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Sample records for cis-dichlorotetraamminerutheniumiii chloride presents

  1. Scintillation Characterization of Doped Cesium Hafnium Chloride (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Emmanuel; Goodwin, Brandon; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Burger, Arnold; Stowe, Ashley; Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The scintillators currently providing the best energy resolution lower than 2.6% at 662 keV and sizes larger than 1 in. dia. 1 in. height are LaBr3(Ce) and SrI2(Eu). Despite energy resolution and decay time performance of LaBr3(Ce), the intrinsic radioactivity, due to naturally occurring 138La isotope in the matrix is a limitation for low count rate applications such as radioisotope identification of weak sources. Cesium Hafnium Chloride (CHC) is a high effective atomic number (Zeff=58) moderate density (3.86 g/cm3) scintillator for gamma spectroscopy, offering a cubic crystal structure, no intrinsic radioactivity, and highly proportional light yield, without intentional doping. CHC boasts a cubic crystal structure that is isostructural to K2HfCl6 and analogous to calcium fluoride with cesium ions in the fluorine ion position and the [HfCl6]2- octahedral replacing calcium ions. The scintillation of CHC is centered at 400 nm, with a principal decay time of 4.37 μs, a light yield of up to 54,000 photons/MeV and energy resolution of 3.3% at 662 keV and we report on the effects of doping on the scintillation properties of CHC.

  2. Present limitations of models for predicting chloride ingress into reinforced concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, L.-O.

    2006-11-01

    Models to predict chloride ingress are numerous but all of them have serious limitations that restrict the present use for long term predictions. An overview is given of the fundamental differences between various models, from those based on Fick's 2nd with constant or time-dependent diffusion coefficients and surface chloride contents, to those based on chloride transport equations with or without a multi-species approach. The key advantages and limitations of each type of model are identified and the research needs are summarized and discussed. The three main limitations are shown to be (i) the lack of understanding the time-dependency of the apparent chloride diffusion coefficients, (ii) the lack of good long-term data, the chloride content increase with time close to the exposed surface and (iii) the difficulties in quantifying the boundary conditions for sophisticated ingress models.

  3. Quantum Chemical Insight into the Interactions and Thermodynamics Present in Choline Chloride Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Durgesh V; Deakyne, Carol A; Baker, Gary A

    2016-07-14

    We report quantum chemical calculations performed on three popular deep eutectic solvents (DESs) in order to elucidate the molecular interactions, charge transfer interactions, and thermodynamics associated with these systems. The DESs studied comprise 1:2 choline chloride/urea (reline), 1:2 choline chloride/ethylene glycol (ethaline), and 1:1 choline chloride/malonic acid (maloline). The excellent correlation between calculated and experimental vibrational spectra allowed for identification of dominant interactions in the DES systems. The DESs were found to be stabilized by both conventional hydrogen bonds and C-H···O/C-H···π interactions between the components. The hydrogen-bonding network established in the DES is clearly distinct from that which exists within the neat hydrogen-bond donor dimer. Charge decomposition analysis indicates significant charge transfer from choline and chloride to the hydrogen-bond donor with a higher contribution from the cation, and a density of states analysis confirms the direction of the charge transfer. Consequently, the sum of the bond orders of the choline-Cl(-) interactions in the DESs correlates directly with the melting temperatures of the DESs, a correlation that offers insight into the effect of the tuning of the choline-Cl(-) interactions by the hydrogen-bond donors on the physical properties of the DESs. Finally, the differences in the vibrational entropy changes upon DES formation are consistent with the trend in the overall entropy changes upon DES formation.

  4. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  5. [Congenital chloride diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mónica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death.

  6. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  7. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  8. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  9. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  10. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635R - 00 / 004 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF VINYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 75 - 01 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) May 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S

  11. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R01 / 003 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 74 - 87 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2001 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.

  12. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  13. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  14. Chloride Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... practitioner determine if there is also an acid-base imbalance and helps to guide treatment. ^ Back to top What does the test result mean? An increased level of blood chloride (called hyperchloremia) usually indicates ... too much base is lost from the body (producing metabolic acidosis ) ...

  15. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  16. Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-Jing; Gu, Jian-Ming; Shen, Jin; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Wu, Su-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S)-8-aza-2-azonia­bicyclo­[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-8-meth­oxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro­quinoline-3-carb­oxy­lic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4 +·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes with two moxi­floxa­cinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water mol­ecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxi­floxa­cinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107 (3) and 0.118 (3) Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water mol­ecule and chloride anions participate in O—H⋯O, O—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding; weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure. PMID:22058817

  17. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  18. Studies on Chloride Channels and their Modulators.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vaishali M; Gupta, Satya P

    2016-01-01

    The prime roles of mutations in the genes, encoding chloride ion channels, in various human diseases of muscle, kidney, bone and brain, such as congenital myotonia, myotonic dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, osteopetrosis, epilepsy, glioma, etc., have been well established. Chloride ion channels are also responsible for glioma progression in brain and malaria parasite in red blood cells. The present article thus emphasises on the various diseases associated with chloride channel regulation and their modulators. Studies on various chloride channels and their modulators have been discussed in detail.

  19. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  20. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  1. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  2. Destruction of polyvinyl chloride under extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, M. T.; Serebriakova, R. V.; Serebriakov, V. N.; Zimin, P. N.; Nastenko, A. V.; Derevianchenko, L. G.; Antsifirova, N. P.; Visloukh, V. V.

    1982-08-01

    An common industrial application of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the extrusive insulation of electric wires and cables. Experimental results are presented on the thermal and mechanical destruction of PVC under extrusion. Under extrusion conditions (at temperatures higher than 150 C), the evolution of hydrogen chloride determines practically the entire process of PVC destruction. The use of the present data to establish hygienic standards regarding safe concentrations of PVC destruction products in the work environment is discussed.

  3. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  4. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes.

  5. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  6. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  7. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production ...

  8. Hydrogen chloride test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

  9. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 2005. PMID: 101209392 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101209392 Mason JB. Vitamins, trace ...

  10. CHLORIDE RETENTION IN EXPERIMENTAL HYDRONEPHROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Norman M.; Pulford, D. Schuyler

    1923-01-01

    1. In acute experimental hydronephrosis chloride retention occurs as well as retention of water, urea, and phenolsulfonephthalein. 2. If both water and chlorides are retained there may be no appreciable rise in the plasma chloride content. 3. When chlorides are retained, but not water, the chloride content of the plasma rises strikingly. 4. After the removal of the ureteral obstruction in acute hydronephrosis all renal functions, water, urea, and chloride excretion, may be rapidly restored in equal degree, or the chlorides may be retained temporarily while there is free excretion of water and urea. 5. In chronic hydronephrosis adequate daily excretion of urea and chlorides may be maintained by a compensatory polyuria. 6. Chloride retention or an abnormal chloride excretion may occur in certain renal lesions when there is no change in the urea, phenolsulfonephthalein, or water excretion. PMID:19868720

  11. Mechanistic characterization of chloride interferences in electrothermal atomization systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shekiro, J.M.; Skogerboe, R.K.; Taylor, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-controlled spectrometer with a photodiode array detector has been used for wavelength and temperature resolved characterization of the vapor produced by an electrothermal atomizer. The system has been used to study the chloride matrix interference on the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese and copper. The suppression of manganese and copper atom populations by matrix chlorides such as those of calcium and magnesium is due to the gas-phase formation of an analyte chloride species followed by the diffusion of significant fractions of these species from the atom cell prior to completion of the atomization process. The analyte chloride species cannot be formed when matrix chlorides with metal-chloride bond dissociation energies above those of the analyte chlorides are the principal entitles present. The results indicate that multiple wavelength spectrometry used to obtain temperature-resolved spectra is a viable tool in the mechanistic characterization of interference effects observed with electrothermal atomization systems. ?? 1988 American Chemical Society.

  12. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, M.-C.; Nielsen, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3− exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected. PMID:27635272

  13. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces.

    PubMed

    Gils, C; Eckhardt, M-C; Nielsen, P E; Nybo, M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  14. Cyclic Voltammetry of Silver Chloride in Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Eutectic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRY), Fused salts, Silver, Reduction(Chemistry), Dissolving, ChloridesSilver chloride, Cyclic voltammetry , *VoltammetryThe technique of cyclic ... voltammetry was employed to study the deposition and dissolution of silver metal at platinum wire electrodes in molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride

  15. Crystal structure of 4-carbamoylpyridinium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Simon M.; Prior, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The hydro­chloride salt of isonicotinamide, C6H7N2O+·Cl−, has been synthesized from a dilute solution of hydro­chloric acid in aceto­nitrile. The compound displays monoclinic symmetry (space group C2/c) at 150 K, similar to the related hydro­chloride salt of nicotinamide. The asymmetric unit contains one protonated isonicotinamide mol­ecule and a chloride anion. An array of hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, including a peculiar bifurcated pyridinium–chloride inter­action, results in linear chains running almost perpendicularly in the [150] and [1-50] directions within the structure. A description of the hydrogen-bonding network and comparison with similar compounds are presented. PMID:27375858

  16. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  17. On Barium Oxide Solubility in Barium-Containing Chloride Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-08-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl2-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl2-MCl systems.

  18. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  19. A Quick Reference on Chloride.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andrea A; de Morais, Helio Autran

    2017-03-01

    Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...

  1. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  2. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  3. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

  4. Role of indium-111 chloride imaging in osteoid osteoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Swischuk, L.E.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1986-10-01

    Indium-111 chloride imaging plays an important role in differentiating intracortical osteoid osteoma from chronic cortical abscess. The study also may be useful in the detection of intramedullary osteoid osteoma. Four patients who greatly benefited from indium-111 chloride imaging are presented.

  5. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  6. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-09-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

  7. Skin and soft tissue necrosis from calcium chloride in a deicer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min P; Raho, Vittorio J; Mak, John; Kaynar, A Murat

    2007-01-01

    Calcium chloride salt is the principle ingredient of many commercially available deicers. Calcium chloride melts snow and ice by its osmotic action. We present a case of skin and soft tissue necrosis associated with the use of a calcium chloride-containing deicer. Although calcium chloride is known to produce soft tissue necrosis if it extravasates during intravenous administration, necrosis and skin sloughing has rarely been described after topical exposure to this salt. Calcium chloride likely produces tissue injury from the heat liberated by mixing calcium chloride with water (exothermic reaction) and from direct calcium deposits in the skin (calcinosis cutis) and soft tissue.

  8. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    PubMed

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  9. Determination of Vinyl Chloride at ug/l. Level in Water by Gas Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellar, Thomas A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of vinyl chloride in water is presented. Vinyl chloride is transfered to the gas phase by bubbling inert gas through the water. After concentration on silica gel or Carbosieve-B, determination is by gas chromatography. Confirmation of vinyl chloride is by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Author/BT)

  10. Determination of Vinyl Chloride at ug/l. Level in Water by Gas Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellar, Thomas A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of vinyl chloride in water is presented. Vinyl chloride is transfered to the gas phase by bubbling inert gas through the water. After concentration on silica gel or Carbosieve-B, determination is by gas chromatography. Confirmation of vinyl chloride is by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Author/BT)

  11. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-10-01

    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  16. Atmospheric corrosion and chloride deposition on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Matthes, Steven A.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion and chloride deposition on metal surfaces was studied at an unpolluted coastal (marine) site, an unpolluted rural inland site, and a polluted urban site. Chloride deposition by both wet (precipitation) and dry deposition processes over a multi-year period was measured using ion chromatography analysis of incident precipitation and precipitation runoff from the surface of metal samples. Chloride deposition was measured on zinc, copper, lead, mild steel, and non-reactive blank panels, as well as two panels coated with thermal-sprayed zinc alloys. Chloride deposition measured by runoff chemistry was compared with chloride deposition measurements made by the ASTM wet candle technique. Corrosion mass loss as a function of distance from the ocean is presented for copper and mild steel in bold exposures on the west coast.

  17. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  18. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  19. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  20. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Popescu, L; Constantinescu, S; Cernescu, S

    1988-01-01

    Studies in human embryo fibroblasts infected with measles or herpes simplex virus showed a reduction in virus yield when cultures were pretreated with 1-10 mM lithium chloride doses. Maximum effect was obtained by a 1 h treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride, preceding viral infection by 19-24 hours. A specific antiviral effect against measles virus was manifest immediately after culture pretreatment. Intermittent treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride of cultures persistently infected with measles or herpes virus obtained from human myeloid K-562 cell line shows a reduction in the extracellular virus yield. In the K-562/herpes virus system, the culture treatment with lithium chloride and acyclovir (10 microM) has an additive inhibitory effect on virus production. The paper is focused on the mechanism of lithium chloride antiviral action and the expediency of lithium therapy in SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis).

  1. Chloride: the queen of electrolytes?

    PubMed

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O B

    2012-04-01

    Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general do not allocate chapters exclusively on hypochloremia or hyperchloremia and information on chloride other than channelopathies is scattered in the literature. To systematically review the function of chloride in man, data for this review include searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles including the search terms "chloride," "HCl," "chloride channel" "acid-base," "acidosis," "alkalosis," "anion gap" "strong anion gap" "Stewart," "base excess" and "lactate." In addition, internal medicine, critical care, nephrology and gastroenterology textbooks were evaluated on topics pertaining the assessment and management of acid-base disorders, including reference lists from journals or textbooks. Chloride is, after sodium, the most abundant electrolyte in serum, with a key role in the regulation of body fluids, electrolyte balance, the preservation of electrical neutrality, acid-base status and it is an essential component for the assessment of many pathological conditions. When assessing serum electrolytes, abnormal chloride levels alone usually signify a more serious underlying metabolic disorder, such as metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Chloride is an important component of diagnostic tests in a wide array of clinical situations. In these cases, chloride can be tested in sweat, serum, urine and feces. Abnormalities in chloride channel expression and function in many organs can cause a range of disorders. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Arlen R.; Delnick, Frank M.; Miller, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented.

  3. Electrical, thermal and abusive tests on lithium thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    Electrical characterizations, thermal characterizations, and outer limits tests of lithium thionyl chloride cells are discussed. Graphs of energy density vs power density and heat rate vs time are presented along with results of forced reversal and high rate discharge tests.

  4. Strong emission of methyl chloride from tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Yokouchi, Yoko; Ikeda, Masumi; Inuzuka, Yoko; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2002-03-14

    Methyl chloride is the largest natural source of ozone-depleting chlorine compounds, and accounts for about 15 per cent of the present atmospheric chlorine content. This contribution was likely to have been relatively greater in pre-industrial times, when additional anthropogenic sources-such as chlorofluorocarbons-were absent. Although it has been shown that there are large emissions of methyl chloride from coastal lands in the tropics, there remains a substantial shortfall in the overall methyl chloride budget. Here we present observations of large emissions of methyl chloride from some common tropical plants (certain types of ferns and Dipterocarpaceae), ranging from 0.1 to 3.7 microg per gram of dry leaf per hour. On the basis of these preliminary measurements, the methyl chloride flux from Dipterocarpaceae in southeast Asia alone is estimated at 0.91 Tg yr-1, which could explain a large portion of missing methyl chloride sources. With continuing tropical deforestation, natural sources of chlorine compounds may accordingly decrease in the future. Conversely, the abundance of massive ferns in the Carboniferous period may have created an atmosphere rich in methyl chloride.

  5. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    EEEElhIhEEEEEE 1111 1 - MI(CRO( fy Hl ff1Sf UIIIUN Ift I IA I~t Research and Development Technical Report DELET - TR - 78 - 0563 - F Cq LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE ...2b(1110) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery -10/1/78 - 11/30/80 6. PNING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Z %A a.~as B.,OWRACT OR...block number) Inorganic Electrolyte battery, Thionyl Chloride , lithium , high rate D cell, high rate flat cylindrical cell, laser designator battery. C//i

  6. Microwave evaluation of accelerated chloride ingress in mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, C.; Case, T.; Castle, M.; Zoughi, R.; Kurtis, K.

    2001-04-01

    Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures can be induced by the presence of chloride ions near the steel/concrete interface. To show the potential of microwave nondestructive testing techniques for evaluating chloride ingress, 8″×8″×8″ mortar specimens with different mixture designs were prepared. To accelerate chloride ingress, they were exposed to cyclical wet/dry conditions, where the wet condition included exposure to salt bath. A complete discussion of the results will be presented in this paper.

  7. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bench-to-bedside review: Chloride in critical illness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is the principal anion in the extracellular fluid and is the second main contributor to plasma tonicity. Its concentration is frequently abnormal in intensive care unit patients, often as a consequence of fluid therapy. Yet chloride has received less attention than any other ion in the critical care literature. New insights into its physiological roles have emerged together with progress in understanding the structures and functions of chloride channels. In clinical practice, interest in a physicochemical approach to acid-base physiology has directed renewed attention to chloride as a major determinant of acid-base status. It has also indirectly helped to generate interest in other possible effects of disorders of chloraemia. The present review summarizes key aspects of chloride physiology, including its channels, as well as the clinical relevance of disorders of chloraemia. The paper also highlights current knowledge on the impact of different types of intravenous fluids on chloride concentration and the potential effects of such changes on organ physiology. Finally, the review examines the potential intensive care unit practice implications of a better understanding of chloride. PMID:20663180

  9. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  10. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  11. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl−) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl− channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl− channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl− channel and Cl−/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl− channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl− channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl− current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl− channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl− channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  12. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  13. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton; Kimball, David Bryan; Skidmore, Bradley Evan

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  14. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g) of...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  20. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  1. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  3. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  4. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  5. Iron (III) chloride doping of CVD graphene.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Hsu, Allen L; Kong, Jing

    2014-10-03

    Chemical doping has been shown as an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. We present the results of our investigations into doping large area chemical vapor deposition graphene using Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl(3)). It is shown that evaporating FeCl(3) can increase the carrier concentration of monolayer graphene to greater than 10(14) cm(-2) and achieve resistances as low as 72 Ω sq(-1). We also evaluate other important properties of the doped graphene such as surface cleanliness, air stability, and solvent stability. Furthermore, we compare FeCl(3) to three other common dopants: Gold (III) Chloride (AuCl(3)), Nitric Acid (HNO(3)), and TFSA ((CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH). We show that compared to these dopants, FeCl(3) can not only achieve better sheet resistance but also has other key advantages including better solvent stability.

  6. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  7. Ammonium chloride poisoning in chronic renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Levene, Donald L.; Knight, Allan

    1974-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a long history of renal stone disease and urinary tract infection presented to the emergency room with exhaustion and air hunger. Laboratory data confirmed profound metabolic acidosis. Unduly large quantities of bicarbonate and potassium were required for correction of the deficits. She had been taking 6 g daily of ammonium chloride as a urine-acidifying agent for a period of six months in addition to agents directed against urinary tract infection. The combination of impaired renal function and effective hydrogen ion loading resulted in profound systemic acidosis. The metabolic derangements associated with the administration of ammonium chloride and its use as a therapeutic agent are discussed. PMID:4850503

  8. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    PubMed

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS.

  9. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-10-01

    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  13. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  14. Continuous real-time monitoring of chloride in geothermal areas in Yellowstone National Park: initial results from newly developed long-term in-situ chloride analyzers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapin, T.; Heasler, H.; Hurwitz, S.

    2007-12-01

    Chloride in the surface waters of Yellowstone National Park is primarily derived from magmatic/hydrothermal sources. Discrete chloride measurements, collected at weekly to monthly intervals, are a key component of the ongoing geothermal monitoring program conducted by Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and National Park Service scientists. Chloride flux, estimated from discrete chloride measurements and streamflow data, could potentially be used as a proxy for geothermal heat flux and volcanic-geothermal unrest in the Park. However, infrequent chloride sampling restricts our understanding of dynamic geothermal processes, and the lack of real- time chloride data limits our ability to provide early warning and timely response to geologic hazards in Yellowstone. We seek to combine real-time chloride and streamflow data to examine variations in chloride flux due to changes in the volcanic-geothermal system and to determine if real-time chloride flux data can be used as an early warning indicator of volcanic hazards in the park. To address these objectives, we have developed a low-cost instrument for long-term, real-time, in-situ chemical analysis, the Field Sequential Injection Analyzer (Field-SIA). The Field-SIA is self-calibrating, performs hourly analyses for over two months between service visits, and integrates with existing USGS streamflow gaging stations which provide solar power and satellite telemetry of real-time chloride data. The Field-SIA greatly increases chemical data collection while significantly decreasing the cost of sampling and analysis. We will present data from long-term, high-resolution, real-time chloride monitoring of: 1) Tantalus Creek which drains the Norris Geyser Basin; 2) the Firehole River which drains the Upper, Middle, and Lower Geyser Basins; and 3) the Yellowstone River near Gardiner, MT. Initial results suggest that chloride fluctuations at Tantalus Creek were linked to diel temperature cycling while chloride fluctuations at the

  15. Microwave nondestructive detection of chloride in cement based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benally, Aaron D.; Bois, Karl J.; Nowak, Paul S.; Zoughi, Reza

    1999-12-01

    Preliminary results pertaining to the near-field microwave nondestructive detection and evaluation of chloride in cement paste and mortar specimens are presented. The technique used for this purpose utilizes an open-ended rectangular waveguide at the aperture of which the reflection properties of the specimens are measured. It is shown that the magnitude of reflection coefficient is a useful parameter for detecting chloride in these specimens. Furthermore, the difference in the amount of chloride present in these various specimens, at the time of mixing, can also be determined. Reflection property measurements were conducted in S-band (2.6 GHz-3.95 GHz) and X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) for two sets of four mortar specimens with 0.50 and 0.60 water-to-cement ratio and varying salt (NaCl) contents added to the mixing water used in producing these specimens. It is shown that the reflection properties of these materials vary considerably as a function of their chloride content. Also, by monitoring the daily variation in the reflection coefficient of each specimen during the curing period, the effect of chloride on curing can be nondestructively ascertained. Finally, it is shown that the detection and evaluation of chloride content in cement based materials can be performed using a simple comparative process with respect to a non-contaminated specimen.

  16. The role of chloride in the lens of the eye.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J J; Jacob, T J

    1997-03-01

    Until recently, the investigation of membrane ion transport mechanisms and their relationship with cataract formation has mainly focused on sodium, potassium and calcium. The specific role of chloride in solute transport within the lens has been given little attention. Rather, chloride was considered as simply the counterion to sodium. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the importance of chloride and its involvement in the membrane ion transport systems within the lens. We summarize the general physiological and chemical properties of the chloride ion in the lens, with reference to the regional ion fluxes generated by its special anatomical and electrical structure. We also present our current knowledge of the principal ion transport mechanisms associated with chloride, with particular emphasis on Cl- channels, and discuss their possible physiological significance. Maintenance of a constant cell volume is an evolutionarily ancient homeostatic process and we present some important findings associated with volume regulatory mechanisms in the whole lens and in single lens cells. Finally, we review and discuss the link between cataract formation and chloride channel dysfunction.

  17. Microwave nondestructive detection of chloride in cement based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, Aaron D.; Bois, Karl J.; Zoughi, Reza; Nowak, Paul S.

    1999-12-02

    Preliminary results pertaining to the near-field microwave nondestructive detection and evaluation of chloride in cement paste and mortar specimens are presented. The technique used for this purpose utilizes an open-ended rectangular waveguide at the aperture of which the reflection properties of the specimens are measured. It is shown that the magnitude of reflection coefficient is a useful parameter for detecting chloride in these specimens. Furthermore, the difference in the amount of chloride present in these various specimens, at the time of mixing, can also be determined. Reflection property measurements were conducted in S-band (2.6 GHz-3.95 GHz) and X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) for two sets of four mortar specimens with 0.50 and 0.60 water-to-cement ratio and varying salt (NaCl) contents added to the mixing water used in producing these specimens. It is shown that the reflection properties of these materials vary considerably as a function of their chloride content. Also, by monitoring the daily variation in the reflection coefficient of each specimen during the curing period, the effect of chloride on curing can be nondestructively ascertained. Finally, it is shown that the detection and evaluation of chloride content in cement based materials can be performed using a simple comparative process with respect to a non-contaminated specimen.

  18. High chloride content calcium silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojing; Karpukhina, Natalia; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2017-03-08

    Chloride is known to volatilize from silicate glass melts and until now, only a limited number of studies on oxychloride silicate glasses have been reported. In this paper we have synthesized silicate glasses that retain large amounts of CaCl2. The CaCl2 has been added to the calcium metasilicate composition (CaO·SiO2). Glasses were produced via a melt quench route and an average of 70% of the chloride was retained after melting. Up to 31.6 mol% CaCl2 has been successfully incorporated into these silicate glasses without the occurrence of crystallization. (29)Si MAS-NMR spectra showed the silicon being present mainly as a Q(2) silicate species. This suggests that chloride formed Cl-Ca(n) species, rather than Si-Cl bonds. Upon increasing the CaCl2 content, the Tg reduced markedly from 782 °C to 370 °C. Glass density and glass crystallization temperature decreased linearly with an increase in the CaCl2 content. However, both linear regressions revealed a breakpoint at a CaCl2 content just below 20 mol%. This might be attributed to a significant change in the structure and is also correlated with the nature of the crystallizing phases formed upon heat treatment. The glasses with less than 19.2 mol% CaCl2 crystallized to wollastonite, whilst the compositions with CaCl2 content equal to or greater than 19.2 mol% are thought to crystallize to CaCl2. In practice, the crystallization of CaCl2 could not occur until the crystallization temperature fell below the melting point of CaCl2. The implications of the results along with the high chloride retention are discussed.

  19. Health advisory for zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, J.M.; Gordon, L.; Kirman, C.; Roberts, W.C.

    1992-09-01

    The Health Advisory (HA) provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with zinc chloride contamination of drinking water. Based on available toxicity data the HA values for zinc chloride are given. Zinc chloride is classified as Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. Health Advisories describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. The HAs, developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water (OW), are not legally enforceable Federal standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available. Health Advisories are developed for One-day, Ten-day, Longer-term and Lifetime exposures based on data describing noncarcinogenic end points of toxicity. For those substances that are known or probable human carcinogens, according to the EPA classification scheme, Lifetime HAs are not recommended.

  20. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  1. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  2. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  3. Histochemical technique for the detection of chloride cells in fish.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno Fiorelini; Caetano, Flávio Henrique

    2009-12-01

    Chloride cells are responsible for ionic exchanges in the fish gill. These cells have been widely studied, considering its importance in vital functions of the gill, and because they proliferate when exposed to unfavorable environments. One of the main characteristic of these cells is an acidic cytoplasm, which has been used for identification through histochemical techniques with dyes such as Toluidine Blue and Hematoxylin and Eosin. However, these techniques can be problematic, since epithelial cells can, in certain situations, acquire acidic characteristics similar to those of chloride cells, thus staining in a similar way. Among other functions, chloride cells play a role in calcium uptake from the environment, and therefore have a high concentration of this element. Based on this information, this study aims at developing a specific protocol for the identification of chloride cells. With this purpose, the Von Kossa method specific for calcium was used combined with Hematoxylin counterstaining. Chloride cells had cytoplasm slightly stained with Hematoxylin and the presence of dark stained granules dispersed in the cytoplasm resulted from the Von Kossa reaction due to the calcium present in these cells. This was not found in any other gill cell. Thus, the technique used in this study was specific and efficient to identify chloride cells in fish gills.

  4. Infiltration History and Spatial Variability Derived from Chloride Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, J. C.; Jaimes, A.; Woocay, A.

    2007-12-01

    Chloride mass balance was applied to drill cuttings collected from the unsaturated zone surrounding the Yucca Mountain Project. Samples correspond to four Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program boreholes where air was used as the drilling fluid to preserve sample integrity. Infiltration dates before present and pore velocities were calculated using a range of annual chloride deposition rates obtained from the literature. The lower chloride loading corresponds to contemporary values, and the upper loading corresponds to an attempt to correct for either past greater chloride deposition or a past higher precipitation with chloride concentration remaining constant. In each borehole, pore velocities present two distinct slopes corresponding to different infiltration regimes. The first one, near the surface, presents the slowest infiltration rate. The second pore velocity corresponds to a past wetter period (late Pleistocene to early Holocene) with much faster pore velocities. Results indicate that pore velocities among the boreholes differ at most by a factor of approximately 3.5. Boreholes located in areas of little or gradual slope present faster infiltration rates than those in areas of greater slope. Borehole NC-EWDP-22S, near Fortymile Wash east of Yucca Mountain, exhibits the most rapid pore velocities where as boreholes further from the wash demonstrate lower velocities. These results denote the effects climate change, and runoff and run-on at the surface have over infiltration rates in arid regions.

  5. Mutagenicity studies of vinyl chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Fabricant, J D; Legator, M S

    1981-01-01

    Mutagenicity studies in both man and in test organisms clearly demonstrate positive mutagenic activity of vinyl chloride. In terms of the mutagenicity studies using a variety of in vitro procedures covering both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, positive effects were found. Cytogenetic in vivo studies in animals and in humans indicate not only somatic mutations, but also germinal effects with this chemical. PMID:7333237

  6. High performance liquid chromatography of benzalkonium chlorides--variation in commercial preparations.

    PubMed

    Euerby, M R

    1985-03-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been used to identify and determine the various alkyl benzyldimethylammonium chloride homologues (C10 to C16) present in commercial benzalkonium chloride preparations. The assay is especially suited for routine quality control work since it has proved to be quick and easily reproducible. It has been found that there can be a large degree of variation in the quality of differing benzalkonium chloride sources.

  7. Toxicological profile for methylene chloride. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride is intended to characterize the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information.

  8. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  9. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acids to form amines that are subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium... then reacted with 2-ethylhexanal, reduced, methylated, and subsequently reacted with methyl chloride...

  10. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acids to form amines that are subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium... then reacted with 2-ethylhexanal, reduced, methylated, and subsequently reacted with methyl chloride...

  11. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  12. Thiocyanate and chloride as competing substrates for myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed Central

    van Dalen, C J; Whitehouse, M W; Winterbourn, C C; Kettle, A J

    1997-01-01

    The neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase uses H2O2 to oxidize chloride, bromide, iodide and thiocyanate to their respective hypohalous acids. Chloride is considered to be the physiological substrate. However, a detailed kinetic study of its substrate preference has not been undertaken. Our aim was to establish whether myeloperoxidase oxidizes thiocyanate in the presence of chloride at physiological concentrations of these substrates. We determined this by measuring the rate of H2O2 loss in reactions catalysed by the enzyme at various concentrations of each substrate. The relative specificity constants for chloride, bromide and thiocyanate were 1:60:730 respectively, indicating that thiocyanate is by far the most favoured substrate for myeloperoxidase. In the presence of 100 mM chloride, myeloperoxidase catalysed the production of hypothiocyanite at concentrations of thiocyanate as low as 25 microM. With 100 microM thiocyanate, about 50% of the H2O2 present was converted into hypothiocyanite, and the rate of hypohalous acid production equalled the sum of the individual rates obtained when each of these anions was present alone. The rate of H2O2 loss catalysed by myeloperoxidase in the presence of 100 mM chloride doubled when 100 microM thiocyanate was added, and was maximal with 1mM thiocyanate. This indicates that at plasma concentrations of thiocyanate and chloride, myeloperoxidase is far from saturated. We conclude that thiocyanate is a major physiological substrate of myeloperoxidase, regardless of where the enzyme acts. As a consequence, more consideration should be given to the oxidation products of thiocyanate and to the role they play in host defence and inflammation. PMID:9359420

  13. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  14. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  11. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A What's in this ... en el sudor What It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an inherited ...

  12. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese dichloride...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese dichloride...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated products made of... product means a product made wholly or partly from polyvinyl chloride, and which does not require...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride....

  8. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test A A A What's in this ... cloruro en el sudor What It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an ...

  9. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  13. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  14. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in asparagus packed...

  15. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  16. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  17. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  18. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  19. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  20. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  4. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  12. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J H

    1981-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases. PMID:7333231

  2. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  3. Tamoxifen does not inhibit the swell activated chloride channel in human neutrophils during the respiratory burst

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-10-31

    Effective functioning of neutrophils relies upon electron translocation through the NADPH oxidase (NOX). The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential in activated human neutrophils. Swelling activated chloride channels have been demonstrated in part to counteract the depolarisation generated by the NADPH oxidase I{sub e}. In the present study, the effects of inhibitors of swell activated chloride channels on ROS production and on the swelling activated chloride conductance was investigated in activated human neutrophils. Tamoxifen (10 {mu}M), a specific inhibitor for swell activated chloride channels in neutrophils, completely inhibited both the PMA and FMLP stimulated respiratory burst. This inhibition of the neutrophil respiratory burst was not due to the blocking effect of tamoxifen on the swelling activated chloride conductance in these cells. These results demonstrate that a tamoxifen insensitive swell activated chloride channel has important significance during the neutrophil respiratory burst.

  4. Interactions between chloride and cement-paste materials.

    PubMed

    Barberon, Fabien; Baroghel-Bouny, Véronique; Zanni, Hélène; Bresson, Bruno; d'Espinose de la Caillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Malosse, Lucie; Gan, Zehong

    2005-02-01

    The durability of cement-based materials with respect to exterior aggressions is one of the current priorities in civil engineering. Depending on their use, the cement-based materials can be exposed to different types of aggressive environments. For instance, damages to concrete structures in contact with a saline environment (sea water on bridges, deicing salts on roads, etc.) are of utmost importance. Upon exposure to saline water, Cl- ions penetrate into the structures and subsequently lead to reinforcement corrosion. Chloride attack is often combined with other aggressive influences such as temperature (e.g., freezing) or the ingress of other ions (e.g., sulfates in sea water). We therefore aim to explore the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the structural chemistry of cement paste. Existing studies about reinforcement corrosion by chloride have focused on the penetration of Cl- ions and the comparison between "free" ions (water-soluble ions) and bound ones. However, little is known about the fixation mechanisms, the localization of Cl in the cement matrix and the structural interaction between Cl and the silicate and aluminate hydrate phases present in cement paste. We present here results of a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance study on the fixation of chloride in the hydration products and the characterization of new phases potentially appearing due to chloride ingress.

  5. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  6. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  7. Preparation of semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride.

    PubMed

    Naghaway, J; Soine, T O

    1979-05-01

    Semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride (II) was prepared by monoquaternization of (+)-tubocurine. The method involved treating (+)-tubocurine with a 0.5 M equivalent of hydrochloric acid prior to quaternization with methyl iodide, followed by neutralization and iodide-chloride ion-exchange. Column chromatography and crystallization procedures were utilized for pure semisynthetic II preparation. The neuromuscular junction blocking activities of the semisynthetic and commercial II were determined by the in vivo cat hypoglossal nerve-tongue muscle preparation. No delectable differences among physical constants, spectral data, and neuromuscular junction blocking activities were noted between the commercial product and the semisynthetic II. This result substantiates the chemical and biological data for the well-accepted new formula for II. The unexplained M + n14 mass spectral peaks shown by the curare-type bases are characteristic of the molecular species rather than a result of contaminants.

  8. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Kleizen, B; Braakman, I; de Jonge, H R

    2000-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Whereas a key role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in CFTR-channel gating has been firmly established, more recent studies have provided clear evidence for the existence of a second level of cAMP regulation, i.e. the exocytotic recruitment of CFFR to the plasma membrane and its endocytotic retrieval. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR Cl- channel has sofar been demonstrated only in a subset of CFTR-expressing cell types. However, with the introduction of more sensitive methods to measure CFTR cycling and submembrane localization, it might turn out to be a more general phenomenon that could contribute importantly to both the regulation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport itself and to the regulation of other transporters and CFTR-modulated cellular functions. This review aims to summarize the present state of knowledge regarding polarized and regulated CFTR trafficking and endosomal recycling in epithelial cells, to discuss present gaps in our understanding of these processes at the cellular and molecular level, and to consider its possible implications for cystic fibrosis.

  9. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  10. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  11. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Apical Chloride Channel in Necturus Gallbladder Inhibit the Chloride Conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Arthur L.; Tsai, Lih-Min; Falk, Ronald J.

    1989-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The channel or a closely related molecule is present in the membrane whether or not the pathway is open, since, in addition to inhibiting the conductance of the open channel, the antibody also bound to the membrane in the resting state and prevented subsequent opening of the channel. The antibody was shown to recognize, by ELISA, epitopes from the Necturus gallbladder and small intestine. Finally, by Western blot analysis of Necturus gallbladder homogenates, the antibody was shown to recognize two protein bands of Mr 219,000 and Mr 69,000. This antibody should permit isolation and characterization of this important ion channel.

  13. Elusive Presence of Chloride in Mixed Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Colella, Silvia; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pellegrino, Giovanna; Alberti, Alessandra; Guerra, Valentino L P; Masi, Sofia; Listorti, Andrea; Rizzo, Aurora; Condorelli, Guglielmo Guido; De Angelis, Filippo; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2014-10-16

    The role of chloride in the MAPbI3-xClx perovskite is still limitedly understood, albeit subjected of much debate. Here, we present a combined angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) and first-principles DFT modeling to investigate the MAPbI3-xClx/TiO2 interface. AR-XPS analyses carried out on ad hoc designed bilayers of MAPbI3-xClx perovskite deposited onto a flat TiO2 substrate reveal that the chloride is preferentially located in close proximity to the perovskite/TiO2 interface. DFT calculations indicate the preferential location of chloride at the TiO2 interface compared to the bulk perovskite due to an increased chloride-TiO2 surface affinity. Furthermore, our calculations clearly demonstrate an interfacial chloride-induced band bending, creating a directional "electron funnel" that may improve the charge collection efficiency of the device and possibly affecting also recombination pathways. Our findings represent a step forward to the rationalization of the peculiar properties of mixed halide perovskite, allowing one to further address material and device design issues.

  14. Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Drost, Gea; Stunnenberg, Bas C; Trip, Jeroen; Borm, George; McGill, Kevin C; Ginjaar, Ieke H B; van der Kooi, Arendina W; Zwarts, Machiel J; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Faber, Catharina G; Stegeman, Dick F; Lateva, Zoia

    2015-01-01

    Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myotonia has its basis in an electrical instability of the sarcolemmal membrane. In the present study we examine the discriminative power of the resulting myotonic discharges for these disorders. Needle electromyography was performed by an electromyographer blinded for genetic diagnosis in 66 non-dystrophic myotonia patients (32 chloride and 34 sodium channelopathy). Five muscles in each patient were examined. Individual trains of myotonic discharges were extracted and analyzed with respect to firing characteristics. Myotonic discharge characteristics in the rectus femoris muscle almost perfectly discriminated chloride from sodium channelopathy patients. The first interdischarge interval as a single variable was longer than 30 ms in all but one of the chloride channelopathy patients and shorter than 30 ms in all of the sodium channelopathy patients. This resulted in a detection rate of over 95%. Myotonic discharges of a single muscle can be used to better guide toward a molecular diagnosis in non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes.

  15. Microstructural Evolution of Chloride-Cleaned Silicon Carbide Aluminum Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Balogun, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the synergy between reinforcement surface modifications on the evolution of microstructures of AA6011-silicon carbide particle (SiCp) composites in multidirectional solidification. Silicon carbide particles (SiCp) were cleaned with ammonium chloride, tin(II) chloride, sodium chloride, and palladium(II) chloride and used as reinforcement to cast AA6011-SiCp composites by applying the stir casting method. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the morphology and phases present, respectively, in the composite material. Results show that wetting agents were effective as they inhibited the formation of Al4C3 in all modified composites. The modified SiCp was found to have varying effects on the morphology, dendrite arm size and direction, size and configuration of AlFeSi, and the amount of eutectic silicon depending on the concentration of the reagent and cleaning time. The highest effect was shown by the use of 40 g/L of tin(II) chloride. The composites had short dendritic arms, good interfacial interaction, and only a few crystals of AlFeSi.

  16. The influence of chloride on interface kinetics and morphology of copper electrodeposits on copper single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qunwei

    The influence of chloride on the kinetics and morphology of copper electrodeposition on copper single crystal in acidified copper sulfate solution was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by electro-analytical methods. AFM was employed to image deposits on low-index single crystal copper surface formed under potential control in a fluid electrolyte. The kinetic parameters for cathodic deposition of copper on the same surface from acid sulfate and chloride solution were measured by galvanostatic polarization. Chloride has a great influence on the morphology of copper deposits Isotropic structures were obtained only in high purity sulfate solution, whereas anisotropic structures emerged when even trace amounts of chloride were present. Chloride ion stabilizes terraces oriented along preferred directions on single crystal surfaces. While deposition in pure sulfate solution is uniform and isotropic, in chloride solution it is source (or nucleation) limited. As a result, step propagation is an important mechanism of growth in chloride solution. Spiral growth in particular was observed only in chloride solution. Chloride changes the reaction mechanism of copper deposition as well. When chloride is present, the reduction of the intermediate Cu+ to Cu becomes rate limiting. Additional effects of chloride include adsorption, desorption, and CuCl precipitation on the substrate. Three regions in the polarization curve were observed. The appearance of a limiting current in the second region is due to Precipitation of a film of CuCl, which blocks deposition. Charge transfer was not the rate-controlling step in this region. At higher current densities, in the third region, the dissolution of the CuCl film follows the Tafel form in dilute chloride solution. The Tafel slopes are 40 to 120 mV/decade in the Tafel region depending on chloride and cupric ion concentration. Chloride and oxygen are competitors in the copper cathodic reduction process. Chloride ions stabilize the

  17. Wetting properties and critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bukiet, Frédéric; Couderc, Guillaume; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cuisinier, Frederic; About, Imad; Charrier, Anne; Candoni, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (1) assess the effect of the addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite on its wetting properties, contact angle, and surface energy; (2) determine the critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite; and (3) investigate the influence of addition of benzalkonium chloride on the free chlorine level, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic properties of the mixture. Solutions of benzalkonium chloride, with concentrations ranging from 0%-1%, were mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite and tested as follows. The wetting properties were investigated by measuring the contact angle of the solutions on a nondehydrated dentin surface by using the static sessile drop method. The pending drop technique was subsequently used to determine the surface energy of the solutions. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite was calculated from the data. When 2.4% NaOCl was mixed with benzalkonium chloride at the critical micellar concentration, 3 parameters were tested: free chloride content, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis. The contact angle (P < .001) as well as the surface energy (P < .001) significantly decreased with increasing benzalkonium chloride concentrations. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite was 0.008%. At this concentration, the addition of benzalkonium chloride had no effect on the free chlorine content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial efficiency of the mixture. The addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite at the critical micellar concentration reduced the contact angle by 51.2% and the surface energy by 53.4%, without affecting the free chloride content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial properties of the mixture. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chloride ion conduction without water coordination in the pore of ClC protein.

    PubMed

    Ko, Youn Jo; Jo, Won Ho

    2010-02-01

    In the present work, we have found by an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation that hydrogen atoms originating from the residues of a prokaryotic ClC protein (EcClC) stabilize the chloride ion without water molecules in the pore of ClC protein. When the chloride ion conduction is simulated by pulling a chloride ion along the pore axis, the free energy barrier for chloride ion conduction is calculated to be low (4 kcal/mol), although the chloride ion is stripped of its hydration shell as it passes through the dehydrated pore region. The calculation of the number of hydrogen atoms surrounding the chloride ion reveals that water molecules hydrating the chloride ion are replaced by polar and non-polar hydrogen atoms protruding from the protein residues. From the analysis of the pair interaction energy between the chloride ion and these hydrogen atoms, it is realized that the hydrogen atoms from the protein residues stabilize the chloride ion at the dehydrated region instead of water molecules, by which the energetic penalty for detaching water molecules from the permeating ion is compensated.

  19. Chloride concentrations in human hepatic cytosol and mitochondria are a function of age.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stephan C; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Stacpoole, Peter W; James, Margaret O

    2015-04-10

    We recently reported that, in a concentration-dependent manner, chloride protects hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 from inactivation by dichloroacetate, an investigational drug used in treating various acquired and congenital metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of chloride ions in normal physiology, and decades of study of chloride transport across membranes, the literature lacks information on chloride concentrations in animal tissues other than blood. In this study we measured chloride concentrations in human liver samples from male and female donors aged 1 day to 84 years (n = 97). Because glutathione transferase zeta 1 is present in cytosol and, to a lesser extent, in mitochondria, we measured chloride in these fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis following conversion of the free chloride to pentafluorobenzylchloride. We found that chloride concentration decreased with age in hepatic cytosol but increased in liver mitochondria. In addition, chloride concentrations in cytosol, (105.2 ± 62.4 mM; range: 24.7-365.7 mM) were strikingly higher than those in mitochondria (4.2 ± 3.8 mM; range 0.9-22.2 mM). These results suggest a possible explanation for clinical observations seen in patients treated with dichloroacetate, whereby children metabolize the drug more rapidly than adults following repeated doses, and also provide information that may influence our understanding of normal liver physiology.

  20. Chloride concentrations in human hepatic cytosol and mitochondria are a function of age

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Stephan C.; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Stacpoole, Peter W.; James, Margaret O.

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that, in a concentration-dependent manner, chloride protects hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 from inactivation by dichloroacetate, an investigational drug used in treating various acquired and congenital metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of chloride ions in normal physiology, and decades of study of chloride transport across membranes, the literature lacks information on chloride concentrations in animal tissues other than blood. In this study we measured chloride concentrations in human liver samples from male and female donors aged 1 day to 84 years (n = 97). Because glutathione transferase zeta 1 is present in cytosol and, to a lesser extent, in mitochondria, we measured chloride in these fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis following conversion of the free chloride to pentafluorobenzylchloride. We found that chloride concentration decreased with age in hepatic cytosol but increased in liver mitochondria. In addition, chloride concentrations in cytosol, (105.2 ± 62.4 mM; range: 24.7 – 365.7 mM) were strikingly higher than those in mitochondria (4.2 ± 3.8 mM; range 0.9 – 22.2 mM). These results suggest a possible explanation for clinical observations seen in patients treated with dichloroacetate, whereby children metabolize the drug more rapidly than adults following repeated doses, and also provide information that may influence our understanding of normal liver physiology. PMID:25748576

  1. Chronic effects of mercuric chloride ingestion on rat adrenocortical function

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Chansouria, J.P.N. )

    1989-09-01

    Mercurial contamination of environment has increased. Mercury accumulates in various organs and adversely affects their functions. Some of the most prominent toxic effects of inorganic mercury compounds include neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Besides this, mercury has also been reported to affect various endocrine glands like pituitary, thyroid, gonadal and adrenal glands. There have been no reports on the toxic effects of chronic oral administration of varying doses of mercuric chloride on adrenocortical function in albino rats. The present work was undertaken to study the adrenocortical response to chronic oral administration of mercuric chloride of varying dose and duration in albino rats.

  2. Rapid determination of total benzalkonium chloride content in ophthalmic formulation.

    PubMed

    Labranche, Louis-Philippe; Dumont, Suzanne N; Levesque, Suzanne; Carrier, Alain

    2007-02-19

    A simple and rapid reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for routine analysis of total benzalkonium chloride in ophthalmic formulations. The analysis involves simple sample preparation using the mobile phase as the diluent. The method uses a Waters SymmetryShield RP-18 (75 mm x 4.6 mm, 3.5 microm particle size) column and a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol-potassium phosphate (pH 3.0; 7.5 mM) (68:32, v/v). Using these conditions, three major homologs of the benzalkonium chloride (C(12), C(14) and C(16)) were separated in less then 7 min. Furthermore, recoveries ranging from 97% to 99% at three levels of the label claim of total benzalkonium chloride content were obtained for different ophthalmic formulations. Data supporting the development and validation of this method are presented.

  3. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  4. Toxic effects of mercuric chloride, methylmercuric chloride, and Emisan 6 (an organic mercurial fungicide) on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Kirubagaran, R.; Joy, K.P.

    1988-12-01

    Mercurial toxicity in fishes has been focused mainly on tissue uptake and subcellular distribution, nephrotoxicity, development, hatching and survivability of young ones and teratology. Very few studies have been attempted to investigate Hg toxicity on gonadal activity of fishes throughout the breeding season. In a previous investigation the authors have studied the toxic effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/), methylmercuric chloride (CH/sub 3/HgCl) and emisan 6 (an alkoxyalkyl fungicide) on the survival and histology of the kidney of the catfish, Clarias batrachus. The present report deals with toxic effects of these mercurials on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish, an economically important species in the subcontinent.

  5. Filtrates & Residues: Experimental Work with Tin (II) Chloride in a High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Manuela Martin

    1988-01-01

    Presents a high school chemistry lab experiment using tin (II) chloride to explore the concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Presents methodology and the chemistry involved. Offers questions for the students. (MVL)

  6. Filtrates & Residues: Experimental Work with Tin (II) Chloride in a High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Manuela Martin

    1988-01-01

    Presents a high school chemistry lab experiment using tin (II) chloride to explore the concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Presents methodology and the chemistry involved. Offers questions for the students. (MVL)

  7. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  8. Separating refractory and non-refractory particulate chloride and estimating chloride depletion by aerosol mass spectrometry in a marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuaaman, I.; Li, S.-M.; Hayden, K. L.; Onasch, T. B.; Massoli, P.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; McLaren, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol composition and concentration measurements along the coast of California were obtained using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) onboard the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex study in 2010. This paper focuses on the measurement of aerosol chloride using the HR-AMS that can be ambiguous in regions with significant quantities of sea salt aerosols. This ambiguity arises due to large differences in the sensitivity of the HR-AMS to refractory chloride species (i.e., NaCl) and non refractory chloride species (i.e., NH4Cl, HCl, etc.). Using the HR-AMS, the aerosol chloride signal is typically quantified using ion signals for 35Cl+, H35Cl+, 37Cl+ and H37Cl+ (HxCl+). During this study, the highest aerosol chloride signal was observed during sea sweep experiments when the source of the aerosol chloride was NaCl present in artificially generated sea salt aerosols even though the HR-AMS has significantly lower sensitivity to such refractory species. Other prominent ion signals that arise from NaCl salt were also observed at m/z 22.99 for Na+ and m/z 57.96 for Na35Cl+ during both sea sweep experiments and during periods of ambient measurements. Thus, refractory NaCl contributes significantly to the HxCl+ signal, interfering with attempts to quantify non sea salt chloride (nssCl). It was found that during ambient aerosol measurements, the interference in the HxCl+ signal from sea salt chloride (ssCl) was as high as 89%, but with a study wide average of 10%. The Na35Cl+ ion signal was found to be a good tracer for NaCl. We outline a method to establish nssCl in the ambient aerosols by subtracting the sea salt chloride (ssCl) signal from the HxCl+ signal. The ssCl signal is derived from the Na35Cl+ ion tracer signal and the HxCl+ to Na35Cl+ ratio established from the sea sweep experiments. Ambient submicron concentrations of ssCl were also established using the Na35Cl

  9. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    PubMed Central

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  10. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOEpatents

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  11. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-03

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials.

  12. The development of chloride ion selective polypyrrole thin film on a layer-by-layer carbon nanotube working electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Lynch, Jerome

    2011-04-01

    A chloride ion selective thin film sensor is proposed for measuring chloride ion concentration, which is an environmental parameter correlated to corrosion. In this work, electrochemical polymerization of Polypyrrole (PPy) doped with chloride ions was achieved on the top of a carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film as a working electrode in an electrochemical cell. The underlying CNT layer conjugated with doped PPy thin film can form a multifunctional "selfsensing" material platform for chloride ion detection in a concrete environment. The paper presents the first type of work using CNT and PPy as hybrid materials for chloride ion sensing. Electrochemical polymerization of PPy results in oxidation that yields an average of one positive charge distributed over four pyrrole units. This positive charge is compensated by negatively-charged chloride ions in the supporting electrolyte. In effect, the chloride ion-doped PPy has become molecularly imprinted with chloride ions thereby providing it with some degree of perm-selectivity for chloride ions. The detection limit of the fabricated chloride ion-doped PPy thin film can reach 10-8 M and selectivity coefficients are comparable to those in the literature. The reported work aims to lay a strong foundation for detecting chloride ion concentrations in the concrete environment.

  13. High Efficiency Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Cell.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    AD-Al14 672 HONEYWELL POWER SOURCES CENTER HORSHAM PA F/S 10/3 HIGH EFFICIENCY LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLo(U) APR 82 N DODDAPANEN! OAAK20-81-C...CHART NATIONAl BUREAU OF STANDARDS 1963 A Research and Development Technical Report DELET-TR-81-0381-3 HIGH EFFICIENCY LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELL...reverse aide it necessary and Identify by block number) Thionyl chloride , lithium , high discharge rates, low temperatures, catalysis, cyclic

  14. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  15. Determination of Chloride in Hydraulic Fluids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    chloride stock solution (1000 mg/L) was prepared by dissolv- ing sodium chloride in deionized distilled water. A 5M sodium nitrate solu- tion was used as...electrode as the reference electrode. Calibration curves were prepared by measuring the potentials (millivolts) of standard chloride solution (1, 10, 100...Therefore, it is recommended that only 10% (v/v) hydraulic fluid ( ehtylene glycol) solutions be used for analysis. The electrode must not stay in the

  16. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution and...

  17. Killifish opercular skin: a flat epithelium with a high density of chloride cells.

    PubMed

    Karnaky, K G; Kinter, W B

    1977-03-01

    In teleosts the head region, particularly the gills, plays the key role in osmoregulatory NaCl transport, presumably by mechanisms located in the chloride cell. As interest has focused on specific mechanisms of chloride cell function, two classical preparations, the intact fish and the isolated, perfused gill, have continued to serve as the only available model systems. However, both of these preparations have severe limitations, e.g., as they are not flat sheets, they cannot be studied readily under the ideal thermodynamic conditions achieved with the short-circuit current technique. The present sutdy describes the histology and ultrastructure of a particular area of skin in the head region of both killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) and sea raven (Hemitripterus americanus). This skin lies on the inside of the operculum and possesses a flat epithelium containing chloride cells. In the present study the identity of the chloride cell in this epithelium was definitively established with the electron microscope. Although the opercular epithelium from the marine sea raven contains few chloride cells, that from the euryhaline killifish adapted to pond water, 100%-, and 200% artificial seawater is predominately chloride cells. Significantly, the teleost gill has never been reported to contain more than 10% chloride cells. Thus the opercular skin of the killifish can serve as a model to study the adaptive role of chloride cells in euryhaline teleosts. A separate electrophysiological study has deminstrated that the short-circuit current technique can be applied to this skin.

  18. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  19. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  20. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  1. Enrofloxacin hydro-chloride dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 (+)·Cl(-)·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb-oxy-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di-hydro-quin-o-lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl-piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol-ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo-propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O-H⋯Cl, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π-π inter-action between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array.

  2. Arsenic removal by ferric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G.; Chen, P.Y.; Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M.; Liang, S.

    1996-04-01

    Bench-scale studies were conducted in model freshwater systems to investigate how various parameters affected arsenic removal during coagulation with ferric chloride and arsenic adsorption onto preformed hydrous ferric oxide. Parameters included arsenic oxidation state and initial concentration, coagulant dosage or adsorbent concentration, pH, and the presence of co-occurring inorganic solutes. Comparison of coagulation and adsorption experiments and of experimental results with predictions based on surface complexation modeling demonstrated that adsorption is an important (though not the sole) mechanism governing arsenic removal during coagulation. Under comparable conditions, better removal was observed with arsenic(V) [As(V)] than with arsenic(III) [As(III)] in both coagulation and adsorption experiments. Below neutral pH values, As(III) removal-adsorption was significantly decreased in the presence of sulfate, whereas only a slight decrease in As(V) removal-adsorption was observed. At high pH, removal-adsorption of As(V) was increased in the presence of calcium. Removal of As(V) during coagulation with ferric chloride is both more efficient and less sensitive than that of As(III) to variations in source water composition.

  3. XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

  4. Pharmacodynamics of benzyl chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S; Abdel-Rahman, M S

    1989-09-01

    In today's world of high industrialization, toxicity and pollution have become common terms of references. Both laymen and experts are becoming increasingly concerned about various health hazards created by occupational and industrial wastes dumped in and around public places. Benzyl chloride (BCl) was one of the chemicals dumped by Hooker Chemicals in Love Canal, N.Y. Benzyl chloride (BCl) is extensively used in industry in the manufacture of dyes, perfumes, resins, and synthetic tannins. It has been found at various dump sites and industrial wastes, which has led to potential hazards to health. This study was conducted to investigate the pharmacodynamics of BCl in rats. Rats were given 14C-BCl in corn oil by gavage. The peak plasma level was reached at 30 min and began to decline. BCl elimination pattern follows a two compartment model. The distribution half-life (alpha-phase) was 1.3 hr while the half-life of elimination (beta-phase) was 58.53 hr. Distribution studies after 48 hr of BCl administration revealed that the concentration of radioisotopes was highest in the stomach, gastric content, ileum, and duodenum followed by liver, adrenal, bone marrow, whole blood, pancreas, lung, esophagus, skin, kidney, heart, thymus, fat, testes, spleen, brain, and carcass. Approximately 76% of the initial dose was excreted by kidney during the 72 hr studies. About 7% was detected in expired air as 14CO2, while less than 1.3% was present as 14C-BCl or 14C-BCl metabolites in expired air during 72 hr. Metabolism studies revealed that S-benzyl-N-acetyl cysteine, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde were the metabolites present in the urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Electrochemical Behavior of Copper in Thionyl Chloride Solutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Thionyl chloride is known *3 to react...electrolyte for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . 8R. K. McAlpine and B. A. Soule, Prescott and Johnson’s Qualitative Chemical Analysis, D. Van...black carbon electrodes, cupric chloride appears to be a useful cathode additive for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Preliminary results2l

  6. Chloride Analysis of RFSA Second Campaign Dissolver Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    2001-05-17

    The dissolver solution from the second RFSA campaign was analyzed for chloride using the recently-developed turbidimetric method. Prior to chloride removal in head end, the solution contained 1625 ppm chloride. After chloride removal with Hg(I) and prior to feeding to solvent extraction, the solution contained only 75 ppm chloride. This report discusses those analysis results.

  7. Laboratory testing of chloride 3ET205 6 volt traction battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, J.E.

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the testing performed on the Chloride 3ET205 6 volt traction batery by the INEL Battery Laboratory, to present the results and conclusions of this testing, and to make appropriate recommendations. The Chloride 3ET205 is a tubular plate lead-acid battery made in England by the Chloride Battery Company and imported into the US. The traction battery division of Chloride has been sold, although Chloride assured its customers that the 3ET205 would continue to be available for their consumption. The new owners of the factory are Tudor and Fulman of France. The joint venture company name is C. E. Ac. It is our understanding that all orders are to be sent to the factory at Salford Rd., Bolton, Lancashire, England BL5 1DD. 5 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Corrosive gas generation potential from chloride salt radiolysis in plutonium environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Allen, T.H.; Mason, R.E.; Penneman, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The specific goal of this project was to evaluate the magnitude and practical significance of radiation effects involving mixtures of chloride salts and plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) sealed in stainless steel containers and stored for up to 50 yr, after stabilization at 950 C and packaging according to US Department of Energy (DOE) standards. The potential for generating chemically aggressive molecular chlorine (and hydrogen chloride by interaction with adsorbed water or hydrogen gas) by radiolysis of chloride ions was studied. To evaluate the risks, an annotated bibliography on chloride salt radiolysis was created with emphasis on effects of plutonium alpha radiation. The authors present data from the material identification and surveillance (MIS) project obtained from examination and analysis of representative PuO{sub 2} items from various DOE sites, including the headspace gas analysis data of sealed mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride salts following long-term storage.

  9. Cystic Fibrosis Gene Encodes a cAMP-Dependent Chloride Channel in Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Padraig; Warth, John D.; Levesque, Paul C.; Collier, Mei Lin; Geary, Yvonne; Horowitz, Burton; Hume, Joseph R.

    1996-06-01

    cAMP-dependent chloride channels in heart contribute to autonomic regulation of action potential duration and membrane potential and have been inferred to be due to cardiac expression of the epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. In this report, a cDNA from rabbit ventricle was isolated and sequenced, which encodes an exon 5 splice variant (exon 5-) of CFTR, with >90% identity to human CFTR cDNA present in epithelial cells. Expression of this cDNA in Xenopus oocytes gave rise to robust cAMP-activated chloride currents that were absent in control water-injected oocytes. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against CFTR significnatly reduced the density of cAMP-dependent chloride currents in acutely cultured myocytes, thereby establishing a direct functional link between cardiac expression of CFTR protein and an endogenous chloride channel in native cardiac myocytes.

  10. Strength, porosity, and chloride resistance of mortar using the combination of two kinds of pozzolanic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukzon, Sumrerng; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2013-08-01

    This article presents a study on the resistance to chloride penetration, corrosion, porosity, and strength of mortar containing fine fly ash (FA), ground rice husk-bark ash (RB), and ground bagasse ash (BA). Ordinary Portland cement (CT) was blended with a single pozzolan and two pozzolans. Strength, porosity, rapid chloride penetration, immersion, and corrosion tests were performed to characterize the mortar. Test results showed that the use of ternary blends of CT, FA, and RB or BA decreased the porosity of the mortar, as compared with binary blended mortar containing CT and RB or BA. The resistance to chloride penetration of the mortar improved substantially with partial replacement of CT with FA, RB, and BA. The use of ternary blends of CT, FA and RB or BA produced the mortar with good strength and resistance to chloride penetration. The resistance to chloride penetration was higher with an increase in the replacement level due to the reduced calcium hydroxide.

  11. Granular parakeratosis induced by benzalkonium chloride exposure from laundry rinse aids.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Aaron J; Foster, Rachael S; Halbert, Anne R; King, Emma; Orchard, David

    2016-09-19

    Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium cationic detergent present in a number of household products, which can act as a major skin irritant. We present the case of six children who developed granular parakeratosis after exposure to benzalkonium chloride in laundry rinse aids, presenting as a brightly erythematous, tender but minimally pruritic, intertriginous eruption followed by superficial desquamation. The eruptions resolved over 3-4 weeks after cessation of exposure.

  12. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique.

    PubMed

    van Buren, Leo; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Seewi, Gila; Newson, Rachel S

    2016-04-21

    Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106). Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day). Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  13. Experimental and modeling study of chloride ingress into concrete and reinforcement corrosion initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui

    Effects of reinforcement and coarse aggregate on chloride ingression into concrete and reinforcement corrosion initiation have been studied with experimental and modeling (finite element method) analyses. Once specimens were fabricated and exposed to a chloride solution, various experimental techniques were employed to determine the effect of reinforcement and coarse aggregate on time-to-corrosion and chloride ingress and concentration at corrosion locations. Model analyses were performed to verify and explain the experimental results. Based upon the results, it was determined that unexpectedly higher chloride concentrations were present on the top of the rebar trace than that to the side at the same depth and an inverse concentration gradient (increasing [ Cl-] with increasing depth) occurred near the top of rebars. Also, coarse aggregate volume profile in close proximity to the rebar and spatial distribution of these aggregates, in conjunction with the physical obstruction afforded by reinforcement to chloride flow, complicates concrete sampling for Cl- intended to define the critical concentration of this species to initiate corrosion. Modeling analyses that considered cover thickness, chloride threshold concentration, reinforcement size and shape, and coarse aggregate type and percolation confirmed the experimental findings. The results, at least in part, account for the relatively wide spread in chloride corrosion threshold values reported in the literature and illustrate that more consistent chloride threshold concentrations can be acquired from mortar or paste specimens than from concrete ones.

  14. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    PubMed Central

    van Buren, Leo; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Seewi, Gila; Newson, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106). Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day). Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products. PMID:27110818

  15. Chloride ion transport into pig jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, G W; Gabriel, S E

    1988-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to determine the types and activities of carrier proteins which transport the chloride ion in pig jejunal brush-border membranes, with an emphasis on studying the properties of chloride conductance activity in vesicles prepared from these membranes. 2. Sodium-chloride co-transport activity was not detected in this tissue. A sodium-proton antiport with typical amiloride sensitivity was present. An anion exchanger linking chloride to hydroxyl or bicarbonate ions was also found in the pig jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles. 3. Chloride conductance activity in this system was specifically dependent on the buffering agents used for vesicle preparation. Conductance activity could not be demonstrated in vesicles prepared in imidazolium acetate or in HEPES-Tris buffers. HEPES-tetramethylammonium buffering of vesicles in the chloride uptake system produced a significant conductance response to a potassium gradient plus valinomycin. 4. Chloride conductance showed saturable kinetics with respect to substrate concentration, with a Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of approximately 116 mM and a maximum velocity (Vmax) of 132 nmol (mg protein)-1 min-1. 5. Preliminary screening of potential inhibitors of chloride conductance showed only minimal inhibitor effects of SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-sulphonic acid), anthracene-9-carboxylate, N-phenylanthranilate and piretanide. 6. The conductance activity in pig jejunal vesicles appears to have stringent buffer requirements, and to be relatively insensitive to the effects of reported conductance inhibitors. PMID:2466986

  16. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  17. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  2. Differences in antibacterial activity of benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Richards, R M; Mizrahi, L M

    1978-03-01

    Benzalkonium solutions obtained from different manufacturers were shown to have different activities. This difference in activity was related to the composition of the benzalkonium chloride. The potential seriousness of this situation is emphasized, and a recommendation is made that the official monographs on benzalkonium chloride be amended appropriately, noting the apparently superior antibacterial activity of the tetradecyl (C14) homolog.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS... dichloride. It is prepared by dissolving manganous oxide, pyrolusite ore (MnO2), or reduced manganese ore in...

  4. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles; Bullard, John E.; Morgan, Evan

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver effects; blood effects; and flammability. (iii) Employers... signs bearing the legend: DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii) The.... The signs shall be legible and bear the legend: DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  6. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  7. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Bagshaw, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  8. Speciation of copper(II) complexes in an ionic liquid based on choline chloride and in choline chloride/water mixtures.

    PubMed

    De Vreese, Peter; Brooks, Neil R; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Matthijs, Edward; Binnemans, Koen; Van Deun, Rik

    2012-05-07

    A deep-eutectic solvent with the properties of an ionic liquid is formed when choline chloride is mixed with copper(II) chloride dihydrate in a 1:2 molar ratio. EXAFS and UV-vis-near-IR optical absorption spectroscopy have been used to compare the coordination sphere of the cupric ion in this ionic liquid with that of the cupric ion in solutions of 0.1 M of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O in solvents with varying molar ratios of choline chloride and water. The EXAFS data show that species with three chloride ions and one water molecule coordinated to the cupric ion as well as species with two chloride molecules and two water molecules coordinated to the cupric ion are present in the ionic liquid. On the other hand, a fully hydrated copper(II) ion is formed in an aqueous solution free of choline chloride, and the tetrachlorocuprate(II) complex forms in aqueous choline chloride solutions with more than 50 wt % of choline chloride. In solutions with between 0 and 50 wt % of choline chloride, mixed chloro-aquo complexes occur. Upon standing at room temperature, crystals of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O and of Cu(choline)Cl(3) formed in the ionic liquid. Cu(choline)Cl(3) is the first example of a choline cation coordinating to a transition-metal ion. Crystals of [choline](3)[CuCl(4)][Cl] and of [choline](4)[Cu(4)Cl(10)O] were also synthesized from molecular or ionic liquid solvents, and their crystal structures were determined.

  9. Formaldoxime hydrogen bonded complexes with ammonia and hydrogen chloride.

    PubMed

    Golec, Barbara; Mucha, Małgorzata; Sałdyka, Magdalena; Barnes, Austin; Mielke, Zofia

    2015-02-05

    An infrared spectroscopic and MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) study of hydrogen bonded complexes of formaldoxime with ammonia and hydrogen chloride trapped in solid argon matrices is reported. Both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes between formaldoxime and ammonia, hydrogen chloride have been identified in the CH2NOH/NH3/Ar, CH2NOH/HCl/Ar matrices, respectively, their structures were determined by comparison of the spectra with the results of calculations. In the 1:1 complexes present in the argon matrices the OH group of formaldoxime acts as a proton donor for ammonia and the nitrogen atom acts as a proton acceptor for hydrogen chloride. In the 1:2 complexes ammonia or hydrogen chloride dimers interact both with the OH group and the nitrogen atom of CH2NOH to form seven membered cyclic structures stabilized by three hydrogen bonds. The theoretical spectra generally agree well with the experimental ones, but they seriously underestimate the shift of the OH stretch for the 1:1 CH2NOH⋯NH3 complex.

  10. Osmoregulated Chloride Currents in Hemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Veronica; Sbrana, Francesca; Vassalli, Massimo; Faimali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution. The chloride channel was slightly inhibited by micromolar concentrations of zinc chloride in the bath solution, while the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione did not affect the channel conductance at all. This is the first direct electrophysiological characterization of a functional ion channel in ancestral immunocytes of mytilus, which may bring a contribution to the understanding of the response of bivalves to salt and contaminant stresses. PMID:27936151

  11. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, C.; Sa`id-Shawqi, Q.; Vassie, P.R.W.

    1996-06-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analyzing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater percentage of chloride was removed from prisms where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer of concrete was less than the depth of cover to the reinforcement. Where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer exceeded the cover to the reinforcement, the use of an external cathode significantly increased the total amount of chloride removed. Chloride removal from a face remote from the source of the chloride contamination (soffit desalination) was shown to be feasible.

  12. Groundwater chloride response in the Highland Creek watershed due to road salt application: A re-assessment after 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Nandana; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Howard, Ken

    2013-02-01

    SummaryChloride from road salt enters streams primarily through surface runoff and groundwater discharge. Monitoring of dry-weather flow chloride concentrations in the Highland Creek watershed of the eastern Greater Toronto Area indicates the presence of a previously unrecognised, dual porosity aquifer system whereby preferential flow associated with "urban karst" exerts a significant influence on baseflow chloride concentrations early in the year. A chloride mass balance undertaken annually over four successive salting seasons suggests that as much as 40% of the chloride applied as road salt enters the shallow aquifer resulting in a net accumulation of chloride and a gradual increase in mean baseflow chloride concentrations. Assuming current road salt application rates are continued, late summer baseflow chloride concentrations will reach around 505 mg/L, almost double present levels. Elevated chloride concentrations can affect the potability of water (the Canadian aesthetic drinking water quality guideline for chloride is 250 mg/L) and can also be toxic to aquatic organisms (CCME aquatic chronic toxicity guideline is 208 mg/L). Meeting these guidelines would require that the release of salt-laden runoff to the subsurface be reduced by over 50%.

  13. Interaction of proton and chloride transfer pathways in recombinant bacteriorhodopsin with chloride transport activity: implications for the chloride translocation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Brown, L S; Needleman, R; Lanyi, J K

    1996-12-17

    When the protonated retinal Schiff base dissociates in the photocycle of the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, asp-85 is the proton acceptor. Replacing this residue with threonine confers halorhodopsin-like properties on the protein, including chloride transport [Sasaki, J., Brown, L.S., Chon, Y.-S., Kandori, H., Maeda, A., Needleman, R., & Lanyi, J.K. (1995) Science 269, 73-75]. However, the electrostatic interaction between the vicinity of residue 85 and glu-204, a residue located about 10 A away near the extracellular surface, that is a part of the proton transport mechanism, should still exist. We find that in the D85T mutant glu-204 becomes protonated when chloride is added. This indicates that the binding of chloride at thr-85 must be equivalent to deprotonation of asp-85. The protonation state of glu-204 reports therefore on the presence or absence of chloride bound at thr-85. During the chloride-transport cycle of D85T, but not D85T/E204Q, fluorescein and pyranine detect the transient release of protons from the protein to the surface and the bulk. The release and the subsequent uptake of the protons occur during the rise and decay of a red-shifted photointermediate, respectively, and confirm the earlier suggestion that this state has the same role in the chloride transport as the M intermediate in the proton transport. Consistent with the red-shift of the absorption maximum, the chloride bound near the Schiff base had already moved away, presumably to be released at the cytoplasmic surface, but another chloride ion has not yet been taken up from the extracellular surface. The switch of the connectivity of the chloride binding site from the cytoplasmic to the extracellular membrane surface must occur therefore during the lifetime of this photointermediate.

  14. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerdt, K.; Orsáková, D.; Geiker, M.R.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.

  15. Correlation of sweat chloride concentration with genotypes in cystic fibrosis patients in Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    De Braekeleer, M; Allard, C; Leblanc, J P; Aubin, G; Simard, F

    1998-02-01

    Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean, a geographically isolated region of northeastern Quebec has a high incidence of cystic fibrosis (CF) and three mutations only account for 94% of the CF chromosomes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether different mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene had different effects upon the sweat chloride concentration. The sweat chloride concentration of 114 patients was measured by quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis. CF patients carrying the A455E mutation, usually associated with pancreatic sufficiency, had lower sweat chloride concentrations than those carrying mutations associated with pancreatic insufficiency (delta F508 and 621 + 1G-->T). Our results confirm that mutations resulting in a reduction of the chloride current at the apical membrane of epithelial cells induce lower sweat chloride values. However, there are differences in the chloride current between genotypes, even if they are composed of mutations apparently having the same functional effect.

  16. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, Thomas; Marsik, Frantisek; Palmer, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  17. L-tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride.

    PubMed

    Ghazaryan, V V; Fleck, M; Petrosyan, A M

    2015-02-05

    L-tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride is a new salt with (A⋯A(+)) type dimeric cation. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P2(1), Z=2). The asymmetric unit contains one zwitterionic L-tryptophan molecule, one L-tryptophanium cation and one chloride anion. The dimeric cation is formed by a O-H⋯O hydrogen bond with the O⋯O distance equal to 2.5556(18) Å. The infrared and Raman spectra of the crystal are studied and compared with the spectra of L-tryptophanium chloride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Cell Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    AD A09466 0 AFWAL-TR-80-2076 PRIMARY LITHIUM THIONYL - CHLORIDE CELL EVALUATION Dr. A.E. Zolla R.R. Waterhouse D.J. DeBiccari G.L. Griffin, Jr. Altus...dS.,_b,I ......... S TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Primary Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Final 9/79 - 4/80 Cell Evaluation, 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...the high performance characteristics of the Altus lithium - thionyl chloride cell. In particular features such as the inherent high energy density, the

  19. Captopril in congenital chloride diarrhoea: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bin Islam, Shoeb; Mazumder, Ramendra Nath; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sharifuzzaman; Sahreen, Lubaba; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Haque Alam, Nur

    2015-03-01

    An 11 months 22 days old girl presented with a history of watery diarrhoea since birth, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Her diagnosis was congenital chloride diarrhoea (CCD) with raised level of chloride (>90 mmol/L) in stool in the absence of cystic fibrosis. Management of CCD included replacement of NaCl, KCl, and correction of dehydration. Diarrhoea of the patient was resolved with Captopril, which was initially provided to the patient for managing heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CCD that shows the beneficial effect of Captopril. Therefore, we suggest that further study is warranted as to the potential for Captopril as additional option in the treatment for CCD. We present this case report with the informed consent of the patient's guardian.

  20. Feasibility demonstration for hydrogen chloride detection using a chemisorption technique and a quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, D. W.; Workman, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring concentrations of hydrogen chloride between 1 part per billion and 10 parts per million at standard temperature and pressure is presented. The feasibility of a low-cost device incorporating a chemisorption technique coupled with a quartz crystal microbalance was demonstrated in the field at the Viking B launch using a Titan-Centaur vehicle from Kennedy Space Center on August 20, 1975. Hydrogen chloride is a product of solid rocket combustion. The concentration level of hydrogen chloride for this particular launch was measured as approximately 0.2 parts per million at 4 km from the launch site.

  1. The Use of Electrodiffusion for Removing Chlorides from Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsabry, A.

    2016-12-01

    The article presents a description of ion migration in a concrete pore liquid caused by an external electric field. The equation of the flow of aggressive chloride ions is formulated on the basis of partial equations of mass balance. It is assumed that electrochemical potential is in classical form, then an attempt is made to determine the average diffusion coefficient using the inverse diffusion Eq.(3.9).

  2. Theoretical study on the structures and properties of mixtures of urea and choline chloride.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Li, Yan; Wu, Xue; Li, Guohui

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we investigated in detail the structural characteristics of mixtures of choline chloride and urea with different urea contents by performing molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, and offer possible explanations for the low melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea with a ratio of 1:2. The insertion of urea molecules was found to change the density distribution of cations and anions around the given cations significantly, disrupting the long-range ordered structure of choline chloride. Moreover, with increasing urea concentration, the hydrogen bond interactions between choline cations and Cl(-) anions decreased, while those among urea molecules obviously increased. From the hydrogen bond lifetimes, it was found that a ratio of 1:2 between choline chloride and urea is necessary for a reasonable strength of hydrogen bond interaction to maintain the low melting point of the mixture of choline chloride with urea. In addition, it was also deduced from the interaction energies that a urea content of 67.7 % may make the interactions of cation-anion, cation-urea and anion-urea modest, and thus results in the lower melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea. The present results may offer assistance to some extent for understanding the physicochemical properties of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea, and give valuable information for the further development and application of deep eutectic solvents.

  3. Effect of chloride on the dissolution rate of silver nanoparticles and toxicity to E. coli.

    PubMed

    Levard, Clément; Mitra, Sumit; Yang, Tiffany; Jew, Adam D; Badireddy, Appala Raju; Lowry, Gregory V; Brown, Gordon E

    2013-06-04

    Pristine silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are not chemically stable in the environment and react strongly with inorganic ligands such as sulfide and chloride once the silver is oxidized. Understanding the environmental transformations of AgNPs in the presence of specific inorganic ligands is crucial to determining their fate and toxicity in the environment. Chloride (Cl(-)) is a ubiquitous ligand with a strong affinity for oxidized silver and is often present in natural waters and in bacterial growth media. Though chloride can strongly affect toxicity results for AgNPs, their interaction is rarely considered and is challenging to study because of the numerous soluble and solid Ag-Cl species that can form depending on the Cl/Ag ratio. Consequently, little is known about the stability and dissolution kinetics of AgNPs in the presence of chloride ions. Our study focuses on the dissolution behavior of AgNPs in chloride-containing systems and also investigates the effect of chloride on the growth inhibition of E.coli (ATCC strain 33876) caused by Ag toxicity. Our results suggest that the kinetics of dissolution are strongly dependent on the Cl/Ag ratio and can be interpreted using the thermodynamically expected speciation of Ag in the presence of chloride. We also show that the toxicity of AgNPs to E.coli at various Cl(-) concentrations is governed by the amount of dissolved AgCl(x)((x-1)-) species suggesting an ion effect rather than a nanoparticle effect.

  4. Activation of AMPK Inhibits Cholera Toxin Stimulated Chloride Secretion in Human and Murine Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Nadia; Collins, Danielle; Collaco, Anne; Baird, Alan W.; Winter, Desmond C.; Ameen, Nadia; Geibel, John P.; Kopic, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX) mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK). In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC) was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK) significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness. PMID:23935921

  5. Inhibition of Chloride Induced Crevice Corrosion in Alloy 22 by Fluoride Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, R M; Rodr?guez, M A; Rebak, R B

    2005-10-09

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is highly resistant to localized corrosion. Alloy 22 may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in pure chloride (Cl{sup -}) solutions under aggressive environmental conditions. The effect of the fluoride (F{sup -}) over the crevice corrosion induced by chloride ions is still not well established. The objective of the present work was to explore the crevice corrosion resistance of this alloy to different mixtures of fluorides and chlorides. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) tests were conducted in deaerated aqueous solutions of pure halide ions and also in different mixtures of chloride and fluoride at 90 C and pH 6. The range of chloride concentration [Cl{sup -}] was 0.001 M {le} [Cl{sup -}] {le} 1 M and the range of molar fluoride to chloride ratio [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] was 0.1 {le} [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] {le} 10. Results showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion in all the pure chloride solutions but not in the pure fluoride solutions. Fluoride ions showed an inhibitor behavior only in mixtures with a molar ratio [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] > 2. For mixtures with a molar ratio [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] of 7 and 10 the inhibition of crevice corrosion was complete.

  6. Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

  7. Inert Reassessment Document for Cerous Chloride

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The rare earth chlorides have a wide variety of scientific applications. They a re used in superconductors, lasers, magnets, catalytic converters, fertilizes, supper alloys, cigarette lighters and as catalysts in the production of petroleum products.

  8. The hidden hand of chloride in hypertension.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Linsay; Lip, Stefanie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

    2015-03-01

    Among the environmental factors that affect blood pressure, dietary sodium chloride has been studied the most, and there is general consensus that increased sodium chloride intake increases blood pressure. There is accruing evidence that chloride may have a role in blood pressure regulation which may perhaps be even more important than that of Na(+). Though more than 85 % of Na(+) is consumed as sodium chloride, there is evidence that Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations do not go necessarily hand in hand since they may originate from different sources. Hence, elucidating the role of Cl(-) as an independent player in blood pressure regulation will have clinical and public health implications in addition to advancing our understanding of electrolyte-mediated blood pressure regulation. In this review, we describe the evidence that support an independent role for Cl(-) on hypertension and cardiovascular health.

  9. Vinyl chloride-associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Berk, P D; Martin, J F; Young, R S; Creech, J; Selikoff, I J; Falk, H; Watanabe, P; Popper, H; Thomas, L

    1976-06-01

    Although polyvinyl chloride has been produced from vinyl chlride monomer for more than 40 years, recognition of toxicity among vinyl chloride polymerization workers is more recent. In the mid 1960s, workers involved in cleaning polymerization tanks were found to have acro-osteolysis. In 1974, the same population of workers was found to be at risk for an unusual type of hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcoma of the liver. We describe two cases of vinyl chloride-associated liver injury, one of hepatic fibrosis and one of angiosarcoma. Histologic features of these lesions are similar to the hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcomas resulting from chronic exposure to inorganic arsenicals. Preliminary studies suggest that the toxicity of vinyl chloride may result from formation, during high-dose exposure, of active metabolites by mixed function oxidases of the liver. Epidemiologic studies indicate an increased incidence not only of liver disease, but also of cancers of the brain, lung, and possibly other organs.

  10. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  11. The 5-(4-Ethynylophenoxy) isophthalic chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Sulfone-ester polymers containing pendent ethynyl groups and a direct and multistep process for preparing them are disclosed. The multistep process involves the conversion of a pendent bromo group to the ethynyl group while the direct route involves reating hydroxy-terminated sulfone oligomer or polymers with a stoichiometric amount of 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride. The 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride and the process for preparing it are also disclosed.

  12. Hydrophilization of Polyvinyl Chloride Surface by Ozonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurose, Keisuke; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    The surface modification mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by ozonation was investigated to study the selective hydrophilization of PVC surface among other plastics. Infrared analysis confirmed the increase of hydrophilic groups. XPS analysis revealed that the increase was due to the structural change in chlorine group in PVC to hydroxylic acid, ketone, and carboxylic groups by ozonation. This chemical reaction by ozone could occur only for polymers with chlorides in its structure and resulted in the selective hydrophilization of PVC among various polymers.

  13. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1990-07-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  14. Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargittai, M.

    1980-01-01

    The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

  15. Membrane potential, chloride exchange, and chloride conductance in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, E K; Simonsen, L O; Sjøholm, C

    1979-01-01

    1. The steady-state tracer exchange flux of chloride was measured at 10-150 mM external chloride concentration, substituting either lactate or sucrose for chloride. The chloride flux saturates in both cases with a K 1/2 about 50 and 15 mM, respectively. 2. The inhibitory effect of other monovalent anions on the chloride transport was investigated by measuring the 36Cl- efflux into media where either bromide, nitrate, or thiocyanate had been substituted for part of the chloride. The sequence of increasing affinity for the chloride transport system was found to be: Br- less than Cl- less than SCN- = NO3-. 3. The chloride steady-state exchange flux in the presence of nitrate can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with nitrate as a competitive inhibitor of the chloride flux. 4. The apparent activation energy (EA) was determined to be 67 +/- 6.2 kJ/mole, and was constant between 7 and 38 degrees C. 5. The membrane potential (Vm) was measured as a function of the concentration of external K+, substituting K+ for Na+. The transference number of K+ (tK) was estimated from the slope of Vm vs. log10 (K+)e, and tCl and tNa were calculated, neglecting current carried by ions other than Cl-, K+, and Na+. The diffusional net flux of K+ was calculated from the steady-state exchange flux of 42K+, assuming the flux ratio equation to be valid. From this value the K+ conductance and the Na+ and Cl- conductances were calculated. The experiments showed that GCl, GNa, and GK are all about 14 muS/cm2. 6. The net (conductive) chloride permeability derived from the chloride conductance was 4 x 10(-8) cm/sec compared with the apparent permeability of 6 x 10(-7) cm/sec as calculated from the chloride tracer exchange flux. These data suggest that about 95% of the chloride transport is mediated by an electrically silent exchange diffusion. 7. Comparable effects of phloretin (0.25 mM) on the net (conductive) permeability and the apparent permeability to chloride (about 80% inhibition

  16. Abnormal passive chloride absorption in cystic fibrosis jejunum functionally opposes the classic chloride secretory defect.

    PubMed

    Russo, Michael A; Hogenauer, Christoph; Coates, Stephen W; Santa Ana, Carol A; Porter, Jack L; Rosenblatt, Randall L; Emmett, Michael; Fordtran, John S

    2003-07-01

    Due to genetic defects in apical membrane chloride channels, the cystic fibrosis (CF) intestine does not secrete chloride normally. Depressed chloride secretion leaves CF intestinal absorptive processes unopposed, which results in net fluid hyperabsorption, dehydration of intestinal contents, and a propensity to inspissated intestinal obstruction. This theory is based primarily on in vitro studies of jejunal mucosa. To determine if CF patients actually hyperabsorb fluid in vivo, we measured electrolyte and water absorption during steady-state perfusion of the jejunum. As expected, chloride secretion was abnormally low in CF, but surprisingly, there was no net hyperabsorption of sodium or water during perfusion of a balanced electrolyte solution. This suggested that fluid absorption processes are reduced in CF jejunum, and further studies revealed that this was due to a marked depression of passive chloride absorption. Although Na+-glucose cotransport was normal in the CF jejunum, absence of passive chloride absorption completely blocked glucose-stimulated net sodium absorption and reduced glucose-stimulated water absorption 66%. This chloride absorptive abnormality acts in physiological opposition to the classic chloride secretory defect in the CF intestine. By increasing the fluidity of intraluminal contents, absence of passive chloride absorption may reduce the incidence and severity of intestinal disease in patients with CF.

  17. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar.

    PubMed

    Peng, Gai-Fei; Feng, Nai-Qian; Song, Qi-Ming

    2014-04-30

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel's salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO₂(-) in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel's salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  18. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Gai-Fei; Feng, Nai-Qian; Song, Qi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms. PMID:28788625

  19. Abnormal passive chloride absorption in cystic fibrosis jejunum functionally opposes the classic chloride secretory defect

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Michael A.; Högenauer, Christoph; Coates, Stephen W.; Santa Ana, Carol A.; Porter, Jack L.; Rosenblatt, Randall L.; Emmett, Michael; Fordtran, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Due to genetic defects in apical membrane chloride channels, the cystic fibrosis (CF) intestine does not secrete chloride normally. Depressed chloride secretion leaves CF intestinal absorptive processes unopposed, which results in net fluid hyperabsorption, dehydration of intestinal contents, and a propensity to inspissated intestinal obstruction. This theory is based primarily on in vitro studies of jejunal mucosa. To determine if CF patients actually hyperabsorb fluid in vivo, we measured electrolyte and water absorption during steady-state perfusion of the jejunum. As expected, chloride secretion was abnormally low in CF, but surprisingly, there was no net hyperabsorption of sodium or water during perfusion of a balanced electrolyte solution. This suggested that fluid absorption processes are reduced in CF jejunum, and further studies revealed that this was due to a marked depression of passive chloride absorption. Although Na+-glucose cotransport was normal in the CF jejunum, absence of passive chloride absorption completely blocked glucose-stimulated net sodium absorption and reduced glucose-stimulated water absorption 66%. This chloride absorptive abnormality acts in physiological opposition to the classic chloride secretory defect in the CF intestine. By increasing the fluidity of intraluminal contents, absence of passive chloride absorption may reduce the incidence and severity of intestinal disease in patients with CF. PMID:12840066

  20. Case-positive versus case-negative designs for low-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahy, T. X.

    1982-01-01

    Case polarity design choices are discussed. Two examples of case-negative designs are presented. One battery is thionyl chloride limited and the other is lithium limited. The case-positive design is thionyl chloride limited. It is found that the case-positive/case-negative design consideration does not seem to have much bearing on storage. However, during low rate discharge, the case-negative cells show a steadily decreasing capacity as you go to lower and lower rates.

  1. Hydrochloric acid aerosol formation by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with humid air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions in which hydrochloric acid aerosol is predicted by the interaction of hydrogen chloride gas with the water vapor in humid air are analyzed. The liquid gas phase equilibrium for the HCL-H2O system is expressed in terms of relative humidity and hydrogen chloride concentration as parts per million, units commonly used in pollution studies. Presented are the concentration (wt %) of HC1 in the aerosol and the concentration of aerosol (ppm) predicted.

  2. Morphological Changes in Dendritic Crystal Growth of Ammonium Chloride on Agar Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Masae; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    1992-07-01

    Dendritic crystals of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) have been grown two-dimensionally on the surface of agar medium. Varying initial concentrations of agar and ammonium chloride in the agar medium, a rich variety of morphologies of dendrites, such as DLA-like structure and dense-branching morphology, were found to be observed. They were classified into five main types according to their pattern characteristics. We report the morphological phase diagram and typical patterns obtained in the present experiments.

  3. Case-positive versus case-negative designs for low-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahy, T. X.

    1982-01-01

    Case polarity design choices are discussed. Two examples of case-negative designs are presented. One battery is thionyl chloride limited and the other is lithium limited. The case-positive design is thionyl chloride limited. It is found that the case-positive/case-negative design consideration does not seem to have much bearing on storage. However, during low rate discharge, the case-negative cells show a steadily decreasing capacity as you go to lower and lower rates.

  4. Angiosarcoma of the penis with hepatic angiomas in a patient with low vinyl chloride exposure.

    PubMed

    Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L; Gonzalez, M S

    1981-03-15

    A case of angiosarcoma of the penis associated with two hepatic angiomata in a 61-year-old man is presented. The patient had worked in a polyvinyl chloride factory as an accountant for ten years. The relationship of this low vinyl chloride exposure to the development of the vascular lesions is discussed with a review of the experimental and epidemiologic data on this subject.

  5. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the closure...

  6. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  7. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  8. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  9. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  10. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  11. Falsely raised whole blood chloride caused by systemic absorption of cerium nitrate cream for burns.

    PubMed

    Ha, Leah Y; Woollard, Gerald A; Chiu, Weldon W

    2015-03-01

    Whole blood, serum or plasma chloride is almost exclusively measured by potentiometry with an ion-selective chloride electrode which utilizes membrane selectivity to chloride ions. Other anions such as bromide, iodide and thiosulphate can interfere but usually are not present in high enough concentration to cause significant cross reactivity. A patient from our burns unit had serial chloride measurements on a Radiometer ABL800 blood gas analyser. The results were higher in contrast to plasma measurements on the Abbott Architect Ci8200, which were within reference intervals and in line with the patient's pathophysiological status. This indicated a likely interference with the blood gas analyser chloride estimation. The chloride results on the ABL800 for 3rd, 4th and 5th day after the burn accident were 170, 137 and 119 mmol/L. Corresponding plasma chloride results on the Ci8200 were all around 105 mmol/L. Nitrate was found to be markedly elevated in these samples, and the results were 6.7, 4.9 and 1.1 mmol/L, respectively (reference limit < 0.08 mmol/L). To further demonstrate nitrate was the causative agent, pooled plasma spiked with 7 mmol/L of sodium nitrate caused a rise in the ABL800 chloride from 105 to 202 mmol/L. Later we confirmed that the patient was topically medicated with cerium nitrate cream (Flammacerium®, Sinclair IS Pharma, UK) for his burns. In summary, the results clearly indicated nitrate was the interferent with the ABL800 chloride estimation and the source was the topical burns cerium nitrate cream. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Water-level measurements and chloride concentrations for selected wells in Louisiana, January 1988-October 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelace, Wendell M.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents water-level measurements and chlorideconcentrations in water from selected wells completed in aquifers in Louisiana. The data were collected during the period January1988-October 1997. Water-level data are presented for 109 wells, and chloride data are presented for 45 wells. Hydrographs and summaries of water-level trends are presented for wellscompleted in aquifers throughout the State. Chlorographs and summaries of chloride trends are presented for wells completed in the Mississippi River alluvial and Sparta aquifers; Chicot aquifer system; and Gramercy, Norco, and Gonzales-New Orleans aquifers. Data are presented in graphical and tabular formats.

  13. Physical and conductivity properties of poly (vinyl chloride) ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Nira; Panda, H. S.; Kapusetti, Govinda; Jaiswal, Shilpa; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2011-02-01

    Poly (vinyl chloride)(PVC) is a cheapest plastic. Importance of PVC based ionomer has been gradually being popularizing due to compatibility of PVC with a number of salts to replace polyethylene oxide based ionomer. Under present investigation few of chloride group of PVC chain have been replaced by basic thiouronium group and these thiouronium groups are further oxidized to sulfonate group. Introduction of thiouronium group in PVC is confirmed through FTIR and further its oxidation to sulfonate group is also confirmed by FTIR. Conductivity in different stoichiometric ratio of PVCTU and PVCSO3H was studied and found that PVCTU: PVCSO3H in 1:1 ratio has conductivity near to pure PVC (10-9 Ohm-1 cm-1) and increases with proportion of PVCSO3Na in the mixture (10-6 Ohm-1 cm-1) for pure PVC, PVCTU has less conductivity not much significant.

  14. Increasing of Mechanical Parameters of Clay soil Using Calcium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshty, Seyyed Amir Hossein; Moosa Aniran, Mir; Firoozfar, Alireza; Kiamehr, Ramin

    2017-04-01

    Research on roads to increase the resistance of weak soils to build structures on it has been increased in recent years. The present article provide the effects of different mixtures containing calcium chloride solution and clay soil on mechanical parameters such as, compressibility, compressive strength, shear strength and durability characteristic. In this study also is investigated evaluation the effect of road subgrade based on proposed material. The used clay soil in this research was obtained from zanjan city where is located in northwestern of Iran. The obtained results show that the calcium chloride solution could play a major role in reducing the cost and required time for building roads and also building foundation on these types of soils.

  15. STABILIZATION OF PERTUSSIS VACCINE IN THE PRESENCE OF BENZETHONIUM CHLORIDE

    PubMed Central

    Olson, B. H.; Eldering, Grace; Graham, Bernice

    1964-01-01

    Olson, B. H. (Division of Laboratories, Michigan Department of Health, Lansing), Grace Eldering, and Bernice Graham. Stabilization of pertussis vaccine in the presence of benzethonium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 87:543–546. 1964.—Data are presented showing that pertussis vaccine preserved with benzethonium chloride (BC; Phemerol) was inactivated during storage. BC-preserved vaccine stored at 37 C showed no measurable mouse-protective potency at 16 weeks. That stored at 0 to 4 C lost approximately 80% of its potency within 1 year. Treatment of pertussis vaccines with aluminum, calcium, magnesium, choline, or dl-lysine before the addition of the BC prevented its uptake by the cells. Pertussis vaccines pretreated with 0.004 m Ca++ or 0.0004 m Al+++ retained 70% of the initial potency after 42 weeks of storage at 37 C. Similar vaccines showed no loss of protective antigens when stored for 1 year at 0 to 4 C. PMID:14127568

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis, growth, and properties of a new chloride iodate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenwu; Pan, Shilie; Dong, Lingyun; Yang, Zhihua; Dong, Xiaoyu; Chen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Fangfang

    2013-10-01

    A new chloride iodate, K2Bi(IO3)4Cl, has been synthesized using hydrothermal method from the KIO3-BiCl3 system. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/c with unit-cell parameters a = 11.216(3) Å, b = 12.260(3) Å, c = 10.444(2) Å, Z = 4, V = 1352.2(5) Å3. The material exhibits a three-dimensional structure consisting of interlocking iodide-linked infinite ∞[Bi(IO3)4] layer with interlayer potassium cations and chloride ions for charge balance. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the K2Bi(IO3)4Cl has been measured. Functional groups presented in the sample were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectrum. Thermal analysis and elemental analysis were also performed on the reported material.

  17. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs.

  18. A diffusive anomaly of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Soo; Yethiraj, Arun

    2008-02-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are presented for the self-diffusion coefficient of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions. At temperatures above the freezing point of pure water, the self-diffusion coefficient is a monotonically decreasing function of salt concentration. Below the freezing point of pure water, however, the self-diffusion coefficient is a non-monotonic function of salt concentration, showing a maximum at approximately one molal salt. This suggests that sodium chloride, which is considered a structure-making salt at room temperature, becomes a structure-breaking salt at low temperatures. A qualitative understanding of this effect can be obtained by considering the effect of ions on the residence time of water molecules near other water molecules. A consideration of the freezing point depression of aqueous sodium chloride solutions suggests that the self-diffusion coefficient of water in supercooled sodium chloride solutions is always higher than that in pure (supercooled) water at the same temperature.

  19. Secondary substrate utilization of methylene chloride by an isolated strain of Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    LaPat-Polasko, L T; McCarty, P L; Zehnder, A J

    1984-01-01

    Secondary substrate utilization of methylene chloride was analyzed by using Pseudomonas sp. strain LP. Both batch and continuously fed reactors demonstrated that this strain was capable of simultaneously consuming two substrates at different concentrations: the primary substrate at the higher concentration (milligrams per liter) and the secondary substrate at the lower concentration (micrograms per liter). The rate of methylene chloride utilization at trace concentrations was greater in the presence of the primary substrate, acetate, than without it. However, when the substrate roles were changed, the acetate secondary substrate utilization rate was less when methylene chloride was present. Thus, substrate interactions are important in the kinetics of secondary substrate utilization. Pseudomonas sp. strain LP showed a preference toward degrading methylene chloride over acetate, whether it was the primary or secondary substrate, providing it was below an inhibitory concentration of ca. 10 mg/liter. PMID:6721491

  20. Corrosion Resistance of Calcium Aluminate Cement Concrete Exposed to a Chloride Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ann, Ki Yong; Cho, Chang-Geun

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns a development of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) concrete to enhance the durability against an externally chemically aggressive environment, in particular, chloride-induced corrosion. To evaluate the inhibition effect and concrete properties, CAC was partially mixed with ordinary Portland cement (OPC), ranging from 5% to 15%, as a binder. As a result, it was found that an increase in the CAC in binder resulted in a dramatic decrease in the setting time of fresh concrete. However, the compressive strength was lower, ranging about 20 MPa, while OPC indicated about 30–35 MPa at an equivalent age. When it comes to chloride transport, there was only marginal variation in the diffusivity of chloride ions. The corrosion resistance of CAC mixture was significantly enhanced: its chloride threshold level for corrosion initiation exceeded 3.0% by weight of binder, whilst OPC and CAC concrete indicated about 0.5%–1.0%. PMID:28788491

  1. Compressive strength and setting time determination of glass-ionomer cements incorporated with cetylpyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Dimkov, A; Nicholson, W J; Gjorgievska, E; Booth, S

    2012-01-01

    Because of the relatively frequent occurrence of recurrent caries after a restorative treatment, and because of the huge number of cariogenic microorganisms present in the oral cavity, which present a potential risk factor regarding the development of new carious lesions, attention has increasingly been directed towards the therapeutic antimicrobial effects of restorative materials. The glass ionomer cements distinguish themselves as the most acceptable restorative materials possessing the positive characteristics of fluorine in the processes of remineralisation and antimicrobial action. In addition to the release of fluoride ions, GICs can potentially be used as templates for the release of other active antimicrobial components. The addition of antimicrobial compounds in the glass ionomer cements and analysis of their physical characteristics are very important especially for use in the posterior region of milk teeth. The aim of this study was to analyse the physical characteristics of ChemFlex and Fuji IX, conventional glass ionomer cements incorporated with the antimicrobial components Cetylpyridinium Chloride and Benzalkonium Chloride, through measurements of their setting times, and determination of their compressive strengths. Five samples of each glass ionomer with no antimicrobial compounds added were prepared--to serve as a control group; and collections of five samples of each cement with different concentrations of Cetylpyridinium Chloride and Benzalkonium Chloride--1%, 2% and 3%--added to them were also prepared--a total of 60 samples. The results of the analysis point out that it is possible to incorporate these antimicrobial agents in conventional GICs, and this is especially true when the added amount of the antimicrobial agents is 1%.

  2. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  3. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  4. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in § 61.66. (3) Leakage from pump, compressor, and agitator seals: (i) Rotating pumps. Vinyl chloride emissions from seals on all rotating pumps in vinyl chloride service are to be minimized by installing sealless pumps, pumps with double mechanical seals or equivalent as provided in § 61.66. If...

  5. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in § 61.66. (3) Leakage from pump, compressor, and agitator seals: (i) Rotating pumps. Vinyl chloride emissions from seals on all rotating pumps in vinyl chloride service are to be minimized by installing sealless pumps, pumps with double mechanical seals or equivalent as provided in § 61.66. If...

  6. A novel device for quantitative measurement of chloride concentration by fluorescence indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Wu, Xudong; Chon, Chanhee; Gonska, Tanja; Li, Dongqing

    2012-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening genetic disease. At present, the common method for diagnosis of CF is to detect the chloride concentration in sweat using ion-selective electrodes. However, the current sweat testing methods require a relatively large quantity of sweat sample, at least 25 µL, which is very difficult to obtain, especially for newborns. This paper presents a new method and a new device for rapid detection of the chloride concentration from a small volume of solution. In this method, the chloride concentration is determined quantitatively by the fluorescence intensity of MQAE, a chloride ion fluorescent indicator. In this device, the sample is carried by a small piece of filter paper on a cover glass exposed to an UV LED light source. The resulting fluorescent signals are detected by a Si photodiode. Data acquisition and processing are accomplished by LabVIEW software in a PDA. Based on the Stern-Volmer relationship, the effects of different parameters on the fluorescence intensity were analyzed. The observed significant difference between 40 and 60 mM (the borderline of chloride concentration for CF) is discussed in this paper. The results show that detection can be completed within 10 s. The minimum detectable volume of the chloride solution is 1 μL. The novel method and the device are of great potential for CF diagnosis.

  7. Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

  8. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-08-25

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure.

  9. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Ackerman, John P.; Battles, James E.; Johnson, Terry R.; Pierce, R. Dean

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800.degree. C. to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein.

  10. Inactivation of biological agents using neutral oxone-chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-04-15

    Bleach solutions containing the active ingredient hypochlorite (OCl-) serve as powerful biological disinfectants but are highly caustic and present a significant compatibility issue when applied to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone (2K2HSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4) and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach for the inactivation of biological agents. The solution produced a free chlorine (HOCl + OCl-) concentration of 3.3 g/L and achieved > or =5.8-log inactivation of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli vegetative cells in 1 min at 22 degrees C. Seawaterwas an effective substitute for solid sodium chloride and inactivated 5 to 8 logs of each organism in 10 min over temperatures ranging from -5 degrees C to 55 degrees C. Sporicidal effectiveness increased as free chlorine concentrations shifted from OCl- to HOCl. Neutrally buffered Oxone-chloride and Oxone-seawater solutions are mitigation alternatives for biologically contaminated equipment and environments that would otherwise be decontaminated using caustic bleach solutions.

  11. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2010-01-07

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  12. Influence of Surfactants on Sodium Chloride Crystallization in Confinement.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Mohsin J; Liefferink, Rinse W; Schlegel, Simon J; Backus, Ellen H G; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine

    2017-05-02

    We study the influence of different surfactants on NaCl crystallization during evaporation of aqueous salt solutions. We found that at concentrations of sodium chloride close to saturation, only the cationic surfactant CTAB and the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 remain stable. For the nonionic surfactant, the high concentration of salt does not significantly change either the critical micellar concentration (CMC) or the surface tension at the CMC; for the cationic surfactant, the CMC is reduced by roughly 2 orders of magnitude upon adding the salt. The presence of both types of surfactants in the salt solution delays the crystallization of sodium chloride with evaporation. This, in turn, leads to high supersaturation which induces the rapid precipitation of a hopper crystal in the bulk. The crystallization inhibitor role of these surfactants is shown to be mainly due to the passivation of nucleation sites at both liquid/air and solid/liquid interfaces rather than a change in the evaporation rate which is found not to be affected by the presence of the surfactants. The adsorption of surfactants at the liquid/air interface prevents the crystallization at this location which is generally the place where the precipitation of sodium chloride is observed. Moreover, sum frequency generation spectroscopy measurements show that the surfactants are also present at the solid/liquid interface. The incorporation of the surfactants into the salt crystals is investigated using a novel, but simple, method based on surface tension measurements. Our results show that the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 is incorporated in the NaCl crystals but the cationic surfactant CTAB is not. Taken together, these results therefore allow us to establish the effect of the presence of surfactants on sodium chloride crystallization.

  13. Chloride channels regulate chondrogenesis in chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Meiyu; Duan, Yinzhong; Duan, Xiaohong

    2010-12-01

    Voltage gated chloride channels (ClCs) play an important role in the regulation of intracellular pH and cell volume homeostasis. Mutations of these genes result in genetic diseases with abnormal bone deformation and body size, indicating that ClCs may have a role in chondrogenesis. In the present study, we isolated chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells (CMMC) from Hamburg-Hamilton (HH) stage 26 chick embryos and induced chondrocyte maturation by using ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (AA-BGP). We also determined the effect of the chloride channel inhibitor NPPB [5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid] on regulation of growth, differentiation, and gene expression in these cells using MTT and real-time PCR assays. We found that CLCN1 and CLCN3-7 mRNA were expressed in CMMC and NPPB reduced expression of CLCN3, CLCN5, and CLCN7 mRNA in these cells. At the same time, NPPB inhibited the growth of the CMMC, but had no effect on the mRNA level of cyclin D1 and cyclin E (P>0.05) with/without AA-BGP treatment. AA-BGP increased markers for early chondrocyte differentiation including type II collagen, aggrecan (P<0.01) and Sox9 (P<0.05), whilst had no effect on the late chondrocyte differentiation marker type X collagen. NPPB antagonized AA-BGP-induced expression of type II collagen and aggrecan (P<0.05). Furthermore, NPPB downregulated type X collagen (P<0.05) with/without AA-BGP treatment. We conclude that abundant chloride channel genes in CMMC play important roles in regulating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Type X collagen might function as a target of chloride channel inhibitors during the differentiation process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Surfactants on Sodium Chloride Crystallization in Confinement

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We study the influence of different surfactants on NaCl crystallization during evaporation of aqueous salt solutions. We found that at concentrations of sodium chloride close to saturation, only the cationic surfactant CTAB and the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 remain stable. For the nonionic surfactant, the high concentration of salt does not significantly change either the critical micellar concentration (CMC) or the surface tension at the CMC; for the cationic surfactant, the CMC is reduced by roughly 2 orders of magnitude upon adding the salt. The presence of both types of surfactants in the salt solution delays the crystallization of sodium chloride with evaporation. This, in turn, leads to high supersaturation which induces the rapid precipitation of a hopper crystal in the bulk. The crystallization inhibitor role of these surfactants is shown to be mainly due to the passivation of nucleation sites at both liquid/air and solid/liquid interfaces rather than a change in the evaporation rate which is found not to be affected by the presence of the surfactants. The adsorption of surfactants at the liquid/air interface prevents the crystallization at this location which is generally the place where the precipitation of sodium chloride is observed. Moreover, sum frequency generation spectroscopy measurements show that the surfactants are also present at the solid/liquid interface. The incorporation of the surfactants into the salt crystals is investigated using a novel, but simple, method based on surface tension measurements. Our results show that the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 is incorporated in the NaCl crystals but the cationic surfactant CTAB is not. Taken together, these results therefore allow us to establish the effect of the presence of surfactants on sodium chloride crystallization. PMID:28425711

  15. TOLERANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TO SODIUM CHLORIDE

    PubMed Central

    Parfentjev, I. A.; Catelli, Anna R.

    1964-01-01

    Parfentjev, I. A. (Institute of Applied Biology, New York, N.Y.), and Anna R. Catelli. Tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus to sodium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 88:1–3. 1964.—The tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus to high concentrations of sodium chloride in liquid medium has been reported. We found that S. aureus grows at 37 C in Tryptose Phosphate Broth saturated with sodium chloride. No difference was noticed between possibly pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Under the conditions of our tests, no changes in the original properties of S. aureus strains occurred. In contrast, solutions of sodium chloride in distilled water were injurious to staphylococci and killed most of these organisms in 1 hr. Staphylococci were killed faster at 37 C than at room temperature in a solution of 0.85% sodium chloride in water. Addition of traces of Tryptose Phosphate Broth had a protective effect and prolonged the life of these organisms in physiological saline. All tests were performed at pH 7.2. PMID:14197887

  16. Electrochemical chloride extraction: efficiency and side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Orellan, J.C.; Escadeillas, G.; Arliguie, G

    2004-02-01

    Some specimens of reinforced concrete cast with an alkali-resistant aggregate, previously maintained in a solution of NaCl, were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). The chloride profiles before and after treatment were determined. Likewise, alkali ions profiles before and after treatment were determined. After treatment, some specimens were stored in a controlled atmosphere (60 deg. C and 100% RH) in order to accelerate the alkali-silica reaction, if any. Results of chloride content after treatment show that about 40% of the initial chloride is removed within 7 weeks. About one-half of the chloride close to steel was removed, but at the same time, significant amounts of alkali ions were observed around the steel. Microstructural observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that after treatment, new cementitious phases containing higher concentrations of sodium, aluminum and potassium were formed. Moreover, alkali-silica gel was observed in the specimens stored at 60 deg. C and 100% RH. It may be possible that the ECE accumulates locally high amounts of alkali ions that stimulate the alkali-silica reaction even though the concrete contained nominally inert siliceous aggregates. The specimen expansions were not recorded, but no cracks were observed.

  17. Xylan hydrolysis in zinc chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, N.J.; Xu, Q.; Chen, L.F

    1995-12-31

    Xylan is the major component of hemicellulose, which consists of up to one-third of the lignocellulosic biomass. When the zinc chloride solution was used as a pretreatment agent to facilitate cellulose hydrolysis, hemicellulose was hydrolyzed during the pretreatment stage. In this study, xylan was used as a model to study the hydrolysis of hemicellulose in zinc chloride solution. The degradation of xylose that is released from xylan was reduced by the formation of zinc-xylose complex. The xylose yield was > 90% (w/w) at 70{degrees}C. The yield and rate of hydrolysis were a function of temperature and the concentration of zinc chloride. The ratio of zinc chloride can be decreased from 9 to 1.3 (w/w). At this ratio, 76% of xylose yield was obtained. When wheat straw was pretreated with a concentrated zinc chloride solution, the hemicellulose hydrolysate contained only xylose and trace amounts of arabinose and oligosaccharides. With this approach, the hemicellulose hydrolysate can be separated from cellulose residue, which would be hydrolyzed subsequently to glucose by acid or enzymes to produce glucose. This production scheme provided a method to produce glucose and xylose in different streams, which can be fermented in separated fermenters.

  18. Dynamic Electrochemical Measurement of Chloride Ions.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-02-05

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement, long-term and continuous monitoring is limited due to the inherent drift and the requirement of a stable reference electrode. We utilized the chronopotentiometric approach to minimize drift and avoid the use of a conventional reference electrode. A galvanostatic pulse is applied to an Ag/AgCl electrode which initiates a faradic reaction depleting the Cl- ions near the electrode surface. The transition time, which is the time to completely deplete the ions near the electrode surface, is a function of the ion concentration, given by the Nernst equation. The square root of the transition time is in linear relation to the chloride ion concentration. Drift of the response over two weeks is negligible (59 µM/day) when measuring 1 mM [Cl-]using a current pulse of 10 Am(-2). This is a dynamic measurement where the moment of transition time determines the response and thus is independent of the absolute potential. Any metal wire can be used as a pseudo-reference electrode, making this approach feasible for long-term measurement inside concrete structures.

  19. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    PubMed Central

    Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding. PMID:23641004

  20. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    PubMed

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  1. Regulation of neuronal chloride homeostasis by neuromodulators

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Woodin, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract KCC2 is the central regulator of neuronal Cl− homeostasis, and is critical for enabling strong hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition in the mature brain. KCC2 hypofunction results in decreased inhibition and increased network hyperexcitability that underlies numerous disease states including epilepsy, neuropathic pain and neuropsychiatric disorders. The current holy grail of KCC2 biology is to identify how we can rescue KCC2 hypofunction in order to restore physiological levels of synaptic inhibition and neuronal network activity. It is becoming increasingly clear that diverse cellular signals regulate KCC2 surface expression and function including neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. In the present review we explore the existing evidence that G‐protein‐coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling can regulate KCC2 activity in numerous regions of the nervous system including the hypothalamus, hippocampus and spinal cord. We present key evidence from the literature suggesting that GPCR signalling is a conserved mechanism for regulating chloride homeostasis. This evidence includes: (1) the activation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and metabotropic Zn2+ receptors strengthens GABAergic inhibition in CA3 pyramidal neurons through a regulation of KCC2; (2) activation of the 5‐hydroxytryptamine type 2A serotonin receptors upregulates KCC2 cell surface expression and function, restores endogenous inhibition in motoneurons, and reduces spasticity in rats; and (3) activation of A3A‐type adenosine receptors rescues KCC2 dysfunction and reverses allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain. We propose that GPCR‐signals are novel endogenous Cl− extrusion enhancers that may regulate KCC2 function. PMID:26876607

  2. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  3. Photodissociation of methyl chloride and methyl bromide in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) have been suggested to be significant sources of the stratospheric halogens. The breakup of these compounds in the stratosphere by photodissociation or reaction with OH releases halogen atoms which catalytically destroy ozone. Experimental results are presented for ultraviolet photoabsorption cross sections of CH3Cl and CH3Br. Calculations are presented of loss rates for the methyl halides due to photodissociation and reaction with OH and of mixing ratios of these species in the stratosphere.

  4. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  5. Is sodium chloride worth its salt?

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Euan; Andrews, Peter J

    2013-06-11

    The choice of fluid for resuscitation of the brain-injured patient remains controversial, and the 'ideal' resuscitation fluid has yet to be identified. Large volumes of hypotonic solutions must be avoided because of the risk of cerebral swelling and intracranial hypertension. Traditionally, 0.9% sodium chloride has been used in patients at risk of intracranial hypertension, but there is increasing recognition that 0.9% saline is not without its problems. Roquilly and colleagues show a reduction in the development of hyperchloremic acidosis in brain-injured patients given 'balanced' solutions for maintenance and resuscitation compared with 0.9% sodium chloride. In this commentary, we explore the idea that we should move away from 0.9% sodium chloride in favor of a more 'physiological' solution.

  6. A Comparison of Taste and Odor Perception in Pediatric Patients Receiving a 0.9% Sodium Chloride Flush From 2 Different Brands of Prefilled 0.9% Sodium Chloride Syringes.

    PubMed

    Hamze, Benjamin; Vaillancourt, Régis; Sharp, Diane; Villarreal, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized single-blind study is to compare taste and odor disturbances in patients receiving 0.9% sodium chloride flushes from 2 brands. Seventy-five patients from 6 to 18 years of age received intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride infusions, and 50 healthy volunteers who tasted the 2 brands of 0.9% sodium chloride from prefilled syringes were assessed for taste and/or odor disturbances. Taste or odor disturbances were equally present in patients flushed with MedXL and Becton-Dickinson 0.9% sodium chloride. Disturbances are more frequent when 0.9% sodium chloride is flushed through central venous access devices than through peripheral catheters. No difference between the brands was found when healthy volunteers tasted it orally.

  7. Alkyl Chlorides as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nadas, Janos I; Vukovic, Sinisa; Hay, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the role of an alkyl chloride as a hydrogen bond acceptor, geometries and interaction energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory for complexes between ethyl chloride and representative hydrogen donor groups. The results establish that these donors, which include hydrogen cyanide, methanol, nitrobenzene, pyrrole, acetamide, and N-methylurea, form X-H {hor_ellipsis} Cl hydrogen bonds (X = C, N, O) of weak to moderate strength, with {Delta}E values ranging from -2.8 to -5.3 kcal/mol.

  8. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  9. Phytoextraction of chloride from a cement kiln dust (CKD) contaminated landfill with Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Kaitlin; Rutter, Allison; Cumming, Robert; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a globally produced by-product from cement manufacturing that is stockpiled or landfilled. Elevated concentrations of chloride pose toxic threats to plants and aquatic communities, as the anion is highly mobile in water and can leach into surrounding water sources. Re-vegetation and in situ phytoextraction of chloride from a CKD landfill in Bath, ON, Canada, was investigated with the resident invasive species Phragmites australis (haplotype M). Existing stands of P. australis were transplanted from the perimeter of the site into the highest areas of contamination (5.9×10(3)μg/g). Accumulation in the shoots of P. australis was quantified over one growing season by collecting samples from the site on a bi-weekly basis and analyzing for chloride. Concentrations decreased significantly from early May (24±2.2×10(3)μg/g) until mid-June (15±2.5×10(3)μg/g), and then remained stable from June to August. Shoot chloride accumulation was not significantly affected by water level fluctuations at the site, however elevated potassium concentrations in the soil may have contributed to uptake. Based on shoot chloride accumulation and total biomass, it was determined that phytoextraction from the CKD landfill can remove 65±4kg/km(2) of chloride per season. Based on this extraction rate, removal of chloride present in the highly contaminated top 10cm of soil can be achieved in 3-9years. This is the first study to apply phytotechnologies at a CKD landfill, and to successfully demonstrate in situ phytoextraction of chloride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Correlation between Sweat Chloride Levels and Clinical Features of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Manzoor A.; Khan, Mosin S.; Malik, Showkat A.; Raina, AB Hameed; Makhdoomi, Mudassir J.; Bhat, Javed I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. Aim The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. Materials and Methods A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride. Sweat stimulation and collection involved pilocarpine iontophoresis based on the Gibson and Cooks methodology. The quantitative estimation of chloride was done by Schales and Schales method with some modifications. Cystic Fibrosis Trans Membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutation status was recorded in case of patients with borderline sweat chloride levels to correlate the results and for follow-up. Results Out of 182 patients having clinical features consistent with CF, borderline and elevated sweat chloride levels were present in 9 (5%) and 41 (22.5%) subjects respectively. Elevated sweat chloride levels were significantly associated with wheeze, Failure To Thrive (FTT), history of CF in Siblings, product of Consanguineous Marriage (CM), digital clubbing and steatorrhoea on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis only wheeze, FTT and steatorrhoea were found to be significantly associated with elevated sweat chloride levels (p<0.05). Among the nine borderline cases six cases were positive for at least two CFTR mutations and rest of the three cases were not having any mutation in CFTR gene. Conclusion The diagnosis is often delayed and the disease is advanced in most patients at the time of diagnosis. Sweat testing is a gold standard for diagnosis of CF patients as genetic mutation profile being heterozygous and unlikely to become diagnostic test. PMID:28208841

  11. Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harajli, Ali A.

    Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks. This paper covers the development of a new methodology for predicting the chloride concentration and corrosion initiation times for a multi-layer protection overlay system. The first topic will be presenting an innovative method to predict the chloride concentrations using different diffusion coefficients for each protective layer. The new method covers the cases where the applied surface chloride concentrations are either a constant or linear functions with time. The second topic will implement the results from field data about the chloride variations due to the presence of applied topical layers for comparison with the theoretical models. This section will also apply damage factors that are time-dependent to simulate external factors such as traffic loading or vibrations. The third topic will investigate the sensitivity of the single and multi-layer systems due to diffusivity parameter changes. The fourth topic will analyze the random variation of the diffusivity values to predict the mean and standard deviation of chloride concentrations. The diffusivity values are selected from published values by NIST and are based on certain water cement (w/c) ratios.

  12. Chloride inhibition of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomasso, J.R.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    Exposure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings for 24?h to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite (pH?=?7; hardness?=?40?mg/L; temperature?=?22–25 °C) produced methemoglobin levels of 20.7?±?1.9%, 59.8?±?1.9%, and 77.4?±?1.4% (SE), respectively. However, methemoglobin levels were not elevated when fish were simultaneously exposed to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite and 25, 50, and 100?mg/L sodium chloride, respectively. Acclimation to sodium chloride for 24?h before exposure to nitrite did not enhance the inhibitory action of sodium chloride. Fish exposed to 5?mg/L nitrite for 5?h developed 42.5?±?3.8% methemoglobin. When transferred to water containing 5?mg/L nitrite and 250?mg/L sodium chloride, methemoglobin levels returned to normal within 24?h. Environmental chloride probably inhibits methemoglobin formation by competing with nitrite for entrance into the gills of the fish. An ionic ratio of 16 Cl- to 1 NO2- is capable of complete suppression of nitrite-induced methemoglobin formation. Bicarbonate ion present in the test water (1?meq/L) may also have contributed to the inhibitive action of chloride.

  13. Rapid chloride permeability test for durability study of carbon nanoreinforced mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alafogianni, P.; Dalla, P. T.; Tragazikis, I. K.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    The addition of a conductive admixture in a cement-based material could lead to innovative products with multifunctional features. These materials are designed to possess enhanced properties, such as improved mechanical properties, electrical and thermal conductivity, and piezo-electric characteristics. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used as nano-reinforcement in cement-based materials because of their huge aspect ratio as well as their extremely large specific surface area. For cement-based composites, one of the major types of environmental attack is the chloride ingress, which leads to corrosion of the material and, subsequently, to the reduction of strength and serviceability of the structure. A common method of preventing such deterioration is to avert chlorides from penetrating the structure. The penetration of the concrete by chloride ions is a slow process. It cannot be determined directly in a time frame that would be useful as a quality control measure. Therefore, in order to assess chloride penetration, a test method that accelerates the process is needed, to allow the determination of diffusion values in a reasonable time. In the present research, nanomodified mortars with various concentrations of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (0.2% wt. cement CNTs - 0.6% wt. cement CNTs) were used. The chloride penetration in these materials was monitored according to ASTM C1202 standard. This is known as the Coulomb test or Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT).

  14. Endogenous adenosine is an autacoid feedback inhibitor of chloride transport in the shark rectal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, G G; Aassar, O S; Forrest, J N

    1991-01-01

    The present studies define the physiologic role of endogenous adenosine in the perfused shark rectal gland, a model epithelia for hormone-stimulated chloride transport. Chloride ion secretion, and venous adenosine and inosine concentrations increased in parallel in response to hormone stimulation. From a basal rate of 157 +/- 26 mu eq/h per g, chloride secretion increased to 836 +/- 96 and 2170 +/- 358 with 1 and 10 microM forskolin, venous adenosine increased from 5.0 +/- 1 to 126 +/- 29 and 896 +/- 181 nM, and inosine increased from 30 +/- 9 to 349 +/- 77 and 1719 +/- 454 nM (all P less than 0.01). Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), a nucleoside transport inhibitor, completely blocked the release of adenosine and inosine. Inhibition of chloride transport with bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter, or ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase activity, reduced venous adenosine and inosine to basal values. When the interaction of endogenous adenosine with extracellular receptors was prevented by adenosine deaminase, NBTI, or 8-phenyltheophylline, the chloride transport response to secretagogues increased by 1.7-2.3-fold. These studies demonstrate that endogenous adenosine is released in response to hormone-stimulated cellular work and acts at A1 adenosine receptors as a feedback inhibitor of chloride transport. Images PMID:1752953

  15. Reconnaissance estimates of natural recharge to desert basins in Nevada, U.S.A., by using chloride-balance calculations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    A chloride-balance method for estimating average natural recharge to groundwater basins in the Basin and Range Province of the western United States may be a useful alternative or complement to current techniques. The chloride-balance method, as presented in this paper, equates chloride in recharge water and runoff to chloride deposited in mountainous recharge-source areas by precipitation and dry fallout. Given estimates of annual precipitation on these source areas and chloride concentrations of bulk precipitation and recharge water, the rate of recharge can be estimated providing that: (1) no other major sources of chloride exist; (2) direct runoff to discharge areas in the basin is small or can otherwise be taken in account in the balance; and (3) the recharge sources for the basin are correctly delineated. The estimates are sensitive to the estimated rate of input of chloride from the atmosphere; this is the greatest data need for future applications of the method. Preliminary applications of the method to sixteen basins in Nevada, including Las Vegas Valley, indicate that the method can be a useful tool for hydrologists and resource managers. Correlation coefficients between recharge efficiencies for the basins - estimated on the basis of recharge estimates that use the chloride-balance method and two other currently used techniques - range from 0.54 to 0.95, depending on assumptions about where the method may be applied. ?? 1989.

  16. Structural Mechanism for Light-driven Transport by a New Type of Chloride Ion Pump, Nonlabens marinus Rhodopsin-3.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Toshiaki; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Nakajima, Yu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; DeLong, Edward F; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Iwasaki, Wataru; Shirouzu, Mikako

    2016-08-19

    The light-driven inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsin Nonlabens marinus rhodopsin-3 (NM-R3), from a marine flavobacterium, belongs to a phylogenetic lineage distinct from the halorhodopsins known as archaeal inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsins. NM-R3 and halorhodopsin have distinct motif sequences that are important for chloride ion binding and transport. In this study, we present the crystal structure of a new type of light-driven chloride ion pump, NM-R3, at 1.58 Å resolution. The structure revealed the chloride ion translocation pathway and showed that a single chloride ion resides near the Schiff base. The overall structure, chloride ion-binding site, and translocation pathway of NM-R3 are different from those of halorhodopsin. Unexpectedly, this NM-R3 structure is similar to the crystal structure of the light-driven outward sodium ion pump, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2. Structural and mutational analyses of NM-R3 revealed that most of the important amino acid residues for chloride ion pumping exist in the ion influx region, located on the extracellular side of NM-R3. In contrast, on the opposite side, the cytoplasmic regions of K. eikastus rhodopsin 2 were reportedly important for sodium ion pumping. These results provide new insight into ion selection mechanisms in ion pumping rhodopsins, in which the ion influx regions of both the inward and outward pumps are important for their ion selectivities.

  17. Structural Mechanism for Light-driven Transport by a New Type of Chloride Ion Pump, Nonlabens marinus Rhodopsin-3*♦

    PubMed Central

    Hosaka, Toshiaki; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Nakajima, Yu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; DeLong, Edward F.; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Iwasaki, Wataru; Shirouzu, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The light-driven inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsin Nonlabens marinus rhodopsin-3 (NM-R3), from a marine flavobacterium, belongs to a phylogenetic lineage distinct from the halorhodopsins known as archaeal inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsins. NM-R3 and halorhodopsin have distinct motif sequences that are important for chloride ion binding and transport. In this study, we present the crystal structure of a new type of light-driven chloride ion pump, NM-R3, at 1.58 Å resolution. The structure revealed the chloride ion translocation pathway and showed that a single chloride ion resides near the Schiff base. The overall structure, chloride ion-binding site, and translocation pathway of NM-R3 are different from those of halorhodopsin. Unexpectedly, this NM-R3 structure is similar to the crystal structure of the light-driven outward sodium ion pump, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2. Structural and mutational analyses of NM-R3 revealed that most of the important amino acid residues for chloride ion pumping exist in the ion influx region, located on the extracellular side of NM-R3. In contrast, on the opposite side, the cytoplasmic regions of K. eikastus rhodopsin 2 were reportedly important for sodium ion pumping. These results provide new insight into ion selection mechanisms in ion pumping rhodopsins, in which the ion influx regions of both the inward and outward pumps are important for their ion selectivities. PMID:27365396

  18. Infrared spectra of cesium chloride aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2000-10-01

    The aqueous solutions of CsCl were studied at room temperature by infrared (IR) spectroscopy in the entire solubility range, 0-1200 g/L, using attenuated total reflection (ATR) sampling. The influence of anomalous dispersion on the IR-ATR spectra was evaluated by calculating the imaginary refractive index, k(ν), of each sample. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the number and abundance of species in the solutions. FA applied to both k(ν) spectra and IR-ATR spectra produced two principal spectra with a similar abundance of species. This result indicates that, even at high salt concentration, the optical effects do not influence the chemical analysis of IR-ATR spectra. The spectral modifications related to the salt concentrations are mainly first order. Second order effects were observed, but being weak, were not investigated. The two principal spectra are related to the two species present in the solution: pure water and CsCl-solvated water. From the latter, 2.8±0.4 water molecules were calculated to be associated with each close-bound Cs+/Cl- ion pair. In the case of KCl and NaCl aqueous solutions, both of which showed the same number of species, the number of water molecules associated to an ion pair was 5.0±0.4. That the latter number is different from that of CsCl indicates that the interaction between water molecules and ion pairs is different when cation Na or K in the chloride salt is replaced by Cs.

  19. Composition analysis and characterization of waste polyvinyl chloride (PVC) recovered from data cables.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sunil S; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2017-02-01

    Cables and wires are the indispensable parts of electronic equipments for transmission of both information and electricity. Nowadays, data cables are widely used in the computer equipments for sending information and they become waste once its life cycle is completed. However, recycling of cables and wires are mainly concentrating into the recovery of metals such as aluminium and copper, rather than other polymer present. Polymeric materials from the waste data cables are often disposed into landfills or incinerated, since they have only lower value in recycling yard. From the data cables collected, it has been estimated that the major constituents are copper (58.3%), polyvinyl chloride (19.9%) and polyethylene (16%). Similarly, polycarbonate (2.9%), silicon rubber (1.6%), steel (1.4%) and other material (0.4%) such as cotton cord were also present as minor components. Out of these, polyvinyl chloride is the dominant polymer present in data cables. Hence, the present work investigates the reprocessability of the polyvinyl chloride recovered from the data cables and deals with issues such as premature degradation during life cycle, assessment of plasticizers and degradation after reprocessing. Torque measurement studies using torque rheometer revealed further mechanical recycling possibilites of the recovered polyvinyl chloride. Besides, the applicability of melt blending technique for processing recovered polyvinyl chloride can be found out by analysing thermal behaviour by using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and heat distortion temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The susceptibility of Trypanosoma congolense isolated in Zambézia Province, Mozambique, to isometamidium chloride, diminazene aceturate and homidium chloride.

    PubMed

    Jamal, S; Sigauque, I; Macuamule, C; Neves, L; Penzhorn, B L; Marcotty, T; Van Den Bossche, P

    2005-12-01

    Resistance to trypanocidal drugs has been detected in various African countries and is a serious impediment to the control of livestock trypanosomosis. To determine whether drug resistant trypanosome strains are present in the Zambézia Province of Mozambique a study was initiated. To assess the effect of the farming system and the drug-use regimen on the development of drug resistance, trypanosome isolates were collected from cattle from subsistence and commercial livestock production systems. The susceptibility of seven isolates against isometamidium chloride, diminazene aceturate and homidium chloride was tested in mice using a multiple-dose test. In four of the seven isolates high levels of drug resistance to diminazene aceturate and isometamidium chloride were detected. In most cases the observed levels of drug resistance correlated with the drug-use practices in the particular livestock production system.

  1. Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Buffleben, George; Goods, Steven H.; Shepodd, Timothy; Wheeler, David R.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy

    2002-01-01

    Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

  2. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy...

  3. Localized corrosion in halides other than chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    This literature survey characterizes the effects of non-chloride halides on localized corrosion. It includes published material and unpublished data obtained through a questionnaire. Chapters cover Stainless Steels, Nickel, Titanium, and Zirconium. The engineer can use this information for material selection.

  4. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercuric chloride ( HgCl2 ) ; CASRN 7487 - 94 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  5. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2013-11-28

    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle.

  6. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... used as a processing solvent. (2) Ammonolysis of natural tallow fatty acids to form amines that are..., each, of free amine and amine hydrochloride as determined by A.O.C.S. method Te 3a-64, “Acid Value and Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides,” 2d printing including additions and revisions...

  7. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... used as a processing solvent. (2) Ammonolysis of natural tallow fatty acids to form amines that are..., each, of free amine and amine hydrochloride as determined by A.O.C.S. method Te 3a-64, “Acid Value and Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides,” 2d printing including additions and revisions...

  8. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions†

    PubMed Central

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM. PMID:27873832

  9. MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

  10. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  14. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2013-11-01

    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline...

  18. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  19. MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  1. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip G.; Goebel, F.

    1994-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph format are results and accomplishments on the development of lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar batteries. Results include the development of manufacturing capability for producing large quantities of uniform cathodes and bipolar plates; the development of assembly, sealing, and activation procedures for fabrication of battery modules containing up to 150 cells in bipolar configuration; and the successful demonstration of a 10.7 kW 150-cell module with constant power pulse discharge, 20 second pulse, and 10 percent duty cycle.

  2. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Philip G.; Goebel, F.

    1994-02-01

    Presented in viewgraph format are results and accomplishments on the development of lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar batteries. Results include the development of manufacturing capability for producing large quantities of uniform cathodes and bipolar plates; the development of assembly, sealing, and activation procedures for fabrication of battery modules containing up to 150 cells in bipolar configuration; and the successful demonstration of a 10.7 kW 150-cell module with constant power pulse discharge, 20 second pulse, and 10 percent duty cycle.

  3. An electron diffraction study of alkali chloride vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mawhorter, R. J.; Fink, M.; Hartley, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    A study of monomers and dimers of the four alkali chlorides NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl in the vapor phase using the counting method of high energy electron diffraction is reported. Nozzle temperatures from 850-960 K were required to achieve the necessary vapor pressures of approximately 0.01 torr. Using harmonic calculations for the monomer and dimer 1 values, a consistent set of structures for all four molecules was obained. The corrected monomer distances reproduce the microwave values very well. The experiment yields information on the amount of dimer present in the vapor, and these results are compared with thermodynamic values.

  4. [Strontium chloride (89Sr-chloride) fractional injection method for bone metastases treatment].

    PubMed

    Fomin, D K; Smirnov, Iu N; Tararukhina, O B; Nazarov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the effectivnes of 89Sr-chlorid injections by 50 Mbk fractions with standard 150 Mbk injection in patients with bone metastases. Fifty patients with bone metastases were included in the study, 25 of them received 89Sr-chloride by fractional and 25 (control group) by single injection. The pain intensity, white blood cells and thrombocytes concentration values were evaluated in both groups before and after treatment. The study proved the possibility of using systemic 89Sr-chloride fractional radiotherapy in patients with bone metastases and concurrent stage 2-3 myelosupression. The method of fractial 89Sr-chloride injection is effective in symptomatic treatment of patients with bone metastases.

  5. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  6. Distinct freshwater and seawater isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase in gill chloride cells of Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Regish, A.M.; Christensen, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in teleost fishes is involved in ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. We have developed and validated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific to the NKA alpha1a and alpha1b protein isoforms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus), and used western blots and immunohistochemistry to characterize their size, abundance and localization. The relative molecular mass of NKA alpha1a is slightly less than that for NKA beta1b. The abundance of gill NKA alpha1a was high in freshwater and became nearly undetectable after seawater acclimation. NKA alpha1b was present in small amounts in freshwater and increased 13-fold after seawater acclimation. Both NKA isoforms were detected only in chloride cells. NKA alpha1a was located in both filamental and lamellar chloride cells in freshwater, whereas in seawater it was present only as a faint background in filamental chloride cells. In freshwater, NKA alpha1b was found in a small number of filamental chloride cells, and after seawater acclimation it was found in all chloride cells on the filament and lamellae. Double simultaneous immunofluorescence indicated that NKA alpha1a and alpha1b are located in different chloride cells in freshwater. In many chloride cells in seawater, NKA alpha1b was present in greater amounts in the subapical region than elsewhere in the cell. The combined patterns in abundance and immunolocalization of these two isoforms can explain the salinity-related changes in total NKA and chloride cell abundance. The results indicate that there is a freshwater and a seawater isoform of NKA alpha-subunit in the gills of Atlantic salmon and that they are present in distinct chloride cells.

  7. Vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride: Toxicology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity of vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride following short- and long-term exposure. The citations explore how these compounds are metabolized and consider their carcinogenic and teratogenetic potential. Methodologies to quantitate their presence in atmospheric dust and body tissues are discussed. Occupational hazards are also noted.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Chronic toxicity of chloride to freshwater species: effects of hardness and implications for water quality guidelines.

    PubMed

    Elphick, James R F; Bergh, Kelli D; Bailey, Howard C

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity tests using nine freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pimephales promelas, Lumbriculus variegatus, Tubifex tubifex, Chironomus dilutus, Hyallela azteca, and Brachionus calyciflorus) were conducted to evaluate their sensitivity to chloride. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) from these tests indicate the ACR of 7.59 employed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in deriving its water quality guideline for chloride may be conservative; a revised ACR of 3.50 is presented here. The endpoints used to calculate the ACR included 24-h to 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) for acute tests, and 48-h to 54-d inhibition concentration (ICx) values for growth or reproduction for chronic exposures. Data from the present chronic toxicity tests, and other investigators, were used to propose a water quality guideline for long-term exposure to chloride using a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach. The 5th percentile from the SSD was calculated as 307 mg/L and proposed as the water quality guideline. Cladocerans were the most sensitive species in the dataset. Ceriodaphnia dubia was used to evaluate the relationship between water hardness and sensitivity to chloride. A strong relationship was observed and was used to establish a hardness-related equation to modify the proposed water quality guideline on the basis of water hardness, resulting in values ranging from 64 mg/L chloride at 10 mg/L hardness to 388 mg/L chloride at 160 mg/L hardness (as CaCO₃). These data suggest that current water quality guidelines for chloride may be overly conservative in water with moderate-to-high hardness, and may not be sufficiently protective under soft-water conditions.

  9. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S. G.; McCann, R. S.; Kaiser, M. K.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew on flight vehicles, surface landers and habitats, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Designers of displays and controls for exploration missions must be prepared to select the text formats, label styles, alarms, electronic procedure designs, and cursor control devices that provide for optimal crew performance on exploration tasks. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP are: 1) Controls, 2) Displays, 3) Procedures, and 4) EVA Operations.

  10. An Improved Analytical Method for Atmospheric Chlorides in Tropic Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    Chloride Electrode Chloride Analysis Methodology Tropic Regions Diphenylcarbazone- Panama Canal Zone Tropic Test Center Bromphenol Blue Salt Wet Candle 20...ambient salt has been measured for corrosion studies by wet- candle sampling and determining water-soluble chlorides by manual mercuric nitrate titration...of total chloride in wet- candle samplers. For the past 8 years atmospheric salt has been measured at tropic test sites by the wet- candle method

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride (Final Report ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Vinyl Chloride and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database. Common synonyms of vinyl chloride (VC) include chloroethene, chloroethylene, ethylene monochloride, and monochloroethene. VC is a synthetic chemical used as a chemical intermediate in the polymerization of polyvinyl chloride.

  12. Ameliorating effect of chloride on nitrite toxicity to freshwater invertebrates with different physiology: a comparative study between amphipods and planarians.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Camargo, J A

    2008-02-01

    High nitrite concentrations in freshwater ecosystems may cause toxicity to aquatic animals. These living organisms can take nitrite up from water through their chloride cells, subsequently suffering oxidation of their respiratory pigments (hemoglobin, hemocyanin). Because NO(2)(-) and Cl(-) ions compete for the same active transport site, elevated chloride concentrations in the aquatic environment have the potential of reducing nitrite toxicity. Although this ameliorating effect is well documented in fish, it has been largely ignored in wild freshwater invertebrates. The aim of this study was to compare the ameliorating effect of chloride on nitrite toxicity to two species of freshwater invertebrates differing in physiology: Eulimnogammarus toletanus (amphipods) and Polycelis felina (planarians). The former species presents gills (with chloride cells) and respiratory pigments, whereas in the latter species these are absent. Test animals were exposed in triplicate for 168 h to a single nitrite concentration (5 ppm NO(2)-N for E. toletanus and 100 ppm NO(2)-N for P. felina) at four different environmental chloride concentrations (27.8, 58.3, 85.3, and 108.0 ppm Cl(-)). The number of dead animals and the number of affected individuals (i.e., number of dead plus inactive invertebrates) were monitored every day. LT(50) (lethal time) and ET(50) (effective time) were estimated for each species and each chloride concentration. LT(50) and ET(50) values increased with increases in the environmental chloride concentration, mainly in amphipods. Results clearly show that the ameliorating effect of chloride on nitrite toxicity was more significant in amphipods than in planarians, likely because of the absence of gills (with chloride cells) and respiratory pigments in P. felina. Additionally, this comparative study indicates that the ecological risk assessment of nitrite in freshwater ecosystems should take into account not only the most sensitive and key species in the

  13. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  14. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  15. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  16. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants. 5. Unsaturated halogenated aliphatics: Allyl chloride, chloroprene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, vinylidene chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1991-02-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions involved in the atmospheric removal of four unsaturated chlorinated aliphatic contaminants, allyl chloride, chloroprene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene and vinylidene chloride. Rate constants estimated from structure-reactivity relationships indicate rapid removal for all four compounds by reactions with OH (major), ozone, and No{sub 3}, with half-lives of 2-16 hrs for removal by reaction with OH. Reaction products of allyl chloride (formaldehyde, chloroacetaldehyde, peroxychloroacetyl nitrate) and vinylidene chloride (formaldehyde, phosgene, chloroacetyl chloride) are consistent with OH addition-initiated pathways that include Cl atom elimination. The chlorine atoms produced in the OH reaction sequence react rapidly with all four unsaturated compounds, but these reactions are of negligible importance for atmospheric removal of the four toxic contaminants studied. Analogous mechanisms are discussed for chloroprene (leading to formaldehyde, CH{sub 2} {double bond} CClCHO, and ClCOCHO) and for hexachlorocyclopentadiene (leading to oxalyl chloride and ClCOCCl{sub 2}COCl).

  17. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  18. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-15

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  19. Determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury in mercury ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahey, J.J.

    1937-01-01

    A method for the determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury on the same sample is described. The mercury minerals are volatilized in a glass tube and brought into intimate contact with granulated sodium carbonate. The chlorine is fixed as sodium chloride, determined with silver nitrate, and computed to mercurous chloride. The mercury is collected on a previously weighed gold coil and weighed.

  20. Making Positive Electrodes For Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    High coulombic yields provided by sodium/metal chloride battery in which cathode formed by impregnating sintered nickel plaque with saturated solution of nickel chloride. Charge/discharge cycling of nickel chloride electrode results in very little loss of capacity. Used in spacecraft, electric land vehicles, and other applications in which high-energy-density power systems required.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed silylation of aryl chlorides with hexamethyldisilane.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Eric; Barder, Timothy E; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2007-09-13

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed silylation of aryl chlorides has been developed. The method affords desired product in good yield, is tolerant of a variety of functional groups, and provides access to a wide variety of aryltrimethylsilanes from commercially available aryl chlorides. Additionally, a one-pot procedure that converts aryl chlorides into aryl iodides has been developed.

  2. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17... Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following special requirements: (a) The tank car must comply with...

  3. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17... Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following special requirements: (a) The tank car must comply with...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  10. Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

  11. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride capsules. 520.260 Section 520.260... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules. (a)(1) Specifications. n-Butyl chloride capsules, veterinary contain 272 milligrams or 816 milligrams...

  12. Preparation of ammonium paratungstate from a sodium tungstate-sodium chloride phase

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, A.E.; Gomes, J.M.; Carnahan, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the tungstate-bearing sodium chloride phase can be a suitable feed material for preparing ammonium paratungstate (APT) by a modification to the present industrial solvent extraction process. A combined crossflow-countercurrent flow solvent extraction technique to extract tungsten is presented.

  13. Experimental and numerical modeling of chloride diffusivity in hardened cement concrete considering the aggregate shapes and exposure-duration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Wu; Dassekpo, Jean-Baptiste Mawulé; Wan, Chengyong; Zha, Xiaoxiong

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical model describing the effects of the aggregate shapes and exposure duration of chloride diffusion into cement-based materials. A simple chloride diffusion test was performed on a concrete specimen composed of a mixture of cement mortar with crushed granites and round gravels. A simulation was done and the numerical model developed was applied to the matrix at the meso-scale level and the chloride diffusivity was investigated at 30, 60, and 90 days. The experimental and simulation results showed that the aggregate shape and the exposure duration of chloride diffusing into concrete are of high significance. It was indicated that the model with crushed granite presents a good resistance against chloride ingress, while the model with rounded gravels shows some sensitivity to the chloride penetration. It was also found out that when the time dependence of the diffusion coefficient is not taken into account, the diffusion rate will be overestimated. The meso-scale model developed in this study also provides a new method applied in the analysis of the chloride and water transport that causes damage to concrete considering the particle inclusion and the diffusion duration.

  14. [Determination of high concentrations of rubidium chloride by ICP-OES].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan; Sun, Bai; Li, Hai-jun; Wang, Tao; Li, Wu; Song, Peng-sheng

    2015-01-01

    The method of ICP-OES for the direct determination of high content of rubidium in rubidium chloride solutions was studied through mass dilution method and optimizing parameters of the instrument in the present paper. It can reduce the times of dilution and the error introduced by the dilution, and improve the accuracy of determination results of rubidium. Through analyzing the sensitivity of the three detection spectral lines for rubidium ion, linearly dependent coefficient and the relative errors of the determination results, the spectral line of Rb 780. 023 nm was chosen as the most suitable wavelength to measure the high content of rubidium in the rubidium chloride solutions. It was found that the instrument parameters of ICP-OES such as the atomizer flow, the pump speed and the high-frequency power are the major factors for the determination of rubidium ion in the rubidium chloride solutions. As we know instrument parameters of ICP-OES have an important influence on the atomization efficiency as well as the emissive power of the spectral lines of rubidium, they are considered as the significant factors for the determination of rubidium. The optimization parameters of the instrument were obtained by orthogonal experiments and further single factor experiment, which are 0. 60 L . min-1 of atomizer flow, 60 r . min-1 of pump speed, and 1 150 W of high-frequency power. The same experiments were repeated a week later with the optimization parameters of the instrument, and the relative errors of the determination results are less than 0. 5% when the concentration of rubidium chloride ranged from 0. 09% to 0. 18%. As the concentration of rubidium chloride is 0. 06%, the relative errors of the determination results are -1. 7%. The determination of lithium chloride and potassium chloride in the high concentration of the aqueous solutions was studied under the condition of similar instrument parameters. It was found by comparison that the determination results of lithium

  15. Densities, Electrical Conductivities, Viscosities and Phase Equilibria of 1,3-Dialkylimidazolium Chloride - Aluminum Chloride Binary and Ternary Melts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    FRANK J. SELLER RESEARCH LABORATORY FJSRL-TR-82-0006 JULY 1982 DENSITIES, ELEC’TRICAL CONDUCTIVITIES, VISCOSITIES AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA OF 1,3...Conductivities, Viscosities and Phase Equilibria of 1,3- Interim 6/81-7/82 Dialkylimidazolium Chloride-Aluminum Chloride 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...Entered) FJSRL-TR-82-0006 DENSITIES, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITIES, VISCOSITIES AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA OF 1,3-DIALKYLIMIDAZOLIUM CHLORIDE- ALUMINUM CHLORIDE

  16. Analysis of benzalkonium chloride and its homologs: HPLC versus HPCE.

    PubMed

    Prince, S J; McLaury, H J; Allen, L V; McLaury, P

    1999-05-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride homologs with n-C,2H25, n-C,4H29, and n-C16H33 comprising a major portion of the alkyl groups present. An analytical method for BAK must differentiate and quantitate the homologs in the BAK mixture. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separates compounds based on their affinity for a nonpolar column, which is a direct correlation to the compounds' polarity. High performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), however, separates compounds in an electric field according to their charge and size. The BAK homologs are suitable for separation by either of these methods because their polarity and sizes differ significantly. The HPLC method employed a mobile phase of 60% acetonitrile and 40% 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer pH 5 pumped at 1.0 ml min(-1), a 4.6 x 250 mm cyano column with 5 microm packing, and UV detection at 254 nm. The HPCE method utilized a run buffer of 30% acetonitrile and 70% 0.05 M sodium phosphate pH 3.06, a 50 microm x 20 cm open silica capillary, 7.5 kV electric field and UV detection at 214 nm. Both HPLC and HPCE demonstrated good linearity in the range of 0.025 to 0.8 mg ml(-1) with r2 values of approximately 0.99. The HPLC method produced good separation of the homolog peaks with a total analysis time of 25 min. HPCE run time was less than 5 min and demonstrated good separation of the three homologs. The HPLC method, however, was superior to HPCE in the areas of sensitivity and precision. The HPLC has been extensively used in the routine quantitation and qualitation of benzalkonium chloride concentrations in various products; however, long analysis times make this method inefficient. The HPCE method produced comparable results to the HPLC method but with much shorter analysis times. An HPCE analysis method, as presented here, may prove to be a much more useful and efficient method for the analysis of benzalkonium chloride and its homologs.

  17. Effects of chloride additives on the mechanical stability and environmental durability of porous MgF2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütz, F.; Scheurell, K.; Scholz, G.; Kemnitz, E.

    2016-09-01

    Porous antireflective thin films, prepared of nanoscopic MgF2 sols, exhibit a low refraction index and are useful for various optical applications. Due to their porosity, film stability and durability suffer from mechanical abrasion and water solubility, respectively. Hence, we present approaches of improved mechanical stability of MgF2 layers induced by chloride addition. Antireflective (AR) films were produced by dip-coating followed by thermal treatment. Afterwards, film stability and environmental durability was strained by crockmeter and water stability tests, respectively. In comparison to films prepared from chloride-free MgF2 sols, chloride mingled sols form coatings with increased mechanical stability and a lower solubility.

  18. Ser262 determines the chloride-dependent colour tuning of a new halorhodopsin from Haloquadratum walsbyi

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hsu-Yuan; Chang, Yung-Ning; Jheng, Ming-Jin; Yang, Chii-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Light is an important environmental signal for all organisms on earth because it is essential for physiological signalling and the regulation of most biological systems. Halophiles found in salt-saturated ponds encode various archaeal rhodopsins and thereby harvest various wavelengths of light either for ion transportation or as sensory mediators. HR (halorhodopsin), one of the microbial rhodopsins, senses yellow light and transports chloride or other halides into the cytoplasm to maintain the osmotic balance during cell growth, and it exists almost ubiquitously in all known halobacteria. To date, only two HRs, isolated from HsHR (Halobacterium salinarum HR) and NpHR (Natronomonas pharaonis HR), have been characterized. In the present study, two new HRs, HmHR (Haloarcula marismortui HR) and HwHR (Haloquadratum walsbyi HR), were functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the purified proteins, the light-driven chloride uptake and the chloride-binding affinity were measured. The results showed them to have similar properties to two HRs reported previously. However, the λmax of HwHR is extremely consistent in a wide range of salt/chloride concentrations, which had not been observed previously. A structural-based sequence alignment identified a single serine residue at 262 in HwHR, which is typically a conserved alanine in all other known HRs. A Ser262 to alanine replacement in HwHR eliminated the chloride-independent colour tuning, whereas an Ala246 to serine mutagenesis in HsHR transformed it to have chloride-independent colour tuning similar to that of HwHR. Thus Ser262 is a key residue for the mechanism of chloride-dependent colour tuning in HwHR. PMID:22716305

  19. Ser(262) determines the chloride-dependent colour tuning of a new halorhodopsin from Haloquadratum walsbyi.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hsu-Yuan; Chang, Yung-Ning; Jheng, Ming-Jin; Yang, Chii-Shen

    2012-10-01

    Light is an important environmental signal for all organisms on earth because it is essential for physiological signalling and the regulation of most biological systems. Halophiles found in salt-saturated ponds encode various archaeal rhodopsins and thereby harvest various wavelengths of light either for ion transportation or as sensory mediators. HR (halorhodopsin), one of the microbial rhodopsins, senses yellow light and transports chloride or other halides into the cytoplasm to maintain the osmotic balance during cell growth, and it exists almost ubiquitously in all known halobacteria. To date, only two HRs, isolated from HsHR (Halobacterium salinarum HR) and NpHR (Natronomonas pharaonis HR), have been characterized. In the present study, two new HRs, HmHR (Haloarcula marismortui HR) and HwHR (Haloquadratum walsbyi HR), were functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the purified proteins, the light-driven chloride uptake and the chloride-binding affinity were measured. The results showed them to have similar properties to two HRs reported previously. However, the λmax of HwHR is extremely consistent in a wide range of salt/chloride concentrations, which had not been observed previously. A structural-based sequence alignment identified a single serine residue at 262 in HwHR, which is typically a conserved alanine in all other known HRs. A Ser262 to alanine replacement in HwHR eliminated the chloride-independent colour tuning, whereas an Ala246 to serine mutagenesis in HsHR transformed it to have chloride-independent colour tuning similar to that of HwHR. Thus Ser262 is a key residue for the mechanism of chloride-dependent colour tuning in HwHR.

  20. Lubiprostone activates non-CFTR-dependent respiratory epithelial chloride secretion in cystic fibrosis mice.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kelvin D; McKenzie, Karen R; Henderson, Mark J; Hawkins, Charles E; Vij, Neeraj; Zeitlin, Pamela L

    2008-11-01

    Periciliary fluid balance is maintained by the coordination of sodium and chloride channels in the apical membranes of the airways. In the absence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), chloride secretion is diminished and sodium reabsorption exaggerated. ClC-2, a pH- and voltage-dependent chloride channel, is present on the apical membranes of airway epithelial cells. We hypothesized that ClC-2 agonists would provide a parallel pathway for chloride secretion. Using nasal potential difference (NPD) measurements, we quantified lubiprostone-mediated Cl(-) transport in sedated cystic fibrosis null (gut-corrected), C57Bl/6, and A/J mice during nasal perfusion of lubiprostone (a putative ClC-2 agonist). Baseline, amiloride-inhibited, chloride-free gluconate-substituted Ringer with amiloride and low-chloride Ringer plus lubiprostone (at increasing concentrations of lubiprostone) were perfused, and the NPD was continuously recorded. A clear dose-response relationship was detected in all murine strains. The magnitude of the NPD response to 20 muM lubiprostone was -5.8 +/- 2.1 mV (CF, n = 12), -8.1 +/- 2.6 mV (C57Bl/6 wild-type, n = 12), and -5.3 +/- 1.2 mV (AJ wild-type, n = 8). A cohort of ClC-2 knockout mice did not respond to 20 muM lubiprostone (n = 6, P = 0.27). In C57Bl/6 mice, inhibition of CFTR with topical application of CFTR inhibitor-172 did not abolish the lubiprostone response, thus confirming the response seen is independent of CFTR regulation. RT-PCR confirmed expression of ClC-2 mRNA in murine lung homogenate. The direct application of lubiprostone in the CF murine nasal airway restores nearly normal levels of chloride secretion in nasal epithelia.

  1. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  2. Overview Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview presentation of the 2000 NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) Review and Planning Meeting. Topics include: 1) a background of the program; 2) 1999 Industry Feedback; 3) FY00 Status, including resource distribution and major accomplishments; 4) FY01 Major Milestones; and 5) Future direction for the program. Specifically, simulation environment/production software and NPSS CORBA Security Development are discussed.

  3. Detecting Airborne Mercury by Use of Palladium Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret; Shevade, Abhijit; Kisor, Adam; Homer, Margie; Jewell, April; Manatt, Kenneth; Torres, Julia; Soler, Jessica; Taylor, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Palladium chloride films have been found to be useful as alternatives to the gold films heretofore used to detect airborne elemental mercury at concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb). Somewhat more specifically, when suitably prepared palladium chloride films are exposed to parts-per-billion or larger concentrations of airborne mercury, their electrical resistances change by amounts large enough to be easily measurable. Because airborne mercury adversely affects health, it is desirable to be able to detect it with high sensitivity, especially in enclosed environments in which there is a risk of leakage of mercury from lamps or other equipment. The detection of mercury by use of gold films involves the formation of gold/mercury amalgam. Gold films offer adequate sensitivity for detection of airborne mercury and could easily be integrated into an electronic-nose system designed to operate in the temperature range of 23 to 28 C. Unfortunately, in order to regenerate a gold-film mercury sensor, one must heat it to a temperature of 200 C for several minutes in clean flowing air. In preparation for an experiment to demonstrate the present sensor concept, palladium chloride was deposited from an aqueous solution onto sets of gold electrodes and sintered in air to form a film. Then while using the gold electrodes to measure the electrical resistance of the films, the films were exposed, at a temperature of 25 C, to humidified air containing mercury at various concentrations from 0 to 35 ppb (see figure). The results of this and other experiments have been interpreted as signifying that sensors of this type can detect mercury in room-temperature air at concentrations of at least 2.5 ppb and can readily be regenerated at temperatures <40 C.

  4. Reaction mechanism for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, G. W.; Henein, H.; Jin, Zuo-Mei

    1985-12-01

    Reaction mechanisms for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite are proposed based on data obtained in leaching and dual cell experiments presented in this work and in a previous study. The results from the leaching experiments show that at low concentrations the rate is proportional to [Fe3+]T 0.5 and [Cl-]T 0.43 but at higher concentrations the reaction order with respect to both [Fe3+]T and [Cl-]T decreases. Using dual cell experiments which allow the half cell reactions to be separated, increased rates are observed when NaCl is added to the anolyte and to the catholyte. The increase in rate is attributed to a direct, anodic electrochemical reaction of Cl- with the mineral. When NaCl is added only to the catholyte, a decrease in the rate is observed due to a decrease in the E 0 of the cathode which is attributed to the formation of ferric-chloro complexes. Several possible electrochemical mechanisms and mathematical models based on the Butler-Volmer relation are delineated, and of these, one model is selected which accounts for the experimentally observed changes in reaction order for both Fe3+ and Cl-. This analysis incorporates a charge transfer process for each ion and an adsorption step for ferric and chloride ions. The inhibiting effect of Fe2+ noted by previous investigators is also accounted for through a similar model which includes back reaction kinetics for Fe2+. The proposed models successfully provide a theoretical basis for describing the role of Cl-, Fe3+, and Fe2+ as well as their interrelationship in zinc sulfide leaching reactions. Possible applications of these results to chloride leaching systems involving other sulfides or complex sulfides are considered.

  5. Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counts, T.

    1985-12-01

    This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project was divided into two main tasks. Task One was to consist of component optimization and stability studies. Once sufficiently advanced, the ongoing results of Task One were to be integrated with Task Two. Task Two was to consist of demonstration of an optimized primary cell. In July, 1983, the program was redirected. Task Two was split, with effort to be directed toward both the original primary cell and toward a high discharge rate reserve configuration cell. Additional electrolyte salts were to be evaluated as a means of improving the storability of the active calcium-thionyl chloride cell.

  6. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts.

  7. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, M.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

  8. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  9. Sodium Chloride Respirator Quantitative Fit Test Instrument

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    surface to drain and air-dry. 7. If the glassware is to be stored, wrap it tightly with clean paper towels . 8. If the glassware has been stored, rinse...40 18. Sodium chloride calibration-challenge concentrations vs . photomultiplier tube (PMT) output voltage...Incorporated, Model No. 32514, Quincy Compressor Division, Quincy, IL 62301) is utilized to generate the air supply; and a refrigerated air dryer (Colt

  10. Radio-Purification of Neodymium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, S.; Yeh, M.; Cumming, J. B.; Hahn, R. L.

    2011-04-27

    Organometallic liquid scintillator becomes one of the man detection mediums for neutrino experiment. Liquid-liquid extraction is the method of choice for loading metallic ions of interest into the organic solvents at BNL. High purity of all starting materials is essential for the optimization of synthesis. A newly developed 'self-scavenging' technique was applied to purify undesired radioisotopes from the starting metal compound and found to effectively remove thorium and such containments from the neodymium chloride for SNO+.

  11. Removing Chlorides From Metallurgical-Grade Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, W. C.; Coleman, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    Process for making low-cost silicon for solar cells is further improved. Silane product recycled to feed stripper column converts some of heavy impurities to volatile ones that pass off at top of column with light wastes. Impurities--chlorides of arsenic, phosphorus, and boron-would otherwise be carried to subsequent distillations where they would be difficult to remove. Since only a small amount of silane is recycled, silicon production efficiency remains high.

  12. Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Naasz, B.

    1992-02-10

    Purpose of this contract is to develop a process for converting light alkane gases to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination using highly selective, stable catalysts (Cu) in either fixed-bed or fluid-bed reactors. Catalyst development and micro-packed bed screening studies are underway. Engineering support for pre-design on the miniplant is struggling with the unit operations problem associated with separation of products from unreacted methane.

  13. Removing Chlorides From Metallurgical-Grade Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, W. C.; Coleman, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    Process for making low-cost silicon for solar cells is further improved. Silane product recycled to feed stripper column converts some of heavy impurities to volatile ones that pass off at top of column with light wastes. Impurities--chlorides of arsenic, phosphorus, and boron-would otherwise be carried to subsequent distillations where they would be difficult to remove. Since only a small amount of silane is recycled, silicon production efficiency remains high.

  14. Watershed scale chloride storage across a gradient of urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellen, C. C.; Oswald, C. J.; Oni, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sodium chloride is the main de-icing agent used during the winter in Canada and the northern United States. However, little is known about the long term fate, residence time, and ecological effects of chloride. This talk integrates work taking place across three sites in Southern Ontario, Canada: Hamilton Harbour, the Toronto lakeshore, and Lake Simcoe. We quantify chloride inputs, outputs, and changes in storage for a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. For the three winter months (January, February, March), we show that stream water chloride concentrations approach those of brackish waters for urban watersheds. Chloride is also highly persistent, with stream water chloride concentrations decreasing from the winter months and approaching baseline levels only in July. These baseline levels are greater than 100 mg Cl/l in the urban watersheds, suggesting high levels of chloride storage in soil and groundwater. Using road salt application rates and groundwater levels and chloride concentrations, we estimate the magnitude and residence time of the chloride pools in a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. Our results suggest that the magnitude and residence time of chloride storage varies with urbanization and other factors. We show that summer baseflow concentrations do approach the EPA's chronic exposure guideline of 230 mg Cl/l, implying more work is needed to understand the in stream and downstream ecological effects of chloride.

  15. Developing Polymer Cathode Material for the Chloride Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhigang; Yang, Meng; Xia, Hui; Yu, Tingting; Shen, Xiaodong

    2017-01-25

    The chloride ion battery is an attractive rechargeable battery owing to its high theoretical energy density and sustainable components. An important challenge for research and development of chloride ion batteries lies in the innovation of the cathode materials. Here we report a nanostructured chloride ion-doped polymer, polypyrrole chloride, as a new type of potential cathode material for the chloride ion battery. The as-prepared polypyrrole chloride@carbon nanotubes (PPyCl@CNTs) cathode shows a high reversible capacity of 118 mAh g(-1) and superior cycling stability. Reversible electrochemical reactions of the PPyCl@CNTs cathode based on the redox reactions of nitrogen species and chloride ion transfer are demonstrated. Our work may guide and offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of rechargeable batteries with anion transfer.

  16. Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kyle P; Kramer, Mark A; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Seizures are thought to originate from a failure of inhibition to quell hyperactive neural circuits, but the nature of this failure remains unknown. Here we combine high-speed two-photon imaging with electrophysiological recordings to directly evaluate the interaction between populations of interneurons and principal cells during the onset of seizure-like activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Both calcium imaging and dual patch clamp recordings reveal that in vitro seizure-like events (SLEs) are preceded by pre-ictal bursts of activity in which interneurons predominate. Corresponding changes in intracellular chloride concentration were observed in pyramidal cells using the chloride indicator Clomeleon. These changes were measurable at SLE onset and became very large during the SLE. Pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic transmission, either by blocking GABAA receptors or by hyperpolarizing the GABAA reversal potential, converted SLEs to short interictal-like bursts. Together, our results support a model in which pre-ictal GABAA receptor-mediated chloride influx shifts EGABA to produce a positive feedback loop that contributes to the initiation of seizure activity. PMID:22677032

  17. Solution-Derived, Chloride-Containing Minerals as a Waste Form for Alkali Chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Lepry, William C.

    2012-10-01

    Sodalite [Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2] and cancrinite [(Na,K)6Ca2Al6Si6O24Cl4] are environmentally stable, chloride-containing minerals and are a logical waste form option for the mixed alkali chloride salt waste stream that is generated from a proposed electrochemical separations process during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to the volatility of chloride salts at moderate temperatures, the ideal processing route for these salts is a low-temperature approach such as the sol-gel process. The sodalite structure can be easily synthesized by the sol-gel process; however, it is produced in the form of a fine powder with particle sizes on the order of 1–10 µm. Due to the small particle size, these powders require additional treatment to form a monolith. In this study, the sol-gel powders were pressed into pellets and fired to achieve > 90% of theoretical density. The cancrinite structure, identified as the best candidate mineral form in terms of waste loading capacity, was only produced on a limited basis following the sol-gel process and converted to sodalite upon firing. Here we discuss the sol-gel process specifics, chemical durability of select waste forms, and the steps taken to maximize chloride-containing phases, decrease chloride loss during pellet firing, and increase pellet densities.

  18. Dynamic properties of calcium-activated chloride currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    PubMed Central

    M. De la Fuente, Ildefonso; Malaina, Iker; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Boyano, María Dolores; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Bringas, Carlos; Villarroel, Álvaro; Fedetz, María; Arellano, Rogelio; Cortes, Jesus M.; Martínez, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Chloride is the most abundant permeable anion in the cell, and numerous studies in the last two decades highlight the great importance and broad physiological role of chloride currents mediated anion transport. They participate in a multiplicity of key processes, as for instance, the regulation of electrical excitability, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial secretion and neuronal excitability. In addition, dysfunction of Cl− channels is involved in a variety of human diseases such as epilepsy, osteoporosis and different cancer types. Historically, chloride channels have been of less interest than the cation channels. In fact, there seems to be practically no quantitative studies of the dynamics of chloride currents. Here, for the first time, we have quantitatively studied experimental calcium-activated chloride fluxes belonging to Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the main results show that the experimental Cl− currents present an informational structure characterized by highly organized data sequences, long-term memory properties and inherent “crossover” dynamics in which persistent correlations arise at short time intervals, while anti-persistent behaviors become dominant in long time intervals. Our work sheds some light on the understanding of the informational properties of ion currents, a key element to elucidate the physiological functional coupling with the integrative dynamics of metabolic processes. PMID:28198817

  19. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  20. Dynamic properties of calcium-activated chloride currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    M De la Fuente, Ildefonso; Malaina, Iker; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Boyano, María Dolores; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Bringas, Carlos; Villarroel, Álvaro; Fedetz, María; Arellano, Rogelio; Cortes, Jesus M; Martínez, Luis

    2017-02-13

    Chloride is the most abundant permeable anion in the cell, and numerous studies in the last two decades highlight the great importance and broad physiological role of chloride currents mediated anion transport. They participate in a multiplicity of key processes, as for instance, the regulation of electrical excitability, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial secretion and neuronal excitability. In addition, dysfunction of Cl(-) channels is involved in a variety of human diseases such as epilepsy, osteoporosis and different cancer types. Historically, chloride channels have been of less interest than the cation channels. In fact, there seems to be practically no quantitative studies of the dynamics of chloride currents. Here, for the first time, we have quantitatively studied experimental calcium-activated chloride fluxes belonging to Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the main results show that the experimental Cl(-) currents present an informational structure characterized by highly organized data sequences, long-term memory properties and inherent "crossover" dynamics in which persistent correlations arise at short time intervals, while anti-persistent behaviors become dominant in long time intervals. Our work sheds some light on the understanding of the informational properties of ion currents, a key element to elucidate the physiological functional coupling with the integrative dynamics of metabolic processes.

  1. Temporal and spatial trends of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire, 1960–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Data on concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire were assembled from various State and Federal agencies and organized into a database. This report provides documentation of many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives and investigates temporal and spatial trends of the data. Data summaries presented in this report and analyses performed for this study needed to take into account the 27 percent of chloride and 5 percent of sodium data that were censored (less than a reporting limit) at multiple reporting limits that systematically decreased over time. Throughout New Hampshire, median concentrations of chloride were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than in every decade since the 1970s, and median concentrations of sodium were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than during the 1990s. Results of summary statistics showed that the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the median concentrations of chloride and sodium by source (well) from Rockingham and Strafford counties were the highest in the State; and the 75th and 90th percentiles from Carroll, Coos, and Grafton counties were the lowest. Large increases in median concentrations of chloride and sodium for individual wells after 1995 compared with concentrations for years before were found in parts of Belknap and Rockingham counties and in small clusters within Carroll, Hillsborough, and Merrimack counties.

  2. Stimulation effect of wide type CFTR chloride channel by the naturally occurring flavonoid tangeretin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xue; Sui, Yujie; Zhang, Yaofang; Yang, Shuang; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2014-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in the apical membrane of serous epithelial cells. Both deficiency and overactivation of CFTR may cause fluid and salt secretion related diseases. In the present study, we identified tangeretin from Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride as a CFTR activator using high-throughput screening based on FRT cell-based fluorescence assay. The activation effect of tangeretin on CFTR chloride channel and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated. Fluorescence quenching tests showed that tangeretin dose- and time-dependently activated CFTR chloride channel, the activity had rapid and reversible characteristics and the activation effect could be completely reversed by the CFTR specific blocker CFTRinh-172. Primary mechanism studies indicated that the activation effect of tangeretin on CFTR chloride channel was FSK dependent as well as had additional effect with FSK and IBMX suggesting that tangeretin activates CFTR by direct interacting with the protein. Ex-vivo tests revealed that tangeretin could accelerate the speed of the submucosal gland fluid secretion. Short-circuit current measurement demonstrated that tangeretin activated rat colonic mucosa chloride current. Thus, CFTR Cl(-) channel is a molecular target of natural compound tangeretin. Tangeretin may have potential use for the treatment of CFTR-related diseases like cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and habitual constipation.

  3. Application of cerium chloride to improve the acid resistance of dentine.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the effect of cerium chloride, cerium chloride/fluoride and fluoride application on calcium release during erosion of treated dentine. Forty dentine samples were prepared from human premolars and randomly assigned to four groups (1-4). Samples were treated twice a day for 5 days, 30s each, with the following solutions: group 1 placebo, group 2 fluoride (Elmex fluid), group 3 cerium chloride and group 4 combined fluoride and cerium chloride. For the determination of acid resistance, the samples were consecutively eroded six times for 5 min with lactic acid (pH 3.0) and the calcium release in the acid was determined. Furthermore, six additional samples per group were prepared and used for EDS analysis. SEM pictures of these samples of each group were also captured. Samples of group 1 presented the highest calcium release when compared with the samples of groups 2-4. The highest acid resistance was observed for group 2. Calcium release in group 3 was similar to that of group 4 for the first two erosive attacks, after which calcium release in group 4 was lower than that of group 3. Generally, the SEM pictures showed a surface coating for groups 2-4. No deposits were observed in group 1. Although fluoride showed the best protective effect, cerium chloride was also able to reduce the acid susceptibility of dentine significantly, which merits further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ground cloud hydrogen chloride measurements from three Titan launches at the Kennedy Space Center during 1978 and 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seabacher, D. I.; Lee, R. B., III; Mathis, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Total hydrogen chloride and gaseous hydrogen chloride concentrations were measured in the exhaust cloud produced at three Titan 3 launches at the Kennedy Space Center in March 1978, December 1978, and November 1979 to determine the degree of hydrogen chloride partitioning in a solid rocket exhaust cloud between gaseous hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid aerosol as a function of ambient relative humidity. Moderately low relative humidity conditions were present during a daytime launch on Mar 25, 1978, and high relative humidity conditions were present during a nighttime launch on December 13, 1978. Gaseous hydrogen chloride concentrations and meteorological data, as a function of time after launch, are presented. Hydrogen chloride is present in both the gaseous and aerosol phase in the exhaust cloud. Total HCl concentrations ranged from 18 parts per million by volume (ppm) several minutes after launch down to 1 ppm after the cloud stabilization period, depending on the meteorological conditions. Gaseous HCl concentrations ranged from 2 to 3 ppm several minutes after launch to less than 1 ppm after cloud stabilization. These measured concentrations indicated significant HCl aerosol formation.

  5. Chloride diffusivity in hardened cement paste from microscale analyses and accounting for binding effects.

    PubMed

    Carrara, P; De Lorenzis, L; Bentz, D P

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion of chloride ions in hardened cement paste (HCP) under steady-state conditions and accounting for the highly heterogeneous nature of the material is investigated. The HCP microstructures are obtained through segmentation of X-ray images of real samples as well as from simulations using the cement hydration model CEMHYD3D. Moreover, the physical and chemical interactions between chloride ions and HCP phases (binding), along with their effects on the diffusive process, are explicitly taken into account. The homogenized diffusivity of the HCP is then derived through a least square homogenization technique. Comparisons between numerical results and experimental data from the literature are presented.

  6. Iron(III) chloride in oxidative C-C coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Abdelwareth A O; Bolm, Carsten

    2009-09-01

    In this critical review, the use of iron(III) chloride in oxidative C-C couplings of arenes and related unsaturated compounds is presented and reviewed. The approach allows highly selective dimerisations of phenol derivatives, naphthols, and heterocyclic compounds. Sequential couplings give access to structurally well-defined oligo- and polymers. Iron(III) chloride is commercially available and inexpensive. Being a mild oxidising agent it has been applied in numerous reactions leading to new carbon-carbon-bonds in complex molecular arrays (107 references).

  7. Spectrofluorimetric determination of thallium in silicate rocks with rhodamine b in the presence of aluminum chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shnepfe, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive spectrofluorimetric procedure with rhodamine B in the presence of aluminum chloride is given for determining submicrogram and microgram quantities of thallium in silicate rocks. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids and then treated with hydrochloric acid. Thallium is extracted as its dithizonate with chloroform from an alkaline medium containing ascorbate, citrate, and cyanide and then back-extracted with dilute nitric acid. After destruction of the organic matter and treatment with bromine, hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and rhodamine B, the {A table is presented}. ?? 1975.

  8. Sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient from crystallization experiment in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naillon, A.; Joseph, P.; Prat, M.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal growth of sodium chloride from an aqueous solution is studied from evaporation experiments in microfluidic channels in conjunction with analytical and numerical computations. The crystal growth kinetics is recorded using a high speed camera in order to determine the intrinsic precipitation reaction coefficient. The study reveals that the crystal growth rates determined in previous studies are all affected by the ions transport phenomena in the solution and thus not representative of the precipitation reaction. It is suggested that accurate estimate of sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient presented here offers new opportunities for a better understanding of important issues involved in the damages of porous materials induced by the salt crystallization.

  9. [The activation effect of nobiletin on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuang; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Yao-Fang; Wang, Xue; Yang, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Aim of the present study is to investigate activation effect of nobiletin on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel activity. CFTR-mediated iodide influx assay and patch-clamp tests were done on FRT cells stably co-transfected with human CFTR and EYFP/H148Q. Nobiletin potently activated CFTR chloride channel activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The CFTR blocker CFTR(inh)-172 could completely reverse the effect. Preliminary mechanism study indicated that nobiletin activated CFTR chloride channel through a direct binding way. In addition, ex vivo tests done on mice trachea showed that nobiletin time-dependently stimulated submucosal gland fluid secretion. Nobiletin may be a therapeutic lead compound in treating CFTR-related diseases including disseminated bronchiectasis.

  10. Study of chloride ion transport of composite by using cement and starch as a binder

    SciTech Connect

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Halide, Halmar; Zahrawani,; Reski, Nurhadi; Tahir, Dahlang

    2016-03-11

    This study presents the chemical bonding and the structural properties of composites from accelerator chloride test migration (ACTM). The volume fractions between binder (cement and starch) and charcoal in composites are 20:80 and 60:40. The effect of the binder to the chemical composition, chemical bonding, and structural properties before and after chloride ion passing through the composites was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. From the XRD data, XRF data, and the FTIR data shows the amount of chemical composition, the type of binding, and the structure of composites are depending on the type of binder. The amount of chloride migration using starch as binder is higher than that of cement as a binder due to the density effects.

  11. Rubella Hemagglutination Inhibition: Removal of Nonspecific Agglutination Due to Manganous Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Biano, S. A.; Chang, Te Wen; Daniels, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Nonspecific inhibitors of rubella hemagglutination can be removed by treatment of sera with heparin-manganous chloride for use in the hemagglutination-inhibition test. After removal of nonspecific inhibitors by this procedure, an excess of manganous chloride may remain. This may cause the cells to agglutinate, thus obscuring the reading at low serum dilutions. This disadvantage can be overcome by the addition of sodium carbonate, which forms an insoluble compound with manganous chloride and does not interfere with antibody determination. The procedure presents a further refinement of the hemagglutination inhibition test for rubella by increasing specificity and sensitivity; it permits detection of antibody levels as low as 1:4 in sera. PMID:4476198

  12. Relative Stability of Pertussis Vaccine Preserved with Merthiolate, Benzethonium Chloride, or the Parabens1

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Roberta A.; Pittman, Margaret

    1965-01-01

    When stored at 4 C, or heated at 22 or 35 C followed by storage at 4 C, the potency of pertussis vaccines preserved with Merthiolate was more stable than the potency of vaccines preserved with benzethonium chloride or the parabens (methyl- and propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate). Without preservative, potency was more stable than in the presence of benzethonium chloride or the parabens, but less stable than when Merthiolate was present. The histamine-sensitizing factor of the vaccines likewise decreased with the loss of potency. The deleterious effect of benzethonium chloride and the absence of the stabilizing effect of Merthiolate were contributing factors, if not the sole cause, for the instability of pertussis vaccine in quadruple antigen vaccine (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines). Images Fig. 2 PMID:14339263

  13. Study of chloride ion transport of composite by using cement and starch as a binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Halide, Halmar; Zahrawani, Reski, Nurhadi; Tahir, Dahlang

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the chemical bonding and the structural properties of composites from accelerator chloride test migration (ACTM). The volume fractions between binder (cement and starch) and charcoal in composites are 20:80 and 60:40. The effect of the binder to the chemical composition, chemical bonding, and structural properties before and after chloride ion passing through the composites was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. From the XRD data, XRF data, and the FTIR data shows the amount of chemical composition, the type of binding, and the structure of composites are depending on the type of binder. The amount of chloride migration using starch as binder is higher than that of cement as a binder due to the density effects.

  14. Geologic map showing springs rich in carbon dioxide or or chloride in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan; Irwin, William P.; Gibson, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Carbon dioxide- and chloride-rich springs occur in all geologic provinces in California, but are most abundant in the Coast Ranges and the Great Valley. The carbon-dioxide-rich springs issue mainly from Franciscan terrane; they also are rich in boron and are of the metamorphic type (White, 1957). Based on isotopic data, either the carbon dioxide or the water, or both, may be of metamorphic origin. Because of high magnesium values, the water of many of the carbon-dioxide-rich springs is thought to have passed through serpentinite. The chloride-rich waters are most common in rocks of the Great Valley sequence. Nearly all are more dilute than present-day sea water. The similarity in isotopic compositions of the metamorphic carbon-dioxide-rich water and the chloride-rich water may indicate a similar extent of water-rock interaction.

  15. Cobalt-chromium spinel catalyst of exhaustive oxidation of ethyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasenko, V.M.; Feshchenko, L.F.; Chernobrivets, V.L.

    1992-05-10

    Ethyl chloride is formed as a by-product in many plants for organochlorine synthesis and is emitted into the atmosphere with gaseous wastes, polluting the environment. Due to the toxicity of ethyl chloride, it is necessary to create methods for scrubbing this substance from waste gases. The catalytic method based on the reaction of exhaustive oxidation of the removed contaminant to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride or chlorine, which can either be removed or used for production purposes in some cases, is a relatively effective and economical method of scrubbing toxic organochlorine contaminants from gases. Catalytic oxidation of organochlorine compounds usually takes place on catalysts containing noble metals. The shortage of catalysts resistant to aggressive media has prevented the wide use of this method. The authors present a synthesis method for a cobalt-chromium catalyst for this purpose. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Disparate Behavior of Carbonyl and Thiocarbonyl Compounds: Acyl Chlorides vs Thiocarbonyl Chlorides and Isocyanates vs Isothiocyanates

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, Kenneth B.; Wang, Yi-gui; Miller, Scott J.; Puchlopek, Angela L.A.; Bailey, William F.; Fair, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of benzoyl chloride with methanol catalyzed by pyridine is 9 times more rapid than is the same reaction with thiobenzoyl chloride. The difference in reactivity, as well as the dealkylation reactions that occur when the reaction of thiobenzoyl chloride is catalyzed by bases such as Et3N, can be understood in terms of the charge distributions in the intermediate acylammonium ions. The reaction of PhNCO with ethanol occurs at a much higher rate (4.8 × 104) than that of PhNCS, corresponding to a difference in activation free energies for the additions of 6 kcal/mol. Transition states for each of these reactions were located, and each involves two alcohol molecules in a hydrogen bonded six-membered ring arrangement. Information concerning differences in reactivity was derived from analysis of Hirshfeld atomic charge distributions and calculated hydrogenolysis reaction energies. PMID:19371054

  17. Crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride and its copper(II) and cobalt(III) chloride complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Chumakov, Yu. M. Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Shova, S. G.; Gulea, A. P.

    2006-01-15

    The crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride hydrate hemiethanol solvate (I), salicylideneguanylhydrazinium trichloroaquacuprate(II) (II), and bis(salicylideneguanylhydrazino)cobalt(III) chloride trihydrate (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. The structures of compounds I, II, and III are solved by direct methods and refined using the least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation for the non-hydrogen atoms to the final factors R = 0.0597, 0.0212, and 0.0283, respectively. In the structure of compound I, the monoprotonated molecules and chlorine ions linked by hydrogen bonds form layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. In the structure of compound II, the salicylaldehyde guanylhydrazone cations and polymer chains consisting of trichloroaquacuprate(II) anions are joined by an extended three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. In the structure of compound III, the [Co(LH){sub 2}]{sup +} cations, chloride ions, and molecules of crystallization water are linked together by a similar network.

  18. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  19. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-01-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  20. Differences in Metabolism of Vinylidene Chloride Between Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B. K.; Hathway, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The present finding that mice metabolize a greater proportion of an oral dose (50 mg/kg) of vinylidence chloride. (1,1 - dichloroethylene, DCE) than rats implies (a) that the efficiency of DCE metabolism follows the known activity of cytochrome P-450 in the organs of these animals, and (b) that, in accordance with the LD50 values, the real exposure (expressed as the amount of DCE metabolized) is relatively higher for orally dosed mice than rats, and (c) that DCE carcinogenicity would appear to be more likely in mice than rats. Mice metabolize DCE simiarly to rats (Jones and Hathway, 1977) but there are some differences. Thus, qualitatively, treated mice (but not rats) excrete a small amount of N-acetyl-S-(2carboxymethyl)cysteine. Quantitatively, (i) the relative proportions of the N-acetyl-S-(2-cysteinyl acetyl derivative that are formed in mice and rats parallel the activity of liver glutathione-S-epoxide transferase in these rodents, and (ii) there are marked differences in the proportions of DCE metabolites belonging to the chloroacetic acid branch of the metabolic pathway. Furthermore, the previously assumed β-thionase hydrolysis of thiodiglycollic acid (Jones and Hathway, 1977) is now established in vivo, and the possible biogenesis of the N-acetyl-S-cysteinyl acetyl derivative is verified by another tracer study. The conclusion is drawn that the DCE metabolites, 1,1-dichloroethylene oxide and chloroacetyl chloride, may be important to murine DCE carcinogenicity. PMID:638019

  1. Differences in metabolism of vinylidene chloride between mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Jones, B K; Hathway, D E

    1978-03-01

    The present finding that mice metabolize a greater proportion of an oral dose (50 mg/kg) of vinylidence chloride. (1,1 - dichloroethylene, DCE) than rats implies (a) that the efficiency of DCE metabolism follows the known activity of cytochrome P-450 in the organs of these animals, and (b) that, in accordance with the LD(50) values, the real exposure (expressed as the amount of DCE metabolized) is relatively higher for orally dosed mice than rats, and (c) that DCE carcinogenicity would appear to be more likely in mice than rats.Mice metabolize DCE simiarly to rats (Jones and Hathway, 1977) but there are some differences. Thus, qualitatively, treated mice (but not rats) excrete a small amount of N-acetyl-S-(2carboxymethyl)cysteine. Quantitatively, (i) the relative proportions of the N-acetyl-S-(2-cysteinyl acetyl derivative that are formed in mice and rats parallel the activity of liver glutathione-S-epoxide transferase in these rodents, and (ii) there are marked differences in the proportions of DCE metabolites belonging to the chloroacetic acid branch of the metabolic pathway. Furthermore, the previously assumed β-thionase hydrolysis of thiodiglycollic acid (Jones and Hathway, 1977) is now established in vivo, and the possible biogenesis of the N-acetyl-S-cysteinyl acetyl derivative is verified by another tracer study. The conclusion is drawn that the DCE metabolites, 1,1-dichloroethylene oxide and chloroacetyl chloride, may be important to murine DCE carcinogenicity.

  2. Upgrading Titanium Ore Through Selective Chlorination Using Calcium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2013-06-01

    To develop a simple and effective process for upgrading low-grade titanium ore (ilmenite, mainly FeTiO3), a new selective chlorination process based on the use of calcium chloride (CaCl2) as the chlorine source was investigated in this study. Titanium ore and a titanium ore/CaCl2 mixture were placed in two separate crucibles inside a gas-tight quartz tube that was then positioned in a horizontal furnace. In the experiments, the titanium ore in the two crucibles reacted with either HCl produced from CaCl2 or CaCl2 itself at 1100 K (827 °C), leading to the selective removal of the iron present in the titanium ore as iron chlorides [FeCl x (l,g) ( x = 2, 3)]. Various kinds of titanium ores produced in different countries were used as feedstock, and the influence of the particle size and atmosphere on the selective chlorination was investigated. Under certain conditions, titanium dioxide (TiO2) with purity of about 97 pct was directly obtained in a single step from titanium ore containing 51 pct TiO2. Thus, selective chlorination is a feasible method for producing high purity titanium dioxide from low-grade titanium ore.

  3. Flow and chloride transport in the tidal Hudson River, NY

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, Lawrence A.; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; de Vries, M. Peter

    1994-01-01

    A one-dimensional dynamic-flow model and a one-dimensional solute-transport model were used to evaluate the effects of hypothetical public-supply water withdrawals on saltwater intrusion in a 133-mile reach of the tidal Hudson River between Green Island dam, near Troy, N.Y., and Hastings-on-Hudson, N.Y. Regression techniques were used in analyses of current and extreme historical conditions, and numerical models were used to investigate the effect of various water withdrawals. Of four withdrawal scenarios investigated, simulations of a 27-day period during which discharges at Green Island dam averaged 7,090 ft3/s indicate that increasing the present Chelsea pumping-station withdrawal rate of 100 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) to 300 Mgal/d would have the least effect on upstream saltwater movement. A 90-day simulation, during which discharges at Green Island dam averaged 25,200 ft3/s, indicates that withdrawals of 1,940 Mgal/d at Chelsea would not measurably increase chloride concentrations at Chelsea under normal tidal and meteorological conditions, but withdrawals of twice that rate (3,880 Mgal/d) could increase the chloride concentration at Chelsea to 250 mg/L.

  4. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed Central

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epithelial cells. We report that the alkaline phosphatase inhibitors bromotetramisole, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, and vanadate slow the rundown of CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches and reduce dephosphorylation of CFTR protein in isolated membranes. It was also found that in unstimulated cells, CFTR channels can be activated by exposure to phosphatase inhibitors alone. Most importantly, exposure of mammalian cells to phosphatase inhibitors alone activates CFTR channels that have disease-causing mutations, provided the mutant channels are present in the plasma membrane (R117H, G551D, and delta F508 after cooling). These results suggest that CFTR dephosphorylation is dynamic and that membrane-associated phosphatase activity may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7522329

  5. Modeling chloride transport using travel time distributions at Plynlimon, Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettin, Paolo; Kirchner, James W.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Botter, Gianluca

    2015-05-01

    Here we present a theoretical interpretation of high-frequency, high-quality tracer time series from the Hafren catchment at Plynlimon in mid-Wales. We make use of the formulation of transport by travel time distributions to model chloride transport originating from atmospheric deposition and compute catchment-scale travel time distributions. The relevance of the approach lies in the explanatory power of the chosen tools, particularly to highlight hydrologic processes otherwise clouded by the integrated nature of the measured outflux signal. The analysis reveals the key role of residual storages that are poorly visible in the hydrological response, but are shown to strongly affect water quality dynamics. A significant accuracy in reproducing data is shown by our calibrated model. A detailed representation of catchment-scale travel time distributions has been derived, including the time evolution of the overall dispersion processes (which can be expressed in terms of time-varying storage sampling functions). Mean computed travel times span a broad range of values (from 80 to 800 days) depending on the catchment state. Results also suggest that, in the average, discharge waters are younger than storage water. The model proves able to capture high-frequency fluctuations in the measured chloride concentrations, which are broadly explained by the sharp transition between groundwaters and faster flows originating from topsoil layers. This article was corrected on 22 JUN 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  6. Fatal barium chloride poisoning: four cases report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Sunnassee; Shaohua, Zhu; Liang, Liu

    2013-06-01

    Barium is an alkaline earth metal which has a variety of uses including in the manufacturing industry and in medicine. However, adverse health effects and fatalities occur due to absorption of soluble barium compounds, notably the chloride, nitrate, and hydroxide, which are toxic to humans. Although rare, accidental and suicidal modes of poisoning are sporadically reported in the literature.We describe 4 cases of poisoning due to barium chloride in China. In witnessed cases, severe gastrointestinal symptoms, hypokalemia leading to muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, and respiratory failure were noted. Autopsy showed some nonspecific but common findings, such as subendocardial hemorrhage in the ventricles, visceral petechiae, and fatty changes in the liver. Interestingly, microscopic examination showed degenerative changes and amorphous, flocculent foamy materials in the renal tubules. Toxicology was relevant for barium in blood and tissues. Three of the cases were accidental and 1 homicidal in nature. A round-up of relevant literature on fatal barium compounds poisoning is also provided. Forensic pathologists should be aware of the clinical presentations of barium compound poisoning and especially look for any evidence of hypokalemia. Still, postmortem toxicological and histological studies are essential for an accurate identification of the cause of death.

  7. Pulmonary damage after modest exposure to zinc chloride smoke.

    PubMed

    Zerahn, B; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A; Jensen, B V; Mølvig, J; Ebbehøj, N; Johansen, J S; Kanstrup, I L

    1999-12-01

    Thirteen soldiers (11 men and two women) were exposed to zinc chloride smoke (ZCS) during a combat exercise. Even though their initial symptoms were modest, a prolonged follow up with lung function testing and blood samples was undertaken due to previous cases with fatal outcome after exposure to ZCS. Four weeks after exposure there were statistically significant declines from baseline values in lung diffusion capacity and total lung capacity of 16.2% and 4.3%, respectively. At the same time plasma levels of fibrinogen and zinc were significantly elevated, though mainly within the normal range. All variables showed a tendency towards normalization at follow up 8 weeks and 6 months after exposure. These findings indicate an unexpected quantifiable damage to lung parenchyma with a remarkable delay after modest exposure to zinc chloride smoke despite sparse initial symptoms. Exposure to high concentrations of ZCS may induce adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after a symptom free period of up to 12 days from exposure. Even though none of the soldiers in the present study developed ARDS the assessment of lung diffusion capacity and acute phase reactants is proposed as a supplement when monitoring patients after exposure to ZCS.

  8. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-01-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  9. Speciation of Rhenium in Chloride Melts: Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, Danil A.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Vasin, Boris D.; Aleksandrov, Denis E.; Polovov, Ilya B.; Griffiths, Trevor R.

    2008-06-01

    Speciation of rhenium in high-temperature alkali chloride-based melts was studied using electronic absorption and IR spectroscopy of molten salts and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of quenched melts. Rhenium was added to the melts by anodic dissolution of the metal (at anodic current densities of 0.005 - 0.05 A/cm2), by reacting Re and ReO2 with Cl2 and HCl, and by dissolving K2[ReCl6]. The melts included 3LiCl-2KCl and NaCl-2CsCl eutectics, an NaCl-KCl equimolar mixture, and pure NaCl, KCl and CsCl between 450 and 850 ◦C. Rhenium was present in the melts as Re(IV) hexachloro-ions, [ReCl6]2-; no evidence of species containing rhenium in oxidation states below four was obtained. The kinetics of [ReCl6]2- disproportionation in molten alkali chlorides were investigated, and the IR spectra of [ReO4]- ions in molten CsCl-CsI and CsI were measured for the first time.

  10. Stability study of carboplatin infusion solutions in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yang-Ping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Trinh, Van A; Tran, Huyentran; Smith, Judith A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-containing compound with efficacy against various malignancies. The physico-chemical stability of carboplatin in dextrose 5% water (D5W) has been thoroughly studied; however, there is a paucity of stability data in clinically relevant 0.9% sodium chloride infusion solutions. The manufacturer's limited stability data in sodium chloride solutions hampers the flexibility of carboplatin usage in oncology patients. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the physical and chemical stability of carboplatin-sodium chloride intravenous solutions under different storage conditions. The physico-chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL carboplatin-sodium chloride solutions prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags was determined following storage at room temperature under ambient fluorescent light and under refrigeration in the dark. Concentrations of carboplatin were measured at predetermined time points up to seven days using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. All tested solutions were found physically stable for at least seven days. The greatest chemical stability was observed under refrigerated storage conditions. At 4℃, all tested solutions were found chemically stable for at least seven days, with nominal losses of ≤6%. Following storage at room temperature exposed to normal fluorescent light, the chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL solutions was three days, five days, and seven days, respectively. The extended physico-chemical stability of carboplatin prepared in sodium chloride reported herein permits advance preparation of these admixtures, facilitating pharmacy utility and operations. Since no antibacterial preservative is contained within these carboplatin solutions, we recommend storage, when prepared under specified aseptic conditions, no greater than 24 h at room temperature or three days under refrigeration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Twenty years of fluorescence imaging of intracellular chloride

    PubMed Central

    Arosio, Daniele; Ratto, Gian Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloride homeostasis has a pivotal role in controlling neuronal excitability in the adult brain and during development. The intracellular concentration of chloride is regulated by the dynamic equilibrium between passive fluxes through membrane conductances and the active transport mediated by importers and exporters. In cortical neurons, chloride fluxes are coupled to network activity by the opening of the ionotropic GABAA receptors that provides a direct link between the activity of interneurons and chloride fluxes. These molecular mechanisms are not evenly distributed and regulated over the neuron surface and this fact can lead to a compartmentalized control of the intracellular concentration of chloride. The inhibitory drive provided by the activity of the GABAA receptors depends on the direction and strength of the associated currents, which are ultimately dictated by the gradient of chloride, the main charge carrier flowing through the GABAA channel. Thus, the intracellular distribution of chloride determines the local strength of ionotropic inhibition and influences the interaction between converging excitation and inhibition. The importance of chloride regulation is also underlined by its involvement in several brain pathologies, including epilepsy and disorders of the autistic spectra. The full comprehension of the physiological meaning of GABAergic activity on neurons requires the measurement of the spatiotemporal dynamics of chloride fluxes across the membrane. Nowadays, there are several available tools for the task, and both synthetic and genetically encoded indicators have been successfully used for chloride imaging. Here, we will review the available sensors analyzing their properties and outlining desirable future developments. PMID:25221475

  12. The Structure of Nickel Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/Aluminum Chloride: X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    The structure of anhydrous nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride and aluminum chloride has been investigated with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in both Lewis acid and Lewis base solutions. The EXAFS data of NiCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O crystals were also recorded and analyzed to demonstrate the difference file technique. The difference file technique is used to obtain the structural information for the very closely spaced coordination shells of chloride and oxygen in NiCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and they are found to agree very closely with the X-ray diffraction data. The difference file technique is then used to analyze the nickel chloride in the ionic liquid solutions. Even though anhydrous NiCl{sub 2} is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution, the EXAFS data show a single coordination of four chlorides in a tetrahedron around the nickel atom in the basic solution. In a weak acid solution, there are six chlorides in a single octahedral coordination shell around the nickel. However, in a strong acid solution, in addition to the octahedral chloride-coordination shell, there is a second coordination shell of eight aluminum atoms in the form of a simple cube.

  13. Floc properties and membrane fouling of polyferric silicate chloride and polyferric chloride: the role of polysilicic acid.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongyu; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Sun, Shenglei; Wang, Yan; Li, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Impact of polysilicic acid (pSi) in polyferric silicate chloride (PFSiC) on coagulation-ultrafiltration process was investigated in comparison with polyferric chloride (PFC). The Fe(III) species distribution in PFSiC and PFC was measured by a timed complexation spectroscopy method. Characteristics of flocs produced by PFSiC and PFC were studied using a laser diffraction particle sizing device. Moreover, membrane fouling was evaluated using a dead-end batch ultrafiltration unit under two operation modes, coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) and coagulation-sedimentation-ultrafiltration (CSUF). The results indicated that PFSiC with various Si/Fe ratios had better turbidity removal efficiency but inferior organic matter removal. Flocs formed by PFSiC were larger than those by PFC. In case of PFSiC, floc size increased with Si/Fe ratio increasing. PFSiC with various Si/Fe ratios resulted in more compact and weaker flocs than PFC. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated that under C-UF mode, PFSiC with Si/Fe ratios of 0.07 and 0.10 presented better membrane performance than PFC. Under CSUF mode, addition of pSi could alleviate membrane fouling.

  14. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, M.L.; Savolainen, J.E.

    1960-01-01

    A method is given for dissolving reactor fuel elements in which the uranium is associated with a relatively inert chromium-containing alloy such as stainless steel. An aqueous mixture of acids comprising 2 to 2.5 molar hydrochloric acid and 4 to 8 molar nitric acid is employed in dissolving the fuel element. In order io reduce corrosion in subsequent processing of the resulting solution, chloride values are removed from the solution by contacting it with concentrated nitric acid at an elevated temperature.

  15. Calcium/Thionyl Chloride Battery Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    report, with the exception that the cathodes utilized contained one of two additives, copper phthalocyanine or copper dust. The cathodes had either 15...slowly loaded to the 0.48 ohm level. The two cells with cathodes containing copper phthalocyanine at the 15% level achieved fewer amp-hours above 2.0...1. SUBJECT TERMS (CSnina. ong Mwe" ufe .j!wu and Ulorniff b6y ill amai 4LO GROUP SU. on. 10 02 Pover Sources]fateis Calcium, Thionyl Chloride 0 1 03

  16. Buried chloride stereochemistry in the Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the chloride anion is involved in fundamental biological processes, its interactions with proteins are little known. In particular, we lack a systematic survey of its coordination spheres. Results The analysis of a non-redundant set (pairwise sequence identity?chloride anion shows that the first coordination spheres of the chlorides are essentially constituted by hydrogen bond donors. Amongst the side-chains positively charged, arginine interacts with chlorides much more frequently than lysine. Although the most common coordination number is 4, the coordination stereochemistry is closer to the expected geometry when the coordination number is 5, suggesting that this is the coordination number towards which the chlorides tend when they interact with proteins. Conclusions The results of these analyses are useful in interpreting, describing, and validating new protein crystal structures that contain chloride anions. PMID:25928393

  17. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons measured are vinyl chloride, with infrared spectrophotometry, flame ion detection, or an... discharged to a wastewater treatment process; or before being discharged untreated as a wastewater. This...)(2). Monitoring for the presence of a flare pilot flame shall be conducted in accordance with §...

  18. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons measured are vinyl chloride, with infrared spectrophotometry, flame ion detection, or an... discharged to a wastewater treatment process; or before being discharged untreated as a wastewater. This...)(2). Monitoring for the presence of a flare pilot flame shall be conducted in accordance with §...

  19. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be used as a “check” on the required closed gauge, nor as a means or sampling. (h) The words “CANCER... legend: cancer—suspect agent in this area protective equipment required authorized personnel only must be... clean and dry for each use, to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride. ...

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be used as a “check” on the required closed gauge, nor as a means or sampling. (h) The words “CANCER... legend: cancer—suspect agent in this area protective equipment required authorized personnel only must be... clean and dry for each use, to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride. ...

  1. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the plant to be monitored by the vinyl chloride monitoring system. Measurements of background... valves or lines that are demonstrated to require significant retrofit cost to comply with the... method of measurement is to meet the requirements in § 61.67(g)(5)(i)(A) or (g)(5)(i)(B). (d) A RVD...

  2. Toxicity of vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride): a critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, J K

    1983-01-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride (VC) was first reported in the open scientific literature to induce angiosarcoma of the liver both in humans and in animals. Additional research has now demonstrated the carcinogenicity of VC to other organs and at lower concentrations. The target organs for VC now clearly include the liver, brain and the lung, and probably the lymphohematopoietic system. The evidence for a carcinogenic risk has been extended to jobs associated with poly(vinyl chloride) exposure. Cases of liver angiosarcoma have been reported among individuals employed in PVC fabrication facilities and an epidemiological study has demonstrated a significant association between exposure to PVC dust and the risk of lung cancer mortality. Cases of angiosarcoma of the liver also have been reported among individuals living in near proximity to vinyl chloride-poly(vinyl chloride) plants. An association between PVC dust and pneumoconiosis also has been demonstrated. On the basis of findings, prudent control of PVC dust in the industrial setting is indicated. PMID:6360677

  3. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K J; Day, S D; Ilevbare, G O; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-05-13

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy.

  4. Importance of Abnormal Chloride Homeostasis in Stable Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Grodin, Justin L; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Ellis, Stephen G; Mullens, Wilfried; Testani, Jeffrey M; Tang, W H Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the long-term prognostic value of lower serum chloride in patients with stable chronic heart failure. Electrolyte abnormalities are prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure. Little is known regarding the prognostic implications of lower serum chloride. Serum chloride was measured in 1673 consecutively consented stable patients with a history of heart failure undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. All patients were followed for 5-year all-cause mortality, and survival models were adjusted for variables that confounded the chloride-risk relationship. The average chloride level was 102 ± 4 mEq/L. Over 6772 person-years of follow-up, there were 547 deaths. Lower chloride (per standard deviation decrease) was associated with a higher adjusted risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.49; P < 0.001). Chloride levels net-reclassified risk in 10.4% (P = 0.03) when added to a multivariable model (with a resultant C-statistic of 0.70), in which sodium levels were not prognostic (P = 0.30). In comparison to those with above first quartile chloride (≥ 101 mEq/L) and sodium (≥ 138 meq/L), subjects with first quartile chloride had a higher adjusted mortality risk, whether they had first quartile sodium (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.69; P = 0.008) or higher (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.85; P = 0.005). However, subjects with first quartile sodium but above first quartile chloride had no association with mortality (P = 0.67). Lower serum chloride levels are independently and incrementally associated with increased mortality risk in patients with chronic heart failure. A better understanding of the biological role of serum chloride is warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Solubility of RDX, PETN and Boric Acid in Methylene Chloride

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Solubility of RDX, PETN, and Boric Acid in Methylene Chloride by Rose Pesce-Rodriguez ARL-TN-0401 August 2010...of RDX, PETN, and Boric Acid in Methylene Chloride Rose Pesce-Rodriguez Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...AND SUBTITLE Solubility of RDX, PETN and Boric Acid in Methylene Chloride 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  6. A Review of the Calcium Thionyl Chloride Electrochemical System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    the development of new battery chem- istries is the safe use of high-energy systems. The lithium thionyl chloride cell chemistry exhibits high energy... thionyl chloride batteries. When driven into reversal, lithium metal plates at the cathode and can create an internal short circuit. The heat...with Ca 2 + or Sr2+ as the counterion. Upon discharge, the reaction of calcium with thionyl chloride is similar to that of lithium : 2Ca + 2SOC1 2

  7. Localized corrosion of stainless steels in ammonium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Forsen, O.; Aromaa, J.; Tavi, M.; Virtanen, J.

    1997-05-01

    Ammonium chloride deposition is a well-known problem in oil refining. When these deposits form in a moist environment, they are corrosive to carbon steel. When unexpected corrosion problems are faced, the material is often changed to alloys like stainless steels (SS). Electrochemical measurements were used to study the corrosion resistance of SS in ammonium chloride environments with different chloride contents and at different temperatures.

  8. p-Coumaric acid, a common dietary polyphenol, protects cadmium chloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Dhanalakshmi; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective role of p-coumaric acid, a common dietary polyphenol against cadmium induced nephrotoxicity in rats. For the purpose of comparison, a standard reference drug silymarin (50 mg/kg b. wt) was used. In this experiment, the animals were divided into four groups, with each consisting of six animals. The animals in Group I animals received saline and served as a control group and those in Group II received cadmium chloride (3 mg/kg b. wt) subcutaneously once daily for 3 weeks, but Group III and IV animals received cadmium chloride followed by p-coumaric acid (100 mg/kg b. wt, oral) and silymarin (50 mg/kg b. wt, oral), respectively, daily for 3 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the blood and kidney samples were collected. The results obtained in this study revealed the fact that the levels of lipid peroxidation, lysosomal enzymes, glycoprotein, cadmium and metallothionein were increased in the cadmium chloride alone treated rats and antioxidant status was found to be decreased, when compared to the control group. The levels of kidney functional markers (urea, uric acid and creatinine) were also found to be abnormal in serum and urine of cadmium chloride alone treated rats. On the other hand, the administration of p-coumaric acid along with cadmium chloride significantly protected the biochemical alterations as observed in the cadmium chloride alone treated rats as evidenced by histopathology. Thus, the oral administration of p-coumaric acid significantly protected the cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  9. Amendments to the theory underlying Ussing chamber data of chloride ion secretion after bacterial enterotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Lucas, M L

    2005-05-07

    Bacterial enterotoxins may cause life-threatening diarrhoeal fluid loss in part because they stimulate enterocytes to secrete fluid into the small intestine as well as preventing normal fluid uptake. Abnormal chloride ion secretion is believed to provide the osmotic driving force for the inappropriate fluid movement. Evidence for enhanced chloride secretion consists of isotopic flux measurements in Ussing chambers, the standard apparatus for permeation studies. Flux from the lumen of the intestine is assumed to be determined solely by absorptive processes and flux towards the lumen solely by secretory processes. Bacterial enterotoxin increased flux towards the lumen is taken as an evidence of enhanced secretion. Examination of the flux equation solutions shows that the existing theoretical treatment of the Ussing chamber consists of the super-imposition of two contradictory unidirectional models. In contrast, the present analysis shows that a measured 'unidirectional' flux contains information both about absorptive and secretory processes, regardless of which flux is measured. Reciprocity is predicted for the fluxes, as decreases in the absorptive processes will cause increases in apparent secretory flux. Data from the literature show that mucosal-to-serosal chloride ion flux in rabbit ileum after exposure to secretagogues correlates inversely and highly significantly (r=0.74, n=17, p<0.001) with increases in serosal-to-mucosal chloride ion flux. As a category of evidence, flux data do not provide conclusive evidence of enhanced chloride secretion after exposure to enterotoxins, since an apparently enhanced serosal-to-mucosal flux would also be noted after inhibition of the mucosal-to-serosal flux. As interruption of absorptive processes can be misinterpreted as enhanced secretion in the Ussing chamber, this is a serious deficiency in the evidence for direct enterotoxin enhancement of the intestinal chloride ion channel as a basis for diarrhoeal disease.

  10. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of chloride salt deposits in Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Glotch, T. D.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chloride salt-bearing deposits have been identified throughout the southern highlands of Mars [1] based on the lack of diagnostic spectral features of anhydrous chlorides in both the visible near infrared (VNIR) and middle infrared (MIR) wavelength ranges [1,2]. A puzzling aspect of martian chloride deposits is the apparent lack of other weathering or evaporite phases associated with most of the deposits. A global analysis over the chloride salt sites conducted by [3] found that only ~9% of the deposits they analyzed were associated with minerals such as phyllosilicates. Most of these occurrences are in Terra Sirenum where [4] noted that salt-bearing deposits lie stratigraphically above Noachian phyllosilicates. Although a variety of formation mechanisms have been proposed for these intriguing deposits, detailed geologic mapping by [5] suggests that surface water and evaporation played a dominant role. On Earth, evaporative settings are often characterized by a multitude of evaporite and phyllosilicate phases including carbonates, sulfates, and nitrates. [6] evaluated chemical divides and brine evolution for martian systems and their results indicate three pathways wherein late-stage brines favor chloride precipitation. In each case the pathway to chloride formation includes precipitation of carbonates (calcite, siderite, and/or magnesite) and sulfates (gypsum, melanterite, and/or epsomite). Here, we present the results of our detailed and systematic spectroscopic study to identify additional evaporite phases associated with salt/silicate mixtures in Terra Sirenum. [1] Osterloo et al. (2008) Science, 319, [2] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2013) Lunar and Planet. Sci. XLIV, abstract #1549 [3] Ruesch, O. et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, E00J13 [4] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2010) Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L16202, [5] Osterloo, M. M. and B. M Hynek (2015) Lunar and Planet. Sci XLVI. Abstract #1054 [6] Tosca, N. J. and S. M. McLennan (2006), Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 241.

  11. Combination of endogenous neural stem cell mobilization and lithium chloride treatment for hydrocephalus following intraventricular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiang; Bu, Xing-Yao; Yan, Zhao-Yue; Liu, Xian-Zhi; Wei, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Chun-Xiao; Qu, Ming-Qi

    2016-11-01

    As there are multiple factors causing hydrocephalus subsequent to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), it is difficult to achieve the best treatment effect using a single drug alone. In the present study, the protective effect of combination treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and lithium chloride against hydrocephalus after IVH was investigated. A total of 130 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, including the IVH control, G-CSF treatment, lithium chloride treatment, combination treatment and sham surgery groups. An IVH rat model was established in order to examine the effect of combination treatment on hydrocephalus incidence. A TUNEL assay was performed to detect neuronal apoptosis in the five groups. In addition, the protein expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were detected by western blot analysis. The differentiation of nerve cells in the brain tissue obtained from the five rat groups was also determined with double immunofluorescence staining. The results demonstrated that administration of G-CSF or lithium chloride alone was able to only partly relieve the incidence of hydrocephalus after IVH. By contrast, combination treatment with G-CSF and lithium chloride significantly attenuated the development of hydrocephalus following IVH. TUNEL assay showed that neuronal apoptosis was significantly reduced by the combination treatment with G-CSF and lithium chloride. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-2 was upregulated, whereas Bax expression was downregulated in the combination treatment group. The results also detected the highest expression of BrdU/GFAP, BrdU/NeuN and BrdU/PSA-NCAM in the combination treatment group. In conclusion, the combination of endogenous neural stem cell mobilization (using G-CSF) and lithium chloride treatment resulted in highly reduced incidence of hydrocephalus after IVH by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis.

  12. Action of some foreign cations and anions on the chloride permeability of frog muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, O. F.; Warner, Anne E.

    1967-01-01

    1. Evidence for the existence in skeletal muscle of a specific cation binding system capable of lowering the chloride permeability was obtained by testing the effect of several metal ion species upon the efflux of 36Cl from frog muscles equilibrated in high-KCl solution. 2. Cu2+, Zn2+ and UO22+ ions, when present in concentrations of approximately 10-4 M in inactive wash solution at pH 7·4 slowed the efflux of 36Cl to half its original value. At pH 5·0, when the chloride permeability was already low as a consequence of hydrogen ion binding, these metal ions had little further effect. 3. Presence of Ni2+, Co2+, Pb2+, Ce3+ and La3+ in 10-4 M or higher concentrations had no detectable influence on the 36Cl efflux. Wide variations in Ca2+ concentration were similarly ineffective. 4. The influence of more adsorbable anions on the chloride permeability was examined at different pH values. Extracellular iodide greatly slowed the rapid efflux of 36Cl into alkaline solution. In acid solutions, when the chloride permeability was already low, the effect of iodide was less pronounced, but still demonstrable. The chloride permeability was consequently increased to a lesser extent by a rise in pH in the presence of iodide. 5. The efflux of iodide and bromide was measured at different pH values under conditions of self exchange. In alkaline solution the permeabilities to iodide and bromide were considerably lower than that to chloride. In acid solution the membrane differentiated less between anion species of different adsorbability. PMID:6040156

  13. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Kaifeng; Pan, Dong; Lei, Zongru; Wang, Weilun; Xing, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions are immersed in NaCl solution with a mass concentration of 5%, to simulate the shallow immersion condition in sea water, and the surface chloride concentrations are measured at different ages. It is found that the surface chloride concentration increases following the increasing immersion durations, and varies from a weight percentage of 0.161%–0.781% in concretes with different mix proportions. The w/c (water-to-cement ratio) influences the surface chloride concentration significantly, and the higher the w/c is, the higher the surface chloride concentration will be, at the same age. However, following the prolonging of immersion duration, the difference in surface chloride concentration induced by w/c becomes smaller and smaller. The incorporation of fly ash leads to higher surface chloride concentration. The phenomena are explained based on pore structure analyses. PMID:28788202

  14. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  15. Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Gary R; Dao, Lan T; Wong, Rosalind Y; Harden, Leslie A

    2005-09-21

    Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS), tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS), and elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission analysis). Three major constituents were observed by HPLC and were identified as benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride, and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride. This mixture of homologues is commonly known as benzalkonium chloride, a widely used synthetic antimicrobial ingredient used in cleaning and disinfection agents.

  16. Chloride influx provokes lamellipodium formation in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Zierler, Susanna; Frei, Eva; Grissmer, Stephan; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2008-01-01

    Lamellipodium extension and retraction is the driving force for cell migration. Although several studies document that activation of chloride channels are essential in cell migration, little is known about their contribution in lamellipodium formation. To address this question, we characterized chloride channels and transporters by whole cell recording and RT-PCR, respectively, as well as quantified lamellipodium formation in murine primary microglial cells as well as the microglial cell-line, BV-2, using time-lapse microscopy. The repertoire of chloride conducting pathways in BV-2 cells included, swelling-activated chloride channels as well as the KCl cotransporters, KCC1, KCC2, KCC3, and KCC4. Swelling-activated chloride channels were either activated by a hypoosmotic solution or by a high KCl saline, which promotes K(+) and Cl(-) influx instead of efflux by KCCs. Conductance through swelling-activated chloride channels was completely blocked by flufenamic acid (200 microM), SITS (1 mM) and DIOA (10 microM). By exposing primary microglial cells or BV-2 cells to a high KCl saline, we observed a local swelling, which developed into a prominent lamellipodium. Blockade of chloride influx by flufenamic acid (200 microM) or DIOA (10 microM) as well as incubation of cells in a chloride-free high K(+) saline suppressed formation of a lamellipodium. We assume that local swellings, established by an increase in chloride influx, are a general principle in formation of lamellipodia in eukaryotic cells.

  17. Structural/Functional Role of Chloride in Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Rivalta, Ivan; Amin, Muhamed; Luber, Sandra; Vassiliev, Serguei; Pokhrel, Ravi; Umena, Yasufumi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Shen, Jian-Ren; Kamiya, Nobuo; Bruce, Doug; Brudvig, Gary W.; Gunner, M. R.; Batista, Victor S.

    2011-01-01

    Chloride binding in photosystem II (PSII) is essential for photosynthetic water oxidation. However, the functional roles of chloride and possible binding sites, during oxygen evolution, remain controversial. This paper examines the functions of chloride based on its binding site revealed in the X-ray crystal structure of PSII at 1.9 Å resolution. We find that chloride depletion induces formation of a salt-bridge between D2-K317 and D1-D61 that could suppress proton transfer to the lumen. PMID:21678923

  18. High Intracellular Chloride Slows the Decay of Glycinergic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Samantha J.; Sivilotti, Lucia G.; Beato, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The time course of currents mediated by native and recombinant glycine receptors was examined with a combination of rapid agonist applications to outside-out patches and single-channel recording. The deactivation time constant of currents evoked by brief, saturating pulses of glycine is profoundly affected by the chloride concentration on the intracellular side of the cell membrane. Deactivation was threefold slower when intracellular chloride was increased from a low level (10 mm), similar to that observed in living mature neurons, to 131 mm (“symmetrical” chloride, often used in pipette internal solutions). Single-channel analysis revealed that high chloride has its greatest effect on the channel closing rate, slowing it by a factor of 2 compared with the value we estimated in the cell-attached mode (in which the channels are at physiological intracellular chloride concentrations). The same effect of chloride was observed when glycinergic evoked synaptic currents were recorded from juvenile rat spinal motoneurons in vitro, because the decay time constant was reduced from ∼7ms to ∼3 ms when cells were dialyzed with 10 mm chloride intracellular recording solution. Our results indicate that the time course of glycinergic synaptic inhibition in intact neurons is much faster than is estimated by measurements in symmetrical chloride and can be modulated by changes in intracellular chloride concentration in the range that can occur in physiological or pathological conditions. PMID:18987182

  19. Protective effect of zinc chloride against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity on vero cells: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, Aylin

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of cobalt chloride on Vero cells. The cultured cells were incubated with different concentrations of cobalt chloride ranging from 0.5 to 1,000 μM, and cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and resazurin assays. Possible protective effects of vitamin E, coenzyme Q(10), and zinc chloride were also tested in this system. A gradual decrease in cell proliferation was observed at concentrations ~≥ 200 μM in incubation periods of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h with MTT assay. Exposure of cells to 500 and 1,000 μM cobalt chloride caused significant decrease in cell survival. A biphasic survival profile of cells was observed at 1-25 μM concentration range following 96 h of incubation. With resazurin assay, cytotoxicity profile of CoCl(2) was found comparable to the results of MTT assay, particularly at high concentrations and long incubation periods. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was noted following exposure of cells to ≥ 250 μM of CoCl(2) for 24 h and ≥ 100 μM concentrations of CoCl(2) for 48-96 h. Pretreatment of cells with ZnCl(2) for 4 or 24 h provided significant protection against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity when measured with MTT assay. However, vitamin E or coenzyme Q(10) was not protective. CoCl(2) had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. Preventive effect of ZnCl(2) against CoCl(2)-induced cytotoxicity should be considered in detail to define exact mechanism of toxicity in Vero cells.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.