Houston Chronicle, USA Today). Seasonal and annual monthly temperature anomalies for the northeastern U.S and the continental U.S are compared with available national opinion data for three general categories of questions: i) Is the climate warming?, ii) Is the observed warming due to human activity?, and iii) Are you concerned about climate change? The variability in temperature and public opinion over time is also compared with the variability in the fraction of opinion articles in the newspapers (n ~ 7000) which express general agreement or disagreement with IPCC Summary for Policymakers consensus statements on climate change (“most of

  7. The Nature of Public Opinion on Education in Norway, Sweden and Finland--Measuring the Degree of Political Polarization at the Mass Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fladmoe, Audun

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate public opinion on education in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Two questions are investigated: (1) whether there is a "Nordic model" of public opinion, and (2) whether public opinion is characterized by political consensus or conflict. Large-scale surveys from 1981 to 2009 are analyzed. The findings…

  8. The Nature of Public Opinion on Education in Norway, Sweden and Finland--Measuring the Degree of Political Polarization at the Mass Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fladmoe, Audun

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate public opinion on education in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Two questions are investigated: (1) whether there is a "Nordic model" of public opinion, and (2) whether public opinion is characterized by political consensus or conflict. Large-scale surveys from 1981 to 2009 are analyzed. The findings…

  9. How does public opinion become extreme?

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are “very conservative” versus “moderate to very conservative” ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual “stubbornness” that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to extreme views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people’s ties. PMID:25989484

  10. Nuclear power: sex differences in public opinion

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This study attempts to determine the factors that account for the fact that women are both more opposed and uncertain than men concerning the further development of nuclear energy. To that end, data from four national opinion surveys covering the period 1975 to 1979 are employed. Log-linear techniques are used in the analyses. Two plausible explanations for women's greater aversion to nuclear power are presented. The marginality explanation attributes the differential support of men and women for nuclear power to the differential positions which they occupy in the economic, political, and technical spheres within society. Because men hold more central positions in these areas, it is postulated that they will perceive a greater need for additional energy and continued economic growth, believe that the advantages of nuclear power toward these goals are greater, and be more confident in applications of nuclear technology. The fact that men express more favorable attitudes toward nuclear power is thus to be explained by these factors. The safety explanation attributes the sex difference to a greater concern on the part of women about the safety of using nuclear fission to generate electricity. The general thrust of this arguments is that women's greater concern for safety revolves around their reproductive and nurturant roles, and the protection of future generations. Uncertainty is viewed as a special problem. An explanation for women's greater uncertainty, which attributes the difference to a sex-typed expectation concerning the formulation and expression of opinions on complex technical issues, is presented.

  11. How does public opinion become extreme?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are “very conservative” versus “moderate to very conservative” ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual “stubbornness” that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to extreme views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people’s ties.

  12. How does public opinion become extreme?

    PubMed

    Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D S; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A

    2015-05-19

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are "very conservative" versus "moderate to very conservative" ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual "stubbornness" that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to extreme views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people's ties.

  13. Differing professional views or opinions: 1994 Special Review Panel

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    In July 1994, the Executive Director for Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) appointed a Special Review Panel to assess the Differing Professional View or Opinion (DPV/DPO) process, including its effectiveness, how well it is understood by employees, and the organizational climate for having such views aired and properly decided. An additional area within this review was to address the effectiveness of the DPO procedures as they pertain to public access and confidentiality. Further, the Panel was charged with the review of the submittals completed since the last review to identify employees who made significant contributions to the agency or to the public health and safety but had not been adequately recognized for this contribution. The report presents the Special Review Panel`s evaluation of the NRC`s current process for dealing with Differing Professional Views or Opinions. Provided in this report are the results of an employee opinion survey on the process; highlights and suggestions from interviews with individuals who had submitted a Differing Professional View or Opinion, as well as with agency managers directly involved with the Differing Professional Views or Opinions process; and the Special Review Panel`s recommendations for improving the DPV/DPO process.

  14. Rotational spectroscopy and dipole moment of cis-cis HOONO and DOONO.

    PubMed

    Fry, Juliane L; Drouin, Brian J; Miller, Charles E

    2006-02-28

    The rotational spectrum of cis-cis HOONO has been studied over a broad range of frequencies, 13-840 GHz, using pulsed beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy and room-temperature flow cell submillimeter spectroscopy. The rotational spectrum of the deuterated isotopomer, cis-cis DOONO, has been studied over a subset of this range, 84-640 GHz. Improved spectroscopic constants have been determined for HOONO, and the DOONO spectrum is analyzed for the first time. Weak-field Stark effect measurements in the region of 84-110 GHz have been employed to determine the molecular dipole moments of cis-cis HOONO [mu(a) = 0.542(8) D, mu(b) = 0.918(15) D, mu = 1.07(2) D] and DOONO [mu(a) = 0.517(9) D, mu(b) = 0.930(15) D, mu = 1.06(2) D]. The quadrupole coupling tensor in the principal inertial axis system for the 14N nucleus has been determined to be chi(aa) = 1.4907(25) MHz, chi(bb) = -4.5990(59) MHz, chi(ab) = 3.17(147) MHz, and chi(cc) = 3.1082(59) MHz. Coordinates of the H atom in the center-of-mass frame have been determined with use of the Kraitchman equations, /aH/ = 0.516 A and /bH/ = 1.171 A. The inertial defects of HOONO and DOONO are consistent with a planar equilibrium structure with significant out-of-plane H atom torsional motion. Comparisons of the present results are made to ab initio calculations.

  15. Opinion: Writing for the Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2010-01-01

    For the past twenty years or so, the author has been fortunate to write for a fairly broad audience. While he was teaching, or running an educational program, or doing research, he was also composing opinion pieces or commentaries about the work he was doing. This process of writing with part of his attention on the classroom or research site and…

  16. Opinion Summarizationof CustomerComments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Miao; Wu, Guoshi

    Web 2.0 technologies have enabled more and more customers to freely comment on different kinds of entities, such as sellers, products and services. The large scale of information poses the need and challenge of automatic summarization. In many cases, each of the user-generated short comments implies the opinions which rate the target entity. In this paper, we aim to mine and to summarize all the customer comments of a product. The algorithm proposed in this researchis more reliable on opinion identification because it is unsupervised and the accuracy of the result improves as the number of comments increases. Our research is performed in four steps: (1) mining the frequent aspects of a product that have been commented on by customers; (2) mining the infrequent aspects of a product which have been commented by customers (3) identifying opinion words in each comment and deciding whether each opinion word is positive, negative or neutral; (4) summarizing the comments. This paper proposes several novel techniques to perform these tasks. Our experimental results using comments of a number of products sold online demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques.

  17. Informed Clinical Opinion. NECTAC Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Jo

    The term "informed clinical opinion" appears in the regulatory requirements for the implementation of Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as an integral part of an eligibility determination. It must be included in evaluation and assessment procedures, since it is a necessary safeguard against eligibility…

  18. Opinion: Writing for the Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2010-01-01

    For the past twenty years or so, the author has been fortunate to write for a fairly broad audience. While he was teaching, or running an educational program, or doing research, he was also composing opinion pieces or commentaries about the work he was doing. This process of writing with part of his attention on the classroom or research site and…

  19. Environmental testing of CIS based modules

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, D.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes environmental testing of Siemen`s CIS modules. Charts and diagrams are presented on data concerning: temporary power loss of laminated mini-modules; the 50 thermal cycle test; the 10 humidity freeze cycle test; results after 1000 hours of exposure to damp heat; and interconnect test structures in damp heat testing. It is concluded that moisture ingress causes permanent increases in the series resistance of modules, and that improved packaging is needed for better high humidity reliability. Also, dry dark heat caused temporary power losses which were recovered in sunlight.

  20. Changes in alcohol policies and public opinions in Finland 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Österberg, Esa; Lindeman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    There is a constant and ongoing interplay between public opinions and public policies, alcohol policies being no exception. This article describes the development of public opinions regarding alcohol policy in Finland during a 10-year period between 2003 and 2013. Fluctuations in the alcohol policy opinion climate are put in context by looking at concurrent changes in alcohol policies and in total alcohol consumption. The study is based on data from opinion surveys on alcohol policies commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Welfare and the Finnish Social and Health Association. The opinion polls include questions about the general acceptance of prevailing alcohol policies, appropriate sales channels of different alcoholic beverage categories and opinions about the legal age limits and prices of alcoholic beverages. In the study, changes in alcohol policy during 2003-2013 are surveyed, and their relationship with changes in alcohol policy opinion is examined. There seem to be a strong positive correlation during the study period between the level of alcohol consumption and the share of those wanting a more restrictive alcohol policy in Finland. It seems that an increased level of awareness of alcohol-related issues among the general public created a more restrictive opinion climate on alcohol policy issues after the big alcohol excise duty decrease in 2004. The reverse seems to happen but in a lesser degree when alcohol excise duties has been increased after the year 2007. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Regioselective trans-cis photoisomerization of m-styrylstilbenes

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Y.; Uozy, Y.; Dote, T.; Ueda, M.; Matsuura, T.

    1988-01-06

    Trans-cis photoisomerization of m-styrylstilbenes, i.e., 2,4,6-triisopropyl-3'-styrylstilbene (TISS), 2,4,6-trimethyl-3'-styrylstilbene (TMSS), and 3-styrylstilbene (SS), and of stilbenes, i.e., 2,4,6-triisopropylstilbene (TIS), 2,4,6-trimethylstilbene (TMS), and stilbene (S), are studied under direct of benzophenone-sensitized irradiation in hexane. Measurements of quantum yields of isomerization have revealed that although the styrylstilbene molecule bears two styryl groups, the reaction is highly regioselective, depending upon the excitation conditions and reactant structures. For example, isomerization of trans, trans-TISS and trans,cis-TISS occurred either at the 2,4,6-trisubstituted styryl side upon direct excitation or at the unstubstituted styryl side upon sensitized excitation. When the starting material carries an unsubstituted cis-styryl group, the major isomerization always occurred at this moiety by either direct or sensitized excitation, e.g., cis,trans-TISS ..-->.. trans,trans-TISS, cis,cis-TISS ..-->.. trans,cis-TISS, and cis,trans-SS ..-->.. trans,trans-SS. Furthermore, the photoisomerization of cis,cis-SS was found to be one-way. These results are interpreted in terms of the usual energy sink concept: the excited-state energies (E/sub S/ and E/sub T/) of the stilbene chromophores depend on molecular distortion in a subtle manner.

  2. Opinion evolution influenced by informed agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kangqi; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Guiding public opinions toward a pre-set target by informed agents can be a strategy adopted in some practical applications. The informed agents are common agents who are employed or chosen to spread the pre-set opinion. In this work, we propose a social judgment based opinion (SJBO) dynamics model to explore the opinion evolution under the influence of informed agents. The SJBO model distinguishes between inner opinions and observable choices, and incorporates both the compromise between similar opinions and the repulsion between dissimilar opinions. Three choices (support, opposition, and remaining undecided) are considered in the SJBO model. Using the SJBO model, both the inner opinions and the observable choices can be tracked during the opinion evolution process. The simulation results indicate that if the exchanges of inner opinions among agents are not available, the effect of informed agents is mainly dependent on the characteristics of regular agents, including the assimilation threshold, decay threshold, and initial opinions. Increasing the assimilation threshold and decay threshold can improve the guiding effectiveness of informed agents. Moreover, if the initial opinions of regular agents are close to null, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion can be realized, indicating that, to maximize the influence of informed agents, the guidance should be started when regular agents have little knowledge about a subject under consideration. If the regular agents have had clear opinions, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion cannot be achieved. However, the introduction of informed agents can make the majority of agents choose the pre-set opinion.

  3. Phase transitions in Nowak Sznajd opinion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wołoszyn, Maciej; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2007-05-01

    The Nowak modification of the Sznajd opinion dynamics model on the square lattice assumes that with probability β the opinions flip due to mass-media advertising from down to up, and vice versa. Besides, with probability α the Sznajd rule applies that a neighbour pair agreeing in its two opinions convinces all its six neighbours of that opinion. Our Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field theory find sharp phase transitions in the parameter space.

  4. A cis-regulatory module activating transcription in the suspensor contains five cis-regulatory elements

    DOE PAGES

    Henry, Kelli F.; Kawashima, Tomokazu; Goldberg, Robert B.

    2015-03-22

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the embryo proper and suspensor of plant embryos activate specific gene sets shortly after fertilization. We analyzed the upstream region of the Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus) G564 gene in order to understand how genes are activated specifically in the suspensor during early embryo development. Previously, we showed that a 54-bp fragment of the G564 upstream region is sufficient for suspensor transcription and contains at least three required cis-regulatory sequences, including the 10-bp motif (5'-GAAAAGCGAA-3'), the 10 bp-like motif (5'-GAAAAACGAA-3'), and Region 2 motif (partial sequence 5'-TTGGT-3'). Here, we use site-directedmore » mutagenesis experiments in transgenic tobacco globularstage embryos to identify two additional cis-regulatory elements within the 54-bp cis-regulatory module that are required for G564 suspensor transcription: the Fifth motif (5'-GAGTTA-3') and a third 10-bp-related sequence (5'-GAAAACCACA-3'). Further deletion of the 54-bp fragment revealed that a 47-bp fragment containing the five motifs (the 10-bp, 10-bp-like, 10-bp-related, Region 2 and Fifth motifs) is sufficient for suspensor transcription, and represents a cis-regulatory module. A consensus sequence for each type of motif was determined by comparing motif sequences shown to activate suspensor transcription. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the regulation of G564 is evolutionarily conserved. Lastly, a homologous cis-regulatory module was found upstream of the G564 ortholog in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), indicating that the regulation of G564 is evolutionarily conserved in closely related bean species.« less

  5. A cis-regulatory module activating transcription in the suspensor contains five cis-regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kelli F; Kawashima, Tomokazu; Goldberg, Robert B

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the embryo proper and suspensor of plant embryos activate specific gene sets shortly after fertilization. We analyzed the upstream region of the Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus) G564 gene in order to understand how genes are activated specifically in the suspensor during early embryo development. Previously, we showed that a 54-bp fragment of the G564 upstream region is sufficient for suspensor transcription and contains at least three required cis-regulatory sequences, including the 10-bp motif (5'-GAAAAGCGAA-3'), the 10 bp-like motif (5'-GAAAAACGAA-3'), and Region 2 motif (partial sequence 5'-TTGGT-3'). Here, we use site-directed mutagenesis experiments in transgenic tobacco globular-stage embryos to identify two additional cis-regulatory elements within the 54-bp cis-regulatory module that are required for G564 suspensor transcription: the Fifth motif (5'-GAGTTA-3') and a third 10-bp-related sequence (5'-GAAAACCACA-3'). Further deletion of the 54-bp fragment revealed that a 47-bp fragment containing the five motifs (the 10-bp, 10-bp-like, 10-bp-related, Region 2 and Fifth motifs) is sufficient for suspensor transcription, and represents a cis-regulatory module. A consensus sequence for each type of motif was determined by comparing motif sequences shown to activate suspensor transcription. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the regulation of G564 is evolutionarily conserved. A homologous cis-regulatory module was found upstream of the G564 ortholog in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), indicating that the regulation of G564 is evolutionarily conserved in closely related bean species.

  6. 21 CFR 10.85 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amendment or revocation of the advisory opinion involved will be expedited. (g) An advisory opinion may be amended or revoked at any time after it has been issued. Notice of amendment or revocation will be given... continued acceptance. Whenever possible, an amended or revoked advisory opinion will state when action...

  7. Opinion Expression as a Rational Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sei-Hill

    This study looks at individuals' opinion expressions as a rational behavior based on a conscious calculus of expected benefits and costs (economic analysis). The influences of "issue benefit,""opinion congruence," and "issue knowledge," as sources of benefits and costs on opinion expression were hypothesized and tested. The study also examined the…

  8. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…

  9. The Role of cis Regulatory Evolution in Maize Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, Zachary H.; Bukowski, Robert; Sun, Qi; Doebley, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression differences between divergent lineages caused by modification of cis regulatory elements are thought to be important in evolution. We assayed genome-wide cis and trans regulatory differences between maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte, using deep RNA sequencing in F1 hybrid and parent inbred lines for three tissue types (ear, leaf and stem). Pervasive regulatory variation was observed with approximately 70% of ∼17,000 genes showing evidence of regulatory divergence between maize and teosinte. However, many fewer genes (1,079 genes) show consistent cis differences with all sampled maize and teosinte lines. For ∼70% of these 1,079 genes, the cis differences are specific to a single tissue. The number of genes with cis regulatory differences is greatest for ear tissue, which underwent a drastic transformation in form during domestication. As expected from the domestication bottleneck, maize possesses less cis regulatory variation than teosinte with this deficit greatest for genes showing maize-teosinte cis regulatory divergence, suggesting selection on cis regulatory differences during domestication. Consistent with selection on cis regulatory elements, genes with cis effects correlated strongly with genes under positive selection during maize domestication and improvement, while genes with trans regulatory effects did not. We observed a directional bias such that genes with cis differences showed higher expression of the maize allele more often than the teosinte allele, suggesting domestication favored up-regulation of gene expression. Finally, this work documents the cis and trans regulatory changes between maize and teosinte in over 17,000 genes for three tissues. PMID:25375861

  10. Opinions and knowledge about climate change science in high school students.

    PubMed

    Harker-Schuch, Inez; Bugge-Henriksen, Christian

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of knowledge on opinions about climate change in the emerging adults' age group (16-17 years). Furthermore, the effects of a lecture in climate change science on knowledge and opinions were assessed. A survey was conducted in Austria and Denmark on 188 students in national and international schools before and after a lecture in climate change science. The results show that knowledge about climate change science significantly affects opinions about climate change. Students with a higher number of correct answers are more likely to have the opinion that humans are causing climate change and that both individuals and governments are responsible for addressing climate change. The lecture in climate change science significantly improved knowledge development but did not affect opinions. Knowledge was improved by 11 % after the lecture. However, the percentage of correct answers was still below 60 % indicating an urgent need for improving climate change science education.

  11. Attitudes on Staff Participation and the Acceptance of Women and Minorities at Delta College: Results of a Staff Opinion Survey Made in Response to an Accreditation Report Recommendation. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debow-Makino, Ginger; And Others

    In response to an accreditation team's concern over the status of affirmative action, the campus atmosphere toward women and ethnic minorities, and involvement of staff in decision-making at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC), in California, the college conducted a survey of staff attitudes. A questionnaire was distributed to all 942 full- and…

  12. Preparing Our Young People for a Changing World: Policymakers, Business Leaders and the Public Speak out on the Role of Education Technology in America's Classrooms. The Second Annual Milken Exchange on Education Technology Public Opinion Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milken Exchange on Education Technology, Santa Monica, CA.

    This research, based on nationwide telephone surveys of voters, state legislators and legislative staff, and high-level business executives, addressed the priority that respondents place on computers/technology in public education, the perceived benefits--and drawbacks--of computers in public education, and the expectations that respondents have…

  13. Modelling the public opinion transmission on social networks under opinion leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuozhi; Li, Meng; Ji, Wanwan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, based on Social Network Analysis (SNA), the social network model of opinion leaders influencing the public opinion transmission is explored. The hot event, A Female Driver Was Beaten Due To Lane Change, has characteristics of individual short-term and non-government intervention, which is used to data extraction, and formed of the network structure on opinion leaders influencing the public opinion transmission. And the evolution mechanism are analyzed in the three evolutionary situations. Opinion leaders influence micro-blogging public opinion on social network evolution model shows that this type of network public opinion transmission is largely constrained by opinion leaders, so the opinion leaders behavior supervising on the spread of this public opinion is pivotal, and which has a guiding significance.

  14. Evidence for a 13,14-cis cycle in bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Tavan, P.; Schulten, K.

    1986-07-01

    The authors discuss to what extent the vibrational spectra of bacteriorhodopsin are in agreement with a photo-cycle of bacteriorhodopsin that involves the sequence BR, IO(all-trans) ..-->.. K(13,14-cis) ..-->.. L(13,14-cis) ..-->.. M(13-cis) ..-->.. N(13-cis) ..-->.. O(all-trans). The discussion is based on a quantumchemical modified neglect of diatomic overlap (MNDO) calculation of the vibrational spectra of the relevant isomers of the protonated retinal Schiff base. In particular, they investigated in these calculations the effects of different charge environments on the frequencies of the relevant C-C single bond stretching vibrations of these isomers.

  15. Polarons and bipolarons in cis-polyacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, Wolfram; Förner, Wolfgang

    1998-05-01

    We present a parametrization for the Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian for the description of cis-polyacetylene (cPA). In contrast to trans-polyacetylene, we have to include symmetry breaking between neighboring sites into the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger-type one-electron part of the Hamiltonian. Our parametrization is based on correlated ab initio calculations on cis-hexatriene and on the results of independent calculations found in the literature. For open-shell systems (singly charged polarons) we use the annihilated unrestricted Hartree-Fock method to avoid the artificial spin contaminations inherent in UHF (unrestricted HF) calculations, which lead to the inclusion of fractions of the correlation energy in UHF total energies which cannot be controlled and are different for different systems and even for different geometries of the same system. Thus UHF is useless for the calculation of potential hypersurfaces and thus in turn for dynamical simulations. We find that in cPA singly-charged polarons are formed, while in doubly-charged chains stable bipolarons are found, although of a quite large width. This is in contrast to recent results reported by Shimoi and Abe [Y. Shimoi and S. Abe, Synth. Met. 69, 687 (1995) and Phys. Rev. B 50, 14 781 (1994)] who found that two singly-charged polarons are more stable for realistic parameter values than a doubly-charged bipolaron. We further find that the charged polarons are mobile in the chain and thus we conclude that polarons and bipolarons can serve as charge carriers (the latter ones spinless) in doped cPA.

  16. Collective opinion formation on fluctuating networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngampruetikorn, Vudtiwat; Stephens, Greg

    Thanks to the advent of online social networks, not only are we more connected than ever but we are also able to design and maintain our own social networks. An insight into this phenomenon will be key to understanding modern societies. To this end, we argue that active network maintenance exposes individuals to selective exposure (preference for agreeing information sources) and we explore how this could affect the structure of social networks and collective opinion formation. More technically, we investigate opinion dynamics on a complex network with fast stochastic rewiring. We show that selective exposure while inducing segregation of agents with different opinions, stabilises consensus state regardless of opinion update rules. We argue further that selective exposure can lead to a shorter time to consensus. The time to consensus has non-trivial dependence on the magnitude of selective exposure. Moreover, we find for some opinion updating rules, selective exposure can increase the lifetime of opinion segregation (polarisation of opinions).

  17. How information influences an individual opinion evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lei; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An

    2012-12-01

    We propose an opinion formation model which takes an individual’s opinion transition probability into consideration. In the model, each individual updates his/her opinion based on the probability of reception and acceptance. We describe the process of opinion evolution by using individual’s awareness Wi, message intensity a0 and message credibility b0. Results show that if a message’s view stays below 1 and its credibility takes a value around 2, it can win the trust of individuals with a high value of awareness (Wi≥1), leading the public opinion to support the message’s own view within 100 steps and then decide the opinion formation. The final average opinion is closely related to the first message’s credibility and individual’s awareness.

  18. A Study on Attitude and Opinion towards Using Computer Technology in Teaching among B.Ed. Trainees in Tiruchirappalli District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, C. Ashok

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to find out whether there was a significant difference in the attitude and opinion towards using Computer Technology in teaching among B.Ed., trainees in terms of select independent variables. Normative survey was the technique employed. Opinion towards Computer Usage and Attitude towards Computer Technology inventory…

  19. The Will of the People? The Public's Opinion of the Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Vincent; Soler, Mark

    The Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997 (S-10) contains provisions that would affect youths arrested for criminal offenses and status offenses (acts that are not crimes if committed by adults). A telephone survey was conducted by Opinion Research Corporation to determine public opinions about the provisions of S-10. A national…

  20. A Study on Attitude and Opinion towards Using Computer Technology in Teaching among B.Ed. Trainees in Tiruchirappalli District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, C. Ashok

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to find out whether there was a significant difference in the attitude and opinion towards using Computer Technology in teaching among B.Ed., trainees in terms of select independent variables. Normative survey was the technique employed. Opinion towards Computer Usage and Attitude towards Computer Technology inventory…

  1. Prepare dispersed CIS nano-scale particles and spray coating CIS absorber layers using nano-scale precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Jian-Chiun; Diao, Chien-Chen; Lin, Jing-Jenn; Chen, Yen-Lin; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Mo-electrode thin films were deposited by a two-stepped process, and the high-purity copper indium selenide-based powder (CuInSe2, CIS) was fabricated by hydrothermal process by Nanowin Technology Co. Ltd. From the X-ray pattern of the CIS precursor, the mainly crystalline phase was CIS, and the almost undetectable CuSe phase was observed. Because the CIS powder was aggregated into micro-scale particles and the average particle sizes were approximately 3 to 8 μm, the CIS power was ground into nano-scale particles, then the 6 wt.% CIS particles were dispersed into isopropyl alcohol to get the solution for spray coating method. Then, 0.1 ml CIS solution was sprayed on the 20 mm × 10 mm Mo/glass substrates, and the heat treatment for the nano-scale CIS solution under various parameters was carried out in a selenization furnace. The annealing temperature was set at 550°C, and the annealing time was changed from 5 to 30 min, without extra Se content was added in the furnace. The influences of annealing time on the densification, crystallization, resistivity ( ρ), hall mobility ( μ), and carrier concentration of the CIS absorber layers were well investigated in this study.

  2. Prepare dispersed CIS nano-scale particles and spray coating CIS absorber layers using nano-scale precursors.

    PubMed

    Liou, Jian-Chiun; Diao, Chien-Chen; Lin, Jing-Jenn; Chen, Yen-Lin; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Mo-electrode thin films were deposited by a two-stepped process, and the high-purity copper indium selenide-based powder (CuInSe2, CIS) was fabricated by hydrothermal process by Nanowin Technology Co. Ltd. From the X-ray pattern of the CIS precursor, the mainly crystalline phase was CIS, and the almost undetectable CuSe phase was observed. Because the CIS powder was aggregated into micro-scale particles and the average particle sizes were approximately 3 to 8 μm, the CIS power was ground into nano-scale particles, then the 6 wt.% CIS particles were dispersed into isopropyl alcohol to get the solution for spray coating method. Then, 0.1 ml CIS solution was sprayed on the 20 mm × 10 mm Mo/glass substrates, and the heat treatment for the nano-scale CIS solution under various parameters was carried out in a selenization furnace. The annealing temperature was set at 550°C, and the annealing time was changed from 5 to 30 min, without extra Se content was added in the furnace. The influences of annealing time on the densification, crystallization, resistivity (ρ), hall mobility (μ), and carrier concentration of the CIS absorber layers were well investigated in this study.

  3. Evaluating the economic viability of CdTe/CIS and CIGS/CIS tandem photovoltaic modules

    DOE PAGES

    Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Horowitz, Kelsey; Kanevce, Ana; ...

    2017-01-20

    In this paper, we analyze the potential cost competitiveness of two frameless, glass–glass thin-film tandem photovoltaic module structures, cadmium telluride (CdTe)/CuInSe2 (CIS) and CuIn0.3Ga0.7Se2 (CIGS)/CIS, based on the demonstrated cost of manufacturing the respective component cell technologies in high volume. To consider multiple economic scenarios, we base the CdTe/CIS module efficiency on the current industrial production of CdTe modules, while for CIGS/CIS, we use an aspirational estimate for CIGS efficiency. We focus on four-terminal mechanically stacked structures, thus avoiding the need to achieve current matching between the two cells. The top cell in such a tandem must have a transparentmore » back contact, which has not been successfully implemented to date. However, for the purpose of understanding the economic viability of both tandems, we assume that this can be implemented at a cost similar to that of sputtered indium tin oxide. The cost of both tandem module structures was found to be nearly identical on an equal-area basis and approximately $30/m2 higher than the single-junction alternatives. Both tandem modules are about 4% (absolute) more efficient than a module by using the top-cell material alone. We find that these tandem modules might reduce total system cost by as much as 11% in applications having a high area-related balance-of-system cost, such as area-constrained residential systems; however, the relative advantage of tandems decreases in the cases where balance-of-system costs are lower, such as in commercial and utility scale systems.« less

  4. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-08-06

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both clean'' and dirty''; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs.

  5. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-08-06

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both ``clean`` and ``dirty``; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs.

  6. Your opinion on climate change might not be as common as you think

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviston, Z.; Walker, I.; Morwinski, S.

    2013-04-01

    Political and media debate on the existence and causes of climate change has become increasingly factious in several western countries, often resting on claims and counter-claims about what most citizens really think. There are several well-established phenomena in psychology about how people perceive the prevalence of opinions, including the false consensus effect (a tendency to overestimate how common one's `own' opinion is) and pluralistic ignorance (where most people privately reject an opinion, but assume incorrectly that most others accept it). We investigated these biases in people's opinions about the existence and causes of climate change. In two surveys conducted 12 months apart in Australia (n=5,036 n=5,030), respondents were asked their own opinion about the nature of climate change, and then asked to estimate levels of opinion among the general population. We demonstrate that opinions about climate change are subject to strong false consensus effects, that people grossly overestimate the numbers of people who reject the existence of climate change in the broader community, and that people with high false consensus bias are less likely to change their opinions.

  7. Child Assessment at the Preprimary Level: Expert Opinion and State Trends. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Carol; Bowman, Barbara T.

    In Spring 2001, Erikson Institute conducted two surveys to provide practical information on the current state of expert opinion and public practice with regard to the assessment of prekindergarten children. The first survey questioned a select group of 25 national leaders in the early childhood field regarding the most important components of a…

  8. Elementary School Parents' Opinions toward Educational Technology and Its Role in Their Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveyed parents of elementary students in the small Midwestern community of Montpelier, Indiana to elicit their opinions toward the educational technology in their children's school and the role it plays in their education. Montpelier Elementary School (MES) has 223 students from 161 families. A phone survey was done to which about 42%…

  9. Manipulating Public Opinion about Trying Juveniles as Adults: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Public attitudes about juvenile crime play a significant role in fashioning juvenile justice policy; variations in the wording of public opinion surveys can produce very different responses and can result in inaccurate and unreliable assessments of public sentiment. Surveys that ask about policy alternatives in vague terms are especially…

  10. Elementary School Parents' Opinions toward Educational Technology and Its Role in Their Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveyed parents of elementary students in the small Midwestern community of Montpelier, Indiana to elicit their opinions toward the educational technology in their children's school and the role it plays in their education. Montpelier Elementary School (MES) has 223 students from 161 families. A phone survey was done to which about 42%…

  11. Fukushima effects in Germany? Changes in media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Dorothee; Wolling, Jens

    2016-10-01

    Based on a literature review on factors that explain media effects and previous findings on media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power, this article examines the effects of Fukushima on media coverage and public opinion in Germany in two studies. The first study uses content analysis data to analyse changes in media coverage, and the second one is based on panel survey data to examine attitude changes on an individual level. The results of both studies show changes in media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power. Furthermore, the second study reveals that individual attitude changes cannot necessarily be explained by the same factors as the distribution of attitudes.

  12. Graduate Assessment Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    Determines the degree to which Santa Fe Community College (Florida) is providing quality educational programs and services to its students. Surveys outgoing students to gather their opinions and perceptions of the educational experiences and services they received while attending the college. The survey instrument is divided into three sections:…

  13. Graduate Assessment Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    Determines the degree to which Santa Fe Community College (Florida) is providing quality educational programs and services to its students. Surveys outgoing students to gather their opinions and perceptions of the educational experiences and services they received while attending the college. The survey instrument is divided into three sections:…

  14. U.S./CIS eye joint nuclear rocket venture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Smetanikov, Vladimir; D'Yakov, Evgenij K.; Pavshuk, Vladimir A.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the significance for U.S. spacecraft development of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) reactor concept that has been developed in the (formerly Soviet) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The CIS NTR reactor employs a hydrogen-cooled zirconium hydride moderator and ternary carbide fuels; the comparatively cool operating temperatures associated with this design promise overall robustness.

  15. U.S./CIS eye joint nuclear rocket venture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Smetanikov, Vladimir; D'Yakov, Evgenij K.; Pavshuk, Vladimir A.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the significance for U.S. spacecraft development of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) reactor concept that has been developed in the (formerly Soviet) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The CIS NTR reactor employs a hydrogen-cooled zirconium hydride moderator and ternary carbide fuels; the comparatively cool operating temperatures associated with this design promise overall robustness.

  16. Short asymmetric synthesis of (-)- and (+)-cis-lauthisan.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M Carmen; Des Mazery, Renaud; Urbano, Antonio; Colobert, Françoise; Solladié, Guy

    2005-05-12

    The asymmetric synthesis of both enantiomers of cis-lauthisan (3) is achieved in only six steps from diethyl pimelate (4), the key steps being the diastereodivergent reduction of beta-ketosulfoxide 7 and the highly cis-stereoselective Et(3)SiH/TMSOTf-promoted reductive cyclization of enantiopure hydroxy sulfinyl ketones (S)-14 and (R)-14.

  17. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases: structure and functions.

    PubMed

    Pliyev, B K; Gurvits, B Y

    1999-07-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPI) catalyze cis-trans isomerization of imide bonds in peptides and proteins. This review summarizes the literature on the structure and functions of PPIs, their involvement in protein folding, and organization of PPI-containing receptors and membrane channels. A possible role of several PPIs in distant interactions between cells is discussed.

  18. [The second opinion in oncology].

    PubMed

    Cifaldi, Luciano; Felicetti, Viviana; Cristina, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The medical second opinion (MSO) means the process through which it is possible to consult any available medical institution or a single physician, to compare, confirm and/or review a first diagnosis and/or a proposed treatment. The MSO is of the utmost importance when patients are suffering serious and disabling diseases or when risking their lives. Oncology is a really complex discipline in which, daily, doctors and patients have to deal with new clinical, managerial and sociological problems. Most patients are now better informed-often having gathered information from the Web, newspapers, magazines.This information is often very mixed and confusing and the number of MSO is increasing.

  19. [Enzymatic formation of a cis,cis-muconic acid derivative using pyrazon-degrading bacteria (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Blobel, F; Eberspächer, J; Haug, S; Lingens, F

    1976-01-01

    The cis,cis-muconic acid derivative of pyrazon, which was formerly isolated from the medium of pyrazon-degrading bacteria, was formed enzymatically by incubation of the catechol derivative of pyrazon with partially purified ortho pyrocatechase from pyrazon-degrading bacteria.

  20. Oxylipin Signaling: A Distinct Role for the Jasmonic Acid Precursor cis-(+)-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid (cis-OPDA)

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Anuja; Graham, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxylipins are lipid-derived compounds, many of which act as signals in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. They include the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related jasmonate metabolites cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), methyl jasmonate, and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Besides the defense response, jasmonates are involved in plant growth and development and regulate a range of processes including glandular trichome development, reproduction, root growth, and senescence. cis-OPDA is known to possess a signaling role distinct from JA-Ile. The non-enzymatically derived phytoprostanes are structurally similar to cis-OPDA and induce a common set of genes that are not responsive to JA in Arabidopsis thaliana. A novel role for cis-OPDA in seed germination regulation has recently been uncovered based on evidence from double mutants and feeding experiments showing that cis-OPDA interacts with abscisic acid (ABA), inhibits seed germination, and increases ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) protein abundance. Large amounts of cis-OPDA are esterified to galactolipids in A. thaliana and the resulting compounds, known as Arabidopsides, are thought to act as a rapidly available source of cis-OPDA. PMID:22645585

  1. Germinating the 2050 Cis-Lunar Econosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Tinker, Michael L.; Nall, Mark E.; Wright, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    In early 2013, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Director and MSFC's Office of Strategic Analysis and Communications (OSAC) chartered a diverse team for a six-week "sprint" to speculate (in a disciplined manner) and paint (with broad brush strokes) a picture of how earth, space, and public/private entities might be operating and relating to each other...in the year 2100. Two 12-person groups of civil servants, one with members having 15 years or less of NASA experience and the other with more senior members, worked independently and then compared and integrated their conclusions. In 2014, the "Space 2100" team, with some new team members and different group boundaries, ran a longer sprint to a) develop more detailed estimates of the operations and economics of space activities in the vicinity of the Earth and Moon in the 2050 time frame, b) identify evolutionary steps and viable paths needed to make that a reality, and c) recommend actions to enable and invigorate those steps. This paper explores Space 2100's first two sprints and their projections of NASA's role in what will likely be a highly networked international space industry and cis-lunar infrastructure.

  2. Germinating the 2050 Cis-Lunar Econosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Curreri, Peter A.; Ferguson, Cynthia K.; Nall, Mark E.; Tinker, Michael L.; Wright, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    In early 2013, Marshall Space Flight Center's upper management chartered a diverse team for a six-week 'sprint' to speculate (in a disciplined manner) and paint (with broad brush strokes) a picture of how earth, space, and public/private entities might be operating and relating to each other... in the year 2100. Two 12-person groups of civil servants, one with members having 15 years or less of NASA experience and the other with more senior members, worked independently and then compared and integrated their conclusions. In 2014, the 'Space 2100' team, with some new team members and different group boundaries, ran a longer sprint to a) develop more detailed estimates of the operations and economics of space activities in the vicinity of the Earth and Moon in the 2050 time frame, b) identify evolutionary paths, barriers, and opportunities, and c) suggest actions and philosophies to enable and invigorate progress towards the vision. This paper explores Space 2100's first two sprints and their projections of NASA's role in what will likely be a highly networked, international space industry and cis-lunar infrastructure.

  3. The dynamics of opinion in hierarchical organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguna, M. F.; Risau Gusman, S.; Abramson, G.; Gonçalves, S.; Iglesias, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    We study the mutual influence of authority and persuasion in the flow of opinions. We describe a simple model with no social mobility, where each agent belongs to a class in the hierarchy and has also a persuasion capability. Agents use the force of its persuasion to propagate their opinions; however a high-rank agent can also use its authority to impose its opinion on other ones. The model is studied analytically within a mean field approximation and by means of numerical simulations. In the case of a three authority level hierarchy the agreement between the two approaches is excellent. We obtain a phase diagram identifying the relative frequency of the prevailing opinions, and find that the stratum where the dominant opinion arises from is strongly dependent on the relative population of each hierarchy level. The time evolution shows that conflicting opinions polarize after a short transient.

  4. Developing convolutional neural networks for measuring climate change opinions from social media data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding public opinions on climate change is important for policy making. Public opinion, however, is typically measured with national surveys, which are often too expensive and thus being updated at a low frequency. Twitter has become a major platform for people to express their opinions on social and political issues. Our work attempts to understand if Twitter data can provide complimentary insights about climate change perceptions. Since the nature of social media is real-time, this data source can especially help us understand how public opinion changes over time in response to climate events and hazards, which though is very difficult to be captured by manual surveys. We use the Twitter Streaming API to collect tweets that contain keywords, "climate change" or "#climatechange". Traditional machine-learning based opinion mining algorithms require a significant amount of labeled data. Data labeling is notoriously time consuming. To address this problem, we use hashtags (a significant feature used to mark topics of tweets) to annotate tweets automatically. For example, hashtags, #climatedenial and #climatescam, are negative opinion labels, while #actonclimate and #climateaction are positive. Following this method, we can obtain a large amount of training data without human labor. This labeled dataset is used to train a deep convolutional neural network that classifies tweets into positive (i.e. believe in climate change) and negative (i.e. do not believe). Based on the positive/negative tweets obtained, we will further analyze risk perceptions and opinions towards policy support. In addition, we analyze twitter user profiles to understand the demographics of proponents and opponents of climate change. Deep learning techniques, especially convolutional deep neural networks, have achieved much success in computer vision. In this work, we propose a convolutional neural network architecture for understanding opinions within text. This method is compared with

  5. 2012 Global Management Education Graduate Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Each year for the past 13 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. The Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating schools. The survey allows students to express their opinions about…

  6. CisMiner: genome-wide in-silico cis-regulatory module prediction by fuzzy itemset mining.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Carmen; Lopez, Francisco J; Cano, Carlos; Garcia-Alcalde, Fernando; Blanco, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene control regions are known to be spread throughout non-coding DNA sequences which may appear distant from the gene promoter. Transcription factors are proteins that coordinately bind to these regions at transcription factor binding sites to regulate gene expression. Several tools allow to detect significant co-occurrences of closely located binding sites (cis-regulatory modules, CRMs). However, these tools present at least one of the following limitations: 1) scope limited to promoter or conserved regions of the genome; 2) do not allow to identify combinations involving more than two motifs; 3) require prior information about target motifs. In this work we present CisMiner, a novel methodology to detect putative CRMs by means of a fuzzy itemset mining approach able to operate at genome-wide scale. CisMiner allows to perform a blind search of CRMs without any prior information about target CRMs nor limitation in the number of motifs. CisMiner tackles the combinatorial complexity of genome-wide cis-regulatory module extraction using a natural representation of motif combinations as itemsets and applying the Top-Down Fuzzy Frequent- Pattern Tree algorithm to identify significant itemsets. Fuzzy technology allows CisMiner to better handle the imprecision and noise inherent to regulatory processes. Results obtained for a set of well-known binding sites in the S. cerevisiae genome show that our method yields highly reliable predictions. Furthermore, CisMiner was also applied to putative in-silico predicted transcription factor binding sites to identify significant combinations in S. cerevisiae and D. melanogaster, proving that our approach can be further applied genome-wide to more complex genomes. CisMiner is freely accesible at: http://genome2.ugr.es/cisminer. CisMiner can be queried for the results presented in this work and can also perform a customized cis-regulatory module prediction on a query set of transcription factor binding sites provided by

  7. Using bets to reveal people's opinions on climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Risbey, J.; Boslough, M.

    2016-12-01

    A long-standing means of revealing people's actual preferences, for example regarding economic and political issues, involves gambles and bets. People tend to place bets when they are confident of their opinions, and they tend to avoid them when they are not confident of their opinions. We survey the reluctance of climate contrarians to engage in bets with scientists, and we review the historical and likely future fate of various bets on climate change. We show that for the last few decades, most bets placed on the climate would have been lost by contrarians and would have been won by people who endorse the mainstream scientific position. We relate bets and gambles to actuarial information on climate change and propose ways in which the scientific community can use markets of bets as a tool to resolve ambiguities and to communicate scientific facts with an appropriate level of certainty to the public.

  8. Consumer opinions of a stance control knee orthosis.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Kathie A; Irby, Steven E; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2006-12-01

    Stance control knee orthoses (SCOs) have become very popular recently. However, there is little information regarding opinions of actual orthosis users. The purpose of this study was to quantify the users' opinions of a SCO, and see whether factors found important for knee orthoses in past studies hold true for a stance control orthosis as well. A standardized survey was employed as part of a larger field trial study of the Dynamic Knee Brace System, a SCO developed by the authors. The Dynamic Knee Brace System scored well in areas of effectiveness, operability, and dependability, but areas in need of improvement included weight, cosmesis, and donning and doffing. These findings match well with previous knee orthosis studies. This study shows that wearing a stance control knee orthosis can be a positive experience for an orthosis user.

  9. Changing Opinions in a Changing World:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluchino, Alessandro; Latora, Vito; Rapisarda, Andrea

    We propose a new model of opinion formation, the Opinion Changing Rate (OCR) model. Instead of investigating the conditions that allow consensus in a world of agents with different opinions, we study the conditions under which a group of agents with different natural tendency (rate) to change opinion can find agreement. The OCR is a modified version of the Kuramoto model, one of the simplest models for synchronization in biological systems, adapted here to a social context. By means of several numerical simulations, we illustrate the richness of the OCR model dynamics and its social implications.

  10. Prediction of collective opinion in consensus formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Liu, Jianguo; Pan, Xue; Song, Wen-Jun; Li, Xu-Dong

    2014-12-01

    In the consensus formation dynamics, the effect of leaders and interventions have been widely studied for it has many applications such as in politics and commerce. However, the problem is how to know if it is necessary for one to make an intervention. In this paper, we theoretically propose a method for predicting the tendency and final state of collective opinion. By giving each agent a conviction ci which measures the ability to insist on his opinion, we present an opinion formation model in which agents with high convictions naturally show up properties of the opinion leaders. Results reveal that, although each agent initially gets an opinion evenly distributed in the range [-1, 1], the collective opinion of the steady-state may deviate to the positive or negative direction because of the initial bias of the leaders' opinions. We further get the correlation coefficient of the linear relationship between the collective opinion and the initial bias according to both the experimental and theoretical analysis. Thus, we could predict the final state at the very beginning of the dynamic only if we get the opinions of a small portion of the population. The prediction would afford us more time and opportunities to make reactions and interventions.

  11. Caregiver Opinion of In-Hospital Screening for Unmet Social Needs by Pediatric Residents

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Jeffrey D.; Bettenhausen, Jessica L.; Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D.; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Chung, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Child health is strongly influenced by social determinants. Little is known about the opinions of primary caregivers regarding the physicians’ role in addressing social needs. Our objective was to examine caregivers’ opinions about that role and any associations between those opinions, previous exposure to screening for needs by pediatric residents, and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods Cross-sectional survey study of caregivers of hospitalized children. The survey collected information on caregiver opinion regarding their ability to ask physicians for help with social needs, whether physicians know how to help with those needs, and whether physicians should ask about social needs. The chi square test was used to identify associations between caregiver opinions, prior screening by a resident at admission, and SES (determined by census tract median household income.) Results Surveys were completed by 143 caregivers (79% participation). Most respondents agreed that they could ask their physician for help (54.5%), that their physician knows how to help (64.3%), and that physicians should ask about social needs (71.3%). Previously screened caregivers had more favorable opinions about asking for help (76.2% vs. 45.5%, P<0.01), whether their physician knows how to help (81.0% vs. 57.4%, P=0.02), and physician screening for unmet needs (85.7% vs. 65.3%, P=0.03). There were no SES differences in opinion. Conclusions Caregivers have favorable opinions of the physician’s role in addressing the social determinants of health, especially after being screened. Physicians should be confident in the acceptability of screening families for social needs. PMID:26946270

  12. Caregiver Opinion of In-Hospital Screening for Unmet Social Needs by Pediatric Residents.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Jeffrey D; Bettenhausen, Jessica L; Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Chung, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Child health is strongly influenced by social determinants. Little is known about the opinions of primary caregivers regarding the physicians' role in addressing social needs. Our objective was to examine caregivers' opinions about that role and any associations between those opinions, previous exposure to screening for needs by pediatric residents, and socioeconomic status (SES). Cross-sectional survey study of caregivers of hospitalized children. The survey collected information on caregiver opinion regarding their ability to ask physicians for help with social needs, whether physicians know how to help with those needs, and whether physicians should ask about social needs. The chi square test was used to identify associations between caregiver opinions, prior screening by a resident at admission, and SES (determined by census tract median household income). Surveys were completed by 143 caregivers (79% participation). Most respondents agreed that they could ask their physician for help (54.5%), that their physician knows how to help (64.3%), and that physicians should ask about social needs (71.3%). Previously screened caregivers had more favorable opinions about asking for help (76.2% vs 45.5%, P < .01), whether their physician knows how to help (81.0% vs 57.4%, P = .02), and physician screening for unmet needs (85.7% vs 65.3%, P = .03). There were no SES differences in opinion. Caregivers have favorable opinions of the physician's role in addressing the social determinants of health, especially after being screened. Physicians should be confident in the acceptability of screening families for social needs. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient opinion regarding patient-centered medical home fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Randell K; King, Dana E; Andrews, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Although conceptually there is agreement on how the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) should be organized, there is little information regarding which PCMH components are the most important to patients. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to patients at three US academic medical centers. Questions sought opinions regarding the National Committee for Quality Assurance's key components and essential elements of the PCMH. Analysis of the survey responses was conducted using SAS version 9.1. A total of 780 surveys were returned. Patients expressed believing strongly that the ability to coordinate care, help patients to manage their own disease, and track laboratory results were the most important aspects of a PCMH office. There were no differences in response to the survey according to age, sex, race, or site. Patients listed care coordination, patient self-management, and improved access to care as the top priority attributes of a PCMH. Patients were consistent in their opinions that care coordination, access, and patient self-management were the most important elements of a PCMH.

  14. EUROPEANS AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE - OPINIONS, BELIEFS AND CONCERNS

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, S.; Taylor, D.M.

    2003-02-27

    In the autumn of 1998, the European Commission conducted a public opinion survey on radioactive waste. Roughly 16,000 people across the European Union (EU) were questioned in face to face interviews. A similar survey was carried out three years later in October and November of 2001, though this time questions of a broader nature concerning nuclear issues in general were also introduced. A comparison of the results of the two surveys shows that in the intervening period there have been very few significant changes in opinion. In particular, the events of 11 September 2001 appear to have had no measurable impact on people's views. The results of the surveys have been analyzed and the key findings extracted and, where possible, interpreted. Though some of these findings might perhaps have been expected, others are somewhat surprising or even worrying, especially for the nuclear sector. However, people still seem prepared to accept that nuclear power should remain an option for electricity production in the EU, but the policy makers and the nuclear industry must demonstrate that the waste issue can be managed both safely and with respect for future generations.

  15. Scholars and Pre-Service Teachers: A Comparison of Opinions of Reading Required for High School Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Mozelle P.

    A study compared the results of a 1986 survey on the opinions of preservice teachers with those of a survey conducted in 1984 by William Bennett (at that time chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities). Bennett's survey asked respondents to list 30 works that students should be expected to read before high school graduation.…

  16. Democracy's Denominator: Reassessing Responsiveness with Public Opinion on the National Policy Agenda.

    PubMed

    Barabas, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Democratic responsiveness concerns the degree to which government policies match public preferences. Responsiveness studies typically use national surveys to characterize public opinion, but whether poll questions overlap with the policy agenda is unknown. The first of two empirical analyses presented here, with hundreds of issues on the national agenda in the United States from 1947 to 2000, reveals that public opinion is mostly unrelated to policy outcomes. The picture appears to be even more ominous-that is, opinion and policy are negatively related-on highly salient issues that attract media attention. A second study revisiting published work confirms that responsiveness patterns look different depending upon whether studies of opinion-policy connections (a) begin with survey data and then examine policy developments, or (b) begin with national legislative agenda issues and then examine survey data. Thus, conclusions about democratic responsiveness depend upon the issues that are examined, and often opinion surveys do not include questions about tangible public policy options. In that sense, future changes in democratic responsiveness might go undetected because scholars often lack data on what goes into the denominator of democracy.

  17. Changing opinions about research by Saudi medical students.

    PubMed

    Abulaban, Ahmad; Alharbi, Abdulrahman; BinDajam, Osama; Al Jarbou, Mohammed; Alharbi, Hatem; Alanazi, Faiz; Aldamiri, Khalid; Althobaiti, Ahmed; Al Sayyari, Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research in five Saudi universities and examine the changes observed in these opinions and attitudes in one of these universities over a period of time. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in five Saudi universities. This study was based on a survey undertaken in 2015. The survey consisted of five questions inquiring about the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research. The same survey was carried out 8 years earlier in one of these universities (King Abdulaziz University [KAU]), and the results obtained during the two periods (2007 and 2015) were compared. A convenient sample of 924 students was selected from five Saudi universities. Ninety-five (10.3%) of the medical students were not aware of the usefulness and importance scientific research will have on their future careers. A total of 409 (44.3%) stated that they had no knowledge on how to conduct scientific research. On the other hand, a vast majority of medical students (98.1%) expressed a willingness and interest to participate in scientific research if provided with an opportunity. The percentage of students from KAU strongly agreeing to participate in research rose from 33.1% in 2007 to 81.5% in 2015 (P=0.001). Of all the students surveyed, 431 (46.6%) had participated in scientific research as undergraduates. Most students in five Saudi universities expressed enthusiasm for participating in a research project, but only a few of them had sufficient knowledge on basic research. There was considerable improvement in students' perception of research in KAU when comparing their responses in 2007 to those in 2015.

  18. Multi-phase back contacts for CIS solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rockett, A.A.; Yang, L.C.

    1995-12-19

    Multi-phase, single layer, non-interdiffusing M-Mo back contact metallized films, where M is selected from Cu, Ga, or mixtures thereof, for CIS cells are deposited by a sputtering process on suitable substrates, preferably glass or alumina, to prevent delamination of the CIS from the back contact layer. Typical CIS compositions include CuXSe{sub 2} where X is In or/and Ga. The multi-phase mixture is deposited on the substrate in a manner to provide a columnar microstructure, with micro-vein Cu or/and Ga regions which partially or fully vertically penetrate the entire back contact layer. The CIS semiconductor layer is then deposited by hybrid sputtering and evaporation process. The Cu/Ga-Mo deposition is controlled to produce the single layer two-phase columnar morphology with controllable Cu or Ga vein size less than about 0.01 microns in width. During the subsequent deposition of the CIS layer, the columnar Cu/Ga regions within the molybdenum of the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer tend to partially leach out, and are replaced by columns of CIS. Narrower Cu and/or Ga regions, and those with fewer inner connections between regions, leach out more slowly during the subsequent CIS deposition. This gives a good mechanical and electrical interlock of the CIS layer into the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer. Solar cells employing In-rich CIS semiconductors bonded to the multi-phase columnar microstructure back layer of this invention exhibit vastly improved photo-electrical conversion on the order of 17% greater than Mo alone, improved uniformity of output across the face of the cell, and greater Fill Factor. 15 figs.

  19. Multi-phase back contacts for CIS solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rockett, Angus A.; Yang, Li-Chung

    1995-01-01

    Multi-phase, single layer, non-interdiffusing M-Mo back contact metallized films, where M is selected from Cu, Ga, or mixtures thereof, for CIS cells are deposited by a sputtering process on suitable substrates, preferably glass or alumina, to prevent delamination of the CIS from the back contact layer. Typical CIS compositions include CuXSe.sub.2 where X is In or/and Ga. The multi-phase mixture is deposited on the substrate in a manner to provide a columnar microstructure, with micro-vein Cu or/and Ga regions which partially or fully vertically penetrate the entire back contact layer. The CIS semiconductor layer is then deposited by hybrid sputtering and evaporation process. The Cu/Ga-Mo deposition is controlled to produce the single layer two-phase columnar morphology with controllable Cu or Ga vein size less than about 0.01 microns in width. During the subsequent deposition of the CIS layer, the columnar Cu/Ga regions within the molybdenum of the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer tend to partially leach out, and are replaced by columns of CIS. Narrower Cu and/or Ga regions, and those with fewer inner connections between regions, leach out more slowly during the subsequent CIS deposition. This gives a good mechanical and electrical interlock of the CIS layer into the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer. Solar cells employing In-rich CIS semiconductors bonded to the multi-phase columnar microstructure back layer of this invention exhibit vastly improved photo-electrical conversion on the order of 17% greater than Mo alone, improved uniformity of output across the face of the cell, and greater Fill Factor.

  20. Histone replacement marks the boundaries of cis-regulatory domains.

    PubMed

    Mito, Yoshiko; Henikoff, Jorja G; Henikoff, Steven

    2007-03-09

    Cellular memory is maintained at homeotic genes by cis-regulatory elements whose mechanism of action is unknown. We have examined chromatin at Drosophila homeotic gene clusters by measuring, at high resolution, levels of histone replacement and nucleosome occupancy. Homeotic gene clusters display conspicuous peaks of histone replacement at boundaries of cis-regulatory domains superimposed over broad regions of low replacement. Peaks of histone replacement closely correspond to nuclease-hypersensitive sites, binding sites for Polycomb and trithorax group proteins, and sites of nucleosome depletion. Our results suggest the existence of a continuous process that disrupts nucleosomes and maintains accessibility of cis-regulatory elements.

  1. The Golgi apparatus: roles for distinct 'cis' and 'trans' compartments.

    PubMed

    Rothman, J E

    1982-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus seems to consist of distinct cis and trans compartments that are proposed to act sequentially to refine the protein export of the endoplasmic reticulum by removing escaped endoplasmic reticulum proteins. Refinement may be a multi-stage process that employs a principle akin to fractional distillation; the stack of cisternae comprising the cis Golgi may be the plates in this distillation tower. The trans Golgi, consisting of the last one or two cisternae, may be the receiver that collects from the cis Golgi only its most refined fraction for later distribution to specific locations throughout the cell.

  2. Public opinions about alcoholism and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R

    1987-03-01

    Survey respondents' views about alcoholism as an illness, support for treatment, treatment recommendation and stigma surrounding alcoholics are examined. Subjects (N = 482) comprise a random sample of the population of Contra Costa County, California. About 91% of the respondents agree with the notion that alcoholism is an illness, but 40% also agree that alcoholics drink because they want to. More women than men support the idea that to recover alcoholics will have to quit drinking forever. The contrary is true of the idea of controlled drinking. Education and income are negatively associated with items on loss of control and controlled drinking. Respondents who have had their lives deeply affected by an alcoholic and those who report a drinking problem of their own do not differ in their opinions about alcoholism from those who do not have these characteristics. Alcoholics Anonymous is the most common form of treatment recommended by the respondents. In general, results show considerable support for treatment as well as ambivalence regarding the disease concept.

  3. A cross-sectional survey of experts’ opinions about the relative effectiveness of tobacco control strategies for the general population versus disadvantaged groups: what do we choose in the absence of evidence?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a clear disparity in smoking rates according to social disadvantage. In the absence of sufficiently robust data regarding effective strategies for reducing smoking prevalence in disadvantaged populations, understanding the views of tobacco control experts can assist with funding decisions and research agendas. Methods A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 192 respondents (response rate 65%) sampled from the Australian and New Zealand Tobacco Control Contacts list and a literature search. Respondents were asked to indicate whether a number of tobacco control strategies were perceived to be effective for each of: the general population; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; those with a low income; and people with a mental illness. Results A high proportion of respondents indicated that mass media and increased tobacco taxation (84% and 89% respectively) were effective for the general population. Significantly lower proportions reported these two strategies were effective for sub-populations, particularly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (58% and 63% respectively, p’s < .0001). Subsidised medication was the only strategy associated with a greater proportion of respondents perceiving it to be effective in disadvantaged sub-populations compared to the general population. Tailored quit programs and culturally relevant programs were nominated as additional effective strategies for disadvantaged populations. Conclusions Views about subsidised medications in particular, suggest the need for robust cost-effectiveness data relevant to disadvantaged groups to avoid wastage of scarce tobacco control resources. Strategies perceived to be effective for disadvantaged populations such as tailored or culturally relevant programs require rigorous evaluation so that potential adoption of these approaches is evidence-based. PMID:24314097

  4. Acne and cosmetics: a cross-sectional, web-based questionnaire survey of the views and opinions of Italian dermatologists on the use of camouflage cosmetics in female patients.

    PubMed

    Mastrolonardo, Mario; Bonamonte, Domenico; Karlis, Xenophon; Fortunato, Francesca; Mazzarella, Francesco; Romita, Paolo; Foti, Caterina

    2017-10-01

    Unsatisfactory response rates are not rarely observed in the management of acne and seem largely related to poor adherence to treatment. As more specifically regards management of the disease in female patients, available literature provides contradictory indications regarding permissibility of using cosmetics. In this study we aimed to narrow our investigation on the habits of non-academic dermatologists specifically with regards to allowing/not-allowing their female patients to use camouflage cosmetics. A Web-based survey was carried out by sending an e-mail containing a brief, aim-oriented questionnaire to a random, nationwide sample of 1508 Italian colleagues. Basic demographic data (sex, age and seniority of specialization), and tick box and open responses to the questionnaire underwent statistical analyses, as appropriate. The response rate was 32.9% (N.=334), this meaning 7.6% of the entire (N.=4390) Italy-based dermatologist population. The outcome between pros-and-cons standpoints was substantially split in half, in that less more than half of interviewees felt "very" or "rather" important to prohibit the use of camouflage cosmetics to their patients and only allowed the use of make-up sporadically, i.e. on "special" occasions. Camouflage cosmetics in acne patients should not be a sort of taboo for each dermatologist needing to deal with it individually in his/her day-by-day clinical practice. On the other hand, what appears to be still missing is future third-party research on the actual feasibility of cosmetics, and of camouflage products in particular. Large scale, possibly split-face controlled evaluations would be in this view a gold standard to confide in.

  5. A cross-sectional survey of experts' opinions about the relative effectiveness of tobacco control strategies for the general population versus disadvantaged groups: what do we choose in the absence of evidence?

    PubMed

    Paul, Christine L; Turon, Heidi; Bonevski, Billie; Bryant, Jamie; McElduff, Patrick

    2013-12-08

    There is a clear disparity in smoking rates according to social disadvantage. In the absence of sufficiently robust data regarding effective strategies for reducing smoking prevalence in disadvantaged populations, understanding the views of tobacco control experts can assist with funding decisions and research agendas. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 192 respondents (response rate 65%) sampled from the Australian and New Zealand Tobacco Control Contacts list and a literature search. Respondents were asked to indicate whether a number of tobacco control strategies were perceived to be effective for each of: the general population; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; those with a low income; and people with a mental illness. A high proportion of respondents indicated that mass media and increased tobacco taxation (84% and 89% respectively) were effective for the general population. Significantly lower proportions reported these two strategies were effective for sub-populations, particularly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (58% and 63% respectively, p's < .0001). Subsidised medication was the only strategy associated with a greater proportion of respondents perceiving it to be effective in disadvantaged sub-populations compared to the general population. Tailored quit programs and culturally relevant programs were nominated as additional effective strategies for disadvantaged populations. Views about subsidised medications in particular, suggest the need for robust cost-effectiveness data relevant to disadvantaged groups to avoid wastage of scarce tobacco control resources. Strategies perceived to be effective for disadvantaged populations such as tailored or culturally relevant programs require rigorous evaluation so that potential adoption of these approaches is evidence-based.

  6. Implementing research findings into practice using clinical opinion leaders: barriers and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Curran, Geoffrey M; Thrush, Carol R; Smith, Jeffrey L; Owen, Richard R; Ritchie, Mona; Chadwick, Dale

    2005-12-01

    An opinion leader-driven intervention to improve practice guideline-based medication management for patients with schizophrenia was tested at four Department of Veterans Affairs health care facilities. The concept of using opinion leaders as disseminators of research evidence and internal agents of change has been widely reported. Each intervention site received an intensive, multicomponent intervention during the course of one year. The project's process evaluation included ongoing brief surveys of physicians' attitudes and behaviors, logs of reports from opinion leader conference calls, and interviews with the opinion leaders toward the end of the implementation period. Several barriers or problematic issues surfaced: (1) physicians do not always agree on who is an opinion leader; some sites may have no opinion leader; (2) some sites had poorly developed formal and informal social networks among physicians; (3) a focus on physicians only as agents of change; and (4) how much directive should be given to the opinion leaders concerning how to influence attitudes and behaviors? Four major problematic issues encountered during the project offer potential solutions for addressing them.

  7. Public opinions on community water fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Quiñonez, Carlos R; Locker, David

    2009-01-01

    Community water fluoridation (CWF) is currently experiencing social resistance in Canada. Petitions have been publicly registered, municipal plebiscites have occurred, and media attention is growing. There is now concern among policy leaders whether the practice is acceptable to Canadians. As a result, this study asks: What are public opinions on CWF? Data were collected in April 2008 from 1,005 Canadian adults by means of a national telephone interview survey using random digit dialling and computer-assisted telephone interview technology. Descriptive and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were undertaken. Approximately 1 in 2 Canadian adults surveyed knew about CWF. Of these, 80% understood its intended use, approximately 60% believed that it was both safe and effective, and 62% supported the idea of having fluoride added to their local drinking water. Those with greater incomes [OR=1.4; p<0.001] and education [OR=1.6; p<0.001] were more likely to know about CWF. Those with greater incomes [OR=1.3; p<0.03] and those who visited the dentist more frequently [OR=1.8; p<0.002] were more likely to support CWF, and those with children [OR=0.5; p<0.02], those who accessed dental care using public insurance [OR=0.2; p<0.03], and those who avoided fluoride [OR=0.04; p<0.001] were less likely to support CWF. It appears that Canadians still support CWF. In moving forward, policy leaders will need to attend to two distinct challenges: the influence of anti-fluoride sentiment, and the potential risks created by avoiding fluoride.

  8. i-cisTarget 2015 update: generalized cis-regulatory enrichment analysis in human, mouse and fly.

    PubMed

    Imrichová, Hana; Hulselmans, Gert; Atak, Zeynep Kalender; Potier, Delphine; Aerts, Stein

    2015-07-01

    i-cisTarget is a web tool to predict regulators of a set of genomic regions, such as ChIP-seq peaks or co-regulated/similar enhancers. i-cisTarget can also be used to identify upstream regulators and their target enhancers starting from a set of co-expressed genes. Whereas the original version of i-cisTarget was focused on Drosophila data, the 2015 update also provides support for human and mouse data. i-cisTarget detects transcription factor motifs (position weight matrices) and experimental data tracks (e.g. from ENCODE, Roadmap Epigenomics) that are enriched in the input set of regions. As experimental data tracks we include transcription factor ChIP-seq data, histone modification ChIP-seq data and open chromatin data. The underlying processing method is based on a ranking-and-recovery procedure, allowing accurate determination of enrichment across heterogeneous datasets, while also discriminating direct from indirect target regions through a 'leading edge' analysis. We illustrate i-cisTarget on various Ewing sarcoma datasets to identify EWS-FLI1 targets starting from ChIP-seq, differential ATAC-seq, differential H3K27ac and differential gene expression data. Use of i-cisTarget is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. Address: http://gbiomed.kuleuven.be/apps/lcb/i-cisTarget. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Developing Student Opinions on Agricultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Gerry; Reisner, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Presents early evidence from a longitudinal study suggesting that many agricultural college students lack opinions on soil and water conservation issues. Data also suggest encounters with conservation issues in the classroom and elsewhere encourage students, to learn about and form opinions on conservation. (27 references) (Author/MCO)

  10. Museum Personnel's Opinions on Mobile Guidance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimura, Hirokazu; Sekiguchi, Hiromi; Yabumoto, Yoshitaka

    2007-01-01

    While opinions from the general public are certainly important, opinions from the museum staff are also necessary to improve user service systems. this article introduces two groups of museum staff who have evaluated the usability of mobile guidance systems in Japanese museums. One group is the research team who used the PDA system in the National…

  11. Developing Student Opinions on Agricultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Gerry; Reisner, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Presents early evidence from a longitudinal study suggesting that many agricultural college students lack opinions on soil and water conservation issues. Data also suggest encounters with conservation issues in the classroom and elsewhere encourage students, to learn about and form opinions on conservation. (27 references) (Author/MCO)

  12. Applied Linguists and Institutions of Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Public opinion research is not an area that has received much attention from applied linguists. But language lies at the heart of the procedures used to define, elicit, and report opinions, whether through such methods as polling, interviews, and focus groups, or through the less obvious channels of vox pop interviews, letters to the editor, radio…

  13. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  14. 24 CFR 1710.17 - Advisory opinion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Advisory opinion. (a) General. A developer may request an opinion from the Secretary as to whether an... developer should at least cite the applicable statutory or regulatory basis for the exemption or lack of... outside the purview of the Act. (3) An affirmation as shown below: Developer's Affirmation Name...

  15. Public Opinion Poll on Community Priorities: Sacramento

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to measure public perceptions, opinions and priorities as they pertain to youth issues in Sacramento for the purposes of further developing public and private youth programming and public policy in the Sacramento region. By presenting a "statistically reliable" profile of public opinion on youth issues,…

  16. Geographic variation in opinions on climate change at state and local scales in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Peter D.; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Addressing climate change in the United States requires enactment of national, state and local mitigation and adaptation policies. The success of these initiatives depends on public opinion, policy support and behaviours at appropriate scales. Public opinion, however, is typically measured with national surveys that obscure geographic variability across regions, states and localities. Here we present independently validated high-resolution opinion estimates using a multilevel regression and poststratification model. The model accurately predicts climate change beliefs, risk perceptions and policy preferences at the state, congressional district, metropolitan and county levels, using a concise set of demographic and geographic predictors. The analysis finds substantial variation in public opinion across the nation. Nationally, 63% of Americans believe global warming is happening, but county-level estimates range from 43 to 80%, leading to a diversity of political environments for climate policy. These estimates provide an important new source of information for policymakers, educators and scientists to more effectively address the challenges of climate change.

  17. Trans-cis molecular photoswitching in interstellar Space.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, S; Goicoechea, J R; Roncero, O; Aguado, A; Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J

    2016-12-01

    As many organic molecules, formic acid (HCOOH) has two conformers (trans and cis). The energy barrier to internal conversion from trans to cis is much higher than the thermal energy available in molecular clouds. Thus, only the most stable conformer (trans) is expected to exist in detectable amounts. We report the first interstellar detection of cis-HCOOH. Its presence in ultraviolet (UV) irradiated gas exclusively (the Orion Bar photodissociation region), with a low trans-to-cis abundance ratio of 2.8 ± 1.0, supports a photoswitching mechanism: a given conformer absorbs a stellar photon that radiatively excites the molecule to electronic states above the interconversion barrier. Subsequent fluorescent decay leaves the molecule in a different conformer form. This mechanism, which we specifically study with ab initio quantum calculations, was not considered in Space before but likely induces structural changes of a variety of interstellar molecules submitted to UV radiation.

  18. Trans-cis molecular photoswitching in interstellar Space*

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Roncero, O.; Aguado, A.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.

    2016-01-01

    As many organic molecules, formic acid (HCOOH) has two conformers (trans and cis). The energy barrier to internal conversion from trans to cis is much higher than the thermal energy available in molecular clouds. Thus, only the most stable conformer (trans) is expected to exist in detectable amounts. We report the first interstellar detection of cis-HCOOH. Its presence in ultraviolet (UV) irradiated gas exclusively (the Orion Bar photodissociation region), with a low trans-to-cis abundance ratio of 2.8 ± 1.0, supports a photoswitching mechanism: a given conformer absorbs a stellar photon that radiatively excites the molecule to electronic states above the interconversion barrier. Subsequent fluorescent decay leaves the molecule in a different conformer form. This mechanism, which we specifically study with ab initio quantum calculations, was not considered in Space before but likely induces structural changes of a variety of interstellar molecules submitted to UV radiation. PMID:28003686

  19. New cis-clerodane diterpenoids from Croton schiedeanus.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Pilar; Correa, Sofía Ximena; Guerrero, Mario; Carron, Rosalía; San Feliciano, Arturo

    2005-03-01

    The acid fraction of extracts from the aerial part of Croton schiedeanus afforded six cis-clerodane type diterpenoids. Two of them (1 and 4) are new natural compounds. Structural elucidation was achieved on the basis of their spectral data.

  20. The metabolism of cis- and trans-decalin

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, T. H.; Robertson, J. S.; Williams, R. T.

    1966-01-01

    1. The metabolism of cis- and trans-decalin in the rabbit has been investigated. 2. Both hydrocarbons were oxidized to racemic secondary alcohols and excreted as ether glucuronides in amounts equal to about 60% of the dose administered. The principal glucuronides were isolated as triacetyl methyl esters and as sodium salts. 3. cis-Decalin gave rise mainly to (±)-cis–cis-2-decalol, together with a little cis–trans-2-decalol, and trans-decalin mainly to (±)-trans–cis-2-decalol and a small amount of trans–trans-2-decalol. 4. These results suggest that biological oxidation of the decalins does not occur via a free-radical mechanism. An attempt is made to explain why racemic alcohols are obtained, rather than the more typical optically active products of enzymic reaction, and a mechanism is proposed. It is suggested that enzymes similar to steroid hydroxylases are involved. PMID:5968538

  1. CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R.; Kennedy, K.; Howard, R.; Whitmore, M.; Martin, C.; Garate, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In preparation for human exploration to Mars, there is a need to define the development and test program that will validate deep space operations and systems. In that context, a Proving Grounds CisLunar habitat spacecraft is being defined as the next step towards this goal. This spacecraft will operate differently from the ISS or other spacecraft in human history. The performance envelope of this spacecraft (mass, volume, power, specifications, etc.) is being defined by the Future Capabilities Study Team. This team has recognized the need for a human-centered approach for the internal architecture of this spacecraft and has commissioned a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture Study Team to develop a NASA reference configuration, providing the Agency with a "smart buyer" approach for future acquisition. THE CISLUNAR HABITAT INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE STUDY: Overall, the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture study will address the most significant questions and risks in the current CisLunar architecture, habitation, and operations concept development. This effort is achieved through definition of design criteria, evaluation criteria and process, design of the CisLunar Habitat Phase-1 internal architecture, and the development and fabrication of internal architecture concepts combined with rigorous and methodical Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) evaluations and testing of the conceptual innovations in a controlled test environment. The vision of the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Study is to design, build, and test a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture that will be used for habitation (e.g. habitability and human factors) evaluations. The evaluations will mature CisLunar habitat evaluation tools, guidelines, and standards, and will interface with other projects such as the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program integrated Power, Avionics, Software (iPAS), and Logistics for integrated human-in-the-loop testing. The mission of the Cis

  2. Opinion formation models on a gradient.

    PubMed

    Gastner, Michael T; Markou, Nikolitsa; Pruessner, Gunnar; Draief, Moez

    2014-01-01

    Statistical physicists have become interested in models of collective social behavior such as opinion formation, where individuals change their inherently preferred opinion if their friends disagree. Real preferences often depend on regional cultural differences, which we model here as a spatial gradient g in the initial opinion. The gradient does not only add reality to the model. It can also reveal that opinion clusters in two dimensions are typically in the standard (i.e., independent) percolation universality class, thus settling a recent controversy about a non-consensus model. However, using analytical and numerical tools, we also present a model where the width of the transition between opinions scales proportional g(-1/4), not proportional g(-4/7) as in independent percolation, and the cluster size distribution is consistent with first-order percolation.

  3. Opinion Formation Models on a Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gastner, Michael T.; Markou, Nikolitsa; Pruessner, Gunnar; Draief, Moez

    2014-01-01

    Statistical physicists have become interested in models of collective social behavior such as opinion formation, where individuals change their inherently preferred opinion if their friends disagree. Real preferences often depend on regional cultural differences, which we model here as a spatial gradient g in the initial opinion. The gradient does not only add reality to the model. It can also reveal that opinion clusters in two dimensions are typically in the standard (i.e., independent) percolation universality class, thus settling a recent controversy about a non-consensus model. However, using analytical and numerical tools, we also present a model where the width of the transition between opinions scales , not as in independent percolation, and the cluster size distribution is consistent with first-order percolation. PMID:25474528

  4. The tomato cis-prenyltransferase gene family.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tariq A; Matsuba, Yuki; Schauvinhold, Ines; Yu, Geng; Lees, Hazel A; Klein, Samuel E; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-02-01

    cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs) are predicted to be involved in the synthesis of long-chain polyisoprenoids, all with five or more isoprene (C5) units. Recently, we identified a short-chain CPT, neryl diphosphate synthase (NDPS1), in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here, we searched the tomato genome and identified and characterized its entire CPT gene family, which comprises seven members (SlCPT1-7, with NDPS1 designated as SlCPT1). Six of the SlCPT genes encode proteins with N-terminal targeting sequences, which, when fused to GFP, mediated GFP transport to the plastids of Arabidopsis protoplasts. The SlCPT3-GFP fusion protein was localized to the cytosol. Enzymatic characterization of recombinant SlCPT proteins demonstrated that SlCPT6 produces Z,Z-FPP, and SlCPT2 catalyzes the formation of nerylneryl diphosphate while SlCPT4, SlCPT5 and SlCPT7 synthesize longer-chain products (C25-C55). Although no in vitro activity was demonstrated for SlCPT3, its expression in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dolichol biosynthesis mutant (rer2) complemented the temperature-sensitive growth defect. Transcripts of SlCPT2, SlCPT4, SlCPT5 and SlCPT7 are present at low levels in multiple tissues, SlCPT6 is exclusively expressed in red fruit and roots, and SlCPT1, SlCPT3 and SlCPT7 are highly expressed in trichomes. RNAi-mediated suppression of NDPS1 led to a large decrease in β-phellandrene (which is produced from neryl diphosphate), with greater reductions achieved with the general 35S promoter compared to the trichome-specific MKS1 promoter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed CPT gene families in both eudicots and monocots, and showed that all the short-chain CPT genes from tomato (SlCPT1, SlCPT2 and SlCPT6) are closely linked to terpene synthase gene clusters.

  5. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  6. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  7. OpinionFlow: Visual Analysis of Opinion Diffusion on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Yan, Kai; Liu, Mengchen; Wu, Fangzhao

    2014-12-01

    It is important for many different applications such as government and business intelligence to analyze and explore the diffusion of public opinions on social media. However, the rapid propagation and great diversity of public opinions on social media pose great challenges to effective analysis of opinion diffusion. In this paper, we introduce a visual analysis system called OpinionFlow to empower analysts to detect opinion propagation patterns and glean insights. Inspired by the information diffusion model and the theory of selective exposure, we develop an opinion diffusion model to approximate opinion propagation among Twitter users. Accordingly, we design an opinion flow visualization that combines a Sankey graph with a tailored density map in one view to visually convey diffusion of opinions among many users. A stacked tree is used to allow analysts to select topics of interest at different levels. The stacked tree is synchronized with the opinion flow visualization to help users examine and compare diffusion patterns across topics. Experiments and case studies on Twitter data demonstrate the effectiveness and usability of OpinionFlow.

  8. Prolyl cis-trans isomerization as a molecular timer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun Ping; Finn, Greg; Lee, Tae Ho; Nicholson, Linda K

    2007-10-01

    Proline is unique in the realm of amino acids in its ability to adopt completely distinct cis and trans conformations, which allows it to act as a backbone switch that is controlled by prolyl cis-trans isomerization. This intrinsically slow interconversion can be catalyzed by the evolutionarily conserved group of peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase enzymes. These enzymes include cyclophilins and FK506-binding proteins, which are well known for their isomerization-independent role as cellular targets for immunosuppressive drugs. The significance of enzyme-catalyzed prolyl cis-trans isomerization as an important regulatory mechanism in human physiology and pathology was not recognized until the discovery of the phosphorylation-specific prolyl isomerase Pin1. Recent studies indicate that both phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent prolyl cis-trans isomerization can act as a novel molecular timer to help control the amplitude and duration of a cellular process, and prolyl cis-trans isomerization might be a new target for therapeutic interventions.

  9. An opinion diffusion model with decision-making groups: The influence of the opinion's acceptability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhichao; Xiong, Yang; Xu, Yiwen

    2016-11-01

    An opinion dynamic model with decision-making groups was proposed to study the process of adopting new opinions or ideas by individuals. The opinion's acceptability is introduced to distinguish the general character of different opinions. The simulation results on a free-scale network demonstrate that when two opinions have similar acceptability, the opinion supported by more decision-making groups in the beginning will eventually win the support of more agents, whereas an opinion supported by fewer decision-making groups in the beginning may be supported by the majority at the end only if it has better acceptability, and if the tolerance threshold of the society is higher than a specific value.

  10. Nozomi Cis-Lunar Phase Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryne, Mark; Criddle, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) launched Nozomi, its first mission to the planet Mars using the newly developed M-V launch vehicle on July 3, 1998. Scientific objectives of the mission are to study the structure and dynamics of the Martian upper atmosphere and its interaction with the solar wind. Nozomi is a cooperative mission between ISAS and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA contribution includes navigation and tracking services provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The spacecraft also serves as an engineering demonstration of basic technology for planetary exploration. One of the new technologies was a unique trajectory, developed by ISAS, which used solar gravitational perturbations at the weak stability boundary as an aid to achieve an Earth-Mars transfer orbit. This trajectory saves approximately 120 m/s of Delta V compared to direct hyperbolic insertion and is considered an enabling technology for the mission. Nozomi was the first spacecraft to employ this trajectory and provided on-orbit validation of the technique. The trajectory was achieved by initially placing the spacecraft in a highly elliptical cis-lunar phasing orbit. Six maneuvers were performed during this period to correct injection errors and target an outbound lunar swingby in September 1998. The gravity assist from the lunar swingby raised apogee to the vicinity of the weak stability boundary. After three more targeting maneuvers, Nozomi performed an inbound lunar swingby followed immediately by a powered Earth swingby in late December 1998. A 420 m/s Trans Mars Insertion (TMI) burn at the final Earth periapsis was intended to place the spacecraft on a heliocentric trajectory leading to Mars orbit insertion in October 1999. Orbit determination for Nozomi is performed in parallel by both ISAS and the Multi-Mission Navigation (MMNAV) group at JPL. This was an advantage for the mission because each group would generate

  11. Nozomi Cis-Lunar Phase Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryne, Mark; Criddle, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) launched Nozomi, its first mission to the planet Mars using the newly developed M-V launch vehicle on July 3, 1998. Scientific objectives of the mission are to study the structure and dynamics of the Martian upper atmosphere and its interaction with the solar wind. Nozomi is a cooperative mission between ISAS and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA contribution includes navigation and tracking services provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The spacecraft also serves as an engineering demonstration of basic technology for planetary exploration. One of the new technologies was a unique trajectory, developed by ISAS, which used solar gravitational perturbations at the weak stability boundary as an aid to achieve an Earth-Mars transfer orbit. This trajectory saves approximately 120 m/s of Delta V compared to direct hyperbolic insertion and is considered an enabling technology for the mission. Nozomi was the first spacecraft to employ this trajectory and provided on-orbit validation of the technique. The trajectory was achieved by initially placing the spacecraft in a highly elliptical cis-lunar phasing orbit. Six maneuvers were performed during this period to correct injection errors and target an outbound lunar swingby in September 1998. The gravity assist from the lunar swingby raised apogee to the vicinity of the weak stability boundary. After three more targeting maneuvers, Nozomi performed an inbound lunar swingby followed immediately by a powered Earth swingby in late December 1998. A 420 m/s Trans Mars Insertion (TMI) burn at the final Earth periapsis was intended to place the spacecraft on a heliocentric trajectory leading to Mars orbit insertion in October 1999. Orbit determination for Nozomi is performed in parallel by both ISAS and the Multi-Mission Navigation (MMNAV) group at JPL. This was an advantage for the mission because each group would generate

  12. [Opinions and attitudes regarding sexuality: Brazilian national research, 2005].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Vera; Aranha, Francisco; Bastos, Francisco I

    2008-06-01

    To describe opinions and attitudes concerning sexuality of the Brazilian urban population. A population survey was carried out in 2005 on a representative sample of 5,040 interviewees. An analysis of the attitudes regarding sexual initiation and sexual education of teenagers, considering gender, age, schooling, income, marital status, color, geographic region and opinion on fidelity, homosexuality, and masturbation. The results were contrasted with a similar survey carried out in 1998, when possible. Most interviewees selected the "sex is evidence of love" option when describing the meaning of sex. As in 1998, the majority was in favor of sexual initiation after marriage (63.9% for women vs. 52.4% for men initiation); results differed among religions. School teenage education on the use of condoms was supported by 97% of the interviewees across all social groups. The proportion of Brazilians who agreed with having access to condoms in health services (95%) and at school (83.6%) was high. Fidelity remained an almost unanimous value and there was an increase, in 2005, in the proportion of those in favor of sexual initiation after marriage, and in the rate of acceptance of masturbation and homosexuality compared to the 1998 survey. The younger generations tend to be more tolerant and egalitarian. As observed in other countries, this study confirms the difficulty in establishing a single dimension that guides sexual life ("liberal" vs "conservative"). The study suggests that the normativity concerning sexual activity should be understood in the light of the local culture and social organization of sexuality, considered by the STD/Aids programs. Opinions in favor of free access to preservatives at school clash with the slower results obtained in fighting the stigma and discriminating against homosexual minorities. The design of laical policies on sexuality allow for the dialog across different perspectives.

  13. The public's opinions of physicians: do perceived choice and exercised choice matter?

    PubMed

    Tai-Seale, Ming; Pescosolido, Bernice

    2003-09-01

    To assess whether the public's opinions of physicians are affected by one's perceived ability to choose providers and by past experience with switching providers or health plans. Cross-sectional survey of the American general public in 1998. Multivariate quantitative analyses of opinions according to respondents' perceived ability to choose providers, history of exercising choice of providers or plans, and health status. Exploratory factor analyses resulted in 4 scales of opinions: trusting personal physician, positive opinions of physicians as a group, negative opinions of physicians as a group, and concerns about the influence of managed care on personal physicians' practice patterns. Although 75% (879/1172) of the sample perceived that they could use any physician they wanted, only 20% had ever switched health providers or plans owing to dissatisfaction. Perceived lack of choice is associated with lower levels of trust in personal physicians and with higher levels of concern about the influence of managed care on personal physicians. Individuals who have not switched in the past are more positive about physicians as a group and are less concerned about the influence of managed care. Health status affected opinions significantly. Educational attainment is negatively associated with opinions. The public's opinions of physicians are significantly associated with one's perceived ability to choose any provider, past experience with switching health providers or plans, health status, and education. Ensuring consumer choice of providers and targeting those who have switched in the past and the sick could potentially improve the public's opinions. Meaningful provider quality information is necessary to ensure choices that can enhance consumer welfare.

  14. Public opinion and organ donation suggestions for overcoming barriers.

    PubMed

    Cantarovich, Félix

    2005-01-01

    Getting organs for transplantation depends on people's decision; thus, public opinion is essential to finding a solution to this problem. Efforts to improve organ shortage focus on: 1) Living, unrelated donation, 2) increasing marginal donors and 3) proposing economic support for donors. Paradoxically, no initiative has been suggested to modify public opinion towards cadaver donors. Several reasons explain the resistance to donating cadaver organs: Lack of awareness, religious uncertainties, distrust of medicine, hostility to new ideas, and misinformation. Education should be used to reshape public opinion about the use of organs for transplantation. Society should accept that "using" body parts is moral and offers a source of health for everybody. The concept that using cadaver organs implies sharing a source of health might be a social agreement between all members of Society. Suggestions for improving organ shortage include: 1) Society should understand that during one's life one may be just as easily a potential organ receiver as one is an organ donor. 2) Cadaver organs are an irreplaceable source of health. 3) As self-interest is one obstacle to donating cadaver organs, the "concept that allowing the use of our organs after death represents a chance of sharing health for everybody" may be useful for a change of attitude. Even though a poll among transplant professionals supported this suggestion, an international public survey should be carried out to evaluate people's reaction to this message.

  15. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  16. Physicians' opinions following pharmacogenetic testing for psychotropic medication.

    PubMed

    Walden, Lucas M; Brandl, Eva J; Changasi, Amtul; Sturgess, Jessica E; Soibel, Alexander; Notario, Janna Fe D; Cheema, Sheraz; Braganza, Nicole; Marshe, Victoria S; Freeman, Natalie; Tiwari, Arun K; Kennedy, James L; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-10-30

    Pharmacogenetics seeks to improve patient drug response and decrease side effects by personalizing prescriptions using genetic information. Since 2012, by one estimate, the number of patients who have had pharmacogenetic testing has doubled and this number is expected to double again by 2015. Given the increasing evidence for genetic influences on treatment response, we deemed it important to study physicians' opinions of pharmacogenetic testing. Surveys were completed by 168 Canadian physicians who had ordered at least one pharmacogenetic test (in particular for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19) for the prescription of psychiatric medication. Our results indicated that 80% of respondents believe genetic testing would become common standard in psychiatric drug treatment and 76% of respondents reported satisfactory or higher than satisfactory understanding of the pharmacogenetic report provided. Significantly more male physicians believed they had a higher understanding of the pharmacogenetic report compared to female physicians. To our knowledge, this is the only study that has assessed physicians' opinions of pharmacogenetic testing for psychotropic medication after they had received a pharmacogenetic report. Our results demonstrate a positive opinion of physicians on pharmacogenetics and indicate great potential for future clinical application.

  17. Opinions from the Front Lines of Cat Colony Management Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, M. Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  18. Present activies and opinions of scientific and technical information users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikura, Ryo; Marumo, Kazuaki

    Present activities and opinions of database users at private enterprises, national institutes or universities are surveyed by a questionnaire and interviews. The investigation includes the following items : 1. Establishment of the inhouse database, 2. Complaints against the existing services of scientific and technical information, 3. Expense for collecting information, 4. Comparison of the database services between public and private, and Japanese and foreign, 5. Requirements to the organization for information service, and government. As the result, they knew that users expect much on the online service and especially wish providers to lower the price and make a single command which enables searchers to make easy access to the various databases.

  19. Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, Misook

    The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled about evolution, but offered limited response categories that mask complexity in public opinion (Bishop 2006; Moore 2008). The main problems concerning the leading survey questions about evolution are: first, questions measure only a single dimension, thus they ignore the potential for multidimensionality in people's attitudes. Second, depending on question wording and response options, the results of public opinion surveys vary by polling groups. This is an example of measurement error which misleads the interpretation and impression of American public opinion on the origin of humankind. A number of studies have analyzed Americans' beliefs about evolution and hypothesized about the influential effects of several factors (Deckman 2002; Mazur 2005; Mooney 2005; Miller et al. 2006; Newport 2006; Forrest 2007;Nisbet and Goidel 2007;Scott 2009). However, there remains a lack of complete understanding of what Americans know and believe about human evolution. Given the salience of this issue and the significant influence of public opinion on policy-making in America (Page and Shapiro 1992; Stimson 2004; Newport 2004), the measurement error and explanation of polling results on controversial issues related to this topic are in need of clarification. In this study, I address these deficiencies with analyses of data from a 2008 national survey by Harris Interactive (n= 4,626) that included numerous measures of factual knowledge and beliefs about evolution. The items offer more nuanced response options than the standard three-category question asked for decades by the Gallup poll. The Harris survey also had multiple measures of religiosity and the

  20. Defining adolescent common mental disorders using electronic primary care data: a comparison with outcomes measured using the CIS-R

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, Rosie P; John, Ann; Boyd, Andy; Tilling, Kate; Macleod, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) derived from data held in primary care records with that measured using the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) in order to assess the potential robustness of findings based only on routinely collected data. Design and setting Comparison study using linkage between the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and electronic primary care records. Participants We studied 1562 adolescents who had completed the CIS-R in ALSPAC at age 17–18 years and had linkage established to their primary care records. Outcome measures Outcome measures from ALSPAC were whether or not an individual met International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for a diagnosis of (1) a CMD or, specifically, (2) depression. Lists of Read codes corresponding to diagnoses, symptoms and treatments were used to create 12 definitions of CMD and depression alone using the primary care data. We calculated sensitivities and specificities of these, using CIS-R definitions as the reference standard. Results Sensitivities ranged from 5.2% to 24.3% for depression and from 3.8% to 19.2% for CMD. The specificities of all definitions were above 98% for depression and above 96% for CMD. For both outcomes, the definition that included current diagnosis, treatment or symptoms identified the highest proportion of CIS-R cases. Conclusions Most individuals meeting case definitions for CMD based on primary care data also met CIS-R case definitions. Conversely many individuals identified as cases using the CIS-R had no evidence of CMD in their clinical records. This suggests that clinical databases are likely to yield underestimates of the burden of CMD in the population. However, clinical records appear to yield valid diagnoses which may be useful for studying risk factors and consequences of CMD. The greatest epidemiological value may be obtained when information is available from survey and clinical records. PMID

  1. Choice Shift in Opinion Network Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbay, Michael

    Choice shift is a phenomenon associated with small group dynamics whereby group discussion causes group members to shift their opinions in a more extreme direction so that the mean post-discussion opinion exceeds the mean pre-discussion opinion. Also known as group polarization, choice shift is a robust experimental phenomenon and has been well-studied within social psychology. In opinion network models, shifts toward extremism are typically produced by the presence of stubborn agents at the extremes of the opinion axis, whose opinions are much more resistant to change than moderate agents. However, we present a model in which choice shift can arise without the assumption of stubborn agents; the model evolves member opinions and uncertainties using coupled nonlinear differential equations. In addition, we briefly describe the results of a recent experiment conducted involving online group discussion concerning the outcome of National Football League games are described. The model predictions concerning the effects of network structure, disagreement level, and team choice (favorite or underdog) are in accord with the experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  2. Nonconsensus opinion model on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Bo; Li, Qian; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Wang, Huijuan

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic social opinion models have been widely studied on undirected networks, and most of them are based on spin interaction models that produce a consensus. In reality, however, many networks such as Twitter and the World Wide Web are directed and are composed of both unidirectional and bidirectional links. Moreover, from choosing a coffee brand to deciding who to vote for in an election, two or more competing opinions often coexist. In response to this ubiquity of directed networks and the coexistence of two or more opinions in decision-making situations, we study a nonconsensus opinion model introduced by Shao et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 018701 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.018701] on directed networks. We define directionality ξ as the percentage of unidirectional links in a network, and we use the linear correlation coefficient ρ between the in-degree and out-degree of a node to quantify the relation between the in-degree and out-degree. We introduce two degree-preserving rewiring approaches which allow us to construct directed networks that can have a broad range of possible combinations of directionality ξ and linear correlation coefficient ρ and to study how ξ and ρ impact opinion competitions. We find that, as the directionality ξ or the in-degree and out-degree correlation ρ increases, the majority opinion becomes more dominant and the minority opinion's ability to survive is lowered.

  3. Glucose intolerance following cis-platinum treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R S; Mayor, G H; Rosenbaum, R W; Hook, J B; Santiago, J V; Bond, J T

    1982-01-01

    cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum (cis-Pt) is a heavy metal complex used in cancer chemotherapy. Since this drug has been shown to induce hyperglycemia in rats, these studies were initiated to elucidate the effects of cis-Pt on carbohydrate tolerance and insulin and glucagon secretion. Two days following i.v. cis-Pt (2.5 or 7.5 mg/kg, 5 ml/kg) or vehicle administration to male F-344 rats, plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and glucagon (IRG) concentrations were determined in the basal state and serially following a glucose load (2 g/kg, i.p.). Since cis-Pt induces a dose-related anorexia, a pair-fed control group was also studied. Administration of 7.5 mg/kg cis-Pt was associated with plasma glucose concentrations 2.5-5 times greater than ad-libitum and pair-fed controls at every time point during the 2-h glucose tolerance test. Although basal plasma IRI concentrations of the 7.5-mg/kg group were comparable to ad-libitum fed controls, they were significantly greater than those of pair-fed partners. Furthermore, the appropriate IRI response to a glucose stimulus observed in both controls and the 2.5-mg/kg group was absent in the 7.5-mg/kg group. Basal plasma IRG concentrations of the 7.5-mg/kg group were approximately 3-4 times greater than ad-libitum and pair-fed controls and were not suppressed following a glucose load. These results suggest that cis-Pt induces marked glucose intolerance in association with an impaired IRI response and abnormal glucagon response to a glucose stimulus.

  4. Evaluating cis-2,6-Dimethylpiperidide (cis-DMP) as a Base Component in Lithium-Mediated Zincation Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, David R; Garden, Jennifer A; Kennedy, Alan R; Leenhouts, Sarah M; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Keefe, Philip; O'Hara, Charles T; Steven, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Most recent advances in metallation chemistry have centred on the bulky secondary amide 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (TMP) within mixed metal, often ate, compositions. However, the precursor amine TMP(H) is rather expensive so a cheaper substitute would be welcome. Thus this study was aimed towards developing cheaper non-TMP based mixed-metal bases and, as cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidide (cis-DMP) was chosen as the alternative amide, developing cis-DMP zincate chemistry which has received meagre attention compared to that of its methyl-rich counterpart TMP. A new lithium diethylzincate, [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)Et2] (TMEDA=N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine) has been synthesised by co-complexation of Li(cis-DMP), Et2Zn and TMEDA, and characterised by NMR (including DOSY) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, which revealed a dinuclear contact ion pair arrangement. By using N,N-diisopropylbenzamide as a test aromatic substrate, the deprotonative reactivity of [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)Et2] has been probed and contrasted with that of the known but previously uninvestigated di-tert-butylzincate, [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)tBu2]. The former was found to be the superior base (for example, producing the ortho-deuteriated product in respective yields of 78 % and 48 % following D2O quenching of zincated benzamide intermediates). An 88 % yield of 2-iodo-N,N-diisopropylbenzamide was obtained on reaction of two equivalents of the diethylzincate with the benzamide followed by iodination. Comparisons are also drawn using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazide (HMDS), diisopropylamide and TMP as the amide component in the lithium amide, Et2Zn and TMEDA system. Under certain conditions, the cis-DMP base system was found to give improved results in comparison to HMDS and diisopropylamide (DA), and comparable results to a TMP system. Two novel complexes isolated from reactions of the di-tert-butylzincate and crystallographically characterised, namely the pre-metallation complex [{(iPr)2N(Ph)C=O}LiZn(cis

  5. Evaluating cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidide (cis-DMP) as a base component in lithium-mediated zincation chemistry.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David R; Garden, Jennifer A; Kennedy, Alan R; Leenhouts, Sarah M; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Keefe, Philip; O'Hara, Charles T; Steven, Alan

    2013-09-27

    Most recent advances in metallation chemistry have centred on the bulky secondary amide 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (TMP) within mixed metal, often ate, compositions. However, the precursor amine TMP(H) is rather expensive so a cheaper substitute would be welcome. Thus this study was aimed towards developing cheaper non-TMP based mixed-metal bases and, as cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidide (cis-DMP) was chosen as the alternative amide, developing cis-DMP zincate chemistry which has received meagre attention compared to that of its methyl-rich counterpart TMP. A new lithium diethylzincate, [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)Et2] (TMEDA=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) has been synthesised by co-complexation of Li(cis-DMP), Et2Zn and TMEDA, and characterised by NMR (including DOSY) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, which revealed a dinuclear contact ion pair arrangement. By using N,N-diisopropylbenzamide as a test aromatic substrate, the deprotonative reactivity of [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)Et2] has been probed and contrasted with that of the known but previously uninvestigated di-tert-butylzincate, [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)tBu2]. The former was found to be the superior base (for example, producing the ortho-deuteriated product in respective yields of 78% and 48% following D2O quenching of zincated benzamide intermediates). An 88% yield of 2-iodo-N,N-diisopropylbenzamide was obtained on reaction of two equivalents of the diethylzincate with the benzamide followed by iodination. Comparisons are also drawn using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazide (HMDS), diisopropylamide and TMP as the amide component in the lithium amide, Et2Zn and TMEDA system. Under certain conditions, the cis-DMP base system was found to give improved results in comparison to HMDS and diisopropylamide (DA), and comparable results to a TMP system. Two novel complexes isolated from reactions of the di-tert-butylzincate and crystallographically characterised, namely the pre-metallation complex [{(iPr)2N(Ph)C=O}LiZn(cis

  6. Secondary loss of a cis-spliced intron during the divergence of Giardia intestinalis assemblages.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

    2014-06-30

    Giardia intestinalis is a parasitic unicellular eukaryote with a highly reduced genome, in which only six cis-spliced and four trans-spliced introns have been discovered. However, we anticipate that more cis- and trans-spliced introns likely remain unidentified in genes encoding hypothetical proteins that occupy ca. 2/3 of all of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the Giardia genome. Consequently, comprehensive surveys of introns in ORFs for hypothetical proteins are critical for better understanding of the intron evolution in this organism. In this study, we identified two novel cis-spliced introns in the draft genome data of G. intestinalis strain WB, by surveying the conserved sequence motifs shared amongst the previously known introns. G. intestinalis strains can be divided into phylogenetically distinct assemblages A-H, and all the introns identified in past studies are shared among the published genome data from strains WB, DH, GS, and P15 representing assemblages A1, A2, B, and E, respectively. Nevertheless one of the two novel introns identified in this study was found to be absent in strain P15. By considering the organismal relationship among G. intestinalis assemblages A1, A2, B, and E, one of the two introns identified in this study has highly likely been lost after the divergence of the assemblages. On the basis of a sequence comparison between the intron-bearing loci in WB, DH, and GS genomes and the homologous but intron-free locus in P15 genome, we propose that the loss of this particular intron was mediated by integration of the DNA fragment reverse-transcribed from mature mRNAs.

  7. Social opinion dynamics is not chaotic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chjan; Zhang, Weituo

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the research on social opinion dynamics over large and dense networks, a general framework for verifying the monotonicity property of multi-agent dynamics is introduced. This allows a derivation of sociologically meaningful sufficient conditions for monotonicity that are tailor-made for social opinion dynamics, which typically have high nonlinearity. A direct consequence of monotonicity is that social opinion dynamics is nonchaotic. A key part of this framework is the definition of a partial order relation that is suitable for a large class of social opinion dynamics such as the generalized naming games. Comparisons are made to previous techniques to verify monotonicity. Using the results obtained, we extend many of the consequences of monotonicity to this class of social dynamics, including several corollaries on their asymptotic behavior, such as global convergence to consensus and tipping points of a minority fraction of zealots or leaders.

  8. The Bakke Opinions and Equal Protection Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Kenneth L.; Horowitz, Harold W.

    1979-01-01

    Constitutional issues addressed in the Supreme Court's decision are reviewed. The opinions rendered by Justice Powell are viewed as reflections of the weakness of recent equal protection theory, and as signs of future doctrine. (GC)

  9. The Bakke Opinions and Equal Protection Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Kenneth L.; Horowitz, Harold W.

    1979-01-01

    Constitutional issues addressed in the Supreme Court's decision are reviewed. The opinions rendered by Justice Powell are viewed as reflections of the weakness of recent equal protection theory, and as signs of future doctrine. (GC)

  10. Friends, the Media, and Opinion Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinstein, Judith

    1977-01-01

    Compares the uses of mass media and informal social networks in opinion formation among women from three varying population density groups. Results indicate that the degree of urbanity and education mediate choice of information source. (JMF)

  11. 5 CFR 2636.103 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... receive compensation for teaching. An advisory opinion issued under this section may not be substituted... conduct that is indistinguishable in all material aspects from the conduct described in the advisory...

  12. Cis-regulatory mechanisms governing stem and progenitor cell transitions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kirby D.; Kong, Guangyao; Gao, Xin; Chang, Yuan-I; Hewitt, Kyle J.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran; Prathibha, Rajalekshmi; Ranheim, Erik A.; Dewey, Colin N.; Zhang, Jing; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2015-01-01

    Cis-element encyclopedias provide information on phenotypic diversity and disease mechanisms. Although cis-element polymorphisms and mutations are instructive, deciphering function remains challenging. Mutation of an intronic GATA motif (+9.5) in GATA2, encoding a master regulator of hematopoiesis, underlies an immunodeficiency associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Whereas an inversion relocalizes another GATA2 cis-element (−77) to the proto-oncogene EVI1, inducing EVI1 expression and AML, whether this reflects ectopic or physiological activity is unknown. We describe a mouse strain that decouples −77 function from proto-oncogene deregulation. The −77−/− mice exhibited a novel phenotypic constellation including late embryonic lethality and anemia. The −77 established a vital sector of the myeloid progenitor transcriptome, conferring multipotentiality. Unlike the +9.5−/− embryos, hematopoietic stem cell genesis was unaffected in −77−/− embryos. These results illustrate a paradigm in which cis-elements in a locus differentially control stem and progenitor cell transitions, and therefore the individual cis-element alterations cause unique and overlapping disease phenotypes. PMID:26601269

  13. Innovative front end processing for next generation CIS module production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Volker; Jasenek, Axel; Sandfort, Christian; Letsch, Andreas; Koetschau, Immo; Hahn, Thomas; Feichtinger, Jochen; Eschrich, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The successful implementation of two new process steps into an existing Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIS) production line was achieved. One, a newly developed back contact, aims for a better process control, as far as the transition of the metallic back contact to a selenide/metal bi-layer during CIS-formation is concerned. This was done by the introduction of a corrosion resistant barrier layer, which reliably stops chalcogenide diffusion from the top. By doing so, a back contact layer is obtained, with well defined properties in which the functionalities of the back electrode now is divided between two separated layers. The other development presented in this paper, tackles the complexity of CIS-module production and the interferences between the different processes required. By shifting the P1-scribing process after i-ZnO deposition, the process sequence for CIS is simplified and it will be shown that this new P1i exhibits superior properties as far as CIS morphology and groove quality is concerned.

  14. DBMS UTILIZATION: A Corporate Information System (CIS) development approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozett, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Corporate Information System (CIS), an integrated information system intended to tie the corporation together as a functioning entity, is described. In addition to being a major upgraded automated data processing system, the CIS is a management philosophy which recognizes data as a valuable corporate resource and which distinguishes between data and selected data, or information. It further recognizes that different users need different kinds of information. Plans for CIS development are discussed. It will offer its users not just after-the-fact data, but timely information in a format that is meaningful and useful to the particular user, so that the information can be applied in planning, controlling, and decision making by all levels of management. In effect, CIS will help the corporation itself to function as a total, integrated system by typing together administrative activities through information exchange. The CIS supports the operational, tactical control, and strategic planning functions of the corporation. Operational functions are the day-to-day processing necessary to support the corporation's work, such as purchasing and payroll.

  15. DBMS UTILIZATION: A Corporate Information System (CIS) development approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozett, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Corporate Information System (CIS), an integrated information system intended to tie the corporation together as a functioning entity, is described. In addition to being a major upgraded automated data processing system, the CIS is a management philosophy which recognizes data as a valuable corporate resource and which distinguishes between data and selected data, or information. It further recognizes that different users need different kinds of information. Plans for CIS development are discussed. It will offer its users not just after-the-fact data, but timely information in a format that is meaningful and useful to the particular user, so that the information can be applied in planning, controlling, and decision making by all levels of management. In effect, CIS will help the corporation itself to function as a total, integrated system by typing together administrative activities through information exchange. The CIS supports the operational, tactical control, and strategic planning functions of the corporation. Operational functions are the day-to-day processing necessary to support the corporation's work, such as purchasing and payroll.

  16. Multiple Functional Variants in cis Modulate PDYN Expression.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Courtney C; Silverman, Jesse S; Haygood, Ralph; Reininga, Jennifer M; Rockman, Matthew V; Wray, Gregory A

    2010-02-01

    Understanding genetic variation and its functional consequences within cis-regulatory regions remains an important challenge in human genetics and evolution. Here, we present a fine-scale functional analysis of segregating variation within the cis-regulatory region of prodynorphin, a gene that encodes an endogenous opioid precursor with roles in cognition and disease. In order to characterize the functional consequences of segregating variation in cis in a region under balancing selection in different human populations, we examined associations between specific polymorphisms and gene expression in vivo and in vitro. We identified five polymorphisms within the 5' flanking region that affect transcript abundance: a 68-bp repeat recognized in prior studies, as well as two microsatellites and two single nucleotide polymorphisms not previously implicated as functional variants. The impact of these variants on transcription differs by brain region, sex, and cell type, implying interactions between cis genotype and the differentiated state of cells. The effects of individual variants on expression level are not additive in some combinations, implying epistatic interactions between nearby variants. These data reveal an unexpectedly complex relationship between segregating genetic variation and its expression-trait consequences and highlights the importance of close functional scrutiny of natural genetic variation within even relatively well-studied cis-regulatory regions.

  17. Précis of implicit nationalism.

    PubMed

    Hassin, Ran R; Ferguson, Melissa J; Kardosh, Rasha; Porter, Shanette C; Carter, Travis J; Dudareva, Veronika

    2009-06-01

    While the study of nationalism has received much attention throughout the social sciences and humanities, the experimental investigation of it lags behind. In this paper we review recent advances in the examination of implicit nationalism. In the first set of experiments we survey, the Palestinian, Israeli, Italian, and Russian flags were primed (or not, in the control conditions) and their effects on political thought and behavior were tested. In the second set the American or the Israeli flag was primed (or not) and prejudice toward African-Americans or Palestinians (respectively) was examined. The results of all experiments suggest that the implicit activation of national cues has far-reaching implications on political thought and behavior as well as on attitudes toward minorities. Under the assumption that the image of national flags is associated in memory with national ideologies, these results suggest that national ideologies can be implicitly pursued in a way that significantly affects our thoughts and behaviors.

  18. Sexual Opinion Survey: An Exploratory Factor Analysis with Helping Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Zachary D.; Gutierrez, Daniel; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2015-01-01

    Counselors and marriage and family therapists work with individuals, couples, and families on issues related to sexuality. However, clinicians may be underserving their clients by "not" having adequate training and preparation to work with clients with these presenting issues. One mitigating factor in the treatment of sexual problems is…

  19. Sexual Opinion Survey: An Exploratory Factor Analysis with Helping Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Zachary D.; Gutierrez, Daniel; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2015-01-01

    Counselors and marriage and family therapists work with individuals, couples, and families on issues related to sexuality. However, clinicians may be underserving their clients by "not" having adequate training and preparation to work with clients with these presenting issues. One mitigating factor in the treatment of sexual problems is…

  20. [Relevance of nutrition knowledge on clinical practice: medical opinion survey].

    PubMed

    Alvares, Luísa; Moreira, Isabel; Oliveira, António

    2007-01-01

    Although previous studies show that physicians generally agree that nutrition knowledge is important for their daily clinical practice, several other studies report their poor knowledge of the subject. One of the strongest reasons given for this is the non-incorporation of Nutrition as a compulsory subject for the medical sciences degree. Dietary counselling and assessment of the patients' nutritional status don't seem to be systematic. The aim of this study is to asses how relevant physicians consider Nutrition to be in the successful running of a good practice. The study was undertaken at the general hospital of Vila Real/Peso da Régua (CHVR/PR) by distribution of a self- administered questionnaire to 153 of the physicians of the clinical body. Mean values were compared with the Student's t test and proportions with the Chi-square test. Of the 153 physicians, 108 replies were received (70,6%). Of these 108 replies, 53,3% consider nutrition knowledge important although 29,6% state their knowledge is poor. More than half say that Clinical Nutrition should be a compulsory subject of the Medical Sciences syllabus, and 99,1% deem it important to assess the patient's nutritional status. About 95% stated they provided written or verbal nutritional guidance, and most of the physicians had already sought the assistance of a nutritionist. This study shows that the clinical body of the CHVR/PR is aware of the importance nutrition knowledge has in their daily practice. It must be noted, though, that although almost one third of the physicians rate their nutrition knowledge poor, most of them provide nutritional guidance to their patients.