Science.gov

Sample records for cis research agenda

  1. A Schistosomiasis Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Colley, Daniel G.; Secor, W. Evan

    2007-01-01

    There is a long and rich history of research and control in the field of schistosomiasis that has resulted in major scientific and public health accomplishments. Examples of such findings and accomplishments include immunologic regulation in chronic infections [1], the association of helminth infections with Th1-regulating Th2-type immune responses [2], the critical role of interleukin-13 in fibrogenesis [3], and the development and validation of the “dose pole” for determining praziquantel dosages in the field [4],[5]. Perhaps in part because of this broad and successful history, those who work on schistosomiasis come from a wide variety of backgrounds and interests. While such variety is enriching to the field, it sometimes results in diverse opinions about which of the many research opportunities should be pursued. Such diversity, we believe, has at times led to a divisiveness that has harmed overall progress in the field. Partly in response to such events, we have worked with as many of those interested in schistosomiasis as we could identify to develop what we feel is a comprehensive and cohesive agenda for schistosomiasis research (Image 1). PMID:18060081

  2. Public Welfare Agenda or Corporate Research Agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-01-01

    As things stand today, whether we like it or not, industry funding is on the upswing. The whole enterprise of medicine in booming, and it makes sense for industry to invest more and more of one's millions into it. The pharmaceutical industry has become the single largest direct funding agency of medical research in countries like Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since the goals of industry and academia differ, it seems that conflicts of interest are inevitable at times. The crucial decision is whether the public welfare agenda of academia, or the corporate research agenda of industry, should occupy center stage when they conflict. There is enough evidence to show that funding by industry is very systematic, and results that are supportive of the safety and efficacy of sponsor's products alone get the funds. It is no surprise, therefore, that one finds very few negative drug trials reports published, and whatever are, are likely to be by rival companies to serve their commercial interests. Renewed and continued funding by industry decides the future prospects of many academic researchers. At the same time there is now evidence that pharmaceutical companies attempt suppression of research findings, may be selective in publishing results, and may delay or stymie publication of unfavourable results. This is a major area of concern for all conscientious researchers and industry watchers. Industry commonly decides which clinical research/trial gets done, not academia, much though the latter may wish to believe otherwise. It finds willing researchers to carry this out. This can be one area of concern. Another area of pressing concern is when industry decides to both design and control publication of research. It makes sense for researchers to refuse to allow commercial interests to rule research reporting. Research having been reported, the commercial implications of such reporting is industry's concern. But, doctoring of findings to suit commerce is to

  3. Advancing the Therapeutic Massage Research Agenda(s)

    PubMed Central

    Porcino, Antony J.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic massage and bodywork (TMB) is now an established field of research with dedicated funding, researchers, and many venues and channels for dissemination of TMB research. Research agendas are a way for a profession to focus the development and funding of research on facets of TMB practice and education that are most needed at a given point of time to best move forward the practice and professionalization of TMB. Of the two TMB research agendas, one is currently being updated, the other is newly developed. Because of the impact on the development of the profession, gaps in research agendas also need to be carefully considered. Three areas that could use further consideration or support within the current agendas include education, methods and methodologies, and underlying assumptions. TMB researchers need to engage with and support the current agendas, and participate in their evolution. PMID:24000302

  4. The Anatomy of Agenda-Setting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Seeks to add insight to the complex intellectual history of agenda-setting research by identifying over-time patterns of publications and of bibliographic citations. Addresses issues about the past, present, and future of agenda-setting research. (SR)

  5. Advances in the CIS research at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.; Bhattacharya, R.N.; Granata, J.; Webb, J.; Niles, D.; Contreras, M.A.; Wiesner, H.; Hasoon, F.S.; Noufi, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the research of the CIS Team at NREL in three major areas: absorber deposition; understanding the role of chemical bath deposited (CBD) CdS in CIS junctions; and in the development of devices without CdS. Low cost, scaleable processes chosen for absorber fabrication include sputtering, electrodeposition (ED), and close spaced sublimation (CSS). The interaction between the CBD and the CIS has been investigated and the results show that Cd might be instrumental in shaping the interface. The authors have also developed a process to fabricate a 13.5% efficiency ZnO/CuInGaSe{sub 2} device without CdS or other buffer layers.

  6. Patient participation as dialogue: setting research agendas

    PubMed Central

    Abma, Tineke A.; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background  Collaboration with patients in healthcare and medical research is an emerging development. We aimed to develop a methodology for health research agenda setting processes grounded in the notion of participation as dialogue. Methods  We conducted seven case studies between 2003 and 2007 to develop and validate a Dialogue Model for patient participation in health research agenda setting. The case studies related to spinal cord injury, neuromuscular diseases, renal failure, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, burns, diabetes and intellectual disabilities. Results  The Dialogue Model is grounded in participatory and interactive approaches and has been adjusted on the basis of pilot work. It has six phases: exploration; consultation; prioritization; integration; programming; and implementation. These phases are discussed and illustrated with a case description of research agenda setting relating to burns. Conclusions  The dialogue model appeared relevant and feasible to structure the process of collaboration between stakeholders in several research agenda setting processes. The phase of consultation enables patients to develop their own voice and agenda, and prepares them for the broader collaboration with other stakeholder groups. Challenges include the stimulation of more permanent changes in research, and institutional transitions. PMID:20536537

  7. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  8. Waiting Online: A Review and Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gerard; Valverde, Mireia

    2003-01-01

    Reviews 21 papers based on 13 separate empirical studies on waiting on the Internet, drawn from the areas of marketing, system response time, and quality of service studies. The article proposes an agenda for future research, including extending the range of research methodologies, broadening the definition of waiting on the Internet, and…

  9. Transnational corporations and health: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Baum, Frances Elaine; Margaret Anaf, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Transnational corporations (TNCs) are part of an economic system of global capitalism that operates under a neoliberal regime underpinned by strong support from international organisations such as the World Trade Organization, World Bank, and most nation states. Although TNCs have grown in power and influence and have had a significant impact on population health over the past three decades, public health has not developed an integrated research agenda to study them. This article outlines the shape of such an agenda and argues that it is vital that research into the public health impact of TNCs be pursued and funded as a matter of priority. The four areas of the agenda are: assessing the health and equity impacts of TNCs; evaluating the effectiveness of government regulation to mitigate health and equity impacts of TNCs; studying the work of activist groups and networks that highlight adverse impacts of TNCs; and considering how regulation of capitalism could better promote a healthier and more equitable corporate sector.

  10. A Feminist Research Agenda in Youth Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergrift, Kay

    1993-01-01

    Considers a feminist research agenda in literature for youth. Highlights include the sexist nature of literary theory; traditional studies of youth literature; feminist criticism and archetypal approaches, genre criticism, and reader response criticism; and a selected list of feminist scholarship and literary criticism applicable to youth…

  11. Advanced research on cis-Neonicotinoids.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xusheng; Ye, Zhejun; Bao, Haibo; Liu, Zewen; Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Zhong; Qian, Xuhong

    2011-01-01

    cis-Neonicotinoids are a type of neonicotinoid, in which the nitro or the cyano group are in cis-configuration relative to heteroaromatic moiety, which show excellent activities against a range of insect species. This review covers cis-neonicotinoids with commercialization perspectives, structural optimization (phenylazoneonicotinoids and chlorothiazolyl analogues of Paichongding), modes of action studies, radiao-synthesis of Paichongding and Cycloxaprid, and photostability of neonicotinoids.

  12. Considerations for an Obesity Policy Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Robin A.; Orleans, C. Tracy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Thompson, Joseph W.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The rise in obesity levels in the U.S. in the past several decades has been dramatic, with serious implications for public health and the economy. Experiences in tobacco control and other public health initiatives have shown that public policy may be a powerful tool to effect structural change to alter population-level behavior. In 2007, the National Cancer Institute convened a meeting to discuss priorities for a research agenda to inform obesity policy. Issues considered were how to define obesity policy research, key challenges and key partners in formulating/implementing an obesity policy research agenda, criteria by which to set research priorities, and specific research needs and questions. Themes that emerged were: (1) the embryonic nature of obesity policy research, (2) the need to study “natural experiments” resulting from policy-based efforts to address the obesity epidemic, (3) the importance of research focused beyond individual-level behavior change, (4) the need for economic research across several relevant policy areas, and (5) the overall urgency of taking action in the policy arena. Moving forward, timely evaluation of natural experiments is of especially high priority. A variety of policies intended to promote healthy weight in children and adults are being implemented in communities and at the state and national levels. Although some of these policies are supported by the findings of intervention research, additional research is needed to evaluate the implementation and quantify the impact of new policies designed to address obesity. PMID:19211215

  13. [Swiss research agenda for gerontological nursing].

    PubMed

    Imhof, Lorenz; Naef, Rahel; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2008-12-01

    In Switzerland life expectancy is currently 84 years in women and 79 years in men. By 2030 the number of people over 80 will increase by 83% to 625 000. The need of nursing care in this population is expected to double. In order to ensure high quality care, scientific knowledge generated by nursing research is, therefore, pivotal. Within the framework of a national project, a nursing research agenda has been formulated based on a literature review, expert panels, a national survey, and a consensus conference; seven priorities for clinical nursing research for the years 2007-2017 have been developed. In the field of gerontological nursing twenty-one research priorities have been identified. They include among others interventions to support independent living and autonomy at home or the impact of new technology on nursing care of the elderly. Support for caregivers and the health of caregivers of patients with dementia have to be addressed as well as interventions for specific challenges in the elderly such as fall prevention, delirium, malnutrition, and depression. Pivotal questions in nursing research are concerned with the continuity of nursing care that exceeds institutional and professional boundaries. Moreover, it is recommended that research projects address the impact of political decisions on nursing care and provide knowledge to improve quality in nursing homes and community health care. With this article the first research agenda for gerontological nursing is presented, that is based on the seven priorities of the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing-SRAN and in turn can be used as a basis for strategic discussion, action plans, and research projects.

  14. The Research Agenda in ICU Telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nicholas S.; Lilly, Craig M.; Angus, Derek C.; Jacobi, Judith; Rubenfeld, Gordon D.; Rothschild, Jeffrey M.; Sales, Anne E.; Scales, Damon C.; Mathers, James A. L.

    2011-01-01

    ICU telemedicine uses audiovisual conferencing technology to provide critical care from a remote location. Research is needed to best define the optimal use of ICU telemedicine, but efforts are hindered by methodological challenges and the lack of an organized delivery approach. We convened an interdisciplinary working group to develop a research agenda in ICU telemedicine, addressing both methodological and knowledge gaps in the field. To best inform clinical decision-making and health policy, future research should be organized around a conceptual framework that enables consistent descriptions of both the study setting and the telemedicine intervention. The framework should include standardized methods for assessing the preimplementation ICU environment and describing the telemedicine program. This framework will facilitate comparisons across studies and improve generalizability by permitting context-specific interpretation. Research based on this framework should consider the multidisciplinary nature of ICU care and describe the specific program goals. Key topic areas to be addressed include the effect of ICU telemedicine on the structure, process, and outcome of critical care delivery. Ideally, future research should attempt to address causation instead of simply associations and elucidate the mechanism of action in order to determine exactly how ICU telemedicine achieves its effects. ICU telemedicine has significant potential to improve critical care delivery, but high-quality research is needed to best inform its use. We propose an agenda to advance the science of ICU telemedicine and generate research with the greatest potential to improve patient care. PMID:21729894

  15. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Malaria modeling can inform policy and guide research for malaria elimination and eradication from local implementation to global policy. A research and development agenda for malaria modeling is proposed, to support operations and to enhance the broader eradication research agenda. Models are envisioned as an integral part of research, planning, and evaluation, and modelers should ideally be integrated into multidisciplinary teams to update the models iteratively, communicate their appropriate use, and serve the needs of other research scientists, public health specialists, and government officials. A competitive and collaborative framework will result in policy recommendations from multiple, independently derived models and model systems that share harmonized databases. As planned, modeling results will be produced in five priority areas: (1) strategic planning to determine where and when resources should be optimally allocated to achieve eradication; (2) management plans to minimize the evolution of drug and pesticide resistance; (3) impact assessments of new and needed tools to interrupt transmission; (4) technical feasibility assessments to determine appropriate combinations of tools, an associated set of target intervention coverage levels, and the expected timelines for achieving a set of goals in different socio-ecological settings and different health systems; and (5) operational feasibility assessments to weigh the economic costs, capital investments, and human resource capacities required. PMID:21283605

  16. Reducing firearm violence: a research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Janet; Wiebe, Douglas J; Richmond, Therese S; Beam, Kristen; Berman, Alan L; Branas, Charles C; Cheney, Rose A; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Firman, John; Fishbein, Martin; Hargarten, Stephen; Hemenway, David; Jeffcoat, Robert; Kennedy, David; Koper, Christopher S; Lemaire, Jean; Miller, Matthew; Roth, Jeffrey A; Schwab, C William; Spitzer, Robert; Teret, Stephen; Vernick, Jon; Webster, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, firearms are involved in tens of thousands of deaths and injuries each year. The magnitude of this problem prompted the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to issue a report in 2004 detailing the strengths and limitations of existing research on the relationship between firearms and violence. In response, a multidisciplinary group of experts in the field of firearms and violence formed the National Research Collaborative on Firearm Violence. The Collaborative met for 2 days in June 2005 to (1) critically review the main findings of the NAS report and (2) define a research agenda that could fill research and data gaps and inform policy that reduces gun-related crime, deaths and injuries. This article summarizes the Collaborative's conclusions and identifies priorities for research and funding. PMID:17446246

  17. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  18. A Research Agenda to Underpin Malaria Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Pedro L.; Brown, Graham; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Binka, Fred; Chitnis, Chetan; Collins, Frank; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Greenwood, Brian; Hall, B. Fenton; Levine, Myron M.; Mendis, Kamini; Newman, Robert D.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Rodríguez, Mario Henry; Sinden, Robert; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The interruption of malaria transmission worldwide is one of the greatest challenges for international health and development communities. The current expert view suggests that, by aggressively scaling up control with currently available tools and strategies, much greater gains could be achieved against malaria, including elimination from a number of countries and regions; however, even with maximal effort we will fall short of global eradication. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) complements the current research agenda—primarily directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality—with one that aims to identify key knowledge gaps and define the strategies and tools that will result in reducing the basic reproduction rate to less than 1, with the ultimate aim of eradication of the parasite from the human population. Sustained commitment from local communities, civil society, policy leaders, and the scientific community, together with a massive effort to build a strong base of researchers from the endemic areas will be critical factors in the success of this new agenda. PMID:21311579

  19. Status of flexible CIS research at ISET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basol, B. M.; Kapur, V. K.; Minnick, A.; Halani, A.; Leidholm, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin film solar cells fabricated on light-weight, flexible substrates are very attractive for space applications. In this work CulnSe2 (CIS) based thin film devices were processed on metallic foil substrates using the selenization technique. CIS deposition method involved reaction of electron-bean evaporated Cu-In precursor layers with a selenizing atmosphere at around 400 C. Several metallic foils such as Mo, Ti, Al, Ni, and Cu were evaluated as possible substrates for these devices. Solar cells with AM1.5 efficiencies of 9.0-9.34 percent and good mechanical integrity were demonstrated on Mo and Ti foils. Monolithic integration of these devices was also demonstrated up to 4 in x 4 in size.

  20. Collaborative Visualization: Definition, Challenges, and Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Isenberg, Petra; Elmqvist, Niklas; Scholtz, Jean; Cernea, Daniel; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Hagen, Hans

    2011-10-01

    Collaborative visualization has emerged as a new research direction which offers the opportunity to reach new audiences and application areas for visualization tools and techniques. Technology now allows us to easily connect and collaborate with one another - in settings as diverse as over networked computers, across mobile devices, or using shared displays such as interactive walls and tabletop surfaces. Any of these collaborative settings carries a set of challenges and opportunities for visualization research. Digital information is already regularly accessed by multiple people together in order to share information, to view it together, to analyze it, or to form decisions. However, research on how to best support collaboration with and around visualizations is still in its infancy and has so far focused only on a small subset of possible application scenarios. The purpose of this article is (1) to provide a clear scope, definition, and overview of the evolving field of collaborative visualization, (2) to help pinpoint the unique focus of collaborative visualization with its specific aspects, challenges, and requirements within the intersection of general computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW) and visualization research, and (3) to draw attention to important future research questions to be addressed by the community. Thus, the goal of the paper is to discuss a research agenda for future work on collaborative visualization, including our vision for how to meet the grand challenge and to urge for a new generation of visualization tools that were designed with collaboration in mind from their very inception.

  1. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs will be essential tools at all stages of malaria elimination along the path towards eradication, including the early control or “attack” phase to drive down transmission and the later stages of maintaining interruption of transmission, preventing reintroduction of malaria, and eliminating the last residual foci of infection. Drugs will continue to be used to treat acute malaria illness and prevent complications in vulnerable groups, but better drugs are needed for elimination-specific indications such as mass treatment, curing asymptomatic infections, curing relapsing liver stages, and preventing transmission. The ideal malaria eradication drug is a coformulated drug combination suitable for mass administration that can be administered in a single encounter at infrequent intervals and that results in radical cure of all life cycle stages of all five malaria species infecting humans. Short of this optimal goal, highly desirable drugs might have limitations such as targeting only one or two parasite species, the priorities being Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The malaria research agenda for eradication should include research aimed at developing such drugs and research to develop situation-specific strategies for using both current and future drugs to interrupt malaria transmission. PMID:21311580

  2. Prioritization of the National Dental Hygiene Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Doherty, Frances; Stach, Donna J; Wyche, Charlotte J; Connolly, Irene; Wilder, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    The profession of dental hygiene has made considerable progress over the past 30 years toward developing a unique body of knowledge for guiding education, practice, and research. The 1993-1994 American Dental Hygienists' Association Council on Research published the first national dental hygiene research agenda in 1994. The 1994 research agenda focused dental hygienists' research efforts; however, publication of two national reports--the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health, and Healthy People 2010--have made it necessary to revisit the research agenda. After considering input from participants in the Fourth National Dental Hygiene Research Conference and evaluating the Surgeon General's Report, the 2000-2001 Council on Research has established recommendations for the prioritization of the 1993-1994 research agenda. This report outlines for readers the rationale for the proposed recommendations.

  3. Setting the rural health services research agenda: the congressional perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, L

    1989-01-01

    This series of key research questions is based on the underlying congressional assumption that the rural health research agenda must be developed as an instrument equally relevant to policymakers, practitioners, and the public. PMID:2492981

  4. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if malaria vaccines are to be used as part of a repertoire of tools for elimination or eradication of malaria, they will need to have an impact on malaria transmission. We introduce the concept of “vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission” (VIMT), which includes not only “classical” transmission-blocking vaccines that target the sexual and mosquito stages but also pre-erythrocytic and asexual stage vaccines that have an effect on transmission. VIMT may also include vaccines that target the vector to disrupt parasite development in the mosquito. Importantly, if eradication is to be achieved, malaria vaccine development efforts will need to target other malaria parasite species, especially Plasmodium vivax, where novel therapeutic vaccines against hypnozoites or preventive vaccines with effect against multiple stages could have enormous impact. A target product profile (TPP) for VIMT is proposed and a research agenda to address current knowledge gaps and develop tools necessary for design and development of VIMT is presented. PMID:21311586

  5. A research agenda for malaria eradication: vaccines.

    PubMed

    2011-01-25

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if malaria vaccines are to be used as part of a repertoire of tools for elimination or eradication of malaria, they will need to have an impact on malaria transmission. We introduce the concept of "vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission" (VIMT), which includes not only "classical" transmission-blocking vaccines that target the sexual and mosquito stages but also pre-erythrocytic and asexual stage vaccines that have an effect on transmission. VIMT may also include vaccines that target the vector to disrupt parasite development in the mosquito. Importantly, if eradication is to be achieved, malaria vaccine development efforts will need to target other malaria parasite species, especially Plasmodium vivax, where novel therapeutic vaccines against hypnozoites or preventive vaccines with effect against multiple stages could have enormous impact. A target product profile (TPP) for VIMT is proposed and a research agenda to address current knowledge gaps and develop tools necessary for design and development of VIMT is presented.

  6. Establishing a Research Agenda for Art Therapy: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Donna; Deaver, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Art therapy in the United States is a young profession that would benefit from an identified research agenda to marshal resources more effectively to address gaps in the knowledge base. This article describes a Delphi study of U.S. art therapy researchers who were surveyed on research priorities for the profession. The research panelists were…

  7. Building an Australasian paramedicine research agenda: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Peter; Maguire, Brian; Jennings, Paul; Simpson, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The need for paramedicine research has been recognised internationally through efforts to develop out-of-hospital research agendas in several developed countries. Australasia has a substantial paramedicine research capacity compared to the discipline internationally and is well positioned as a potential leader in the drive towards evidence-based policy and practice in paramedicine. Our objective was to draw on international experiences to identify and recommend the best methodological approach that should be employed to develop an Australasian paramedicine research agenda. A search and critical appraisal process was employed to produce an overview of the literature related to the development of paramedicine research agendas throughout the world. Based on these international experiences, and our own analysis of the Australasian context, we recommend that a mixed methods approach be used to develop an inclusive Australasian Paramedicine Research Agenda. This approach will capture the views and interests of a wide range of expert stakeholders through multiple data collection strategies, including interviews, roundtable discussions and an online Delphi consensus survey. Paramedic researchers and industry leaders have the opportunity to use this multidisciplinary process of inquiry to develop a paramedicine research agenda that will provide a framework for the development of a culture of open evaluation, innovation and improvement. This research agenda would assess the progress of paramedicine research in Australia and New Zealand, map the research capacity of the paramedicine discipline, paramedic services, universities and professional organisations, identify current strengths and opportunities, make recommendations to capitalize on opportunities, and identify research priorities. Success will depend on ensuring the participation of a representative sample of expert stakeholders, fostering an open and collaborative roundtable discussion, and adhering to a predefined

  8. Developing a Coherent Research Agenda: Lessons from the REL Northeast & Islands Research Agenda Workshops. REL 2014-014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanek, Julie Reed; Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Carey, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the approach that REL Northeast and Islands (REL-NEI) used to guide its eight research alliances toward collaboratively identifying a shared research agenda. A key feature of their approach was a two-workshop series, during which alliance members created a set of research questions on a shared topic of education policy and/or…

  9. Consumer involvement in health research: a review and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Boote, Jonathan; Telford, Rosemary; Cooper, Cindy

    2002-08-01

    The involvement of consumers in health research is now Department of Health policy within the UK. Despite the existence of policy directives, there is a dearth of knowledge on the effects of such involvement. This paper critically reviews the state of our knowledge on this issue, and maps out a research agenda with the aim of stimulating systematic, empirical inquiry into consumer involvement in health research. The paper discusses definitions of 'the consumer'; considers why consumer involvement is believed to be important to health research; traces the development of the policy; analyses the epistemological and methodological implications of the policy; discusses the various levels of consumer involvement in research; and outlines the objections to the policy that have been put forward by clinicians and researchers. Four questions were identified during the review as being in need of theoretical and empirical attention: (1) how can consumer involvement in health research be further conceptualised? (2) how and why does consumer involvement influence health research? (3) how can the influence of consumers in health research be measured and evaluated? and (4) what factors are associated with 'successful' consumer involvement in health research?

  10. Beginning Counselor Educators' Experiences Developing a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Brandon J.

    2010-01-01

    To date, counselor education literature is narrow in the accounts of counselor educators' experiences as active scholars (Hill, 2004). Consequently, there is little research accounting for the experience of developing a research agenda for counselor educators during their initial faculty appointment. Hermeneutic, phenomenological methodology was…

  11. Ethics in Customer Service: Critical Review and Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Wendy S. Zabava

    1996-01-01

    Identifies domains of unethical service communication and proposes a research agenda for examining service ethics. Calls for research to explore service ethics among different occupational groups, investigate effects of unethical practices on service providers and customers, and identify characteristics of organizational climates which foster…

  12. Towards a Research Agenda on Child Care in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrange, Annette; Read, Malcolm

    In this study, a Delphi Method was used to collect and collate opinions of 24 Alberta child care professionals regarding the creation of a research agenda on child care. Findings indicated that the 25 research questions (out of an original list of 80 questions) considered important or very important by at least three-quarters of the participants…

  13. Inclusive Education National Research Advocacy Agenda: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morningstar, Mary E.; Allcock, Heather C.; White, Julia M.; Taub, Deborah; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Ryndak, Diane L.; Sauer, Janet; Jorgensen, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    The TASH Inclusive Education National Committee responded to Horner and Dunlap's call to ensure that future research integrates inclusive values with strong science by developing an inclusive education national research advocacy agenda. Qualitative methods were implemented to answer three questions: (a) "What is the state of inclusive…

  14. [Human resources and health work: challenges for a research agenda].

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Campos, Francisco Eduardo; D'Avila, Luciana Souza

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses several key concepts for human resources policy in health in the context of Latin America's regional integration efforts. The article focuses on different concepts of integration to emphasize the analytical distinction between regional and conceptual integration. It also presents labor and human resources concepts before discussing, in the final analysis, the challenges that a common research agenda faces in the context of current health sector reforms in Latin America. The conclusion emphasizes the need to develop a technology and research system capable of supporting the agenda for exchange between MERCOSUR member countries.

  15. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of the research areas

  16. Setting a research agenda to inform intensive comprehensive aphasia programs.

    PubMed

    Hula, William D; Cherney, Leora R; Worrall, Linda E

    2013-01-01

    Research into intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) has yet to show that this service delivery model is efficacious, effective, has cost utility, or can be broadly implemented. This article describes a phased research approach to the study of ICAPs and sets out a research agenda that considers not only the specific issues surrounding ICAPs, but also the phase of the research. Current ICAP research is in the early phases, with dosing and outcome measurement as prime considerations as well as refinement of the best treatment protocol. Later phases of ICAP research are outlined, and the need for larger scale collaborative funded research is recognized. The need for more rapid translation into practice is also acknowledged, and the use of hybrid models of phased research is encouraged within the ICAP research agenda.

  17. Latinos and Public Broadcasting: Developing a Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Nicholas A.

    This paper deals with Latino audiences in the United States and explores how socially beneficial research agenda can deal with their communication needs and result in better and more programming on public broadcasting services. Latino audiences are defined as persons of Spanish language heritage, regardless of surname or country origin. A…

  18. A New Research Agenda for Pre-College Economic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneke, Judith Staley; Soper, John C.

    The Joint Council on Economic Education (JCEE) contracted for the development of this research and evaluation agenda (or blueprint) for its Developmental Economic Education Program (DEEP). DEEP involves local school systems in a formal commitment to develop systematic programs in economic education curriculum using academically sound materials and…

  19. An Emergent Research Agenda for the Field of Jewish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomberg, Linda Dale

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a qualitative analysis of the chapters of the forthcoming "What We NOW Know About Jewish Education" (to be published by Torah Aura, Spring 2008). The findings of this analysis outline an agenda for further research by highlighting a number of emergent themes pertaining to the practical and conceptual challenges that lie…

  20. The Women's Mental Health Research Agenda: Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the following topics concerning violence against women: (1) its scope; (2) its impact on women; (3) the community services provided in response to the violence; (4) clinical treatment of victims; and (5) violence prevention. Presents a research agenda that addresses the gaps in existing literature. (JS)

  1. Leadership Development in Social Housing: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carolyn; Blenkinsopp, John; McCauley-Smith, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a research agenda to underpin leadership development activity in the social housing sector, in the light of an identified need for effective leadership in this sector owing to the continual reform and changes it faces. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is conducted by searching a…

  2. Citizen Science on Your Smartphone: An ELSI Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Mark A; Wilbanks, John T; Brothers, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of newly-emerging, technology-enabled, unregulated citizen science health research poses a substantial challenge for traditional research ethics. Unquestionably, a significant amount of research ethics study is needed to prepare for the inevitable, widespread introduction of citizen science health research. Using the case study of mobile health (mHealth) research, this article provides an ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) research agenda for citizen science health research conducted outside conventional research institutions. The issues for detailed analysis include the role of IRBs, recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, informed consent, confidentiality and security, vulnerable participants, incidental findings, and publication and data sharing.

  3. A research agenda for academic petroleum engineering programs. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, J.C. Jr.

    1990-03-31

    The development of a research agenda should be a direct way of portraying the scope of petroleum engineering, of identifying the critical technological issues faced by the profession,of elucidating the gaps between the existing research resources and the needs. and of outlining a program of research through which the petroleum engineering departments can be collectively of maximum service. Such an agenda would be of value to the profession of petroleum engineering, to industry and to government agencies, as well as to the faculty and students of the petroleum engineering departments. The purposes of the activity that led to this report, therefore, were to develop a statement to serve as a beginning research agenda for the petroleum engineering academic community; to bring together representatives of the petroleum engineering academic community to recognize the importance of developing a consensus posture with respect to research; and to provide a document that will assist in portraying to industry, government agencies and others the problems and needs of the petroleum engineering departments for conducting research. Contents of this report include; introduction; the background; the scope of petroleum engineering research; priority research topics and technological issues; non-technological research issues; and conclusions and recommendations.

  4. A research agenda for academic petroleum engineering programs

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, J.C. Jr.

    1990-03-31

    The development of a research agenda should be a direct way of portraying the scope of petroleum engineering, of identifying the critical technological issues faced by the profession,of elucidating the gaps between the existing research resources and the needs. and of outlining a program of research through which the petroleum engineering departments can be collectively of maximum service. Such an agenda would be of value to the profession of petroleum engineering, to industry and to government agencies, as well as to the faculty and students of the petroleum engineering departments. The purposes of the activity that led to this report, therefore, were to develop a statement to serve as a beginning research agenda for the petroleum engineering academic community; to bring together representatives of the petroleum engineering academic community to recognize the importance of developing a consensus posture with respect to research; and to provide a document that will assist in portraying to industry, government agencies and others the problems and needs of the petroleum engineering departments for conducting research. Contents of this report include; introduction; the background; the scope of petroleum engineering research; priority research topics and technological issues; non-technological research issues; and conclusions and recommendations.

  5. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  6. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUS) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUS. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  7. HBCUs Research Conference agenda and abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  8. Intervention strategies for children: a research agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Roghmann, K J

    1985-01-01

    This background review has attempted to pinpoint problems and issues of intervention strategies to promote health among children. Some traditional interventions as they are now provided in preventive service packages, for example, are critically assessed; new interventions like neonatal intensive care, prenatal diagnosis, periconceptional vitamin supplementation, and nutritional supplementation during later pregnancy are welcome; supportive outreach services through nurse home visitors to bring proved technologies to those in greatest need, while they may not be new have shown renewed effectiveness. Recently recognized problems like the "new morbidity," and newly recognized prevention potentials like the great prospects for accident prevention, adequate school health programs, and special adolescent care programs are promising areas for preventive services effectiveness. We do not claim that a comprehensive list has been presented. Rather, an attempt has been made to challenge some traditional preventive techniques, e.g., preoperative x-rays, to stimulate thinking about new organizational forms of care delivery, and to keep an open agenda. As a result, the reader will feel a "lack of closure"--challenges without definitive answers. The general assertion is that personal preventive care is only weakly related to health and that preventive care delivery is not a simple technical problem. Let me summarize the main points. First, the lack of evidence and comprehensiveness. Other reviews of preventive care packages could have been discussed. The presentation by Fielding [164] in the Institute of Medicine's background papers to Healthy People also includes service listings for pregnant women, normal infants, preschool children, schoolchildren, and adolescents. The Lifetime Health-Monitoring program by Breslow and Somers [165] set goals and services that have already become practice patterns for large parts of the country. Many more cost-effectiveness studies of

  9. PERSONALITY DISORDER RESEARCH AGENDA FOR THE DSM–V

    PubMed Central

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Simonsen, Erik; Krueger, Robert; Livesley, W. John; Verheul, Roel

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association is sponsoring a series of international conferences to set a research agenda for the development of the next edition of the diagnostic manual. The first conference in this series, “Dimensional Models of Personality Disorder: Etiology, Pathology, Phenomenology, & Treatment,” was devoted to reviewing the existing research and setting a future research agenda that would be most effective in leading the field toward a dimensional classification of personality disorder. The purpose of this article, authored by the Steering Committee of this conference, was to provide a summary of the conference papers and their recommendations for research. Covered herein are the reviews and recommendations concerning alternative dimensional models of personality disorder, behavioral genetics and gene mapping, neurobiological mechanisms, childhood antecedents, cross–cultural issues, Axes I and II continuity, coverage and cutoff points for diagnosis, and clinical utility. PMID:16175740

  10. Developing a Research Agenda for Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Rosalie A.; Wilson, Keren Brown; Spector, William

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe an approach to identifying knowledge gaps, research questions, and methodological issues for assisted living (AL) research. Design and Methods: We undertook an inventory of AL literature and research in progress and commissioned background papers critiquing knowledge on selected subtopics. With an advisory committee, we…

  11. Economics of Education: A Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    1996-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy of research areas in educational economics and outlines key topics deserving more research attention. Emphasizes documenting the unit cost of education at different schooling levels and curriculum types, along with learning and earning schooling outcomes. Topics needing further research include the screening hypothesis,…

  12. An Agenda for Research on Instructional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenda, Michael

    This assessment of the status of research on instructional development (ID) discusses such conceptual problems as the confusion between ID and instructional design, reviews previous research, and proposes a framework for future ID research. Decision-oriented issues discussed within this framework include: (1) administrative and policy issues of ID…

  13. Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Practice Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepler, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)

  14. A Biliteracy Agenda for Genre Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentil, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Most research on the development of genre knowledge has focused on genre learning in either a first language (L1) or a second language (L2). This paper highlights the potential of a biliteracy perspective on genre research that combines insights from literacy and bilingualism in order to examine how multilingual writers develop and use genre…

  15. The Future Agenda for Alumni Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Striving for a standardized alumni research terminology should parallel future research efforts in such areas as measurement of donor potential, modeling alumni giving patterns, and examination of involvement in alumni activities. A taxonomy and a strategy for achieving standardization are described. (MLW)

  16. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is "Sector analysis", followed by

  17. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2004-08-05

    BACKGROUND: Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. METHODS: HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. RESULTS: The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is "Sector analysis", followed

  18. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Dinesen, Birthe; Nonnecke, Brandie; Lindeman, David; Toft, Egon; Kidholm, Kristian; Jethwani, Kamal; Young, Heather M; Spindler, Helle; Oestergaard, Claus Ugilt; Southard, Jeffrey A; Gutierrez, Mario; Anderson, Nick; Albert, Nancy M; Han, Jay J; Nesbitt, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management.

  19. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management. PMID:26932229

  20. Personalized medicine for ARDS: the 2035 research agenda.

    PubMed

    Beitler, Jeremy R; Goligher, Ewan C; Schmidt, Matthieu; Spieth, Peter M; Zanella, Alberto; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Calfee, Carolyn S; Cavalcanti, Alexandre B

    2016-05-01

    In the last 20 years, survival among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has increased substantially with advances in lung-protective ventilation and resuscitation. Building on this success, personalizing mechanical ventilation to patient-specific physiology for enhanced lung protection will be a top research priority for the years ahead. However, the ARDS research agenda must be broader in scope. Further understanding of the heterogeneous biology, from molecular to mechanical, underlying early ARDS pathogenesis is essential to inform therapeutic discovery and tailor treatment and prevention strategies to the individual patient. The ARDSne(x)t research agenda for the next 20 years calls for bringing personalized medicine to ARDS, asking simultaneously both whether a treatment affords clinically meaningful benefit and for whom. This expanded scope necessitates standard acquisition of highly granular biological, physiological, and clinical data across studies to identify biologically distinct subgroups that may respond differently to a given intervention. Clinical trials will need to consider enrichment strategies and incorporate long-term functional outcomes. Tremendous investment in research infrastructure and global collaboration will be vital to fulfilling this agenda.

  1. Expanding the Domain of Agenda-Setting Research Strategies for Theoretical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Maxwell E.

    This review of the research into the agenda-setting function of mass communications posits a structure of the agenda-setting process in order to (1) organize the existing research literature in a coherent fashion and (2) identify the gaps in our existing knowledge of the agenda-setting function of the press. Major sections of the paper discuss the…

  2. ELLA Research Agenda 2012-2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the English Language Learners Research Alliance (ELLA) is to collaborate with states, districts, and schools on the use of data to identify and understand the diversity of their English Language Learner (ELL) population along a range of demographic factors, such as educational background, cultural and linguistic characteristics,…

  3. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François; Bullen, Chris; Flouris, Andreas D; Laugesen, Murray; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been a wide range of regulatory responses ranging from no regulation to complete bans. The empirical basis for these regulatory decisions is uncertain, and more research on ENDS must be conducted in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, health care providers and consumers are based on science. However, there is a dearth of scientific research on these products, including safety, abuse liability and efficacy for smoking cessation. The authors, who cover a broad range of scientific expertise, from basic science to public health, suggest research priorities for non-clinical, clinical and public health studies. They conclude that the first priority is to characterize the safety profile of these products, including in long-term users. If these products are demonstrated to be safe, their efficacy as smoking cessation aids should then be tested in appropriately designed trials. Until these studies are conducted, continued marketing constitutes an uncontrolled experiment and the primary outcome measure, poorly assessed, is user health. Potentially, this research effort, contributing to the safety and efficacy of new smoking cessation devices and to the withdrawal of dangerous products, could save many lives.

  4. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Etter, Jean-François; Bullen, Chris; Flouris, Andreas D; Laugesen, Murray; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been a wide range of regulatory responses ranging from no regulation to complete bans. The empirical basis for these regulatory decisions is uncertain, and more research on ENDS must be conducted in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, health care providers and consumers are based on science. However, there is a dearth of scientific research on these products, including safety, abuse liability and efficacy for smoking cessation. The authors, who cover a broad range of scientific expertise, from basic science to public health, suggest research priorities for non-clinical, clinical and public health studies. They conclude that the first priority is to characterize the safety profile of these products, including in long-term users. If these products are demonstrated to be safe, their efficacy as smoking cessation aids should then be tested in appropriately designed trials. Until these studies are conducted, continued marketing constitutes an uncontrolled experiment and the primary outcome measure, poorly assessed, is user health. Potentially, this research effort, contributing to the safety and efficacy of new smoking cessation devices and to the withdrawal of dangerous products, could save many lives. PMID:21415064

  5. Electronic Newspapers: Toward a Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Glen T.; Curtin, Patricia A.

    In the mid-1980s, when early electronic newspapers failed to live up to their promise, industry analysts declared them dead as a mass medium. But just 10 years later, "E-papers" are once again receiving much media hype, although little academic research has been done on them. Academic literature, trade articles, online discussions, and…

  6. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development.

  7. Towards a renewed research agenda in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Joan; Arts, Gertie; Babut, Marc; Caracciolo, Anna Barra; Charles, Sandrine; Chaumot, Arnaud; Combourieu, Bruno; Dahllöf, Ingela; Despréaux, Denis; Ferrari, Benoit; Friberg, Nikolai; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Hein, Michaela; Hjorth, Morten; Krauss, Martin; De Lange, Hendrika J; Lahr, Joost; Lehtonen, Kari K; Lettieri, Teresa; Liess, Matthias; Lofts, Stephen; Mayer, Philipp; Morin, Soizic; Paschke, Albrecht; Svendsen, Claus; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; van den Brink, Nico; Vindimian, Eric; Williams, Richard

    2012-01-01

    New concerns about biodiversity, ecosystem services and human health triggered several new regulations increasing the need for sound ecotoxicological risk assessment. The PEER network aims to share its view on the research issues that this challenges. PEER scientists call for an improved biologically relevant exposure assessment. They promote comprehensive effect assessment at several biological levels. Biological traits should be used for Environmental risk assessment (ERA) as promising tools to better understand relationships between structure and functioning of ecosystems. The use of modern high throughput methods could also enhance the amount of data for a better risk assessment. Improved models coping with multiple stressors or biological levels are necessary to answer for a more scientifically based risk assessment. Those methods must be embedded within life cycle analysis or economical models for efficient regulations. Joint research programmes involving humanities with ecological sciences should be developed for a sound risk management.

  8. Toward a National Research Agenda on Violence Against Women: Continuing the Dialogue on Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Carol E.

    2004-01-01

    This two-part special issue does not presume to set the nation's research agenda on violence against women (VAW), nor is it the first attempt to contribute to how that agenda might be informed. Instead, this issue continues the dialogue about the empirical study of VAW started by and participated in by many others before. Any attempt at something…

  9. Tick control: thoughts on a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Willadsen, Peter

    2006-05-31

    Tick control is critical to the control of tick borne disease, while the direct impact of ticks on livestock productivity is also well known. For livestock, tick control today rests overwhelmingly on the twin approaches of genetics and chemical acaricides, although the disadvantages and limitations of both are recognized. The achievement of the full potential of vaccination, the application of biocontrol agents and the coordinated management of the existing technologies all pose challenging research problems. Progress in many areas has been steady over the last decade, while the acquisition of molecular information has now reached a revolutionary stage. This is likely to have immediate impact on the identification of potential antigens for improved vaccines and novel targets for acaricide action. In many circumstances, the rate limiting step in making scientific progress will remain unchanged, namely the resource constraint on evaluating these appropriately in large animals. For other approaches, such as the use of biocontrol agents, the limitation is likely to be less in the identification of suitable agents than in their delivery in an efficient and cost effective way. Our scientific understanding of the molecular basis for the tick vector-tick borne disease interaction is in its infancy but the area is both challenging and, in the long term, likely to be of great practical importance. What is arguably the most difficult problem of all remains: the translation of laboratory research into the extremely diverse parasite control requirements of farming systems in a way that is practically useful.

  10. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda.

    PubMed

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  11. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health (“m-Health”) is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow. PMID:25994025

  12. Fulfillment of the Brazilian Agenda of Priorities in Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This commentary describes how the Brazilian Ministry of Health's (MoH) research support policy fulfilled the National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR). In 2003, the MoH started a democratic process in order to establish a priority agenda in health research involving investigators, health managers and community leaders. The Agenda was launched in 2004 and is guiding budget allocations in an attempt to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and health practice and activities, aiming to contribute to improving Brazilian quality of life. Many strategies were developed, for instance: Cooperation Agreements between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology; the decentralization of research support at state levels with the participation of local Health Secretariats and Science and Technology Institutions; Health Technology Assessment; innovation in neglected diseases; research networks and multicenter studies in adult, women's and children's health; cardiovascular risk in adolescents; clinical research and stem cell therapy. The budget allocated by the Ministry of Health and partners was expressive: US$419 million to support almost 3,600 projects. The three sub-agenda with the higher proportion of resources were "industrial health complex", "clinical research" and "communicable diseases", which are considered strategic for innovation and national development. The Southeast region conducted 40.5% of all projects and detained 59.7% of the resources, attributable to the concentration of the most traditional health research institutes and universities in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The second most granted region was the Northeast, which reflects the result of a governmental policy to integrate and modernize this densely populated area and the poorest region in the country. Although Brazil began the design and implementation of the NAPHR in 2003, it has done so in accordance with the 'good practice principles

  13. Sustainable infrastructure: A review and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Thomé, Antônio Márcio Tavares; Ceryno, Paula Santos; Scavarda, Annibal; Remmen, Arne

    2016-12-15

    This paper proposes a taxonomy of themes and a research agenda on sustainable infrastructure, with a focus on sustainable buildings (SB) and green infrastructure (GI). The citation databases of Web of Science formed the basis for a novel strategic thematic analysis of co-citation and co-occurrence of keywords with a longitudinal identification of themes during the last two decades (from 1995 to 2015) of an emerging and ever growing research area. SI is a multidisciplinary endeavour, including a diversified array of disciplines as general engineering, environmental ecology, construction, architecture, urban planning, and geography. This paper traces that the number of publications in SI is growing exponentially since 2003. Over 80% of total citations are concentrated in less than 10% of papers spread over a large number of journals. Most publications originate from the United States, Europe, Australia, and Asia. The main research streams in SI are green infrastructure, sustainable buildings, and assessment methods. Emerging and prevailing research themes include methodological issues of cost-effectiveness, project management and assessment tools. Substantive issues complement the research agenda of emerging themes in the areas of integration of human, economic and corporate social responsibility values in environmental sustainability, urban landscape and sustainable drainage systems, interdisciplinary research in green material, integrated policy research in urbanization, agriculture and nature conservation, and extensions of Green Building (GB) and GI to cities of developing countries.

  14. Forensic medical evaluations of child maltreatment: a proposed research agenda.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Christian, Cindy W; Hymel, Kent; Kellogg, Nancy D

    2014-11-01

    Physicians play an important role in the forensic evaluation of suspected child abuse and neglect. There has been considerable progress in the medical field, helping distinguish findings related to maltreatment from other conditions or circumstances. Nevertheless, important questions remain. This article covers several of these questions and proposes a research agenda concerning five main topics: sexual abuse, neglect, fractures, abusive head trauma, and physicians work in interdisciplinary settings. The suggestions are hardly inclusive, but offer suggestions the authors think are priorities, and ones that research could reasonably address. By providing some background to gaps in our knowledge, this paper should be of interest to a broader audience than just medical professionals.

  15. Understanding marine biodiversity: A research agenda for the nation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Propelled by the need for understanding changes in marine biodiversity resulting from human activities, this proposed research Program calls for ecological and oceanographic research spanning a broad range of spatial scales, from local to much larger regional, and over appropriately long time scales for capturing the dynamics of the system under study. The research agenda proposes a fundamental change in the approach by which biodiversity is measured and studied in the ocean by emphasizing integrated regional-scale research strategies within an environmentally relevant and socially responsible framework. This is now possible because of recent technological and conceptual advances within the ecological, molecular, and oceanographic sciences. A major goal of this research is to improve predictions of the effects of the human population on the diversity of life in the sea, in order to improve conservation and management plans. A well-defined set of biodiversity research questions is proposed for study in several different types of regional-scale marine ecosystems. These studies will permit meaningful comparisons across different habitats of the causes and consequences of changes in biodiversity due to human activities. This agenda requires significant advances in taxonomic expertise for identifying marine organisms and documenting their distributions, in knowledge of local and regional natural Patterns of biodiversity, and in understanding of the processes that create and maintain these patterns in space and time. Thus, this program could provide longawaited, much-needed, and exciting opportunities to develop the interface between taxonomy and ecology and between the ecological and oceanographic sciences.

  16. A remote sensing research agenda for mapping and monitoring biodiversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoms, D. M.; Estes, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    A remote sensing research agenda designed to expand the knowledge of the spatial distribution of species richness and its ecological determinants and to predict its response to global change is proposed. Emphasis is placed on current methods of mapping species richness of both plants and animals, hypotheses concerning the biophysical factors believed to determine patterns of species richness, and anthropogenic processes causing the accelerating rate of extinctions. It is concluded that biodiversity should be incorporated more prominently into the global change and earth system science paradigms.

  17. Public health department accreditation: setting the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Riley, William J; Lownik, Elizabeth M; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Mays, Glen P; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Les M

    2012-03-01

    Health department accreditation is one of the most important initiatives in the field of public health today. The Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) is establishing a voluntary accreditation system for more than 3000 state, tribal, territorial, and local health departments using domains, standards, and measures with which to evaluate public health department performance. In addition, public health department accreditation has a focus on continuous quality improvement to enhance capacity and performance of health departments in order to advance the health of the population. In the accreditation effort, a practice-based research agenda is essential to build the scientific base and advance public health department accreditation as well as health department effectiveness. This paper provides an overview of public health accreditation and identifies the research questions raised by this accreditation initiative, including how the research agenda will contribute to better understanding of processes underlying the delivery of services by public health departments and how voluntary accreditation may help improve performance of public health departments.

  18. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life.

  19. The use of simulation in emergency medicine: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Bond, William F; Lammers, Richard L; Spillane, Linda L; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Fernandez, Rosemarie; Reznek, Martin A; Vozenilek, John A; Gordon, James A

    2007-04-01

    Medical simulation is a rapidly expanding area within medical education. In 2005, the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Simulation Task Force was created to ensure that the Society and its members had adequate access to information and resources regarding this new and important topic. One of the objectives of the task force was to create a research agenda for the use of simulation in emergency medical education. The authors present here the consensus document from the task force regarding suggested areas for research. These include opportunities to study reflective experiential learning, behavioral and team training, procedural simulation, computer screen-based simulation, the use of simulation for evaluation and testing, and special topics in emergency medicine. The challenges of research in the field of simulation are discussed, including the impact of simulation on patient safety. Outcomes-based research and multicenter efforts will serve to advance simulation techniques and encourage their adoption.

  20. How Partnerships Are Core to a Linking Research and Practice Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.

    2015-01-01

    Partnerships between researchers and teachers are central to stimulating advancements in a linking research and practice agenda. This paper addresses two key aims. First, research on supporting students' representational fluency in technology-rich algebra learning environments is used to illustrate a linking research and practice agenda. Three…

  1. Mapping a research agenda for the science of team science.

    PubMed

    Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J; Contractor, Noshir; Fiore, Stephen M; Hall, Kara L; Kane, Cathleen; Keyton, Joann; Klein, Julie Thompson; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William

    2011-06-01

    An increase in cross-disciplinary, collaborative team science initiatives over the last few decades has spurred interest by multiple stakeholder groups in empirical research on scientific teams, giving rise to an emergent field referred to as the science of team science (SciTS). This study employed a collaborative team science concept-mapping evaluation methodology to develop a comprehensive research agenda for the SciTS field. Its integrative mixed-methods approach combined group process with statistical analysis to derive a conceptual framework that identifies research areas of team science and their relative importance to the emerging SciTS field. The findings from this concept-mapping project constitute a lever for moving SciTS forward at theoretical, empirical, and translational levels.

  2. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rühm, W.; Fantuzzi, E.; Harrison, R.; Schuhmacher, H.; Vanhavere, F.; Alves, J.; Bottollier Depois, J. F.; Fattibene, P.; Knežević, Ž.; Lopez, M. A.; Mayer, S.; Miljanić, S.; Neumaier, S.; Olko, P.; Stadtmann, H.; Tanner, R.; Woda, C.

    2016-01-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises—based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members—five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  3. Ecological hazards of MTBE exposure: A research agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, T.; Hall, L.; Rice, D.

    1997-03-01

    Fuel oxygenates are used in metropolitan areas across the United States in order to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere during the winter. The most commonly used fuel oxygenate is Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Its widespread use has resulted in releases into the environment. To date there has been only minimal effort to investigate ecological impacts caused by exposure to concentrations of MTBE typically found in environmental media. Research into the potential for MTBE to adversely affect ecological receptors is essential. Acquisition of such baselines data is especially critical in light of continuing inputs and potential accumulation of MTBE in environmental media. A research Agenda is included in this report and addresses: Assessing Ecological Impacts, Potential Ecological Impacts of MTBE (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms), Potential Ecological Endpoints, and A Summary of Research Needs.

  4. A Pain Research Agenda for the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Gereau, Robert W.; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Maixner, William; Savage, Seddon R.; Price, Theodore J.; Murinson, Beth B.; Sullivan, Mark D.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain represents an immense clinical problem. With tens of millions of people in the United States alone suffering from the burden of debilitating chronic pain, there is a moral obligation to reduce this burden by improving the understanding of pain and treatment mechanisms, developing new therapies, optimizing and testing existing therapies, and improving access to evidence-based pain care. Here, we present a goal-oriented research agenda describing the American Pain Society’s vision for pain research aimed at tackling the most pressing issues in the field. Perspective This article presents the American Pain Society’s view of some of the most important research questions that need to be addressed to advance pain science and to improve care of patients with chronic pain. PMID:25419990

  5. Reflection on the Development of a Research Agenda in Rural Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Lisa; Best, James D.; Wakerman, John; Humphreys, John S.; Wright, Julian R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature on how research agendas have been developed. In this article, the authors reflect on the process of developing a research agenda through a case study of a rural health university centre. The aim is to contribute to understanding how a team can effectively plan research. Two leaders of the process, as well as…

  6. DOE/NORA/BNL oil heat research agenda development

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.; Batey, J.

    1996-07-01

    The National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has been formed and is currently working to establish a Congressionally approved oilheat check-off program to provide funding for research, education, training, safety, and marketing to benefit the US oilheat industry. NORA will be presenting this program to the Congress for its consideration and approval in the coming year. It will follow the same path as the National Propane Gas Association which is currently working on obtaining Congressional approval of a propane check off program that has already attracted over 120 cosponsors in the House of representatives. An effort to define the basis of a joint US Department of Energy (DOE) and Oilheat industry (marketers) program for future oilheat equipment research and development will be conducted during FY-1996. At the request of NORA representatives BNL will coordinate the development of a research agenda addressing three categories of activities, research appropriate for DOE support only, research appropriate for NORA support only, and research appropriate for co-funding by both organizations. This will also serve to update a prior oil-fueled research plan developed for DOE ten years ago which has been the road map for DOE`s very successful Oil Heat R&D program at BNL.

  7. Curiosity and Commercialization: Faculty Perspectives on Sponsored Research, Academic Science and Research Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perorazio, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Given the need to compete for sponsored research funding, do university faculty believe they retain the freedom to research what is of most interest to them? The higher education literature frequently asserts that faculty research agendas are being subjugated to the demands of sponsors. An alternate perspective, from the science studies…

  8. The first research agenda for the chiropractic profession in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research involving chiropractors is evolving and expanding in Europe while resources are limited. Therefore, we considered it timely to initiate a research agenda for the chiropractic profession in Europe. The aim was to identify and suggest priorities for future research in order to best channel the available resources and facilitate advancement of the profession. Methods In total, 60 academics and clinicians working in a chiropractic setting, and who had attended any of the annual European Chiropractors’ Union/European Academy of Chiropractic (ECU/EAC) Researchers’ Day meetings since their inception in 2008, were invited to participate. Data collection consisted of the following phases: phase 1 identification of themes; phase 2 consensus, which employed a Delphi process and allowed us to distill the list of research priorities; and phase 3 presentation of the results during both the Researchers’ Day and a plenary session of the annual ECU Convention in May 2013. In addition, results were distributed to all ECU member countries. Results The response rate was 42% from phase 1 and 68% from phase 2. In general, participants were middle-aged, male and had been awarded a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) as well as chiropractic degree. Approximately equal numbers of participants had obtained their chiropractic degree from the UK/Europe and North America. The majority of participants worked primarily in an academic/research environment and approximately half worked in an independent institution. In total, 58% of the participants were from the UK and Denmark, collectively representing 44% of the chiropractors working in Europe. In total, 70 research priorities were identified, of which 19 reached consensus as priorities for future research. The following three items were thought to be most important: 1) cost-effectiveness/economic evaluations, 2) identification of subgroups likely to respond to treatment, and 3) initiation and promotion of collaborative

  9. Driving with bioptic telescopes: organizing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-09-01

    Being a licensed driver in the United States and many other countries facilitates health and well-being. Based on the vision standards in most states, individuals with worse than 20/40 visual acuity who desire licensure are denied through the usual licensure application process. However, >40 states have bioptic telescope licensing programs where applicants can gain licensure contingent on meeting specific requirements. Despite the existence of the bioptic telescope and these licensing programs since the 1970s, there has been little rigorous scientific study of this topic. Here, I offer an organizing perspective for a research agenda on driving with bioptic telescopes, with the long-term practical goal being to provide an evidence basis for licensure policies and training programs.

  10. Borderlands Modelling and Understanding with GISs: Challenges and Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Ge, Y. J.; Cheng, Y.; Li, R.; Cao, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Borderland regions are special areas and deserve more attention in global sustainable development. Reliable information and effective analysis tools are requested to support borderlands studies through the integrated utilization of geospatial analysis, web service, as well as the other domain-specific expertise. This paper has reviewed the state-of-the-art of borderlands modelling and understanding. From the perspective of geospatial information sciences (GIS), integrated data modelling, comprehensive analysis and collaborative information service are identified as the three major challenges in this filed. A research agenda is further proposed with four topics, i.e., classification and representation of borderland information, derivation of neighborhood information, development of synergetic analysis, and design and development of a geo-portal for borderlands studies. This interdisciplinary study requires a closer and in-depth collaboration of geopolitics, international relation, geography and geo-spatial information sciences.

  11. Youth and digital media: a policy research agenda.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, K

    2000-08-01

    At a time when researchers are still sorting out the complex relationship between adolescents and the mass media, the entire nature of the media system is undergoing dramatic change. The explosive growth of the Internet is ushering in a new digital media culture. Youth are embracing the new technologies much more rapidly than adults. In addition, because of their increased spending power, youth have become a valuable target market for advertisers. These trends have spurred the proliferation of Web sites and other forms of new-media content specifically designed for teens and children. The burgeoning digital marketplace has spawned a new generation of market research companies, and market research on children and youth is outpacing academic research on youth and the newer media. The emergence of this new media culture holds both promise and peril for youth. Whether the positive or negative vision of the digital future prevails will be determined, in large part, by decisions being made now and in the next few years in the halls of government and in corporate boardrooms. Research has contributed to the resolutions of several recent legislative and policy decisions in areas including television violence and the V-chip, children's educational television programming, and privacy and marketing to children on the Web. Future research needs to be designed with the public policy agenda in mind. The academic community has much to contribute to the debates over new developments in the digital age.

  12. Common strategic research agenda for radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    Reflecting the change in funding strategies for European research projects, and the goal to jointly improve medical radiation protection through sustainable research efforts, five medical societies involved in the application of ionising radiation (European Association of Nuclear Medicine, EANM; European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. EFOMP; European Federation of Radiographer Societies, EFRS; European Society of Radiology, ESR; European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, ESTRO) have identified research areas of common interest and developed this first edition of the Common Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for medical radiation protection. The research topics considered necessary and most urgent for effective medical care and efficient in terms of radiation protection are summarised in five main themes: 1. Measurement and quantification in the field of medical applications of ionising radiation 2. Normal tissue reactions, radiation-induced morbidity and long-term health problems 3. Optimisation of radiation exposure and harmonisation of practices 4. Justification of the use of ionising radiation in medical practice 5. Infrastructures for quality assurance The SRA is a living document; thus comments and suggestions by all stakeholders in medical radiation protection are welcome and will be dealt with by the European Alliance for Medical Radiation Protection Research (EURAMED) established by the above-mentioned societies.

  13. Quality of Care in the Social Services: Research Agenda and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, J. Curtis; Proctor, Enola K.; Megivern, Deborah; Striley, Catherine Woodstock; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Munson, Michelle R.; Dickey, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    In an era of heightened accountability, remarkably little is known empirically about the quality of social work services. This article applies insights from health services research to propose a research agenda on the quality of care in the social services. The agenda calls for studies that address the definition of quality service, variations in…

  14. Consumer decision and behavior research agenda for the Office of Building and Community Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mohler, B.L.; Scheer, R.M.; Barnes, V.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents a research agenda of Consumer Decision and Behavior Projects related to improving, facilitating and planning Building and Community Systems, (BCS) research and development activities. Information for developing this agenda was gathered through focus group and depth interviews with BCS staff, directors and program managers.

  15. Toward an Integrated Research Agenda for Critical Illness in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Milbrandt, Eric B.; Eldadah, Basil; Nayfield, Susan; Hadley, Evan; Angus, Derek C.

    2010-01-01

    Aging brings an increased predisposition to critical illness. Patients older than 65 years of age account for approximately half of all intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in the United States, a proportion that is expected to increase considerably with the aging of the population. Emerging research suggests that elderly survivors of intensive care suffer significant long-term sequelae, including accelerated age-related functional decline. Existing evidence-based interventions are frequently underused and their efficacy untested in older subjects. Improving ICU outcomes in the elderly will require not only better methods for translating sound science into improved ICU practice but also an enhanced understanding of the underlying molecular, physiological, and pathophysiological interactions of critical illness with the aging process itself. Yet, significant barriers to research for critical illness in aging exist. We review the state of knowledge and identify gaps in knowledge, research opportunities, and barriers to research, with the goal of promoting an integrated research agenda for critical illness in aging. PMID:20558632

  16. Research in lower middle income countries - recommendations for a national mental health research agenda in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chipps, J; Ramlall, S

    2012-11-01

    In the current mental health environment in South Africa, the development of a relevant mental health research agenda poses several challenges. This paper provides a brief overview of the current state of published research in mental health and, using a translation research framework, makes recommendations for five strategic directions to be considered in the development of a national mental health research agenda.

  17. Seeing Classes: Toward a Broadened Research Agenda for Critical Qualitative Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a research agenda that foregrounds social class in US public schooling. The author suggests that the relative invisibility of social class in academic discourse on schooling limits the value of research in at least three ways: (1) middle-class academics' propensity to speak on behalf of the poor and working class limits…

  18. A Suggested Research Agenda on Treatment-Outcome Research for Female Victims of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resick, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    I appreciate the opportunity to present my opinions on the appropriate course for the research agenda on violence against women. Briere and Jordan (this issue) have done an estimable job in reviewing the research on the psychological impact of violence on women and have concluded that, because psychological symptoms following victimization are…

  19. The healthy organization construct: A review and research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Raya, Rampalli Prabhakara; Panneerselvam, Sivapragasam

    2013-01-01

    Work plays an important role in one's life for many reasons. It provides us with economic, social, and personal satisfaction and accounts for a substantial percentage of our waking hours. But in today's knowledge-driven economy, organization of work has been changing at a warp speed as a consequence of economic, social and technological aspects of changes brought down by globalization and liberalization worldwide. While this situation has eliminated some risks of the earlier industrial era, it is introducing others. In such a dynamic business environment, where can business leaders and managers find competitive advantage? It lies in balancing people and performance goals. This is the line of approach for healthy organization research that examines organizational context with regard to: People, work organization, management practices, employee wellbeing and performance. The healthy organization concept proposes that along with the profits, employee's well being should also be an important goal for organizations. In this paper, the researcher undertakes an extensive review of literature in the mainstream business literature and establishes the agenda for healthy organization research among other research paradigms. PMID:24872666

  20. Online Social Networks and Smoking Cessation: A Scientific Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M. Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Objective Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. Methods We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. Results We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Conclusions Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward. PMID:22182518

  1. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Monitoring, Evaluation, and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance measure how well public health programs operate over time and achieve their goals. As countries approach malaria elimination, these activities will need to shift from measuring reductions in morbidity and mortality, to detecting infections (with or without symptoms) and measuring transmission. Thus, the monitoring and evaluation and surveillance research and development agenda needs to develop the tools and strategies that will replace passive surveillance of morbidity with active and prompt detection of infection, including confirmation of interruption of transmission by detecting present and past infections, particularly in mobile populations. The capacity to assess trends and respond without delay will need to be developed, so that surveillance itself becomes an intervention. Research is also needed to develop sensitive field tests that can detect low levels of parasitaemia, together with strategies for their implementation. Other areas to explore include the rigorous evaluation of the utility of more detailed maps of disease and infection incidence and prevalence, the development of new maps to inform programmatic responses and the use of surveillance technologies based on cell phone or real-time internet Web-based reporting. Because any new strategies for monitoring and evaluation and surveillance for eradication have major implications for program implementation, research is also needed to test systems of delivery for acceptability, feasibility, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and community engagement. Finally, there is a clear need to systematically review the information from past elimination efforts for malaria and other infectious diseases. PMID:21311581

  2. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Juliano, Laura M.; Hughes, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder—a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem. PMID:24761279

  3. A new international agenda for astronomy education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    A good deal of the research on astronomy education is based on comprehensive summary reviews of scholarly production revealing trends and gaps in the area. Motivated by the recent reform of the IAU Commission Reform, we are proposing projects related to the Commission 46 and more specifically to the Working Group on Theory and Methods in Astronomy Education. The goal of this work is to present a new international agenda for research on astronomy education. In a general way we intend to encourage efforts to increase the scholarly production in the area and, at the same time, encourage summary reviews of what has been published in several regions of the globe. These reviews refer to the various forms of production of this research, published in theses dissertations, conference proceedings and journal articles. We believe that there is already sufficient production and the more complete surveys must reveal a ``hidden'' material that may be available locally and internationally. Much of the work in these venues is certainly not known by researchers in Astronomy, not only because they belong to a different area of theoretical and methodological framework, but also because they are related to teaching in Physics and general sciences, rather than Astronomy specifically. This kind of research is largely invisible because it occurs in very specific different contexts of production, culture, curriculum, materials and application in schools with local teachers and the general public. To improve the present situation, international events are proposed in various continents seeking to encourage surveys of already published materials, their studies and seeking also new key lines of research. As concrete examples, scholarly reviews and studies conducted in Brazil and other countries are shown. We believe that such actions should raise the visibility of authors and institutions and enable studies of state-of-the-art showing trends and gaps, allowing future developments and

  4. A new international agenda for astronomy education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A great deal can be learned about astronomy education research by conducting comprehensive summary reviews of scholarly production revealing trends and gaps in the area. Motivated by the recent IAU Commission Reform, we are proposing projects related to the Commission 46 and more specifically to the Working Group on Theory and Methods in Astronomy Education. The goal of this work is to present a new international agenda for research on astronomy education. In a general way we intend to encourage efforts to increase the scholarly production in the area and encourage surveys of what has been published in several regions of the globe. These surveys refer to the various forms of production, published in theses dissertations, conference proceedings and journal articles. We believe that there exists considerable scholarly effort around the world, but that much of it is “hidden” and systematic surveys need to be conducted internationally to collect and synthesize this material to guide future work. Much of the work in these venues is certainly not known by researchers in Astronomy, not only because they belong to a different area of theoretical and methodological framework, but also because they are related to teaching in Physics and general sciences, rather than Astronomy specifically. This kind of research is largely invisible because it occurs in very specific different contexts of production, culture, curriculum, materials and application in schools with local teachers and the general public. To improve the present situation, international events are proposed in various continents seeking to encourage surveys of already published materials, their studies and seeking also new key lines of research. As concrete examples, surveys, scholarly reviews and studies conducted in Brazil and other countries are shown. We believe that such actions should raise the visibility of authors and institutions and enable studies of state-of-the-art showing trends and gaps, allowing

  5. An institutional research agenda: focusing university expertise in Tanzania on national health priorities.

    PubMed

    Masalu, Joyce R; Aboud, Muhsin; Moshi, Mainen J; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary; Mgimwa, Nana; Freeman, Phyllis; Goodell, Alex J; Kaaya, Ephata E; Macfarlane, Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    A well-articulated institutional health research agenda can assist essential contributors and intended beneficiaries to visualize the link between research and community health needs, systems outcomes, and national development. In 2011, Tanzania's Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) published a university-wide research agenda. In developing the agenda, MUHAS leadership drew on research expertise in its five health professional schools and two institutes, its own research relevant documents, national development priorities, and published literature. We describe the process the university underwent to form the agenda and present its content. We assess MUHAS's research strengths and targets for new development by analyzing faculty publications over a five-year period before setting the agenda. We discuss implementation challenges and lessons for improving the process when updating the agenda. We intend that our description of this agenda-setting process will be useful to other institutions embarking on similar efforts to align research activities and funding with national priorities to improve health and development.

  6. Widening Participation to Doctoral Education and Research Degrees: A Research Agenda for an Emerging Policy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Alistair; Thomas, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Widening participation is on the political agenda but, to date, policy, practice and research has focused on undergraduate education. This article identifies an emerging widening participation focus on doctoral education. Using England as a case study, the article examines this development within the context of the long-standing concern with…

  7. Implementation Research and Wraparound Literature: Building a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Rosalyn M.; Suter, Jesse C.; Bruns, Eric J.; O'Rourke, Koren E.

    2011-01-01

    We used the framework identified by the National Implementation Research Network's (NIRN) analysis of 35 years of implementation outcomes literature from diverse fields of endeavor to review the current state of wraparound implementation research. Model definition, model fidelity and intervention outcomes were areas of relatively greater…

  8. Optimizing Health Care Coalitions: Conceptual Frameworks and a Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Hupert, Nathaniel; Biala, Karen; Holland, Tara; Baehr, Avi; Hasan, Aisha; Harvey, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    The US health care system has maintained an objective of preparedness for natural or manmade catastrophic events as part of its larger charge to deliver health services for the American population. In 2002, support for hospital-based preparedness activities was bolstered by the creation of the National Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program, now called the Hospital Preparedness Program, in the US Department of Health and Human Services. Since 2012, this program has promoted linking health care facilities into health care coalitions that build key preparedness and emergency response capabilities. Recognizing that well-functioning health care coalitions can have a positive impact on the health outcomes of the populations they serve, this article informs efforts to optimize health care coalition activity. We first review the landscape of health care coalitions in the United States. Then, using principles from supply chain management and high-reliability organization theory, we present 2 frameworks extending beyond the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response's current guidance in a way that may help health care coalition leaders gain conceptual insight into how different enterprises achieve similar ends relevant to emergency response. We conclude with a proposed research agenda to advance understanding of how coalitions can contribute to the day-to-day functioning of health care systems and disaster preparedness.

  9. Urinary catheters: history, current status, adverse events and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Feneley, Roger C L; Hopley, Ian B; Wells, Peter N T

    2015-01-01

    For more than 3500 years, urinary catheters have been used to drain the bladder when it fails to empty. For people with impaired bladder function and for whom the method is feasible, clean intermittent self-catheterization is the optimal procedure. For those who require an indwelling catheter, whether short- or long-term, the self-retaining Foley catheter is invariably used, as it has been since its introduction nearly 80 years ago, despite the fact that this catheter can cause bacterial colonization, recurrent and chronic infections, bladder stones and septicaemia, damage to the kidneys, the bladder and the urethra, and contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. In terms of medical, social and economic resources, the burden of urinary retention and incontinence, aggravated by the use of the Foley catheter, is huge. In the UK, the harm resulting from the use of the Foley catheter costs the National Health Service between £1.0-2.5 billion and accounts for ∼2100 deaths per year. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of an alternative indwelling catheter system. The research agenda is for the new catheter to be easy and safe to insert, either urethrally or suprapubically, to be retained reliably in the bladder and to be withdrawn easily and safely when necessary, to mimic natural physiology by filling at low pressure and emptying completely without damage to the bladder, and to have control mechanisms appropriate for all users.

  10. Urinary catheters: history, current status, adverse events and research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Feneley, Roger C. L.; Hopley, Ian B.; Wells, Peter N. T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For more than 3500 years, urinary catheters have been used to drain the bladder when it fails to empty. For people with impaired bladder function and for whom the method is feasible, clean intermittent self-catheterization is the optimal procedure. For those who require an indwelling catheter, whether short- or long-term, the self-retaining Foley catheter is invariably used, as it has been since its introduction nearly 80 years ago, despite the fact that this catheter can cause bacterial colonization, recurrent and chronic infections, bladder stones and septicaemia, damage to the kidneys, the bladder and the urethra, and contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. In terms of medical, social and economic resources, the burden of urinary retention and incontinence, aggravated by the use of the Foley catheter, is huge. In the UK, the harm resulting from the use of the Foley catheter costs the National Health Service between £1.0–2.5 billion and accounts for ∼2100 deaths per year. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of an alternative indwelling catheter system. The research agenda is for the new catheter to be easy and safe to insert, either urethrally or suprapubically, to be retained reliably in the bladder and to be withdrawn easily and safely when necessary, to mimic natural physiology by filling at low pressure and emptying completely without damage to the bladder, and to have control mechanisms appropriate for all users. PMID:26383168

  11. Research Agenda: Priorities for Future Research in Second Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In a recent state-of-the-art (SoA) article (Stoynoff 2009), I reviewed some of the trends in language assessment research and considered them in light of validation activities associated with four widely used international measures of L2 English ability. This Thinking Allowed article presents an opportunity to revisit the four broad areas of L2…

  12. NACUBO Report: Caspa Harris Calls for Joint Higher Education Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Caspa L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In addressing the Governmental Accounting Standards Advisory Board, the National Association of College and University Business Officers' president urged the accounting standards boards to work together to establish a multiyear accounting research agenda for higher education. (Author/MSE)

  13. Putting the Pieces Together: Explore the Idea and Purpose of Developing a Research Agenda for Ed Tech. Leaders Sharing--Research Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadel, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Glen Bull's call for a research agenda for one-to-many computing (page 42 of this issue) raises a larger question: what is the status of a research agenda within education technology? This article first considers what a "research agenda" is in general. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines research as "studious inquiry or examination." (There's…

  14. Climate Change and Rural Sociology: Broadening the Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Riley E.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is the preeminent environmental problem of this time, and Joseph Molnar's call for greater attention to it by rural sociologists is both welcome and timely. The agenda he lays out for rural sociology's engagement with climate change, however, seems rather narrow and restrictive. Examining the potential impacts of climate change,…

  15. An agenda for increasing grant funding of emergency medicine education research.

    PubMed

    Choo, Esther K; Fernandez, Rosemarie; Hayden, Emily M; Schneider, Jeffrey I; Clyne, Brian; Ginsburg, Shiphra; Gruppen, Larry D

    2012-12-01

    Funding is a perennial challenge for medical education researchers. Through a consensus process, the authors developed a multifaceted agenda for increasing funding of education research in emergency medicine (EM). Priority agenda items include developing resources to increase the competitiveness of medical education research faculty in grant applications, identifying means by which departments may bolster their faculty's grant writing success, taking long-term steps to increase the number of grants available to education researchers in the field, and encouraging a shift in cultural attitudes toward education research.

  16. The Need for More Research on Language Barriers in Health Care: A Proposed Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Elizabeth; Chen, Alice HM; Karliner, Leah S; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Mutha, Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Many U.S. residents who speak little English may face language barriers when seeking health care. This article describes what is currently known about language barriers in health care and outlines a research agenda based on mismatches between the current state of knowledge of language barriers and what health care stakeholders need to know. Three broad areas needing more research are discussed: the ways in which language barriers affect health and health care, the efficacy of linguistic access service interventions, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. In each of these areas, we outline specific research questions and recommendations. PMID:16529570

  17. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J; DePaolo, Donald J.; Pietraß, Tanja

    2015-05-22

    . In response, the Office of Science, through its Office of Basic Energy Science (BES), convened a roundtable consisting of 15 national lab, university and industry geoscience experts to brainstorm basic research areas that underpin the SubTER goals but are currently underrepresented in the BES research portfolio. Held in Germantown, Maryland on May 22, 2015, the round-table participants developed a basic research agenda that is detailed in this report. Highlights include the following: -A grand challenge calling for advanced imaging of stress and geological processes to help understand how stresses and chemical substances are distributed in the subsurface—knowledge that is critical to all aspects of subsurface engineering; -A priority research direction aimed at achieving control of fluid flow through fractured media; -A priority research direction aimed at better understanding how mechanical and geochemical perturbations to subsurface rock systems are coupled through fluid and mineral interactions; -A priority research direction aimed at studying the structure, permeability, reactivity and other properties of nanoporous rocks, like shale, which have become critical energy materials and exhibit important hallmarks of mesoscale materials; -A cross-cutting theme that would accelerate development of advanced computational methods to describe heterogeneous time-dependent geologic systems that could, among other potential benefits, provide new and vastly improved models of hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts; -A cross-cutting theme that would lead to the creation of “geo-architected materials” with controlled repeatable heterogeneity and structure that can be tested under a variety of thermal, hydraulic, chemical and mechanical conditions relevant to subsurface systems; -A cross-cutting theme calling for new laboratory studies on both natural and geo-architected subsurface materials that deploy advanced high-resolution 3D imaging and chemical analysis

  18. Developing Voice and Empowerment: The First Step towards a Broad Consultation in Research Agenda Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nierse, C. J.; Abma, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are increasingly consulted in research, participation in research agenda setting processes is limited. This is not surprising as their voice can easily be dominated in consultations with researchers. The aim of this article is to explore the potentials of enclave deliberation as a…

  19. Creating a Research Agenda in Career Counselling: The Place of Action Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Domene, Jose F.

    2012-01-01

    After identifying historical and current problems in career counselling research, we propose a research agenda based on contextual action theory. This theory has been used as a framework for research in the career field and for general counselling practice. It is advantageous for several reasons including its conceptual basis, its detailed…

  20. Where Are the Children in Home-School Relations? Notes towards a Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Rosalind; David, Miriam

    1997-01-01

    Describes current "adult-centric" nature of research on home-school relations in Britain, and sets out a framework for a research agenda for discussion within a traditionally "child-free" zone. Argues for research on home-school relations that takes a child-centered approach, treating children as competent informants on diverse…

  1. A "National Research Agenda" for the Postsecondary Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroedel, John G.; Ashmore, Donnell H.; Watson, Douglas

    This paper informs researchers about a "National Research Agenda" that will be presented to the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services of the U.S. Department of Education to develop guidelines for coordinating and funding future research initiatives in the postsecondary training of deaf and hard of hearing students. The paper also…

  2. 75 FR 5566 - NOAA Cooperative Institutes (CIs): (1) A CI To Support NOAA Research Facilities in the Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Cooperative Institutes (CIs): (1) A CI To Support NOAA... Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of... three new NOAA cooperative institutes (CIs): (1) A CI To Support NOAA Research Facilities in the...

  3. The Future of Agenda Setting Research: New Audiences and New Gatekeepers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Joseph E.

    The topic of agenda setting has been one of the most researched fields in mass communication since its introduction in 1972. M. E. McCombs and D. L. Shaw (1972) began a research collection of over 200 projects by upholding the hypothesis that the media cannot tell viewers what to think but it can tell them what to think about. The question arises…

  4. Creating a Visual Arts Research Agenda toward the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Art Education Association, Reston, VA. Commission on Research in Art Education.

    This document consists of the recommendations of a commission charged to identify and formulate a set of initial recommendations that would provide leadership, guidance, and direction for a specific research agenda in visual arts education. The paper emphasizes that research efforts should be directed at all levels of art education, from preschool…

  5. Towards an Agenda for Disability Research in Europe: Learning from Disabled People's Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Mark; Waddington, Lisa; Bessozi, Carlotta

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenges of building capacity for collaborative participatory research with disabled people's organisations in European countries. The paper presents initial findings from the project "European Research Agendas for Disability Equality" (EuRADE), which seeks to build the capacity of civil society organisations…

  6. Transforming University Curriculum Policies in a Global Knowledge Era: Mapping a "Global Case Study" Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidovich, Lesley; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Tight, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Radical curriculum policy transformations are emerging as a key strategy of universities across different countries as they move to strengthen their competitive position in a global knowledge era. This paper puts forward a "global case study" research agenda in the under-researched area of university curriculum policy. The particular…

  7. Higher Education Trends for the Next Century: A Research Agenda for Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia S., Ed.; Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.

    This document is a collection of eight position papers on a research agenda in higher education. The papers are based on a three-year analysis of trends and feedback deriving from conferences and Website presentations. Each paper ends with a list of specific proposed research questions. Following an introduction by Cynthia S. Johnson, the papers…

  8. Opportunity from Crisis: A Common Agenda for Higher Education and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Hellström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a plea for the construction of a common agenda for higher education and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy research. The public higher education and research sector in all countries is currently in the grip of several challenges arising from increased accountability, internationalization and in some cases dwindling…

  9. Practitioners Speak: Contributing to a Research Agenda for Adult Basic Education. NCSALL Reports #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Mary Beth; Smith, Cristine; Stewart, Kimberly; Burnett, Anne; Devereux, Helena; Gooden, Judy; Hayes, David; LaChance, Arthur; LaMachia, Joan; Meader, Pam; Tate, Alan; Tiedeman, Kristin

    To obtain practitioner input on the research agenda for adult basic education (ABE), practitioner leaders from the Practitioner Dissemination and Research Network (PRDN) conducted nine focus groups with ABE practitioners in their states. The focus groups examined three topics: issues that concern practitioners in ABE; ways practitioners see their…

  10. Content and Language Integrated Learning: Towards a Connected Research Agenda for CLIL Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Do

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out to position CLIL research within the broader field of bilingual education in the 21st century. In considering the development of CLIL across diverse European contexts, the author problematises the construction of a research agenda which lies at the interface of several different fields of study. A conceptual framework for CLIL…

  11. Ethics in acute care research: a global perspective and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hansoti, Bhakti; Hauswald, Mark; Sethuraman, Kinjal; Kerr, Nancy Louise; Scordino, David; Biros, Michelle H

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference focused on global health and emergency care research. One conference breakout session discussed research ethics and developed a research agenda concerning global acute care research ethics. This article represents the proceedings from that session, particularly focusing on ethical issues related to protecting human subjects while conducting acute care research. Protecting human research subjects from unnecessary risk is an important component of conducting ethical research, regardless of the research site. There are widely accepted ethical principles related to human subjects research; however, the interpretation of these principles requires specific local knowledge and expertise to ensure that research is conducted ethically within the societal and cultural norms. There is an obligation to conduct research ethically while recognizing the roles and responsibilities of all participants. This article discusses the complexities of determining and applying socially and culturally appropriate ethical principles during the conduct of global acute care research. Using case studies, it focuses both on the procedural components of ethical research conducted outside of "Western" culture and on basic ethical principles that are applicable to all human subjects research. This article also proposes specific research topics to stimulate future thought and the study of ethics in these complex circumstances.

  12. The forensic evaluation and report: an agenda for research.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec; Norko, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The written report is a central component of forensic psychiatric practice. In the report, an evaluator assembles and organizes data, interprets results of an evaluation, and offers an opinion in response to legal questions. The past 30 years have seen substantial development in principles and practice of forensic report writing. Drawing on recent advances in the psychiatric report, the authors explore topics including narrative, forensic ethics, coercion within the justice system, and implications of limitations on data in forming forensic opinions. They offer an analysis of unanswered questions in these areas, suggesting opportunities for further empirical study and theoretical development. This proposed agenda is important in training, in the development of policy, and in establishing professional guidelines.

  13. Where the wild things are: A research agenda for studying wildlife-wilderness relationship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Michael K.; Hahn, Beth; Hossack, Blake R.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the connection between US designated wilderness areas and wildlife with the goal of establishing a research agenda for better understanding this complex relationship. Our research agenda has two components. The first, “wildlife for wilderness,” considers the impact of wildlife on wilderness character. Whereas studies show that wildlife is important in both the perception and actual enhancement of wilderness character, the context and particulars of this relationship have not been evaluated. For instance, is knowing that a rare, native species is present in a wilderness area enough to increase perceptions of naturalness (an important wilderness quality)? Or does the public need to observe the species or its sign (e.g., tracks) for this benefit? The second part of our research agenda, “wilderness for wildlife,” considers the types of research needed to understand the impact of wilderness areas on wildlife and biodiversity conservation. Several studies show the effect of one area being designated wilderness on one wildlife species. Yet, there has been no research that examines how the networks of wilderness areas in the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) are used by a species or a community of species. Furthermore, we found no studies that focused on how the NWPS affects ecological or trophic interactions among species. We hope that by providing a research agenda, we can spur multiple lines of research on the topic of wildlife and wilderness.

  14. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Health Systems and Operational Research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Health systems research and development is needed to support the global malaria eradication agenda. In this paper, we (the malERA Consultative Group on Health Systems and Operational Research) focus on the health systems needs of the elimination phase of malaria eradication and consider groupings of countries at different stages along the pathway to elimination. We examine the difference between the last attempt at eradication of malaria and more recent initiatives, and consider the changing health system challenges as countries make progress towards elimination. We review recent technological and theoretical developments related to health systems and the renewed commitment to strengthening health systems for universal access and greater equity. Finally, we identify a number of needs for research and development, including tools for analyzing and improving effective coverage and strengthening decision making and discuss the relevance of these needs at all levels of the health system from the community to the international level. PMID:21311588

  15. Establishing a research agenda for scientific and technical information (STI) - Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  16. Establishing a research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI): Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  17. 75 FR 27006 - Toward a Federal Cybersecurity Research Agenda: Three Game-Changing Themes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... and development agenda. This request for information will be active from May 19, 2010 to June 18, 2010... cybersecurity game-change research activities: (a) Tailored Trustworthy Spaces, (b) Moving Target, (c) Cyber... Development (NITRD). Dated: May 10, 2010. Suzanne H. Plimpton, Reports Clearance Officer, National...

  18. Advancing the M-Learning Research Agenda for Active, Experiential Learning: Four Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel Evelyn; Litchfield, Andrew; Lawrence, Elaine; Raban, Ryszard; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an m-learning research agenda instituted at our university in order to explore how mobile technology can enhance active, experiential learning. Details of the implementation and results of four areas of m-learning are presented: mobile supported fieldwork, fostering interactivity in large lectures with mobile technology,…

  19. Are Language Learning Websites Special? Towards a Research Agenda for Discipline-Specific Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shield, Lesley; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    With the intention of defining an initial research agenda for discipline-specific factors in the usability of e-learning websites, this article focuses on the example of foreign language learning. First, general notions and concepts of usability are analyzed, and the term "pedagogical usability" is proposed as a means of focusing on the close…

  20. Is There Counsel in Those Curtains? Research Agendas for the Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracy, David B., II

    2011-01-01

    Presented as the keynote address at the Library Research Seminar, University of Maryland, October 7, 2010, this essay identifies and explores three agendas ever appropriate for study, the pursuits of which are especially needed now. They are as follows: to (1) explore the historical dimension of library topics, (2) revive study of the institution…

  1. AN INTEGRATED RESEARCH AGENDA TO EVALUATE TAP WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND HUMAN HEALTH: PART 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Integrated Research Agenda to Evaluate Tap Water Disinfection Byproducts and Human Health: Part I

    Michele Lynberg1, David Ashley 2, Pauline Mendola3, J. R. Nuckols4, Kenneth Cantor5, Benjamin Blount 2, Philip Singer6, Charles Wilkes7, Lorraine Backer1, and Peter Langlo...

  2. NADE Members Respond--Developmental Education Research Agenda: Survey of Field Professionals, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxon, D. Patrick; Martirosyan, Nara M.; Wentworth, Rebecca A.; Boylan, Hunter R.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final of a two-part article that provides the results of a qualitative study designed to document ideas and beliefs that professionals have regarding an appropriate research agenda on which the field of developmental education should focus in the near future. The participants of the study were members of the National Association for…

  3. Place-Related Identities through Texts: From Interdisciplinary Theory to Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Emma; Wyse, Dominic; Hodges, Gabrielle Cliff; Nikolajeva, Maria; Pointon, Pam; Taylor, Liz

    2011-01-01

    The implications of the transdisciplinary spatial turn are attracting growing interest in a broad range of areas related to education. This paper draws on a methodology for interdisciplinary thinking in order to articulate a new theoretical configuration of place-related identity, and its implications for a research agenda. The new configuration…

  4. The 1994 Agenda for the National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This agenda begins with the mission statement of the National Center for Research in Vocational Education (NCRVE) which envisions NRCVE as serving the role of an agent for change. It discusses the two major components that comprise the vision: one describing what occupationally oriented education ought to be, and one describing how a national…

  5. The European Institute of Technology and the Europe of Knowledge: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the development and significance of the European Institute of Technology (EIT) in the period since 2005 when the European Union launched a suite of initiatives for higher education, research and innovation, including the EIT, as part of attempts to re-launch its Lisbon Strategy around a "growth and jobs" agenda. The…

  6. Research and Evaluation Agenda 1993-94 for AISD 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The research and evaluation agenda for the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas) is determined for each school year, subject to current needs and requests. The evaluations and other major projects for 1993-94 will focus on three major areas. First is providing school support. Testing programs mandated by state law and district policy…

  7. Developing a research agenda for cardiovascular disease prevention in high-risk rural communities.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Cathy L; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Pratt, Charlotte A; Nelson, Cheryl; Walker, Evelyn R; Ammerman, Alice; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Best, Lyle G; Cherrington, Andrea L; Economos, Christina D; Green, Lawrence W; Harman, Jane; Hooker, Steven P; Murray, David M; Perri, Michael G; Ricketts, Thomas C

    2013-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health convened a workshop to engage researchers and practitioners in dialogue on research issues viewed as either unique or of particular relevance to rural areas, key content areas needed to inform policy and practice in rural settings, and ways rural contexts may influence study design, implementation, assessment of outcomes, and dissemination. Our purpose was to develop a research agenda to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors among populations living in rural areas. Complementary presentations used theoretical and methodological principles to describe research and practice examples from rural settings. Participants created a comprehensive CVD research agenda that identified themes and challenges, and provided 21 recommendations to guide research, practice, and programs in rural areas.

  8. Developing a Research Agenda for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in High-Risk Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Nelson, Cheryl; Walker, Evelyn R.; Ammerman, Alice; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Best, Lyle G.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Economos, Christina D.; Green, Lawrence W.; Harman, Jane; Hooker, Steven P.; Murray, David M.; Perri, Michael G.; Ricketts, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health convened a workshop to engage researchers and practitioners in dialogue on research issues viewed as either unique or of particular relevance to rural areas, key content areas needed to inform policy and practice in rural settings, and ways rural contexts may influence study design, implementation, assessment of outcomes, and dissemination. Our purpose was to develop a research agenda to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors among populations living in rural areas. Complementary presentations used theoretical and methodological principles to describe research and practice examples from rural settings. Participants created a comprehensive CVD research agenda that identified themes and challenges, and provided 21 recommendations to guide research, practice, and programs in rural areas. PMID:23597371

  9. HBCUs/OMUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs/OMUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Glenn Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Glenn technical monitors, and other Glenn researchers.

  10. HBCUs/OMUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Glenn Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Glenn technical monitors, and other Glenn researchers.

  11. HBCUs/OMUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The Abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Glenn Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Glenn technical monitors, and other Glenn researchers.

  12. The NIOSH Construction Program: research to practice, impact, and developing a National Construction Agenda.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Matt

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research to improve and protect the health and safety of workers. This paper describes the experience of the NIOSH Construction Program with two recent program planning initiatives intended to improve the program: (a) an independent external review of work over the past decade and (b) the development of strategic goals organized into a "National Construction Agenda" to guide a decade of future work. These goals, developed with input from construction industry stakeholders and researchers, are a part of the NIOSH National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) initiative. The NORA goals are intended to provide an ambitious set of goals for all construction stakeholders to work together on. Both efforts relate to insuring the relevance and impact of research, reflecting an emerging policy perspective that research programs should be judged not just by the quality and quantity of science produced, but by the industry impact and tangible benefit resulting from the research. This paper describes how views on research planning have evolved to incorporate lessons learned about how research leads to improved safety and health for workers. It also describes the process used to develop the goals and the resulting strategic and intermediate goals that comprise the National Construction Agenda.

  13. A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18: contextual influences and key components.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Stone, Patricia W; Larson, Elaine L

    2008-01-01

    The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Research Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities reported a decade ago. The authors focus on 3 specific aspects of context--genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technologies--that must be considered in formulating a nursing informatics research agenda. These influences are illustrated using the significant issue of healthcare associated infections (HAI). A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18 must expand users of interest to include interdisciplinary researchers; build upon the knowledge gained in nursing concept representation to address genomic and environmental data; guide the reengineering of nursing practice; harness new technologies to empower patients and their caregivers for collaborative knowledge development; develop user-configurable software approaches that support complex data visualization, analysis, and predictive modeling; facilitate the development of middle-range nursing informatics theories; and encourage innovative evaluation methodologies that attend to human-computer interface factors and organizational context.

  14. Higher Education Research Agendas for the Coming Decade: A UK Perspective on the Policy-Research Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlehurst, Robin

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of the UK, this paper addresses two main themes. It presents a higher education (HE) research agenda for the next decade linked to key policy challenges and reflects on the dynamics of the research-policy landscape. The paper begins by identifying four dimensions of the UK that will continue to be important as a focus for…

  15. Programmatic Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: An Updated Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Mitnick, Carole D.; Hatton, Marita L.; Brigden, Grania; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.; Horsburgh, Robert; Lange, Christoph; Lienhardt, Christian; Oren, Eyal; Podewils, Laura J.; Seaworth, Barbara; van den Hof, Susan; Daley, Charles L.; Gebhard, Agnes C.; Wares, Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are numerous challenges in delivering appropriate treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the evidence base to guide those practices remains limited. We present the third updated Research Agenda for the programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT), assembled through a literature review and survey. Methods Publications citing the 2008 research agenda and normative documents were reviewed for evidence gaps. Gaps were formulated into questions and grouped as in the 2008 research agenda: Laboratory Support, Treatment Strategy, Programmatically Relevant Research, Epidemiology, and Management of Contacts. A survey was distributed through snowball sampling to identify research priorities. Respondent priority rankings were scored and summarized by mean. Sensitivity analyses explored weighting and handling of missing rankings. Results Thirty normative documents and publications were reviewed for stated research needs; these were collapsed into 56 research questions across 5 categories. Of more than 500 survey recipients, 133 ranked priorities within at least one category. Priorities within categories included new diagnostics and their effect on improving treatment outcomes, improved diagnosis of paucibacillary and extra pulmonary TB, and development of shorter, effective regimens. Interruption of nosocomial transmission and treatment for latent TB infection in contacts of known MDR−TB patients were also top priorities in their respective categories. Results were internally consistent and robust. Discussion Priorities retained from the 2008 research agenda include shorter MDR-TB regimens and averting transmission. Limitations of recent advances were implied in the continued quest for: shorter regimens containing new drugs, rapid diagnostics that improve treatment outcomes, and improved methods of estimating burden without representative data. Conclusion There is continuity around the priorities for research in PMDT. Coordinated

  16. A reproductive hazards research agenda for the 1990s. Research Needs Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, M; Silbergeld, E; Mattison, D

    1993-01-01

    There is substantial scientific and public concern about the potential effects of occupational and environmental toxicants on reproductive health. These effects include impaired functioning of the reproductive systems of men and women as well as a broad spectrum of developmental problems expressed in offspring. Research on reproduction and development is among the most complex undertakings in biomedical research. This complexity is due in part to the intricate biology of reproduction, the multiple targets involved (male, female, and offspring), the uncertainties in extrapolating from animal models to humans, and the problems involved in accurately characterizing exposures and outcomes in epidemiologic investigations. However, given the relatively brief history of research into toxicant-induced reproductive health effects, we have made enormous strides in our knowledge over the past decade. In particular, recent advances in reproductive biology and biotechnology and in the development of biological markers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility are greatly enhancing our ability to study cause-effect relationships. In this paper, the Research Needs Working Group proposes ways to apply existing knowledge to better protect reproductive health and suggests directions for future research. Fulfilling this challenging agenda will require responsible cooperation by labor, industry, government, individual citizens, and the scientific community. Further research and collaboration are essential to both prevent adverse reproductive and developmental outcomes and to formulate a sound scientific basis for policy making. PMID:8243388

  17. A New Research Agenda for Educational Leadership and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies some new research issues and sketches out some new research questions for education policy and leadership researchers as a response to ongoing changes in the landscape of English education policy. Three interrelated issues are considered: leadership, values and interests, and ownership. It argues for the need to ask new…

  18. Entrepreneurship Education for Women: A Research Review and Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Calvin A.

    Although the importance of entrepreneurship to the American economy has been documented, a review of research reveals that knowledge about entrepreneurship education is sparse and that research on entrepreneurship education for women is almost nonexistent. A summary of this research indicates that sex stereotyping in schools inhibits women from…

  19. Higher Education for Sustainability: Developing a Comprehensive Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tarah

    2007-01-01

    From 27 to 29 October 2005, 35 experts in higher education for sustainability (HES) representing 17 countries, gathered in Halifax, Nova Scotia. This consultation represents the first gathering of HES researchers in Canada, and brought Canadian and international researchers together to further intellectual understanding of HES research and to…

  20. An Initial Research Agenda for Rural Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Michael; Howley, Craig; Schultz, James

    2008-01-01

    To date, mathematics education research has rarely engaged issues that could be considered relevant to rural policy and practice. In particular, few research reports in mathematics education have involved the Appalachian region in a way that draws rural-specific conclusions. This manuscript represents an attempt to identify research questions that…

  1. A CTSA agenda to advance methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Pauker, Stephen G; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell, Frank E; Meltzer, David O; Montori, Victor M; Shepard, Donald S; Kent, David M

    2011-06-01

    Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient-centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients' preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient-centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient-centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient-centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER.

  2. Advancing Aeronautics: A Decision Framework for Selecting Research Agendas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Ecola, Liisa; Kallimani, James G.; Light, Thomas; Ohlandt, Chad J. R.; Osburg, Jan; Raman, Raj; Grammich, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded research has long played a role in the development of aeronautics, ranging from foundational research on airfoils to development of the air-traffic control system. Yet more than a century after the research and development of successful controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air flight vehicles, there are questions over the future of aeronautics research. The field of aeronautics is relatively mature, technological developments within it have become more evolutionary, and funding decisions are sometimes motivated by the continued pursuit of these evolutionary research tracks rather than by larger factors. These developments raise questions over whether public funding of aeronautics research continues to be appropriate or necessary and at what levels. Tightened federal budgets and increasing calls to address other public demands make these questions sharper still. To help it address the questions of appropriate directions for publicly funded aeronautics research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) asked the RAND Corporation to assess the elements required to develop a strategic view of aeronautics research opportunities; identify candidate aeronautic grand challenges, paradigms, and concepts; outline a framework for evaluating them; and exercise the framework as an example of how to use it. Accordingly, this research seeks to address these questions: What aeronautics research should be supported by the U.S. government? What compelling and desirable benefits drive government-supported research? How should the government--especially NASA--make decisions about which research to support? Advancing aeronautics involves broad policy and decisionmaking challenges. Decisions involve tradeoffs among competing perspectives, uncertainties, and informed judgment.

  3. Learning To Teach Reading: Setting the Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M., Ed.

    The reading-focused reform environment of the new millennium is fertile ground for strengthening the link between research and public policy. This compilation of papers by presenters at International Reading Association's Reading Research 2000 Conference offers a compelling case for increased investment in teacher preparation for reading…

  4. Toward a New Research Agenda for International Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James F.

    Major conceptual differences exist between critical communication scholars and marketing researchers in their approaches to the study of international advertising. In marketing research, the conceptual framework is characteristically built around the multinational corporation, while critical communication scholarship stresses the nation-state. The…

  5. Setting the Qualitative Research Agenda in Social Studies Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gordon R.; Parsons, Jim

    Three publications ("Dissertation Abstracts International,""Social Education," and "Theory and Research in Social Education") are reviewed to determine trends in types of social studies research conducted between 1977 and 1984. Using a four-fold classification system, 159 studies are surveyed. Results show an…

  6. A Research Agenda for Online Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris; Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Whitehouse, Pamela; Breit, Lisa; McCloskey, Erin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights key online teacher professional development (oTPD) areas in need of research based on a review of current oTPD research conducted in conjunction with an oTPD conference held at Harvard University in fall 2005. The literature review of this field documents much work that is anecdotal, describing professional development…

  7. Establishing a National Rural Education Research Agenda and Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Bonnie Jean

    In a national effort to derive an empirical data base for establishing rural education research priorities, 273 general educators and 188 special educators representing public schools (180), colleges/universities (137), and other agencies (137) ranked 46 specific research questions clustered around the issues of rural school effectiveness,…

  8. The Distance Learning of Foreign Languages: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Research into the distance learning of languages is now established as a significant avenue of enquiry in language teaching, with evident research trajectories in several domains. This article selects and analyses significant areas of investigation in distance language learning and teaching to identify new and emerging gaps, along with research…

  9. Agenda Setting and Evidence in Maternal Health: Connecting Research and Policy in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kayli; Kelly, Paul; Barclay, Lesley; Martins, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-based policy (EBP) movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature; however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low- and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors, and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organization representatives, and United Nations advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops, and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this ethnographic case study demonstrate that although the post-conflict context opened up space for new policy ideas senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors had the most power in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial, and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers.

  10. Advancing the research agenda for diagnostic error reduction.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, Laura; Schiff, Gordon D; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an underemphasised and understudied area of patient safety research. We briefly summarise the methods that have been used to conduct research on epidemiology, contributing factors and interventions related to diagnostic error and outline directions for future research. Research methods that have studied epidemiology of diagnostic error provide some estimate on diagnostic error rates. However, there appears to be a large variability in the reported rates due to the heterogeneity of definitions and study methods used. Thus, future methods should focus on obtaining more precise estimates in different settings of care. This would lay the foundation for measuring error rates over time to evaluate improvements. Research methods have studied contributing factors for diagnostic error in both naturalistic and experimental settings. Both approaches have revealed important and complementary information. Newer conceptual models from outside healthcare are needed to advance the depth and rigour of analysis of systems and cognitive insights of causes of error. While the literature has suggested many potentially fruitful interventions for reducing diagnostic errors, most have not been systematically evaluated and/or widely implemented in practice. Research is needed to study promising intervention areas such as enhanced patient involvement in diagnosis, improving diagnosis through the use of electronic tools and identification and reduction of specific diagnostic process 'pitfalls' (eg, failure to conduct appropriate diagnostic evaluation of a breast lump after a 'normal' mammogram). The last decade of research on diagnostic error has made promising steps and laid a foundation for more rigorous methods to advance the field.

  11. Development of a school nursing research agenda in Florida: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shirley C; Barry, Charlotte D

    2006-04-01

    Research is important to the image, visibility, and viability of school nursing. Each state school nursing association should evaluate member commitment to school nursing research based on their unique set of financial, educational, and organizational resources. A 3-round Delphi study was conducted in which Florida school nurses identified research priorities. The 10 priority research topics were (a) obesity/nutrition, (b) role of the school nurse, (c) legal/ethical issues, (d) emergencies, (e) health education, (f) absenteeism/attendance, (g) diabetes and insulin, (h) injuries, (i) health services, and (j) asthma. These topics form the state research agenda and will be used to guide the development of multisite school nursing studies.

  12. Linking the NIH strategic plan to the research agenda for social workers in health and aging.

    PubMed

    Raveis, Victoria H; Gardner, Daniel S; Berkman, Barbara; Harootyan, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although social work has a long and distinctive tradition of practice-relevant research aimed at enhancing the health and well-being of older adults, the profession has been underrepresented among the ranks of academic researchers and the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) scientific endeavors. In this article, the inherent capacities of social workers to generate and disseminate empirical health-related knowledge are discussed and recent developments in social work's geriatric research infrastructure are described. Emerging domains for advancing the profession's contribution to practice-relevant geriatric research on the federal level are identified and the next steps toward advancing the field's research agenda are posed.

  13. Advancing Aeronautics: A Decision Framework for Selecting Research Agendas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-0-8330-5019-9 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Aeronautics—Research-- Government policy—United...from current research and new ideas, not a strategic vision of the greatest challenges, govern - mental role, social needs, potential payoffs, economic...Navy, the Marine Corps, the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Intel- ligence Community, allied foreign governments , and foundations. For more information on

  14. [Gambling and internet addiction: review and research agenda].

    PubMed

    Wölfling, K; Bühler, M; Leménager, T; Mörsen, C; Mann, K

    2009-09-01

    Behavioral addictions, especially pathological gambling and internet addiction, have become a growing concern in research and health policy. Similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are currently being discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately the number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and internet addiction is still very low. The estimated prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is 0.2-0.5%. These numbers are comparable to prevalence rates reported for illegal drug dependency. About 1.5 million people, i.e. 3% of the German population, are believed to be at risk of internet addiction. Therefore, it is important to investigate in more detail the clinical and neuroscientific basis of pathological gambling and internet addiction. In this review we summarize the current status of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction and outline possible future research perspectives in the field of neuroimaging and genetics. The aim is to develop a multifactorial and explanatory model which helps to improve the quality of existing therapeutic approaches and prevention strategies. At present, parts of the research are funded by the federal states. The authors of this article, supported by scientific associations, have established a research platform called 'pathological gambling' in which research methods and strategies will be discussed which facilitate the implementation of different studies on pathological gambling.

  15. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    PubMed

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  16. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  17. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  18. The space station and human productivity: An agenda for research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonhoven, C. B.

    1985-01-01

    Organizational problems in permanent organizations in outer space were analyzed. The environment of space provides substantial opportunities for organizational research. Questions about how to organize professional workers in a technologically complex setting with novel dangers and uncertainties present in the immediate environment are examined. It is suggested that knowledge from organization theory/behavior is an underutilized resource in the U.S. space program. A U.S. space station will be operable by the mid-1990's. Organizational issues will take on increasing importance, because a space station requires the long term organization of human and robotic work in the isolated and confined environment of outer space. When an organizational analysis of the space station is undertaken, there are research implications at multiple levels of analysis: for the individual, small group, organizational, and environmental levels of analysis. The research relevant to organization theory and behavior is reviewed.

  19. Concepts of hydrological connectivity: Research approaches, pathways and future agendas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Wainwright, J.; Ali, G. A.; Tetzlaff, D.; Smith, M. W.; Reaney, S. M.; Roy, A. G.

    2013-04-01

    For effective catchment management and intervention in hydrological systems a process-based understanding of hydrological connectivity is required so that: i) conceptual rather than solely empirical understanding drives how systems are interpreted; and ii) there is an understanding of how continuous flow fields develop under different sets of environmental conditions to enable managers to know when, where and how to intervene in catchment processes successfully. In order to direct future research into process-based hydrological connectivity this paper: i) evaluates the extent to which different concepts of hydrological connectivity have emerged from different approaches to measure and predict flow in different environments; ii) discusses the extent to which these different concepts are mutually compatible; and iii) assesses further research to contribute to a unified understanding of hydrological processes. Existing research is categorised into five different approaches to investigating hydrological connectivity: i) evaluating soil-moisture patterns (soil-moisture connectivity); ii) understanding runoff patterns and processes on hillslopes (flow-process connectivity); iii) investigating topographic controls (terrain-connectivity) including the impact of road networks on hydrological connectivity and catchment runoff; iv) developing models to explore and predict hydrological connectivity; and v) developing indices of hydrological connectivity. Analysis of published research suggests a relationship between research group, approach, geographic setting and the interpretation of hydrological connectivity. For further understanding of hydrological connectivity our knowledge needs to be developed using a range of techniques and approaches, there should be common understandings between researchers approaching the concept from different perspectives, and these meanings need to be communicated effectively with those responsible for land management.

  20. A research agenda for economic evaluation of substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Drummond, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Economic analyses of substance abuse interventions play a critical role in informing the decision makers involved in funding these programs. Despite the emergence of new and more effective interventions, the adoption of costlier services still demands justification based on economic evidence. Updated and more rigorous economic information allows patients, health care professionals, insurance companies, policymakers, and others to allocate scarce resources more efficiently. To prepare for the next wave of addiction health services research, this article presents background information on the economics of addiction health services, reviews recent empirical and methodological contributions, and provides 15 research recommendations.

  1. The Social Justice Implications for Community Engaged Research: Whose Research Agenda? and My Relationship with the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    This 2010 winner of the Ernest A. Lynton Award examines two social justice themes that have emerged in his community-engaged work. He argues that the traditional model of the development of the scholars' research agenda is one that can promote and maintain the academy-community hierarchy and that the scholars' social identities play an important…

  2. Learning and literacy: A research agenda for post-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2015-06-01

    Ongoing policy discussions concerning the post-2015 future of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals are providing the basis for renewed efforts to understand and improve learning and literacy in a global perspective. Aiming for a pathway towards better scientific understanding, this paper asks a central question: What research would be necessary over the coming decade to realise the goal of improving learning and literacy in poor communities in low-income countries? The joint topics of learning and literacy development, and the factors which influence outcomes, are complex and intertwined - which is one reason why universal literacy has still not been achieved in spite of major investments over the years. Research will play a crucial part in addressing this challenge, and this paper proposes and reviews ten major areas of learning and literacy research. Designing and responding to an appropriate set of research priorities will be one of the crucial ways of addressing the question of how to improve learning, literacy and educational quality in the post-2015 period.

  3. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  4. Envisioning a Public Research Agenda in Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelgesang, Lori J.; Gilliam, Franklin D., Jr.; O'Byrne, Kathy; Leal-Sotelo, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles is an institution founded on a public mission and positioned as a world-renowned research university. This article describes the successes, challenges and future directions of a concerted institutional effort to engage with the broader Los Angeles community to address pressing social issues and needs. The…

  5. Learning and Literacy: A Research Agenda for Post-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing policy discussions concerning the post-2015 future of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals are providing the basis for renewed efforts to understand and improve learning and literacy in a global perspective. Aiming for a pathway towards better scientific understanding, this paper asks a central question: What research would be…

  6. "Salud America!" Developing a National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith

    2011-01-01

    U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…

  7. The business of addiction treatment: A research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kimberly, John R; McLellan, A Thomas

    2006-10-01

    The social and economic costs of addiction are substantial and of great concern to society. Research in the past decade has led to promising therapies that appear to be highly effective but not widely diffused. This leads one to wonder if there is something about the structure, dynamics, or structure and dynamics of the addiction treatment industry that is getting in the way. However, there has been very little research in the areas of organization, finance, or management practices within the substance abuse treatment field-the kinds of issues that reduce the potential impact of addiction treatment industrywide. With this as background, this article introduces the Center for Organization and Management in Addiction Treatment (COMAT) and a special section on research in the "business of addiction treatment." Many other industries have experienced significant problems that are similar, in many respects, to those seen in substance abuse treatment, but research in leadership, innovation, investment, organization, and consolidation strategies has helped to overcome those problems. COMAT is dedicated to implementing and testing evidence-based methods from other industries to improve the outcomes performance and, ultimately, the clinical effectiveness of service providers in the addiction treatment field.

  8. Soft Skills Assessment: Theory Development and the Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills have become a subject of increasing interest in lifelong learning. Soft skills development is intended to enable and enhance personal development, participation in learning and success in employment. The assessment of soft skill is therefore widely practised, but there is little in the way of research or evidence on how well this…

  9. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  10. Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

  11. The International Business Research Agenda: Recommendations from Marketing Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundstrom, William J.; White, D. Steven; Schuster, Camille P.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 250 American Marketing Association members investigated which international business research topics were seen as having high utility or importance. It also identified five latent factors (global market expansion; international marketing management; management issues in an international context; quality, values, and expectations;…

  12. Setting the research agenda in a resource-limited setting--viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Borok, Margaret Z; Busakhala, Naftali; Makadzange, Tariro; Hakim, James

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of disproportionately large allocations of global health research resources to relatively limited components of the global health burden is widely acknowledged. Factors contributing to this are explored. The development of a national or regional research agenda is a critical step toward attempting to redress this imbalance. Key areas to be considered are a broad vision, dialogue, and commitment from those stakeholders comprising the "health research triangle": national policy makers and decision makers, key personnel in both health research and health care, and community representatives. The interdependent roles of human, material, and community resources are further examined.

  13. Improving the Health of Workers in Indoor Environments: Priority Research Needs for a National Occupational Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, Mark J.; Fisk, William J.; Kreiss, Kathleen; Levin, Hal; Alexander, Darryl; Cain, William S.; Girman, John R.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Jensen, Paul A.; Milton, Donald K.; Rexroat, Larry P.; Wallingford, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    Indoor nonindustrial work environments were designated a priority research area through the nationwide stakeholder process that created the National Occupational Research Agenda. A multidisciplinary research team used member consensus and quantitative estimates, with extensive external review, to develop a specific research agenda. The team outlined the following priority research topics: building-influenced communicable respiratory infections, building-related asthma/allergic diseases, and nonspecific building-related symptoms; indoor environmental science; and methods for increasing implementation of healthful building practices. Available data suggest that improving building environments may result in health benefits for more than 15 million of the 89 million US indoor workers, with estimated economic benefits of $5 to $75 billion annually. Research on these topics, requiring new collaborations and resources, offers enormous potential health and economic returns. PMID:12197969

  14. What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-02-01

    Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested.

  15. Frontiers in Ecosystem Science: Energizing the Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, K. C.; Groffman, P. M.; VanDolah, E.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystem science has a long history as a core component of the discipline of Ecology, and although topics of research have fluctuated over the years, it retains a clear identity and continues to be a vital field. As science is becoming more interdisciplinary, particularly the science of global environmental change, ecosystem scientists are addressing new and important questions at the interface of multiple disciplines. Over the last two years, we organized a series of workshops and discussion groups at multiple scientific-society meetings, including AGU to identify frontiers in ecosystem research. The workshops featured short "soapbox" presentations where speakers highlighted key questions in ecosystem science. The presentations were recorded (video and audio) and subjected to qualitative text analysis for identification of frontier themes, attendees completed surveys, and a dozen additional "key informants" were interviewed about their views about frontiers of the discipline. Our effort produced 253 survey participants; the two largest groups of participants were full professors (24%) and graduate students (24%); no other specific group was > 10%. Formal text analysis of the soapbox presentations produced three major themes; "frontiers," "capacity building," and "barriers to implementation" with four or five sub-themes within each major theme. Key "frontiers" included; 1) better understanding of the drivers of ecosystem change, 2) better understanding of ecosystem process and function, 3) human dimensions of ecosystem science, and 4) problem-solving/applied research. Under "capacity building," key topics included: holistic approaches, cross-disciplinary collaboration, public support for research, data, training, and technology investment. Under "barriers" key topics included: limitations in theoretical thinking, insufficient funding/support, fragmentation across discipline, data access and data synthesis. In-depth interviews with 13 experts validated findings

  16. Conserving biodiversity: A research agenda for development agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book was written to assist development agencies in identifying the kinds of biological, economic and cultural research that need to be funding to provide an information base for conserving biodiversity. The presentation is concise and non-technical with summaries of data and ideas relevant to biodiversity. The human role in accelerating biotic loss is discussed, and stragies for sustainable land use and restoration of degraded lands are among several topics.

  17. Focusing the research agenda for simulation training visual system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Charles J.

    2014-06-01

    Advances in the capabilities of the display-related technologies with potential uses in simulation training devices continue to occur at a rapid pace. Simultaneously, ongoing reductions in defense spending stimulate the services to push a higher proportion of training into ground-based simulators to reduce their operational costs. These two trends result in increased customer expectations and desires for more capable training devices, while the money available for these devices is decreasing. Thus, there exists an increasing need to improve the efficiency of the acquisition process and to increase the probability that users get the training devices they need at the lowest practical cost. In support of this need the IDEAS program was initiated in 2010 with the goal of improving display system requirements associated with unmet user needs and expectations and disrupted acquisitions. This paper describes a process of identifying, rating, and selecting the design parameters that should receive research attention. Analyses of existing requirements documents reveal that between 40 and 50 specific design parameters (i.e., resolution, contrast, luminance, field of view, frame rate, etc.) are typically called out for the acquisition of a simulation training display system. Obviously no research effort can address the effects of this many parameters. Thus, we developed a defensible strategy for focusing limited R&D resources on a fraction of these parameters. This strategy encompasses six criteria to identify the parameters most worthy of research attention. Examples based on display design parameters recommended by stakeholders are provided.

  18. An occupational reproductive research agenda for the third millennium.

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Christina C; Schnorr, Teresa M; Daston, George P; Grajewski, Barbara; Marcus, Michele; McDiarmid, Melissa; Murono, Eisuke; Perreault, Sally D; Schrader, Steven M; Shelby, Michael

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant public health concern about the potential effects of occupational exposure to toxic substances on reproductive outcomes. Several toxicants with reported reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present potential exposure to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, organic solvents, pesticides and herbicides, and sterilants, anesthetic gases, and anticancer drugs used in health care. Many other substances are suspected of producing reproductive or developmental toxicity but lack sufficient data. Progress has been limited in identifying hazards and quantifying their potencies and in separating the contribution of these hazards from other etiologic factors. Identifying the causative agents, mechanisms by which they act, and any potential target populations, present the opportunity to intervene and protect the reproductive health of workers. The pace of laboratory studies to identify hazards and to underpin the biologic plausibility of effects in humans has not matched the pace at which new chemicals are introduced into commerce. Though many research challenges exist today, recent technologic and methodologic advances have been made that allow researchers to overcome some of these obstacles. The objective of this article is to recommend future directions in occupational reproductive health research. By bridging interdisciplinary gaps, the scientific community can work together to improve health and reduce adverse outcomes. PMID:12676620

  19. EMF RAPID Program research agenda and communication plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The driving force behind the Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research and Public Information Dissemination (RAPID) Program, established by Section 2118 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, is the ``sense of the Congress that remedial action taken by the Government on electric and magnetic fields, if and as necessary, should be based on, and consistent with, scientifically valid research...`` Specifically, the legislation requires the development of a comprehensive program to: determine whether or not exposure to electric and magnetic fields produced by the generation, transmission, and use of electric energy affects human health; carry out research, development, and demonstration with respect to technologies to mitigate any adverse human health effects; and provide for the collection, compilation, publication, and dissemination of scientifically valid information to the public on the following subjects: (a) possible human health effects of electric and magnetic fields; (b) the types and extent of human exposure to electric and magnetic fields in various occupational and residential settings; (c) technologies to measure and characterize electric and magnetic fields; and (d) methods to assess and manage exposure to electric and magnetic fields. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the overall administration of the 5-year, and $65 million EMF RAPID Program. The program will be jointly funded by both Federal non-Federal sources with non-Federal contributions accounting for at least 50% of the total funding.

  20. An evolving research agenda for human-coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Ellis, Michael A.; Brad Murray, A.; Hall, Damon M.

    2016-03-01

    Within the broad discourses of environmental change, sustainability science, and anthropogenic Earth-surface systems, a focused body of work involves the coupled economic and physical dynamics of developed shorelines. Rapid rates of change in coastal environments, from wetlands and deltas to inlets and dune systems, help researchers recognize, observe, and investigate coupling in natural (non-human) morphodynamics and biomorphodynamics. This same intrinsic quality of fast-paced change also makes developed coastal zones exemplars of observable coupling between physical processes and human activities. In many coastal communities, beach erosion is a natural hazard with economic costs that coastal management counters through a variety of mitigation strategies, including beach replenishment, groynes, revetments, and seawalls. As cycles of erosion and mitigation iterate, coastline change and economically driven interventions become mutually linked. Emergent dynamics of two-way economic-physical coupling is a recent research discovery. Having established a strong theoretical basis, research into coupled human-coastal systems has passed its early proof-of-concept phase. This paper frames three major challenges that need resolving in order to advance theoretical and empirical treatments of human-coastal systems: (1) codifying salient individual and social behaviors of decision-making in ways that capture societal actions across a range of scales (thus engaging economics, social science, and policy disciplines); (2) quantifying anthropogenic effects on alongshore and cross-shore sediment pathways and long-term landscape evolution in coastal zones through time, including direct measurement of cumulative changes to sediment cells resulting from coastal development and management practices (e.g., construction of buildings and artificial dunes, bulldozer removal of overwash after major storms); and (3) reciprocal knowledge and data exchange between researchers in coastal

  1. NIH Electronic Cigarette Workshop: Developing a Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, David B.; Bailey, William C.; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Hughes, John R.; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E.; Wanke, Kay L.; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. Purpose: This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health–sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. Results and Conclusions: The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. PMID:25335949

  2. Converged Infrastructure for Emerging Regions - A Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrollier, Nicolas; Zidbeck, Juha; Ntlatlapa, Ntsibane; Simsek, Burak; Marikar, Achim

    In remote parts of Africa, the lack of energy supply, of wired infrastructure, of trained personnel and the limitation in OPEX and CAPEX impose stringent requirements on the network building blocks that support the communication infrastructure. Consequently, in this promising but untapped market, the research aims at designing and implementing energy-efficient, robust, reliable and affordable wide heterogeneous wireless mesh networks to connect geographically very large areas in a challenged environment. This paper proposes a solution that is aimed at enhancing the usability of Internet services in the harsh target environment and especially how the end-users experience the reliability of these services.

  3. Knowledge translation research in population health: establishing a collaborative research agenda

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing mobilization of researchers and funding organizations around knowledge translation (KT) in Canada and elsewhere, many questions have been only partially answered, particularly in the field of population health. This article presents the results of a systematic process to draw out possible avenues of collaboration for researchers, practitioners and decision-makers who work in the area of KT. The main objective was to establish a research agenda on knowledge translation in population health. Methods Using the Concept Mapping approach, the research team wanted to identify priority themes for the development of research on KT in population health. Mapping is based on multivariate statistical analyses (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis) in which statements produced during a brainstorming session are grouped in weighted clusters. The final maps are a visual representation of the priority themes of research on KT. Especially designed for facilitating consensus in the understanding and organization of various concepts, the Concept Mapping method proved suitable for achieving this objective. Results The maps were produced by 19 participants from university settings, and from institutions within the health and social services network. Three main perspectives emerge from this operation: (1) The evaluation of the effectiveness of KT efforts is one of the main research priorities; (2) The importance of taking into consideration user contexts in any KT effort; (3) The challenges related to sharing power for decision-making and action-taking among various stakeholder groups. These perspectives open up avenues of collaboration for stakeholders who are involved in research on KT. Besides these three main perspectives, the concept maps reveal three other trends which should be emphasized. Conclusion The Concept Mapping process reported in this article aimed to provoke collective reflection on the research questions that

  4. Towards a Research Agenda for Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.

    2009-11-18

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, degradation of skills due to continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situation awareness, and lack of training and discipline in offensive/defense response selection. While these problems are typically addressed in R&D focusing on traditional ground-based combat, there is also an emerging need for improving situation awareness and decision making on defensive/offensive response options in the cyber defense arena, where a mistaken response to an actual or perceived cyber attack could lead to destruction or compromise of friendly cyber assets. The purpose of this report is to examine cognitive factors that may affect cyber situation awareness and describe possible research needs to reduce the likelihood and effects of "friendly cyber fire" on cyber defenses, information infrastructures, and data. The approach is to examine concepts and methods that have been described in research applied to the more traditional problem of mitigating the occurrence of combat identification and fratricide. Application domains of interest include cyber security defense against external or internal (insider) threats.

  5. Obstructive sleep apnoea and schizophrenia--a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kalucy, Megan J; Grunstein, Ron; Lambert, Timothy; Glozier, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significantly increased physical morbidity and mortality particularly secondary to cardiometabolic disorders. In people with schizophrenia, rates of obesity and the metabolic syndrome are high compared to the general population. Whilst the weight gain secondary to antipsychotic medication is largely to blame, other factors include inactivity, poor diet and possibly the illness itself. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common and frequently under-recognized condition which may be associated with disabling symptoms including daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety and long term increases in morbidity and mortality secondary to cardiometabolic disease. As the primary risk factor is obesity, elevated rates of sleep apnoea would therefore seem likely in association with schizophrenia. Thus, OSA might represent a treatable cause of psychiatric and physical co-morbidity in patients with schizophrenia. A review of the literature revealed a paucity of quality research in this area. Available data suggest increased rates of sleep apnoea in schizophrenia and that psychotic symptoms may improve when co-morbid sleep apnoea is treated. Health practitioners may be unaware of the need to screen for sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia and the disorder may be significantly under-recognised. Research is required to clarify the epidemiology, consequences and management of sleep apnoea in association with schizophrenia.

  6. The association of chiropractic colleges educational conference and research agenda conference: 17 years of scholarship and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Claire; Green, Bart

    2010-01-01

    This editorial presents a brief description of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges Educational Conference and Research Agenda Conference, the components of the conference, and long range goals of the peer-review committee.

  7. Reconceptualizing emetophobia: a cognitive-behavioral formulation and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Boschen, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    Fear of vomiting (emetophobia) is a poorly understood anxiety disorder, with little research published into its conceptualization or treatment. The current article uses established cognitive and behavioral models of other anxiety disorders as a basis from which to propose a detailed model of emetophobia. The model proposes that emetophobia results from a constellation of factors including a general anxiety-vulnerability factor, a tendency to somatize anxiety as gastrointestinal distress, a tendency to catastrophically misappraise nausea and other gastrointestinal symptoms, hypervigilance to gastrointestinal cues, beliefs about the unacceptability of vomiting, negatively reinforced avoidance behavior, and selective confirmation biases. A formulation-based treatment package for emetophobia is outlined, including arousal management skills, distraction/attention training, exposure and cognitive restructuring.

  8. A global research agenda for family planning: results of an exercise for setting research priorities

    PubMed Central

    Seuc, Armando; Rahimi, Asma; Festin, Mario; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a global research agenda that will guide investment in effective interventions to satisfy the large unmet need for modern methods of family planning. Methods In a global survey, experts on contraception were invited to identify and rank the types of research that would be needed – and the knowledge gaps that would have to be filled – to reduce the unmet need for family planning in the next decade. The experts were then asked to score the research on a given topic in terms of the likelihood of its leading to an intervention that would: (i) be deliverable, affordable and sustainable; (ii) substantially reduce the unmet need for contraceptives; (iii) be effective and efficient in improving health systems; (iv) be ethically implemented; and (v) improve equity in the target population. The overall scores were then ranked. Findings Most of the topics that received the 15 highest scores fell into three categories: implementation of policies in family planning; the integration of services to address barriers to contraceptive use; and interventions targeted at underserved groups, such as adolescents. Conclusion Experts on contraception gave top priority ranking to research on improving the implementation and integration of health services and on strengthening the health systems supporting family planning services. The results of the exercise may help decision-makers, researchers and funding agencies to develop a clear and focused approach to satisfying the global need for family planning and reach the target set by the Family Planning 2020 initiative. PMID:24623902

  9. A Research Agenda and Vision for Data Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Big Data has emerged as a first-class citizen in the research community spanning disciplines in the domain sciences - Astronomy is pushing velocity with new ground-based instruments such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its unprecedented data rates (700 TB/sec!); Earth-science is pushing the boundaries of volume with increasing experiments in the international Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and climate modeling and remote sensing communities increasing the size of the total archives into the Exabytes scale; airborne missions from NASA such as the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) is increasing both its velocity and decreasing the overall turnaround time required to receive products and to make them available to water managers and decision makers. Proteomics and the computational biology community are sequencing genomes and providing near real time answers to clinicians, researchers, and ultimately to patients, helping to process and understand and create diagnoses. Data complexity is on the rise, and the norm is no longer 100s of metadata attributes, but thousands to hundreds of thousands, including complex interrelationships between data and metadata and knowledge. I published a vision for data science in Nature 2013 that encapsulates four thrust areas and foci that I believe the computer science, Big Data, and data science communities need to attack over the next decade to make fundamental progress in the data volume, velocity and complexity challenges arising from the domain sciences such as those described above. These areas include: (1) rapid and unobtrusive algorithm integration; (2) intelligent and automatic data movement; (3) automated and rapid extraction text, metadata and language from heterogeneous file formats; and (4) participation and people power via open source communities. In this talk I will revisit these four areas and describe current progress; future work and challenges ahead as we move forward in this exciting age

  10. Advancing the study of violence against women: evolving research agendas into science.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Carol E

    2009-04-01

    Decades of research produced by multiple disciplines has documented withering rates of violence against women in the United States and around the globe. To further an understanding of gendered violence, a field of research has developed, but recent critiques have highlighted weaknesses that inhibit a full scientific exploration of these crimes and their impacts. This review extends beyond prior reviews to explore the field's unique challenges, its community of scientists, and the state of its written knowledge. The review argues for moving beyond "research agendas" and proposes creation of a transdisciplinary science for the field of study of violence against women.

  11. Consumer involvement in setting the health services research agenda: persistent questions of value.

    PubMed

    Entwistle, Vikki; Calnan, Michael; Dieppe, Paul

    2008-10-01

    Interest in consumer involvement in health services research started to gain momentum at around the same time that the MRC Health Services Research Collaboration (HSRC) was established. Consumer involvement was not the focus of a formal research programme within the HSRC, but HSRC members took opportunities to conduct three projects relating to consumer involvement in research agenda-setting activities. These were: (1) a comparison of the focus of published research relating to the management of osteoarthritis of the knee with clinicians' and patients' ideas about research priorities; (2) a survey that examined the consumer involvement policies of public- and voluntary-sector organizations that fund health services research in the UK; and (3) a citizens' jury that was convened to develop priorities for research relating to primary health and social care in the Bristol area. This paper reviews the findings of these projects and highlights the continued need for attention to underlying values in the development and evaluation of future efforts to involve consumers in research agenda setting.

  12. A collaboratively-derived science-policy research agenda.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, William J; Bellingan, Laura; Bellingham, Jim R; Blackstock, Jason J; Bloomfield, Robert M; Bravo, Michael; Cadman, Victoria M; Cleevely, David D; Clements, Andy; Cohen, Anthony S; Cope, David R; Daemmrich, Arthur A; Devecchi, Cristina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Denegri, Simon; Doubleday, Robert; Dusic, Nicholas R; Evans, Robert J; Feng, Wai Y; Godfray, H Charles J; Harris, Paul; Hartley, Sue E; Hester, Alison J; Holmes, John; Hughes, Alan; Hulme, Mike; Irwin, Colin; Jennings, Richard C; Kass, Gary S; Littlejohns, Peter; Marteau, Theresa M; McKee, Glenn; Millstone, Erik P; Nuttall, William J; Owens, Susan; Parker, Miles M; Pearson, Sarah; Petts, Judith; Ploszek, Richard; Pullin, Andrew S; Reid, Graeme; Richards, Keith S; Robinson, John G; Shaxson, Louise; Sierra, Leonor; Smith, Beck G; Spiegelhalter, David J; Stilgoe, Jack; Stirling, Andy; Tyler, Christopher P; Winickoff, David E; Zimmern, Ron L

    2012-01-01

    The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy.

  13. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Different challenges are presented by the variety of malaria transmission environments present in the world today. In each setting, improved control for reduction of morbidity is a necessary first step towards the long-range goal of malaria eradication and a priority for regions where the disease burden is high. For many geographic areas where transmission rates are low to moderate, sustained and well-managed application of currently available tools may be sufficient to achieve local elimination. The research needs for these areas will be to sustain and perhaps improve the effectiveness of currently available tools. For other low-to-moderate transmission regions, notably areas where the vectors exhibit behaviours such as outdoor feeding and resting that are not well targeted by current strategies, new interventions that target predictable features of the biology/ecologies of the local vectors will be required. To achieve elimination in areas where high levels of transmission are sustained by very efficient vector species, radically new interventions that significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of wild populations will be needed. Ideally, such interventions should be implemented with a one-time application with a long-lasting impact, such as genetic modification of the vectorial capacity of the wild vector population. PMID:21311587

  14. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Diagnoses and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many of malaria's signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those of other febrile diseases. Detection of the presence of Plasmodium parasites is essential, therefore, to guide case management. Improved diagnostic tools are required to enable targeted treatment of infected individuals. In addition, field-ready diagnostic tools for mass screening and surveillance that can detect asymptomatic infections of very low parasite densities are needed to monitor transmission reduction and ensure elimination. Antibody-based tests for infection and novel methods based on biomarkers need further development and validation, as do methods for the detection and treatment of Plasmodium vivax. Current rapid diagnostic tests targeting P. vivax are generally less effective than those targeting Plasmodium falciparum. Moreover, because current drugs for radical cure may cause serious side effects in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, more information is needed on the distribution of G6PD-deficiency variants as well as tests to identify at-risk individuals. Finally, in an environment of very low or absent malaria transmission, sustaining interest in elimination and maintaining resources will become increasingly important. Thus, research is required into the context in which malaria diagnostic tests are used, into diagnostics for other febrile diseases, and into the integration of these tests into health systems. PMID:21311583

  15. A Collaboratively-Derived Science-Policy Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, William J.; Bellingan, Laura; Bellingham, Jim R.; Blackstock, Jason J.; Bloomfield, Robert M.; Bravo, Michael; Cadman, Victoria M.; Cleevely, David D.; Clements, Andy; Cohen, Anthony S.; Cope, David R.; Daemmrich, Arthur A.; Devecchi, Cristina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Denegri, Simon; Doubleday, Robert; Dusic, Nicholas R.; Evans, Robert J.; Feng, Wai Y.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Harris, Paul; Hartley, Sue E.; Hester, Alison J.; Holmes, John; Hughes, Alan; Hulme, Mike; Irwin, Colin; Jennings, Richard C.; Kass, Gary S.; Littlejohns, Peter; Marteau, Theresa M.; McKee, Glenn; Millstone, Erik P.; Nuttall, William J.; Owens, Susan; Parker, Miles M.; Pearson, Sarah; Petts, Judith; Ploszek, Richard; Pullin, Andrew S.; Reid, Graeme; Richards, Keith S.; Robinson, John G.; Shaxson, Louise; Sierra, Leonor; Smith, Beck G.; Spiegelhalter, David J.; Stilgoe, Jack; Stirling, Andy; Tyler, Christopher P.; Winickoff, David E.; Zimmern, Ron L.

    2012-01-01

    The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy. PMID:22427809

  16. Toward a global agenda for research in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Soskolne, Colin L; Butler, Colin D; Ijsselmuiden, Carel; London, Leslie; von Schirnding, Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    The global environment is in critical decline. Whether one's concern about environmental epidemiology stems from the perspectives of environmental health, climate change, ecological collapse, or growing inequity, clear problems exist. Natural capital resources are being depleted; disregard for the integrity of ecosystems is entrenched in current business practices. Indeed, despite increasing rhetoric to the contrary, the disregard displayed by those who hold power globally toward long-term sustainability and, thus, the health and well-being of future generations, could be described as wanton. Six years ago, the Millennium Development Goals were announced by the United Nations as a rallying point for action to achieve a sustainable future, particularly by reducing the gap between the "have mores" and "have nots." The attainment of these Goals is now endangered, as is, apparently, the spirit of optimism and idealism that inspired them at the Millennium Summit. We call for a reinvigoration of both concern about-and action on-sustainability. In particular, we appeal to those engaged in the field of environmental epidemiology (and other specialties with whom they engage) to consider how they might help by incorporating sustainability issues (including global ecological integrity and global environmental justice) into their own research programs. This incorporation would make a vital contribution to protect both present and future generations and to reduce resource and health gaps between North and South. Simply put, we propose that sustainability becomes integral to advancing the science of environmental epidemiology and related environmental disciplines.

  17. [Process of construction of the national research agenda on Human Resources in Health in Peru 2011 - 2014].

    PubMed

    Curisinche, Maricela; Yagui, Martín; Castilla, Teresa; Cabezas, César; Escalante, Giovanni; Casas, María; Lucero, Jorge

    2011-06-01

    The National Health Authority of Peru, as part of the implementation of national priorities for health research in 2010 developed the process of building the national research agenda on health manpower (HM). In a scenario of technical challenges, national and international policy and under a nation-wide participatory approach with key stakeholders in the health system, training and aid HM linked to the subject, establishing a socially agreed agenda. Process consists of 3 phases: 1. National review of evidence and relevant information on RHUS, 2. Consultation with opinion leaders and subject experts, and 3. A collaborative space (national workshop) of deliberation, consensus and legitimacy of the agenda. Finally, we present the agenda consists of 30 research topics on health manpower, to be developed in the period 2011- 2014, and raises the challenges and prospects for implementation.

  18. A patient-centered research agenda for the care of the acutely ill older patient

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Heidi L.; Leykum, Luci K.; Mattison, Melissa L. P.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Meltzer, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Hospitalists and others acute care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients (ACOP) Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through four steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a Partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of ten research questions in the following areas: advanced care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision-making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training. PMID:25877486

  19. A patient-centered research agenda for the care of the acutely ill older patient.

    PubMed

    Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O

    2015-05-01

    Hospitalists and others acute-care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through 4 steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of 10 research questions in the following areas: advanced-care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training.

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine in women's health. Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P A; Kronenberg, F; Wade, C

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is becoming an established intervention modality within the contemporary health care system. Various forms of complementary and alternative medicine are used by patients and practitioners alike, including chiropractic, massage, botanical medicine, homeopathy, and energy therapies. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established within the National Institutes of Health to facilitate evaluation of these alternative therapies, establish an information clearinghouse, and promote research in the field. This article discusses several aspects of complementary and alternative medicine, relates them to women's health, and describes the need for a research agenda to evaluate the impact of the complementary and alternative medicine modalities used for important conditions affecting women.

  1. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, John; Weatherwax, Sharlene; Ferrell, John

    2006-06-07

    The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7–9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme.

  2. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health.

  3. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: social ecology, environmental determinants, and health systems.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A; Kloos, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed.

  4. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A.; Kloos, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed. PMID:22545168

  5. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M.; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  6. Ethical guidelines for Sami research: the issue that disappeared from the Norwegian Sami Parliament's agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Stordahl, Vigdis; Tørres, Grete; Møllersen, Snefrid; Eira-Åhren, Inger-Marit

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent decades many indigenous communities, policy makers and researchers worldwide have criticized the academic community for not being aware of the specific challenges these communities have faced and still are facing with regard to research. One result of the decades of discourse in indigenous communities is the development in many Western countries of indigenously sensitive ethical research guidelines. In 1997 the Sami Parliament (SP) in Norway reached a unanimous decision that ethical guidelines for Sami research had to be drawn up. Such guidelines are however still to be created. Objectives The objectives of this article are to enquire into what happened to the Norwegian SP's decision of 1997 and to reflect on why the issue seems to have disappeared from the SP's agenda. Finally, we consider whether research ethics is to be a subject for the research community only. Methods A review of parliamentary white papers on research and SP documents relating to research ethics. Findings The response to the SP's decision in 1997 took place in two different channels, both of them national, namely the research ethics channel and the political channel. Thus, there were actually two parallel processes taking place. In spite of nearly two decades of reports, the concept of the participation of indigenous communities in research is still not an integral part of Norwegian ethical guidelines. Conclusions The issue of indigenously sensitive research ethics seems to have disappeared from the SP's agenda and the research ethics review system with regard to Sami research is with minor adjustments the same as when the SP asked for a revision. PMID:25862334

  7. The psychology of primate cooperation and competition: a call for realigning research agendas

    PubMed Central

    Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are two key components of social life. Current research agendas investigating the psychological underpinnings of competition and cooperation in non-human primates are misaligned. The majority of work on competition has been done in the context of theory of mind and deception, while work on cooperation has mostly focused on collaboration and helping. The current impression that theory of mind is not necessarily implicated in cooperative activities and that helping could not be an integral part of competition might therefore be rather misleading. Furthermore, theory of mind research has mainly focused on cognitive aspects like the type of stimuli controlling responses, the nature of representation and how those representations are acquired, while collaboration and helping have focused primarily on motivational aspects like prosociality, common goals and a sense of justice and other-regarding concerns. We present the current state of these two bodies of research paying special attention to how they have developed and diverged over the years. We propose potential directions to realign the research agendas to investigate the psychological underpinnings of cooperation and competition in primates and other animals. PMID:26644603

  8. The psychology of primate cooperation and competition: a call for realigning research agendas.

    PubMed

    Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep

    2016-01-19

    Cooperation and competition are two key components of social life. Current research agendas investigating the psychological underpinnings of competition and cooperation in non-human primates are misaligned. The majority of work on competition has been done in the context of theory of mind and deception, while work on cooperation has mostly focused on collaboration and helping. The current impression that theory of mind is not necessarily implicated in cooperative activities and that helping could not be an integral part of competition might therefore be rather misleading. Furthermore, theory of mind research has mainly focused on cognitive aspects like the type of stimuli controlling responses, the nature of representation and how those representations are acquired, while collaboration and helping have focused primarily on motivational aspects like prosociality, common goals and a sense of justice and other-regarding concerns. We present the current state of these two bodies of research paying special attention to how they have developed and diverged over the years. We propose potential directions to realign the research agendas to investigate the psychological underpinnings of cooperation and competition in primates and other animals.

  9. The Emergency Care of Patients With Cancer: Setting the Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeremy; Grudzen, Corita; Kyriacou, Demetrios N; Obermeyer, Ziad; Quest, Tammie; Rivera, Donna; Stone, Susan; Wright, Jason; Shelburne, Nonniekaye

    2016-12-01

    To identify research priorities and appropriate resources and to establish the infrastructure required to address the emergency care of patients with cancer, the National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute and the Office of Emergency Care Research sponsored a one-day workshop, "Cancer and Emergency Medicine: Setting the Research Agenda," in March 2015 in Bethesda, MD. Participants included leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of oncology, emergency medicine, and palliative care, and representatives from the National Institutes of Health. Attendees were charged with identifying research opportunities and priorities to advance the understanding of the emergency care of cancer patients. Recommendations were made in 4 areas: the collection of epidemiologic data, care of the patient with febrile neutropenia, acute events such as dyspnea, and palliative care in the emergency department setting.

  10. Knowledge translation in the emergency medical services: a research agenda for advancing prehospital care.

    PubMed

    Cone, David C

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about knowledge translation in the practice of out-of-hospital medicine. It is generally accepted that much work is needed regarding "getting the evidence straight" in emergency medical services, given the substantial number of interventions that are performed regularly in the field but lack meaningful scientific support. Additional attention also needs to be given to "getting the evidence used," because there is some evidence that evidence-based practices are being incompletely or incorrectly applied in the field. In an effort to help advance a research agenda for knowledge translation in emergency medical services, nine recommendations are put forth to help address the problems identified.

  11. Umbilical cord blood banking and the next generation of human tissue regulation: an agenda for research.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cameron; Kerridge, Ian

    2012-03-01

    The transformation of umbilical cord blood from being a waste product to being a valuable source of stem cells has led to the emergence of significant legal, ethical and social issues. This editorial proposes an agenda for research into the regulation of umbilical cord blood banking which focuses on issues of characterisation, consent, the interplay of public and private services, and the importance of applying property concepts. It concludes by stressing the need for reform to be based on well-informed public debate.

  12. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  13. A research agenda: does geocoding positional error matter in health GIS studies?

    PubMed

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M

    2012-04-01

    Until recently, little attention has been paid to geocoding positional accuracy and its impacts on accessibility measures; estimates of disease rates; findings of disease clustering; spatial prediction and modeling of health outcomes; and estimates of individual exposures based on geographic proximity to pollutant and pathogen sources. It is now clear that positional errors can result in flawed findings and poor public health decisions. Yet the current state-of-practice is to ignore geocoding positional uncertainty, primarily because of a lack of theory, methods and tools for quantifying, modeling, and adjusting for geocoding positional errors in health analysis. This paper proposes a research agenda to address this need. It summarizes the basics of the geocoding process, its assumptions, and empirical evidence describing the magnitude of geocoding positional error. An overview of the impacts of positional error in health analysis, including accessibility, disease clustering, exposure reconstruction, and spatial weights estimation is presented. The proposed research agenda addresses five key needs: (1) a lack of standardized, open-access geocoding resources for use in health research; (2) a lack of geocoding validation datasets that will allow the evaluation of alternative geocoding engines and procedures; (3) a lack of spatially explicit geocoding positional error models; (4) a lack of resources for assessing the sensitivity of spatial analysis results to geocoding positional error; (5) a lack of demonstration studies that illustrate the sensitivity of health policy decisions to geocoding positional error.

  14. A Health Services Research Agenda for Bariatric Surgery Within the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Funk, L M; Gunnar, W; Dominitz, J A; Eisenberg, D; Frayne, S; Maggard-Gibbons, M; Kalarchian, M A; Livingston, E; Sanchez, V; Smith, B R; Weidenbacher, H; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) held a Weight Management State of the Art conference to identify evidence gaps and develop a research agenda for population-based weight management for veterans. Included were behavioral, pharmacologic, and bariatric surgery workgroups. This article summarizes the bariatric surgery workgroup (BSWG) findings and recommendations for future research. The BSWG agreed that there is evidence from randomized trials and large observational studies suggesting that bariatric surgery is superior to medical therapy for short- and intermediate-term remission of type 2 diabetes, long-term weight loss, and long-term survival. Priority evidence gaps include long-term comorbidity remission, mental health, substance abuse, and health care costs. Evidence of the role of endoscopic weight loss options is also lacking. The BSWG also noted the limited evidence regarding optimal timing for bariatric surgery referral, barriers to bariatric surgery itself, and management of high-risk bariatric surgery patients. Clinical trials of pre- and post-surgery interventions may help to optimize patient outcomes. A registry of overweight and obese veterans and a workforce assessment to determine the VHA's capacity to increase bariatric surgery access were recommended. These will help inform policy modifications and focus the research agenda to improve the ability of the VHA to deliver population-based weight management.

  15. Advances in research on cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid: a major functional conjugated linoleic acid isomer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lee, Hong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a group of positional and geometric conjugated isomers of linoleic acid. Since the identification of CLA as a factor that can inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, thousands of studies have been conducted in the last several decades. Among the many isomers discovered, cis-9, trans-11 CLA is the most intensively studied because of its multiple, isomer-specific effects in humans and animals. This paper provides an overview of the available data on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, including its isomer-specific effects, biosynthesis, in vivo/in vitro research models, quantification, and the factors influencing its content in ruminant products.

  16. Pursuing common agendas: a collaborative model for knowledge translation between research and practice in clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Baumbusch, Jennifer L; Kirkham, Sheryl Reimer; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather; Semeniuk, Pat; Tan, Elsie; Anderson, Joan M

    2008-04-01

    There is an emerging discourse of knowledge translation that advocates a shift away from unidirectional research utilization and evidence-based practice models toward more interactive models of knowledge transfer. In this paper, we describe how our participatory approach to knowledge translation developed during an ongoing program of research concerning equitable care for diverse populations. At the core of our approach is a collaborative relationship between researchers and practitioners, which underpins the knowledge translation cycle, and occurs simultaneously with data collection/analysis/synthesis. We discuss lessons learned including: the complexities of translating knowledge within the political landscape of healthcare delivery, the need to negotiate the agendas of researchers and practitioners in a collaborative approach, and the kinds of resources needed to support this process.

  17. Physical Activity Among Persons Aging with Mobility Disabilities: Shaping a Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Hoffman, Jeanne M.; Belza, Basia

    2011-01-01

    With the aging of the baby boomer population and their accompanying burden of disease, future disability rates are expected to increase. This paper summarizes the state of the evidence regarding physical activity and aging for individuals with mobility disability and proposes a healthy aging research agenda for this population. Using a previously published framework, we present evidence in order to compile research recommendations in four areas focusing on older adults with mobility disability: (1) prevalence of physical activity, (2) health benefits of physical activity, (3) correlates of physical activity participation, and, (4) promising physical activity intervention strategies. Overall, findings show a dearth of research examining physical activity health benefits, correlates (demographic, psychological, social, and built environment), and interventions among persons aging with mobility disability. Further research is warranted. PMID:21748010

  18. What constitutes the field of health information systems? Fostering a systematic framework and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Tobias; Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle

    2012-06-01

    The main aim of this article is to present a research agenda and systematic framework of what the field of health information systems is about, namely its central topics and connecting areas. In doing so, we try to provide a cohesive 'big picture' for academics and professionals that are interested in conducting research in this broad area. By using a large number of disparate data sources, we identified 3 major research fields and 18 sub-fields. As this discipline is quite new and heterogeneous in terms of themes and the educational backgrounds of its researchers, we see our conceptualisation as a first step in obtaining a collective understanding of this field, as well as being a common starting point for discussing future directions.

  19. Deconstructing the Myths: A Research Agenda for American Indian Education (Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 14-15, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean, Ed.

    This report outlines a comprehensive research agenda for Indian education from the Native perspective. It resulted from a meeting held in Albuquerque, New Mexico in April 2000, planned by a national steering committee of Indian education researchers, administrators, and association executives. The introduction describes four traits of research in…

  20. Global climate change and health: developing a research agenda for the NIH.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua P; Jessup, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is receiving worldwide attention because of its anticipated impacts on the Earth's physical and biological systems. Through its effects on natural and human environments, climate change will likely impact economic viability and human health and well-being. The impact of climate change on human health is likely to be complex and significant, including effects on cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, food-, water-, and vector-borne diseases, heat-related illness, mental and social well-being, nutrition, trauma, and vulnerable demographic sectors. Most assessments predict that these effects will disproportionately affect the poor, the elderly and the young, especially those living in Africa and Southeast Asia, where environmental conditions are poor, health infrastructure is weak and the burden of disease is great. Enormous efforts are underway to plan and finance climate change adaptation programs within national governments (including multiple U.S. agencies), United Nations organizations and private philanthropies. However, these endeavors are proceeding with a relatively poor understanding of the nature and magnitude of probable effects of climate change on health. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) already funds a portfolio of projects that are indirectly related to the concerns posed by global climate change. At the NIH, we have recently established an agency-wide planning group to assess the research questions in health and medicine that climate change presents, to link this agenda to parallel activities across other agencies of the U.S. Government (USG), and to advance a NIH research agenda in this area.

  1. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations.

  2. Scientific media education in the classroom and beyond: a research agenda for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Grace; Norris, Stephen P.

    2016-03-01

    Scientific media education is the ability to draw on a knowledge of the media and science, in order to choose, understand, evaluate, and respond to representations of science across diverse media genres. We begin this manuscript by reviewing research that shows scientific media education is one of the most important content areas that could be taught in and out of the science classroom. We then set out to identify a research agenda that will help make scientific media education a key content area in both formal and informal science learning environments. In particular, we identified research avenues that will allow us to better understand: (1) limitations in current practices of scientific media education; (2) what scientific media education should look like in the future; and (3) ways we might overcome barriers to implementing a new and improved scientific media education.

  3. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity.

  4. Research Ethics Education for Community-Engaged Research: A Review and Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily E.; Solomon, Stephanie; Heitman, Elizabeth; DuBois, James M.; Fisher, Celia B.; Kost, Rhonda G.; Lawless, Mary Ellen; Ramsey, Cornelia; Jones, Bonnie; Ammerman, Alice; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement is increasingly becoming an integral part of research. “Community-engaged research” (CEnR) introduces new stakeholders as well as unique challenges to the protection of participants and the integrity of the research process. We—a group of representatives of CTSA-funded institutions and others who share expertise in research ethics and CEnR—have identified gaps in the literature regarding (1) ethical issues unique to CEnR; (2) the particular instructional needs of academic investigators, community research partners, and IRB members; and (3) best practices for teaching research ethics. This paper presents what we know, as well as what we still need to learn, in order to develop quality research ethics educational materials tailored to the full range of stakeholder groups in CEnR. PMID:22565579

  5. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai, India: An agenda for operations research

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Nerges; Tolani, Monica; Osrin, David

    2012-01-01

    Operations research (OR) is well established in India and is also a prominent feature of the global and local agendas for tuberculosis (TB) control. India accounts for a quarter of the global burden of TB and of new cases. Multidrug-resistant TB is a significant problem in Mumbai, India’s most populous city, and there have been recent reports of totally resistant TB. Much thought has been given to the role of OR in addressing programmatic challenges, by both international partnerships and India’s Revised National TB Control Programme. We attempt to summarize the major challenges to TB control in Mumbai, with an emphasis on drug resistance. Specific challenges include diagnosis of TB and defining cure, detecting drug resistant TB, multiple sources of health care in the private, public and informal sectors, co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and a concurrent epidemic of non-communicable diseases, suboptimal prescribing practices, and infection control. We propose a local agenda for OR: modeling the effects of newer technologies, active case detection, and changes in timing of activities, and mapping hotspots and contact networks; modeling the effects of drug control, changing the balance of ambulatory and inpatient care, and adverse drug reactions; modeling the effects of integration of TB and HIV diagnosis and management, and preventive drug therapy; and modeling the effects of initiatives to improve infection control. PMID:24501697

  6. Schooling and Leisure Time Uses of Television. A Proposed Research Agenda Submitted to the National Institute of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard E.; And Others

    Seven researchers met with three representatives from the National Institute of Education (N.I.E.) in January 1978 to draft a research and demonstration agenda for N.I.E. on the relationship between leisure time uses of television and school performance. Of particular concern to N.I.E. is the role of federal policy and programs in addressing the…

  7. Policy Path Dependence of a Research Agenda: The Case of Chile in the Aftermath of the Student Revolt of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly shifting higher education policy agenda in the aftermath of the students' movement of 2011 in Chile and its mismatch with Chile's research capacities in the field of higher education studies are analyzed to illustrate how research is path dependent on policy. I argue that a stable policy environment, where change is only marginal or…

  8. Challenges in developing biohydrogen as a sustainable energy source: implications for a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Brentner, Laura B; Peccia, Jordan; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program aims to develop hydrogen as an energy carrier to decrease emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants and reduce the use of fossil fuels. However, current hydrogen production technologies are not sustainable as they rely heavily on fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly through electricity generation. Production of hydrogen by microorganisms, biohydrogen, has potential as a renewable alternative to current technologies. The state-of-the-art for four different biohydrogen production mechanisms is reviewed, including biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photofermentation, and dark fermentation. Future research challenges are outlined for bioreactor design, optimization of bioreactor conditions, and metabolic engineering. Development of biohydrogen technologies is still in the early stages, although some fermentation systems have demonstrated efficiencies reasonable for implementation. To enhance the likelihood of biohydrogen as a feasible system to meet future hydrogen demands sustainably, directed investment in a strategic research agenda will be necessary.

  9. Food systems transition and disruptive low carbon innovation: implications for a food security research agenda.

    PubMed

    Tyfield, David

    2011-07-01

    There is a growing consensus that we are facing epochal challenges in global food security. Moreover, these challenges are multiple and complex. Meeting these challenges will involve nothing less than a wholesale socio-technical transition of the agri-food system. Optimizing the efficacy of the contribution of research to such a food security agenda will probably also need new institutional mechanisms and career structures to facilitate new kinds of collaborations and ongoing, longer-term projects. In short, the multiple challenges of food security demand a different political economy of research for effective intervention by science. In making this argument, the paper summarizes the major findings of a recent report regarding the potential impact of so-called 'disruptive' low-carbon innovations in China.

  10. Medical staff involvement in nursing homes: development of a conceptual model and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Shield, Renée; Rosenthal, Marsha; Wetle, Terrie; Tyler, Denise; Clark, Melissa; Intrator, Orna

    2014-02-01

    Medical staff (physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) involvement in nursing homes (NH) is limited by professional guidelines, government policies, regulations, and reimbursements, creating bureaucratic burden. The conceptual NH Medical Staff Involvement Model, based on our mixed-methods research, applies the Donabedian "structure-process-outcomes" framework to the NH, identifying measures for a coordinated research agenda. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews conducted with medical directors, administrators and directors of nursing, other experts, residents and family members and Minimum Data Set, the Online Certification and Reporting System and Medicare Part B claims data related to NH structure, process, and outcomes were analyzed. NH control of medical staff, or structure, affects medical staff involvement in care processes and is associated with better outcomes (e.g., symptom management, appropriate transitions, satisfaction). The model identifies measures clarifying the impact of NH medical staff involvement on care processes and resident outcomes and has strong potential to inform regulatory policies.

  11. Developing a U.S. Research Agenda to Advance Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, M.; Ban, R. J.; Bitz, C. M.; Brown, A.; Chassignet, E.; Dunlea, E.; Dutton, J. A.; Hallberg, R.; Kamrath, A.; Kleist, D. T.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.; Lin, H.; Macalady, A.; Mengelt, C.; Myers, L.; Pullen, J.; Sandgathe, S. A.; Waliser, D. E.; Zhang, C.

    2015-12-01

    A National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine committee was tasked with developing a strategy to increase the nation's scientific capability for research on sub-seasonal to seasonal prediction of weather and climate over the coming decade. The Committee's report (released in the fall of 2015) discusses the advancement of S2S prediction skill for weather and ocean forecasts through various mechanisms, including improvements in coupled modeling systems, key observations, data assimilation techniques, and computational and data storage. Further, the report discusses the identification of potential sources of predictability and process studies for incorporating new sources of predictability. Key elements of a long-term research agenda also include understanding the needs of decision makers who use S2S forecasting information and exploring approaches to the communication of S2S prediction information in a way that is useful to and understandable by those decision makers.

  12. Helping fluid teams work: A research agenda for effective team adaptation in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bedwell, Wendy L; Ramsay, P Scott; Salas, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Although membership changes within teams are a common practice, research into this phenomenon is relatively nascent (Summers et al.; Acad Manag J 55:314-338, 2012). The small literature base, however, does provide insight into skills required for effective adaptation. The purpose of this effort is to provide a brief research synopsis, leading to research hypotheses about medical team training. By generalizing previous scientific findings regarding skills required for effective membership adaptation in different kinds of teams, we posit mechanisms whereby teamwork training might also support adaptation among medical teams (Burke et al.; Qual & Saf Health Care 13:i96-i104, 2004 and Salas et al.; Theor Issues Ergon Sci 8:381-394, 2007). We provide an overview of the membership change literature. Drawing upon literature from both within and outside of the medical domain, we suggest a framework and research propositions to aid in research efforts designed to determine the best content for helping to create adaptable medical teams through team training efforts. For effective adaptation, we suggest ad hoc teams should be trained on generalizable teamwork skills, to share just "enough" and the "right" information, to engage in shared leadership, and to shift from explicit to implicit coordination. Our overarching goal was to present what is known from the general research literature on successful team adaptation to membership changes, and to propose a research agenda to evaluate whether findings generalize to member changes in medical teams.

  13. The National Occupational Research Agenda: a model of broad stakeholder input into priority setting.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, L; Olenec, C; Wagner, G R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: No single organization has the resources necessary to conduct occupational safety and health research to adequately serve the needs of workers in the United States. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) undertook the task of setting research priorities in response to a broadly perceived need to systematically address those topics most pressing and most likely to yield gains to workers and to the nation. METHODS: NIOSH and its public and private partners used a consensus-building process to set priorities for the next decade for occupational safety and health research--the National Occupational Research Agenda. RESULTS: The process resulted in the identification of 21 research priorities grouped into 3 categories: disease and injury, work environment and workforce, and research tools and approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Although the field of occupational safety and health is often contentious and adversarial, these research priorities reflect a remarkable degree of concurrence among a broad range of stakeholders who provided input into a clearly defined and open process. PMID:9518963

  14. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-01

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as ‘high priority’ by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  15. Contributions of natural and sexual selection to the evolution of premating reproductive isolation: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Safran, Rebecca J; Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Symes, Laurel B; Rodríguez, Rafael L; Mendelson, Tamra C

    2013-11-01

    Speciation by divergent natural selection is well supported. However, the role of sexual selection in speciation is less well understood due to disagreement about whether sexual selection is a mechanism of evolution separate from natural selection, as well as confusion about various models and tests of sexual selection. Here, we outline how sexual selection and natural selection are different mechanisms of evolutionary change, and suggest that this distinction is critical when analyzing the role of sexual selection in speciation. Furthermore, we clarify models of sexual selection with respect to their interaction with ecology and natural selection. In doing so, we outline a research agenda for testing hypotheses about the relative significance of divergent sexual and natural selection in the evolution of reproductive isolation.

  16. Statistics Anxiety Update: Refining the Construct and Recommendations for a New Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Chew, Peter K H; Dillon, Denise B

    2014-03-01

    Appreciation of the importance of statistics literacy for citizens of a democracy has resulted in an increasing number of degree programs making statistics courses mandatory for university students. Unfortunately, empirical evidence suggests that students in nonmathematical disciplines (e.g., social sciences) regard statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing course in their degree programs. Although a literature review exists for statistics anxiety, it was done more than a decade ago, and newer studies have since added findings for consideration. In this article, we provide a current review of the statistics anxiety literature. Specifically, related variables, definitions, and measures of statistics anxiety are reviewed with the goal of refining the statistics anxiety construct. Antecedents, effects, and interventions of statistics anxiety are also reviewed to provide recommendations for statistics instructors and for a new research agenda.

  17. Gender, aging, and the economics of "active aging": Setting a new research agenda.

    PubMed

    Paz, Amira; Doron, Israel; Tur-Sinai, Aviad

    2017-04-03

    The world is aging, and the percentages of older people are on a dramatic ascent. This dramatic demographic aging of human society is not gender neutral; it is mostly about older women. One of the key policy approaches to address the aging revolution is known as "active aging," crystalized by the WHO in 2002 by three pillars: participation, health, and security. The active aging policy has financial and economic aspects and affects both men and women. However, as argued in this article, a gender-based approach has not been adopted within the existing active aging framework. Therefore, a new gender-specific research agenda is needed, one that focuses on an interrelation between gender and different economic aspects of "active aging" from international, comparative, cultural, and longitudinal perspectives.

  18. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  19. Building an integrated research/policy planning age-friendly agenda.

    PubMed

    Glicksman, Allen; Clark, Kate; Kleban, Morton H; Ring, Lauren; Hoffman, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an innovative model for integrating research into a policy and planning agenda aimed to help neighborhoods become more supportive of older adults. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging (PCA) established Age-Friendly Philadelphia (AFP) to catalyze efforts to improve the physical and social environments for seniors. The Research Program at PCA became an important part of this effort by providing multiple types of supports to PCA staff and other stakeholders. Most notably, the research program worked with planners to adopt the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Aging Initiative model for Philadelphia. That model focuses on (1) staying active, connected, and engaged; (2) development and housing; (3) transportation and mobility; and (4) staying healthy. Examples of practice efforts actualized using this research are also presented. By developing a new approach to the way research can support practice initiatives, AFP has been able to increase its effectiveness, and researchers have found better ways to work collaboratively with professionals in policy, planning, and practice. The PCA model should be considered as a framework for similar efforts aimed at creating age-friendly communities.

  20. Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Emerging Evidence and Arguments for a Multidisciplinary Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Destaillats, Hugo; Gundel, Lara A.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Singer, Brett C.; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rehan, Virender; Talbot, Prue; Schick, Suzaynn; Samet, Jonathan; Wang, Yinsheng; Hang, Bo; Martins-Green, Manuela; Pankow, James F.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is broad consensus regarding the health impact of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure, yet considerable ambiguity exists about the nature and consequences of thirdhand smoke (THS). Objectives: We introduce definitions of THS and THS exposure and review recent findings about constituents, indoor sorption–desorption dynamics, and transformations of THS; distribution and persistence of THS in residential settings; implications for pathways of exposure; potential clinical significance and health effects; and behavioral and policy issues that affect and are affected by THS. Discussion: Physical and chemical transformations of tobacco smoke pollutants take place over time scales ranging from seconds to months and include the creation of secondary pollutants that in some cases are more toxic (e.g., tobacco-specific nitrosamines). THS persists in real-world residential settings in the air, dust, and surfaces and is associated with elevated levels of nicotine on hands and cotinine in urine of nonsmokers residing in homes previously occupied by smokers. Much still needs to be learned about the chemistry, exposure, toxicology, health risks, and policy implications of THS. Conclusion: The existing evidence on THS provides strong support for pursuing a programmatic research agenda to close gaps in our current understanding of the chemistry, exposure, toxicology, and health effects of THS, as well as its behavioral, economic, and sociocultural considerations and consequences. Such a research agenda is necessary to illuminate the role of THS in existing and future tobacco control efforts to decrease smoking initiation and smoking levels, to increase cessation attempts and sustained cessation, and to reduce the cumulative effects of tobacco use on morbidity and mortality. PMID:21628107

  1. Family Literacy: A Research Agenda to Build the Future. Report from Penn State's Goodling Institute for Research in Family Literacy Think Tank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askov, Eunice N.

    A think tank on researching family literacy was held to brainstorm a national research agenda for family literacy. The think tank brought together 12 researchers, policymakers, and practitioners involved in family literacy. Key themes emerging during the think tank were as follows: (1) family literacy is difficult to research because it is…

  2. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Modelling for Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Basáñez, María-Gloria; McCarthy, James S.; French, Michael D.; Yang, Guo-Jing; Walker, Martin; Gambhir, Manoj; Prichard, Roger K.; Churcher, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of helminth infections has the potential to inform policy and guide research for the control and elimination of human helminthiases. However, this potential, unlike in other parasitic and infectious diseases, has yet to be realised. To place contemporary efforts in a historical context, a summary of the development of mathematical models for helminthiases is presented. These efforts are discussed according to the role that models can play in furthering our understanding of parasite population biology and transmission dynamics, and the effect on such dynamics of control interventions, as well as in enabling estimation of directly unobservable parameters, exploration of transmission breakpoints, and investigation of evolutionary outcomes of control. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A research and development agenda for helminthiasis modelling is proposed based on identified gaps that need to be addressed for models to become useful decision tools that can support research and control operations effectively. This agenda includes the use of models to estimate the impact of large-scale interventions on infection incidence; the design of sampling protocols for the monitoring and evaluation of integrated control programmes; the modelling of co-infections; the investigation of the dynamical relationship between infection and morbidity indicators; the improvement of analytical methods for the quantification of anthelmintic efficacy and resistance; the determination of programme endpoints; the linking of dynamical helminth models with helminth geostatistical mapping; and the investigation of the impact of climate change on human helminthiases. It is concluded that modelling should be embedded in helminth research, and in the planning

  3. Building and executing a research agenda toward conducting implementation science in medical education

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; Crites, Gerald E.; Miller, Karen H.; Haight, Michelle; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Cichoskikelly, Eileen; Price, David W.; Akinola, Modupeola O.; Scott, Victoria C.; Kalishman, Summers

    2016-01-01

    Background Implementation science (IS) is the study of methods that successfully integrate best evidence into practice. Although typically applied in healthcare settings to improve patient care and subsequent outcomes, IS also has immediate and practical applications to medical education toward improving physician training and educational outcomes. The objective of this article is to illustrate how to build a research agenda that focuses on applying IS principles in medical education. Approach We examined the literature to construct a rationale for using IS to improve medical education. We then used a generalizable scenario to step through a process for applying IS to improve team-based care. Perspectives IS provides a valuable approach to medical educators and researchers for making improvements in medical education and overcoming institution-based challenges. It encourages medical educators to systematically build upon the research outcomes of others to guide decision-making while evaluating the successes of best practices in individual environments and generate additional research questions and findings. Conclusions IS can act as both a driver and a model for educational research to ensure that best educational practices are easier and faster to implement widely. PMID:27565131

  4. Empowering Participants or Corroding Learning? Towards a Research Agenda on the Impact of Student Consumerism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Rajani; Jamieson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The paper seeks to link the structural and the institutional to learning outcomes in order to articulate a research agenda capable of evaluating the impact of consumerism on learning and teaching in higher education. Consumerist mechanisms are situated in the context of quasi-market and new managerial regulatory frameworks and concepts developed…

  5. Securing the Future of Communication Education: Advancing an Advocacy and Research Agenda for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Stephen; Wright, Anna; Simonds, Cheri

    2014-01-01

    In the late 1980s, noted communication scholar Cassandra Book laid out a comprehensive rationale and agenda for communication education research specifically focusing on pedagogical content knowledge for Communication courses in K-12 education. It has been 25 years since Book published her call for those in our discipline to pursue research…

  6. Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium), an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed attitude amongst experts on the

  7. Oilheat research agenda: A ten year blueprint for residential oilheat research and development in the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.; Batey, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes a joint research agenda planned for the US Department of Energy and the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) under a cooperative effort between the Federal government and the private sector industries involved in oilheat marketing. The objective of the oilheat research program is to develop the technical basis for improved equipment designs and operating strategies based on an enhanced understanding of oil-burning fundamentals, heat transfer, and associated environmental factors. The program will continue to provide the oil-fueled heating equipment industry with the basis for developing a new, modern generation of equipment and provide the oil marketers, equipment installers, and consumers with improved knowledge of how best to install, maintain, and operate such equipment for maximum performance and minimum fuel use and environmental impact.

  8. Towards an integrated agenda for adaptation research: theory, practice, and policy: Strategy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Patwardhan, Anand; Downing, Tom; Leary, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change has been recognized as a priority area for national and international policy. The findings of the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC have reemphasized the urgency of action and the scale of response needed to cope with climate change outcomes. The scientific community has an important role to play in advancing the information and knowledge base that would help in identifying, developing and implementing effective responses to enhance adaptive capacity and reduce vulnerability. This paper examines the way in which science and research could advance the adaptation agenda. To do so, we pose a number of questions aimed at identifying the knowledge gaps and research needs. We argue that in order to address these science and research needs, an integrated approach is necessary, one that combines new knowledge with new approaches for knowledge generation, and where research and practice co-evolve; and that such a learning-by-doing approach is essential to rapidly scale up and implement concrete adaptation actions.

  9. Rapid Review Summit: an overview and initiation of a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Polisena, Julie; Garritty, Chantelle; Umscheid, Craig A; Kamel, Chris; Samra, Kevin; Smith, Jeannette; Vosilla, Ann

    2015-09-26

    The demand for accelerated forms of evidence synthesis is on the rise, largely in response to requests by health care decision makers for expeditious assessment and up-to-date information about health care technologies and health services and programs. As a field, rapid review evidence synthesis is marked by a tension between the strategic priority to inform health care decision-making and the scientific imperative to produce robust, high-quality research that soundly supports health policy and practice. In early 2015, the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health convened a forum in partnership with the British Columbia Ministry of Health, the British Columbia Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation, the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, and the University of Pennsylvania. More than 150 evidence synthesis producers and end users attended the Rapid Review Summit: Then, Now and in the Future. The Summit program focused on the evolving role and practices of rapid reviews to support informed health care policy and clinical decision-making, including the uptake and use of health technology assessment. Our discussion paper highlights the important discussions that occurred during the Rapid Review Summit. It focuses on the initial development of a research agenda that resulted from the Summit presentations and discussions. The research topics centered on three key areas of interest: (1) how to conduct a rapid review; (2) investigating the validity and utility of rapid reviews; and (3) how to improve access to rapid reviews.

  10. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul B.; Eppler, Dean B.; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Lewis, Ruthan.; Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting research objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support staging of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  11. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  12. Pharmaceutical lobbying in Brazil: a missing topic in the public health research agenda.

    PubMed

    Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2016-12-22

    In the US, where registration of lobbyists is mandatory, the pharmaceutical industry and private health-care providers spend huge amounts of money seeking to influence health policies and government decisions. In Brazil, where lobbying lacks transparency, there is virtually no data on drug industry expenditure to persuade legislators and government officials of their viewpoints and to influence decision-making according to commercial interests. Since 1990, however, the Associação da Indústria Farmacêutica de Pesquisa (Interfarma - Pharmaceutical Research Industry Association), Brazilian counterpart of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), main lobbying organization of the US pharmaceutical industry, has played a major role in the advocacy of interests of major drug companies. The main goals of Interfarma lobbying activities are: shortening the average time taken by the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA) to approve marketing authorization for a new drug; making the criteria for incorporation of new drugs into SUS (Brazilian Unified Health System) more flexible and speeding up technology incorporation; changing the Country's ethical clearance system and the ethical requirements for clinical trials to meet the need of the innovative drug industry, and establishing a National Policy for Rare Diseases that allows a prompt incorporation of orphan drugs into SUS. Although lobbying affects community health and well-being, this topic is not in the public health research agenda. The impacts of pharmaceutical lobbying on health policies and health-care costs are of great importance for SUS and deserve to be investigated.

  13. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services.

  14. An agenda for clinical decision making and judgement in nursing research and education.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Carl; Aitken, Leanne; Doran, Diane; Dowding, Dawn

    2013-12-01

    Nurses' judgements and decisions have the potential to help healthcare systems allocate resources efficiently, promote health gain and patient benefit and prevent harm. Evidence from healthcare systems throughout the world suggests that judgements and decisions made by clinicians could be improved: around half of all adverse events have some kind of error at their core. For nursing to contribute to raising quality though improved judgements and decisions within health systems we need to know more about the decisions and judgements themselves, the interventions likely to improve judgement and decision processes and outcomes, and where best to target finite intellectual and educational resources. There is a rich heritage of research into decision making and judgement, both from within the discipline of nursing and from other perspectives, but which focus on nurses. Much of this evidence plays only a minor role in the development of educational and technological efforts at decision improvement. This paper presents nine unanswered questions that researchers and educators might like to consider as a potential agenda for the future of research into this important area of nursing practice, training and development.

  15. Changing healthcare issues and context for elderly women in Asia: implications for a research agenda for nursing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Wha; Kim, Sue; Joe, Seun Young

    2008-01-01

    In this descriptive review, the current healthcare issues and context for elderly women in Asia are discussed and a nursing research agenda to promote better health security is proposed. Chesney and Ozer's multilevel circular framework of key content areas of women's health was applied to organize and critique the literature. The results indicate that elderly Asian women display morbidity and mortality differentials and are influenced by gender and social factors, as well as health policy issues. The research agenda for nursing that is proposed in this article includes activating health promotion research, employing family and community-based participatory approaches, supporting gender-sensitive social and health policies, and promoting comprehensive and culturally competent international research on health transitions for elderly women.

  16. Setting a research agenda for interprofessional education and collaborative practice in the context of United States health system reform.

    PubMed

    Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara; Delaney, Connie; Pechacek, Judith; Cerra, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice (CP) have been prolific areas of inquiry exploring research questions mostly concerned with local program and project assessment. The actual sphere of influence of this research has been limited. Often discussed separately, this article places IPE and CP in the same conceptual space. The interface of these form a nexus where new knowledge creation may be facilitated. Rigorous research on IPE in relation to CP that is relevant to and framed by health system reform in the U.S. is the ultimate research goal of the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota. This paper describes the direction and scope for a focused and purposive IPECP research agenda linked to improvement in health outcomes, contextualized by health care reform in the U.S. that has provided a revitalizing energy for this area of inquiry. A research agenda articulates a focus, meaningful and robust questions, and a theory of change within which intervention outcomes are examined. Further, a research agenda identifies the practices the area of inquiry is interested in informing, and the types of study designs and analytic approaches amenable to carrying out the proposed work.

  17. Setting a research agenda for interprofessional education and collaborative practice in the context of United States health system reform

    PubMed Central

    Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara; Delaney, Connie; Pechacek, Judith; Cerra, Frank

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice (CP) have been prolific areas of inquiry exploring research questions mostly concerned with local program and project assessment. The actual sphere of influence of this research has been limited. Often discussed separately, this article places IPE and CP in the same conceptual space. The interface of these form a nexus where new knowledge creation may be facilitated. Rigorous research on IPE in relation to CP that is relevant to and framed by health system reform in the U.S. is the ultimate research goal of the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota. This paper describes the direction and scope for a focused and purposive IPECP research agenda linked to improvement in health outcomes, contextualized by health care reform in the U.S. that has provided a revitalizing energy for this area of inquiry. A research agenda articulates a focus, meaningful and robust questions, and a theory of change within which intervention outcomes are examined. Further, a research agenda identifies the practices the area of inquiry is interested in informing, and the types of study designs and analytic approaches amenable to carrying out the proposed work. PMID:26230379

  18. When to start paediatric testing of the adult HIV cure research agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Seema K

    2017-01-01

    Ethical guidelines recommend that experimental interventions should be tested in adults first before they are tested and approved in children. Some challenge this paradigm, however, and recommend initiating paediatric testing after preliminary safety testing in adults in certain cases. For instance, commentators have argued for accelerated testing of HIV vaccines in children. Additionally, HIV cure research on the use of very early therapy (VET) in infants, prompted in part by the Mississippi baby case, is one example of a strategy that is currently being tested in infants before it has been well tested in adults. Because infants’ immune systems are still developing, the timing of HIV transmission is easier to identify in infants than in adults, and infants who receive VET might never develop the viral reservoirs that make HIV so difficult to eradicate, infants may be uniquely situated to achieve HIV cure or sustained viral remission. Several commentators have now argued for earlier initiation of HIV cure interventions other than (or in addition to) VET in children. HIV cure research is therefore a good case for re-examining the important question of when to initiate paediatric research. I will argue that, despite the potential for HIV cure research to benefit children and the scientific value of involving children in this research, the HIV cure agenda should not accelerate the involvement of children for the following reasons: HIV cure research is highly speculative, risky, aimed at combination approaches and does not compare favourably with the available alternatives. I conclude by drawing general implications for the initiation of paediatric testing, including that interventions that have to be used in combination with others and cures for chronic diseases may not be valuable enough to justify early paediatric testing. PMID:27259546

  19. Enhancement, ethics and society: towards an empirical research agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Hogle, Linda

    2015-12-01

    For some time now, bioethicists have paid close attention to issues associated with 'enhancement'; specifically, the appropriate use and regulation of substances and artefacts understood by some to improve the functioning of human bodies beyond that associated with 'normal' function. Medical humanities scholars (aside from philosophers and lawyers) and social scientists have not been frequent participants in debates around enhancement, but could shine a bright light on the range of dilemmas and opportunities techniques of enhancement are purported to introduce. In this paper, we argue that empirical research into the notion and practice of enhancement is necessary and timely. Such work could fruitfully engage with-and further develop-existing conceptual repertoires within the medical humanities and social sciences in ways that would afford benefit to scholars in those disciplines. We maintain that empirical engagements could also provide important resources to bioethicists seeking to regulate new enhancements in ways that are sensitive to societal context and cultural difference. To this end, we outline an empirical agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences around enhancement, emphasising especially how science and technology studies could bring benefits to-and be benefitted by-research in this area. We also use the example of (pharmaceutical) cognitive enhancement to show how empirical studies of actual and likely enhancement practices can nuance resonant bioethical debates.

  20. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; Smith, Morag K; Thron, Jonathan L; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  1. Enhancement, ethics and society: towards an empirical research agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hogle, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For some time now, bioethicists have paid close attention to issues associated with ‘enhancement’; specifically, the appropriate use and regulation of substances and artefacts understood by some to improve the functioning of human bodies beyond that associated with ‘normal’ function. Medical humanities scholars (aside from philosophers and lawyers) and social scientists have not been frequent participants in debates around enhancement, but could shine a bright light on the range of dilemmas and opportunities techniques of enhancement are purported to introduce. In this paper, we argue that empirical research into the notion and practice of enhancement is necessary and timely. Such work could fruitfully engage with—and further develop—existing conceptual repertoires within the medical humanities and social sciences in ways that would afford benefit to scholars in those disciplines. We maintain that empirical engagements could also provide important resources to bioethicists seeking to regulate new enhancements in ways that are sensitive to societal context and cultural difference. To this end, we outline an empirical agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences around enhancement, emphasising especially how science and technology studies could bring benefits to—and be benefitted by—research in this area. We also use the example of (pharmaceutical) cognitive enhancement to show how empirical studies of actual and likely enhancement practices can nuance resonant bioethical debates. PMID:26260624

  2. Evolution of a CDC Public Health Research Agenda for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ingrid J; Lee Smith, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Men with prostate cancer face difficult choices when selecting a therapy for localized prostate cancer. Comparative data from controlled studies are lacking and clinical opinions diverge about the benefits and harms of treatment options. Consequently, there is limited guidance for patients regarding the impact of treatment decisions on quality of life. There are opportunities for public health to intervene at several decision-making points. Information on typical quality of life outcomes associated with specific prostate cancer treatments could help patients select treatment options. From 2003 to present, the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control at CDC has supported projects to explore patient information-seeking behavior post-diagnosis, caregiver and provider involvement in treatment decision making, and patient quality of life following prostate cancer treatment. CDC's work also includes research that explores barriers and facilitators to the presentation of active surveillance as a viable treatment option and promotes equal access to information for men and their caregivers. This article provides an overview of the literature and considerations that initiated establishing a prospective public health research agenda around treatment decision making. Insights gathered from CDC-supported studies are poised to enhance understanding of the process of shared decision making and the influence of patient, caregiver, and provider preferences on the selection of treatment choices. These findings provide guidance about attributes that maximize patient experiences in survivorship, including optimal quality of life and patient and caregiver satisfaction with information, treatment decisions, and subsequent care.

  3. Childhood leukemia--risk factors and the need for an interdisciplinary research agenda.

    PubMed

    Ziegelberger, Gunde; Dehos, Anne; Grosche, Bernd; Hornhardt, Sabine; Jung, Thomas; Weiss, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified high as well as low-frequency fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2B). For high frequency fields the recent assessment is based mainly on weak positive associations described in some epidemiological studies between glioma and acoustic neuroma and the use of mobile and other wireless phones. Also for lowfrequency fields the evidence is based on epidemiological findings revealing a statistic association between childhood leukemia (CL) and low-level magnetic fields. The basic findings are already 10 years old. They have since been supported by further epidemiological studies. However, the knowledge on the main/crucial question of causality has not improved. This fact and in addition the small, but statistically significant increased incidence of CL in the surrounding of German nuclear power plants have motivated the German Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) to work toward a better understanding of the main causes of CL. A long-term strategic research agenda has been developed which builds on an interdisciplinary, international network and aims at clarifying the aetiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  4. Gender perspective in occupational medicine and workplace risk assessment: state of the art and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Protano, C; Magrini, A; Vitali, M; Sernia, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current situation and the research agenda in the field of gender differences, both generically in the occupational settings and in the specific activity of risk assessment. Gender is a key determinant of health; the evaluation of documents and scientific literature shows increasing attention to a gender oriented approach, as demonstrated by the development of Gender Medicine, actually cross-oriented in all medical specialties, the publication of books dedicated to this topic and the birth of "ad hoc" new scientific societies and journals. Even today, however, the gender differences are not considered as they should in the context of health disciplines, including occupational medicine. In this respect, in fact, the critical issues to be overcome are numerous, such as the phenomena of "segregation", the exposure to risk factors and their effects, related also to non-professional, socio-cultural features that differentiate male and female workers. All these factors can lead to situations of inequality in health. In fact, the European directives on safety at work repeatedly highlight the attention to gender differences in prevention, assessment and management of risks. In this regard, the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work advocates an approach "more sensitive" to gender in all the processes of assessment and risk management, from the research of all potential sources of risk to the decision-making processes, in order to address the prevention of risks in a holistic manner.

  5. Responding to Agenda 2020: A technology vision and research agenda for America`s forest, wood and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    This document presents project summaries that demonstrate specific capabilities of interest to the forest, wood and paper industry in areas where PNL offers significant depth of experience or unique expertise. Though PNL possesses a wide range of capabilities across many of the technology-related issues identified by the industry, this document focuses on capabilities that meet the specific forest, wood and paper industry needs of the following research areas: forest inventory; human and environmental effects; energy and environmental tradeoffs; reduction of impacts of liquid effluent; solid wastes; removal of non-process elements in pulp and paper operations; life cycle assessment; and process measurement and controls. In addition, PNL can provide the forest, wood and paper industry with support in areas such as strategic and program planning, stakeholder communications and outreach, budget defense and quality metrics. These are services PNL provides directly to several programs within DOE.

  6. The Impact of Community Design and Land-Use Choices on Public Health: A Scientific Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Dannenberg, Andrew L.; Jackson, Richard J.; Frumkin, Howard; Schieber, Richard A.; Pratt, Michael; Kochtitzky, Chris; Tilson, Hugh H.

    2003-01-01

    The design of a community’s built environment influences the physical and mental health of its residents. Because few studies have investigated this relationship, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted a workshop in May 2002 to help develop a scientific research agenda on these issues. Workshop participants’ areas of expertise included physical activity, injury prevention, air pollution, water quality, urban planning, transportation, architecture, epidemiology, land use, mental health, social capital, housing, and social marketing. This report describes the 37 questions in the resulting research agenda. The next steps are to define priorities and obtain resources. The proposed research will help identify the best practices for designing new communities and revitalizing old ones in ways that promote physical and mental health. PMID:12948970

  7. Learning To Teach Reading: Setting the Research Agenda. A Collection of Papers Presented at the Reading Research 2000 Conference. (Indianapolis, Indiana, April 29, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This collection of abstracts is representative of the sessions presented at the International Reading Association's Reading Research 2000 Conference, held in Indianapolis, Indiana on April 29, 2000. The theme of the conference, "Learning To Teach Reading: Setting the Research Agenda," was a timely one as schools, teachers, states, teacher…

  8. Patient involvement in a scientific advisory process: setting the research agenda for medical products.

    PubMed

    Elberse, Janneke Elisabeth; Pittens, Carina Anna Cornelia Maria; de Cock Buning, Tjard; Broerse, Jacqueline Elisabeth Willy

    2012-10-01

    Patient involvement in scientific advisory processes could lead to more societally relevant advice. This article describes a case study wherein the Health Council of the Netherlands involved patient groups in an advisory process with a predefined focus: setting a research agenda for medical products development. A four-phase approach was developed to stimulate needs-articulation concerning future medical products for a broad range of patient groups covering 15 disease domains. 119 (expert) patients and 92 non-patient representatives were consulted using interviews and focus groups. In a facilitated way, patients appeared capable and willing to provide input useful for an advisory process. A broad range of medical products was defined serving different purposes. This study showed two dilemmas: first, finding a balance between a predefined focus and being sufficiently broad to enable patients and patient representatives to contribute, and second, finding a balance between relevance for many patients groups and saturation of data for a lower number of patient groups. By taking the context of patients' daily life as starting point patient groups provided new insights. The predefined focus was sometimes perceived as constraining. The GR considered the articulated needs constructive and incorporated patients' input in their advice to the Minister of Health.

  9. Alcohol industry influence on UK alcohol policy: A new research agenda for public health

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The British government has been criticised for according industry interests too much weight in alcohol policy-making. Consequently, it has been argued that alcohol strategy in the UK is built around policies for which the evidence base is weak. This has clear implications for public health. The purpose of this commentary is to map recent developments in UK alcohol policy and related debates within the alcohol policy literature, thus laying the foundations for a systematic examination of the influence of the alcohol industry on alcohol policy. It highlights the changing structure of the industry and summarises what is known about the positions and strategies of industry actors towards alcohol policy. In so doing, it aims to contribute not just to debates about alcohol policy, but to a broader understanding of health policy processes and the relationships between government and other stakeholders. It advances a new research agenda focused on the role of corporate actors in the field of alcohol policy and public health more broadly. PMID:22815594

  10. Guidelines for Initiating a Research Agenda: Research Design and Dissemination of Results.

    PubMed

    Delost, Maria E; Nadder, Teresa S

    2014-01-01

    Successful research outcomes require selection and implementation of the appropriate research design. A realistic sampling plan appropriate for the design is essential. Qualitative or quantitative methodology may be utilized, depending on the research question and goals. Quantitative research may be experimental where there is an intervention, or nonexperimental, if no intervention is included in the design. Causation can only be established with experimental research. Popular types of nonexperimental research include descriptive and survey research. Research findings may be disseminated via presentations, posters, and publications, such as abstracts and manuscripts.

  11. Pharmaceutical lobbying in Brazil: a missing topic in the public health research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the US, where registration of lobbyists is mandatory, the pharmaceutical industry and private health-care providers spend huge amounts of money seeking to influence health policies and government decisions. In Brazil, where lobbying lacks transparency, there is virtually no data on drug industry expenditure to persuade legislators and government officials of their viewpoints and to influence decision-making according to commercial interests. Since 1990, however, the Associação da Indústria Farmacêutica de Pesquisa (Interfarma – Pharmaceutical Research Industry Association), Brazilian counterpart of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), main lobbying organization of the US pharmaceutical industry, has played a major role in the advocacy of interests of major drug companies. The main goals of Interfarma lobbying activities are: shortening the average time taken by the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA) to approve marketing authorization for a new drug; making the criteria for incorporation of new drugs into SUS (Brazilian Unified Health System) more flexible and speeding up technology incorporation; changing the Country’s ethical clearance system and the ethical requirements for clinical trials to meet the need of the innovative drug industry, and establishing a National Policy for Rare Diseases that allows a prompt incorporation of orphan drugs into SUS. Although lobbying affects community health and well-being, this topic is not in the public health research agenda. The impacts of pharmaceutical lobbying on health policies and health-care costs are of great importance for SUS and deserve to be investigated. PMID:28099661

  12. Setting an implementation research agenda for Canadian investments in global maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health: a research prioritization exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Renee; Buccioni, Matthew; Gaffey, Michelle F.; Mansoor, Omair; Scott, Helen; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Improving global maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (MNCAH) is a top development priority in Canada, as shown by the $6.35 billion in pledges toward the Muskoka Initiative since 2010. To guide Canadian research investments, we aimed to systematically identify a set of implementation research priorities for MNCAH in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We adapted the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. We scanned the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative literature and extracted research questions pertaining to delivery of interventions, inviting Canadian experts on MNCAH to generate additional questions. The experts scored a combined list of 97 questions against 5 criteria: answerability, feasibility, deliverability, impact and effect on equity. These questions were ranked using a research priority score, and the average expert agreement score was calculated for each question. Results: The overall research priority score ranged from 40.14 to 89.25, with a median of 71.84. The average expert agreement scores ranged from 0.51 to 0.82, with a median of 0.64. Highly-ranked research questions varied across the life course and focused on improving detection and care-seeking for childhood illnesses, overcoming barriers to intervention uptake and delivery, effectively implementing human resources and mobile technology, and increasing coverage among at-risk populations. Children were the most represented target population and most questions pertained to interventions delivered at the household or community level. Interpretation: Investing in implementation research is critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of ensuring health and well-being for all. The proposed research agenda is expected to drive action and Canadian research investments to improve MNCAH.

  13. An Agenda for Land-Surface Hydrology Research and a Call for the Second International Hydrological Decade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Bras, Rafael L.; McLaughlin, Dennis B.; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Wei, Ying; Betts, Alan K.; Beven, Keith J.; Duffy, Christopher J.; Dunne, Thomas; Koster, Randall D.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Shuttleworth, William J.; vanGenuchten, Martinus T.; Wood, Eric F.

    1998-01-01

    An agenda for land-surface hydrology research is proposed to open the debate for more comprehensive prioritization of science and application activities in the hydrologic sciences. A set of science questions are posed and the observational requirements to achieve substantial progress are identified. In this context, the proposal to initiate the 2nd International Hydrologic Decade (IHD) is put forth. The benefits of this initiative for enhanced scientific understanding and improved capability in meeting societal needs are also identified.

  14. Formaldehyde Workshop Agenda

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the agenda for the Formaldehyde Workshop hosted by the Office of Research and Development's National Center for Environmental Assessments in cooperation with the IRIS Program. The workshop was held in April 2014

  15. The second wave of violence scholarship: South African synergies with a global research agenda.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Brett; Stevens, Garth; Eagle, Gillian; Langa, Malose; Kramer, Sherianne; Kiguwa, Peace; Nduna, Mzikazi

    2015-12-01

    Violence is a serious public health and human rights challenge with global psychosocial impacts across the human lifespan. As a middle-income country (MIC), South Africa experiences high levels of interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence, taking physical, sexual and/or psychological forms. Careful epidemiological research has consistently shown that complex causal pathways bind the social fabric of structural inequality, socio-cultural tolerance of violence, militarized masculinity, disrupted community and family life, and erosion of social capital, to individual-level biological, developmental and personality-related risk factors to produce this polymorphic profile of violence in the country. Engaging with a concern that violence studies may have reached something of a theoretical impasse, 'second wave' violence scholars have argued that the future of violence research may not lie primarily in merely amassing more data on risk but rather in better theorizing the mechanisms that translate risk into enactment, and that mobilize individual and collective aspects of subjectivity within these enactments. With reference to several illustrative forms of violence in South Africa, in this article we suggest revisiting two conceptual orientations to violence, arguing that this may be useful in developing thinking in line with this new global agenda. Firstly, the definition of our object of enquiry requires revisiting to fully capture its complexity. Secondly, we advocate for the utility of specific incident analyses/case studies of violent encounters to explore the mechanisms of translation and mobilization of multiple interactive factors in enactments of violence. We argue that addressing some of the moral and methodological challenges highlighted in revisiting these orientations requires integrating critical social science theory with insights derived from epidemiology and, that combining these approaches may take us further in understanding and addressing the

  16. Measures of Outcome for Stimulant Trials: ACTTION Recommendations and Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Duhig, Amy; Falk, Daniel E.; Kampman, Kyle; Lai, Shengan; Litten, Raye Z.; McCann, David J.; Montoya, Ivan D.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Skolnick, Phil; Weisner, Constance; Woody, George; Chandler, Redonna; Detke, Michael J.; Dunn, Kelly; Dworkin, Robert H.; Fertig, Joanne; Gewandter, Jennifer; Moeller, F. Gerard; Ramey, Tatiana; Ryan, Megan; Silverman, Kenneth; Strain, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The development and approval of an efficacious pharmacotherapy for stimulant use disorders has been limited by the lack of a meaningful indicator of treatment success, other than sustained abstinence. Methods In March, 2015, a meeting sponsored by Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) was convened to discuss the current state of the evidence regarding meaningful outcome measures in clinical trials for stimulant use disorders. Attendees included members of academia, funding and regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and healthcare organizations. The goal was to establish a research agenda for the development of a meaningful outcome measure that may be used as an endpoint in clinical trials for stimulant use disorders. Results and Conclusions Based on guidelines for the selection of clinical trial endpoints, the lessons learned from prior addiction clinical trials, and the process that led to identification of a meaningful indicator of treatment success for alcohol use disorders, several recommendations for future research were generated. These include a focus on the validation of patient reported outcome measures of functioning, the exploration of patterns of stimulant abstinence that may be associated with physical and/or psychosocial benefits, the role of urine testing for validating self-reported measures of stimulant abstinence, and the operational definitions for reduction-based measures in terms of frequency rather than quantity of stimulant use. These recommendations may be useful for secondary analyses of clinical trial data, and in the design of future clinical trials that may help establish a meaningful indicator of treatment success. PMID:26652899

  17. Advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: Setting the research agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Jenny; Bond, Alan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois

    2013-07-15

    Impact assessment has been in place for over 40 years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of impact assessment theory and practice, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment. We note that although the fundamentals of impact assessment have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discourse in each case, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective impact assessment practice, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the impact assessment jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable impact assessment to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver. -- Highlights: ► Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper ► EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment are reviewed ► Diversity of practice is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate ► There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements ► Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential.

  18. The "Negotiated Space" of University Researchers' Pursuit of a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luukkonen, Terttu; Thomas, Duncan A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces a concept of a "negotiated space" to describe university researchers' attempts to balance pragmatically, continually and dynamically over time, their own agency and autonomy in the selection of research topics and pursuit of scientific research to filter out the explicit steering and tacit signals of external…

  19. Toward a Research Agenda for Understanding and Improving the Use of Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven R.; Leffler, James C.; Hansen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers and research funders want their work to be influential in educational policy and practice, but there is little systematic understanding of how policymakers and practitioners use research evidence, much less how they acquire or interpret it. By understanding what does shape policymakers' and practitioners' decision making and the…

  20. Gender differences in neurological emergencies part II: a consensus summary and research agenda on traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wright, David W; Espinoza, Tamara R; Merck, Lisa H; Ratcliff, Jonathan J; Backster, Anika; Stein, Donald G

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. There is strong evidence that gender and sex play an important role across the spectrum of TBI, from pathophysiology to clinical care. In May 2014, Academic Emergency Medicine held a consensus conference "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes." A TBI working group was formed to explore what was known about the influence of sex and gender on TBI and to identify gaps for future research. The findings resulted in four major recommendations to guide the TBI research agenda.

  1. Space and Architecture's Current Line of Research? A Lunar Architecture Workshop With An Architectural Agenda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, D.; van Dijk, A.

    The "2002 ESA Lunar Architecture Workshop" (June 3-16) ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL and V2_Lab, Rotterdam, NL) is the first-of-its-kind workshop for exploring the design of extra-terrestrial (infra) structures for human exploration of the Moon and Earth-like planets introducing 'architecture's current line of research', and adopting an architec- tural criteria. The workshop intends to inspire, engage and challenge 30-40 European masters students from the fields of aerospace engineering, civil engineering, archi- tecture, and art to design, validate and build models of (infra) structures for Lunar exploration. The workshop also aims to open up new physical and conceptual terrain for an architectural agenda within the field of space exploration. A sound introduc- tion to the issues, conditions, resources, technologies, and architectural strategies will initiate the workshop participants into the context of lunar architecture scenarios. In my paper and presentation about the development of the ideology behind this work- shop, I will comment on the following questions: * Can the contemporary architectural agenda offer solutions that affect the scope of space exploration? It certainly has had an impression on urbanization and colonization of previously sparsely populated parts of Earth. * Does the current line of research in architecture offer any useful strategies for com- bining scientific interests, commercial opportunity, and public space? What can be learned from 'state of the art' architecture that blends commercial and public pro- grammes within one location? * Should commercial 'colonisation' projects in space be required to provide public space in a location where all humans present are likely to be there in a commercial context? Is the wave in Koolhaas' new Prada flagship store just a gesture to public space, or does this new concept in architecture and shopping evolve the public space? * What can we learn about designing (infra-) structures on the Moon or any other

  2. The NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: A Research Agenda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    DC: National Science to-Industry Advanced Technology Transfer. A Case Foundation, 1986. (Available from NTIS, Springfield, Study." Research Policy 12...1982): 133-136. munications in Technological Innovation." Research Policy 2 (1973): 204-225. Tushman. Michael L and David A. Nadler. "Com- munication

  3. The Theory Question in Research Capacity Building in Education: Towards an Agenda for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert; Allan, Julie; Edwards, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The question of capacity building in education has predominantly been approached with regard to the methods and methodologies of educational research. Far less attention has been given to capacity building in relation to theory. In many ways the latter is as pressing an issue as the former, given that good research depends on a combination of high…

  4. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  5. Research Issues in the Learning and Teaching of Algebra. Research Agenda for Mathematics Education. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Sigrid, Ed.; Kieran, Carolyn, Ed.

    This publication contains revised versions of the major papers presented at a research conference on the learning and teaching of algebra. The papers and discussions focused on four major themes: what is algebra and what should it become, in light of continuing technological advances; what has research told us about the teaching and learning of…

  6. Rural hospitals: trends, challenges, and a future research and policy analysis agenda.

    PubMed

    Moscovice, Ira; Stensland, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Previous reviews of the status of rural hospitals conclude that rural hospitals play a major role in ensuring the provision of health services in rural areas, are an essential part of the social and economic identity of rural communities, have had mixed success in their ability to respond to environmental threats, and are very sensitive to public policies due, in part, to their small size. The evolving hospital paradigm in the United States and a turbulent economic and health care environment have created an uncertain future for the rural hospital. Hospitals are being forced to shift their emphasis from filling acute inpatient care beds to providing a more diversified set of services through linkages with other institutions and provider groups. This presents challenges for rural hospitals, which often serve as the foundation for health care delivery in rural communities yet struggle to overcome the effects of troubled local economies, shortages of health professionals, and public policy inequities. This article reviews key trends and challenges facing rural hospitals from the perspective of their structure and organization, financial sustainability, quality of care provided, and strategic linkages with other entities. It concludes with the presentation of a research and policy analysis agenda that addresses the feasibility of the role of the rural hospital as the hub or coordinator of the rural health care delivery system, the fiscal viability of the rural hospital in the post-Balanced Budget Act period, strategies for measuring and improving the quality of care provided by rural hospitals, and the structure and value of horizontal and vertical linkages of rural hospitals.

  7. Worker productivity outcome measures: OMERACT filter evidence and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kenneth; Boonen, Annelies; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Escorpizo, Reuben; Luime, Jolanda J; Lacaille, Diane; Fautrel, Bruno; Bosworth, Ailsa; Cifaldi, Mary; Gignac, Monique A M; Hofstetter, Cathy; Leong, Amye; Montie, Pam; Petersson, Ingemar F; Purcaru, Oana; Bombardier, Claire; Tugwell, Peter S; Beaton, Dorcas E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Worker Productivity working group is to identify worker productivity outcome measures that meet the requirements of the OMERACT filter. At the OMERACT 11 Workshop, we focused on the at-work limitations/productivity component of worker productivity (i.e., presenteeism) - an area with diverse conceptualization and instrumentation approaches. Various approaches to quantify at-work limitations/productivity (e.g., single-item global and multi-item measures) were examined, and available evidence pertaining to OMERACT truth, discrimination, and feasibility were presented to conference participants. Four candidate global measures of presenteeism were put forth for a plenary vote to determine whether current evidence meets the OMERACT filter requirements. Presenteeism globals from the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (72% support) and Rheumatoid Arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (71% support) were endorsed by conference participants; however, neither the presenteeism global item from the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire nor the Quantity and Quality method achieved the level of support required for endorsement at the present time. The plenary was also asked whether the central item from the Work Ability Index should also be considered as a candidate measure for potential endorsement in the future. Of participants at the plenary, 70% supported this presenteeism global measure. Progress was also made in other areas through discussions at individual breakout sessions. Topics examined include the merits of various multi-item measures of at-work limitations/productivity, methodological issues related to interpretability of outcome scores, and approaches to appraise and classify contextual factors of worker productivity. Feedback gathered from conference participants will inform the future research agenda of the working group.

  8. Plant traits and ecosystem effects of clonality: a new research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Clonal plants spread laterally by spacers between their ramets (shoot–root units); these spacers can transport and store resources. While much is known about how clonality promotes plant fitness, we know little about how different clonal plants influence ecosystem functions related to carbon, nutrient and water cycling. Approach The response–effect trait framework is used to formulate hypotheses about the impact of clonality on ecosystems. Central to this framework is the degree of correspondence between interspecific variation in clonal ‘response traits’ that promote plant fitness and interspecific variation in ‘effect traits’, which define a plant's potential effect on ecosystem functions. The main example presented to illustrate this concept concerns clonal traits of vascular plant species that determine their lateral extension patterns. In combination with the different degrees of decomposability of litter derived from their spacers, leaves, roots and stems, these clonal traits should determine associated spatial and temporal patterns in soil organic matter accumulation, nutrient availability and water retention. Conclusions This review gives some concrete pointers as to how to implement this new research agenda through a combination of (1) standardized screening of predominant species in ecosystems for clonal response traits and for effect traits related to carbon, nutrient and water cycling; (2) analysing the overlap between variation in these response traits and effect traits across species; (3) linking spatial and temporal patterns of clonal species in the field to those for soil properties related to carbon, nutrient and water stocks and dynamics; and (4) studying the effects of biotic interactions and feedbacks between resource heterogeneity and clonality. Linking these to environmental changes may help us to better understand and predict the role of clonal plants in modulating impacts of climate change and human activities on

  9. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Intervention for Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, Roger K.; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Boatin, Boakye A.; McCarthy, James S.; García, Héctor H.; Yang, Guo-Jing; Sripa, Banchob; Lustigman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    -borne trematodiases, will need to be integrated with monitoring, education, sanitation, access to health services, and where appropriate, vector control or reduction of the parasite reservoir in alternative hosts. Based on an analysis of current knowledge gaps and identification of priorities, a research and development agenda for intervention tools considered necessary for control and elimination of human helminthiases is presented, and the challenges to be confronted are discussed. PMID:22545163

  10. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    and places is essential if we are to develop viable measures and approaches to soil and water conservation across the globe. In this paper we will provide an overview of the topics that are addressed in this session and give an overview of the current research in this field and using the insights we will aim to present a new research agenda oriented towards a significant impact in economic and environmental sustainability.

  11. Modeling Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Agenda for Future Research and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Graham, Mark J.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are being championed as scalable ways of involving undergraduates in science research. Studies of CUREs have shown that participating students achieve many of the same outcomes as students who complete research internships. However, CUREs vary widely in their design and implementation, and aspects of CUREs that are necessary and sufficient to achieve desired student outcomes have not been elucidated. To guide future research aimed at understanding the causal mechanisms underlying CURE efficacy, we used a systems approach to generate pathway models representing hypotheses of how CURE outcomes are achieved. We started by reviewing studies of CUREs and research internships to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes of research experiences, determining the level of evidence supporting each outcome. We then used this body of research and drew from learning theory to hypothesize connections between what students do during CUREs and the outcomes that have the best empirical support. We offer these models as hypotheses for the CURE community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. We also cite instruments that are ready to use in CURE assessment and note gaps for which instruments need to be developed. PMID:25687826

  12. Modeling course-based undergraduate research experiences: an agenda for future research and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Graham, Mark J; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-03-02

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are being championed as scalable ways of involving undergraduates in science research. Studies of CUREs have shown that participating students achieve many of the same outcomes as students who complete research internships. However, CUREs vary widely in their design and implementation, and aspects of CUREs that are necessary and sufficient to achieve desired student outcomes have not been elucidated. To guide future research aimed at understanding the causal mechanisms underlying CURE efficacy, we used a systems approach to generate pathway models representing hypotheses of how CURE outcomes are achieved. We started by reviewing studies of CUREs and research internships to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes of research experiences, determining the level of evidence supporting each outcome. We then used this body of research and drew from learning theory to hypothesize connections between what students do during CUREs and the outcomes that have the best empirical support. We offer these models as hypotheses for the CURE community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. We also cite instruments that are ready to use in CURE assessment and note gaps for which instruments need to be developed.

  13. Research Agenda: The Effects of Responsible-Conduct-of-Research Training on Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Michael W; Plemmons, Dena K

    2015-12-01

    Requirements for training in responsible conduct of research have significantly increased over the past 25 years, despite the absence of evidence for a substantial impact. One of the challenges has been to choose among the many possible goals that might define outcomes. Although much of the focus of research has been on changes in knowledge or skills, a case can be made that attitudes and perceptions are at least as important. Based on a recently completed pilot study, the authors propose several areas for research to clarify not only what but also how attitudes and perceptions would be usefully assessed.

  14. Coastal Fog As a System: Defining an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    Fog is a graphic and charismatic phenomenon that is commonplace in coastal geographies around the globe. Some of the first concerns about fog and human health arose over 50 years ago in foggy cities around the world, such as London and Los Angeles, where thousands of excess deaths have been attributed to the presence of acidic fog particles. Further, the mere presence of fog also results in airplane, ship, and automobile traffic delays and accidents, especially in coastal areas. In many Pacific coastal systems, fog is the primary--sometimes the only--source of water, it is a fundamental moderator of local and regional climate, and it influences productivity of near-coast ecosystems. In recent years fog has been identified as a vector for limiting nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus), pollutants (e.g., mercury), and microbes (including human pathogens), all of whose origin is thought to be biologically controlled in the ocean. Researchers have also started inquiring into the importance of fog in modulating weather as well as local, regional and, global climate dynamics. However, from its formation in marine systems to deposition in terrestrial systems, understanding the fog system is an intellectual and interdisciplinary challenge that, to date, has gone unmet. This is in part because the fog system is complex: it involves feedbacks and coupling between physical, chemical, and biological systems in the ocean, atmosphere, and near-coast terrestrial systems. In addition, its formation is the result of global processes, yet its distribution as well as its impacts are local, and extremely spatially and temporally heterogeneous within and across landscapes. Here we describe a systems approach and framework for understanding the controls on fog formation as well as feedbacks to its formation, dissipation, distribution, flows, and stocks or pools. In addition, an interdisciplinary research agenda for coastal fog as a system will be described based on the outcome of a

  15. The Nonsignificant Impact of an Agenda Setting Treatment for Groups: Implications for Future Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridbord, Karen; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.; Jones, Edlyn; Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study compared the effect of two writing techniques, Agenda Setting and Group Focus, to a cognitive technique, reading process notes at the start of a group session, to examine their impact on social climate, member involvement, and behavior. Theoretically an intervention that helps members to focus directly on their goals and potential…

  16. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Brawley, Otis W.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Thomas, Charles R.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  17. Community participation in formulating the post-2015 health and development goal agenda: reflections of a multi-country research collaboration.

    PubMed

    Brolan, Claire E; Hussain, Sameera; Friedman, Eric A; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Mulumba, Moses; Rusike, Itai; Beiersmann, Claudia; Hill, Peter S

    2014-10-10

    Global discussion on the post-2015 development goals, to replace the Millennium Development Goals when they expire on 31 December 2015, is well underway. While the Millennium Development Goals focused on redressing extreme poverty and its antecedents for people living in developing countries, the post-2015 agenda seeks to redress inequity worldwide, regardless of a country's development status. Furthermore, to rectify the UN's top-down approach toward the Millennium Development Goals' formulation, widespread negotiations are underway that seek to include the voices of people and communities from around the globe to ground each post-2015 development goal. This reflexive commentary, therefore, reports on the early methodological challenges the Go4Health research project experienced in its engagement with communities in nine countries in 2013. Led by four research hubs in Uganda, Bangladesh, Australia and Guatemala, the purpose of this engagement has been to ascertain a 'snapshot' of the health needs and priorities of socially excluded populations particularly from the Global South. This is to inform Go4Health's advice to the European Commission on the post-2015 global goals for health and new governance frameworks. Five methodological challenges were subsequently identified from reflecting on the multidisciplinary, multiregional team's research practices so far: meanings and parameters around qualitative participatory research; representation of marginalization; generalizability of research findings; ethical research in project time frames; and issues related to informed consent. Strategies to overcome these methodological hurdles are also examined. The findings from the consultations represent the extraordinary diversity of marginal human experience requiring contextual analysis for universal framing of the post-2015 agenda. Unsurprisingly, methodological challenges will, and did, arise. We conclude by advocating for a discourse to emerge not only critically

  18. Population Aging in the European Information Societies: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda in eHealth Innovations for Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people’s daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis. PMID:27493837

  19. Population Aging in the European Information Societies: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda in eHealth Innovations for Elderly.

    PubMed

    Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people's daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis.

  20. Managing multiple funding streams and agendas to achieve local and global health and research objectives: lessons from the field

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Charles B.; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Raelly, Roselyne; Freeman, Bethany; Wambulawae, Inonge; Silwizya, Geoffrey; Topp, Stephanie; Chilengi, Roma; Henostroza, German; Kapambwe, Sharon; Simbeye, Darius; Sibajene, Sheila; Chi, Harmony; Godfrey, Katy; Chi, Benjamin; Moore, Carolyn Bolton

    2014-01-01

    Multiple funding sources provide research and program implementation organizations a broader base of funding and facilitate synergy, but also entail challenges that include varying stakeholder expectations, unaligned grant cycles, and highly variable reporting requirements. Strong governance and strategic planning are essential to ensure alignment of goals and agendas. Systems to track budgets and outputs as well as procurement and human resources are required. A major goal is to transition leadership and operations to local ownership. This article details successful approaches used by the newly independent non-governmental organization, the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ). PMID:24321983

  1. Managing multiple funding streams and agendas to achieve local and global health and research objectives: lessons from the field.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Charles B; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Raelly, Roselyne L; Freeman, Bethany L; Wambulawae, Inonge; Silwizya, Geoffrey; Topp, Stephanie M; Chilengi, Roma; Henostroza, German; Kapambwe, Sharon; Simbeye, Darius; Sibajene, Sheila; Chi, Harmony; Godfrey, Katy; Chi, Benjamin; Moore, Carolyn Bolton

    2014-01-01

    Multiple funding sources provide research and program implementation organizations a broader base of funding and facilitate synergy, but also entail challenges that include varying stakeholder expectations, unaligned grant cycles, and highly variable reporting requirements. Strong governance and strategic planning are essential to ensure alignment of goals and agendas. Systems to track budgets and outputs, as well as procurement and human resources are required. A major goal of funders is to transition leadership and operations to local ownership. This article details successful approaches used by the newly independent nongovernmental organization, the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia.

  2. New perspectives in forest management: Background, science issues, and research agenda. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.J.; Grant, G.E.

    1992-09-01

    Scientific, management, and social factors that have contributed to the changes in United States forest management are examined in the report. Principles underlying new approaches are developed and implications are considered at various spatial and temporal scales. A general framework for a research program is outlined.

  3. Mentoring, Undergraduate Research, and Identity Development: A Conceptual Review and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ruth J.; Hunt, Andrea N.; Neal, Michael; Wuetherick, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Mentored undergraduate research has been identified as a high-impact practice that enhances teaching and learning in higher education. It is reported to influence students' academic, affective, and behavioral outcomes. However, there is only an emerging literature related to student outcomes associated with identity development, specifically…

  4. The Performance of mHealth in Cancer Supportive Care: A Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the advent of smartphones, mHealth has risen to the attention of the health care system as something that could radically change the way health care has been viewed, managed, and delivered to date. This is particularly relevant for cancer, as one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and for cancer supportive care, since patients and caregivers have key roles in managing side effects. Given adequate knowledge, they are able to expect appropriate assessments and interventions. In this scenario, mHealth has great potential for linking patients, caregivers, and health care professionals; for enabling early detection and intervention; for lowering costs; and achieving better quality of life. Given its great potential, it is important to evaluate the performance of mHealth. This can be considered from several perspectives, of which organizational performance is particularly relevant, since mHealth may increase the productivity of health care providers and as a result even the productivity of health care systems. Objective This paper aims to review studies on the evaluation of the performance of mHealth, with particular focus on cancer care and cancer supportive care processes, concentrating on its contribution to organizational performance, as well as identifying some indications for a further research agenda. Methods We carried out a review of literature, aimed at identifying studies related to the performance of mHealth in general or focusing on cancer care and cancer supportive care. Results Our analysis revealed that studies are almost always based on a single dimension of performance. Any evaluations of the performance of mHealth are based on very different methods and measures, with a prevailing focus on issues linked to efficiency. This fails to consider the real contribution that mHealth can offer for improving the performance of health care providers, health care systems, and the quality of life in general. Conclusions Further research

  5. The Dayton Agenda: Full Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Research on Christian Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In November 1997, 140 researchers, administrators, and others interested in the support of nonpublic schools gathered at the University of Dayton to develop a research agenda for American private education. What developed over the several hours of intense sessions was an agenda that has given direction to researchers well into the 21st century.…

  6. Inter-professional collaboration as a health human resources strategy: moving forward with a western provinces research agenda.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, Grace; Suter, Esther; Deutschlander, Siegrid; Bainbridge, Lesley; Harrison, Liz; Grymonpre, Ruby; Hepp, Shelanne

    2012-01-01

    The current gap in research on inter-professional collaboration and health human resources outcomes is explored by the Western Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative (WCIHC). In a recent research planning workshop with the four western provinces, 82 stakeholders from various sectors including health, provincial governments, research and education engaged with WCIHC to consider aligning their respective research agendas relevant to inter-professional collaboration and health human resources. Key research recommendations from a recent knowledge synthesis on inter-professional collaboration and health human resources as well as current provincial health priorities framed the discussions at the workshop. This knowledge exchange has helped to consolidate a shared current understanding of inter-professional education and practice and health workforce planning and management among the participating stakeholders. Ultimately, through a focused research program, a well-aligned approach between sectors to finding health human resources solutions will result in sustainable health systems reform.

  7. Identifying and strengthening the structural roots of urban health in Canada: participatory policy research and the urban health agenda.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Toba; Raphael, Dennis; Travers, Robb

    2007-01-01

    An urban health research agenda for health promoters is presented. In Canada, urban issues are emerging as a major concern of policy makers. The voices raising these issues are from the non-health sectors, but many of these issues such as increasing income inequality and poverty, homelessness and housing insecurity, and social exclusion of youth, immigrants, and ethno-racial minorities have strong health implications as they are important social determinants of health. Emphasis on these and other social determinants of health and the policy decisions that strengthen or weaken them is timely as the quality of Canadian urban environments has become especially problematic. We argue for a participatory urban health research and action agenda with four components: (a) an emphasis on health promotion and the social determinants of health; (b) community-based participatory research; and (c) drawing on the lived experience of people to influence (d) policy analysis and policy change. Urban health researchers and promoters are urged to draw upon new developments in population health and community-based health promotion theory and research to identify and strengthen the roots of urban health through citizen action on public policy.

  8. The NASA/DOD aerospace knowledge diffusion research project: A research agenda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The project has both immediate and long term purposes. In the first instance it provides a practical and pragmatic basis for understanding how the results of NASA/DoD research diffuse into the aerospace R and D process. Over the long term it provides an empirical basis for understanding the aerospace knowledge diffusion process itself, and its implications at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. The project is studying the major barriers to effective knowledge diffusion. This project will provide descriptive and analytical data regarding the flow of scientific and technical information (STI). It will examine both channels used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process.

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 22: Establishing a research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI): Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    The goal is the creation of a generally accepted, systematically developed and implemented, but user focused, research agenda for the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) and the Technical Information Panel (TIP) member countries. Information use seldom exists as an isolated incident. Information use usually takes place within organizational and interpersonal contexts. Therefore, it should not be studied in isolation, but rather in an holistic environment. Once implemented, this research agenda could be completed within 3 to 5 years. The results would be generalizable to AGARD member nations, would form the basis for the development of theory based practice, and would form a significant body of knowledge that can be used by AGARD information professionals for policy, practice, product, and systems development.

  10. Framing the research agenda for sickle cell trait: building on the current understanding of clinical events and their potential implications

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Jonathan C.; Bonham, Vence L.; Joiner, Clinton H.; Kato, Gregory J.; Noonan, Allan S.; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    Sickle Cell Trait (HbAS), the heterozygous state for the sickle hemoglobin beta globin gene is carried by as many as 100 million individuals including up to 25% of the population in some regions of the world (World Health Organization, Provisional agenda item 4.8, EB117/34 (22 December 2005) or World Health Organization, Provisional agenda item 11.4 (24 April 2006)). Persons with HbAS have some resistance to falciparum malaria infection in early childhood (Piel FB, Patil AP, Howes RE, et al., Nat Commun 2010;1104:1–7 and Aidoo M, Terlouw DJ, Kolczak M, et al., Lancet 2002;359:1311–1312) and as a result individuals with HbAS living in malarial endemic regions of Africa have a survival advantage over individuals with HbAA. Reports from the US emphasize possible health risks for individuals with HbAS including increased incidence of renal failure and malignancy, thromboembolic disorders, splenic infarction as a high altitude complication, and exercise-related sudden death. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health convened a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland on June 3–4, 2010, Framing the Research Agenda for Sickle Cell Trait, to review the clinical manifestations of HbAS, discuss the exercise-related sudden death reports in HbAS, and examine the public health, societal, and ethical implications of policies regarding HbAS. The goal of the workshop was to identify potential research questions to address knowledge gaps. PMID:22307997

  11. Reducing the global burden of Preterm Birth through knowledge transfer and exchange: a research agenda for engaging effectively with policymakers.

    PubMed

    Yamey, Gavin; Horváth, Hacsi; Schmidt, Laura; Myers, Janet; Brindis, Claire D

    2016-03-18

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the world's leading cause of death in children under 5 years. In 2013, over one million out of six million child deaths were due to complications of PTB. The rate of decline in child death overall has far outpaced the rate of decline attributable to PTB. Three key reasons for this slow progress in reducing PTB mortality are: (a) the underlying etiology and biological mechanisms remain unknown, presenting a challenge to discovering ways to prevent and treat the condition; (ii) while there are several evidence-based interventions that can reduce the risk of PTB and associated infant mortality, the coverage rates of these interventions in low- and middle-income countries remain very low; and (c) the gap between knowledge and action on PTB--the "know-do gap"--has been a major obstacle to progress in scaling up the use of existing evidence-based child health interventions, including those to prevent and treat PTB.In this review, we focus on the know-do gap in PTB as it applies to policymakers. The evidence-based approaches to narrowing this gap have become known as knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE). In our paper, we propose a research agenda for promoting KTE with policymakers, with an ambitious but realistic goal of reducing the global burden of PTB. We hope that our proposed research agenda stimulates further debate and discussion on research priorities to soon bend the curve of PTB mortality.

  12. Counseling in the clinical setting to prevent unintended pregnancy: an evidence-based research agenda.

    PubMed

    Moos, Merry K; Bartholomew, Neva E; Lohr, Kathleen N

    2003-02-01

    Unintended pregnancies account for about half of all pregnancies in the United States and, in 1995, numbered nearly 3 million pregnancies. They pose appreciable medical, emotional, social and financial costs on women, their families and society. The US is not attaining national goals to decrease unintended pregnancies, and little is known about effective means for reducing unintended pregnancy rates in adults or adolescents.To examine the evidence about the effectiveness, benefits and harms of counseling in a clinical setting to prevent unintended pregnancy in adults and adolescents and to use the evidence to propose a research agenda.We identified English-language articles from comprehensive searches of the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychLit and other databases from 1985 through May 2000; the main clinical search terms included pregnancy (mistimed, unintended, unplanned, unwanted), family planning, contraceptive behavior, counseling, sex counseling, and knowledge, attitudes and behavior. We also used published systematic reviews, hand searching of relevant articles, the second Guide to Clinical Preventive Services and extensive peer review to identify important articles not otherwise found and to assure completeness. Of 673 abstracts examined, we retained 354 for full article review; of these, we used 74 for the systematic evidence review and abstracted data from 13 articles for evidence tables. Four studies addressed the effectiveness of counseling in a clinical setting in changing knowledge, skills and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy; all had poor internal validity and generalizability and collectively did not provide definitive guidance about effective counseling strategies. Nine studies (three in teenage populations) addressed the relationship of knowledge on contraceptive use and adherence. Knowledge of correct contraceptive methods may be positively associated with appropriate use, but reservations about the method itself, partner support of the method

  13. How Art Works: The National Endowment for the Arts' Five-Year Research Agenda, with a System Map and Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report stems from a collaborative research inquiry into the nature and consequences of art in American life. Although it culminates in a research agenda for the National Endowment for the Arts, the document also proposes a way for the nation's cultural researchers, arts practitioners, policy-makers, and the general public to view, analyze,…

  14. Health policy and systems research in access to medicines: a prioritized agenda for low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify priority policy issues in access to medicines (ATM) relevant for low- and middle-income countries, to identify research questions that would help address these policy issues, and to prioritize these research questions in a health policy and systems research (HPSR) agenda. Methods The study involved i) country- and regional-level priority-setting exercises performed in 17 countries across five regions, with a desk review of relevant grey and published literature combined with mapping and interviews of national and regional stakeholders; ii) interviews with global-level stakeholders; iii) a scoping of published literature; and iv) a consensus building exercise with global stakeholders which resulted in the formulation and ranking of HPSR questions in the field of ATM. Results A list of 18 priority policy issues was established following analysis of country-, regional-, and global-level exercises. Eighteen research questions were formulated during the global stakeholders’ meeting and ranked according to four ranking criteria (innovation, impact on health and health systems, equity, and lack of research). The top three research questions were: i) In risk protection schemes, which innovations and policies improve equitable access to and appropriate use of medicines, sustainability of the insurance system, and financial impact on the insured? ii) How can stakeholders use the information available in the system, e.g., price, availability, quality, utilization, registration, procurement, in a transparent way towards improving access and use of medicines? and iii) How do policies and other interventions into private markets, such as information, subsidies, price controls, donation, regulatory mechanisms, promotion practices, etc., impact on access to and appropriate use of medicines? Conclusions Our HPSR agenda adopts a health systems perspective and will guide relevant, innovative research, likely to bear an impact on health, health systems and

  15. Overview and research agenda arising from the 7th World Workshop on Oral Health and Disease in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Tappuni, A R; Shiboski, C

    2016-04-01

    The Research Agenda generated by the 7th World Workshop on Oral Health and Disease in AIDS (WW7) is delivered in this paper. Panels of international experts presided over nine workshops that constituted the conference held in November 2014 in Hyderabad, India. The main goal of the Workshop was to bring together clinician and scientists interested in the subject to debate with world-wide perspectives current issues related to the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS. The workshops were structured around three themes; basic science, clinical/translational science and social science and were attended by 135 participants from 31 countries. The research questions debated at the workshops are presented in nine consensus papers published in this issue and are summarised in this paper along with an outline of the identified research needs in the field.

  16. The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder: a literature update, critique of methodology, and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Elhai, Jon D; Palmieri, Patrick A

    2011-08-01

    We present an update of recent literature (since 2007) exploring the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom measures. Research supporting a four-factor emotional numbing model and a four-factor dysphoria model is presented, with these models fitting better than all other models examined. Variables accounting for factor structure differences are reviewed, including PTSD query instructions, type of PTSD measure, extent of trauma exposure, ethnicity, and timing of administration. Methodological and statistical limitations with recent studies are presented. Finally, a research agenda and recommendations are offered to push this research area forward, including suggestions to validate PTSD’s factors against external measures of psychopathology, test moderators of factor structure, and examine heterogeneity of symptom presentations based on factor structure examination.

  17. Toward a systemic research agenda for addressing the joint epidemics of HIV/AIDS and noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Geneau, Robert; Hallen, Greg

    2012-07-31

    A growing proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS also struggle to cope with one or several noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), particularly as they age. The two epidemics being intertwined, there is increasing recognition that that there should be closer advocacy, policy and programmatic links between HIV and NCDs. The objective of this paper is to discuss the development of a research agenda geared towards informing the design and implementation of programs and policies truly grounded in a co-benefits approach. Tackling the joint epidemics of HIV/AIDS and NCDs in Africa will require for research funders and private and foreign aid donors to be bold, visionary and to commit to long-term research investments in order to evaluate the effects of natural policy experiments and complex interventions.

  18. Does an improved social environment for sexual and gender minorities have implications for a new minority stress research agenda?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Ilan H

    2016-01-01

    Prejudice and stigma have been central to our understanding of the health and well-being of LGBT people using the minority stress perspective. Minority stress research has explained adverse health outcomes in LGBT populations and health disparities between LGBT and heterosexual cisgender populations. Recent shifts in the social environment of LGBT people in some regions of the world allow the experience a more accepting and inclusive society. These changes require that social scientist adapt their research agenda. The author calls for researchers to explore changes in stigma and prejudice toward sexual and gender minorities; assess the impact of changes in the social environment on the lived experiences of LGBT persons across generations and intersections of race/ethnicity, gender and gender expression, and socioeconomic status; describe changes in stress and coping of LGBT people; and examine whether social changes lead to reduction in health disparities by sexual orientation and gender diversity.

  19. Does an improved social environment for sexual and gender minorities have implications for a new minority stress research agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ilan H.

    2016-01-01

    Prejudice and stigma have been central to our understanding of the health and well-being of LGBT people using the minority stress perspective. Minority stress research has explained adverse health outcomes in LGBT populations and health disparities between LGBT and heterosexual cisgender populations. Recent shifts in the social environment of LGBT people in some regions of the world allow the experience a more accepting and inclusive society. These changes require that social scientist adapt their research agenda. The author calls for researchers to explore changes in stigma and prejudice toward sexual and gender minorities; assess the impact of changes in the social environment on the lived experiences of LGBT persons across generations and intersections of race/ethnicity, gender and gender expression, and socioeconomic status; describe changes in stress and coping of LGBT people; and examine whether social changes lead to reduction in health disparities by sexual orientation and gender diversity. PMID:27642514

  20. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 5: Needs and implications for future research and policy.

    PubMed

    van Royen, Paul; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri E J H; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2010-12-01

    The recently published 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and highlights related needs and implications for future research and policy. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. In a first article, background, objectives, and methodology were discussed. In three subsequent, articles the results for the six core competencies of the European Definition of GP/FM were presented. This article formulates the common aims for further research and appropriate research methodologies, based on the missing evidence and research gaps identified form the comprehensive literature review. In addition, implications of this research agenda for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers, research organizations, patients and policy makers are presented. The concept of six core competencies should be abandoned in favour of a model with four dimensions, including clinical, person related, community oriented and management aspects. Future research and policy should consider more the involvement and rights of patients; more attention should be given to how new treatments or technologies are effectively translated into routine patient care, in particular primary care. There is a need for a European ethics board. The promotion of GP/FM research demands a good infrastructure in each country, including access to literature and databases, appropriate funding and training possibilities.

  1. Developing a Research Agenda to Optimize Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: An Executive Summary of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization" was held on May 12, 2015, with the goal of developing a high-priority research agenda on which to base future research. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging use and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Over a 2-year period, the executive committee and other experts in the field convened regularly to identify specific areas in need of future research. Six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging were identified before the conference and served as the breakout groups on which consensus was achieved: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use. The executive committee invited key stakeholders to assist with the planning and to participate in the consensus conference to generate a multidisciplinary agenda. There were a total of 164 individuals involved in the conference and spanned various specialties, including general emergency medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, radiology, surgery, medical physics, and the decision sciences.

  2. Leading Learning through Relationships: The Implications of Neuro-linguistic Programming for Personalisation and the Children's Agenda in England. Research Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churches, Richard; West-Burnham, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses research and thinking on the importance of interpersonal and intrapersonal effectiveness for teachers, school leaders and school improvement, and explores implications of the use of NLP in relation to personalisation and the children's agenda. It outlines initial research carried out as part of the Fast Track Teaching…

  3. Increasing value: a research agenda for addressing the managerial and organizational challenges facing health care delivery in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M

    2004-09-01

    There is growing consensus that the U.S. health care system is not producing value relative to the resources invested. Unwarranted variation exists in quality and outcomes of care and underutilization of both evidence-based medicine and evidence-management practices. To address these issues, this article calls for a broad-based social science approach focused on obtaining a greater understanding of change at the individual, group, organizational, and environmental levels as they influence each other. Specific examples and questions for research are suggested with regard to the redesign of care systems, enhancing learning and transferring knowledge, and creating effective financial incentives. The specific measurement, analysis, and study design issues involved in under-taking such a research agenda are discussed.

  4. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Eppler, D. B.; Kennedy, K. J.; Lewis, R.; Spann, J. F.; Sullivan, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground.

  5. Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-10-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central

  6. Beginning Teachers' Responses to Education Reform Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adoniou, Misty

    2016-01-01

    National education reform agendas are increasingly prevalent in school systems around the world. Whilst we have a substantial body of research exploring the ways in which schools manage change agendas, there is less discussion of the impacts these agendas may have on beginning teachers and their retention in the profession. Here I report on a…

  7. A case for competency-based anaesthesiology training with entrustable professional activities: an agenda for development and research.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Gersten; Hoff, Reinier G; Ten Cate, Olle Th J

    2015-02-01

    Competency frameworks are based on what are considered to be the general essential qualities of a doctor. Competencies, being behavioural descriptors, need a strong link to clinical practice to allow trainers to observe and then use them in assessing trainees' performance. The emerging concept of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) may serve as such a link. An EPA is a description of an essential clinical task that frames competencies in the context of clinical practice. A full set of EPAs defines a specialty and constitutes the curriculum of specialty training. After observation of satisfactory performance on an EPA, the resident should be permitted to perform that activity without direct supervision. The terms of this should allow a trainer to provide justification for this decision. This makes graded assumption of responsibilities possible. We describe the potential benefits of working with EPAs in anaesthesiology training and set an agenda for curriculum development and research in this area.

  8. Global climate change: time to mainstream health risks and their prevention on the medical research and policy agenda.

    PubMed

    Tong, S; Mackenzie, J; Pitman, A J; FitzGerald, G; Nicholls, N; Selvey, L

    2008-06-01

    Climate change is unequivocal. The fourth assessment report of the Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change has recently projected that global average surface temperature will increase by 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C by 2100. Anthropogenic warming during the twenty-first century would be much greater than that observed in the twentieth century. Most of the warming observed over the last six decades is attributable to human activities. Climate change is already affecting, and will increasingly have profound effects on human health and well-being. Therefore, there is an urgent need for societies to take both preemptive and adaptive actions to protect human populations from adverse health consequences of climate change. It is time to mainstream health risks and their prevention in relation to the effects of climate change on the medical research and policy agenda.

  9. Statistics in science and in society: From a state-of-the-art to a new research agenda.

    PubMed

    von Roten, Fabienne Crettaz; de Roten, Yves

    2013-10-01

    Statistics occupies a prominent role in science and citizens' daily life. This article provides a state-of-the-art of the problems associated with statistics in science and in society, structured along the three paradigms defined by Bauer, Allum and Miller (2007). It explores in more detail medicine and public understanding of science on the one hand, and risks and surveys on the other. Statistics has received a good deal of attention; however, very often handled in terms of deficit - either of scientists or of citizens. Many tools have been proposed to improve statistical literacy, the image of and trust in statistics, but with little understanding of their roots, with little coordination among stakeholders and with few assessments of impacts. These deficiencies represent as many new and promising directions in which the PUS research agenda could be expanded.

  10. General practitioner psychological management of common emotional problems (II): A research agenda for the development of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed Central

    Cape, J; Barker, C; Buszewicz, M; Pistrang, N

    2000-01-01

    The majority of patients with common emotional or psychological problems are treated solely by general practitioners (GPs). Such treatment frequently includes some form of psychological management within the consultation, whether limited to listening and discussion or involving more specific techniques. This paper sets out a research agenda for the development of effective approaches to GP psychological management. Evidence is reviewed on three core components of all psychological treatments: establishing a positive therapeutic relationship, developing a shared understanding of the problem, and promoting change in behaviour, thoughts or emotions. The application of these components in GP psychological management is outlined and methodological issues in the development and evaluation of GP management approaches are discussed. Since the number of patients with emotional problems seen by each GP is so large, the population effects of even small improvements in psychological management would be sizeable. PMID:10897540

  11. How Art Works: The National Endowment for the Arts' Five-Year Research Agenda, with a System Map and Measurement Model. Appendix A & B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two appendices supporting the "How Art Works: The National Endowment for the Arts' Five-Year Research Agenda, with a System Map and Measurement Model" report. In Appendix A, brief descriptions of relevant studies and datasets for each node in the "How Art Works" system map are presented. This appendix is meant to supply…

  12. A report on the Academic Emergency Medicine 2015 consensus conference "Diagnostic imaging in the emergency department: a research agenda to optimize utilization".

    PubMed

    Gunn, Martin L; Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M; Chong, Suzanne T; Froemming, Adam T; Johnson, Jamlik O; Kumaravel, Manickam; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2016-08-01

    In May 2015, the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic imaging in the emergency department: a research agenda to optimize utilization" was held. The goal of the conference was to develop a high-priority research agenda regarding emergency diagnostic imaging on which to base future research. In addition to representatives from the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine, the multidisciplinary conference included members of several radiology organizations: American Society for Emergency Radiology, Radiological Society of North America, the American College of Radiology, and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging utilization and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Through a multistep consensus process, participants developed targeted research questions for future research in six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use.

  13. Facing the New Millennium: A Transformative Research and Action Agenda in Black Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Joyce E.

    In 1999, the American Educational Research Association (AERA) initiated the Commission on Research in Black Education (CORIBE) to stimulate research, research dissemination, and policymaking to improve education for and about people of African ancestry. A central concern has been to examine how education research can effectively improve the lives…

  14. What should we know about precarious employment and health in 2025? Framing the agenda for the next decade of research.

    PubMed

    Benach, J; Vives, A; Tarafa, G; Delclos, C; Muntaner, C

    2016-02-01

    The generalization of flexible labour markets, the declining influence of unions and the degradation of social protection has led to the emergence of new forms of employment at the expense of the Standard Employment Relationship, as well as a considerable amount of research across social and scientific disciplines. Years ago we suggested the urgent need to disentangle the consequences of new types of employment for the health and well-being of workers, contending that the study of precarious employment and health is in its infancy. Today, research challenges include clearer, more precise definitions of the original concepts, a more detailed understanding of the pathways and mechanisms through which precarious employment harms worker health, stronger information systems for monitoring the problem and a complex systems approach to employment conditions and health research. All of these must be guided by the theoretical and policy debates linking precarious employment and health, and be geared towards developing better tools for the design, implementation and evaluation of policies intended to minimize precariousness in the labour market and its effects on public health and health inequalities. Our aim in this paper is to outline an agenda for the next decade of research on precarious employment and health, establishing a compelling programme that expands our understanding of complex causes and links.

  15. Toward a science of learning systems: a research agenda for the high-functioning Learning Health System

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Charles; Rubin, Joshua; Brown, Jeffrey; Buntin, Melinda; Corn, Milton; Etheredge, Lynn; Gunter, Carl; Musen, Mark; Platt, Richard; Stead, William; Sullivan, Kevin; Van Houweling, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Objective The capability to share data, and harness its potential to generate knowledge rapidly and inform decisions, can have transformative effects that improve health. The infrastructure to achieve this goal at scale—marrying technology, process, and policy—is commonly referred to as the Learning Health System (LHS). Achieving an LHS raises numerous scientific challenges. Materials and methods The National Science Foundation convened an invitational workshop to identify the fundamental scientific and engineering research challenges to achieving a national-scale LHS. The workshop was planned by a 12-member committee and ultimately engaged 45 prominent researchers spanning multiple disciplines over 2 days in Washington, DC on 11–12 April 2013. Results The workshop participants collectively identified 106 research questions organized around four system-level requirements that a high-functioning LHS must satisfy. The workshop participants also identified a new cross-disciplinary integrative science of cyber-social ecosystems that will be required to address these challenges. Conclusions The intellectual merit and potential broad impacts of the innovations that will be driven by investments in an LHS are of great potential significance. The specific research questions that emerged from the workshop, alongside the potential for diverse communities to assemble to address them through a ‘new science of learning systems’, create an important agenda for informatics and related disciplines. PMID:25342177

  16. From local adaptation to activism and global solidarity: framing a research and innovation agenda towards true health equity.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2017-02-21

    The proposal for a global health treaty aimed at health equity, the Framework Convention on Global Health, raises the fundamental question of whether we can achieve true health equity, globally and domestically, and if not, how close we can come. Considerable knowledge currently exists about the measures required to, at the least, greatly improve health equity. Why, then, do immense inequities remain? Building on this basic question, we propose four areas that could help drive the health equity research and innovation agenda over the coming years.First, recognizing that local contexts will often affect the success of policies aimed at health equity, local research will be critical to adapt strategies to particular settings. This part of the research agenda would be well-served by directly engaging intended beneficiaries for their insights, including through participatory action research, where the research contributes to action towards greater health equity.Second, even with the need for more local knowledge, why is the copious knowledge on how to reduce inequities not more frequently acted upon? What are the best strategies to close policymakers' knowledge gaps and to generate the political will to apply existing knowledge about improving health equity, developing the policies and devoting the resources required? Linked to this is the need to continue to build our understanding of how to empower the activism that can reshape power dynamics.Today's unequal power dynamics contribute significantly to disparities in a third area of focus, the social determinants of health, which are the primary drivers of today's health inequities. Continuing to improve our understanding of the pathways through which they operate can help in developing strategies to change these determinants and disrupt harmful pathways.And fourth, we return to the motivating question of whether we can achieve health equity. For example, can all countries have universal health coverage that

  17. A Research Agenda Concerning Depictions of Mental Illness in Children's Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, John H.; Nairn, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review research on depictions of mental illness in mass media directed to children and to identify requirements for further research in this important field. Methods: The authors identified published research on depictions of mental illness in children's media and the important strengths and weaknesses of such research. Results: Only…

  18. Scientific Reasoning and Argumentation: Advancing an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Frank; Kollar, Ingo; Ufer, Stefan; Sodian, Beate; Hussmann, Heinrich; Pekrun, Reinhard; Neuhaus, Birgit; Dorner, Birgit; Pankofer, Sabine; Fischer, Martin; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Heene, Moritz; Eberle, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Scientific reasoning and scientific argumentation are highly valued outcomes of K-12 and higher education. In this article, we first review main topics and key findings of three different strands of research, namely research on the development of scientific reasoning, research on scientific argumentation, and research on approaches to support…

  19. Developing a Research Agenda to Optimize Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: An Executive Summary of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization," was held on May 12, 2015, with the goal of developing a high-priority research agenda on which to base future research. The specific aims of the conference were to: 1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging utilization and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; 2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and 3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Over a 2-year period, the executive committee and other experts in the field convened regularly to identify specific areas in need of future research. Six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging were identified prior to the conference and served as the breakout groups on which consensus was achieved: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use. The executive committee invited key stakeholders to assist with planning and to participate in the consensus conference to generate a multidisciplinary agenda. There were 164 individuals involved in the conference spanning various specialties, including emergency medicine (EM), radiology, surgery, medical physics, and the decision sciences. This issue of AEM is dedicated to the proceedings of the 16th annual AEM consensus conference as well as original research related to emergency diagnostic imaging.

  20. Reaching for environmental health justice: Canadian experiences for a comprehensive research, policy and advocacy agenda in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Jeffrey R; Poland, Blake; Baxter, Jamie

    2010-12-01

    Spatial disparities in environmental quality and practices are contributing to rising health inequalities worldwide. To date, the field of health promotion has not contributed as significantly as it might to a systematic analysis of the physical environment as a determinant of health nor to a critique of inequitable environmental governance practices responsible for social injustice-particularly in the Canadian context. In this paper, we explore ways in which health promotion and environmental justice perspectives can be combined into an integrated movement for environmental health justice in health promotion. Drawing on Canadian experiences, we describe the historical contributions and limitations of each perspective in research, policy and particularly professional practice. We then demonstrate how recent environmental justice research in Canada is moving toward a deeper and multi-level analysis of environmental health inequalities, a development that we believe can inform a comprehensive research, policy and advocacy agenda in health promotion toward environmental health justice as a fundamental determinant of health. Lastly, we propose four key considerations for health promotion professionals to consider in advancing this movement.

  1. International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics: a global agenda for clinical research and quality of care in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Tolson, Debbie; Rolland, Yves; Andrieu, Sandrine; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Beard, John; Benetos, Athanase; Berrut, Gilles; Coll-Planas, Laura; Dong, Birong; Forette, Françoise; Franco, Alain; Franzoni, Simone; Salvà, Antoni; Swagerty, Daniel; Trabucchi, Marco; Vellas, Bruno; Volicer, Ladislav; Morley, John E

    2011-03-01

    A workshop charged with identifying the main clinical concerns and quality of care issues within nursing homes was convened by the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics, with input from the World Health Organization. The workshop met in Toulouse, France, during June 2010. Drawing on the latest evidence and mindful of the international development agenda and specific regional challenges, consensus was sought on priority actions and future research. The impetus for this work was the known variation in the quality of nursing home care experiences of older people around the world. The resulting Task Force recommendations include instigation of sustainable strategies designed to enhance confidence among older people and their relatives that the care provided within nursing homes is safe, mindful of their preferences, clinically appropriate, and delivered with respect and compassion by appropriately prepared expert doctors, registered nurses, administrators, and other staff. The proposals extend across 4 domains (Reputational Enhancement and Leadership, Clinical Essentials and Care Quality Indicators, Practitioner Education, and Research) that, in concert, will enhance the reputation and status of nursing home careers among practitioners, promote effective evidence-informed quality improvements, and develop practice leadership and research capabilities.

  2. Universities, Civil Society and the Global Agenda of Community-Engaged Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a key point of tension in contemporary discussions of community-university research engagement. Two perspectives are discussed. The first suggests that changes in the nature and structure of research have helped create democratic research spaces and opportunities within the university for communities. In this emerging…

  3. A priority agenda for energy-related indoor environmental quality research

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Brook, M.; Burge, H.; Cole, J.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Logee, T.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.

    2002-05-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers is working together to define a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed, ten high priority broad research and development (R&D) goals, and 34 high priority R&D project areas linked to these goals.

  4. Black Education: A Transformative Research and Action Agenda for the New Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Joyce E., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume presents the findings and recommendations of the American Educational Research Association's (AERA) Commission on Research in Black Education (CORIBE) and offers new directions for research and practice. By commissioning an independent group of scholars of diverse perspectives and voices to investigate major issues hindering the…

  5. 75 FR 27007 - Toward a Federal Cybersecurity Research Agenda: Three Game-changing Themes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD). ACTION... is issued by the National Coordination Office for the Networking and Information Technology Research... technologies supportive of, or required by these themes. The Federal research community welcomes feedback...

  6. The "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages": A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    2011-01-01

    This new strand in the journal provides a space for contributors to present a personal stance either on future research needs or on the perceived current applications of research in the classroom. Like much of our current content, it echoes the historical uniqueness of this journal in terms of its rich and expert overview of recent research in the…

  7. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  8. Improving results for nutrition: a commentary on an agenda and the need for implementation research.

    PubMed

    Garrett, James L

    2008-03-01

    Research and implementation often exist in separate worlds. To improve results for nutrition, the nutrition research community needs to go beyond "what" works to understand "how" it works. If they do not, nutrition research risks becoming irrelevant to the needs of those who actually make policies and implement programs. Researchers must prioritize research on effectiveness of policies and programs. They should incorporate knowledge and tools of social sciences, including economics, sociology, political science, and management into their work. They should pay greater attention to environmental and institutional variables and understand change strategies, knowledge utilization, and policy processes. Fundamentally, research on implementation should use a systematic approach to produce generalizable evidence and conceptual models, tools, and methods that are communicated effectively to policymakers and programmers. Nutrition researchers need not expand far beyond their disciplinary comfort zone to do this, but they do need to build bridges with other fields to have greater success in addressing nutritional challenges.

  9. An agenda for research on the sustainability of public health programs.

    PubMed

    Scheirer, Mary Ann; Dearing, James W

    2011-11-01

    Funders of programs in public health and community health are increasingly concerned about the sustainability of changes they initiate. Despite a recent increase in sustainability research and evaluation, this literature has not developed a widely used paradigm for conducting research that can accumulate into generalizable findings. We provide guidance for research and evaluation of health program sustainability, including definitions and types of sustainability, specifications and measurements of dependent variables, definitions of independent variables or factors that influence sustainability, and suggestions for designs for research and data collection. We suggest viewing sustainability research as a further stage in the translation or dissemination of research-based interventions into practice. This perspective emphasizes ongoing relationships with earlier stages of a broader diffusion framework, including adoption and implementation processes.

  10. Developing an agenda for research about policies to improve access to healthy foods in rural communities: a concept mapping study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Policies that improve access to healthy, affordable foods may improve population health and reduce health disparities. In the United States most food access policy research focuses on urban communities even though residents of rural communities face disproportionately higher risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases compared to residents of urban communities. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the factors associated with access to healthy, affordable food in rural communities in the United States; and (2) prioritize a meaningful and feasible rural food policy research agenda. Methods This study was conducted by the Rural Food Access Workgroup (RFAWG), a workgroup facilitated by the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network. A national sample of academic and non-academic researchers, public health and cooperative extension practitioners, and other experts who focus on rural food access and economic development was invited to complete a concept mapping process that included brainstorming the factors that are associated with rural food access, sorting and organizing the factors into similar domains, and rating the importance of policies and research to address these factors. As a last step, RFAWG members convened to interpret the data and establish research recommendations. Results Seventy-five participants in the brainstorming exercise represented the following sectors: non-extension research (n = 27), non-extension program administration (n = 18), “other” (n = 14), policy advocacy (n = 10), and cooperative extension service (n = 6). The brainstorming exercise generated 90 distinct statements about factors associated with rural food access in the United States; these were sorted into 5 clusters. Go Zones were established for the factors that were rated highly as both a priority policy target and a priority for research. The highest ranked policy and research priorities include strategies designed to

  11. Defining the Medical Library Association research agenda: methodology and final results from a consensus process

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D.; Harris, Martha R.; Ascher, Marie T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Using a group consensus methodology, the research sought to generate a list of the twelve to fifteen most important and answerable research questions in health sciences librarianship as part of a broader effort to implement the new Medical Library Association (MLA) research policy. Methods: The delphi method was used. The committee distributed a brief survey to all estimated 827 MLA leaders and 237 MLA Research Section members, requesting they submit what they considered to be the most important and answerable research questions facing the profession. The submitted questions were then subjected to 2 rounds of voting to produce a short list of top-ranked questions. Results: The survey produced 62 questions from 54 MLA leaders and MLA Research Section members, who responded from an estimated potential population of 1,064 targeted colleagues. These questions were considered by the process participants to be the most important and answerable research questions facing the profession. Through 2 rounds of voting, these 62 questions were reduced to the final 12 highest priority questions. Conclusion: The modified delphi method accomplished its desired survey and consensus goals. Future survey and consensus processes will be revised to generate more initial questions and to distill a larger number of ranked prioritized research questions. PMID:19626143

  12. The Health of Latino Children: Urgent Priorities, Unanswered Questions, and a Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Glenn; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Barbot, Oxiris; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Claudio, Luz; Lara, Mariaelena; McLaurin, Jennie A.; Patcher, Lee; Gomez, Francisco Ramos; Mendoza, Fernando; Valdez, R. Burciaga; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Greenberg, Robert; Weitzman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Latino Consortium of the American Academy of Pediatrics Center for Child Health Research identified the most urgent priorities and answered questions on Latino child health. Discusses research and methodologic issues, disproportionate disease burden and associated risk factors, cultural and linguistic considerations, workforce issues, and…

  13. Physical Activity of Youth with Intellectual Disability: Review and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Georgia C.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.

    2008-01-01

    This review characterizes physical activity behavior in youth with intellectual disability (ID) and identifies limitations in the published research. Keyword searches were used to identify articles from MEDLINE, EBSCOhost Research Databases, Psych Articles, Health Source, and SPORT Discus, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses up to June 2007.…

  14. Science in the Preschool Classroom: A Programmatic Research Agenda to Improve Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Daryl B.; Jirout, Jamie; Dominguez, Ximena; Greenberg, Ariela; Maier, Michelle; Fuccillo, Janna

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: This article focuses on preschool science, an important but under-researched school readiness domain. There is considerable activity surrounding quality science in early childhood classroom practices, including state standards, curricula with science activities, and an extensive literature on potential best practices. However,…

  15. Development of a School Nursing Research Agenda in Florida: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Shirley C.; Barry, Charlotte D.

    2006-01-01

    Research is important to the image, visibility, and viability of school nursing. Each state school nursing association should evaluate member commitment to school nursing research based on their unique set of financial, educational, and organizational resources. A 3-round Delphi study was conducted in which Florida school nurses identified…

  16. Community College Student Success Programs: A Synthesis, Critique, and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria; Taggart, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    A narrative review was developed to add to the discussion and dissemination of research on community colleges. The review adds to existing work by synthesizing and critiquing the empirical research to date specific to three of the most prevalent programmatic efforts presently seen on community college campuses: (a) learning communities, (b)…

  17. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  18. The Development of a Research Agenda and Generic Disc for Computer-Based Interactive Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Barbara; Pearson, Robert

    This paper describes the development of a conceptual framework for conducting research using computer based interactive video and a generic disc as research tools. It is argued that computer based interactive video represents the beginnings of a truly computer based learning system. An altered version of the 1984 Grabowski and Whitney conceptual…

  19. Gender and Management in Further Education in Scotland: An Agenda for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducklin, Alan; Ozga, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Research on gender and education is somewhat limited in Scotland, and research that explores the further education sector from a gender perspective is particularly lacking. This paper argues for such work, and underlines its importance given the prominence of FE in the Scottish policy context as a key contributor to the knowledge economy and…

  20. Is Cognitive Ability a Liability? A Critique and Future Research Agenda on Skilled Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Margaret E.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Over a century of psychological research provides strong and consistent support for the idea that cognitive ability correlates positively with success in tasks that people face in employment, education, and everyday life. Recent experimental research, however, has converged on a different and provocative conclusion, namely that lower-ability…

  1. The National Reading Research Center: Agenda Related to Issues of Diverse Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Louise M.

    The National Reading Research Center (NRRC) advocates education through research that addresses the unacceptably low reading achievement of American students and the lack of equity in the achievement of mainstream and minority populations. The NRRC acknowledges four pervasive problems that will sharpen the focus of the center's work: too many…

  2. Preliminary Construction of a Service Provider-Informed Domestic Violence Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christine E.; Welch, Metoka L.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a statewide survey of domestic violence (DV) service providers that focused on the needs, background characteristics, and opinions of service providers related to research. The survey included an examination of service providers' motivation for working in the field, research background and training, and…

  3. Higher Education Policy Change in Europe: Academic Research Funding and the Impact Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the policy period following the Lisbon Strategy of 2000, European governments increasingly regard universities, and the research they produce, as key to enhancing economic performance. With this heightened respect for the value of university-based research, comes an impatience to see returns on the public investments made. We analyze how policy…

  4. Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed against Teachers: Recommendations for a National Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy; Anderman, Eric M.; Brown, Veda Evanell; Jones, Abraham; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; McMahon, Susan D.; Reddy, Linda A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2013-01-01

    Violence directed against K-12 teachers is a serious problem that demands the immediate attention of researchers, providers of teacher pre-service and in-service training, school administrators, community leaders, and policymakers. Surprisingly, little research has been conducted on this growing problem despite the broad impact teacher…

  5. An Open Source Agenda for Research Linking Text and Image Content Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, Abby A.; Rorvig, Mark E.; Jeong, Ki-Tai; Suresh, Chitturi

    2001-01-01

    Proposes methods to utilize image primitives to support term assignment for image classification. Proposes to release code for image analysis in a common tool set for other researchers to use. Of particular focus is the expansion of work by researchers in image indexing to include image content-based feature extraction capabilities in their work.…

  6. Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

  7. School Decentralization and Community Control: Policy in Search of a Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Harriet

    The relationship between research and educational policy in the areas of school system decentralization and community control is analyzed in this dissertation. The literature on decentraliztion and community control is reviewed. It is contended that existing empirical research on these subjects has not systematically tested the assumptions…

  8. Changes in Parent and Peer Relationships between Childhood and Adolescence: A Research Agenda for Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Raymond

    1984-01-01

    Research on the transformation of relations that nongifted children have with their parents and peers as they go through puberty is examined. Four research questions which compare gifted and nongifted adolescents are posed regarding similarities in development, time factors in development, process of separation and autonomy, and causes. (Author/CL)

  9. Setting the research agenda for improving health care in musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Rachelle; Maher, Chris; Harris, Ian A

    2015-10-01

    Despite a substantial contribution to the global burden of disease, musculoskeletal conditions are under-represented in clinical research, and that which is performed is often wasteful and lacking clinical relevance. Even clinically relevant musculoskeletal research might not lead to timely or adequate changes in clinical practice and associated improvements in patient outcomes. The formulation of clinical recommendations alone is usually insufficient to bring about changes in practice patterns. Research exploring how to improve the translation of evidence-based recommendations into practice, as well as the identification and removal of barriers to practice change, is necessary in order for the promise of musculoskeletal research to be realized in improved health outcomes. These goals can be achieved by improvements in the coordination of research activities, the resourcing and allocation of funding, and the involvement of clinicians and patients.

  10. Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Finally, research is presented that suggests that the adverse consequences of racism on health can be reduced through policies that maximize the health-enhancing capacities of medical care, address the social factors that initiate and sustain risk behaviors and empower individuals and communities to take control of their lives and health. Directions for future research are outlined.

  11. Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Mohammed, Selina A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Finally, research is presented that suggests that the adverse consequences of racism on health can be reduced through policies that maximize the health-enhancing capacities of medical care, address the social factors that initiate and sustain risk behaviors and empower individuals and communities to take control of their lives and health. Directions for future research are outlined. PMID:24347667

  12. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-05-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to the basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this article is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists.

  13. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: Strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; McDonald, Paige Green; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally-laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this paper is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive, but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. PMID:25987511

  14. Burnout among mental health workers: a review and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Leiter, M P; Harvie, P L

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review studies of burnout relating to mental health workers and to propose directions for future research. It will summarize findings with regard to established norms, demographic variables, possible antecedents and consequences of burnout, and burnout models tested with mental health workers. Comparison of group perceptions of burnout is facilitated by the fact that all the papers but one have used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981, 1986). Strengths and weaknesses of the research will be analyzed and suggestions offered for extending research in this area.

  15. 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Organometallic Chemistry. Final progress report [agenda and attendee list

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Carol

    2001-07-27

    The Gordon Research Conference on Organometallic Chemistry was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, July 22-27, 2001. The conference had 133 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field, coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, and included US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Emphasis was place on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions; poster sessions were held.

  16. Health Research Funding in Mexico: The Need for a Long-Term Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Zaragoza, María Luisa; Solano, Elmer; Figueroa, Brenda; Zúñiga, Patricia; Laclette, Juan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The legal framework and funding mechanisms of the national health research system were recently reformed in Mexico. A study of the resource allocation for health research is still missing. We identified the health research areas funded by the National Council on Science and Technology (CONACYT) and examined whether research funding has been aligned to national health problems. Methods and Findings We collected the information to create a database of research grant projects supported through the three main Sectoral Funds managed by CONACYT between 2003 and 2010. The health-related projects were identified and classified according to their methodological approach and research objective. A correlation analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between disease-specific funding and two indicators of disease burden. From 2003 to 2010, research grant funding increased by 32% at a compound annual growth rate of 3.5%. By research objective, the budget fluctuated annually resulting in modest increments or even decrements during the period under analysis. The basic science category received the largest share of funding (29%) while the less funded category was violence and accidents (1.4%). The number of deaths (ρ = 0.51; P<0.001) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; ρ = 0.33; P = 0.004) were weakly correlated with the funding for health research. Considering the two indicators, poisonings and infectious and parasitic diseases were among the most overfunded conditions. In contrast, congenital anomalies, road traffic accidents, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most underfunded conditions. Conclusions Although the health research funding has grown since the creation of CONACYT sectoral funds, the financial effort is still low in comparison to other Latin American countries with similar development. Furthermore, the great diversity of the funded topics compromises the efficacy of the investment

  17. Public health, conflict and human rights: toward a collaborative research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Oskar NT; Ron, James

    2007-01-01

    Although epidemiology is increasingly contributing to policy debates on issues of conflict and human rights, its potential is still underutilized. As a result, this article calls for greater collaboration between public health researchers, conflict analysts and human rights monitors, with special emphasis on retrospective, population-based surveys. The article surveys relevant recent public health research, explains why collaboration is useful, and outlines possible future research scenarios, including those pertaining to the indirect and long-term consequences of conflict; human rights and security in conflict prone areas; and the link between human rights, conflict, and International Humanitarian Law. PMID:18005430

  18. Transitioning from health disparities to a health equity research agenda: the time is now.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shobha; Williams, Shanita D

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities are real. The evidence base is large and irrefutable. As such, the time is now to shift the research emphasis away from solely documenting the pervasiveness of the health disparities problem and begin focusing on health equity, the highest level of health possible. The focus on health equity research will require investigators to propose projects that develop and evaluate evidence-based solutions to health differences that are driven largely by social, economic, and environmental factors. This article highlights ongoing research and programmatic efforts underway at the National Institutes of Health that hold promise for advancing population health and improving health equity.

  19. Neonatal survival in complex humanitarian emergencies: setting an evidence-based research agenda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 40% of all deaths among children under 5 are neonatal deaths (0–28 days), and this proportion is increasing. In 2012, 2.9 million newborns died, with 99% occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Many of the countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates globally are currently or have recently been affected by complex humanitarian emergencies. Despite the global burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality and risks inherent in complex emergency situations, research investments are not commensurate to burden and little is known about the epidemiology or best practices for neonatal survival in these settings. Methods We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology to prioritize research questions on neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. Experts evaluated 35 questions using four criteria (answerability, feasibility, relevance, equity) with three subcomponents per criterion. Using SAS 9.2, a research prioritization score (RPS) and average expert agreement score (AEA) were calculated for each question. Results Twenty-eight experts evaluated all 35 questions. RPS ranged from 0.846 to 0.679 and the AEA ranged from 0.667 to 0.411. The top ten research priorities covered a range of issues but generally fell into two categories– epidemiologic and programmatic components of neonatal health. The highest ranked question in this survey was “What strategies are effective in increasing demand for, and use of skilled attendance?” Conclusions In this study, a diverse group of experts used the CHRNI methodology to systematically identify and determine research priorities for neonatal health and survival in complex humanitarian emergencies. The priorities included the need to better understand the magnitude of the disease burden and interventions to improve neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. The findings from this study will provide guidance to researchers and program implementers in

  20. Dimensional approaches to psychiatric classification: refining the research agenda for DSM-V: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Regier, Darrel A

    2007-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) will publish the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), in 2012. This paper reviews the extended, multi-faceted research planning preparations that APA has undertaken, several in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the U.S. National Institutes of Health, to assess the current state of diagnosis-relevant research and to generate short- and long-term recommendations for research needed to enrich DSM-V and future psychiatric classifications. This research review and planning process has underscored widespread interest among nosologists in the US and globally regarding the potential benefits for research and clinical practice of incorporating a dimensional component into the existing categorical, or binary, classification system in the DSM. Toward this end, the APA and its partners convened an international conference in July 2006 to critically appraise the use of dimensional constructs in psychiatric diagnostic systems. Resultant papers appear in this issue of International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research and in a forthcoming monograph to be published by APA.

  1. Research ethics on the agenda - the debates preceding the establishment of the ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Nadia Shad; Lie, Anne Kveim

    2016-11-01

    BACKGROUND This article examines two factors that helped to trigger and drive forward the debate about research ethics committees (now the Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics) in Norway in the 1970s: the revision of the Declaration of Helsinki by a Scandinavian working group, and the unfolding of the so-called Gro case in the Norwegian national media.METHOD We have used existing literature in the form of books and articles on the history of research ethics from the University Library of the University of Oslo, the National Library of Norway, the History of Science, Technology and Medicine database, and Retriever. We have manually reviewed issues of the Dagbladet daily newspaper from 1974, and relevant volumes of the Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association from the 1960s and 1970s. Finally, we have used the archives of the Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions, and the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Oslo.RESULTS The World Medical Association's revision of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1975 stipulated the use of independent ethics committees for the assessment and supervision of research projects. The Gro case, which concerned the testing of behavioural therapeutic treatment on a young girl resident in an institution and the ensuing public debate, led to a demand from the public for closer monitoring and ethical regulation of research activity.INTERPRETATION Both of the events mentioned were used actively in the argumentation and preparatory work for the establishment of research ethics committees.

  2. A Critical Review of Horse-Related Risk: A Research Agenda for Safer Mounts, Riders and Equestrian Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kirrilly; McGreevy, Paul; McManus, Phil

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of improving horse-related safety seems self-evident, no comprehensive study into understanding or reducing horse-related risk has been undertaken. In this paper, we discuss four dimensions of horse-related risk: the risk itself, the horse, the rider and the culture in which equestrian activities takes place. We identify how the ways in which risk is constructed in each dimension affects the applicability of four basic risk management options of avoidance, transference, mitigation and acceptance. We find the acceptance and avoidance of horse-related risk is generally high, most likely due to a common construction of horses as irrevocably unpredictable, fearful and dangerous. The transference of risk management is also high, especially in the use of protective technologies such as helmets. Of concern, the strategy least utilised is risk mitigation. We highlight the potential benefit in developing mitigation strategies directed at: (a) improving the predictability of horses (to and by humans), and (b) improving riders’ competence in the physical skills that make them more resilient to injury and falls. We conclude with the presentation of a multidisciplinary agenda for research that could reduce accident, injury and death to horse-riders around the world. PMID:26479374

  3. US National Health Data on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: a research agenda for the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, E S; Liu, W T

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In spite of over 30 years of periodic nationwide surveys, we have thus far only the most rudimentary estimates of the determinants of the health of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. This paper explores ways to improve the capability of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to collect national health data on these populations. METHODS. The NCHS "race" coding practices are reviewed, their limitations stated, ways to improve the numerator and denominator data discussed, and a research agenda presented. RESULTS. Resources can be intensified to produce better denominator data, and to improve the collection of detailed ethnicity information for the numerators, in at least the three states (California, New York, and Hawaii) where the majority of Asian/Pacific Islanders lived in 1990. Subsequently, these efforts should be extended to the 10 states where 79% of these individuals reside or to the top 15 metropolitan areas where they are concentrated. CONCLUSIONS. If the recommendations are implemented, several coordinated multisite, multiwave epidemiologic surveys can be conducted using standardized interview instruments and data collection procedures that will capitalize on the geographic distribution of Asian/Pacific Islanders. PMID:1456340

  4. Controversies and research agenda in nephropathic cystinosis: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

    PubMed

    Langman, Craig B; Barshop, Bruce A; Deschênes, Georges; Emma, Francesco; Goodyer, Paul; Lipkin, Graham; Midgley, Julian P; Ottolenghi, Chris; Servais, Aude; Soliman, Neveen A; Thoene, Jess G; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2016-06-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic, lifelong disease characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation throughout the body that commonly presents in infancy with a renal Fanconi syndrome and, if untreated, leads to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the later childhood years. The molecular basis is due to mutations in CTNS, the gene encoding for the lysosomal cystine-proton cotransporter, cystinosin. During adolescence and adulthood, extrarenal manifestations of cystinosis develop and require multidisciplinary care. Despite substantial improvement in prognosis due to cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine, no cure of the disease is currently available. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened a Controversies Conference on cystinosis to review the state-of-the-art knowledge and to address areas of controversies in pathophysiology, diagnostics, monitoring, and treatment in different age groups. More importantly, promising areas of investigation that may lead to optimal outcomes for patients afflicted with this lifelong, systemic disease were discussed with a research agenda proposed for the future.

  5. Women's empowerment and the development research agenda: a personal account from the Bangladesh Flood Action Plan.

    PubMed

    Hanchett, S

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the bureaucratic and social context for research related to the Bangladesh Flood Action Plan (FAP) in 1991 and 1992. The author's context was confined to meetings and information as a foreign aid program researcher. Insider information was unavailable. The research focused on the rural population, but contact was limited to a government panel of male engineers specializing in water management. These men were forced to participate in a gender study related to flooding. The author argues that her position as a woman created an important venue for opening local channels of communication about gender among a middle class elite and policymakers. Gender is a contested image within Bangladesh society. Various external and internal factors will advance or retard the progress of involving women in local planning and policy. The rigidity of the bureaucracy must be relaxed enough to allow the flow of information from powerless groups such as women to the upper levels of the political hierarchy. Policymakers can be sensitized by the workshops and conversations that occurred in the FAP and which linked powerful people with appropriate local groups. This article describes the flood problems, the first workshop discussion, an informal briefing with local people, the study team, the study findings, the implications for women of the FAP, the final workshop, and the phases of research leading to women's empowerment. Empowerment of women depends on both high-level decisions and grassroots organizing. Feminist social researchers can influence the dialogue by establishing official information gathering priorities.

  6. 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Archaea: Ecology [sic], Metabolism. Final progress report [agenda and attendee list

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Charles

    2001-08-10

    The Gordon Research Conference on Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism [and Molecular Biology] was held at Proctor Academy, Andover, New Hampshire, August 5-10, 2001. The conference was attended by 135 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field, coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, and included US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate discussion about the key issues in the field today. Session topics included the following: Ecology and genetic elements; Genomics and evolution; Ecology, genomes and gene regulation; Replication and recombination; Chromatin and transcription; Gene regulation; Post-transcription processing; Biochemistry and metabolism; Proteomics and protein structure; Metabolism and physiology. The featured speaker addressed the topic: ''Archaeal viruses, witnesses of prebiotic evolution?''

  7. Trade Policy and Health: Adding Retrospective Studies to the Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Prospective studies of the potential health consequences of trade and investment treaties, such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership, are critical. These studies can make visible to trade policy-makers the potential negative impacts associated to such treaties and can influence the outcomes of such negotiations. However, few researchers have examined retrospectively the consequences of trade agreements. With more than 400 trade agreements and more than 2000 investment treaties currently in force, researchers have a large corpus of agreements to analyse in order to assess not only their potential impacts on health system and population health, but also their actual impacts. This comment suggests some research questions that would benefit from retrospective inquiry.

  8. 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Photoions, Photoionization and Photodetachment. Final progress report [agenda and attendees list

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Mark

    2001-07-13

    The Gordon Research Conference on Photoions, Photoionization and Photodetachment was held at Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, July 8-13, 2001. The 72 conference attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field, coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, and including US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited. Sessions included the following topics: Vibrational structure, Time resolved studies: nuclear wavepackets, Valence photoionization, Clusters and networks, Resonance structures and decay mechanisms, Ultrafast photoionization, Threshold photoionization, Molecule fixed properties, and Collisional phenomena.

  9. The research agenda of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Peters, N Kent; Dixon, Dennis M; Holland, Steven M; Fauci, Anthony S

    2008-04-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is an intrinsic and inevitable aspect of microbial survival that continually challenges human health. Research on antimicrobial resistance is central to the mission of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). In fiscal year 2007, NIAID invested more than USD800 million to support basic and translational research on antimicrobials, more than USD200 million of which is devoted to understanding the causes, consequences, and treatments of antimicrobial drug resistance. The complex process that facilitates the transformation of ideas into therapies requires a pipeline that runs from bench to bedside, and NIAID has leveraged the entire spectrum of conventional and biodefense resources. NIAID works in partnership with other federal agencies, industry, foundation partners, and foreign governments. The basic and clinical research supported by NIAID will, ideally, continue to yield profound rewards in terms of the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

  10. Understanding the experience of stroke: a mixed-method research agenda.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-06-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations. Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research.

  11. Is tourism damaging ecosystems in the Andes? Current knowledge and an agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Barros, Agustina; Monz, Christopher; Pickering, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Despite the popularity of tourism and recreation in the Andes in South America and the regions conservation value, there is limited research on the ecological impacts of these types of anthropogenic use. Using a systematic quantitative literature review method, we found 47 recreation ecology studies from the Andes, 25 of which used an experimental design. Most of these were from the Southern Andes in Argentina (13 studies) or Chile (eight studies) with only four studies from the Northern Andes. These studies documented a range of impacts on vegetation, birds and mammals; including changes in plant species richness, composition and vegetation cover and the tolerance of wildlife of visitor use. There was little research on the impacts of visitors on soils and aquatic systems and for some ecoregions in the Andes. We identify research priorities across the region that will enhance management strategies to minimise visitor impacts in Andean ecosystems.

  12. 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Final progress report [agenda and attendee list

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Harold

    2001-07-26

    The Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was held at Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut, July 22-27, 2001. The conference was attended by 121 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field, coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, and included US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate discussion about the key issues in the field today. Session topics included the following: Environmental and applied genomics, Cell-to-cell signaling and multicellular behavior, Emerging technologies and methods, Novel metabolisms and ecosystems, Directed evolution of enzymes and pathways, Symbiotic and trophic relationships, Synthesis and application of novel biopolymers, and Microbes at the oxic-anoxic interface. There was also a special lecture titled ''Under the umbrella of the big tree: microbial biology into the 21st century.''

  13. Understanding the Experience of Stroke: A Mixed-Method Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-01-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations. Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research. PMID:19386828

  14. A Research Agenda for Bridging the Gap Between Climate Science, Media and Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.

    2012-12-01

    A large and widely noted gap exists between the urgent threats indicated by climate science, and the general lack of priority being assigned to climate change by the broader public, media and policy-makers in the United States. This gap has motivated many climate scientists to try to engage more with lay audiences. One pathway for doing so is to speak or write directly for these audiences—for example, via blogs. To succeed, however, this route generally demands development of entirely new and deceptively difficult skill sets, navigation of common important pitfalls, and a significant dedication of time outside of research. A second pathway instead builds on scientists' traditional strength in research: orienting and extending research to increase its interest and accessibility for wider audiences. A trivially simple but relevant example is using U.S. instead of metric units, even to the point of doing separate additional analyses based on round U.S. unit variable values. More fundamentally, scientists can (and increasingly do) resolve research results to the finest spatial and temporal scales possible, in order to deliver information that is of local and immediate interest. But for maximum effectiveness, research products must go beyond, for example, color scale maps—whatever their resolution—to summarizing and communicating findings for the units that people care about, such as individual states, counties or cities, whenever this is a legitimate and feasible exercise. In this talk, I will develop these and related themes, and draw heavily on my experience and lessons learned from Climate Central's Surging Seas project, a conceptually integrated research and communications program on sea level rise that has stimulated over 800 news stories, from small-town independent reporting to major national coverage, since its launch in March 2012.

  15. Socio-Technical Systems Analysis in Health Care: A Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Ellen; Bellandi, Tommaso; Gurses, Ayse; Hallbeck, Susan; Mollo, Vanina

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity of health care and the ‘people’ nature of healthcare work and delivery, STSA (Sociotechnical Systems Analysis) research is needed to address the numerous quality of care problems observed across the world. This paper describes open STSA research areas, including workload management, physical, cognitive and macroergonomic issues of medical devices and health information technologies, STSA in transitions of care, STSA of patient-centered care, risk management and patient safety management, resilience, and feedback loops between event detection, reporting and analysis and system redesign. PMID:22611480

  16. Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs): mapping a research agenda that incorporates an organizational perspective.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Carrie A; Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-04-01

    Multidisciplinary coordinated Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are a growing model of providing health, legal, and emotional support services to victims of sexual assault. This article conceptualizes SARTs from an organizational perspective and explores three approaches to researching SARTs that have the potential of increasing our understanding of the benefits and challenges of multidisciplinary service delivery. These approaches attend to several levels of organizational behavior, including the organizational response to external legitimacy pressures, the inter-organizational networks of victim services, and the negotiation of power and disciplinary boundaries. Possible applications to organizational research on SARTs are explored.

  17. Looking beyond What's Broken: Towards an Appreciative Research Agenda for Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Eimear; Hill, Joanne; Sandford, Rachel; Gard, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Despite the volume of research devoted to the many ills that beset the pedagogical field of physical education and sport, we begin by arguing that there has been insufficient attention given to the way scholars conceptualise change and imagine bringing it about. In particular, we point to a tendency within the field to prioritise problems--what's…

  18. Help! I've Lost My Research Agenda: Issues Facing Early Childhood Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaruszewicz, Candace; Landrus, Stacey

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how non-teaching demands are affecting the teaching/research/service dynamic in the tenure process of early childhood teacher educators. Fifty-seven NAECTE members responded to a 24-item survey exploring issues and current initiatives that support or impede scholarship. Findings revealed that early…

  19. The Teaching and Assessing of Mathematical Problem Solving. Research Agenda for Mathematics Education Series. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Randall I., Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.

    This document contains overviews of current research, insights from teachers and tutors, and considerations of such issues as metacognition, choice of operations, and the testing of problem-solving skills. Papers include: (1) "Historical Perspectives on Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum" (George M. A. Stanic and Jeremy…

  20. Postinfectious Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Focus on Epidemiology and Research Agendas

    PubMed Central

    Deising, Adam; Gutierrez, Ramiro L.; Porter, Chad K.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic research is fundamental and complementary to our understanding of disease and development of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. To put the current evidence into context and identify gaps and research priorities in the areas of disease attribution, burden of disease, clinical characterization, and management of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGDs), we took a multidisciplinary approach from the domains of infectious disease, gastroenterology, epidemiology, and public health. Our review of data from these disciplines found that, despite a complete understanding of pathoetiology, studies continue to accumulate and point toward evidence of a causal association for FGD. For some FGDs, Bradford Hill’s criteria for causality yield more certainty than other criteria. In addition, the growing recognition of the impact of acute foodborne illness on economics and society is leading to exploration of the potential long-term health effects and disease burden of PI-FGDs, although a paucity of data exist in terms of pathogen-specific risk, disability duration, and relevant disability weights. Lastly, the understanding of PI-FGDs is changing the way research is approached and suggests a need for a more expansive exploration of biologic mechanisms and how FGDs are categorized. Areas of research priorities are catalogued in this paper and will hopefully provide inspiration for future studies and contributions to the field of gastroenterology. PMID:23961264

  1. 76 FR 25694 - Partnerships To Advance the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ....m.-3:30 p.m. EDT, June 29, 2011. Place: Patriots Plaza, 395 E Street, SW., Conference Room 9000... Program that is working on several NORA priorities, e.g., the NIOSH Economics Program. After each update... Councils have been working to define sector-specific strategic plans for conducting research and moving...

  2. 76 FR 66071 - Partnerships To Advance the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ....m.-3:30 p.m. EST, January 26, 2012. Place: Patriots Plaza, 395 E Street, SW., Conference Room 9000... on the Mid-Decade Review of NORA and at least one NIOSH Program that is working on several NORA... working to define sector-specific strategic plans for conducting research and moving the results...

  3. The Educational Media and Technology Profession: An Agenda for Research and Assessment of the Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenda, Michael; Olive, J. Fred III

    This report is the first effort to stake out the territory to be included in research on the profession of educational media and technology (em/t), and explore the existing knowledge base within that territory. It comprises a set of questions, the answers to which cast a light on who is in the profession, where it is going, and what useful…

  4. Scientific Media Education in the Classroom and Beyond: A Research Agenda for the Next Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Grace; Norris, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific media education is the ability to draw on a knowledge of the media and science, in order to choose, understand, evaluate, and respond to representations of science across diverse media genres. We begin this manuscript by reviewing research that shows scientific media education is one of the most important content areas that could be…

  5. Employee Commitment and Well-Being: A Critical Review, Theoretical Framework and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Maltin, Elyse R.

    2010-01-01

    Although a great deal is known about the implications of employee commitment for organizations, less attention has been paid to its ramifications for employees themselves. Previous research has been unsystematic and the findings have sometimes been inconsistent. The most consistent findings pertain to the positive links between affective…

  6. Thinking Allowed: Managing Innovation in English Language Education--A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In Waters (2009), the author attempted to capture the "state of the art" in theorising, practice, and research activity about the management of innovation in English language education (ELE). In this article, he reprises a number of areas in that review, to identify where the field would benefit from further enquiry about how to…

  7. Final report [FASEB Summer Research Conference ''Virus Assembly''--agenda and attendee list

    SciTech Connect

    Feiss, Michael

    2001-01-31

    The conference brought together researchers working on virus structure and virus assembly in diverse systems. Information was integrated from many viral systems, including plant bacterial and eukaryotic viruses, and many techniques such as biophysical approaches of x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and spectroscopy, along with molecular biological and molecular genetic analysis.

  8. Information Technology (IT) Identity: A Conceptualization, Proposed Measures, and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Michelle Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    With increasing embeddedness of information technologies (IT) in organizational processes, and services, individuals' long-term IT use has become instrumental to business success. At the same time, IS research has illustrated that under-utilization by end-users often prevents organizations from realizing expected benefits from their…

  9. Supporting Primary Healthcare Professionals to Care for People with Intellectual Disability: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, Nicholas; Van Driel, Mieke L.; van Dooren, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background: The vast health inequities experienced by people with intellectual disability remain indisputable. Persistent and contemporary challenges exist for primary healthcare providers and researchers working to contribute to improvements to the health and well-being of people with intellectual disability. Over two decades after the only…

  10. Leveraging a Sturge-Weber Gene Discovery: An Agenda for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Comi, Anne M; Sahin, Mustafa; Hammill, Adrienne; Kaplan, Emma H; Juhász, Csaba; North, Paula; Ball, Karen L; Levin, Alex V; Cohen, Bernard; Morris, Jill; Lo, Warren; Roach, E Steve

    2016-05-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a vascular neurocutaneous disorder that results from a somatic mosaic mutation in GNAQ, which is also responsible for isolated port-wine birthmarks. Infants with SWS are born with a cutaneous capillary malformation (port-wine birthmark) of the forehead or upper eyelid which can signal an increased risk of brain and/or eye involvement prior to the onset of specific symptoms. This symptom-free interval represents a time when a targeted intervention could help to minimize the neurological and ophthalmologic manifestations of the disorder. This paper summarizes a 2015 SWS workshop in Bethesda, Maryland that was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. Meeting attendees included a diverse group of clinical and translational researchers with a goal of establishing research priorities for the next few years. The initial portion of the meeting included a thorough review of the recent genetic discovery and what is known of the pathogenesis of SWS. Breakout sessions related to neurology, dermatology, and ophthalmology aimed to establish SWS research priorities in each field. Key priorities for future development include the need for clinical consensus guidelines, further work to develop a clinical trial network, improvement of tissue banking for research purposes, and the need for multiple animal and cell culture models of SWS.

  11. Formulating a Research Agenda in School Leadership and Organisational Change for School Improvement in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that it is timely for educational researchers in Asia, and Singapore in particular, to generate cultural- and empirical-knowledge bases in school leadership that will speak to the specific interests of Asian students, educators and practitioners. As economic and social development across Asia gathers momentum, the more advanced…

  12. Preparing for Portfolio Careers in Australian Music: Setting a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh; Bennett, Dawn; Bridgstock, Ruth; Draper, Paul; Harrison, Scott; Schippers, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, Australian musicians increasingly maintain "portfolio" careers, in which they combine diverse employment arrangements and activities. Often, these incorporate industry sectors outside of music. This career pattern is widespread but not well understood, largely because of the limitations of existing research.…

  13. Power, Agency and Participatory Agendas: A Critical Exploration of Young People's Engagement in Participative Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Sally; Renold, Emma; Ross, Nicola J.; Hillman, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This article critically explores data generated within a participatory research project with young people in the care of a local authority, the (Extra)ordinary Lives project. The project involved ethnographic multi-media data generation methods used in groups and individually with eight participants (aged 10-20) over a school year and encouraged…

  14. A research agenda for increasing safety belt use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, James; Preusser, David F; Shults, Ruth A

    2004-01-01

    On November 13-14, 2003, a symposium on high-visibility safety belt use enforcement in Raleigh, NC: (a) celebrated the 10th anniversary of North Carolina's Click It or Ticket program; (b) documented current knowledge regarding safety belt use; (c) proposed strategies to increase use further; and (d) discussed research to support these strategies.

  15. Physical Activity and Older Adults: Expert Consensus for a New Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Leith, Katherine H.; Marquez, David X.; Moni, Gwen; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Desai, Pankaja; Jones, Dina L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to advance the state of knowledge regarding physical activity and aging by identifying areas of agreement among experts regarding topics that are well understood versus those that are in urgent need of continued research efforts. Design and methods: We used a web-based survey with snowball sampling to identify 348…

  16. Beyond the Four Ps: A Theoretical Explication and Research Agenda for Social Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sego, Trina

    Advocates of social marketing in the 1970s rarely went beyond discussion of the marketing 4Ps (product, place, promotion, and price) and their application to case studies. After two decades of research on social marketing, some misunderstanding of the approach persists, and a substantial theoretical base for social marketing has not been…

  17. The Future of Testing: A Research Agenda for Cognitive Psychology and Psychometrics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    INSTITUTE 5001 EISENHOWER AVENUE ALEXANDRIA, VA 22333 1 Dr. Milton S. Katz Training Technical Area U.S. Army Research Institute 5001 Eisenhower Avenue...Avenue Woodland Hills, CA 91364 1 Dr. Benton J. Underwood Dept. of Psychology Northwestern University Evanston, IL 60201 1 Dr. Phyllis Weaver Graduate

  18. An Early Childhood Special Education Research Agenda in a Culture of Accountability for Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carta, Judith J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reacts to testimony on early childhood special education research before the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education (EC 632 080). Noting the Commission's emphasis on accountability and results, it stresses the importance of being clear about desired outcomes, the need for sensitive and accurate ways of measuring…

  19. Future Directions in Feedback on Second Language Writing: Overview and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen,…

  20. Interaction and Critical Inquiry in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Conferencing: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Joseph; Gibson, Will; Ros i. Sole, Cristina; Savvides, Nicola; Starkey, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews research on learner and tutor interaction in asynchronous computer-mediated (ACM) conferences used in distance learning. The authors note claims made for the potential of ACM conferences to promote higher-order critical inquiry and the social construction of knowledge, and argue that there is a general lack of evidence regarding…

  1. An Agenda for Research and Practice Related to Multicultural Approaches to School-Based Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Joel; Varjas, Kris

    2016-01-01

    This commentary underscores efforts of this special issue to highlight concepts related to culture and cultural competence designed to broaden thinking about multicultural consultation through research, practice, and training. It does this by illustrating the insights presented regarding (a) cultural issues in training, (b) the effect of…

  2. The Use of Information Technologies for Education in Science, Mathematics, and Computers. An Agenda for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Technology Center, Cambridge, MA.

    Developed to guide the research of the Educational Technology Center, a consortium based at Harvard Graduate School of Education, this report addresses the use of new information technologies to enrich, extend, and transform current instructional practice in science, mathematics, and computer education. A discussion of the basic elements required…

  3. Addressing Language Variety in Educational Settings: Toward a Policy and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miciak, Jeremy; Wilkinson, Cheryl; Alexander, Celeste; Reyes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Improving minority academic achievement is a primary goal for education policy makers. Despite resource allocations, gaps in minority accomplishments persist. Emerging research suggests language variety may hinder minority students, thereby slowing academic progress. This article synthesizes suggestions from a panel composed of experts in the…

  4. Interaction, Inclusion and Students with Profound and Multiple Disabilities: Towards an Agenda for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Foreman, Phil; Bennett, Deone; Pascoe, Sue

    2008-01-01

    The needs of students with profound and multiple disabilities (PMD) have received more attention in the educational research and best practice literature over the past decade, especially in relation to the importance of maximising their social and communicative engagement. However, perhaps as a function of their low incidence rate and resultant…

  5. Thinking Allowed: Content and Language Integrated Learning--A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Smit, Ute

    2013-01-01

    While Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has received a considerable amount of research interest lately, its increasing popularity as an approach to teaching content subjects in a foreign language requires concerted investigation that reflects and recognises its fundamentally contextualised nature. In this contribution, we sketch…

  6. Evidence-Based Decision Making in School District Central Offices: Toward a Policy and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.; Coburn, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    District central office administrators increasingly face policy demands to use "evidence" in their decision making. These demands up the ante on education policy researchers and policy makers to better understand what evidence use in district central offices entails and the conditions that may support it. To that end, the authors conducted a…

  7. Children and Families in an Era of Rapid Change: Creating a Shared Agenda for Researchers, Practitioners and Policy Makers. Summary of Conference Proceedings: Head Start's National Research Conference (4th, Washington, DC, July 9-12, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb-Parker, Faith, Ed.; Hagen, John, Ed.; Robinson, Ruth, Ed.; Clark, Cheryl, Ed.

    This report summarizes the conference proceedings of the fourth Head Start National Research Conference. The focus of the conference was on creating a shared agenda for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers related to serving children and families in an era of rapid change. Keynote topics and speakers are: "Countering the Health…

  8. Female inmates, family caregivers, and young children's adjustment: A research agenda and implications for corrections programming.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Dawn K; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Pietsch, Joel

    2008-11-01

    Attendant to the exponential increase in rates of incarceration of mothers with young children in the United States, programming has been established to help mothers attend to parenting skills and other family concerns while incarcerated. Unfortunately, most programs overlook the important, ongoing relationship between incarcerated mothers and family members caring for their children-most often, the inmates' own mothers. Research reveals that children's behavior problems escalate when different co-caregivers fail to coordinate parenting efforts and interventions, work in opposition, or disparage or undermine one another. This article presents relevant research on co-caregiving and child adjustment, highlights major knowledge gaps in need of study to better understand incarcerated mothers and their families, and proposes that existing interventions with such mothers can be strengthened through targeting and cultivating functional coparenting alliances in families.

  9. Female inmates, family caregivers, and young children's adjustment: A research agenda and implications for corrections programming

    PubMed Central

    Cecil, Dawn K.; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Pietsch, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Attendant to the exponential increase in rates of incarceration of mothers with young children in the United States, programming has been established to help mothers attend to parenting skills and other family concerns while incarcerated. Unfortunately, most programs overlook the important, ongoing relationship between incarcerated mothers and family members caring for their children—most often, the inmates' own mothers. Research reveals that children's behavior problems escalate when different co-caregivers fail to coordinate parenting efforts and interventions, work in opposition, or disparage or undermine one another. This article presents relevant research on co-caregiving and child adjustment, highlights major knowledge gaps in need of study to better understand incarcerated mothers and their families, and proposes that existing interventions with such mothers can be strengthened through targeting and cultivating functional coparenting alliances in families. PMID:19884977

  10. The US government and global environmental change research: Ideas and agendas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-10

    As issues like global warming, ozone depletion, and deforestation -- collectively called ``global change`` -- rose to scientific prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, scientists began to imagine research programs so ambitious that the workings of the planet itself would be brought within reach of understanding and prediction. Global change posed the scientific challenge of understanding the earth as a fantastically complicated dynamic system, with each part -- climate, weather, atmosphere, oceans, the solid earth, plants and animals, human activities, and more -- potentially affecting each part. New Ideas and new technology held out hope that such a grand view might be possible; new problems, global warming chief among them made attempting it seem imperative, on both scientific and policy grounds. By the mid-1980s, ideas for global change research programs, several of them floated by agencies of the US government, had become well advanced. This report discusses the history to and formation of the committee on earth sciences. The charter is included.

  11. Towards the eradication of head lice: literature review and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Koch, T; Brown, M; Selim, P; Isam, C

    2001-05-01

    Head lice infestation is a public health issue. In the effort to compile an evidence-base about the physiology, detection, treatment, effects and management strategies of head lice infestations we reviewed current literature. This literature signalled significant evidence gaps and these gaps provide incentives for further research. Our conclusions from the literature are that parents of children are responsible for head lice detection and treatment but have varying access to advice about how best to treat this condition. Concern is exacerbated by misconceptions surrounding the circumstances of infestation. Head lice are a low priority for health professionals in Australia, whereas parents and teachers believe the problem necessitates greater attention. It is important to provide a unified evidence-based approach to good information. It is timely for health care professionals to re-examine and prioritize this public health issue. They should research and work collaboratively towards the eradication of head lice.

  12. Mapping science communication scholarship in China: Content analysis on breadth, depth and agenda of published research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linjia; Huang, Biaowen; Wu, Guosheng

    2015-11-01

    This study attempted to illuminate the cause and relation between government, scholars, disciplines, and societal aspects, presenting data from a content analysis of published research with the key word "science communication" (Symbol: see text) in the title or in the key words, including academic papers published in journals and dissertations from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Of these, 572 articles were coded using categories that identified science topics, theory, authorship, and methods used in each study to examine the breadth and depth that Science Communication has achieved since its inception in China. This study explored the dominance of History and Philosophy of Science scholars rather than Communication scholars. We also explored how science communication research began from theories and concepts instead of science report analysis and the difficulties of the shift from public understanding of science to public engagement in China.

  13. A Research Agenda for Tradespace Exploration and Analysis of Engineered Resilient Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    dependent ; and (c) compare alternative technologies using effectiveness models at the mission level such that systems are simulated in their intended...development of TSE education and training; rather than continued dependence on portions of TSE research and knowledge scattered across multiple domains...specifically the planning, logistics, and real-time support provided by Ms. Lois Hollan and Mr. Amar Zabarah. We also acknowledge Ms. Kristen Baldwin, Dr

  14. Relationship satisfaction in lesbian couples: Review, methodological critique, and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A

    2017-01-02

    There has been increased interest in and attention to understanding the characteristics associated with relationship satisfaction among same-sex couples. This review examines the individual, couple, and external factors associated with relationship satisfaction among contemporary lesbian couples, highlighting domains such as internalized homophobia, personality, communication, conflict, sex, stress, and social support. I discuss methodological concerns and future directions to advance research in this area.

  15. Fine particles and oxidant pollution: developing an agenda for cooperative research.

    PubMed

    Hidy, G M; Hales, J M; Roth, P M; Scheffe, R

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes a background for the North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone (NARSTO) cooperative program integrating studies of O3 and PM2.5. It discusses several important aspects for rationalizing NARSTO's trinational investigative approach, including (1) an outlook on the state of knowledge about fine particles in the troposphere and their origins in Canada, Mexico, and the United States; (2) the need for enhancement and strengthening of key field measurements in relation to tropospheric chemistry and a health effects component; and (3) the use of a central theme for advancing air quality modeling using evolving techniques to integrate and guide key process-oriented field campaigns. The importance of organizing a scientific program to acquire "policy-relevant" information is stressed, noting cooperative research directions that address combined PM2.5 and O3 issues, illustrated through exploration of hypothetical pathways of PM2.5 response to choices of O3 and PM precursor emission reductions. The information needed for PM2.5 research is noted to intersect in many cases with those of O3, but diverge in other cases. Accounting for these distinctions is important for developing NARSTO's strategy over the next decade.

  16. The strategic research agenda of the Technology Platform Photonics21: European component industry for broadband communications and the FP 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylén, Lars

    2006-07-01

    The design and manufacture of components and systems underpin the European and indeed worldwide photonics industry. Optical materials and photonic components serve as the basis for systems building at different levels of complexity. In most cases, they perform a key function and dictate the performance of these systems. New products and processes will generate economic activity for the European photonics industry into the 21 st century. However, progress will rely on Europe's ability to develop new and better materials, components and systems. To achieve success, photonic components and systems must: •be reliable and inexpensive •be generic and adaptable •offer superior functionality •be innovative and protected by Intellectual Property •be aligned to market opportunities The challenge in the short-, medium-, and long-term is to put a coordinating framework in place which will make the European activity in this technology area competitive as compared to those in the US and Asia. In the short term the aim should be to facilitate the vibrant and profitable European photonics industry to further develop its ability to commercialize advances in photonic related technologies. In the medium and longer terms the objective must be to place renewed emphasis on materials research and the design and manufacturing of key components and systems to form the critical link between science endeavour and commercial success. All these general issues are highly relevant for the component intensive broadband communications industry. Also relevant for this development is the convergence of data and telecom, where the low cost of data com meets with the high reliability requirements of telecom. The text below is to a degree taken form the Strategic Research Agenda of the Technology Platform Photonics 21 [1], as this contains a concerted effort to iron out a strategy for EU in the area of photonics components and systems.

  17. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: The Problem of Helminthiases

    PubMed Central

    Lustigman, Sara; Prichard, Roger K.; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Grant, Warwick N.; Boatin, Boakye A.; McCarthy, James S.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2012-01-01

    A disproportionate burden of helminthiases in human populations occurs in marginalised, low-income, and resource-constrained regions of the world, with over 1 billion people in developing areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas infected with one or more helminth species. The morbidity caused by such infections imposes a substantial burden of disease, contributing to a vicious circle of infection, poverty, decreased productivity, and inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend to be persistent. Hence, there is a great need to reduce morbidity caused by helminth infections. However, major deficiencies exist in diagnostics and interventions, including vector control, drugs, and vaccines. Overcoming these deficiencies is hampered by major gaps in knowledge of helminth biology and transmission dynamics, platforms from which to help develop such tools. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, we provide an overview of the forces driving the persistence of helminthiases as a public health problem despite the many control initiatives that have been put in place; identify the main obstacles that impede progress towards their control and elimination; and discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges for the understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis. PMID:22545164

  18. The Intersection of Youth, Technology, and New Media with Sexual Health: Moving the Research Agenda Forward

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Susannah; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Bull, Sheana; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Mustanski, Brian; Shegog, Ross; Levine, Deb

    2015-01-01

    Youth bear a significant proportion of the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV burden in the United States, CDC, 2010. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats09/default.htm, with rates of some STIs increasing among youth of color and young men who have sex with men. Technology use among youth also continues to increase. The ubiquitous nature of technology use among youth offers a multitude of opportunities to promote youth sexual health and to prevent disease transmission and unplanned pregnancies. To date, there have been a handful of peer-reviewed articles published regarding the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of using new media and technology for sexual health promotion. Despite recent publications, there is still a real need for high-quality research to understand the impact of different forms of new media use on youth sexual health, as well as to determine the best ways to harness technology to promote safer sex behaviors, both for the short- and long-term. In March 2011, Internet Sexuality Information Services (ISIS), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and the Ford Foundation convened a meeting of scientists and technology experts to discuss how to effectively conduct sexual health promotion research using new forms of technology. The meeting was structured to cover the following topic areas: (i) research–community partnerships, (ii) institutional review board and ethical issues, (iii) theoretical frameworks, (iv) intervention approaches, (v) recruitment methods, and (vi) assessing impact. Presentations included case studies of successful technology-based HIV/STI prevention interventions for youth, which led to broader discussions on how to conduct research in this area. This article summarizes the meeting proceedings, highlights key points, offers recommendations, and outlines future directions. PMID:22921129

  19. Evidence & Gap Maps: A tool for promoting evidence informed policy and strategic research agendas.

    PubMed

    Snilstveit, Birte; Vojtkova, Martina; Bhavsar, Ami; Stevenson, Jennifer; Gaarder, Marie

    2016-11-01

    A range of organizations are engaged in the production of evidence on the effects of health, social, and economic development programs on human welfare outcomes. However, evidence is often scattered around different databases, web sites, and the gray literature and is often presented in inaccessible formats. Lack of overview of the evidence in a specific field can be a barrier to the use of existing research and prevent efficient use of limited resources for new research. Evidence & Gap Maps (EGMs) aim to address these issues and complement existing synthesis and mapping approaches. EGMs are a new addition to the tools available to support evidence-informed policymaking. To provide an accessible resource for researchers, commissioners, and decision makers, EGMs provide thematic collections of evidence structured around a framework which schematically represents the types of interventions and outcomes of relevance to a particular sector. By mapping the existing evidence using this framework, EGMs provide a visual overview of what we know and do not know about the effects of different programs. They make existing evidence available, and by providing links to user-friendly summaries of relevant studies, EGMs can facilitate the use of existing evidence for decision making. They identify key "gaps" where little or no evidence from impact evaluations and systematic reviews is available and can be a valuable resource to inform a strategic approach to building the evidence base in a particular sector. The article will introduce readers to the concept and methods of EGMs and present a demonstration of the EGM tool using existing examples.

  20. Caring for terminal patients in haematology: the urgent need of a new research agenda.

    PubMed

    Niscola, Pasquale; Tendas, Andrea; Giovannini, Marco; Scaramucci, Laura; Perrotti, Alessio; de Fabritiis, Paolo; Howell, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    Although major therapeutic advances have led to improved survival for many hematologic malignancies in recent years, survival remains poor for some disease subtypes and a substantial proportion of patients are ultimately destined to die from their disease and/or related complications. Despite this, there is evidence that patients are not always referred to palliative/home care services as often as those with other cancers, although this situation may be improving in some areas. More research is needed, however, to explore reasons for this and identify whether patients may consequently have unmet needs that impact on their quality of life at this time.

  1. Reducing the global burden of HTLV-1 infection: An agenda for research and action.

    PubMed

    Willems, Luc; Hasegawa, Hideki; Accolla, Roberto; Bangham, Charles; Bazarbachi, Ali; Bertazzoni, Umberto; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara de Freitas; Cheng, Hua; Chieco-Bianchi, Luigi; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana; Esparza, José; Gallo, Robert C; Gessain, Antoine; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Hall, William; Harford, Joseph; Hermine, Olivier; Jacobson, Steven; Macchi, Beatrice; Macpherson, Calum; Mahieux, Renaud; Matsuoka, Masao; Murphy, Edward; Peloponese, Jean-Marie; Simon, Viviana; Tagaya, Yutaka; Taylor, Graham P; Watanabe, Toshiki; Yamano, Yoshihisa

    2017-01-01

    Even though an estimated 10-20 million people worldwide are infected with the oncogenic retrovirus, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), its epidemiology is poorly understood, and little effort has been made to reduce its prevalence. In response to this situation, the Global Virus Network launched a taskforce in 2014 to develop new methods of prevention and treatment of HTLV-1 infection and promote basic research. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of two life-threatening diseases, adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, for which no effective therapy is currently available. Although the modes of transmission of HTLV-1 resemble those of the more familiar HIV-1, routine diagnostic methods are generally unavailable to support the prevention of new infections. In the present article, the Taskforce proposes a series of actions to expand epidemiological studies; increase research on mechanisms of HTLV-1 persistence, replication and pathogenesis; discover effective treatments; and develop prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

  2. Priorities for research to take forward the health equity policy agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Ostlin, Piroska; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, Norberto

    2005-01-01

    Despite impressive improvements in aggregate indicators of health globally over the past few decades, health inequities between and within countries have persisted, and in many regions and countries are widening. Our recommendations regarding research priorities for health equity are based on an assessment of what information is required to gain an understanding of how to make substantial reductions in health inequities. We recommend that highest priority be given to research in five general areas: (1) global factors and processes that affect health equity and/or constrain what countries can do to address health inequities within their own borders; (2) societal and political structures and relationships that differentially affect people's chances of being healthy within a given society; (3) interrelationships between factors at the individual level and within the social context that increase or decrease the likelihood of achieving and maintaining good health; (4) characteristics of the health care system that influence health equity and (5) effective policy interventions to reduce health inequity in the first four areas. PMID:16462988

  3. Research agenda for understanding Alzheimer disease in diverse populations: work group on cultural diversity, Alzheimer's association.

    PubMed

    Shadlen, Marie-Florence; McCormick, Wayne C; Larson, Eric B

    2002-01-01

    The emerging evidence of ethnic variations in apolipoprotein polymorphism and Alzheimer disease risk shows that one cannot generalize findings based on a single cultural group too broadly ( Tang et al., 2001). Presence of one apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele is a stronger risk factor for Alzheimer disease in whites and Asians than in blacks ( Farrer et al., 1997). Environmental or genetic cofactors may modulate the effects of epsilon 4 on beta-amyloid metabolism differently in different subpopulations ( Shadlen, 1998). Recognizing this, the Alzheimer's Association has extended its goals to strengthen the scientific information base on the interactions of population diversity and Alzheimer disease heterogeneity ( NIA, 1998). This new focus is timely since minority elderly are the most rapidly increasing segment of the elderly population ( Lilienfeld and Perl, 1994, Brookmeyer et al., 1998). In this article, the authors highlight recent progress in research on Alzheimer disease among culturally diverse populations with a special emphasis on gaps in the knowledge base. The authors recommend four priorities for future Alzheimer disease research: (1) determine whether genetic causative factors interact differently in different populations; (2) reexamine the nature and role of cerebral ischemia and infarction and variations in symptom severity of Alzheimer disease; (3) explore the interaction of genes and environmental influences that are protective against Alzheimer disease; and (4) recruit and enroll ethnically diverse subjects in Alzheimer disease clinical trials.

  4. Public figure announcements about cancer and opportunities for cancer communication: a review and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Announcements by public figures and celebrities about cancer diagnosis or death represent significant events in public life. But what are the substantive effects of such events, if any? The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies that examined the impact of public figure cancer announcements on cancer-oriented outcomes. Using comprehensive search procedures, we identified k = 19 studies that examined 11 distinct public figures. The most commonly studied public figures were Jade Goody, Kylie Minogue, Nancy Reagan, and Steve Jobs, with the most common cancers studied being breast (53%), cervical (21%), and pancreatic (21%) cancer. Most studies assessed multiple outcome variables, including behavioral outcomes (k = 15), media coverage (k = 10), information seeking (k = 8), cancer incidence (k = 3), and interpersonal communication (k = 2). Results fairly consistently indicated that cancer announcements from public figures had meaningful effects on many, if not most, of these outcome variables. While such events essentially act as naturally occurring interventions, the effects tend to be relatively short term. Gaps in this literature include few contemporary studies of high-profile public figures in the United States and a general lack of theory-based research. Directions for future research as well as implications for cancer communication and prevention are discussed.

  5. A Vision for Next Generation Query Processors and an Associated Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounaris, Anastasios

    Query processing is one of the most important mechanisms for data management, and there exist mature techniques for effective query optimization and efficient query execution. The vast majority of these techniques assume workloads of rather small transactional tasks with strong requirements for ACID properties. However, the emergence of new computing paradigms, such as grid and cloud computing, the increasingly large volumes of data commonly processed, the need to support data driven research, intensive data analysis and new scenarios, such as processing data streams on the fly or querying web services, the fact that the metadata fed to optimizers are often missing at compile time, and the growing interest in novel optimization criteria, such as monetary cost or energy consumption, create a unique set of new requirements for query processing systems. These requirements cannot be met by modern techniques in their entirety, although interesting solutions and efficient tools have already been developed for some of them in isolation. Next generation query processors are expected to combine features addressing all of these issues, and, consequently, lie at the confluence of several research initiatives. This paper aims to present a vision for such processors, to explain their functionality requirements, and to discuss the open issues, along with their challenges.

  6. Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform From the Strategic Research Agenda to its Deployment - 12015

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, P.; Palmu, Marjatta; Eng, Torsten

    2012-07-01

    Several European waste management organizations (WMOs) have initiated a technology platform for accelerating the implementation of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Europe. The most advanced waste management programmes in Europe (i.e. Finland, Sweden, and France) have already started or are prepared to start the licensing process of deep geological disposal facilities within the next decade. A technology platform called Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) was launched in November 2009. A shared vision report for the platform was published stating that: 'Our vision is that by 2025, the first geological disposal facilities for spent fuel, high-level waste, and other long-lived radioactive waste will be operating safely in Europe'. In 2011, the IGD-TP had eleven WMO members and about 70 participants from academia, research, and the industry committed to its vision. The IGD-TP has started to become a tool for reducing overlapping work, to produce savings in total costs of research and implementation and to make better use of existing competence and research infrastructures. The main contributor to this is the deployment of the IGD-TP's newly published Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). The work undertaken for the SRA defined the pending research, development and demonstration (RD and D) issues and needs. The SRA document describing the identified issues that could be worked on collaboratively was published in July 2011. It is available on the project's public web site (www.igdtp.eu). The SRA was organized around 7 Key Topics covering the Safety Case, Waste forms and their behaviour, Technical feasibility and long-term performance of repository components, Development strategy of the repository, Safety of construction and operations, Monitoring, and Governance and stakeholder involvement. Individual Topics were prioritized within the Key Topics. Cross-cutting activities like Education and Training or Knowledge

  7. A Research Agenda to Advance the Coordination of Care for General Medical and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Amity E; Rubinsky, Anna D; Fernandez, Anne C; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2017-04-01

    The separation of addiction care from the general medical care system has a negative impact on patients' receipt of high-quality medical care. Clinical and policy-level strategies to improve the coordination of addiction care and general medical care include identifying and engaging patients with unhealthy substance use in general medical settings, providing effective chronic disease management of substance use disorders in primary care, including patient and family perspectives in care coordination, and implementing pragmatic models to pay for the coordination of addiction and general medical care. This Open Forum discusses practice and research recommendations to advance the coordination of general medical and addiction care. The discussion is based on the proceedings of a national meeting of experts in 2014.

  8. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Basic Science and Enabling Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Today's malaria control efforts are limited by our incomplete understanding of the biology of Plasmodium and of the complex relationships between human populations and the multiple species of mosquito and parasite. Research priorities include the development of in vitro culture systems for the complete life cycle of P. falciparum and P. vivax and the development of an appropriate liver culture system to study hepatic stages. In addition, genetic technologies for the manipulation of Plasmodium need to be improved, the entire parasite metabolome needs to be characterized to identify new druggable targets, and improved information systems for monitoring the changes in epidemiology, pathology, and host-parasite-vector interactions as a result of intensified control need to be established to bridge the gap between bench, preclinical, clinical, and population-based sciences. PMID:21311584

  9. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Van Kleef, E.; Van Trijp, J.C.M.; Van Den Borne, J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  10. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, E; Van Trijp, J C M; Van Den Borne, J J G C; Zondervan, C

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined.

  11. SAVINGS BY AND FOR THE POOR: A RESEARCH REVIEW AND AGENDA

    PubMed Central

    Karlan, Dean; Ratan, Aishwarya Lakshmi; Zinman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The poor can and do save, but often use formal or informal instruments that have high risk, high cost, and limited functionality. This could lead to undersaving compared to a world without market or behavioral frictions. Undersaving can have important welfare consequences: variable consumption, low resilience to shocks, and foregone profitable investments. We lay out five sets of constraints that may hinder the adoption and effective usage of savings products and services by the poor: transaction costs, lack of trust and regulatory barriers, information and knowledge gaps, social constraints, and behavioral biases. We discuss each in theory, and then summarize related empirical evidence, with a focus on recent field experiments. We then put forward key open areas for research and practice. JEL Codes: D12, D91, G21, O16 PMID:25792764

  12. A research agenda for aging in China in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Jahn, Heiko J; Li, Juan; Ling, Li; Guo, Hongwei; Zhu, Xinqiang; Preedy, Victor; Lu, Huiming; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Chan, Wai Yee; Liu, Yuanli; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-11-01

    China is encountering formidable healthcare challenges brought about by the problem of aging. By 2050, there will be 400 million Chinese citizens aged 65+, 150 million of whom will be 80+. The undesirable consequences of the one-child policy, rural-to-urban migration, and expansion of the population of 'empty nest' elders are eroding the traditional family care of the elders, further exacerbating the burden borne by the current public healthcare system. The challenges of geriatric care demand prompt attention by proposing strategies for improvement in several key areas. Major diseases of the elderly that need more attention include chronic non-communicable diseases and mental health disorders. We suggest the establishment of a home care-dominated geriatric care system, and a proactive role for researchers on aging in reforming geriatric care through policy dialogs. We propose ideas for preparation of the impending aging burden and the creation of a nurturing environment conducive to healthy aging in China.

  13. Thinking about think tanks in health care: a call for a new research agenda.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sara E; Russell, Jill; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Korica, Maja

    2014-03-01

    Little sociological attention has been given to the role of think tanks in health policy and planning. Existing work in political science and public administration tends to define and categorise think tanks and situate them as a disinterested source of policy expertise. Despite the increasingly visible presence of think tanks in the world of health care, such work has done little to reveal how they operate, by whom and to what ends. Our article seeks to redress this firstly by examining why they have remained relatively hidden in academic analyses and secondly by advocating an interpretive approach that incorporates think tanks within the wider landscape of health policy and planning. In contrast to most existing literature, an interpretive approach acknowledges that much of the messy business of healthcare policy and planning remains hidden from view and that much can be gleaned by examining the range of organisations, actors, coalitions, everyday activities, artefacts and interactions that make up the think tank stage and that work together to shape health policy and planning. Given the paucity of research in this area, we urge the medical sociology community to open the field to further academic scrutiny.

  14. The health and human rights of survivors of gun violence: charting a research and policy agenda.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Cate

    2011-12-15

    The health and human rights implications of violently acquired impairments (VAI), specifically gun-related injuries and trauma resulting in disability, represent an overlooked public policy concern. For several decades, detailed attention has been committed to better understanding of the international arms trade and its consequences. A discursive shift in the last decade from "small arms control" as the core objective (a "hardware" focus on the weapons themselves) to "armed violence prevention" (a focus on impacts, wider drivers, and solutions) still requires a rigorous set of objectives that respond to the rights and needs of survivors of such violence. This article seeks to chart some of the challenges of responding to gun violence survivors and identify entry points for contributions from health, social science and human rights researchers and practitioners. Efforts to address armed violence typically pivot around two goals: reduction and prevention. But what of those already injured? This article argues that a third goal is overdue for attention: response to those injured, impaired, and disabled from gun violence. This would allow a clear pathway for progress (conceptual, political, policy, and practice) to be defined related to gun violence under the ambit of three overarching goals: reducing existing gun violence; responding to those already injured, traumatized, and impaired by such violence; and preventing future violence from occurring.

  15. Parasitic mites of medical and veterinary importance--is there a common research agenda?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley

    2014-10-15

    There are an estimated 0.5-1 million mite species on earth. Among the many mites that are known to affect humans and animals, only a subset are parasitic but these can cause significant disease. We aim here to provide an overview of the most recent work in this field in order to identify common biological features of these parasites and to inform common strategies for future research. There is a critical need for diagnostic tools to allow for better surveillance and for drugs tailored specifically to the respective parasites. Multi-'omics' approaches represent a logical and timely strategy to identify the appropriate mite molecules. Recent advances in sequencing technology enable us to generate de novo genome sequence data, even from limited DNA resources. Consequently, the field of mite genomics has recently emerged and will now rapidly expand, which is a particular advantage for parasitic mites that cannot be cultured in vitro. Investigations of the microbiota associated with mites will elucidate the link between parasites and pathogens, and define the role of the mite in transmission and pathogenesis. The databases generated will provide the crucial knowledge essential to design novel diagnostic tools, control measures, prophylaxes, drugs and immunotherapies against the mites and associated secondary infections.

  16. Noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: where do they feature in the health research agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, N.; Setel, P.; Rashid, S.; Mugusi, F.; Mbanya, J. C.; Kitange, H.; Hayes, L.; Edwards, R.; Aspray, T.; Alberti, K. G.

    2001-01-01

    There is no doubt that communicable diseases will remain the predominant health problem for the populations in sub-Saharan Africa, including adults, for the next 10-20 years. Concern has been expressed that the available resources to deal with this problem would be reduced by increasing the emphasis on noncommunicable diseases. The latter, however, already present a substantial burden because their overall age-specific rates are currently higher in adults in sub-Saharan Africa than in populations in Established Market Economies. There is also evidence that the prevalence of certain noncommunicable diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension, is increasing rapidly, particularly in the urban areas, and that significant demands are being made on the health services by patients with these diseases. To ignore the noncommunicable diseases would inevitably lead to an increase in their burden; the provision of health services for them would be largely undirected by issues of clinical and cost effectiveness, and their treatment and prevention would be left to the mercy of local and global commercial interests. Improved surveillance of all diseases within sub-Saharan Africa is needed in order to place noncommunicable diseases properly within the context of the overall burden of disease. Research is needed to guide improvements in the clinical and cost effectiveness of resources currently committed to the care of patients with noncommunicable diseases, and to direct and evaluate preventive measures. PMID:11693977

  17. Assessing the effects of fire disturbances on ecosystems: A scientific agenda for research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoldt, D.L.; Peterson, D.L.; Keane, R.E.; Lenihan, J.M.; McKenzie, D.; Weise, D.R.; Sandberg, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    A team of fire scientists and resource managers convened 17-19 April 1996 in Seattle, Washington, to assess the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems. Objectives of this workshop were to develop scientific recommendations for future fire research and management activities. These recommendations included a series of numerically ranked scientific and managerial questions and responses focusing on (1) links among fire effects, fuels, and climate; (2) fire as a large-scale disturbance; (3) fire-effects modeling structures; and (4) managerial concerns, applications, and decision support. At the present time, understanding of fire effects and the ability to extrapolate fire-effects knowledge to large spatial scales are limited, because most data have been collected at small spatial scales for specific applications. Although we clearly need more large-scale fire-effects data, it will be more expedient to concentrate efforts on improving and linking existing models that simulate fire effects in a georeferenced format while integrating empirical data as they become available. A significant component of this effort should be improved communication between modelers and managers to develop modeling tools to use in a planning context. Another component of this modeling effort should improve our ability to predict the interactions of fire and potential climatic change at very large spatial scales. The priority issues and approaches described here provide a template for fire science and fire management programs in the next decade and beyond.

  18. Evaluation of vaccines against enteric infections: a clinical and public health research agenda for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Clemens, John

    2011-10-12

    Enteric infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. To date, vaccines have played a limited role in public health efforts to control enteric infections. Licensed vaccines exist for cholera and typhoid, but these vaccines are used primarily for travellers; and there are two internationally licensed vaccines for rotavirus, but they are mainly used in affluent countries. The reasons that enteric vaccines are little used in developing countries are multiple, and certainly include financial and political constraints. Also important is the need for more cogent evidence on the performance of enteric vaccines in developing country populations. A partial inventory of research questions would include: (i) does the vaccine perform well in the most relevant settings? (ii) does the vaccine perform well in all epidemiologically relevant age groups? (iii) is there adequate evidence of vaccine safety once the vaccines have been deployed in developing countries? (iv) how effective is the vaccine when given in conjunction with non-vaccine cointerventions? (v) what is the level of vaccine protection against all relevant outcomes? and (vi) what is the expected population level of vaccine protection, including both direct and herd vaccine protective effects? Provision of evidence addressing these questions will help expand the use of enteric vaccines in developing countries.

  19. Defining core issues in utilizing information technology to improve access: evaluation and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Jackson, George L; Krein, Sarah L; Alverson, Dale C; Darkins, Adam W; Gunnar, William; Harada, Nancy D; Helfrich, Christian D; Houston, Thomas K; Klobucar, Thomas F; Nazi, Kim M; Poropatich, Ronald K; Ralston, James D; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2011-11-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has been at the vanguard of information technology (IT) and use of comprehensive electronic health records. Despite the widespread use of health IT in the VA, there are still a variety of key questions that need to be answered in order to maximize the utility of IT to improve patient access to quality services. This paper summarizes the potential of IT to enhance healthcare access, key gaps in current evidence linking IT and access, and methodologic challenges for related research. We also highlight four key issues to be addressed when implementing and evaluating the impact of IT interventions on improving access to quality care: 1) Understanding broader needs/perceptions of the Veteran population and their caregivers regarding use of IT to access healthcare services and related information. 2) Understanding individual provider/clinician needs/perceptions regarding use of IT for patient access to healthcare. 3) System/Organizational issues within the VA and other organizations related to the use of IT to improve access. 4) IT integration and information flow with non-VA entities. While the VA is used as an example, the issues are salient for healthcare systems that are beginning to take advantage of IT solutions.

  20. Ivermectin to reduce malaria transmission: a research agenda for a promising new tool for elimination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The heterogeneity of malaria transmission makes widespread elimination a difficult goal to achieve. Most of the current vector control measures insufficiently target outdoor transmission. Also, insecticide resistance threatens to diminish the efficacy of the most prevalent measures, indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Innovative approaches are needed. The use of endectocides, such as ivermectin, could be an important new addition to the toolbox of anti-malarial measures. Ivermectin effectively targets outdoor transmission, has a novel mechanism of action that could circumvent resistance and might be distributed over the channels already in place for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Methods The previous works involving ivermectin and Anopheles vectors are reviewed and summarized. A review of ivermectin’s safety profile is also provided. Finally three definitive clinical trials are described in detail and proposed as the evidence needed for implementation. Several smaller and specific supportive studies are also proposed. Conclusions The use of ivermectin solves many challenges identified for future vector control strategies. It is an effective and safe endectocide that was approved for human use more than 25 years ago. Recent studies suggest it might become an effective and complementary strategy in malaria elimination and eradication efforts; however, intensive research will be needed to make this a reality. PMID:23647969

  1. Dog bite and injury prevention—analysis, critical review, and research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Ozanne-Smith, J; Ashby, K; Stathakis, V

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To analyze Australian dog bite injury data and make international comparisons; to review risk and protective factors relating to the dog, injured person, and environment; and to recommend action for prevention and research. Methods—Australian dog bite injury data, complemented by detailed Victorian and regional data from routine health records and vital statistics, were analyzed to determine incidence, severity, nature, circumstances, and trends. International comparison data were extracted from published reports. Risk and protective factor studies were selected for review from electronic and bibliographic searches where data were recent, sample sizes substantial, and bias limited. Results—The Australian dog bite death rate (0.004/100 000) is lower than both the United States (0.05–0.07/100 000) and Canadian rates (0.007/100 000). Victorian hospitalized trend rates were stable between 1987 and 1998, but there was a decline for children <5 years (p=0.019) corresponding with a reduction in dog ownership. Children 0–4 years have the highest rate of serious injury, particularly facial. Adults have longer hospitalizations, most frequently for upper extremity injury. Risk factors include: child, males, households with dogs, certain breeds, male dogs, home location, and leashed dog. Conclusions—Dog bite rates are high and it may therefore be assumed that current preventative interventions are inadequate. Responsible dog ownership, including separating young children from dogs, avoiding high risk dogs, neutering, regulatory enforcement, and standardized monitoring of bite rates are required. Controlled investigations of further risk and protective factors, and validated methods of breed identification, are needed. PMID:11770660

  2. Bartonella bacilliformis: A Systematic Review of the Literature to Guide the Research Agenda for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez Clemente, Nuria; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar A.; Solórzano, Nelson; Maguiña, Ciro; Pachas, Paul; Blazes, David; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David; Moore, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Carrion's disease affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador and is characterized by two distinct disease manifestations: an abrupt acute bacteraemic illness (Oroya fever) and an indolent cutaneous eruptive condition (verruga Peruana). Case fatality rates of untreated acute disease can exceed 80% during outbreaks. Despite being an ancient disease that has affected populations since pre-Inca times, research in this area has been limited and diagnostic and treatment guidelines are based on very low evidence reports. The apparently limited geographical distribution and ecology of Bartonella bacilliformis may present an opportunity for disease elimination if a clear understanding of the epidemiology and optimal case and outbreak management can be gained. Methods All available databases were searched for English and Spanish language articles on Carrion's disease. In addition, experts in the field were consulted for recent un-published work and conference papers. The highest level evidence studies in the fields of diagnostics, treatment, vector control and epidemiology were critically reviewed and allocated a level of evidence, using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) guidelines. Results A total of 44 studies were considered to be of sufficient quality to be included in the analysis. The majority of these were level 4 or 5 (low quality) evidence and based on small sample sizes. Few studies had been carried out in endemic areas. Conclusions Current approaches to the diagnosis and management of Carrion's disease are based on small retrospective or observational studies and expert opinion. Few studies take a public health perspective or examine vector control and prevention. High quality studies performed in endemic areas are required to define optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:23145188

  3. Setting priorities for a research agenda to combat drug-resistant tuberculosis in children.

    PubMed

    Velayutham, B; Nair, D; Ramalingam, S; Perez-Velez, C M; Becerra, M C; Swaminathan, S

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : De nombreuses lacunes en matière de connaissances entravent la prévention et le traitement de la tuberculose (TB) pharmacorésistante. L'identification des priorités de recherche est vitale pour informer et développer des stratégies afin de répondre à ce problème négligé.Objectif : Tenter d'identifier systématiquement et de classer par ordre les priorités en matière de recherche sur la TB pharmacorésistante de l'enfant.Schéma: Ayant adapté la méthode de Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) (Initiative de recherche en santé et en nutrition de l'enfant), nous avons compilé 53 questions de recherche dans quatre domaines, puis les avons classées en trois types de recherche différents. Nous avons invité des experts en TB pharmacorésistante de l'enfant à classer ces questions grâce à une enquête en ligne.Résultats : Un total de 81 personnes ont participé à l'enquête. La question de recherche qui a été classée première était l'identification des meilleures associations d'outils de diagnostic existants pour permettre un diagnostic précoce. Les questions considérées comme prioritaires en matière de traitement étaient centrées sur des interventions visant à améliorer les résultats du traitement, à réduire les effets secondaires des médicaments et à déterminer la durée idéale du traitement. La prévalence de la TB pharmacorésistante était la priorité dans le domaine de l'épidémiologie. Les questions relatives au développement ont été considérées comme hautement prioritaires et se sont focalisées sur des interventions d'amélioration du diagnostic, du traitement et des modalités de délivrance du traitement.Conclusion : Cette enquête est la première qui vise à identifier et à hiérarchiser les priorités de recherche relatives à la TB pharmacorésistante de l'enfant. Son résultat constitue une ressource pour guider la recherche afin d'améliorer la prévention et le traitement de

  4. Pharmacists’ communication with Spanish-speaking patients: a review of the literature to establish an agenda for future research

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, Thomas; Mott, Dave; Young, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Background Spanish-speaking people represent more than 12% of the total population in the United States and are poised to become the largest minority group in the U.S. by 2015. Although researchers have studied pharmacist-patient communication for approximately 30 years, little emphasis has been placed on the interactions between pharmacists and Spanish-speaking patients. Objective The objectives of this review are 1) to describe empirical studies on Spanish-speaking patient/pharmacist communication examined relative to patient factors, pharmacist factors, and environmental factors that may influence Spanish-speaking patient/pharmacist communication and 2) to integrate medical and nursing literature to generate a research agenda for future study in this area. Methods We compiled articles from a systematic review of (1) CINAHL, International Pharmacy Abstracts, Pub Med, and Web of Knowledge databases using “Hispanic limited English proficiency”, “Latino limited English proficiency”, “language-assistance services”, “Spanish-speaking patients”, “Latino patients”, “Spanish-speaking health literacy”, “pharmacy health literacy”, “patient-provider communication”, “pharmacy language barriers”, (2) bibliographies of selected articles. Results This search generated 1,174 articles, 7 of which met the inclusion criteria. We categorized the results into four topic areas: “Spanish-speaking patient literacy,” “pharmacists knowledge of/proficiency in the Spanish language,” “pharmacy resources to overcome language barriers,” and “pharmacists’ attitudes towards communicating with Spanish-speaking patients.” Conclusions These studies provide a macroscopic look at the linguistic services offered in pharmacies, gaps in services, and their subsequent impact on pharmacists and patients. Future research should investigate Spanish-speaking patients’ literacy issues, pharmacy staff language skills, factors that influence pharmacists

  5. Leading for Quality Improvement: A Comparative Research Agenda in Early Childhood Education in England and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Caroline; Campbell-Barr, Verity; Ho, Dora

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the changing concepts of leadership in early childhood education (ECE) in England and Hong Kong during a period of significant education reform. We seek to illustrate the interplay between the impact of the policy agenda and the emerging quality leadership perspectives found in the theoretical literature, by first considering…

  6. The Human Dimensions of the Research Agenda: Supporting the Development of Researchers throughout the Career Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, George

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade, increasingly explicit attention has been made in the policies of, and guidance from, various funding and overarching bodies to the overall concept of good practice in the development and management of research staff in higher education institutions. That has embodied the concept of developing researchers over the career…

  7. The Freedom to Set Research Agendas--Illusion and Reality of the Research Units in the Dutch Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Enders, Jurgen; De Boer, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch higher education and research system has incrementally changed during the last decade. Several reforms, initiated by the government, have hinted towards influencing the basic processes within universities, such as research programming. However, it is largely unknown how these reforms have been implemented at the university shop floor…

  8. Symposium: An Overview of the 5-Year Research Agenda for the Research & Training Center for Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Robert M.; Evans, Mary; Morrison-Rodriguez, Barbara; Kutash, Krista; Duchnowski, Al; Hernandez, Mario; Hodges, Sharon; Armstrong, Mary; Pires, Sheila; Stroul, Beth; Greenbaum, Paul; Brown, Eric; Lazear, Katherine

    This paper describes each of eight current interrelated federally funded research projects conducted by the Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health at the University of South Florida. For each project, information is provided on the project's background, purpose, methodology, and anticipated results. Project titles and principal…

  9. Integrating Research and Education in a Study of Biocomplexity in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems: Costs, Results, and Benefits to the Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, W. A.; González, G.; Walker, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    -instructors. The educational component initiated 6 research studies at a series of eight sites along the complete climatic gradient of the North America Arctic. These include studies of variation in nonsorted circle morphology, climatic and cryoturbation effects on species diversity and community composition of plants and soil invertebrates, and an analysis of climatic and cryoturbation effects controls on litter decomposition and soil microbial biomass. A youth-elder-science camp was conducted which introduced Inuit students to permafrost and nonsorted circles. Four students have continued their involvement with the Biocomplexity study as graduate or post graduate students. Indirect benefits are difficult to assess but the integration has allowed a number of students to participate directly with the research team, drawn by the opportunity to gain education and experience over the course of a field season, and this participation has had synergistic benefits with the research agenda of the project.

  10. Using a Collaborative Research Approach to Develop an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda for the Study of Mobile Health Interventions for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Baskerville, Neill; Burns, Catherine M; Chang, Feng; Giangregorio, Lora; Tomasson Goodwin, Jill; Sadat Rezai, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background Seniors with chronic diseases are often called on to self-manage their conditions. Mobile health (mHealth) tools may be a useful strategy to help seniors access health information at the point of decision-making, receive real-time feedback and coaching, and monitor health conditions. However, developing successful mHealth interventions for seniors presents many challenges. One of the key challenges is to ensure the scope of possible research questions includes the diverse views of seniors, experts and the stakeholder groups who support seniors as they manage chronic disease. Objective Our primary objective was to present a case-study of a collaborative research approach to the development of an interdisciplinary research agenda. Our secondary objectives were to report on the results of a nominal group technique (NGT) approach used generate research questions and to assess the success of including non-academic researchers to enrich the scope, priority, and total number of possible research questions. Methods We invited researchers and stakeholders to participate in a full day meeting that included rapid-style presentations by researchers, health care professionals, technology experts, patients and community groups followed by group discussions. An NGT was used to establish group consensus on the following question: In your opinion, what research needs to be done to better understand the effectiveness, usability and design of mobile health apps and devices for older adults? Results Overall, the collaborative approach was a very successful strategy to bring together a diverse group of participants with the same end goal. The 32 participants generated 119 items in total. The top three research questions that emerged from the NGT were related to adoption, the need for high quality tools and the digital divide. Strong sub-themes included privacy and security, engagement and design. The NGT also helped us include the perspectives information from non

  11. The Precision Medicine Initiative's All of Us Research Program: an agenda for research on its ethical, legal, and social issues.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Pamela L; Parker, Lisa S

    2016-12-08

    The Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) is an innovative approach to developing a new model of health care that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles. A cornerstone of the initiative is the PMI All of Us Research Program (formerly known as PMI-Cohort Program) which will create a cohort of 1 million volunteers who will contribute their health data and biospecimens to a centralized national database to support precision medicine research. The PMI All of US Research Program is the largest longitudinal study in the history of the United States. The designers of the Program anticipated and addressed some of the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) associated with the initiative. To date, however, there is no plan to call for research regarding ELSI associated with the Program-PMI All of Us program. Based on analysis of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding announcements for the PMI All of Us program, we have identified three ELSI themes: cohort diversity and health disparities, participant engagement, and privacy and security. We review All of Us Research Program plans to address these issues and then identify additional ELSI within each domain that warrant ongoing investigation as the All of Us Research Program develops. We conclude that PMI's All of Us Research Program represents a significant opportunity and obligation to identify, analyze, and respond to ELSI, and we call on the PMI to initiate a research program capable of taking on these challenges.Genet Med advance online publication 01 December 2016Genetics in Medicine (2016); doi:10.1038/gim.2016.183.

  12. [Research on the modification of Kevlar fiber by polypropylene glycol and cis-2-butene-1,4-diol].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-ying; Wang, Can-yao; Fu, Ming-lian; Cai, Wei-long; Wang, Liang-en

    2005-03-01

    The mechanism of the modification of Kevlar fiber by polypropylene glycol(PPG) and cis-2-butene-1, 4-diol was studied in the paper, the authors learned the esterification of toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) onto Kevlar fiber by infrared spectrum. In the mean time, the infrared spectrograms of the productions which steadily disposed by PPG and butendiol were analysed respectively, the result showed that the intensity of the bands was reinforced at about 1700-1720 cm(-1) after the samples were steadily disposed, that is to say, the group of --NCO has been stabilized into --NHCO group, the effect of steady disposal was obvious; but the disposal effect of butendiol was apparently better than PPG's at the same condition. Finally, the authors compared the influence of different mol rates between TDI and butendiol on the productions. Based onthe consequence, excessive butendiol would prevent the Kevlar fiber from farther reaction, therefore, the mol rate between TDI and butendiol should approach 1:1.

  13. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Health Research and Capacity Building in Disease-Endemic Countries for Helminthiases Control

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Lustigman, Sara; Prichard, Roger K.; Boatin, Boakye A.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Capacity building in health research generally, and helminthiasis research particularly, is pivotal to the implementation of the research and development agenda for the control and elimination of human helminthiases that has been proposed thematically in the preceding reviews of this collection. Since helminth infections affect human populations particularly in marginalised and low-income regions of the world, they belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases, and their alleviation through research, policy, and practice is a sine qua non condition for the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Current efforts supporting research capacity building specifically for the control of helminthiases have been devised and funded, almost in their entirety, by international donor agencies, major funding bodies, and academic institutions from the developed world, contributing to the creation of (not always equitable) North–South “partnerships”. There is an urgent need to shift this paradigm in disease-endemic countries (DECs) by refocusing political will, and harnessing unshakeable commitment by the countries' governments, towards health research and capacity building policies to ensure long-term investment in combating and sustaining the control and eventual elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. This paper discusses the challenges confronting capacity building for parasitic disease research in DECs, describes current capacity building strategies with particular reference to neglected tropical diseases and human helminthiases, and outlines recommendations to redress the balance of alliances and partnerships for health research between the developed countries of the

  14. Agenda Setting and Mass Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Eugene F.

    The agenda-setting concept in mass communication asserts that the news media determine what people will include or exclude in their cognition of public events. Findings in uses and gratification research provide the foundation for this concept: an initial focus on people's needs, particularly the need for information. The agenda-setting concept…

  15. A 40-Year Review of Multicultural Counseling Outcome Research: Outlining a Future Research Agenda for the Multicultural Counseling Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Michael; Heckman, Elizabeth Foster

    2008-01-01

    This study represents a 40-year review of multicultural counseling outcome research that has been done in the mental health professions. Particular attention is directed to the outcomes that ensue from counseling situations that are composed of counselors and clients from different racial/cultural backgrounds and identities in individual, group,…

  16. Setting a National Agenda for Surgical Disparities Research: Recommendations From the National Institutes of Health and American College of Surgeons Summit.

    PubMed

    Haider, Adil H; Dankwa-Mullan, Irene; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Torain, Maya; Zogg, Cheryl K; Lilley, Elizabeth J; Kodadek, Lisa M; Changoor, Navin R; Najjar, Peter; Rose, John A; Ford, Henri R; Salim, Ali; Stain, Steven C; Shafi, Shahid; Sutton, Beth; Hoyt, David; Maddox, Yvonne T; Britt, L D

    2016-06-01

    Health care disparities (differential access, care, and outcomes owing to factors such as race/ethnicity) are widely established. Compared with other groups, African American individuals have an increased mortality risk across multiple surgical procedures. Gender, sexual orientation, age, and geographic disparities are also well documented. Further research is needed to mitigate these inequities. To do so, the American College of Surgeons and the National Institutes of Health-National Institute of Minority Health and Disparities convened a research summit to develop a national surgical disparities research agenda and funding priorities. Sixty leading researchers and clinicians gathered in May 2015 for a 2-day summit. First, literature on surgical disparities was presented within 5 themes: (1) clinician, (2) patient, (3) systemic/access, (4) clinical quality, and (5) postoperative care and rehabilitation-related factors. These themes were identified via an exhaustive preconference literature review and guided the summit and its interactive consensus-building exercises. After individual thematic presentations, attendees contributed research priorities for each theme. Suggestions were collated, refined, and prioritized during the latter half of the summit. Breakout sessions yielded 3 to 5 top research priorities by theme. Overall priorities, regardless of theme, included improving patient-clinician communication, fostering engagement and community outreach by using technology, improving care at facilities with a higher proportion of minority patients, evaluating the longer-term effect of acute intervention and rehabilitation support, and improving patient centeredness by identifying expectations for recovery. The National Institutes of Health and American College of Surgeons Summit on Surgical Disparities Research succeeded in identifying a comprehensive research agenda. Future research and funding priorities should prioritize patients' care perspectives, workforce

  17. From Global to Local and Vice Versa: On the Importance of the `Globalization' Agenda in Continental Groundwater Research and Policy-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important environmental resources and its use continuously rises globally for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supply purposes. Because of its importance, more knowledge about the volume of usable groundwater is necessary to satisfy the global demand. Due to the challenges in quantifying the volume of available global groundwater, studies which aim to assess its magnitude are limited in number. They are further restricted in scope and depth of analysis as, in most cases, they do not explain how the estimates of global groundwater resources have been obtained, what methods have been used to generate the figures and what levels of uncertainty exist. This article reviews the estimates of global groundwater resources. It finds that the level of uncertainty attached to existing numbers often exceeds 100 % and strives to establish the reasons for discrepancy. The outcome of this study outlines the need for a new agenda in water research with a more pronounced focus on groundwater. This new research agenda should aim at enhancing the quality and quantity of data provision on local and regional groundwater stocks and flows. This knowledge enhancement can serve as a basis to improve policy-making on groundwater resources globally. Research-informed policies will facilitate more effective groundwater management practices to ensure a more rapid progress of the global water sector towards the goal of sustainability.

  18. From Global to Local and Vice Versa: On the Importance of the 'Globalization' Agenda in Continental Groundwater Research and Policy-Making.

    PubMed

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Barth, Johannes A C

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important environmental resources and its use continuously rises globally for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supply purposes. Because of its importance, more knowledge about the volume of usable groundwater is necessary to satisfy the global demand. Due to the challenges in quantifying the volume of available global groundwater, studies which aim to assess its magnitude are limited in number. They are further restricted in scope and depth of analysis as, in most cases, they do not explain how the estimates of global groundwater resources have been obtained, what methods have been used to generate the figures and what levels of uncertainty exist. This article reviews the estimates of global groundwater resources. It finds that the level of uncertainty attached to existing numbers often exceeds 100 % and strives to establish the reasons for discrepancy. The outcome of this study outlines the need for a new agenda in water research with a more pronounced focus on groundwater. This new research agenda should aim at enhancing the quality and quantity of data provision on local and regional groundwater stocks and flows. This knowledge enhancement can serve as a basis to improve policy-making on groundwater resources globally. Research-informed policies will facilitate more effective groundwater management practices to ensure a more rapid progress of the global water sector towards the goal of sustainability.

  19. Agenda Setting in the 1982 Illinois Gubernatorial Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Mitchell E.; Williams, Wenmouth, Jr.

    Researchers have put forth the idea that the mass media have an "agenda setting" function, that the more coverage an issue receives, the more important the public perceives that issue to be. A study tested the hypothesis that the campaign agenda presented by the media would have a stronger agenda setting effect than the aggregate media…

  20. Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders: a multilevel intervention framework and priorities for clinical practice, policy and research agendas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nancy H; Daumit, Gail L; Dua, Tarun; Aquila, Ralph; Charlson, Fiona; Cuijpers, Pim; Druss, Benjamin; Dudek, Kenn; Freeman, Melvyn; Fujii, Chiyo; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Hegerl, Ulrich; Levav, Itzhak; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Ma, Hong; Maj, Mario; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Nordentoft, Merete; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Pratt, Karen; Prince, Martin; Rangaswamy, Thara; Shiers, David; Susser, Ezra; Thornicroft, Graham; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Fekadu Wassie, Abe; Whiteford, Harvey; Saxena, Shekhar

    2017-02-01

    Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders (SMD) is a major public health challenge that warrants action. The number and scope of truly tested interventions in this area remain limited, and strategies for implementation and scaling up of programmes with a strong evidence base are scarce. Furthermore, the majority of available interventions focus on a single or an otherwise limited number of risk factors. Here we present a multilevel model highlighting risk factors for excess mortality in persons with SMD at the individual, health system and socio-environmental levels. Informed by that model, we describe a comprehensive framework that may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating interventions and programmes to reduce excess mortality in persons with SMD. This framework includes individual-focused, health system-focused, and community level and policy-focused interventions. Incorporating lessons learned from the multilevel model of risk and the comprehensive intervention framework, we identify priorities for clinical practice, policy and research agendas.